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Augmented reality (AR) is a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than augmented) by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality. By contrast, virtual reality replaces the real world with a simulated one. Augmentation is conventionally in real-time and in semantic context with environmental elements, such as sports scores on TV during a match. With the help of advanced AR technology (e.g. adding computer vision and object recognition) the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulable. Artificial information about the environment and its objects can be overlaid on the real world. The term augmented reality is believed to have been coined in 1990 by Thomas Caudell, working at Boeing. Research explores the application of computer-generated imagery in live-video streams as a way to enhance the perception of the real world. AR technology includes head-mounted displays and virtual retinal displays for visualization purposes, and construction of controlled environments containing sensors and actuators.
Wikitude World Browser on the iPhone 3GS uses GPS and a solid state compass
Samsung SARI AR SDK markerless tracker used in the AR EdiBear game (Android OS)
Augmented reality is considered an extension of virtual reality. Virtual reality (VR) is a virtual space in which players immerse themselves into that space and exceed the bounds of physical reality. In virtual reality, time, physical laws and material properties may no longer be thought of as true, in contrast to the real-world environment. Instead of considering AR and VR as exact opposite concepts, Milgram et al. claim them as the reality-virtual (RV) continuum (Milgram, Takemura, Utsumi and Kishino, 1994).
AR Tower Defense game on the Nokia N95 smartphone (Symbian OS) uses fiduciary markers
Ronald Azuma offered a definition in 1997: AR is about augmenting the real world environment with virtual information by improving people’s senses and skills. AR mixes virtual characters with the actual world. He identified three common characteristics of AR scenes: combination of the real and virtual, interactive in real-time, and having the scenes registered in 3D. On a graph, the origin R at the bottom left denotes unmodified reality. A continuum across the Virtuality axis V includes reality augmented
Tetris Axis. the network may hide a real message or replace a real ad message with a virtual message. as well as virtual reality augmented by reality (augmented virtuality or AV). Similarly. which allows the pilot to look through the aircraft's walls as if the pilot was floating in space. Bravely Default: Flying Fairy). The real-world elements are the football field and players. like the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and the newest Boeing 737 Next Generation feature fold-down Head-up displays coming from just in front of the pilot's head so he doesn't have to look down while he is flying. The yellow "first down" line seen in television broadcasts of American football games shows the line the offensive team must cross to receive a first down using the 1st & Ten system. also includes modulation and/or diminishment of reality.. The mediality axis measures modification of AV. and the virtual element is the yellow line. Diagonally opposite from R are virtual worlds that have no connection to reality. Unmediated AV simulations are constrained to match the real world behaviorally if not in contents. Swimming telecasts often add a line across the lanes to indicate the position of the current record holder as a race proceeds to allow viewers to compare the current race to the best performance. (at right) It includes the virtuality reality continuum (mixing) but also. Passenger planes. It is also used to display offside situations. Mediation encompasses deliberate and/or unintentional modifications. AR is also used in association football to show the result (or an advertisement) in the center circle. AR and mixes thereof.Augmented reality 2 with additional information (AR). in ice hockey an AR colored trail showed location and direction of the puck. Moving away from the origin on this axis. As an example of mediated (diminished) reality. Handheld video games Nintendo 3DS and PlayStation Vita come with "AR Cards" (fiduciary markers) allowing to play games which use device camera (Nintendogs + Cats. . Other Head-up displays in AR cars such as some BMW 7 Series models or on airplanes are typically integrated into the windshield. The F-35 Lightning II instead display information in the pilot's helmet mounted display. AR Combat DigiQ. Examples Sports Augmented reality map on iPhone AR has become common in sports telecasting. the depicted world becomes increasingly different from reality. in addition to additive effects. but was dismissed by hockey purists. which augments the image in real time. Sections of rugby fields and cricket pitches display sponsored images.
and sensor. Handheld display AR promises to be the first commercial success for AR technologies. Vuzix. All handheld AR solutions to date opt for video see-through. Virtual showcases. Shader lamps.a projector. virtual tables. sensors and input devices. While the The New York Times reported Google wished to start selling virtual eyeglasses not only for entertainment but also for information and augmented reality by the end of 2012. The two main advantages of handheld AR is the portable nature of handheld devices and ubiquitous nature of camera phones. more recent statements from Google about "Project Glass" (as it is now called) have said a 2012 commercial release is unlikely. Sony Glasstron. Raskar in 2005. display.Augmented reality 3 Technology Hardware The main hardware components for augmented reality are: processor. The HMD must be tracked with sensor that provides six degrees of freedom. Altogether. Optical see-through employs half-silver mirrors to pass images through the lens and overlay information to be reflected into the user's eyes. Display Some examples of spatial augmented reality displays include shader lamps. Handheld projectors further this goal by enabling cluster configurations of environment sensing. The HMDs are either optical see-through or video see-through. providing the opportunity to enhance the object’s appearance with materials of a simple unit. These elements. the Extended Virtual Table. described by O. This tracking allows the system to align virtual information to the physical world. The disadvantages are the physical constraints of the user having to hold the handheld device out in front of them at all times as well as distorting effect of classically wide-angled mobile phone cameras when compared to the real world as viewed through the eye. The most common products employed are as follows: MicroVision Nomad. GPS. Bimber and R. or function as scientific simulations and tools for education or entertainment. solid state compass are often present in modern smartphones. and I/O Displays. Today SLAM markerless trackers such as PTAM are starting to come into use. current augmented reality display technology can be applied to improve design and visualization. and smart projectors. Initially handheld AR employed fiduciary markers. . which employ beam-splitter mirrors together with multiple graphics displays. display. provide an interactive means of simultaneously engaging with the virtual and the real. mimic and augment reality by projecting imagery onto neutral objects. mobile projectors. separates the virtual from the real by including beam-splitter mirrors attached to the ceiling at an adjustable angle. in 1999. Many more implementations and configurations make spatial augmented reality display an increasingly attractive interactive alternative. and later GPS units and MEMS sensors such as digital compasses and six degrees of freedom accelerometer–gyroscope. LASTER Technologies. The graphical information is slaved to the view of the user. The main advantage of HMD AR is the user's immersive experience. Other tangible applications include table and wall projections. developed by Raskar et al. Handheld Handheld displays employ a small display that fits in a user's hand. One such innovation. reducing the need for additional peripheral sensing. Lumus . Head-mounted A head-mounted display (HMD) places images of both the physical world and registered virtual graphical objects over the user's view of the world. camera and MEMS sensors such as accelerometer. specifically CPU. camera. which make them prospective AR platforms.
RFID and wireless sensors. Many computer vision methods of augmented reality are inherited from visual odometry. If no information about scene geometry is available. A system can be used by multiple people at the same time without each having to wear a head-mounted display. Mathematical methods used in the second stage include projective . Tracking Modern mobile augmented reality systems use one or more of the following tracking technologies: digital cameras and/or other optical sensors. independent from the camera. Where portable devices have a small window into the world for drawing. as the users can see each other’s faces. however. Usually those methods consist of two parts. The second stage restores a real world coordinate system from the data obtained in the first stage. Computer The computer analyzes the sensed visual and other data to synthesize and position augmentations. solid state compasses. thus allowing for collocated collaboration between users. blob detection. Augmentations cannot simply hang in the air as they do with handheld and HMD-based AR. These technologies offer varying levels of accuracy and precision. This makes spatial AR a good candidate for collaborative work. Spatial Augmented Reality (SAR) makes use of digital projectors to display graphical information onto physical objects. In some of those cases the scene 3D structure should be precalculated beforehand. SAR has several advantages over traditional head-mounted displays and handheld devices. The tangible nature of SAR. First detect interest points. mostly related to video tracking. Some methods assume objects with known geometry (or fiduciary markers) present in the scene. The drawbacks. First stage can use feature detection methods like corner detection. a wand with a button and a smartphone that signals its position and orientation from camera images. GPS. as SAR supports both a graphical visualisation and passive haptic sensation for the end users. though. People are able to touch physical objects.Augmented reality Spatial Instead of the user wearing or carrying the display such as with head-mounted displays or handheld devices. structure from motion methods like bundle adjustment are used. Image registration uses different methods of computer vision. accelerometers. That process is called image registration and is part of Azuma's definition of augmented reality. or fiduciary markers. or optical flow in the camera images. 4 Software and algorithms A key measure of AR systems is how realistically they integrate augmentations with the real world. gyroscopes. Most important is the position and orientation of the user's head. SAR scales naturally up to groups of users. makes this an ideal technology to support design. The user is not required to carry equipment or wear the display over their eyes. If part of the scene is unknown simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) can map relative positions. and it is this process that provides the passive haptic sensation. Tracking the user's hand(s) or a handheld input device can provide a 6DOF interaction technique. are that SAR systems of projectors do not work so well in sunlight and also require a surface on which to project the computer-generated graphics. The software must derive real world coordinates. a SAR system can display on any number of surfaces of an indoor setting at once. from camera images. Input devices Techniques include the pinch glove. Because the displays are not associated with each user. A projector based display system can simply incorporate more projectors to expand the display area. The key difference in SAR is that the display is separated from the users of the system. edge detection or thresholding and/or other image processing methods. Spatial AR does not suffer from the limited display resolution of current head-mounted displays and portable devices.
Task support Complex tasks such as assembly.Augmented reality (epipolar) geometry. AR can allow bridge watch-standers to continuously monitor important information such as a ship's heading and speed while moving throughout the bridge or performing other tasks. the blood pressure. This approach works in a similar as the technicians doing maintenance work. Information can be display on the car indicating information of where the user is going. With the use of AR the workers can complete their job in a much easier way because AR permits them to look through the machine as if it was with x-ray. BMW and GM) are using this technology in car windshields to display meter information and traffic information. AR can enhance viewing a fetus inside a mother's womb. Boing is not the only company using AR in assembly. Examples include a virtual X-ray view based on prior tomography or on real time images from ultrasound and confocal microscopy probes or open NMR devices. maintenance. robust statistics. Not only can information of how to get to the place be offer but about the weather or about the terrain that the person is cruising. See also Mixed reality. compare variance and verify parts. AR can help designer experience the final product before is complete or can help with the testing part of it. let’s not forget that the coined of the term augmented reality came from two scientists working on Boing so that the workers could had an easier job wiring. 5 Applications Augmented reality has many applications. Volkswagen is already using AR for comparing calculated and actual crash test imagery.g. It can also help the doctor identify the problem with the patient right away. Assembly lines gain many benefits from the usage of AR. pointing them to the problem right away. Aboard naval and maritime vessels. Volkswagen also uses AR to analyze interfering edges. industrial. plan production lines and workshops. Big machines are difficult to maintain because of the multiple layers or structures they have. rotation representation with exponential map. Medical AR can provide the surgeon with information of the heartbeat. nonlinear optimization. AR can also be used to compare digital mock-ups with physical mock-ups for efficiently finding discrepancies between them. and many areas can benefit from the usage of AR technology. Industrial Design In the area of industrial design AR can provide crucial help. and surgery can be simplified by inserting additional information into the field of view. It can also be used in the sea where fishermen can use the technology to display information about the amount of fish that are in the area and how to get to them. At the beginning AR had a military. BMW is known for incorporating this technology in their assembly line to improve the welding process of their cars. AR can provide traffic information to drivers as well as alert the driver in case of an emergency or highlight objects on the road that might not be caught by the driver’s eyes at a first glance. and medical focus but soon it was introduced for commercial and entertainment usage. geometric algebra. But AR can also be used to visualize and modify a car body curvature or the engine layout of it. etc. . labels can be displayed on parts of a system to clarify operating instructions for a mechanic who is performing maintenance on the system. Navigation AR can augment the effectiveness of navigation devices. the state of the patient’s organ. kalman and particle filters. For example. Currently some car manufacturers (e.
football fields. This technology can also be useful in the case of discussing plans and progress data such as. Liesje Reyskens recently commissioned Augmented Reality Agency Kudan to produce an AR art installation at the Albus Lux gallery . artists can allow listeners to augment their listening experience by adding their performance to that of other bands/groups of users. Tourism and sightseeing Augmented reality is being used in application for touring. AR can be a third eye for the soldier indicating him if there is someone on his back. Snipers can benefit particularly because they can get the information they need to make an accurate shooting without taking the sight of target.Augmented reality 6 Military and emergency services In combat AR provide useful information to the soldiers on where they are. Belgian photographer. Recently. AR can also provide information of museums and monuments. or in a distributed control rooms such as Air Traffic Control operating through a common visualization. AR can enhance concert and theater performances. used to highlight the location of a hard-to-see hockey puck as it moves rapidly across the ice. Alaskan artist Nathan Shafer created a global warming-oriented AR project.the AR app recognised her photography and overlaid live animation video to enhance the gallery experience. etc. In this project. life performances. environmental planners discussing geographical data and urban development. AR system in the touring industry can connect different platforms to provide a richer experience to the final user of the system. Entertainment In entertainment not only video games have improve because of AR but also sport broadcasting. called Exit Glacier AR Terminus. snooker ball trajectories. smartphones) walks the viewer through various positions of South Central Alaska's Exit Glacier. In an office AR can help facilitate collaboration among distributed team members via conferences with real and virtual participants. AR technology (is this case. Architecture AR can simulate planned construction projects. AR art technology has helped disabled individuals to continue pursuing their passion. or even landscapes as they formerly existed. but AR is also applied to annotate racing cars. The use of AR in this area has enhanced the experience of users when they go traveling by providing not only information of the place they are but comments made by other users that have been there before. Not only this but with the usage of AR a soldier doesn’t have to stop to look at a map since the technology can indicate him at all time his location without him taking his eyes out of the field. going back three decades. In this case AR is used to highlight information of important places and provide the connection between the real world with an historic event. how many enemies are surrounding them and it can spot an enemy that the soldier might not be looking at. meaning that historical events such as battle reenactments can be augmented onto current landscapes. drawing and modeling. which video see-through augmentation through tracked camera feeds easy. One example is the Fox-Trax system. buildings. For example. Another application given to AR in this field is the possibility for users to rebuild ruins. . race tracks and other sports environments are well-known and easily prepared. Art AR can help create art in real time integrating reality such as painting. Swimming pools.
and prototype wearable testbeds for augmented reality. San Francisco. Munich. like the Webcam Social Shopper. October 2001. Rosenberg developed one of the first known AR systems. 2nd International Workshop on Augmented Reality (IWAR'99).B. New York. Yokohama. and an AR-enhanced pool games. October 1999. March 2001. and others used webcam based AR to connect 3D models with printed materials.Augmented reality The gaming industry has benefited a lot from the development of this technology. • Reinhold Behringer performed important early work in image registration for augmented reality. • Bruce H. AR ecommerce software. . • L. Professor at Columbia University. 1st International Symposium on Mixed Reality (ISMR'99). 2nd International Symposium on Augmented Reality (ISAR 2001). 2nd International Symposium on Mixed Reality (ISMR'01). Germany. Yokohama. Best Buy (2009). and author of the first paper on an AR system prototype. called Virtual Fixtures. a number of games have been developed for prepared indoor environments. collaborative combat against virtual enemies. along with Blair MacIntyre and Doree Seligmann. is designed to allow retailers to integrate AR into their online retail sites. while working at the U. October 2002. October 2000. Air Force Armstrong Labs in 1991. A significant number of games incorporate AR in it and with the introduction of smartphone this has had a bigger impact. Japan. 1st International Symposium on Augmented Reality (ISAR 2000). • Steven Feiner. • Dieter Schmalstieg and Daniel Wagner jump started the field of AR on mobile phones. He also co-organized the First IEEE International Symposium on Augmented Reality in 1998 (IWAR'98). Darmstadt. November 1998. 7 Commerce AR can be used to display certain products at another way. United States. Early AR games also include AR air hockey. Conferences The primary academic conference in the field is the IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR). There are numerous examples of connecting mobile AR to outdoor advertising Translation AR systems can provide dynamic subtitles in the user's language. • 1st International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2002).S. Notable researchers • Ivan Sutherland invented the first AR head-mounted display at Harvard University. For example. AR can also be used as an aid in picking clothing through a kiosk. New York. Germany. and co-edited one of the first books on augmented reality. • • • • • • 1st International Workshop on Augmented Reality (IWAR'98). They developed the first marker tracking systems for mobile phones and PDAs. the lego-boxes in the lego-store at Schaumburg use image recognition on a product's packaging to show the product when it's assembled. is a leading pioneer of augmented reality. They along with Steve Feiner with his MARS system pioneer outdoor augmented reality. Japan. Thomas and Wayne Piekarski develop the Tinmith system in 1998. United States. KARMA (the Knowledge-based Augmented Reality Maintenance Assistant). United States. San Francisco. March 1999. For example Nissan (2008 LA Auto Show). On the web. and published first study of how an AR system can enhance human performance. Usage of AR to promote products via interactive AR applications is becoming popular now.
Santa Barbara. 2006. • Stephen Cawood and Mark Fiala. 2008. Japan. ISBN 978-1-4614-0063-9 • Raghav Sood. Japan. 2001. Cambridge. 1999. ARE focuses on Business. United States. United States. October 2003. California since 2010. Spatial Augmented Reality: Merging Real and Virtual Worlds. November 2012 An additional Augmented Reality Conference. eds. Idea Group Publishing. Arlington. Marketing and Technology related to the Augmented Reality field. September 2008. Thomas. Hainich. October 2006.). 3rd ed. United States. Florida. A. ISBN 0-8058-2901-6. Augmented Reality: A Practical Guide. ISBN 1-56881-230-2.Peters. "Pro Android Augmented Reality". Mahwah. ISBN 1-56881-098-9 . called ARE . "The end of Hardware: A Novel Approach to Augmented Reality"  2nd ed. Augmented Reality – Placing Artificial Objects in Real Scenes. Tokyo. G. publisher listing  • Rolf R. November 2004. Vienna. • 4th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2005). Switzerland October 2011 • 11th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2012). United States. ISBN 1-934356-03-4 • Lester Madden. • 5th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2006). Natick. • 6th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2007). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. has been held in Santa Clara. ("Augmented Reality and Beyond"): Booksurge. • Michael Haller. November 2007. Klinker. 2005. "Handbook of Augmented Reality". ISBN 1-59904-066-2. • 9th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2010). A K Peters. ISBN 1-4196-5218-4. ISBN 978-1-119-99281-3 • Tony Mullen. • 10th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2011). Seoul. D. • Oliver Bimber and Ramesh Raskar. ISBN 978-1-118-03663-1 • Borko Furht. 2011. Georgia. • 7th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2008). • 3rd International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2004). "Prototyping Augmented Reality". October 2009. United Kingdom. "Professional Augmented Reality Browsers for Smartphones: Programming for junaio.: Booksurge. 2012 ISBN 978-1-4302-3945-1 • R. Basel. Proceedings of IWAR '98. 8 Books • Woodrow Barfield. Mizell (eds.. 2011. • 8th International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2009). Behringer. Korea. Austria. Emerging Technologies of Augmented Reality: Interfaces and Design. Mark Billinghurst and Bruce H.K. Atlanta. Virginia. 2009. and Thomas Caudell. 2011. Layar and Wikitude". ISBN 1-4392-3602-X. October 2005. 2006. Orlando. October 2010. Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality.Augmented reality • 2nd International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2003). Nara.
• In the Greg Egan novel Distress. most—if not all—people have their own "synesthesia". it takes wearing a head-mounted display (in this case. . • In The Risen Empire. a Scientology-like organization used holographic projectors to overlay virtual reality images over physical reality. etc. They Live. aliens on Earth use a hypnotic radio frequency causing the human population to see generated images and adverts which mask billboards that actually contain subliminal messaging. blink patterns. and the use by gamers to overlay their characters onto themselves during a gaming convention. where artists use a mix of GPS and 3D graphics technology to embed rendered meshes in real world landscapes. • In the movie Iron Man. where the user is looking. Rainbows End mentions outdoor overlays based on popular fictional universes from H. a pair of sunglasses) in order not to be able to see the AR.Augmented reality 9 In popular culture Television. RoboCop uses Augmented Reality tech via his head-mounted display to get into the details of a particular person or status quo. • In the movie RoboCop. the 'Witness' software used to record sights and sounds experienced by the user can be set up to scan what the user is seeing and highlight people the user is looking out for. • In the 1993 ABC miniseries Wild Palms. Tony Stark (Robert Downey Jr. which is used by cops. including a real-time medical scanner which allows a doctor to use his hands to manipulate a detailed and labeled projection of a patient's brain. The suit itself also uses augmented reality technology. The Daemon series features the "Darknet". but they can only see their own synesthesia menus.) uses an augmented reality system to design his super-powered suit. Literature • The books Halting State by Charles Stross and Rainbows End by Vernor Vinge and the Daemon series by Daniel Suarez include augmented reality primarily in the form of virtual overlays over the real world. beginning with T-800 series. • The unnamed fictional extraterrestrial species featured in the Predator (franchise) wear an AR Head-mounted display that allows them to see in multiple spectra of light. It is controlled by hand gestures. In year 2011. • In the Terminator movie series. • William Gibson's novel Spook Country coined the term "Geohacking". An AR menu unique to the user that is projected in front of them. ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs used augmented reality during the counting of votes for all national and local candidates and in delivering news reports. • In Minority Report. • NBC School Pride debuts AR alive: Letters Alive invented by Randall Self in the Communication & Media Arts High School in Detroit. all Terminator models. Tom Cruise stands in front of a supercomputer using AR technology. clicks of the tongue. film • The television series Dennō Coil depicts a near-future where children use AR glasses to enhance their environment with games and virtual pets. Lovecraft and Terry Pratchett among others. ABS-CBN still uses augmented reality in its TV Patrol and Bandila news programs. • In the movie. • In Yu-Gi-Oh!'s series Yu-Gi-Oh! Zexal. during their first automated elections (2010). Michigan • The television series Fractale occurs in a world where AR is a part of everyday life thanks to the Fractale System. • The television series Firefly depicts numerous AR applications. Halting State mentions Copspace. which connects human followers and allows them to create their own ranking system and economy among other features. P. by Scott Westerfeld. • In the Philippines. TV5 is now also using augmented reality in its flagship newscast Aksyon for the news related informations. as well as acting as a HUD interface with a worn computer. use augmented reality systems to "see". Curiously. duelists uses AR to project duel cards which can be viewed when players wear D-Gazers.
such as the PlayStation Eye. Frank Baum. and smell. • 1957–62: Morton Heilig. prolonged use will cause side effect such as hallucinations. Raving Rabbids: Alive & Kicking features AR. Tools see Augmented reality#Software History • 1901: L. • In Dead Space the RIG worn by Isaac Clarke is thoroughly equipped with augmented reality technology. • Cybergeneration. • 1989: Jaron Lanier coins the phrase Virtual Reality and creates the first commercial business around virtual worlds. an FBI profiler. an augmented reality created through v-trodes. creates and patents a simulator called Sensorama with visuals. • In the video game Heavy Rain. widely available devices people wear at their temples. an author. Norman Jayden. PlayStation Portable. • The Batman: Arkham City game uses AR.Augmented reality • In the Revelation Space series of novels. Most of the characters in the game use viewing devices to interact with the AR world most of the time. Kinect. vibration. possesses a set of experimental augmented reality glasses called an "Added Reality Interface". a cinematographer. sound. At one point in the game. • The books Illium and Olympos by Dan Simmons refer to numerous vision and information functions that have been become incorporated into the human body through design (Though the humans in question have no knowledge of these functions. it's named a 'character marker'. Alastair Reynolds characters frequently employ "Entoptics" which are essentially a highly developed form of augmented reality. a table top role-playing game by R. which is a tool used to enhance environmental geometry among other purposes. Augmented reality is taken to an extreme in the 'allnet' function which bombards the viewer with a torrent of data about the surrounding environment. PlayStation Vita and some mobile devices. including a navigation system that projects a line along the best route to his destination. • Bandai's 2008 Tuttuki Bako minigame system is described as featuring augmented reality. first mentions the idea of an electronic display/spectacles that overlays data onto real life (in this case 'people'). Nintendo 3DS. and a system that displays images. However. It allows him to rapidly investigate crime scenes and analyze evidence. . going so far as to entirely substitute natural perception. The majority of AR software uses special cards which are read by the device to pinpoint where the graphics will form. • The book The California Voodoo Game by Larry Niven and Steve Barnes. 10 Games • Certain gaming devices. • The table top role-playing game. rediscovering them as the story progresses). or ARI. • 1990: Tom Caudell coins the phrase 'Augmented Reality' while at Boeing helping workers assemble cables into aircraft. Talsorian. overuse of the ARI can kill Norman. introduced AR into its game world. • The Ubisoft game. cheap. the game players use LCD displays for what the book calls Dreamtime technology to add virtual overlays to the real world. • 1975: Myron Krueger creates Videoplace to allow users to interact with virtual objects for the first time. use cameras to augment computer graphics onto live footage. • Hydrophobia (video game) from Dark Energy Digital features the MAVI (Mobile Automated Visual Interface). Shadowrun. and Norman can use it as a form of entertainment. • 1966: Ivan Sutherland invents the head-mounted display and positions it as a window into a virtual world. video and text in front of him. includes "virtuality".
vuzix.. demonstrating it at SIGGRAPH. The installation used Silicon Graphics computers and Polhemus sensing system. • 1999: Hirokazu Kato (加 藤 博 一) created ARToolKit at HITLab. html). . Pocket-lint. performed the first demonstration combining live AR-equipped vehicles and manned simulators. funded by the Australia Council for the Arts."Brian X. Retrieved 2012-02-23. . laster. demonstrating it in the International Symposium on Wearable Computers. First International Workshop on Augmented Reality. but dissolves itself in the surrounding space and objects. Nick (22 February 2012). • 2008: Wikitude AR Travel Guide launches on 20 Oct 2008 with the G1 Android phone.  http:/ / www. AK Peters. • 1998: Spatial Augmented Reality introduced at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill by Raskar.  http:/ / www. the first outdoor mobile AR game. • 1994: Julie Martin creates first 'Augmented Reality Theater production'.  Vuzix (http:/ / www.Augmented reality • 1992: L. cs. AR Week. rose..  Bilton. Steve. pdf). at the U. Retrieved 7 October 2010. Azuma (1997-08).  Ronald T. • 2009: ARToolkit was ported to Adobe Flash (FLARToolkit) by Saqoosha. unc. The acrobats appeared immersed within the virtual object and environments. • 1993: Loral WDL. Wired. Azuma. lumusvision.fr. • 1992: Steven Feiner. "Spatial augmented reality : merging real and virtual worlds". "A Survey of Augmented Reality" (http:/ / www. cs. Laster. com/ 2012/ 02/ 23/ technology/ google-glasses-will-be-powered-by-android.  R. at the Graphics Interface conference. pdf) Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. Blair MacIntyre and Doree Seligmann present the first major paper on an AR system prototype.  "Google Unveils Project Glass: Wearable Augmented-Reality Glasses" (http:/ / allthingsd. New York Times.  Feiner. utoronto. Retrieved 9 June 2012. edu/ ~azuma/ ARpresence. edu/ ~tamaldey/ paper/ medial.  Bimber. • 1993 A widely cited version of the paper above is published in Communications of the ACM . nytimes. . Chen (2009-08-25). and Rich Gold . Sept 1998  David Drascic of the University of Toronto is a developer of ARGOS: A Display System for Augmenting Reality (http:/ / vered. Using an information system is no longer exclusively a conscious and intentional act.  Ramesh Raskar. ca/ people/ david_dir/ CHI93/ CHI93. Vuzix. com  LASTER Technologies (http:/ / www." (http:/ / www.com. a French start-up from University of Paris Sud (Orsay). Henry Fuchs Spatially Augmented Reality (http:/ / www. cse. Greg Welch. .Special issue on computer augmented environments. fr/ ). has developed first augmented reality ski goggles in the market. Unpublished paper. Retrieved 2009-08-26. pp. com/ gadgetlab/ tag/ augmented-reality/ ). youtube. August 1997. "Experiences and Observations in Applying Augmented Reality to Live Training". html). demonstrating it at SIGGRAPH. Fuchs. Air Force Research Laboratory—Armstrong.S. com/ ar/ ). pocket-lint. Retrieved 2012-04-04. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments: 355–385. Dancing In Cyberspace. where AR later was further developed by other HITLab scientists. • 2000: Bruce H. Retrieved 9 June 2012. You’re Not Seeing" (http:/ / www. 355–385. KARMA. Wendy Mackay. "Behind the Google Goggles. Oliver. interaction is no longer simply a face-to-screen exchange. Thomas develops ARQuake. bringing augmented reality to the web browser. and demonstrates benefits to human performance. unc. com/ user/ F35JSFVideos#play/ uploads/ 7/ CwvnhFgzIKI) Youtube. accessible from his home . but the whole environment. Virtual Reality" (http:/ / www. full.B. "If You’re Not Seeing Data. called Virtual Fixtures. David also has a number of AR related papers on line. • 2009: project SixthSense from MIT showcased projection based wearable AR pendent device. ohio-state. unc. 11 References  "The interactive system is no longer a precise location. Barrilleaux. 1999. Welch. features dancers and acrobats manipulating body–sized virtual object in real time. • 2011 : LASTER Technologies. com/ news/ 38869/ augmented-reality-interview-steve-feiner). wired. The New York Times. com/ 20120404/ google-unveils-project-glass-wearable-augmented-reality-glasses/ ). edu/ ~azuma/ ARpresence. with sponsorship from STRICOM. edited by Pierre Wellner. Rosenberg develops one of the first functioning AR systems. edu/ ~raskar/ Office). A Survey of Augmented Reality (http:/ / www. cs. . All Things D. projected into the same physical space and performance plane. Retrieved 3 March 2011. "Augmented reality: a long way off?" (http:/ / www. pdf  "F-35 Distributed Aperture System EO DAS. J.
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(2009-10-19) Augmented reality in Aussie film clip (http:/ / www. who became paralyzed. psfk. Zachary Lieberman. utoronto. Retrieved 2010-01-06.  Steve Henderson. Vienna. cfm?id=854948). H. "The Eyewriter" (http:/ / www. S. html). Retrieved 4 August 2012. Ngm.  Tinmith  The big idea:Augmented Reality (http:/ / ngm. Retrieved 2010-01-06.com. Retrieved 9 June 2012. Daniel Elson and Guang-Zhong Yang.com. IEEE CS Press. Scott (12 April 2012). com/ ddar/ ))  Sydney band Lost Valentinos launched the world's first interactive AR music video on 16 October 2009. AR Week. 2009. where users could print out 5 markers representing a pre-recorded performance from each band member which they could interact with live and in real-time via their computer webcam and record as their own unique music video clips to share viaYouTube Gizmodo: Sydney Band Uses Augmented Reality For Video Clip (http:/ / www.Augmented reality page (http:/ / vered. 2005. gizmodo. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 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