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33327379 ACMP 706 445 Sabot Technology Engineering USA 1972

33327379 ACMP 706 445 Sabot Technology Engineering USA 1972

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UNCLASSIFIED

AD NUMBER
AD903789

NEW LIMITATION CHANGE TO
Approved for public release, unlimited distribution

FROM
Distribution authorized to U.S. Gov't. agencies only; Test and Evaluation; 4 Oct 1972. Other requests shall be referred to HQS, US Army Materiel Command, Attn: AMCRD-TV, Washington, DC 20315.

AUTHORITY
USAMC ltr, 2 Jul 1973

THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED

AMC PAMPHLET

AMCP 706-445

00

ENGINEERING DESIGN HANDBOOK

SABOT TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING
Distribution limited to U.S. Gov't. agenoies only; Other requests 4 OCr 1972' Test and Evaluation; for this document must be referred to

D I c
OCT4 1972

HEADQUARTERS, US AR~YMTRE
a

OMN

JULY 1812

AMCP 706-445
HEADQUARTERS,

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY UNITED STATES Washington, DCARMY' MATERIEL COMMAND 20315
10Jly17 f

,No.

AMC PAMPHLET 706-445
Engineering Design Handbook SABOT TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING

E

Paragraph LIST OF iLLUSTRATIONS .................. LIST OF TABLES .......................... PREFACE ................................ CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1-0 1-1 1-2 1-2.1 1-2.2 1-2.3 1-2.4 1-3 1-3.1 1-3.2 1-3.3 1-3.4 List of Symbols ............................ Background ............................... Sabots ..... ............................. Definition ............................... Classification ............................. Action Inside the Gun Tube ................. History of Sabot Use ....................... Guns ....... ............. .............. Definition ............................... Classification .............................. Action Inside the Gun ...................... Pressure-travel Curves ...................... References ................................

page v vii viii

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1 -1 1-I 1-5 1-5 1-6 1-6 1-12 1-14 1-14 1-14 1-14 1-16 1-16

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"CHAPTER 2. SABOT SYSTEM ANALYSIS
K 2-0 i2- ! S2-1.1 2-1.2 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-5.1 2-5.2 2-5.3 List of Symbols ........................... Geometric Classification of Sabots ............. Generic Types of Cup Sabots ................ Generic Types of Ring Sabots ................ Sabot Design Constraints ..................... The Comparison Between Cup and Ring Sabots ... Fluid Buoyancy Support of Gun-launched Structures .......................... Obturation and Sabot Seal Dynamics ........... General ................................. Obturation Methods ....................... Sabot Seal Dynamics ....................... References .............................. 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-6 2-6 2-12 2-13 2-18 2-18 2-18 2-19 2-20

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AMCP ?06445

TABLE OF CONTýNTS (Con't.)
CHAPTER 3. STRUCTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Paragraph 3-0 3-1 3-2 3-2.1 3-2.2 3-2.3 3-2.3.1 3-2.3.2 3-2.3.3 3-2.4 3-3 3-3.1 3-3.1.1 3-3.1.2 3-3.1.3 3-3.2 3-3.3 3-3.4 3-3.5 3-3.6 3-3.7 3-3.7.1 3-3.7.2 3-3.7.3 3-3.8 3-4 3-4.1 3-4.2 3-5 Page

List of Symbols ............................ 3-1 Structural Design Fundamentals ............... 3-2 Material Characterization ..................... 3-3 Linear Elastic Behavior ..................... 3-4 The Fitzgerald Modification of Hooke's Law 2 -50 for Incompressible Media ................... Loading Rate Effects............... .... 3-6 Linear Viscoelasticity ..................... 3-6 Behavior of Materials at High Loading Rates .... 3-9 Other Observations ....................... 3-9 Failure Criteria ........................... 3-9 Elementary Design Considerations for Cup Sabots ...................... ........... 3- 12 Standard Cup Sabot ....................... 3-12 Bending of Base Plate ...................... 3-14 Crushing of the Base Plate .................. 3-14 Buckling of the Sabot Wall ................. 3-15 Cup Sabot With External Undercut ............ 3-15 Cup Sabot With Internal Undercut ............ 3-15 Cup Sabot With Rider ...................... 3-16 Cup Sabot With Base Plate................ .3-17 Cup Sabot With Shear Plate Restraint .......... 3-18 Special Considerations for Spin-stabilized Applications ............................ 3- 18 Eccentrically Located Pin .................. 3-18 Torque Key ............................. 3-19 Torque Key for Constant Twist .............. 3-23 Special Cup Sabots ........................ 3-23 Elementary Considerations for Ring Sabots ....... 3-23 Buckling of the Forward Portion of the Projectile ............................... 3-24 Tensile Failure in Projectile Aft Section ......... 3-25 The Finite Element Technique ................ 3-25

4.
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3-5.1
3-5.1.1 3-5.1.2 3-5.1.3 3-5.1.4 3-5.1.5 3-5.1.6 3-5.1.7

Background .............................
Geometry ............................... Materials ............................. Boundary Conditions ..................... Dynamic Problems ....................... Miscellaneous Applications ................. Reliability and Accuracy ................... Summary ...............................

3-25
3-25 3-25 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26
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ii

I
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Con't.) Paragraph 3-5.2 3-5.2.1 3-5.2.2 3-5.2.3 3-5.3 3-5.3.1 3-5.3.2 3-5.3.3 3-5.4 3-5.4.1 3-5.4.2 3-5.4.3 3-5.4.4 3-5.4.5 3-5.4.6 3-5.5 Theory of the Finite Element Method .......... Variational Principles ..................... Finite Elements .......................... Summary ............................... Application of the Finite Element Method ...... Input Data .............................. Output Data ........................... Summary ............................... Example Problems ........................ Uniaxial Compression of a Right Circular Cylinder .............................. Thermal Expansion of a Right Circular Cylinder .............................. Centrifugal Loading of a Right Circular Cylinder .............................. Internal Pressurization and Rotation of a k. Hollow Cylinder ........................ Internal Pressurization of a Composite Cylinder Cup Sabot With Metal Base Plate ............ Conclusions ............................. References ............................... CHAPTER 4. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS FOR SABOT DEVELOPMENT 4-0 4-1 4-2 4-2.1 4-2.2 4-2.3 4-2.4 List of Symbols ............................ Introduction .............................. Dynamic Failure Characterization of Materials Under Gun Loading Conditions ............... Structural Test Vehicle ..................... Loading Analysis.......................... Experimental Procedures .................... Results of Feasibility Study ................. References ................................ APPENDICES Page APPENDIX A SUMMARY OF SABOT DESIGNS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTIS ............................. A-1 3-26 3-27 3-27 3-29 3-29 3-29 3-30 3-31 3-31 3-31 3-35 3-35 3-35 3-35 3-42 3-42 3-47

~AMCP 700446"

Page

4-1 4-1 4-2 4-2 4-3 4-3 4-7 4-7

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..........I D...............AMCP 706445 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Con't........ Table of Contents ................................... Part A: Program Listing (UNIVAC 1108...... ELASTIC BODIES ....I C... APPENDIX D ABSTRACT BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SABOT TECHNOLOGY............ APPENDIX C A FINITE ELEMENT PROGRAM FOR DETERMINING THE STRESSES AND STRAINS IN AXISYMMETRIC....... Part C: Additional Remarks and Output Data ................................6 B-I C.................. Preface ......... ......2 D--3 D...........) Page -j APPENDIX B SUMMARY OF STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES FOR MATERIALS USED IN SABOTS ..................2 C--15 C-21 iv ................. Part B: Input Data .......... Abstracts ...... D.......... FORTRAN IV) ...............

... Examples of Group 1...................... Examples of Group 1......................................... Basic Cup Design ......... Cup With Rotating Band (imparts spin to projectile) .... Ring With Unsupported Forward Undercut (aero-augmented separation and weight savings) Ring With Longitudinally-supportted Forward Undercut . Cup With Rider ....... Ring With Circumferentially-supported Forward Undercut ................................................................... Examples of Group 2 Sabots ............................................................... Ty:'e 3 Sabots ..... Cup With Support Sting (for thin-walled m odels) ......... 1-I 1-2 1--3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 1....... Ring With Forward Bevel (augments aerodynamic separation of sabot and projectile) ............................. Pressure-travel (Solid Lines) aid Velocity-travel "(Dotted Line) Curves .......... Basic Ring Design ....... Cup With Fluid Support (for fragile projectiles such as rocket-assisted projectiles) .... Two-piece Ring .................. 1-7 1-8 1-9 !-10 1-11 1-15 1-19 2-2 2-2 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 2-16 2-17 2-18 2-19 2-20 2-21 S2-22 2-23 2-24 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-52-6 2-64 2-6 2-7 2-7 2-7 2-7 2-7 2-10 v ... Cup With Base Plate (bearing surface multiplier)................ Cup With Forward Bevel (augments aerodynamic separator of sabot and projectile) ... Cup With Shear Plate Restraint ........... Cup With External Undercut (weight reduction) ...........AMCP 706446 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Fig. Cup With Internal Taper (thrust and spin transmitted to the projectile through the tapered surface) ........ Page 1-2 I............... Cup With Internal Undercut (weight reduction) .......... Type I Sabots ............ Cup With Base Plate and1 Shock Absorber (for highly brittle projectles) . Two-piece Self-sealing Ring ........ Performance Limits and Capabilities of Different Sabot Designs ............................................................................. Sabot in Gun Tube ............... Cup With Obturator (seals launch tube) .. No... Basic Ring Design .............................................................-8 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 Title The Design Process . Ring With Obturator (seals launch tube) ........... Examples of Group I...... Gun System ...... Basic Cup Design ................................. Type 2 Sabots ..

2 FMO - 0'"4 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Con't...... .......... Representative Axisymmetric Solid ..................... No......................- .. Element Layout for Sabot . - I .............. Quadrilateral Idealization of Solid .... Input for Simple Compression Problem ..... Input for Restrained Thermal Expansion Problem .................. and Sabot Projectile ......... Structural Test Vehicle . Variation of hIR With Stress Ratio rsc!rTs .............. Structural Test Vehicle Schematic .......... Displacements and Stresses in Rotating Hollow Cylinder .... Displacements and Stresses in Hollow Cylinder of Two Materials Under Internal Pressure ............................................................. Projectile........................................................... Comparison of Cup and Ring Sabots ........ Stresses and Displacements for Rotating Solid Cylinder .............. Input Data .... Page 2-Il 2-12 2-14 2-20 3-4 3-8 3--II 3-21 3-22 3-28 3-28 3-28 3-32 3-33 3-36 3-37 3-38 3-39 3-40 3-41 ) 3-18 3-19 3-20 3-21 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 Simple Sabot.................. Illustration of Possible Stress-strain Behavior ........ 2-25 2-26 2-27 2-28 3-I 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 [Q3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 33-12 3-13 3-14 3-15 3-16 3-17 Performance Limits and Capabilities of Different Sabot Designs .............................. Displacements and Stresses for Hollow Cylinder With Internal Pressure ............ Selected Element Results for Sample Sabot Problem ............. Gun Launch Schematic for Fluid Buoyancy Support System ..... 3-44 3-43 3-44 3-45 3-46 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-9 4-10 Ui ............................." - I . Ring...... Schematic Diagram of Gun Tube......................................'..... Gun Launch Tested Polycarbonate ("Lexan") ........ Output for Simple Compression Problem ....... Gun Launch Tested Steel and Aluminum Samples .......... Typical Idealization of Axisymmetric Solid .. Variation of 0(h/R) With hIR ..................... Typical Chamber and Muzzle Pressure-time Response .... Dynamic Stress-strain Relationship for a Polycarbonate Plastic ("Lexan") ........................) Fig. Setup of Simple Compression Problem ............... Output for Restrained Thermal Expansion Problem ................................... Response Characteristics of a Viscoelastic Material ....................................

.............. 3-I 4-1I ntIe Results of Lockheed Propulsion Company (LPC) Tests for Material Strength Under Gun Launch Conditions .. Page 3-10 4-8 4u 4 • V kvilj ..........AMCP 706.446 LIST OF TABLES Table No......... Experimental Results .....................

Dalton Cantey of Lockheed Propulsion Company. to Mr. Bannister. The handbooks are authoritative reference books of practical information and quantitative facts helpful in the design and development of Army materiel so that it will meet the tactical and the technical needs of the Armed Forces. dated 9 September 1966. Activities within AMC. and Government agencies other than DOD having need for the Handbooks should direct their request on an official form to:• - Commanding Officer Letterkenny Army Depot • .l ATTN: AMXLE-ATD Chainbersburg. Acknowledgment is offered for the services of Utah Research and Development Corporation. L. Pennsylvania 17201 b. DOD agencies. Emphasis is on numerical techniques for practical stress analysis and methods for determining material strength properties under realistic gun-launch conditions. and to Mr. 29 Auguzt 1969. and those classified for security reasons. Procedures for acquiring these Handbooks follow: ) L a. The purpose of this handbook is to compile meaningful engineering analysis information pertaining to sabots. those approved for release and sale. The Engineering Design Handbooks fall into two basic categories. for the Sabot Technology Engineering Handbook.PREFACE The Fngineering Design Handbook Series of the Army Materiel Command is a coordinated series of handbooks containing basic information and fundamental data useful In the design and development of Army materiel and systems. It will be noted that the majority of these Handbooks can be obtained from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). Maryland. Aberdeen Proving Ground. An exhaustive abstract and reference bibliography is included as Appendix D. E. Contractors and universities must forward their requests to: National Technical Information Service Department of Commerce Springfield. Virginia 22151 VO I II IIIIS W I!!!'• i' . A. Ballistic Research Laboratories. The Army Materiel Command policy is to release these Engineering Design Handbooks to other DOD activities and their contractors and other Government agencies in accordance with current Army Regulation 70-31. Second Edition. which is the document upon which this handbook is based.

Army Materiel Command ATTN: AMCRD-TV Washington. with appropriate "Need to Know" justinfcation. D. C. P 706"4! ai (Requats for c!lssified documents must be sent.AM. to Letterkenny Army Depot.S. 20315 4 i'- [ ix .) Comments and suggestions on this Handbook are welcome and should be addressed to: U.

445 CHAPTER I iNTRODUCTION 1-0 LIST OF SYMBOLS a A. 7. Generally. engineering steps taken to minimize sabot weight increase the stress and deformation requitements imposed upon the sabot during its travel through the bore of the gun. respectively .. It will be noted that the design process contains the following six different types of activities' 0: (1) To recognize need for the product (Block I in Fig.subscripts referring to projectile and sabot. ' (3) To generate one or more tentative R. d D F . -ternatives Pr - :- (v (2) To establish criteria for evaluating al(Blocks 2 and 3) .. s .mass of projectile s pressure of propellant gases acting on base of sabot projectile -"" = probability of failure ~~P. designs or prototypes (Blocks 4 and 9) (4) To analyze each alternative (Blocks 5. "The steps and decisions which must be made in the process of producing an engineering design are summarized in Fig.• . This handbook presents engineering design procedures for sabots..and 10) " p. When high velocity is the desired characteristic of the supported projectile. It takes into consideration the conflicting criteria associated with maximum performance and maximum reliability. V W a structural reliability velocity or muzzle velocity a weight or weighting factors °Referenam are located at the end of each chapter unla specific reference is made to the abstract bibliogrsphy of Appendix D. KE . 1-1 m. n.AMCP 706.longitudinal acceleration m cross-sectional area of gun bore . the lightest weight saboi feasible is desired..kinetic energ -• ¾ L iii = length = mass = predicted sabot mass M sabot mass design objective . I-I.diameter of projectile w diametvr of bore = force 1-1 BACKGROUND Sabots are used as supports for projectiles during gun tube travyc. .

OR1 Figur SNY DESIGN TE eouM ~cs MODFY NAD 04'.NS FOR STAGLISH REQUIREMENTS FOIR SUUSYSTKMS AND COMPIONENT11 URNERTK S GA.P4ECOUN9Ut NUKO I f L KSTAFILISt CRITERIA 1 EVALUATING AL T RNA1I OKIEIL.I9YIiE At'QU~hr ..

or rationally 2 . if necessary. hopefully. length. principles. Having at least tentatively established the design criteria. Despite its shortcomings. and the rational approach to design normally consists of establishing critical design parameters using complete solutions of idealized problems with limited but. complete rational design.. 6A. acceleration. and powder burning phenomena (4) Impart rotation to spin-stabilized projectiles (5) After discharge from the launch tabe.e. A sabot is a component of a weapon system designed for an ultimate goal to deliver a specified projectile to a target at a prescribed range and terminal velocity.. i.AMCP 706-445 i(5) To compare alternatives with previ- ously established criteria or requirements (Step 2) and. muzzle velocity. performance requirements.h the target within an acceptable dispersion. The empirical approach is the scaling to new requirements of proved designs and experimental results.intuitively. the rational design approach permits the designer to establish without bias the "base" design required as an input to the subsequent 1-3 A ¾ . The rational approach to design is the systematic application of established scientific laws.e. and produce a closed-form solution that could be solved for the various dimensions of the design in terms of material properties.. Assume that the need for a sabot has been established. In practice this is rarely possible. and rules of logic to a properly defined problem. If it were possible to establish a general design. dimensions.' 0-1 2 The loads imposed upon the sabot can be predicted using the analytical methods of interior ballistics 2 -1 The output from this stage of the sabot design process (Block 3) should be (I) a definition of the projectile.. yaw angle.. 8A. (3) the sabot load environment. and yaw rate. The intuitive approach defies description because it depends upon the designer's "feel" for the problem and his individual creativity. and manufacturing processes considered capable of satisfying the design criteria. 4 using the techniques of external" 9 and terminal ballistics. primarily maximum allowable lateral displacement. lateral velocity. and I IA). diameter.9 could be performed. mass. etc. empirically. This step normally is performed in one or a combination of three different approaches to design . i. i. 11. base pressure. (2) gun configuration and performance requirements. 6. The projectile should have an acceptable impact velocity and should rea. modify the design and repeat the preceding step (Blocks 6.. and 6A). The quantitative requirements for a specific sabot application can be established from a knowledge of weapon system performance goals. bore friction. This is the optimization phase of the design process '46) To implement the best alternative (Block 1 2). analyze it for all combinations of conditions... separate from projectile without disturbing the flight of the projectile and without creating a hazard to personnel in the immediate area. the next step in its design (Block 3) is establishment of the sabot design criteria. however. Qualitatively the sabot must accomplish the following: a(I () Position and structurally support the projectile during its launch (2) Seal or obturate the powder gases within the launch tube (3) Minimize balloting of the projectile. etc. loading conditions. bore diameter. variations in bore fricti-n. Furthermore. there would be no need for succeeding steps (Blocks 5. the significant loading or performance condition.e. materials. etc. 8. undesired lateral or yawing motion produced by bore and/or projectile asymmetries.iomalies in launch conditions. the next step (Block 4) is to select a basic sabot configuration. and (4) permissible ..e. and other dimensional considerations. i.

loading conditions. and optimization phases.. and optimization phases (Block 9) for the entire system.e... To avoid the problem of suboptimization. and predieting the system's behavior.' f.e. in the case of a structural design problem.prediction. one would predict the stresses and strains induced in the body by the mechanical and thermal loads imposed upon it.. the design criteria. For example. If the desired safety factor is not achieved. statistical techniques can be employed to combine the uncertainties in the 1-4 predicted stresses or strains with the random variations in the ultimate properties of the material to establish the probability of failare or the structural reliability. In the traditional "go . For example. detailed material properties. dimensions. The "base" design established in Block4 is a necessary input to the analysis or prediction stage of the design process (Biock 5).. a design criterion or figure of merit that uses both the structural reliability and an appropriate performance parameter should be used. the design progresses to the system perlormnance evaluation phase (Block 7). The next step (Block 6) in the design process is to compare the predicted performance to the desired performance. Solutions of this type appropriate to sabot design are presented in a subsequent chapter of this handbook. 19.e. 2 Digital computer algorithms could be used for hand calculations but they are so lengthy that manual solution is neither economically feasible nor reliable. Electronic computers have been a particularly useful asset in this phase of design. In the sabot design problem. m = I . Their widespread availability and ability to perform computations at high speed makes it possible to achieve approximate solutions to "exact" problems which are more accurate than the exact solutions to "exact" problems which are more accurate than the exact solutions of approximate 1 problems referred to above. it is important that the design procedure include prediction (Block 7).no go" concept of structural design. evaluation (B~luck 8). the system evaluation phase . each multiplied by a weighthig fector.Pf = structural reliability = H . Observe that the figure of merit is used for comparison purposes only and does not necessarily have a physical significance. The rational approach may be thought of as providing precise solutions to approximate problems. evaluation. To employ this latter technique. Alternately. Optimization techniques can then be employed (Block 6A) to determine and implement those changes that improve the figure of merit. achieving an "optimum" component design that does not result in optimum system performance. and would take too long to provide answers for design decisions on a timely basis. design changes are made (Block 6A). one might maximize the figure of merit formed by a linear combination of the structural reliability and the ratio of the desired sabot mass to the predicted sabot mass. FureofMeritfFofM=WR+W('• o--R F (l-l) where R8 Pf m.? . 17. This step consists of taking the specific design conifiguration.4 probability of failure = predicted sabot mass prc sb m = desired sabot mass (design objective) = w'. the predicted stresses and/or strains are compared to the stresses and/or strains that the material is capable of withstanding to determine if a desired safety factor is achieved. i. W 2 subjectively establishedweighting factors designed to give more or less emphasis on either the structural reliability or the sabot mass. This technique is repeated until the figure of merit reaches an extreme value. i. whereas if an adequate safety factor is obtained. i. etc.

It carries the projectile down the gun bore.. This handbook is organized in accordance with the previous discussion. The remainder of Chapter 1 is devoted to generalized background information pertinent to guns and sabots. and (3) seal dynamics.e. a projectile with a diameter less than the bore diameter of the launch tube. closed-form equations for preliminary design of sabots are presented as well as sophisticated computer programs for detailed analysis. Instead of Spredicting the response of the component or system.vogram.t from the gun. a prototype is fabricated (Block 9). chamber pressure.idc phenomena excited during launch. Instead of developing an analytical model. a sabot projectile is subcaliber with respect to the gun. to take the grooves of the rifling". Nearly all sabots separate from the projectile after J:. the response is measured (Block 10). The pri/mary difference is that measured data are used in lieu of theoretical predictions. 1 3-1 7. under action of propellant gases.. References are listed at in end of each chapter and a comprehensive bibliography is included as Appendix D. for a given projectile-sabot design. velocity. it generally becomes necessary to demonstrate the capability of the design. i. Even minute leakage of gun gas around or through a sabot structure is inimical because of the intense erosive power of the gas flow. and acceleration environment in the gun bore. In modern terms. To satisfy its main function as a projectile carrier. etc. etc. Chapter 2 is a preliminary chapter because it establishes the basic types of sabots.. gun barrel should not be construed to mean that structural considerations are more important. / 1-2 SABOTS 1-2. In addition to being a projectile carrier. Elementary. one or more prototypes are manufactured. and which uses the sabot as an adapter or carrier to support it during launch. . A military use of sabot is inherited from its description as "a piece of soft metal formerly attached to a projectile. or at least an acceptable. The similarity between the analytical and prototype sequences will be noted.1 DEFINITION The term "sabot" in this handbook is a de of a term referring to a wooden shoe. Successful completion of all performance and qualification tests resulted in a completed design. • 4. but also must serve as a gas seal. For this purpose. The evaluation and optimization phases also are similar to the analytical cycle. charge configuration. their classification. Generally. and the results are evaluated. Sabot design considerations covered include (1) structural considerations. Once the optimal. and the nomenclature us'dthe this handbook. a sabot also may be designed to reinforce structurally or to protect the projectile under the high pressure. leaving the projectile to fly to its target unaccompanied. It merely points out the need for aaditional work in the latter areas. accerion. temperature. the sabot not only must remain intact during bore travel. / length. design has been achieved analytically. This is due to the fact that structural design is further advanced than either obturator design or the evaluation of dl":. tested. In expanded performance evaluation S~p. a sabot is a device conforming on one surface to a gun bore and on the other surface to a projectile. (2) obturation.AMCP7J" would consist of predicting tJ time-dependent nmotion. This /. The purpose of this phase of the design is to (1) verify the analysis. 19 The figure of merit for system optimization must employ a system performance parameter such as muzzle velocity.anthe figure of merit would be expranded to include obturation and/or seal dynamics considerations. (2) determine the effect of phenomena not included in the analytical design. More material is included under structural design considerations (Chapter 3) than for either obturation or seal dynamics. and (3)S~derivative the design meets the design confirm that objectives.

This force causes an acceleration a of the shot a= Pc AB = P (mp + m. density. without fluid support. group. AB also equals the bore cross-sectional area. function of the projectile. The accelerating force Fis given by F = Pc As = P - 0 4 D2 (1-2) " where P. Functional and design limitations imposed on buoyancy-supported projectiles are controlled primarily by configurational requirements. Literature review and initial analysis indicate that these configurations have been developed to a relatively high degree of sophistication on the basis of qualitative design procedures and an extensive background of experimental evaluation testing. Typical sabot designs of the second group are shown in Fig 1-5 Research studies show that fluid sabot buoyancy support techniques can provide significant structura! design advantages for relatively low-density gun-launched structures. would be exposed to destructive acceleration loads during gun launch.) 4(mp + m.is group include aeroballistic testing of a wide variety of aerodynamic models using light gas-gun techniques. Of outstapding importance in this group are kinetic energy penetrator rounds designed for defeat of medium and heavy armor. 1-2 through 1-4. 1-6(B). Projectile support during launch acceleration provided by the buoyancy and pressure distribution effect of the fluid can result . r t n i eth o The acceleration gives rise to coupling stresses at the contact interfaces as indicated by the arrows in Fig. The first group is characterized by high density. weapon systems employing high explsiue. and (3) aerodynamically stabilized* projectile with ring sabot.n significant reductions in strength and weight requirements. When the basic objective to be achieved is the highest oossible muzzle velocity (or projectile acceleration) for a given projectile weight. it also is referred to as "a discarding sabot projectile".) (1-3) where mp is the mass of the projectile and mr is the mass of the sabot. is the pressure* acting upon the shot base area Ae = irD2 /4. gun-boosted rces rockets. Within this.and low-density projectiles that may be gun-lo unched for many uses. (2) aerodynamically stabiAized* projectile with a cup sabot. and avreyo a variety of "tactical and research projectiles including flares. accelerating the system to the right (as shown in the figure). are a mixture of shears and normal stresses generated by force F and the differential inertial resistance to motion of *The "back pressure" at the forward end of the lected in comparison to the higher magnitude of P. 1-6 as the system is acted upon by the propellant gas pressure P. high ballistic coefficient projectiles designed for maximum impact kinetic energy. 1-2. fluid compressibility. waon shapedschargem waeapoyinfighaplosive and shaped charge warhead confisuration gu-ose n tion.Because the sabot usually is separated or discarded from the projectile after it emerges from the launch tube.2 CLASSIFICATION Sabot projectile applications can be grouped into two categories based upon the configuration and. and hydrodynamic effects. _ __-6_ _ _ .3 ACTION INSIDE THE GUN TUBE Consider the simple sabot-projectile system shown in Fig. 1-2. The coupling stresses as indicated. Applications for . Typical designs for these three types are depicted in Figs. "1 A second group of sabot projectiles is characterized by medium. and 'Fins or flared aft sections. electronic packages. over-simplified by comparison to reality. Such projectiles. chaff.. there are basically three different types of sabot projectiles: (1) spin-stabilized projectile with a cup sabot.. liquid payloads. probes. a performance improvement will be achieved only if the average cross-sectional density of the sabot is less than that for the projectile alone. and terminal ballistic effects.

Figure 1-2. Type I Sabots 1-7 _ __ ___k . Example of Group 1.I V.

Type 2 Saboft 1-8 .- r7011U41 POLYCARBONATE RESIN "BS N ROtUATOR" POLYCARBON ATE RESIN "SHOCK ABSORBER" 10 STEEL "PAD" ETHYL CELLULOSE"OCROWN" OBTURATORr Figure -3. Examples of Group?..

7075 ST6 OR 7178 5T6 ALUMINUM ALLOY Figure 14. POLYCARBONATE RESIN 2.IN LESS SUPPORT 1. ExaImples of Group 1. Typie 3 Sabots 1-9 .

AMM "W449 (A)MODIFIED CUP SABOT FOR LAUNCHING THIN WALLED AERODYNAMIC MODELS ýz/ Z/ (B)CUP SABOT FOR LAUNCHING SPHERICAL BODIES (C)RING SABOT FOR LAUNCHING SPHERICAL BODIES PAYLOAD FLUID (0) FLUID SUPPORT SABOT FOROLAUNCHING ROCKET-ASSISTED PROJECTILES OR PROBES Figure 1-5. of Group 2 Sabots lul . Example.

Sabot in Gun Tube iI .AMCP 706MG4 GUN PROPELLANT/COMBUSTION GAS PROJETELETEIGH L SABOT WEIGHT Ws Figure 1-6.

while simple. was begun.S. the launch into the development of a 76 mm HVAPDS (hypervelocity. tm u ue (3) They do not require critical materials. The success they achieved by 1949 in the development of an APDS (armorpiercing. at hypervelocity speeds.launch applied to the "shoe" carrier and subcaliber projectiles. Army. The result of the action is to cause frictional shear gripping of the cylindrical surface of the projectile by the sabot and a puh normal to its back (left) end. primarily aluminum and magnesium alloys because of thehi high strength-to-weight ratiom. The nylon sheath was necessitated by the abrasive nature of glass-filled T. Until 1953. This sabot projectile was highly successful and later became part of the M88 cartridge. It subsequently was iedesignated as the M331 when accepted for use by the U. however. The objective -f structural analysis of sabots is to deduce. The complications arising in the details of en analysis by geometric variations in the sabot in no. sabots were made of metal. Alternatively. how the load F is distributed through the sabot and projectile. dl. Thus. When the sabot and projectile emerged from the launch tube. In15.y R . . the capability for adequate stress and strength analysis is synonymous with the capability for design optimization because the stress-strength analcapability permits permuting design details to arrive at design optima. 1-2. 1-6. Advintages of Plastic sabots' 2 include: (1) Their strength is adequate for many applications. removal of the radial restraint caused the sabot to disintegrate under the centrifugal loading. particularly near the contact surfaces between which failure is likely to be initiated. armor-pIercing. 1ysis were recognized and the development of a "plastic version of the T145 sabot projectile. The experimental version of this 76 mm r1VAPDS shot was designated tho T145. The design depicted schematically In Fig. and neighboring countries.4 HISTORY OF SABOT USE ! Sabot is the French word for wooden shoes worn by peasants in France. discarding-sabot) shot for a 20-lb cannon encouraged the United States to '1-12 (4) They do not create as much wear on the launch tube. 4 - word to been various aerodynamic shapes used has. as well as by the confinemvnt of the barrel. (2) They cost less because they are easier ~to manufacture. • . way alter the generic approach illustrated. This scheme is operative uWil an allowable stress or deformation is exceeded in the material of the sabot or the projectile.the projectile and sabot. The stress analysis prediction then can be compared to the strengths of the materials and the design evaluated. (5) They break into less lethal pieces. The first plastic sabots were made of glass-fiber filled diallylphthalate sheathed in nylon and they included metal reinforcements whenever it was felt necessary to redistribute the stresses.teavnae fpatcsbt S .in competition with the carding-sabit) shot' T66 rigid shot previously under development. designated T89. Belgium. is representative of approaches to many sabot applications. Recently. . the acceleration force F is transmitted from the rbot through the Interfaces as indicated to cause its acceleration along with the sabot. causing failure of the parts. The Canadians were among the first to apply the potentialities of sabot-launched projectiles. formally. Sabot discard was achieved by designing the sabot so that when it was in the launch tube the centrifugal forces associated with spinning the sabot and projectile would expand the sabot out against the launch tube but would not fracture it.

2 g In 1964. Lockheed Propulsion Company and Ballistic Research Laboratories (BRL) cooperated to demonstrate survivability of high-performance rocket vehicles at *a 101 gravities acceleration in 3. and (2) the fins of the projectile are exposed to high temperature gases during both the launch and flight portions of operation. Ring sabots. Because this type of projectile usually is fired from smoothbore guns*. epoxies. The SPRINT high-speed intercepter missile is a typical example of a high-performance ejectionlaunched rocket.22) 1 TwO serious disadvantages exist with the fin-stabilized. kinetic-energy penetrators in 1951.s 6. Inc. or forward section of the projectile. Nylon also is used for rotating bank on projectiles and on metal sabots. a series of buttress-shaped. therefore. Polyethylene.ICP - 706445 ' materials. It also should be observed that the annular grooves on the projectile body increase its drag coefficient and. high-density. are objection- "Rifled barrels have been used but it Is anticipated that there is sufficient slippage between the sabot and the projectile that the latter will not develop significant spin. The latter results in extreme fin ablation which is extremely undesirable. able. and partially pulls. The United States began development of a series of high LID (length-to-diameter) finstabilized. neoprene. polycarbonatr•t. It uses a modified cup sabot. h The possibility of employing gun-launched rockets and space vehicles as a means of obtaining improved performance at reduced cost has not gone unnoticed. partially pushes the projectile through the launch tube.to 5-in. To overcome these difficulties. In 1964. 1-13 . therefore. has and . The aft end of both ring and cup sabots also are scooped out. These grooves interlock when the sabot and projectile are assembled. bore sizes. axial acceleratiis of order only 10 or 102 g can be tolerated before axial buckling causes catastrophic failure. the traditional cup or push sabot was inadequate This ring or push-pull sabots were the central type of sabot wraps around developed. "arrow" projectile and ring sabot combination: (1) both the launch tubesabot and the sabot-projectile interfaces must be sealed against gas leakage and the destructive erosion associated with gas leakage. Aircraft developed a demonstrated and large (152 Armaments. Studies also indicate the feasibility of launching space vehicles 14 ft in diameter using a mass-restrained atomic-powered ca" non. Other plastics used for the structilral portione of sabots include polypropylenes. in bore diameter 3 0-3 S. in connection with Project HARP (Joint United States-Canadian High Altitude Research Program). centrifugal forces cannot be relied upon for separation.. permitting the high gas pressures generated by the burning powder to assist in sealing against gas leakage. and phenolics. To transfer acceleration forces from the sabot to the projectile. ring sabot its use in both small (cal mm) caliber #eapols. and silicone rubbers are used for seals and obturators. are usually made in several segments and incorporate air scoops or bevels on the forward end of each segment so that aerodynamic forces and stored strain energy tend to peel or petal the sabot segments away from the projectile. This type projectile sometimes is called an "arrow" projectile and is typified by the T320 and T208 shot serie•" 4 "s Because of the high LID ratio. annular grooves are made on both the projectile body and mating sabot surface. The support technique used _ . In a typical high-performance rocket motor. (AAM) friction-type."' The modified cup sabot consists of a base plate upon which the weight of the projectile rests aad four to six ciJcumferentially spaced radial supports to position the projectile in the launch tube. a series of delta-finned projectiles oand was developed that can be launched from a modified cup sabot. celluloses. interest was expressed in launches of high-performance rockets from guns of up to 16-in.

howitzers. Essentially. and the classifications increases rapidly. probably on the order of 10 to 30 percen4 thereof. however. other than human power. Pistols. Howitzers include those generally operating in a lower velocity range.000 fps is a design objective. They This occurs at a relatively short distance from the origin of rifling. howitzers. Beyond that point. from which the rocket-containing fluid slug is expelled as a unit 3 '3 9 .2 CLASSIFICATION action resembles the power stroke of an For convenience of discuson. a gun is a heat engine. in essence. at the muzzle.AM "0"44 has been termed "fluid buoyancy support" and consists.sbot projectiles. may be taken in its general sense . pistols. Mortars poisess lower velocities and generally are loaded from the muzzle. loaded in separate increments and ones that can be varied within limits by the gunnei.1 DEFINITION The term "Sun" in this handbook. Resistance to initial motion and nomenclature are often traditional. the projectile continues to accelerate beyond the muzzle. Artillery weapons include guns (specific). Thus. charges *Patent Numbers 3. sabot-projectiles. (Fig. Mortars operate at high angles similar to howitzen.369. This has the effect of decreasing the pressure. Its 1-3. of neutral flotation of the structure in a gun tube. unless otherwise indicated.485 more variable in design and function.455 and 3. pressure drops and. The latter can be fired at high angles and use zoned charges.000 psi). Small arms are include such weapons as rifles. with connected reaction chamber in which the chemical energy of a propellant is rapidly converted into heat and the hot gases produced expand to expel the projectile at c high velocity. gases functions. modes of operation. the guns most suitable for use as launchers are typically long in caliber length and/or designed for high pressure operation(f' 75.. mortars. and are in chamber pressutres are attained before much common use. This muzzle pressure continues to act on the projectile for a short distance beyond the muzzle.. depending upon the weapon design and the propellant. The of the projectile is great. the rate of Artillery consists of the larger weapons usuburning of the charge increases. 1-7). and relatively high classifications are useful. 4" The are evolved from the surface of each propelboundaries of these classifications are not lant grain. When sabot-support of subcaliber projectiles for attainment of muzzle velocities in excess of 4.i~e. However. A summary of sabots.3 ACTION INSIDE THE GUN i: 1-3.369.e. 1-14" A d . They are not complex In design and may be taken apart and transported by foot soldiers. gases driving the projectile instead of a piston classified according to their salient teatures. machine guns. and the pressure in the chamber always clearly defined. The effect is a ally mounted on carriages and moved by rapid increase in the propellant pressure until the point of maximum pressure is reached. etc. Small armsmoveare in general less than 30 mm in caliber. reaches a value considerably less than maximum pressure. and their characteristics is included in Appendix A. a projectile-throwing doLvice consisting essentially of a projectile-guidIng tube. 1-3. The roughly on size and portability and classifies "gun" as small arms and artillery. ment of the projectile. guns are automobile engine with the expansion of hot classified aconvniene to teirscsient fsres. and mortars. The principal one is based motion of the projectile takes place. i. When the charge is ignited. etc. Guns (specific) include those firing lsually at lower elevation and higher velocity. and guns that produce medium or low velocities under ordinary circumstances are not ordinarily considered for use as projectors for high-velocity .

445 w -I W .- ~ tL§~. ~how AMCP 706.

File No. PSR-9/8. many objectionable occurrences would take place. 1-8) ndicate the pressure (or force If pressure is multiplied by the cross-sectional area of the bore) existing at the base of the projectile at any point of its motion.. Krick.J. the work performed. 1956. A Philosophy of Design. In addition to producing excessive erosion (a factor which would materially decrease the accuracy life of the gun). Dardick. V.Elmaghraby. the area under any of the curves represents the work accomplished on the projectile per unit crosssectional area. et a&. but whose area is greater than that under Curve B.C.C. 5. since WORK n KE wmp2/2 (1-4) the gun.. of 4 1-16 . 4 I r.. Summary Report on Study of the GunBoosted Rocket System. and that the premuivs developed to accomplish this not damage the weapon. 3. California. then the work performed in each of these cases will be equal. If the areas under Curves A and B are equal. No. Appendix B of Hypervelocity Weapon Feasibility Study. and the muzzle velocities produced by each of these propellants will be the same. "Gun/Projectile Systems". D. John Wiley and Sons. 1i. Reinhold Publishing Co. 15 December 1962. E. Bullock and W. Vol. 1966. and hence the mobility. R. REFERENCES I. Bclmont. The propelIvnt grain most suitable for producing this result is one giving the prescribed velocity uniformly from round to round without exceeding the permissible pressure at any point in the bore. 4. However.-. Hence. Barbarek.. brilliant flashes and nonuniform velocities because of high muzzle pressure would result. or the area under some new curve.. N. Such an Increase in velocity is indicated by Curve C whose maximum pressure is equal to that of Curve B. North Carolina State College. The Design of Produclion Systems. N. the chamber would have to be materially increased and this would affect the weight. liarrisberser. Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. must be greater than the area under a curve giving a "lower muzzle velocity.Zimmerman and L. L. WADD-TR-61-203 II. Introduction to Engineering and Engineering Design. Should it be desired to increase the muzzle velocity of a projectile. Harrington. Raleigh. it is desirable to obtain high projectile velocities by sabot-support of a projectile light in weight as opposed to construction of a heavy. Ergineerdh-hip. Air Proving Ground Center. April 1961. "Analysis of Performance Requirements for Hypervelocity Guns".Y. Moreover. uneconomical gun capable of firing the unsupported projectile without a sabot. 92-99 (1967).[f7 144 PRESSURE-TRAVIL CURVES In order for the projectile to acquire the designated muzzle velocity. Space/Aeronautics 47. all tubes are designed In accordance with a desirable pressure-travel 4 curve for the proposed weapon "' The pressure-travel curves (Fig. As a rsult.J. 3. 6. It appears that the ideal pressure-travel curve would be one coinciding with the curve of perndssible pressure. Department of Mathematics. by the expanding gases. The fact that Curve A exceeds the permissible pressure curve cannot be tolerated. among other reasons.E. the velocity prescribed for a particular gun always is somewhat below the maximum possible to obtain. 2. 1966. S. For these. if it were possible to design a propellant capable of producing such a result. Report No.Y.C.A. N. F..

E. Elements of Terminal Ballistics. 22 January 1958 (C). T91 (U). Proof Testing and Computer Analysis of BRL 81/26mm Light-Gas Gun. AMCP 706-162(S-RD). L. Ballistics. NR 8. Engineering Design Handbook. Report No. Stinson. August 1966. April 1967 (C). AMCP 706-140. Elements of Terminal Ballistics. DeStefano. Application of the Finite Element Method to Stress Analysis of Solid PropellantRocket Grains. Proceedings of the Fifth US. Collection and Analysis of Data Concerning Targets (U). APG Report No. Spheres and Cubes. V. Design for Control of Projectile Flight Characteristics. Wilson and R. Development Test of Plastic Discarding Sabot Shot for 76mm Gun. 18. The Theory of High Speed Guns. 1-17 ! 1 .D. Brisbane. Engineering Design Handbook. AMCP 706-150. Engineering 16. b.C. Part Three. BRL Memorandum Report No. AMCP 706-107. Development of Shot. Differential Effects. E. Engineering Design Handbook. Peters. J. AGARDograph-91. APFSDS. 20.. Kill Mechanisms and Vulnerability (U). InteriorBallistics of Guns. 10. AMCP 706-242.Typical Fin Stabilized Flechettes. Sabot Materialsand Designs for High Velocity Kinetic-Energy Artillery Ammunition. Bailey. M67-18-1. 24. Engineering Design Handbook. J. Part Two. May 1965. S/ c. TAI-1475.L. 13. 9. 1966. APG Report No. 90/40mm T320 for 90mm Smoothbore Guns.Y. BRL Technical Note No. On the Use of Plastic Sabots for Free Flight Testing. McGill University. A Digital Computer Simulation of Breech-Launched Rockets. Rohm and Haas Company. 5.B. Frankle. BRL Memorandum Report No. Space Research Institute.A. 21 November 1957. J. 1606. April 1966. Report No. 1855. Parkinson. SRI-H-TN-4. AMCP 706-160(S).of Trajectory Data for Spin Stabilized SProjectiles. Part One. 23. E. Engineering Design Handbook. Nickell.B. E. and Data for Projectiles. "Application of the Finite Element of Heat Conduction Analysis". Elements of Terminal Ballistics. 22. A. 14. AMCP 706-245(C).J. MacAllister.' Elements of Armament EnSgineering. 21. I I III I I Iil . Trajectories. G. 19. Becker and J. Goode. May 1954. Part Two. Royal Armament Research and Development Establishment. January 1967. May 1966. TAI-5002-8.B. 17. S-76. Congress of Applied Mechanics. MR-782. November 1965.W. 25. Doherty. Seigel. An Interior Ballistic Study of a 24-inch Gun for ProjectHARP. 11/66. a. July 1967. Design for Terminal Effects (U). Simple InternalBallistics Thcory for Single and Double Chamber Guns.E.V. ASME. Engineering Design Handbook. L. 11. AMCP 706-161(S). ARMA TR 67-11.E. R. 26 August 1966. Carn and A.M. Memorandum No. 12. ¢' ' Design Handbook. Report No. . R-1336. Handbook .AMCP 706445 7.J. BRL Report No. Frankford Arsenal. Application to Missile and Space Targets (U).i Oskay. N. Engineering Design Handbook. Definitions of Pressuresfor use in the Design and Proof of Guns and Ammunition. S.

31 Marh cto er 1962 (C). Report No. Gun Tubes. 211-221. J. Design and Fabrication of 34. 31. AVCO Corp. Final Technical Report (U). April 1966. 16.L. Brown and S. Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal. Huchital.T. Bull. Saam. RS-RAP FeasibilityDemonstration. 37. I16-Inch ry 36. V 4 35. July 1958 (C).. 40. Rock Island Arsenal. 11. Space Research Institute. Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal. 29. and G.E. Engineering Handbook. Marks. IRIG Document No. "Development of Gun Launched Vertical Probes for Upper Atmosphere Studies". High-Energy.A. F. January 1964... SRI-H-R-13. AIAA PreprintNo. Cantey and F.AMCP 706445 26.E. Electro Mechanical Research Co.. 66-1493. Development of a Special Type Small Arms Cartridge (Sabot Supported) (U).Rep 1 rt61.. March 1966 (C). Inc. "Project HARP". Aircraft Armaments. "The Development of Large Bore Gun Launched Rockets". E.. 41. Murphy and G. McGill University. 28. 953-F. The Meteorological Roc. Bull. AMCP 706-252. "High Altitude Gun Probe Systems for Meteorological Measurements". March 1960. Engineering Handbook. The Development of Gun Launched Rockets. a' I "I 8 ' :•.M. HARP Work at Rock Island Arsenal-Summary Report. Ll. 3o R. February 1965. C. 482-486 (1968). J 32. McGill University. Bull. RAD-SR-26-60-54. 10. G. Design and Development of LowDrag. Report No. ER-4341. Oribital and High Altitude Probing Potential of Gun-Launched Rockets. F-RAP Feasibility Demonstration.tC . 39. Paper presented at the 3rd ICRPG/AIAA Solid Propulsion Conference held in Atlantic City. 962-F. Report No. 33.W. Report No. Report No. Space Research Institute. 30. Inc. 64-18. * APDS Shot (U). "Gun Launch of Rocket Vehicles by Fluid Support Techniques". Ordnance. 12. 31 EMRCNo. Parkinson. Rossm iller and M. 38. D. Report No. Lockheed Propulsion Company. Lyster. Report No.H. pp. Eyre. D. D. Cantey. SRI-R-24. Phase I. December 1968 (C). October 1966. Armor-Penetrating Projectiles (U). 4-6 June 1968. McGill University.V. 236-247 (1964). February 1968. Report No. S. Salsbury. AMCP 706-250. Guns-General. 27. Aircraft Armaments. W. September 1958. Black. February 1968. Report No. Space Research Institute.V. Phase I (U). Cantey. 25 October 1968 (C). Report No. ER1414. Design . Feasibility Study of a GASP Launch Payload Vehicle (U).•et Network. F. 111-64. "Gun Launched Missiles for Upper Atmosphere Research". 2. G. Development of Delta Wing Armor Penetrating Shot (U). V. 143-149 (1966). Lockheed Propulsion Company. 5 July 1960 (C). Groundwater.* Design A .E.V. Technical Report No. SRI-H-R-6. Aerospace Application of Gun Launched Projectiles and Rockets. D.30.. Report No.

/ / Iii w w Cr 0 < LLw 0 M Pr 4: 0. U-1 ky .AMCP 7011.45 w LI -j cc j * Ic ~U) Ii (I.

2-2).AMCP 706445 0\ CHAPTER 2 SABOT SYSTEM ANALYSIS 20 LIST OF SYMBOLS B = bulk compressibility d = projectile diameter D = gun bore diameter d = projectile diameter Fforce •= a pressure function of. the various sabot designs are divided into two main classes: (1) the cup type (Fig.. and (2) the ring type (Fig. p = density For current purposes. including both the spin-stabilized and nonspin-stabilized projectiles. 2-1). the simple dual geometric 12-1 .P Subscripts: B = bor.. Although 12 variatons of the basic cup design and seven modifications of the basic ring design are identified and shown in the accompanying figures. c = = chamber fluid g = gravitational G = grain 0 g = acceleration k = gun tube length in bore diameters L = -length m = mass p = hydrostatic pressure P = pressure s = surface area element S = stress tensor t = time V = volume or acceleration potential v = velocity x distance = nominal p= projectile or propellant s = sabot t =total Bar (-) over symbol indicates vector or tensor quantity 2-1 GEOMETRIC SABOTS CLASSIFICATION OF : g!+.

CH TUBE 0 PROJECTILE Figure2-1. Basic Cup DOw/n SABOT LAUNCH TUBE PROJECTILE Figure 2-2. The designs shown in Figs. the addition of a separate obturator. The simplest modifications of the basic cup include the addition of a rotating band to impart spin to the projectile. A thin layer of plastic sometimes is used to mitigate the dynamic forces imposed on the p~ojectile. The design in Fig. 2-3 through 2-15. 2-14 and 2-15 are unique because they are used to launch fragile objects. 2-14 utilizes a rigid. The patented design shown in Fig. .SABOT /- LAUN. slots. and the additions of bevels. Baic Ring DAuigv classification with generic modifications has been adopted as a basis for the ensuing discussion. 2-1. 2-11 and 2-12 incorporate truncated cones of a high shear strength material to adapt the cup design which is primarily suited to low LID projec2-2 tiles of almost full caliber diameter to high LID projectiles of relatively small diameter. and undercuts to reduce weight and/or improve discard characteristics. The 4 eah . 2-15 also is unique because It Is primarily used to launch full-caliber projectiles.1 GENERIC TYPES OF CUP SABOTS The basic cup sabot and generic modifications are illustrated in Figs.Retmnemes a Iomated at t#u end E @a&ded. 2-15 uses a fluid to accomplish the same task. The designs illustrated in Figs. internal sting to redistribute launch loads to less critical sections of the object bIing launched' * while the design shown in Fig.

Cup With Rotating Band (Impartt spin to projectile) OBTURATOR Figure 2A5 Cup With Obturator (aeeis launch tube) i ."I11 Figure 24.6 Cup With Forvwwi Boiwl (.AM 70644 LAUNCH TUBE OR GUN Figure 2-1 Bak Cup Dmlig F.ugentx aerodynamic soepration of sabjot and Projectle) i's 2-3 . ~ ROTATING BAND ENGAGES RIFLINGS OF BARREL ECCENTRICALLY LOCATED PIN FOR TRANSFERRING SPIN LOADS TO PROJECTILE Figure 2-4.

Cup With Internal Undercut (weight reduction) Figure2-10. Cup With Base Plate (bearingsurface multiplier) 2-4 . Cup With Internal Taper (thrust and spin transmitted to the projectile through the taperedsurface) Figure 2-8. Cup With External Undercut (wightreduction) Figure2-9.4 \METAL BASE PLATE Figure2-11. Cup With Rider A ".7.Figure2.

1?. Cup With Fluid Support (for ftW/o~ Project/Mfts uch e projetiles) (Patent rocket -a uat Numbers 3.AMF706446 Iý BASE PLATE Figure 2.465) 2-5* .309. Cup With Support Sting (for thin-iw/lud mwde/) ROCKEI MOTOR PAYLOAD FLUID Figure.369. Cup With Sher Plate Reecraint SUPPORT STING ire 2-14. Cup With Sm Plate anW Shock Absorber (for highlybrittle prolectiiemj FRACTURABLE PLASTIC DISC Figure 2-73.2.IS.455 and 3.

. Given a specific projectile of mass mp and diameter d which achieves a muzzle velocity vY from a nominal gun of diameter d. slots. Ring With Obturator(seals launch tube) j 4 Figure 2-18..2 GENERIC TYPES OF RING SABOTS The basic configuration for the ring sabot and its generic variations Is shown in Figs. The simple modifications of adding obturators. 2-22 and tile muzzle velocity from guns which operate at some nominal efficiency level.16. Ring With Forward Beve (augments aerodywnamk separation of sabot and p*wcti/e) 2-6 Ji l III ! I III. The general design problem can be viewed from two alternate positions. Basic Ring Design Figure2-17. 2-1. to improve sealing characteristics and reduce sabot weight are illustrated.~sss' /PROJECTILE CG PROJECTILE S-2 2 L1 Figure2.I le AMCP70445 objective of this sabot is to reduce the launch 2-2 SABOT DESIGN CONSTRAINTS The fundamental objective of a large class of sabot-projectiles Is to achieve higher projec- weight of the projectile instead of increasing the muzzle velocity. Figs. it is desired to attain a higher muzzle velocity v2 by using a larger gun 2-23 incorporate the high shear-strength characteristics of a metal with the low density properties of plastics to achieve higher perfor- (diameter D) and a sabot to fit the given projectile into the larger diameter tube. bevels. sabot configuration capable of achieving the SAI. 2-16 through 2-23. etc. The problem is to determine the gun size and mance. .

.- o. Ring With Longltudiria//V-SUPPOrt~d Forward Undercut Figure 2-2 1. Ring Wilth 0CirumferentiAl-NA'SUPP~rtGdForward Undercut Figure 2-22.L.23. Two-piece Ring Figurep 2. Ring With Unsupported Forward Undercut (mmrosugmmnted seperaton end weight uvinue) SEGMENTED TO FACILITATE SEPARATION 1ý Figure 2. Figure 2-19.20. Tw-pkece Se/f-sealing Ring 2-7 .

and For constant energy delivered by the gun.the integrals in Eqs. Using this result.e. 2-3. is the mass of the sabot required to support and transmit the additional kinetic energy to the projectile. yields an expression for the sabot mass m. the only force acting on the sabot projectile is the propellant gas pressure assumed to be uniformly distributed over the shot base.i. Alternatively. respectively. dividing Eq. in the gun system -. 2-1 and rearranging. an increased muzzle velocity 1'2 can be achicved by reducing the sum of the projectile and sabot mass as given by Eq.. in which the gun size is fixed and the projectile is reduced in size with a sabot to achieve higher velocity. 2-2. 2-1 and 2-2 are proportional to the bore diameters. and piezometric efficiency is given by jD k I~ Assuming constant projectile Asmn osatpoetl reduced sity (as its mass is velocity increase) results in proportionality: \ shape and denh'aeaddn to achieve'the the following . and be required to determine the reduced piojectile mass mp and sabot configuration which will permit attainment of the desired higher velocity v2 . vY is the muzzle velocity. 2-5 and rearranging yields the result previously obtained into Eq. Combining Eqs. Neglecting bore friction and gas compression ahead of the projectile.r kD pdx 1(2-2) (mp + Mo 2 (2-6) where m. The kinetic energy delivered to the projectile of mass mp by expansion of gas in the gun of diameter d is given by For equivalent peak pressure and piezometric efficiency . when fired from a Snof diameter D with the samne caliber gun length k peak pressure. The purpose of this paragraph is to illustrate the general constraints imposed upon the sabot design by these system performance requireConsider first the problem of velocity increase for a given projectile mass by gun size increase and the use of a sabot. The velocity v2 achieved by the same projectile mass m. an equivalent result can be obtained as follows: The kinetic energy delivered to a nominal projectile mass m. capable of launching a nominal mass me at an initial velocity v1 . d and D. and gun size D required to achieve the desired velocity v2 as follows: ID) D From the alternate point of view. 2-2 by Eq. . the designer may be given a specific gun of diameter D. 2-8 Substituting this result into Eq. ratio of peak to average pressure.2-4 0 pdx -MP P 1 where k is the length of the launch tube in bore diameter or caliber lengths.. by the gun of diameter D and caliber length k is given by oD2 kd df 2 (2-1) 4 kD pdx ) M.desired peaformance.p P pdx L\ (2-5) is the i tegral of the shot base-pressure travel curvptor the gun. f 0 kd M • ni. 2-2 and 2-4 results in .

2-24). This permits the ratio o• the sabot mass to the projectile mass to be plotted as a function of the ratio of the projectile diameter to the bore diameter. for other gun sizes were obtained by scaling 96 lb as the cube of the gun bore diameter which approximates equivalent gun p9ak pressure and piezometric efficiency.. Second. This performance degradation is caused by the work necessary to accelerate the propellant gases themselves to high velocity. assuming m. 2-5. First. One important effect not included in the simple analysis discussed here is the decrease in piezometric efficiency that results as muzzle velocities are increased. system weight and L< length limits. which will not be considered here. 7"- In general. Choice of the nominal projectile mass mi is arbitrary and is associated with the efficiency level assumed for the gun systems. The existing sabot-projectile design data shown in Fig. equal to 96 lb for a 155 mm gun (an artillery weapon). and flash limitation requirements. The shaded area of Fig. the projectile length-to-diameter ratio and composite density tends to increase because of aerodynamic flight stabilization and terminal ballistic requirements. Another Instructive way to consider the performance limits and capabilities of sabotprojectile designs is illustrated in Fig. This assumption as a parameter (Fig. One must remain on the left side of the zero velocity Increment curve If there Is to be any increase in the muzzle velocity due to the use of a sabot unless the gun Is operated at an increased peak pressure or piezometric efflciency. Plotted in this fashion. Thus. choice of the gun system pcrformance level is dictated by such other system constraints as tube material strength. In general. erosion Sresistance requirements. interior ballistic effects. 2-24 shows the region occupied by existing sabot-projectile designs as listed in Appendix A. the large Ideal velocity increment increases indicated by the theoreti- 2-9 3 . muzzle ' blast. Observe that this region was determined by plotting the sabot-projectile mass ratio versus the projec- 4 tile-gun bore diameter ratio for representative designs. the analysis resulting in Eq. 2-3 Involves three 'dimensionless ratios. 2-25 were obtained from the performance summary data of Appendix A. etc. These elementary system analysis considerations illustrate the general design requirements for velocity increase by the use of sabot-subcsliber projectiles. with the ideal velocity increment cal calculations for the designs located at the left side of the shaded region (low projectileto-bore diameter ratios) are not achieved for two reasons. Lines of equal velocity-increase for the ideal gun performance assumed are shown In the figure. Generally./mp plotted versus the projectile-tonominal shot mass ratio m. Light gas guns are able to exceed the velocity limit imposed on powder gas guns by the use of low molecular weight gases in the expansion process. which shows the sabot-to-projectile mass ratio m. the gun efficiency problem at high velocity previously described causes severe degradation In velocity performance for the very light shotweight designs. the effects of projectile shape and density are excluded from the analysis and the actual achieved velocity increases are closer to ideal values.AMOP 706446 )J Ii2 AY ' * It may be observed that Eq. the left part of the shaded region should be shifted to the right relative to Cie lines of constant velocity increase./mon of Eq. Values of m. the shot velocity approaches a fixed upper limit determined by the expansion properties of the gun propellant combus"tion products. Projectile mass must be reduced to achieve velocity increase for constant gun performance. In general. In the limit as shot weight approaches zero. the Y V 1 Y achieve higher velocities. 2-3 Implicitly assumes constant projectile shape and composite density as the gun size is increased or the projectile size Is decreased to becomes increasingly poor as the projectile-tobore diameter ratio decreases. 2-25.

. . .-- MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SABOT MASS FOR 0% r. . ~ ~ ~ 3 ool0100 I\ 200 % di~ 4.... . . Performance Limlts and Capabilitte of Different Sabot Dedgns 2-10 . LIE INTHIS REGIO• - 00 0. . I 1 ... MUZZLE VELOCITY INCREASE INIDEAL So 3 . .2 0...AM1 70446 4. ..8 1. Figure2-24. .6 0.0 RATIO OF PROJECTILE DIAMETER TO BORE DIAMETER.69 -0 ...4 0.

5..nce Limits end CapabilItles of Different Sabot Designs . p 00 Figure 2-2. Performa?.. .-MC 706446 100 50 0 (AV I RO-PIERCINGI 0 HIGH EXPLOSIVE 0 SPECIAL PURPOSE 0 t~ 4 0-- 2 0) 00 cý -.--EXISTING SABOT PROJECTILES LIE INTHIS REGION I'll 0 RATIO OF PROJECTILE MASS TO NOMINAL SHOT MASS.

2-25. Additional velocity increase can be achieved for a fixed projectile mass by decreasing the weight of the sabot as illustrated in Fig. . 2-26.000 psi) (Ibm pounds mass) 42-12 1) .8 RATIO OF PROJECTILE DIAMETER TO BORE DIAMETER 16.-d 'U . • 2-3 THE COMPARISON ...0. 2-11 or 2-12) Ring sabot (Figs. ° . Based upon empirical evidence.l Cup sabot with bearing plate (Figs..• . maximum gas pressure=50. .. a -• b' i .0 SR~80 (_020. there are system requirements to maximize the projectile mass. . the amount of 320 t ! it 3 240 •..040 Ibm/in?..40 One-piece cup sabot (Figs. effective density of projectile = 0. .260 Ibm/in?. :. projectile mass is the useful end product of the system and..000psi.: -" L ... Comparison of Cup and Ring Sabots (6-in diameterbore. 10 d.0 .1 CUPSSABOT 0. ýAL& •' . primary imporgoal is of tance in sabot-projectile technology.. y 1. . .40 .. density of sabot = 0.•• .:• Figure2-26. and shear strength = 10." . 2-3 through 2-9) a 0 ....d_-o. It may be observed that although the ring sabot consistently gives better performance than the cup sabot. This latter design ofte>0.3. [.. investigators at BRL established the following criteria 2 : The performance capability of a cup and ring sabot both designed to the same set of conditions using the same material are given in Fig. therefore.< 10 D d D _d 40. . • 16O o uJ .AND * RING SABOTS BETWEEN CUP D 2-16 through 2-23) The first decision which the sabot designer must make is whether or not to employ a ring or a cup sabot configur3tion.. projectile L/D = 10.

One such structure is a rocket-assisted projectile where the projectile may be considered to be in the range bctween an artillery bombardment projectile and an earth orbit satellite. It is concluded that the BRL rule-of-thumb is a reasonable criterion for preliminary design of sabots but that a more detailed parametric study may be warranted for a specific set of performance criteria.e. thereby counteracting forces tending to destroy the motor chamber and grain. the acceleration field drops abruptly as the driving gun gas dissipates. It is desirable that the rocket propulsion unit be designed for its intrinsic operating parameters only. resulting from gun propellant gas expansion and inertial reaction of the projectile. To ensure an effective transfer of these shear forc-. Failure to achieve an effective seal on this joint has been blamed for the failure of ring sabots to function properly. etc. When this is accomplished. 2-4 FLUID BUOYANCY SUPPORT GUN-LAUNCHED STRUCTURES OF incorporating a high mass fraction (ratio of propellant and total weight) propulsion unit. the respilting unsupported propulsion unit is too fragile for gun launch (except in the trivial case of a "blow gun"). can be much higher than for an equivalent cup sabot. This paragraph presents a theoretical analysis of the fluid buoyancy.485. the grooves on the projectile body must fit carefully into the grooves in the sabot.AMCP 706-445 &improvement at relatively large projectile diameters (3> 0. the joint between the sabot and the projectile. The exposure of the aft end of the projectile associated with ring sabots also is considered a problem area that must be considered.40) is significantly less than at smaller diameters. i. sabot system. therefore. cost of manufacture.e. In addition.455 and 3. rendering it virtually insensitive to gun bore loads. The purpose of this fluid is to transmit pressure. 2-13 I . reliability. A schematic diagram of the fluid buoyancy support projectile and gun launch system is presented in Fig.369. The manufacturing costs for producing a ring sabot. throughout the interior of the booster rocket. System performance in all cases appears to be maximized by gun launch of a flight vehicle *Patent Numbers 3. After transition of the projectile from the gun tube to the exterior. Relative to an inertial frame of reference traveling with the projectile. the projectile!can be considered to be at rest in a time-varying inertial acceleration field with equipotential planes oriented normal to the gun bore axis (neglecting spin effects for the moment).369. Fluid immersion makes the rocket unit (and/or payload) rugged. i. 2-27. The ballistic trajectory can be divided into the following three regions for discussion purposes: (1) Gun tube acceleration (2) Transition from gun tube to exterior ( t i g ~(3) Exterior b ballistic flight. but which can be gun-launched to achieve some system advantage. This is sufficiently less so that one must consider other quantifiable criteria.. F6r the case of exterior ballistic flight in an atmosphere. the ring sabot has one more joint to seal than does the cup sabot. aerodynamic drag effects • A 4• :The fluid buoyancy sabot is a special development of the Lockheed Propulsion Company* and has application to the generic structure that is typically weak in longitudinal buckling. The thin-walled aftsection of the motor chamber is encased in a close fitting polymeric cup containing a fluid that fills the motor chamber cavity and nozzle assembly. In ring sabots the means normally employed to transfer the shear forces developed between the sabot and the projectile is a series of annular grooves shaped like a buttress thread.

OU 2-14 U- Q -4 .-MC 706445 z 00 z -j 0'at D SA.

the rate of deformation or the history of the deformation. In general. Thus. An additional differential relationship. to the forces acting on unit volume 3•. the primary of•. From the standpoint projectile structural integrity. depending upon the complexity of the material. * dt Bars (-) over the symbols denote vector or tensor quantities. the velocity field must satisfy the condition div V= 0. Fig..g.t+p . gravitational and inertial forces. and partly to the resultant of the state of surfaceof the body. the equations of motion for a deformable body are obtained by equating the material density p times the convective derivative of velocity with respect to time. The second term accounts for the additional material density variation resulting from the motion of the observer traveling with the velocity field during unit time. and consider the instantaneous state of the projectile when it is near : " 7 . Before discussing the required specific material characterization. (2-8) div f 0 dt It should be emphasized that the indicated density derivative with respect to time is a so-called "convected derivative" defined as: (2-9) + V d dt wi where is the ordinary variation with time of the material density at a fixed point in space. results maximum acceleration in the gun barrel. it would be well consider the projectile in the gun launch environment in greater detail to establish a qualitative understanding of the relative imof the various effects.will cause the acceleration field to drop below zero. which must be satisfied by the density and velocity fields.stress tensorto S =stress tensor t = tportance g4 This basic equation is applicable to solids.e. Before these relations can be applied to the specific problems involving real materials. resulting in projectile deceleration. The orientatior of the deceleration field with respect to the projectile is determined by projectile pitch and yaw. e.•. Forces on the projectile under these conditions are primarily body forces resulting from inertial reaction of the various projectile elements to the very large acceleration field 2-15 . and to materials that display characteristics of both limit conditions. and. i. The forces "actingon any elemental volume are due partly to body forces. a supplementary set of "material characterization" relationships is required expressing the 9 in terms of the deformation. 2-27. therefore. a rheological equation of state must be obtained for each important material. Refer again to the projectile gun launch schematic. using vector notastress tractions acting because of the tion. Symbols used are defined as follows: sty =va ase nstress ~ j S=velocity field j =body force per unit mass (acceleration field) . liquids. The material under consideration is said to be "incompressible" if changes in the material density with time are negligible for the physical process in question. The distinc- tion among these various forms of matter is embodied in the nature of the internal stresses given by the stress tensor. That is.. the equation of motion can be written as: /d2-7) from conservation of matter and is known as the equation of continuity. In this approximation dp/dt = 0. effect of interest is the physical response of the projectile to this transient inertial acceleration field resulting from the gun launch and exterior ballistic flight.

If the fluid . body forces will be assumed to result only from the linear acceleration. respectively. 2-7 becomes p+ div S 0 (2-10) AV( 100)= A V( )=F' VVf _. consider the case of the rocket motor shown in Fig. Finally.e. i. Pressure will be developed in the pressure transmitting fluid resulting from inertial reaction of the payload mass and body forces in the fluid. Eq. occupies 50 percent of the total chamber volume V. At the base of the projectile.. Assume that bulk corn1 pressibilities of the fluid Bland propellant Bp are 3 X 10" and 0. however.payload mass as the fluid "surface" (located at the fluid-payload interface) is approached. 0100) =2. To scale the effect. in general. The situation is complicated. motor chamber. by the compressible nat're of real materials. For equilibrium conditions.9% +V. assumed that the fluid is sufficiently perfect. Thus. Because adequate protection of the motor chamber and nozzle assembly requires that the internal volume remain reasonably constant. the total volume change. pi = grad p (2-12) (2-11) Now. pressure in the elastomeric obturation cup will precisely balance the gun propellant chamber pressure. surface tractions are introduced during the gun tube travel by "frictional forces at the gun tube walls. the fluid pressure will decrease to a value determined by the.iM•'IPiiii 7064 -~~ flM (104-10Sg). is: . Considering the dynamics of the gun tube acceleration process now. A V/V. then the stress distribution within it will be isotropic and div S =-grad p Under these conditions. if it can be. Moving toward the forward end of the projectile along the axis of symmetry. It is clear that gravity loading effects can be neglected under these condltions as contributing a negligible amount to the total body forces on the projectile. a volume of fluid at 15. that it can support no shearing stresses. adequate protection of the thin-walled motor chamber during the gun tube travel requires only that the velocity of transmission of the pressure wave through the fluid be at least as large as the propagation velocity of a deformation wave in the obturator cup walls or the velocity of gun gases around the outsides of the cup walls. In addition. another source body forces is the angular acceleration re ting from the bore rifling in spin-stab ized projectiles. Furthermore.9 percent of the total internal chamber volume must flow through the nozzle from the reservoir quickly enough to prevent deformatioAi of the motor chamber because of gun gas pressure.. the hydrostatic pressure p is a function of the density p. Returning now to the mathematical formulation and assuming that stress transmission is sufficiently rapid to permit the assumption that the fluid system is quasi-static. and that the average maximum fluid pressure AP is 1 5. 2-27 where the propellant volume V. In addition to the body forces resulting from the "linear acceleration field.. with the remainder filled with fluid V . The fluid.e.. For the current discussion. for this example.'I 0 ] + L. it is evident that the compressibility of the obturation cup walls should be as low as possible to limit motor chamber expansion..000 psi equal to 2. it is evident that bulk compression of the fluid 2-16 and motor propellant as pressure increakssmeans that the extra volume must be filled-W with fluid flowing into the chamber through the nozzle from an external reservoir.000 psi. The general effect of the linear acceleration on the rocket motor portion of the projectile is intuitively clear. i. and obturation cup walls are constrained by the gun barrel walls in exactly the same way that water in a stand pipe tank is constrained by the pipe walls. it is clear that for the limit case of incompressible behavior for all materials. close to equilibrium conditions at all times.9 X I0"' psi-'.

2-22 is called Archimedes' principle. the following may be written: S grad V (2-15) field pdY (2-20) where dis is a vector surface a. and x is the distance from the fluid-payload irte-f-i : ack toward the aft end of the projectile. 2-12. In general. lines of constant density may or may not coincide with lines of constant pressure. assuming the fluid stress distribution to be isotropic. combined with Eq. Consider the propellant grain shown schematically in Fig. 2-12 can be used to show that Because the inertial acceleration field V of the projectile can be considered to be spatially uniform. Now. because of compressibility. results in grad 4 (2-14) Ff -. for example. 2-14 and 2-15 result in V + 0. of course. ' . the fact previously mentioned. + F/ . Again. Eq. buoyancy phenomena are certain to play a major role in development of high acceleration systems of the type discussed here. under consideration here. Eqs. for a scalar field such as p: (2-21) Wsf pdW =fff grad pdVG where V is the inertial acceleration potential. for the inertial acceleration field g. in general. The accu- fff pG !SdVG (2-23) Thus. dependent on the validity of the various simplifying assumptions made during the derivation. impurity content.fff pedVG (2-22) Comparison of this result with Eq. 2-19 results in a buoyancy effect on the submerged grain. 2-27.fffPG Id V-fff pid VG (2-24) Because the inertial acceleration field is uniform and the fluid and propellant densities 2-17 . temperature field.ff Now. immersed in the pressure transmitting fluid and case-bonded to the chamber wall. mathematically. = constant (2-16) where VG is the volume of the propellant grain. is FG = F. 2-22. Observe that only the gradient portion of the total hydrostatic pressure of Eq. an auxiliary pressure function can be defined *(p) mJ P" dp V (2-13) which. the total resultant grain force FG. Thus. then It is clear that the pressure racy of this result is.ea element of the grain directed outward from the grain. The total force F/ acting on the grain by the fluid is distribution will be affected.density changes. The total body force acting on the grain and resulting from the inertial acceleration field i is given by and for the limit of incompressible behavior S(2ship P so p p gx + P 0 (2-19) FsThis relation expresses.. If the former can be assumed. ff pd .. The relationexpressed by Eq. In 'addition to the previous effects. 2-20 shows that the total force acting on the grain by the fluid is equal and opposite to the total weight of the displaced fluid given by the right hand side of Eq.gx may be written where g is the magnitude of the acceleration field. that the total pressure in the fluid is equal to the sum of a constant value po resulting from the inertial reaction of the payload mass plus a component increasing linearily with depth due to inertial reaction of the fluid itself. etc.

2-24 simplifies to FG . Eq.(PG -" P) J VG (2-25) A positive resultant force corresponds to a negative buoyancy. the projectile is still being accelerated by the gun gases bearing against the aft of the projectile but the lateral pressure constraint of the gun barrel is removed from the forward portions of the projectile. S~2-18 .e. consideration was given only to conditions during travel of the projectile through the gun barrel. In small caliber ammunition.are assumed to be uniform. Requirements of the obturating device for spin-stabilized sabot projectiles are much the same with the additional complication that the sabot and obturating device be capable of smooth discard at the gun muzzle. it is clear that a potentially catastrophic situation is produced. The general methods used for obturation of sabot projectiles are described qualitatively in this paragraph with reference to the widely diversified applications literature for specific techniques and results. corresponds to a "sinking" tendency. the sealing of gun gases has been accomplished by forcing a projectile with a rotating band through the gun tube rifling. and degradation of projectile performance because of erosion damage. Clearly. rotating bands generally are required to transmit torque from the rifling to the projectile. thereby providing the spin necessary for gyroscopic stability. relieved by expansion and possible rupture of the chamber. or the acceleration and resultant pressure must be reduced by flow of fluid from the reservoir around the outside of the chamber to the atmosphere. Just as the projectile emerges from the muzzle.2 OBTURATION METHODS Historically. the internal fluid pressure either must be contained by the rocket chamber. In the current case. Observe that even though the density difference between the grain and fluid is relatively small. 2-5 OBIURATION DYNAMICS 2-5.1 GENERAL The combined requirements of efficient gun gas obturation during bore acceleration and of rapid and smooth sabot separation after muzzle exit provide challenging design AND SABOT SEAL problems for sabot projectiles. which is made from or sheathed in soft metal. Specifically. Larger caliber ammunition generally utilizes one or more discrete rotating bands that are engraved by the rifling under the action of the accelerating propellant gases. These lowmodulus materials flow readily under pressure to provide good obturation and excellent sabot discard characteristics. this force results in a shear deformation of the circular port grain.. The use of elastomeric seals for obturation of high-performance sabot projectile rounds has become common. Solution of the obturation problem often results in sabot separation difficulties with attendant poor ballistic performance. is engraved to provide a gun gas seal. i. Poor gun gas obturation leads to augmented gun wear. independent of position. i. Flow properties of the fluid during launch acceleration are clearly of great importance to the success of the rocket launch projection system.. the resultant buoyancy force can be large because of the magnitude of '. Up to now. The results of experiments'"s indicate that these muzzle transition effects can be accommodated in high-performance gun-boosted rocket designs launched at practical gun energy levels. Research investigations directed specifically at the detailed motion of practical obturator designs during gun launch are relatively new and few in number. Both metal and fiber materials have been used in spin-stabilized sabot projectile develop- . the entire cylindrical length of the projectile. Sabot projectile obturation design principles are not sufficiently well defined or understood at this time to permit a classical "handbook" treatment.e. In addition to providing the necessary sliding gas seal. 2-5. .

ring sabot applications. Under these conditions. As higher projectile velocities are obtained by reducing the projectile mass and diameter. and the use of plastic or elastoineric seals located at the periphery of the sabot is common (see the abstract bibliography. This procedure also provides an initial resistance to motion resulting in a fixed value of shot start pressure which has certain advantages from an interior ballistic standpoint. relatively complex sabot configurations have been developed employing sliding 1 lastic obturation rings as indicated in Fig. 2-2. . ated in the sabot designs shown in Figs. Par. Many applications of sabot projectiles fired from rifled and smoothbore guns exist.3 SABOT SEAL DYNAMICS The general motion of the sabot components relative to the projectile during gun launch acceleration Is referred to here as sabot seal dynamics. For deformable sabot materials such as plastics. An investigation of the literature indicates that design of these components is accomplished largely on an empirical basis for each specific application. however."ments (see. Peripheral undercuts of "flaps" on the base of the sabot often are used to accomplish this self-sealing action by reducing the stiffness of the sabot material at the end of the flap. combined with a knowledge of the obturating ring mechanical properties.nce kinetic energy penetrator sabot projectiles usually are aerodynamically stabilized and. the obturation means often is incorporated ipto the sabot structure by making the aft end larger than the gun bore as described in Ref. Examples of' this procedure are -1h. for example. the general practice of forcing the obturator into the gun rifling to achieve a tight fit for gas scaling purpose cannot be used. 2-4 (see also Fig. Fig. In this case. Static and dynandc friction between the ring and gun bore and between the ring and sabot projectile. it is necessary to decouple the projectile from the rifling through a sliding element incorporated in the sabot obturator. Thus. 2. the use of oversize sabots is not practical and a self-sealing action by the obturator is required. Analytical and experimental procedures have been developed6 that can be used in the design and development of sliding plastic obturator rings. it is desirable that the projectile spin remain far below the rate that would be achieved if the projectile were directly coupled to the gun rifling. are"A critical inputs into the analysis defining the resulting motion and sealing effects. which allows it to deform easily under the action of low initial gas t'-ssures.2-5. Appendix D). The use of conventional. Control of this motion is a central design problem in many sabot projectile applications.. Another application in which motion of sabot materials relative to the projectile is critical is the general area of fluid buoyancy support of gun-launched structures discussed in par. Sthe 2. therefore. The motion of this ring or combination of rings relative to the sabot projectile body during the launch acceleration cycle is critical to the success of the round. the mass of the sabot becomes a ckitical performance design constraint as described in par. To accomplish these requirements in highperformance. In many cases of interest. D-13 of the bibliography (Appendix D) contains a list of references on the subject on static and dynamic seals in general. the obturator device must expand under action of the gun accelerating gases to fill the rifling grooves and providethe necessary gas seal with minimum gas leakage. In many cases. Htgh-perform. 1-5). 1-3 and 1-4. particularly those in which the sabot must be inserted initially forward of the entrance to the gun bore. a 2-19 1I . Figs. rifled tube guns for launch of these projectiles often is dictated by the necessity for firing conventional spinstabilized projectiles from the same weapon. for example. the use of a relatively dense metal such as copper for the gun gas obturator becomes prohibitive and low-density materials such as plastics and elastomers have become important as sabot obturating devices (see. 1-3 and 1-4). 1-2). 2-286.

28. Geldmacher. 953-F. Murphy and G. Sabot-Launching Systems for Experimental Penetrators. 5.' S . 3. BRL Memorandum Report No. REFERENCES I. _. Cantey. 1505. 962-F. LPC Report No. September 1960. rocket motors. September 1967. 1304. G. (AD-820 330) (See also abstract No. Phase I (U). 2-20 £ . Appendix D) .1 GUN TUBE PC PC RING .. An Interesting Sabot Design.E. Handbook of Physics. Analyses of these effects for specific applications are still being developed at the time of this writing. Cantey and F.-• Figure2. Taylor. August 1963.F .S. D. R.g.H. Ring. The Dynandc Behavior of a Sliding Plastic Obturating Ring as Used in the 152-mm XM 5 78 APFSDS Projectile.t PROJECTILE S " ~PC -01. 381. Schermtic Diagram of Gun Tu/e.Y. D. F-RAP Feasibility Demonstration. thereby protecting fragile structures. . Saam. Phase 1 (U). and Sabot Projectile" component of the "sabot is a pure fluid that distributes the launch acceleration loads uni"formly.C. McGraw-Hill Book Co. N.BRL Memorandum Report No. C.. Stevens Institute of Technology. 1958.E. 3488. Technical Report No. 2. * J • "S. Condon and Odishaw. RS-RAP Feasibility Demonstration. 4. . from the otherwise destructive effects of the launch acceleration. Taylor. December 1968 (C). e. Flow effects in the fluid relative to the supported structure and the containing device are of critical importance to the utility of this method of structural support for fragile gunlaunched structures. Inc... 25 October 1968 (C). 6. LPC Report No.

creep compliance m n mass.: . y-. z-directions.turns per unit length buttress groove pitch = fi coefficient of base thickness sine function = Young's modulus of elasticity = effective modulus =f glassy modulus N P P . friction force shear modulus = ridear widthus firider width F R G t T H Ic =thermal pressure u.base pressure chamber pressure -radius f V * -G h = frequency = force. r. respectively velocity '. or. . k " "thickness/projectile moment of inertia of projectile about longitudinal axis wd =moment of inertia of projectile cross section about its central axis (L-t)/R = sabot length. or.CHAPTER 3 STRUCTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 3-0 LIST OF SYMBOLS "a A - K 2 L - bulk modulus acceleration .pressure g P9 •P. or. base plate thickness torque. reciprocal of Poisson's ratio twist rate. w = - time. temperature displacements in x-.length = length * =area - d D e E Ee . base plate length distortional energy per unit volume = = W x weight distance from commencement of rifling 3-I .Ez diameter diameter. or. turns per caliber twist r.

19. /x.z shear stress.y.x. =baseplate thickness/radius of percentage of sabot not undercut N m maximum M normal # Kronecker delta e strain normal strain. = mean shear or deviatoric stress = shear stress = working stress ow T = shear stress or shear strength capability of materials angular velocity :" dw_ criteria to determine if failure will occur.gut = Poisson's ratio p = material density str a coefficient of friction S T W W stud tangential a = torque wall 0 =stress = atangential a o a j friction critical stress normal stress. the margin of safety. i= 3-1 STRUCTURAL DESIGN FUNDAMENTALS The verification of the structural integrity of a design consists of two phases: (I) a prediction of the stress and strain states induced in the body by various loading conditions and/or combinations of loading conditions. shoulder M strength a angle anss = R IRB -radius of projectile/radius of un barrel p SE. i/ oct p r a octahedral M projectile a radial shear strain. i *1 o0 0r. required strength of core strength of sabot sabot. 3-2 . or the probability of failure' *.. : a M Subscripts: B C O gun bare Cartesian coordinatvs expansion crefficlent S= *thermal SLwIRP " length of sabot wall/radius of projectile projectile i. . '•Ma cr f I K a compressive 0 critical a friction.. and (2) application of failure # = i. Input data required for the stress-strain prediction phase include (1) characterization ___ __ __ W angular acceleration *References are located at the end of each chapter.Y S0 X R sc s ring. forward a inertial M key t/R.

On the other hand. it is considered appropriati. to conduct present analyses. pending some later qualifications. it first is (I.g. for the loads and geometries used in current designs. computed from infinitesimal theory. Inputs to the failure assessment phase include (I) appropriate failure criteria. and (2) a criterion for acceptable behavior for the specific application under consideration. 3-2 MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION necessary as well as expedient to establish assumptions of material behavior under which the analysis will be conducted. nor perhaps Isotropic. and continuous. One must only assume that there does exist.. structural analysis. Actually. Considering the widespread knowledge of infinitesimal deformation theory and its relative ease of application.of I the material atreus-strain behavior which also is known as the constitutive equation for the material. (2) possible errors in structural analysis techniques. Third. finite-element approach to the solution of structural integrity problems with complicated geometry. although the assumption can be seriously in error on the microscale. Actually. On the other hand. to begin at this point.a is customary. this assumption may not be correct under excessive tensile stress. certainly pushing the limit of validity for this assumption. ability of failure. and the presentation of a computerized. to a lower level than the margin of safety apprachdeformations The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a general discussion of material characterization. For many analyses. and at least temporarily appropriate to. certainly at the current stage. The margin of safety is a subjective measure of acceptable structural performance that should account for (1) uncertainties in load predictions. The result is a statistical prediction of the prob-. homogeneous continuum. on the average macroscale. which may be biased. homogeneous. assume an isotropic.' 9 Before performing the structural analysis of a sabot or sabot-projectile system. it has been possible to predict the effects of Items I through 3 relative to margin of safety. Fiberglas. therefore leading to (noncontinuum) load-induced isotropy. only three types of stress-strain behavior will be con- SWith . it is proposed to consider the medium as isotropic. Generally. Whh ire told rii the improvement of load prediction S structural techniques. The latter may take the form of an acceptable margin of safety also known as a safety factor. The second assumption is that the strains will be sufficiently small so that infinitesimal dal can be assumed.: ~3-3 .e. still will exist between those surfaces in compression. media exist. especially at the origin of' failure where fracture or tearing begins. Next. an equivalent medium of this type. i. NotwithstandIng glaring deficiencies that will be discussed subsequently. finite strain analysis is complex. tinu ct pres otropy. e. a quantitative description of the conditions under which the material will fracture or deform into an unacceptable shape. the assumption of continuity is not always fulfilled because it implies that there is always a bond between the components of multiphase materials. (3) statistical variations in material properties. and (2) the loading conditions to which the body is expected to be subjected or to which the design must be qualified. it can be shown that neither homogeneous. Nevertheless. and the developand ment of statisitical means for predicting the uncertainties in predicted quantities. and (5) the consequences of experiencing a failure. The advantage of the statistical approach is that it reduces the level of reliance upon judgment. the bond. this approximation will be satisfactory.-M P 70644 . or a permidssible probability of failure. The practical objections to these assumptions are based upon the fact that If one examines the material on a sufficiently small scale. (4) the inability to identify and correct potential failure conditions before catastrophic failure. strains of 30 percent frequently are. i t heless. the material stress-strain behavior must be considered. particularly in connection with failure theory. and failure criteria followed by specific analyses pertinent to structural design of sabots.

-*F Density p is the measure of the mass of a unit volume ot the material.sidered: (1) linear elastic. some components will be so highly. 3-1). modulus K for the material.) _ 3(0 -2 0 In fact. .PLASTIC BEHAVIOR ? i COO W . but experience shows that for the majority of situations analyzed herein. the other mterial constants G. sponse. It merely implies that the deformation or recovery of the material from deformation under applied loading will be instantaneous and complete uponi application or removal or t. The modulus of "elasticity E and Poisson's ratio are material constants that describe the stress-strain behavior of the material.1 LINEAR ELASTIC BEHAVIOR The material properties required to perform a stress-strain analysis assuming linear elastic behavior are: / • / / / STRAIN (A) LINEAR ELASTIC BEHAVIOR (1) Material density p usually given in units of Ibm/in3 (2) Modulus of elasticity E usually given in units of psi (3) Poisson's ratio v which is dimensionless (4) Coefflicient of thermal expansion U t . On the other hand. STRAIN (C) ELASTIC-PLASTIC BEHAVIOR 2): 3-4 Figure3-7./in. however. Actual behavior usually is somewhere between these two limits. these properties can be shown to be simple functions of E and Y(Ref. Illustration of Possible Stress-strain Behavior C. The first is customary and appropriate for most materials. In the case of a linear elastic material. A. and intentionally. the load.2. given the assumption of linear elastic In a vn th o mption on st ic nt eairadaytomaeilcntns E and a. STRAIN ()RIGID. The coefficient of thermal expansion describes how the diniensions of the material change with changes in temperature.• . with no delay or viscoelastic re- G • K 2(0 + ) ( ) (3-1. or (3) elastic-plastic (Fig. 3. It will be noted that it is also possible to define a shear modulus G and bulk. A compilation of the room temperature properties for the materials coininonly used for sabots is given in Appendix B. loaded that the material will yield or permanently deform. a careful assessment of the behavioc of these t%%o limits will suffice. usually given in units of in. (2) rigid-plastic.

i.e. Inseitiig the assumption that 3ciK = constant= H and rewriting yields the result 7' An alternate approach growing out of the Gfiineiscn relationships of polymer physics and because of Fitzgerald*.. It appears to be the same constant for polymers In general . 1(3-3) S3-2. Using tensor notation. is known as the *Professor of Civil Engineering.. This quantity.4) 11 The second of these equations is identically the stress-strain law previously given.20) term in the denominators of certain stress analysis formulas. in general.1 is the Kronecker delta defined as . the other quantities (strains or stresses) may be calculated using the stress-strain relationships. The deformations associated with the hydrostatic pressure and shear components of stress are known as the unit dilation (or volume expansion) and the distortional or shear deformations. repeated subscripts indicate summation.yy . or 0. y. the stress-strain relationships2 are. and 3 (denoting the three Cartesian coordinates x. respectively.11-4 (0. this isnot satisfactory becaus >•. the assumption of incompressible behavior can create serious computational difficulties and may result in oscillations in computer solutions for stresses Sand strains. These equations are also known as Hooke's law. the stresses have been divided into an equivalent system of a pure hydrostatic pressure (P -"" -O xx . and 6. 3-5 .I or any other property one might want to define may be calculated. Furthermore..2 -.) component and pure shear components (i *: j). For convenience. To illustrate the effect that this hypothesis have upon the stress-strain law. For a linear. thermal pressure and does appear to be a material constant. 0. Due to the occurrence of a (I . linear elastic systems. IV (a IG G 'I 6G (i +)(- 2V)ekk 611+2Gee. ~~~Unfortunately.e. it is convenient to begin with the DuhamelNeuman forms of the stress-strain relationships for thermomechanically coupled. Furthermore.'s calculated stresses are sensitive to the value of vu. and tensor notation has been nent I* . these expressions are aT wl . - where the indices i and / take on the values of I. "SaltLake City. exx S. i. One approach to avoiding this difficulty is to assume nearly-incompressible behavior. Utah.. Physically. University of Utah. is the postulate that the quantity 3aiK is a constant. PRESSIBLE MEDIA and and ey A +V\ E I jil kk 6+&T 6 i K The deformation characteristics of rubbers and some polymers are found to approach Incompressible behavior. however. THE FITZGERALD MODIFICATION OF HOOKE'S LAW FOR INCOM. thermomechanlcally coupled elastic solid. .adtno oainhsbe employed to avoid having to explicitly write down all six relationships implied by the tensor expression.. z). Y -+ Ya and K . however. u = 0.4999. this is the pressure that would develop in the polymer for each degree of temperature change if the polymer were heated under absolute confinement..498. given the material constants and either the stresses o or the strains e.approximately 75 psirF. three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates. 2. The yield strength usually determined in a uniaxial tensile test describes the limit of "elasticbehavior.499. -u(os (oy +o "will (3-2) +ou)1 a1 XY .. denoted by H. which is assumed.

Anite. E(t) or GO). •stress-strain 3-2. 2 Gei. the mechanical state (stress or strain) depends not only upon the magnitude *The assumption of linearity is similar to that in lna elasticity in that stresses are proportional to linear lsiiyi htsrse r rprinlt strains but it must be stated that the "timedependent stresses" are proportional to the "timedependent strains".Plscribeadby l~i! the linear-elastic material model.).2v) from Eq.. (3) The dynamic modulus. The moduli used to describe the behavior of viscoelastic materials are also dependent upon the rate at which the material is loaded.3 LOADING RATE EFFECTS At the loading rates normally encountered in engineering practice.3. 3-6 . K = K/(2G). defined as the tinfe-dependent stress resulting from a suddenly (ideally instantaneously) applied strain divided by the magnitude of the strain step.. The second term represents pressure loadings or volume change. 4 . and v 0.AM> 70-. (2) The creep compliance D(t) defined as the time-dependent strain resulting from a suddenly (ideally instantaneously) applied stress divided by the magnitude of the stress step. v. or compliance D*(co) which is the amplitude of the steady-state stress or strain resulting from a sinusoidally applied strain or stress divided by the amplitude of the applied strain or stress. 3-2.2. Under these conditions. which introduce time-dependency to material behavior in a special fashion. V or . Experience has shown that the latter gives physically acceptable answers while the former gives highly erratic results. a relative bulk stiffness K = K/(2G). The choice this gives the structural analyst is that he may continue to use the strictly continuum approach and obtain unbelievable answers (or play wi-'h solutions varying greatly as v goes from 0. The important result is that the (I .1 LINEAR VISCOELASTICITY Linear viscoelastic models*. 2 Ge. The dynamic properties are a function of the frequency f of the applied load and can be divided into an The first term on the right-hand side "represents shear or distortion. It will be observed that this transformation has replaced the E. the behavior of metals and metallic alloys is adequately described by m ly andmetalicalloysis adeateri del.) factor causing the singularities or oscillations in stress calculations has disappeared from the equations.e. can be used to describe at least the sml deformation characteristics of materials whose mechanical response is time dependent'. The following loading modes were found useful in structural analysis of viscoelastic bodies: (1) The relaxation modulus.498) or accept the fundamental physical reasoning and experimental verification which suggest that 3aK is indeed a constant and employ the Fitzgerald modification of the linear elastic laws for incompressible or nearly incompressible media. which assumes material properties that at the most may depend upon temperature of the material. and the thermal pressure H. E*(o) or G*(w. and the third term represents temperature stress or temperature volume change. is not adequate. 3-1.499 to 0. = o0 - +-HT 6 q 3 " where and nd 05 . = '1 * +k-k ~'(35) 3K HT6 of the load but also upon its rate of application and to a lesser degree upon the history of "E.. which is always . and a appearing in the usual stress-strain law for a linear elastic material with the shear modulus G. ) . the linear-elastic material model. the loading. i. Plastics and rubbers generally exhibit viscoelastic behavior.5 E =3K (1 . a general material constant almost the same for all polymers.

E"(w) orD"(co)./in. the strain rate then would be 125 in.445 D'(w). consider a cup sabot made of "Lexan".. Because of the assumption of linear behavior..02. Fortunately.. For example.4The 7. however.e. etc.000 psi. The short. assume that the maximum strain of 38 percent governs.000 psi. Assuming that the time to maximum local strain of 25 percent is approximately 2 msec.01 in. 3-5 and the finite element computer program given in Appendix C are capable of handling the bilinear behavior. The labor involved.7AMCP in-phase or real component. is several orders of magnitude greater than an equivalent elastic problem'. Under these conditions. the effective modulus is approximately 200. The finite element approach to the solution of structural problems discussed in par. To determine failure for curves of this sort. boundary conditions. If the loading rate were sufficiently high./sec and above.. however. extending the second portion of the bilinear curve out to 38 percent will imply a failure stress of 24. this 3-7 "(2) The solution of a linear elastic problem VIA in transform space for every time period of interest (3) Transformation of answer in transform space back into time space.. one merely need insert the yield stress (the stress at the bilinear break in the stress-strain curve) of a = 18. Fig. The maximum modulus for "Lexan" is approximately 320./sec.000 0./sec. i.where = T.6 and essentially consists of the following: (I) Transformation of material properties. and an out-of-phase or loss component. E'(c. 3-2 shows the typical plots of these moduli of a viscoelastic material plotted on log-log scales. In the case of "Lexan". It will be observed at very short times or high frequencies that the material behaves like an elastic material while at very long times or low frequencies it also behaves like an elastic material but with a modulus several orders of magnitude (powers of ten) smaller than the short time modulus value. This makes the assumption of elastic behavior and the resulting simplifications reasonable. the modulus of a viscoelastic material would approach the glassy modulus and the material behavior would be elastic. S. For all rates below about 0. = 300. Thus. the range of strain rates and loading rates in most sabot applications is within narrow limits.000 psi.. The error involved will be approximately the ratio of the neglected area between the bilinear extension and the actual tri-linear section of the stress-strain curve to the total area.and long-time relaxation modulus are known as the glassy and rubbery or equilibrium moduli. E'(o) or 706.-• A significant decrease in computational detail would be achieved if the assumption of elastic behavior could be justified. and the dynamic properties are used for oscillatory loadings. For example. even though the sabot strain rates are not high enough to cause the effective modulus to approach the glassy modulus E. Ref. relaxation modulus or creep compliance is used in problems with slowly or monotonically varying loads. from timespace into Laplace-transform space .500 psi and the modulus ratio which for "Lexan" is 6700/320.000 psi and corresponds to strain rates of 700 in.. for the "Lexan" being described in this paragraph. V I ./in. respectively.) "E* + iE"(oW) . 7 indicates that the effective modulus would be E. *The assumption of linearity is similar to that in linear elasticity in that stresses are proportional to strains but it must be stated that the "timedependent stresses" are proportional to the "timedependent strains". a polycarbonate plastic material./in. and the computer will automatically carry out the calculations through the end of the bilinear segment. the solution of stress problems involving viscoelastic materials is at least philosophically possible.

.__ _ LOG TIME (A)RELAXATION MODULUS LOG D(t) LOG TIME (B)CREEP COMPLIANCE D(t)= E(t) LOG E LOG FREQUENCY (C)DYNAMIC MODULUS E* =E' + iE" 3-2.....r ~AV" 706445 Eg LOG E(t) Ee . . Response Characteristics of a Viscoelastic Material "Figure 3-8 .

3-3 presents dynamic stressstrain curves for "Lexan"'.000 in.2 BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS AT HIGH LOADING RATES At high loading rates such as those encountered in guns. The fact that the dynamic strength of materials is appropriate for the gun launch environment has been adequately demonstrated using gun-launched aerody-namic models 9' 1 O./sec whereas the further increase in strain rate of approximately one-hundred thousand fold (0./sec. the effect of strain rate upon most "elastic" materials is to increase the yield stress and decrease the toughness. The results of the LPC study are described in Chapter 4 and summarized in Table 3-1. there is a third high modulus portion which holds up to the breaking strain of 38 percent but this is usually ignored becau". It will be . Actually.000 in. Another possibility is the excessive deformation of sabot parts that result in 3-9 ./in.3 OTHER OBSERVATIONS Examination of Fig. approximated by two straight lines.0125 to 0. Thus. 3-3 shows that the dynamic stress-strain curves have a definite bilinear form.available computational techniques are limited to bilinear or "elastic-strain hardening plastic" behavior. the behavior of even those materials previously considered elastic become rate dependent. to ignore viscoelastic effects in the analysis provided the appropriate modulus is. i. In examining the behavior of materials at high strain rate it is further noted that the largest increase in strength occurs at the low ýtrain rates and there appears to be a strain •" rate above which the material's strength does not increase. and sabots. To complete the analysis. using a technique for determining material strength in a gun launch environment.5 percent.125 in.3. models. A similarity thus is noted between the strength of essentially Jastic solids and the moduli of viscoelastic materials." viscoelastic materials increases the modulus of the material. one must apply criteria to ascertain if the body has failed. Fig. the limits are consistent with those predicted from other high rate tests. I 3-2./sec) only increases the strength 88. and that there is essentially no change in the material strength for strain rates above 1.5 percent incease in strength accompanies the ten-fold increase in strain rate from 0. failure occurs whenever the body deforms to the point that it cannot perform its function. The dynamic strength has been found to be 30. duced in a body by the loads imposed upon it is but an initial step in the structural analysis. In sabots. The first.4 FAILURE CRITERIA Calculation of the stresses and strains in. Although the "go-no-go" nature and the limited number of the LPC tests only perrrit one to establish limits on the strength parameters./in.e./in. 3-2.observed that a 32. confirms that high rate material properties are appropriate for the structural design of projectiles. a deformation-type failure would occur if during launch the sabot permitted the projectile it carries either to translate or pitch to the point that there would be excessive dispersion at the target. 3-2. Lockheed Propulsion Company (LPC).S error ratio is approximately 7 percent and on the conservative side. Although increasing the strain rate fo. it has been shown that the availability of high strain rate data establishing the asymptotic value of the modulus permits one.000 psi) and applies uip to 6-percent strain and is followed by a low modulus (6700 psi) portion which holds to 28-percent strain.to 50-percent higher than the static strength 8 ... the plot points can be.0125 to 1. line has a relatively high slope or modulus (as much as 320. Available data on dynamic behavior of sabot materials arc summarized in the remarks column of the properties tables given in Appendix B. used for the "elastic" analysis. Failures fall into two general categories: deformation failurcs and fractures. within acceptable accuracy.3. In a deforniation failure.

w m. -- r= CC r- Nr v:~ 1! E 0 kA C o4 w L'.j CU in~ m CFU 6.C o ' - ~ w -P 3-1 ?ELMO . C #1 wz40 A0M r-A~l A E* t. -i 2 UI zC 4ý7 0 ri ' .

-MC 7l46" *C CV2 to L) cc C14N cn~ CC 3-11 .

The results obtained from the latter two theories usually are similar./3 An alternate form of the above is that due to Huber and Hencky. The total strain energy theory was proposed by Baltrami and Haigh... stems from the observation that many materials . Criterion (5) may be used. Each criterion defines a particular functional of the stress or strain field so that if a critical value of the functional is exceeded. or fracture takes place. The limiting value of the functional then may be expressed in terms of the yield or ultimate strength as determined in a simple tensile test. also known as the maximum principal stress difference theory. Criteria (I) and (2) utilize the fact that the maximum stress (strain) at any point in the material is the largest of the three principal stresses (strains). therefore. For both simple uniaxial tension and biaxial tension. is 02 d ((11 212 +it.. Five of the criteria commonly used the directionhas greatest shear. Failure is assumed to occur when the principal stresses (strains) in the body reach the yield or ultimate stress value determined in a uniaxial test. The critical value of the functional must be empirically determined for each material of interest. 02.separations between the parts and.e. i. There have been numerous criteria established to predict this type of failure.pai'ticularly those that evidence ductile fracture do so along a pair of planes or a cone lying in 3-1 2 (5) This mean deviatoric stress is also 3/V/Ttirme a quantity known as the octahedral shear stress. They observe that wd. 03 (eC . distortions.)2 +(oa a. It does not prove satisfactory because there is no correlation between behavior in pure shear and in pure hydrostatic compression. The important point to observe is that no universal fracture criterion has been established. The test most commonly used is the uniaxial tensile test. the yield stress turns out to be oo. a. the associated yield. a .03)/2 and is obtained on a plane inclined 45 deg to the direction of the principal normal stresses.1 STANDARD CUP SABOT The elementary cup sabot and its principal dimensions are shown as follows: F" " A . the distortional energy per unit volume. oa is identical with the yield or fracture stress. . -2 (3) Maximum shear stress theory (4) Maximum strain energy theory Maximum distortional strain energy or maximum octahedral shear stress theory. y 4(O ) K +(02 032 (i0) 002 (i) Maximum principal stress theory (2) Maximum principal strain theory and oo is termed the mean shear or deviatoric stress. For pure shear. 3-3 ELEMENTARY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR CUP SABOTS 3-3. It is based upon a mean value of the principal stress differences or the strain energy associated with shear deformations. creating one or more cracks or fissures. Criterion (3). gas leakage. and that the success of a given fracture hypothesis depends in large measure upon the material with which it is associated. e 3 ) at 1 this point. e. rupture. Fracture failure is the condition where the material is incapable of withstanding the stresses or strains imposed upon it and physically yields or separates. The maximum shear stress of the value (a. Alternately. The proposed von Mises form is VF2tI 0.

.mass of the projectile a .. 3-13 ..e. Substituting the equation for the maximum shear stress and solving for the thickness of the sabot base yields t me aix vt - .4 1. = d am \ [ m _Wd2 _ A free body diagram for this piece of the sabot is given as follows: L P J _ PS --. .*"L were4j P rn a m IwdI\h t.d) 1x Gmx4 sabot loads.t+ki -...Irm Dd gs P P pressure = shear stress .-----. p•i== T -n m (sqtd)-- ia '4 4D p. and the expression for the sabot mass becomes " m8 But L [w!D-t +÷ (DI - d2 )(L - t (3-10) 4 -t d = kR therefore A summation of the forces yields .0 of the projectile length. >MP amex ird rt...P. 1 _ 4\ra a.0 (3-6) and if the sabot is to be structurally sound the maimum shear stress must be less than the shear strength of the material.=\ (-. The sabot design problem is to establish the sabot material and the dimensions ! and L..e. i.x rd "tr. The maximum shear stress (3-8) +idd (1.)P (3) The quantities d..igth which is supported. and Rare inputs to the sabot design as well as the mass of the projectile and a target mass for the sabot and which will be maximum whenever the acceleration is maximum (pressure will also be maximum). of a piece of the sabot bottom the same diameter as the projectile. i. ax (Wd2 /4) am x (Wd2 /4) (3-9)y Let it now be assumed that the basic failure mode for the cup sabot will be a shearing out rd2 1 -. TmOx <'str .5 4 k. L ...5 to 1.ci.density of sabot material which can be solved for the shear stress where . 1 "I d a. D.- P mp a. is established by launch dynamic considerations and probably lies somewhere between 0. For present purposes it may be assumed that the amount of the projectile *:. Therefore.. 414 '7) 1 VZ (.acceleration ps .t. let whenx k =L-t Q• 0..'-a . ) i's ame..

The octahedral shear stress is given by I iT T = o 0" +or N where Pp is an effective density of the projectile defined by =-raP ' O-rd2 (3-12) These equations are adequate for preliminary sizing of cup sabots. The exclusion of this load will make the analysis more conservative. yielding will occur whenever o0 .or substituting for the thlickness and ivarrsnging terms giveswhere >mI4irk ( d•-) D2 a F~ F0 contact area friction Mfoc N () /Lo7hR ID FN . 3-13 considers the effects of (1) inertial load because of the projectile.7_ Dd d Based on the maximum shear stress theory. logd--)]} (3-13) a check on the compressive stresses induced by inertial forces should be made 3-14 .(. (4) base pressure load. The bending stresses will be a maximum at the center of the base plate.1.1 BENDING OF BASE PLATE Because (1) the stresses imposed on the top of the sabot base plate by the set back of the sabot walls and the projectile will not be equal and (2) frictional forces will be applied around the outer edge of the sabot base plate. In addition.. Aerodynamic loads such as drag forces arising from compressing air in the barrel in front of the projectile are not considered because they are in the opposite sense of the inertial loads and will subtract from the net loads on the sabot. it now is possible to consider more complicated loadings. 3-3.. of (5) *ictional load between sabot and launch tube walls.o. (3) inertial load because and the base wall. Having tentatively established the dimensions of the sabot.(dID) [dJD) 2 ) (dD-)r +k1. 3-3.2 CRUSHING OF THE BASE PLATE Although probably not of serious concern. the radial and tangential stresses._ 0)J (3-11) The analysis leading to Eq.1. bending stresses will be induced into this plate. mr" I. (2) inertial load because of the sabot plate. Observe that the dependence of the maximum bending stresses on the chamber pressure has been eliminated in favor of expressing the stresses as a function ot the acceleration and thickness of the base plate. will be equal and are given by the equation 3 [r) thus applying the octahedral shear stress theory of failure the design 'will be adequate if o <0o. 0 (3-14 ) (3 -14 • () ax () X 8(t/d)I (diD) where a is the uniaxial tensile yield strength of the sabot material.normal force acting on sabot - or coefficient of friction >j(D11a . ar(d1D) k 9.

12. the addition of an undercut.RP (0 <" RP = projectile radius * gun bore radius mw = sabot wall mass 3-3.) los stresses in the cup sabot with external under3-15 . 2 . a . 3-3. It will be observed that because the compressive load is primarily due to inertial loading. i.AMOP 70g8d4 amwhere (n% + m-) . than 1.projectile mass The previous expressions may be used for calculating stresses with a slight modification calculating stressesn wirtheafsligitnmodificatioThere is the possibility of a shear failure along and for the mass of the sabot.72 D length of a halt wave of buckling.. Ap (0 • • <) ) = base plate thickness 3-3. the check should be made at the bottom of the undercut.4 )k The calculated compressive stress can be compared with the material capabilities or the stress can be set equal to the working stress M0(3-1r5) Lw .2 CUP SABOT WITH EXTERNAL UNDERCUT Pm. is the friction force per unit contact area and 6 is the percentage of sabot length that is not undercut. An approximation for the critical compressive stress is [d1D 3 V5 ( ( L-PT/) 1i I (3-17) F =o rDSL where o. However.. wall buckling of the sabot is of no concern.length of sabot wall - and an alternate calculation of the thickness can be made.e. • t _With D- this is not an expected failure mode. The bending stresses are thus ax Max 3 (3+v)(7y+P6)0• 4. An analysis of friction surfaces is presented in Appendix B of Ref.72 ) X2 "The approximation is valid whenever the length of the undercut is several times greater The latter is the ). percentage in contact with gun barrel.3 BUCKLING OF THE SABOT WALL "Because for the standard cup sabot there is no room for lateral displacement of the sabot. It is more likely that this forward ring will deform plastically. i plate A-A due to frictional forces.1.3 CUP SABOT WITH INTERNAL UNDERCUTS The expressions used for calculating -( I_ ) m~ I-v)( 1_ 41] )_ 4 ( 1+. 3aW +8 (3-16) l(-2)72 21 R. the L nowE possibility of lateral displacement is intrcduced and buckling of the sabot wall becomes a possibility.

Shearing of the forward ring from the projectile and radial tension failure between the leading edge of the forward ring and the projectile will be considered.1). a With the modifications.R2) hpR. It 2 __R 2R2(m+ 1)los(R.~) i. 2-9) also apply in this case. : rf_+~ + P._-F p where F./R ) +R'(m.AMC# M"4 cut (see Fig. compressive stresses on the sabot walls could cause them to collapse and allow blow-by of the gas. Buckling need not be considered. 1 inertial reaction force. I Y ( M =4 The solution to (I) is 3 FA 2 hr - -. if the cavity is not filled with a hydrostatic liquid. 3-3. In addition. i__.1 and 3-3. 3 R5 R2) / 2a oR .a (R2 2RP 2+pRaB 2X(3-19) B (1 ) [-2(1 +) (1logX+(l -v)-\ u 2 (I + V) + X2 (1I where to bending is given as the sum of solutions for the following two problems: 3-16 ai The problem of radial tension failure due m = reciprocal of Poisson's ratio .1. 3-3. r(R2 -R2)hpR B a - R h .rRs a.R(m 1-) (m + 1) + R(m IR (3-18) B 3 - 1) P PR F.4 CUP SABOT WITH RIDER -4 h (1) t 0 • • F0 2IRD = h + Cz)z F.1. the expreshions generated in pars. .2 may also be used in obtaining stresses in a cup sabot with a forward rider.o -2(m+1)logX+(gm- l)-X+mm-IX+ (mi - 1 :2R.-ir(R2 .

Imw X2(A)2 - +3 pR a R . for example The combined stress is thus )+"O m.. is the shear stress (see Eq.0 3 Rwhere of X+)(I __2(1 + P)loX+l -a)(l (I + a) + )X (I -) The solution to (2) Is 3 pRp pR is the density of the ring material. 3-3.[pa (I + +a') ( -_V) 21 where a. 3-27). 3-17-- . 3-3.2 in calculating stresses apply. substituted for R Thus.y)oa 4 y2 (2 ) 2R2 " (3-21) X(-•2 ra P]. 4=) 4ol +V lo 8 it (1-X 2 A 2 )-12 3Ral h -2_X (1+2 (IX)I-a) R.t4(M-I2+R2 R2(l+m) + R2(m-1) 4h f-4(l+m)logX-(m+3)+X4 (m-l)+4 2 0(++m) + X (M-1) 3 PR aR R2]• Rp 4XRo <RD.4h and (3-22) (M g[ I-Ma •4(l+a') log .. used in par..ax max 3 (3+Y)(P+.A where X a . calcillate the required thickness A of the ring. 1 4. but with AR.(l+3i') + X4 (1-a') + 4•. Note that from this expression it again is possible to calculate the actual stresses or.. and Its analysis pertains to the configurations shown in!Figs. 2-11 and 2-12. given a working stress.5 CUP SABOT WITH BASE PLATE This design basically provides for an auxiliary base plate or bearing surface multiplier A.~ -R4(3+m) +R. p RD A I! •/ radius of auxiliary base plate radius of projectile base (Rp) L-4I "l) log (3p+ 1) + X• (I-P) + 4X' Y R2 The same expression-. a max 4h j 4R4 (1+M) log. '] P.

3.1 ECCENTRICALLY LOCATED PIN A 0 SThe - The geometry is assumed to be as follows: IL Fracturable plastic disc Ds = 2R = diameter of stud The bearing area of the projectile is now L t 1 R - changed from A. and (2) a key located on the aft end of the projectile... 3 v • - . 3-13 through 3-22.%"'''.¼ (1-. This stress is added to the shear stress calculated under conditions of axial acceleration only to give the combined maximum sear stress.3.7 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SPIN-STABILIZED APPLICATIONS In addition to the analysis of set-back forces given previously in par. AM 7064 Buckling need not be considered for this case since the configuration does not lend itself readily to buckling. a means for transmitting torque between the sabot and the projectile must be provided.-I. Two such means are (I) the use of an eccentrically located pin. 3-3./IR S)] J ST = ~:R T +2mp [(I +v). Metal stud attached to projectile "7 . due to torque.3. The fracturable plastic disc is included for fragmentation of the sabot once in free flight.2) (-v) - (3-23) Force Transmitted per Pin and the contact pressure is N (1+3v)R2/R ]]}L 3-18 . 3. is given by Rs F=T/Ra shear stress 1• to torque transmission is due Pl T T 11 and the maximum tangential stress at r is given by 32r R R)2(R -7 /The 2 0.' (P +('Y) (R2 .R) .:/ 2rR •-4 (l+P) R R2 log(R/Rs) A + + 3a (R. if the projectile is to be spin stabilized. 3-4& CUP SABOT WITH SHEAR PLATE RESTRAINT expressions for the stresses in this case are similar to those used above in Eqs. (l-v) R 3B T R 2r . a'wR1 R= distance f pin to CL projectile r =radius of pin 2 A' =r(R to R). Contact pressure on the sabot base due to torque transmitted through N torque pins: [(3+0) R -4(li4 -(1-P) R•] BRI log (R.. 2 ___ R2) 2 S _ (R2 R2' - s'j .7. . The shear force.

the shear strength of the material.. the stress distribution will change. h er. whichever is less. The torsional capacity of the split section will. - ere dr J eo~do J 0 In a complete circular section.. 3-27.7. and will be given by the integral of the circular shear distribution over the area of the key or over the area of the shoulder.torque . in the presence of a high axial compression 3 Now h= R h sin 01 = R cott _= _ _-_T (3-31) h 3-19 which keeps the plane sections plane. be less than that of the solid. the application of a torque T will result in a shear stress From the geometry. i4w/ J0 fo . Distortion will also occur in the case shown in the figure in this paragraph where the circular cross section is made up of the key and the mating shoulders.2 TORQUE KEY The geometry of the key Is shown below. Now w/2 dO Jf or a0/2 where a. and distortion of the planes normal to the longitudinal axis will occur.length of pin = turns per unit length = distance center line of pin to center line of projectile stress that is similar to that found with the solid section.rdO 0 fORr3 drdO TK -4 r = radius of pin 3-3.AMCP 70"0" 0 . r(R) becomes rp.(0) is the shear stress at radius r. Thus.T unreasonable to assume a distribution of shear wNR r R where T R N R (3-25) . The torque that can be transmitted is then TXm fr r(r) dA 2 r e. of course. = -•n- r" (3-29) for 01 < 0 <-- distribution given by 0?1(0)= [r(R)]'L (3-26) or 1[fO R4 v+/2 h4 dO 0. it is not . If T is increased to the maximum allowable value. However. we will assume that the shear stress acting over the cross section of the key at maximum load is given by Eq. and f J J sin 4 0 dO sn =0 1r/2 2 I Cos= + _-cot 0 3 sin 3 0 3 1 I cos 0 + ( i) (3-27) 2 -cot (3-30) 01 If the cross section is changed. because of the discontinuity in the shear stress.

.. and r7. the variation of TK with key width is the same as that shown for 4) (h/R). -' h h+4 rsc 3R h 7 R ITR / 1 n(x).R3r-_ ~ _+-[Sin. A. ..3/\ 3 +R' _h R- 1 area of bore.and Eq. . 3RT T . 3-34 is shown in Fig. The torque capacity is then simply TK STs or TIn Th TrR31 h 2 -- F[Si-' I i-- r +R 2h( 3( R (3-35) where h R TK T..20 ( . Nomenclature -• If the core and sabot have shear strengths r. 3. . order to evaluate the torsional capacity of a given key-sabot combination.. .h R 3R / - (h) R 1.to make the torque capacities TK R 3 •Sin 2+ 3 1 - x = N(x) distance from commencement of rifling = twist rate. 3-5 as r lrss versus h/R.: • . therefore TA-r: Ts If we write Ri 01 +S" 2+2 I R2 yr2 3 3 a2 2 -h= R R 4 h 3R \R/ R + 3 3R 3 • R then -- or TK =r R 3 Si- ý+ h- rss etkr: Then the torque that can be carried by the • shoulders is given by: r As3 r T 2R ) (3-34) The function (D(h/R) is shown in F'. 3-34 or Fig. = key or rider width = radius to axis of eccentrically located pin = key iorque capacity = torque capacity of shoulder = shear strength of shoulder It should be noted that for a given shear strength and core size.. 3-4. and T.. . . . wish thenriln thetorquecapaciies Txand we equal. = twist rate. 3-5.. cross-sectional = J mass of projectile . T.• . turns per unit length . turns per caliber (2 RN) v(x) = speed of projectilc at x cdx) angular velocity at x wa(x) = angular acceleration at x dt . and then the corresponding value of 4' from Fig. 3-4.... . .. : ..= p8 AB torque moment of inertia of core about its longitudinal axis =base pressure =required 2h.1*•• . respectively. we first obtain the optimum value of hIR from Eq. .

C.D C..N + ell!- hfl ..AMCP 700..445 C.

. ___ ___ ___ ___ __ _ ! CR 3-22 K am - - - 0. .WMC 70445 7'. _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ %v (n 'A IC! All A __ __ _ ___ ____ ___ ___ ____ D A Un W! V 1--W i7.

13. 3-38 with respect to x and equating the result to zero.. the angular velocity of the projectileor will be gox) turns per second. 3-4 ELEMENTARY CONSIDERATIONS FOR RING SABOTS The basic configuration and principal dimensions of a ring sabot are given as follows: TR (x) is then the torque capacity of the mechanism required to spin the core. FdN(x) /dx 2 dx d2xl 2. i.4l) Ic is a constant therefore TR (X) W (X) =J1 (TR) must be less than the torque capacity of the mechanism required to spin or TR (X) = 2'lic the core in order to prevent slip.and W(Wx) = (PO d• = ma A.7. However.l (pTa n xAu(Rmi(3.e. 3-3. to do this it is required that the velocity and pressure profiles along the barrel be known or better still. dN(x) 0 and I(X)2wi F dx (3-39)3-23 3-23 . the displacement-time profile. One of particular interest is a cup sabot with a hemispherical base [see Figure I-5(A)]. 3-4 and 3-5. Equations for the design of this type sabot are not included in this handbook because of the limited applications for which it may be used. S~N(x)V(X) dx w(x) 2 w N(x)W .(3-38) 1 )-. Complete and detailed analyses are available in Ref.. rad/sec N(x) dt2 Now md-""()x d2 Then A • I (3-36) and 2 r !Ld-N(x) dx+ ( dt dt • ~~( i. d E1c WWI(x) T )dt max=.AMCP 7064 At any point x in the bore. 3-38 is simplified and the maximum torque requirement only requires a knowledge of the maximum base pressure.+N(x) dt Torsional requirement data are presented in Figs.8 SPECIAL CUP SABOTS Several special cup sabot designs have been developed for special purposes such as launching free flight aerodynamic models.e. The maximum value of TR(x) can be found easily by differentiating Eq.3 TORQUE KEY FOR CONSTANT TWIST If the twist is constant along the length of the barrel. 3-3. then Eq. m 72 and max or (TR) dN 2v [ )d\2 -N ) dt d2 +N(x)dýt-](3-37) dx 2flcN(P5 ) mp A. (3-40) Equation of rotary motion for the core.

k that launch dynamic considerations also may play an important role in locating the sabot and on the projectile. . 1936. A typical buttress groove geometry is 3-4.which wherep isthe % failure of the aft section of the projectile which is pulled along by the sabot. it now becomes necessary to I ?Pme decide where on the projectile the sabot shall L> 3-4 be located (dimension Rd). it is conventional to employ a series of buttress-shaped grooves or detents. the following can be written: Ma <1ma where 1E moment of inertia of projectile cross scintknaotiscnrlai Because the maximixnil load corresponds to odto temxmmaclrto *S. If it is noted that the maximumn shear stress which must be less than the shear strength of either the sabot or projectile materials corresponds to the maximum acceleration.. and (2) tensile 1 A P ptch. T imoshenko. part of serves as a compressl\ý force on the of the projectile extending forward of ardsection is approximately W pp !. it is important to note the possibility of (I1) a buckling of the forward portion of the projectile due to column action.1 BUCKLING OF THE FORWARD PORTION OF THE PROJECTILE j I In locating a ring sabot on a projectile. (3-47) where k is a constant less than one that converts the projected shear area into the effective shear area. Inc. Theory of Elastic Stability. a body force is generated. T - f 4 rit' kLd or m an a p The critical load* for buckling of a fixed free-ended column under load distributed uniformly along its length is 7r'EI1E Inp a irkLd k"') cr 2 (122) R 1.portion The hea strss s dtermnedby urnmng forces on the projectile in the axial direction. To Ž>-llI llj l ensure a good transfer of shear along this MP \sr 1 A/D/ L D/lmx(5 interface. The basic failure mode for a ring sabot is/D\~\ F d shear along the sabot-projectile interface. Engi- mx irkLd 3-24 (4) neering SceisMonograph.AMCP706445In addition to having to size the sabot or() (dimension L).. Because of the acceleration of' the sabot projectile. New York. McGraw-HI-I~ Book Curnpany.d 2 R14 3-6 wherep isthe ptch. It is highly likely .

and (3) tensile stresses. Perhaps the most impressive feature concerning materials is the fact that bodies of several materials can be analyzed.5 (p-v0.• imao difficulty is the fact that the oequations ith e i d c become increasingly ill-behaved. Summing these forces requires that (P + a) d t ='•pp (2 .'. and axisymmetric problems.e.. 3-25 .the finite element method can be applied far more generally. indicating incompressibility in the ~~infinitesimal deformation theory. Those persons desiring to pursue the theory in greater detail than presented herein are referred to the many text books and survey articles written on this subject. This is a limitation imposed by current computers.. the is speifed anlyi type of material in any given portion of the body is specified. Materials can be anisotropic.5). However. and the analysis proceeds without difficulty.~od calculations invlve of the cacuaton involved in the finite element technique. loadings. 3-5 discusses cannot be done. . 3-5. This para•graph thus reflects the attitude of the user instead of the producer. the finite element method is a technique for the stress analysis of solid bodies*.2 TENSILE FAILURE IN PROJECTILE AFT SECTION The forces acting on the aft section of the projectile are (1) the inertial forces. Limitations are imposed for various reasons. as well as isotropic. three-dimensional problems have been studied.L - or simplifying and noting that amx (a = amax) must be less than oy (maximum principal stress theory of failure).. thorough treatises on the subject..1.704 (Wf) mifx end of this chapter are particularly lucid. due to the *Actually. and types of materials are admissible depending upon the particular formulation. The emphasis of this discussion is on the use of a finite element program. ". i. The accurate representation of a body requires a fine subdivision of the body. 14 and 15 listed at the quently. instead of r.16 This is one of the areas in which one may expect future developments.2 MATERIALS Great freedom in material properties is allowed. Thek. more than can be economically handled. it is most efficiently utilized when programmed for solution on a digital computer.. such as the one given in Appendix C. generally what can and what c 3-5.1 GEOMETRY Analysis is generally restricted to twodimensional problems.1. plane strain (stress).s . 2 (3-48) 34 TPar. which generates considerable information to be stored. requires that Rf - L 4 Pmax Y) \pp am ax [ (3-49) * o: 3-5 THE FINITE ELEMENT TECHNIQUE This paragraph is an introduction to the finite element method of structural analysis. (2) pressure forces. 3-4.. as will become clear subse- or 2f)> "l and 4E 4r < I. 3-5.. One problem arises with certain materials for which the Poisson ratio approaches 0. Various geometries.:upon the theory of the technique or the mechanics of computer programs. Refs. Because of the lengthy and repetitive nature therinee. In the process of formulating the problem.1 BACKGROUND For current purposes.

3 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS Finite element solutions allow for the boundary conditions which are most common. Provision is generally made for application of shears or pressure loads on the boundary by specification of the distributed magnitude. quasi-static. although they are solid. some of which are mentioned previously. 3. elastic stress problem for axisymnietric -J- forces such as centrifugal force or accelerations. However.44 appearance of the term I -2y in denominators of the governing equations. i. For a particularly lucid discussion of this theory.7 SUMMARY Generally. extension to other type problems. Viscoelastic materials have been studied'". Programs for analysis of specific bodies such as rocket motors frequently include shell elements to represent the motor case 2 2. In particular.5. for internal generation of body 35. 3. the results obtained are subject to some uncertainty.' 9 .1. 14. and programs (including the one in Appendix C) are equipped to handle bilinear behavior such as that displayed by "Lexan" (see par. Both these areas require further study to put them on a dependable level. in general.e.rW 7. Nonlinear behavior can be handled quite easily. 22.3. the finite element method is as satisfactory an analysis tool as any other and offers a versatility which is recompense for care in use. Provision is also made. there still is a tendency for stresses to oscillate in problems with high restraint and Poisson's ratio near 0. With the reformulated approach. which.5 MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS It is worth noting that transient heat conduction problems have been studied by finite element techniques'. . Typically.6 RELIABILITY AND ACCURACY As with all approximate techniques. Finite element analysis generally treats linear elastic materials. been used to study dynamic phenomena in both elasticity and viscoelasticity media.1.5. 3-5.1). however. the reader is referred to Ref. elastic element technique is presently in common use f t e . the user must be careful in the posing of the problem to be solved. however. This problem has. 3-2.1. been resolved by use of the so-called "reformulated" approach' 7 or by the Fit2gerald modification of Hooke's law (par.1. The reasons for this will become clear in the paragraphs which follow. are of a special geometry. Large deformations and plasticity also have been studied. the analyst can prescribe either concentrated forces or displacements in either of the coordinate directions at boundary points of the structure. The current development will be limited to the compressible.2 THEORY OF THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD This paragraph outlines the theory upon which the finite element method is based. however..5. problems in which loads are applied slowly enough that stress waves are not created in the body.a l analysis of solid bodies. it can be said that the finite f or two-dimensional. 3-2. The reader is cautioned at this point that the finite element method is accurate and reliable in direct proportion to the intelligent use of the method and interpretation of the results. is possible.2). the program internally converting these to concentrated forces as required. The technique has. and in the modeling of ihe problem for computer analysis. to Ref. 3-5. Properly used and interpreted. 2 0 3-26 •. Also to be pointed out is the fact that finite element analysis has been applied to plates and shells. 3-5.1.4 DYNAMIC PROBLEM The majority of finite element work has been devoted to solution of quasi-static problems. and for a detailed treatise.

1 VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES Finite element solutions normally begin with the statement of a variational principle. Hence. is to assume an approximate solution with unknown parameters. For example. the type element used for such problems.2 FINITE ELEMENTS The origin of the name of the "finite element" arises from the fact that. in fact. we choose the one with the minimum energy as the better. 3-6. suppose we wish to analyze the body shown in Fig. this capability has 3-27 . 3-5. If this were a plane problem. these elements are each actually rings. 3-5. they would be prisms with axis perpendicular to the plane of the paper. the body being analyzed is divided into small subregions. The finite element method is essentially such a process. This is. These parameters can be solved for in terms of the displacements at particular points in the elements. We then search for another approximation to compare. to perform the process of minimization previously discussed. we might break up the body into the subregions such as shown for simplicity only in Fig. the Theorem of Minimum Potential Energy23 states that the potential energy assumes an absolute minimum for those displacements satisfying the equilibrium equation. We then determine the unknown parameters in such a manner as to minimize the functional. . then. A more systematic process. This leads to a system of algebraic equations in the nodal point displacements. we eventually will reach the solution. that we could (I) guess an approximate solution to a problem. Of the two. this procedure is not carried out as easily as it is described. However. This body which is axisymmetric. provided that classes of admissible functions are limited to those satisfying the boundary conditions. Then. the triangles usually are combined into quadrilaterals within the program. Thus. (2) calculate the potential energy. axial acceleration. A functional is defined which has as its arguments the relevant physical variables of the problem. 3-7.2. akin to the Rayleigh-Ritz method*. for each of which we have an assumed displacement shape depending upon the unknown nodal point displacements.2. 3-8. is subjected to axisymmetric loads.g. This introduces several unknown parameters. l practice. However. In act. we know that the solution we have is the best of the type with which we started. By such a process. over which expressions for the displacement are assumed. usually the corners which are known as the nodal points. e. It is then shown that the particular functions (among certain admissible ptypes) which minimize the functional are in fact the ones that satisfy the governing differential equations of the problem..solids. The functional for each region now can be calculated and minimized with respect to the unknown displacements. The right hand section of the body is shown subdivided. For example. we have a set of subregions. The handling of the large amount of data and solution of the resulting system of equations are problems which must be solved in an efficient manner. It is obvious. and (3) compare with another approximate solution. In the axisymmetric case. I Osometimes *For this reason the finite element method is called the "extended Ritz method". and we need only concern ourselves with the quadrilateral. if it is possible to reach a solution. We could suppose that this body may be represented by a collection of rings of triangular cross section as in Fig. The displacement field is now assumed in some form for each element. This will live an idea of the theory without unnecssary complexity. Solution of these equations yields the displacement field which minimizes the functional and from which the stresses can be calculated.

Figure 3-6.! 3-28 q•ll • r. QuadrilateralIdelizationof Solid . ReproentativeAxis ymmrtric Solid I I I 'I Figure3-7." I I I Figure 3-8.• r • t " . Typical Idealizationof Axisymmetric Solid I I I.

which yields algebraic equations for the nodal point displacements. The point to be noted is that in areas of bodies where the actual displacement field is linear. In areas where displacements are progressively more nonlinear. smaller elements will be required to approximate the actual displacements. material properties. Because the actual use of a program is dependent on the pro- formation required is the title. either Item (I) (b) or (1) (c).AMCP 706446 been built into the computer program and as such is not the user's problem. the data that must be input to a computer program can be separated out into several categories: control information. In this case. In areas where the displacement is more complex.3. nodal point data. gram. (f) Number of cards of same type to be read.1 INPUT DATA Broadly speaking. Specific details may change from program to program but the general ideas remain the same. One point which is significant to a user is the form of the displacement assumption. we shall assume the available program similar to the one given in Appendix C.information will be required. not both . However. etc. one must sacrifice some generality by reference to a particular program. 3-5. (a) Title: usually the first item of inJ S3-5. errors in the displacement approximation produce even larger errors in stress calculations because stress is related to the derivatives of displacements. (1) Control Information:. Item (1) (e) will not be needed for a 3-29 . and load data. Displacements are approximated in each element by a form introducing the nodal point displacements as unknown factors. This appears desirable. or any desires identification the user (b) Number of nodal points (c) Number of rows of nodal points (d) Number of materials (e) Axisymmetric or plane problem . and stresses are derived therefrom.the program details determine which. The solution of these equations is the displacement field. the elements must be progressively smaller. A functional s minimized over each element using these approximations.4 will show in detail the steps involved in using a finite element program and will include some numerical examples. This is undoubtedly the simplest way to discuss the practical use of the finite element method. Also. and indicate the conventions wherever possible. element data. In addition. it is quite natural to lump the last three together because for any element we must associate the material of which it consists and the loads to which it is subjected. and is frequently used. These categories are not unique. a linear approximation is adequate with large elements. and some programs may combine one or more into a single category. Load information that is relevant to the whole problem also may be input to this category.3 SUMMARY The finite element method requires the approximation of a body by subregions. Data of this type refer to the problem in general and/or to the process of input to the computer. then the displacements along the edges of each element will coincide. 3-5. 3-5. The linear assumption also lends itself to approximation "of arbitrary fields as the elements become smaller.. If the function is linear in each element. For example.2. We shall discuss the type of data in each category as though they were separate.3 APPLICATION OF THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD This paragraph and par. Higher order assumptions will lead to different results.

program that Is specifically either plane or axisymmetric.. if any Any other relevant information.g. Because a given problem might involve close to 1000 nodal points. with uniform spacing.pressure. The only nodal points and elements that require specification are those along the boundary of the object.2 OUTPUT DATA At the conclusion of an analysis. . (4) Materialproperties: Mearptsample. the transition from the first to the second must be specified. S(a) S ~ (3) Load data: (a) Element to which load is applied (b) Magnitude of load . Nodal point number . For example. (e) (3) Element data: (a) (b) Element number Nodal points to which element is connected (c) Material identification. or special types of control information. O. These data and material properties may be associated with element data. The element number may be associated with a particular nodal point to which the element is connected.modulus. (2) Nodal point data. the material properties for each element. a great deal of information has been created - 4 r (c) 3-30 etc. this eliminates Item (3)(a) and Item (3)(b). ternperature change. as well as nodal point and element loads. if it is associated with nodal points. and hence to specific nodal points under some sort of nodal point-element correspondence. the elements omitted would be generated. It is not necessary to do so. the elements connected to that nodal point. (d) Specified forces and/or displacement. however. the amount of data would be prohibitive if each nodal point and element were treated separately. (6) Final comments on the input data. For exwhen two different materials are adjacent. J) coordinates if the nodal point array is associated with a matrix (b) (c) Coordinates of the nodal point Indication of whether forces or displacements. By this self-generating process. e. This is not done. with somewhat fewer elements. are specified in each coordinate direction (d) Identification. A program will incorporate some sort of self-generating feature. it is necessary to define the position of every nodal point. All this information may be absorbed into other areas. (b) Thermal properties .3. the program might generate the required intermediate points along a straight line joining the given points. temperature. Item (3)(c) can be handled by a request to read the data while reading nodal point information. In general. of course. Similarly. as well as interior points'for which changes from previous data occur. etc.. if two nodal points are separated by several for which no data are specified. 3-5. the number of input data are considerably reduced.expansion coefficient Physical properties -density. - . etc. (a) Mechanical properties . or neither.either a single number or two (1.

The program used to solve the examples is the Rohm and Haas AMG032A. The setup of the p.3 SUMMARY input to a finite element program and the resulting output. 14. * Note that I column number.1 UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION OF A RIGHT CIRCULAR CYLINDER The first example is the simplest problem that one can formulate . it is possible to reduce the problem to one of smaller proportions by taking into account symmetry. We note that points on the axis of the body can only J Res 'Its will be dependent on the ability of the analyst to capture the esso-ntial features of the problem by proper layout of the nodal points and elements describing the object of concern.'oblem is shown in Fig. 3-5.and r-axes. In general. 21. etc. which is shown in Fig. obvious one . "3-31 . Fig. The user must be cautioned against placing total confidence in the results of the analysis. strains. but still is not a panacea for the analyst. to write the results on a tape and then to have this information presented graphically in terms of stress and strain contours. One must. 3-5. 22. 3-9(B). Provision can be made.446 W f stresses. while the side is free. 3-9(C).4. however. there is no convenient way to reduce the volume unless the analyst knows that only certain results are needed. The second line of data gives the number of nodal pofnt cards to be read (34). including the whole process of solving the problem. This is in a form that can be analyzed by an axisymmetric program. While cach specific program incorporates the information differently. however. For convenience in discussing the data.4 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS This paragraph makes more specific the comments of par. while points on the r-axis can only move in the r-direction. The program in Appendix C is due to Wilson and is similar in operation to the Rohm and Haas program used for these Sexamples. 3-9. The first line of data is simply a title in the required format. The nodal points now have (1. 3-5.. we have numbered the columns in groups of 10.5 in. the analysis will yield hundreds of pages of results. Th! displacement conditions are indicated by rollers.uniaxial compression of a circular cylindrical sample. 3-10. The finite element method is a useful tool. 3-9(A) shows the physical problem with the necessary defining quantities.e. the pressure is known. we have established displacement boundary conditions along the z. The grid is the simple. i. All this information is output.AMCP 706. 1-9 and blank. the reader is referred to Refs. and 24.-ugh detail to generate the input data.J = row number. suitably modified for use on a UNIVAC 1108 computer.3. the same items are needed in any case. etc. On the top surface. Thus. X total of 50 elements and 66 nodal points.3 by presenting a group of examples of finite element analyses. As shown in Fig. The grid is added and nodal points defined in Fig. For additional examples. deform in the z-direction.an array of squares 0. this from the symmetry of the problem. There is no substitute for intelligent engineering consideration of the problem.J) coordinates associated with them as shown*. 1) nodal point cannot move at ali.ng those axes. At this point. displacements. exercise a degree of judgment in the use of the results. 3-5. The nodal points on the two axes can roll alk. a body of revolution loaded by axisymmetric forces. 18. and number of rows (ll). except that the (1. This figure defines the problem in en.

SYMMETRY (A) (B) p:1000 j 1 O"=1 2 ..AMCP 700.. 5 IN.73 > (A).. PRESSURE: 1000 PSI E= 30 x 106 PSI .445 t: I . Setup of Simple Compression Problem 3-32 .-.L __.r DIAMETER: ~HEIGHT: 10 IN. >. 1.J 3 2 S~(c) Figure 3-9..

t tt d'Il) i i * SL: n . (1 .446 I fN P.r n•tli( 5. 1J.3j I)$.1 0 ti ll tit10 I 1. IS 50011. P 3 1 4 1.I 0141U11 11 1 .10. nn oA 1010.{ 1 lI•I i • .#PV 45F7PI9 ~ P''. N'110 111 I:. ~~1!n .3 I 101410) 1* ~ ~~no)10 ". .1 it i /~ 'f S• ~~~1 !))')J j. Input for Simple Compression Problem 3-33 .11 12 '. I -)I~ ) . 'tso 7.NO4 Ati le.l U 9 0 1 U)ll • J.') . S((I 1 1 7 10(11 ll t t) IV 110 0 1I0.to.q3 9b i %• nn t)) ~~~~~I1((100hnf{l 3 (n) I U L| l) * t I ( II U31) q .0 3 Figure 3.t4'(f7' I ?V . .AMCP 706. IIilk .

0 0.0 psi and a 3 indicates the pressure and face on which it acts (according to a standard scheme). 0). ~Nodal points (1. Card 28 is also read. The element data is read for (1. 1). the following: E. E = 30 X 106 psi. z. Ai A. if 2. axial body force. these values carry on. v = 1/3. Each nodal point has an element associated with it. no element is &asociatedwith this point. 1). and the same for the rest. 10) we again read the pressure. shear. Starting with (1. Note that all the nodal points in Row I are specified since it is part of the boundary.. and the same data hold until nodal point (1. Card I reads as follcws: k. 10). 18 19 2. element data is to be read. Column 20 is blank. on which is read. 10). 2. No slope or moment is specified. pressure. Column 19 has a I if displacement is along a slope. and a number to indicate where the pressure and/or shear acts.itain r. If the data in a given field are zero. since the program does not carry on the pressure from element to element. where p = 1000. The lirt element card is 27. and indicates what information is new by a I in the appropriate column. In the system used in the program here. by 10's. if data is I. the number of an element is associated with the nodal point of smallest (l. 10). if it were 5. and only (1. 1). and 4 also have specific meanings. for all of which the z-displacement is zero. followed by 12 cards giving element propertie' and loads. Note that all the botidary nodal points are entered as data. thermal load. As the computer r--ads the nodal point cards. radial body force. Thus. force/ moment data. For element (2. both in kind and arrangement. Since we don't change E or P. :-coordinate. Coordinates are given and applied forces or displacements are zero. r-coordinate. co. the first six cards refer to nodal points (I. four loads and/or displacements. element type. u.1-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61-70 71-80 If the number in Column 15 were 0.6. by 10's. While the previous description is somewhat tedious. it gives a detailed illustration of data requirements. displacement/roiatioi.. four boundary condition codes. 0 otheiwise.0 0. the r-displacement specified (as zero) for only ' 1. This is probably most easily seen by reference to the data. the following data is found: 1. For nodal point (1. with which no element is associated. For all the elements up to (1. and finally a card ending the data.0 0. The remaining columns. and on the left.0 Meaning 1-= J I read element data 11. 1) to (6.The next 34 cards are nodal point cards. and ditplacemcnt slope. an element is entered with each nodal point. P. no Szero. the lower left corner of the left element. 10) be.specified specified no :nonient or rotation specified no slope specified r-coordinate z-coordinate ur uz moment/rotation slope 5 10 15 16 17 .nn Data 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0. uz.J) connected to it. the same data as for the previous elemen. it may be left bank. 1).0 0. moment of rotation. we then specify whether an element is to be associated or not. 1). 3 34 " . fcrdT. the program assam. 1)r through (6. we request element data to be read as Cards 29 and 30. and what to do about the element properties. This process continues to nodal (. J. 3. C_ . specified. data. If the number in Columns 16-18 is zero. 11) has a specified force or displacement (u. For o'xample.3 0.Re only I in Column 15 requests data. we must indicate the pressure load on the top of this element. 11))i finish 11) N l n ( the boundary of the regions. V Colu. Thus. except (6. No element is associated with these. As nodal points are input.

o0 . The cylinder is now composed of two materials: an inner portion (r = 0. the agreement is excellent. It consists of the following: (1) Boundary condition information for verifying the boundary conditions (2) Coordinates of all nodal points .2 THERMAL EXPANSION OF RIGHT CIRCULAR CYLINDER A rial card the thermal load is then added.5 INTERNAL PRESSURIZATION OF A COMPOSITE CYLINDER To illustrate the ability of the program to handle problems with multiple materials. a circular cylinder.4.• force is applied.4. and for Example 5. The stresses ar. and the material cards corresponding to those nodal points are removed. with rw 2 = 1000. ao oz. it is too voluminous.5 in. (We could have saved considerable labor by only using one row of elements). Notice that oz = . a.0. 3-5. as the values are the same for each row. but the loading and boundary conditions are different.0 in.3 CENTRIFUGAL LOADING OF A RIGHT CIRCULAR CYLINDER Example 3 uses the same data as Example 2.0 in. and displacement Ur are shown.5 in.) of steel. the longitudinal deformation is restrained.4. as is correct.) of copper. and the outer radius 3. an internal pressure of 1000 psi is applied. and an outer portion (r = 1. and addition of a I to Column 17 of each card for RQw I I to indicate that i. In this very simple problem. There is no need to show more. 3-5. Or 0. The inner radius is 0. to r = 3. with consequent good results. hoop. The loading is again an internal pressure of 1000 psi magnitude.4 INTERNAL AND ROTATION OF A HOLLOW CYLINDER In the next two examples the geometry is changed to a hollow cylinder. The results for this case are summarized in Fig. consider the problem of a composite cylinder subjected to internal pressure. = 0 for these points. 3-13 in the form of the output for elements (I. The results are shown in Fig. so that the wall thickness is 2.. rwo = 1000. creating a problem in plane strain. Also ez = uZ/E = 1/3 X 10-4. For Example 4. radial body . due to symmetry. 4).1000 psi. and restrain the expansion which would normally occur. AMCP 706445 Not all the output is shown.111 X 10-4. * This example uses the same shape as Example 1.5 X 10'. The input is shown in Fig. to r = 1. In both examples. Again the displacement field is linear. 4) are shown.(4.0 = -_e2 = 0.5 in. and shear stress and strain.includes all the interior points for which no coordinates were specified (3) Displacements of all nodal points (4) Stresses and Etrains in each element . The exact solutions are given as solid lines and the results from the finite element program as points. changing only in r-a phenomenon we should have anticipated. In this example we subject the cylinder to a temperature rise of 100*F so that fd!T = 6. 1) .radial. On the first mate- 3-5. and the resulting stresses are exactly correct. 3-12. Note that both the nodal point cards for the interior nodes of Row 10.. This requires removal of the input cards specifying the applied pressure. This gives the stresses set up by rotation with angular velocity w.5 in. axial. and maximum and minimum stresses and strains Only data for elements (1. as was the radius of the original cylinder. The iesults of the analyses are shown in Figs. The result of' 3-35 . =e. the Cisplaceinent field is linear. Again.5 in. 3-15 and 3-16.4.r Output for this problem is shown in Fig. as is correct. except that the thernal load is replaced by 2 a radial body force. PRESSURIZATION 3-5. 1) through (4. 3-14.

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5 Figure 3-174.0 1.39 - . C! 1.0 IAl- aZ- 0r 0 0051. Stresses and Displacements for Rotating Solid Cylinder 3.5 RADIUS r.AMCP 706-445 3.0 2.1. in. 2.

51.0 DISPLACEMENTS AND STRESSES FOR HOLLOW CYLINDER WITH INTERNAL PRESSURE Ur ~r 0 A 00 I-r 2.30 RADIUS r.2.3.I - 8 .2.1.0 -~12. Displacements and Stresses for Ho/low Cylinder With Internal Pressure 3I4 .0 7 L CC! z 0- 0. Figure 3-15. in.

L 04 ...5 3. Displacementsand Stresses in Rotating Hollow Cylinder 3-41 .4.•.0 .5 1.0 2. in.0 6.6 4.AMCP 70.0 1.0 CL La CIO f4. .0 1.0 Ur x wU 0.2 3. .8 2..3 •Figure K ' 4-.0 8.5 2.0 00- rr 0 0 00.445 • 1. 2. 3-16.0 RADIUS r.

The boundary conditions are indicated. The element layout for the problem is shown in Fig. Because this is an idealized problem. and for each element the radial. the purpose has been fulfilled. because the whole problem is so idealized and the mesh so crude. tangential. are chosen arbitrarily and thus do not represent a problem of any real situation. The sabot is plastic and the shock attenuator is a second plastic. If the reader is now aware of the tool at his disposal. Observe that the mesh generating routine tends to yield a uniform grid. the combination is fairly realistic. (1.. For this reason the only results presented are those (see Fig. The sabot-projectile combination is somewhat more than 8 in. these elements are seen to be those with nodes in Rows 4 through 7. This by no means can be considered a full treatment of any phase of the topic. axial. 5). compared to 0. 3-21) for the elements around the junction of the projectile. a unit acceleration. and the open points the nodes then generated. and that corresponding material properties cards are included. As is apparent. and a more detailed discussion of the mechanics of use of computer programs using finite elcment methods. Referring to Fig. 3-5. and sabot. 3-20. of course. (4. long. The dimensions. nor is it intended -as such. The points of the grid joining two materials are prescribed. 3-19. (3.. as well as principal stresses and strains. 3-17. materials. i. only to provide one that is realistic. however. Observe that the lower left node is fully fixed to remove the possibility of rigid-body motion. as well as in oe and oa. The solid points for oa are from the second analysis to demonstrate the accuracy with which the discontinuity is captured. 4). J 3-5. it certainly is not pertinent here.4. no radial motion on the centerline or at the gun bore. etc. and has a reasonable idea of how the tool works. only one loading is considered. 3-19 are (3.e.AMCP 706445 the finite element analysis and exact solution are shown in Ii-. and shear stresses and strains. the elements of interest (shown shaded in Fig. To that end a very sketchy description of the basic ideas of finite element analysis has been given. In this particular example an analysis with a n msh of one-half the original size (0. 3-42 The input data are given in Fig. Problems have been presented tc demonstrate the accuracy of which the method is capable. 6).. The nodes actually on the line between materials are in Column 4. 3-19. the projectilc diameter is 2 in. which generates body forces proportional to the densities of the materials. The proje :tile is steel. it must be emphasized that no inferences are to be drawn from such a crude illustration. 3-5 has been to give a beginner some idea of the finite element technique in stress analysis. Note that discontinuities exist in the displacement gradient and gradient of ur. Thus. While all these data might be meaningful in a real problem.6 CUP SABOT WITH METAL BASE PLATE To conclude this discussion of the finite element approach to structural problems. The results of this analysis again consist of displacements for all the nodal points. The solid points show prescribed nodes. (3. no effort has been made to provide a really fine mesh.25 in. 5). Again. attenuator. consider the sabot shown in Fig. 6). 4). and (4. PJ .) was performed. and the sabot diameter is 4 in.5 in. It is merely a demonstration of the finite element technique applied to multimaterial problems with peculiar shapes. This problem was selected at random to illustrate the application of the finite element techniquc to more realistic problems. Observe that the boundaries between materials are given. and a final example was given showing more of the versatility achievable.5 CONCLUSIONS The purpose of par. 3-18. Thus.

AMCP 706445 40 .5 RADIUS r.2 o 0.6 - z z LU 1 0. 2. 0.8 0n 0 @(FINER MESH) - d 3• -i.0 1. 5 5 1.5 3. Displacementsand Stresses in Hollow Cylinder of Two Materials Under Internal Pressure MU 3-43 .0 ' 2.0 10DISPLACEMENTS AND STRESSES INHOLLOW CYLINDER OF TWO MATERIALS UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE Ur 0 4 0.2 .0 "Figure 3-17. in.0 1.

= 0.45 2 ROW 1 S. .G. - Specific Gravity MAT'L: PLASTIC E 5 x 105 PSI v =0. Simple Sabot COLUMN 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 3-19.SCALE I I" MAT'L: I STEEL E=30 I0•IELEMENT -. 9 2 15 LAYOUT FOR SABOT * PRESCRIBED 0o GENERATED 14 13 12 10 9 8 MATL: PLASTIC E=300 PSI 6 v=0.9 t 5 4 3 S.0.G.G.9 Figure3-18.5 S. Element Layout for Sabot 3 3-44 .

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Cumulative Damage and Systems Analysis. 307-316. Hilton. 3. Fundamental Studies Relating to Systems Analysis of Solid Propellants.:elaticAnalsis. Watervliet Arsenal. Charles H. 10. "Solid Propellant Grain Structural Analysis". Stress Analysis elastic Analysis". J. P. May 1964. Brooks. McGraw-Hill Sook Co. 14. pp. Effect of Strain Rate on Yielding in High-Strength Steels. and J. Amsterdam. Davidson. G. Timoshenko and G. pp. M. Inc. R. 3 Solid Propellant Structural Test Vehicle. Kendall anid 1'. 15. 12 (1965). 18. L. N. Herrmann. Cable. M. F. A. CARDE Report TN 1612/64. Wilson. 4. February 1964. "Systems Approach to Solid Rocket Design". March 1965. Brooks.. M. H. On the Design of a LightWeight Sabot with Hemispherical Base for Launching Aeroballistic Models. No... Brooks. Section VI of 10. April 1964. Reinhold Publishing Co. Pergammon Press. Timoshenko and J. L Williams. 1951. 11. July 1968. Chang. SNumerical I S7. 4. 785-808. 1 (1967). No. S. 4. S. AIAA Journal 3. pressible Materials by a Variational Theorem".. Y. neering and Design. 3-47 . Yang. S. Naval 17. . Methods of Transferring Theory of Elasticity. Fitzgerald. L. "An Eginerin Deignfor r 16. 1967. Williams. for Incompressible and Nearly IncomNOLTR 65-10. February 1966.AMCP 7068445 REFERENCES I. P. 199-276. CARDE Report TR 493/64.. Repoii No. Heer. Williams. 3rd Edition. October 1968. TR 411/64. J. P. N. Bertrand and P. Solid Rocket Structural Integrity Abstracts.. Van Nostrand Co. Technical RePlastics. Tech. Parametric Study for Light Gas Gun Models (U). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. port 32-1253. Goodier. California Institute of Technology. pp. C. N. Rand. Blatz. New York.. E. MacCullough. AIAA Journal 3. AEDC-TR-65-56.. Schapery. H. The (1965). D. 2. 5. WVT-6618. 1949. Marshall. P. "Elasticity Equations Ordnance Laboratory. L. "An Approximate Method for Thermovisco9. Akyuz and E. land Publishing Company. A. North HolAEDC Report No. Dynamic Compression Testing of a Strain-Rate Material. R. A. AIAA Journal. California Institute of Technology. AFRPL-TR-68-130. D. February 1961. May 1966. J. L. August 1964. M. 1966. Parr. "Structural Analysis of Axisymmetric Solids". Rpt. GALCIT SM 61-5. An Examination of Failing elastic Stress Analysis". Torque to an Armour Piercing Core. "Structural Analysis of Viscoelastic Materials". E. in Mechanics and Chemistry of Solid Propellants. 12. L. 13. S.J. and R. 8.Y. Lockheed Propulsk-in Co. Taylor and T. "The Application of Methods to the Solution of Structural Integrity Problems of Solid Propellant Rockets". . 1964. New York. H. N.. Elements of Strength of Materials. Introduction to ViscoS. Vol. Report No. U. CARDE Report No. ý. Inc. Engineering Design forofSldRceMtrsTchiaRof Solid Rocket Mopuors. Report No. J. 6. F. No. Nuclear EngiLoads in Model Launching Experiments.

S. November 1965. Nickell. ASME. C. 23. S. 1956. L.. Nickell and J. Coupled Thermoelastic BoundaryValue Programs. 61-3. E.Y. Fifth U.Y. 2a 22. No. E.. R. Eric B. Rohm and Haas Company. Becker and John J. No.41 AMCP 70S448 19. John Wiley and Sons. E. Report Number S-76. 24. 68-1. University of California Structural Engineering Laboratory Report. McGraw-Hill. Stress Analysis. S. ft) 3-48 3'8 4. A Computer Program for the Dynamic Stress Analysis of Underground Structures. E. New York.. Sokolnikoff. Hollister. The Extended Ritz Method Applied to Transient. L. February 1967. 0. Chapter 7. 1966. N. "Application of the Finite Element to Heat Conduction Analysis". 1965. 1. 20. National Congress of Applied Mechanics. January 1968. Wilson and R. Wilson. L. Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. Sackman. University of California Structural Engineering Laboratory Report. Zienkiewicz and G. 21. Application of the Finite Element Method to Stress Analysis of Sohd Propellant Rocket Grains. Brisbane. N. . Proc.

!EXPERIMENTAL 4-0 LIST OF SYMBOLS A As METHODS FOR SABOT DEVELOPMENT (1) Pressure Measurements (2) Measuremcnt of Muzzle Velocity (3) Travel-time Measurements (4) In-bore Velocity Measurements and Acceleration "a F f . and aerodynamic forces. elastic rebound of the sabot. All of these areas are of importance in the development of sabot projectiles. Flash X-ray photography is useful 4-1 . the methodology associated with evaluation of sabot projectile performance by gun firing tests is similar to that used in evaluation and development of conventional gun ammunition. limited use. In general. the sabot projectile is enveloped in a cloud of high-velocity propellant gas which for a short time out-runs the projectile after muzzle transition. Sabot separation and discard usually are achieved by muzzle blast effects. Experimental topics in this handbook work include: _______rendering "ing. Experimental methods used for measurement oT gun and projectile performance during travel of the projectile through the gun tube are described in detail in Ref.. M Pb 0 = gun bore cross-sectional area = sample cross-sectional area = axial acceleration = force = projectile-gun borc surface frictic ial force = structural test vehicle mass . A unique feature of most sabot projectile systems is the requirement for uniform and reliable discard of the sabot carrier after transition from the muzzle of the gun.AMCP 706445 CHAPTER 4 . During the early critical stages of this discard process. optical photographic techniques of I *References are located at the end of each chapter. and the reader is referred to the reference list at the end of this chapter and the bibliography contained in Appendix D for detailed discussions. Experimental techniques employed in this field have been extensively documented in various publications available in the literature. I Interior Ballistics of Guns. The gas cloud and blast effectively obscure the sabot and projectile from view during the critical sabot discard period. = specimen mass = gun shot base pressure = maximum tensile strength (5) Measurement of Base Presure (6) Measurement of Bore Friction (7) Measurement of Barrel Erosion (8) Barrel Temperature Measurements (9) Motion of the Propellant During Burn- 4-1 INTRODUCTION The objective of this chapter is to describe specialized techniques for obtaining experimental data on sabots and sabot materials.

Because of the complex nature of the phenomena associated with high velocity launch of sabot projectiles and the relative difficulty of obtaining detailed experimental information during the gun ballistic cycle. High resolution shadowgraphs result from this technique.. In general. the sabot and projectile material failure characteristics must be Known for the loading conditions to which they will be subjected in the actual design. the experim. contribute to the questions concerning applicability of conventional static or dynamic material failure property data in sabot design.TI for detailed study of the sabot discard process during this period. A stirvey of conventional dynamic material property testing methods shows that the various combined loading effects experienced in guns cannot be duplicated accuritely by existing dynamic testing machines.1 STRUCTURAL TEST VEHICLE The sabot projectile designer usually is charged with the responsibility of producing the lightest weight sabot that will function properly and survive the gun launch environment reliably.. High-rate testing machines can duplicate gun loading rates in direct strain or load application but cannot induce the body forces and resulting stress distributions induced by high acceleration gun launch. . The Structural Test Vehicle (STV) carrier serves to isolate the material sample from all launch effects except the axial acceleration induced in the STV by the propellant gas expansion. To utilize the structural engineering design principles described in this handbook. In . the use of subscale testing and dynamic similarity analysis'. The approach utilized here to achieve these results involves high acceleration gun launch of a material sample carrier within which the. material under study is subjected to the launch acceleration condition. Sequential and orthogonal exposures are possible.of research and development applications. is of significant importance. many cases. The high loading level& and extreme confinement experienced by most practical sabot designs. and to avoid the excessive effort required by the purely empirical design and proof testing approach.Aal technique described in the following paragraphs was developed for dynamic failure characterization of materials by actual gun launch testing. Particularly during the early stages . I - 4-2 . yielding the precise relative motion of projectile and sabot parts during the initial free flight period. 4-2.which effectively penetrates the muzzle blast cloud. Conventional shock testing machines produce the correct type of loading but the acceleration pulse magnitudes and durations experienced by gun projectiles cannot be duplicated readily. To rectify these deficiencies in material failure property characterization methods for gun projectiles.. use of subscale modeling techniques permits the acquisition of considerably more information for a given amount of expended effort than could be obtained if the initial experimental research were carried out in full caliber size. It is clear from this treatment that failure characterization of the materials involved is as critical as the accurate determination of loading conditions for the prediction of useful design criteria and limits. coupled with the high loading rates involved in gun ballistics. the yield and failure strength limits must be determined under a variety of known multiaxial stress conditions with inertial loading applied in the rapid pulse form associated with gun projectile acceleration. Aerodynamic drag is utilized to decelerate the STV . AIN - . 4-2 DYNAMIC FAILURE CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS UNDER GUN LOADING CONDITIONS Analytical methods for structural design of sabot projectile configurations are described in detail in Chapter 3. the experimentalist usually is faced with the necessity for conducting a large number of tests to study the detailed effect of design on sabot structural and launch dynamic phenomena..

4-2 is induced by the inertial reaction of the sample mass to the gun acceleration environment. The F M. A typical STV utilized in this experimental method. Similarly. produced by launch acceleration is given by area frictest the modified 37 mm smoothbore gun system was used for feasibility study of the structural test vehicle. In most cases. is the sample cross-sectional area at Section A-A.A . smoothbored to 1. 4-2. The gun was adjusted to fire the STV's at near zero elevation angle. bore friction f is either neglected or an approximate value is used unless very accurate experimental results are required.AMCP 706445 Safter • muzzle transition to ensure that stresses induced in the sample by impact deceleration are sufficiently small (compared to the gun launch-induced loads) to prevent masking of the launch-induced material response. dynamic failure characterization method.f) x // same basic design can be used for a variety of specimen loading conditions by modification of the specimen holder and restraining devices. Interior design details are presented in Fig. diameter. 4-1. W Peak stress induced in the sample material during the ballistic cycle occurs when (PbA f) is a maximum. Final impact point of the aerodynamically unstable projectile is spotted by direct observation for reoovery purposes.3 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES The a l eaA The axial acceleration a induced in the structural teat vehicle (STV) mass A! by the gun shot base pressure Pb is given by a PbA M (4-1) where A is the gun bore cross-sectional and f is the projectile-gun bore surface tion force. is shown in Fig. Typical flight range of the STV's before initial ground impact was approximately 500 4-3 . Maximum stress a in the tensile test specimen occurs at Section A-A and is given by F A (4-3) where A. if necessary. Maximum stress is induced at the forward end of the narrow cylindrical section by setback acceleration of the mass at the base of the tent section and the mass of the aft portion of the test section.530-in. includes all of the specimen mass aft of the section marked A-A. coupled with multiple gun tests under similar interior ballistic conditions. 4-2.a (4-2) For the tensile test specimen configuration illustrated in Fig. Combining Eqs. The setback force F on the sample loading mass M. Smoke-tracer mixes have been used to assist in projectile recovery. designed for launch from a 37 mm gun. Reductions in the diameter of the test section are made until the launch acceleration produces yielding or failure.2 LOADING ANALYSIS M As (44) . Structural loading of the tensile test sample shown in Fig. 4-1. 4-2 for uniaxial tensile testing of the test specimen material. 4-2. and 4-3 yields the final result for the maximum material stress as a function of experimentally determined quantities: Ms (P-. gun chamber pressure P is directly measured and the shot base pressure Pb is determined by theoretical or experimental means to be some fraction of the measured chamber pressure. J. to determine yield and failure limits for the test material under realistic gun loading conditions. because of terrain requirements. 4-2. Systematic variations in geometry of the test samples are made. the shot base pressure Pb and bore friction f are not directly measured quantities unless sophisticated interior ballistic methods are used'.. In general.

No indication of damage to the structural test samples due to impact deceleration was observed during the firing series. Stiuctrwa T"•t Veicle M4-4 . 4-3: 1IA Kr it NFgurf 4. Approximately 80 percent of the projectiles launched in this manner were recovered for examination. 4-3. Impact deceleration damage to the sample holder assembly was confined to the replaceable end caps and obturation components. Typical oscilloscope records obtained from fixings made during the STV evaluation series are shown in Fig. The gun was instrumented with quartz piezoelectric pressure pes for measurement of pressure-versus-time in the propellant combustion chamber. The following are gun loading conditions for the typical upper photo of Fig.. Refurbishment and retest of the STV's with new test samples was found to be practical and economical. An additional pressure gage was located near the gun muzzle to determine travel time and pressure conditions near the gun mu".AW0P706446 yd.zle.

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The small oscillations superimposed on the chamber pressure traces were relatively constant from test to test ind were not -. no "sidered objectionable for these research -valuations of material response to gun acceleration conditions. Peak gun chamber pressure values used for computation of projectile peak acceleration were obtained from these photographs and similar high speed oscillograph recordings. 4-2.4 RESULTS OF FEASIBILITY STUDY Feasibility of the STV procedure for determination of material dynamic fracture properties under actual gun acceleration conditions was confirmed by conducting a limited series of tests on representative projectile structural materials, primarily in the uniaxial tension test mode. A summary of selected test results is presented in Table 4-1. Static mechanical properties obtained on conventional testing machines are included for comparative purposes. The static test samples were fabricated of thi same bar of material used for fabrication of the gun launch test samples. Typical examples of metal and plastic tensile test samples after gun-launch testing are shown in Figs. 4-4 and 4-5, respectively.

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REFERENCES 1. AMCP 706-150, Engineering Design Handbook, InteriorBallistics of Guns. 2. W. G. Soper, Scale Modeling. International Science and Technology, Feb. 1967. 3. Langhaar, Dimensional A nalysis and Theory of Models, John Wiley & Sons, N.Y., 1951. 4. Sedov, Similarity and Dimensional Methods in Mechanics, Academic Press, N.Y., 1959.

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i. I .AMCP 706-44 ej "I I Appendix B e• SUMMARY OF STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES FOR MATERIALS USED IN SABOTS .

....0-48 .0 105-230 78.0 51.0-41.33-0..5 13.9-41. .5 50.4 41...6 131-149 43...0-158..0-177..5-30.0-113 17 .0 .i" ~- .0-18. .7-23.6-44..0 68..30 -.0 - -- 12.. 0.0 30... .385-0....0-200.5 2..29 11.-. 14.0-45...0 41.0 45. 10-35 6. -. kcuction of ae.. -- 0..0-30.0 ..3-27. Nodulus )f 1 Ue$ltv... . -- Str a Kj0 . .0 18..........0 23.0-45.... 0.3 -- Coup Str Notcý 6 2-T4 70W9-TS 7076-T6 7079-T6 7178-T6 .0 42. .... 1itt| Pollson's II [l lim Ratio Stylnth.-..5 Sptcif Str a Specif 0.0 43..0 15.0 0.0 .....ckA lloy 718 el St*e01 Carbon and Low 0 ..0 10. -- 30 .0-27.0 6.4 0.0-14.0-38..28 --..0-33.7 12...36 -- 5.3 59..34 .4-16.0-130.0-28..1-8.3 5-60 ...279-0.0 174-275 36....2-6..0 -- Str a Comp.7-61...7-3.... St Wngtho Hoduwum 10 psi 6. -- 30....0 225...5 Mg-gy-0... 18NI 250 grade . Lead AlZloys M gm wetw Cast Extruded Forged .0 9. % SttanRth$ Imosion 10psi 10psin.0 -- 12.4 Comp. 350 grade Stainless Steel 181Cr.0 15..7 5...33-0.- -- 4.0 81....6-36..0 70.0 -100....0 6..9-7..3 ...3-26..... 6.. 18NI.0 1./n.4 194-200 -12.0-4......0 .0-188 91.....2-9.0-50.2 26..25C ing Me• t 17.0 .0-72.0 .0 -- 32.0 10.4 11.8-13.5 3r 14g-14Lt-0...3-10..86 .8 .0 47-75.0-25.......7-31.6-15.6-12..0 12.0 2..9 20.. 46....9 9.2-36..... 60-150 5.2 29.Material 4Ztimw At4ope Iwc¢... 52..0 51. 36...6-36.5-15.0-88..0 26.0-5.....6-16..0 Spec5 I 0.1 178-185 98-210 89.0 -.9-165 . . .3 230.4 oSer Coefficient of Linear Thenu l RIV Spec Str 9. PyF A) e A36-Ti 6-10 25. ... 178-183 175-250 110-290 174-290 . 8i1 AISI 301 AISI 321 .0 -*Not 0.0 30..... .0 78 6.... -- Str a Chirp Str a Std C .0-21.9 34. 75-180 --.0 .6 11.0 6....4 11.. Shear Tensile Yield Ultimte Tensile tlona- tion. 35-175 143-233 33.0-100.0-40.0 46.. Knc 6.5 0. 6. 90.5 40.....0 . 10..9 89 .0-52.0-62. . 30.0-78.9S1 N i.0-264.0 6.0-60..0-55..0-25..0-30..0 ..0 -.0 8. Copper and Copper AZi•oje Pure Cu Cartridge Brass Berylliu Copper 0..0635-0.0 54.5 19-39 .276-0..4 .7-03.0-11.. .0 33. -- .. ..296 0.6 40...3 5.. 0...0-61..0 ...3S1 .0-.307 -0.. 9 .0-41.0 16.324 0.100 6061-TI -- 10.3-6. 233-335 0.1 10........406 17. 8..0 58.286 -- 28..066 --- 14......0 40.0 8.0-68.0 2..8 ....1-13. 105 psi 10' psi 3..1 Thi 7 specit -- Alloy AISI 1040 4130 AIS I AISI 4140 AISI 4340 Gun Steel SAE 6145 HY-80 HY 130/150 (5N1-Cr-Mo-V) H-11 H-19 (Tool Steel) 9Nt-4Co-0.0-3. -..F 11.. ..5-7.4 66..8 .7. 52 5-15 12.0 15.0-9.0-167.0-56...0 40. 4-14.? ..... ... . -- 15..284 .0 25.7-10....0 SSeries 31.29 • .323-0..0-150.in..6-50.0-8. -- Charpy 190-250 27.0 28.302-0.7 13.1 109 56-68 16-22 140-182 225-305 204-215 185-295 150-300 283-300 339-346 ...6 90-215 200-253 85.0-11..0-16.5 40..0 30.4 -... .8 4.32-0. Str at ' Charp 128.0 10.......0 Mg-141t-0. 10 ..0 134.0-32. 1.0 --- 6.5 .....0 2.4 9-10...06-0.......0-75.0-22.8-6.104 .0-47.0 --- $tr Comp.1-85.6 1OC.285-0.0 w -4.0-195..0-120 -.0 19.1-13.9 52.0-70..1 56.0-25.. --...0-16. 42.4 35-40 8....0 17.0 14.... 27...9 17.....8 10. --..0 5.0-18..36 0.. 20.0-11.0 46.26-0.3-9.0-22.....

Therul Seta r St ýfqth.k8 static str. WpM ---.6 Str at c . 6P 80 68.0 --- Speciitc Heat a 0. .0-21.'. ..5 Specific Heat m 0..06-1.. 52. 8..08 unnotched str. ./in-sec • 1. Notched Itr a 0.0-150. .3 5. 2 Soecific Heat a 0.0 39 -- Charpy V-notch energy absorption a 53-113 ft-lbf .0 72. Thermal conductivity ./n-sec -•P Kic .4 128.128-206 ksi 14. Thermal conductivity ./inTsec w 1. S.2-6. 48.17-1. Specific Heat . 9..0in. str . 83/ ./in.1-13..6-30..-F.7 ksi /T1 Std Charpy energy absorption .115 Btu/lbm.94-1. 60-150 -- 8.0-41. Notched ttr - 0.0 ksi.33 static Str.05 unnotched str.70 unnotched str 2 Camp.7-23. static sW..0 41..12 Btu/lbm-•"..--.032 Btu/lbm. Charpy V-notch energy absorption .0 ft-lbf C -40°F.14 static str.10 1. .Knc 6.4-16.75 Btu/(hr) (ft 2 ) (°F/ft)..0 . Thermal conductivity 16-19 4tu/khr) (ft 2 ) (OF/ft).70 static str.O0n. -- 9.. Notched str - 1.16-20 ft-lbf. Thermal Conductivity • 90 Btu/(hr) (ft ) (°F/ft).47 unnotched str.. Str at 1.188-201 ksi.I static strength q 5660in41n.47 ur... 1./in-sec u 1. Notched str 0 - 1.23 *tu/lIm OF. str .7 .0 14.44 static str.sac .0 ..3-9.10l0n. 62.*fficimt of tlotn amre./tfn. ComP.. 1.05-1.48..- 0. .2-9.0-52.5 12.0-22. Ctharpy V-notch onbrgy absorption .4 .40-0.0..800 In/in.c .0 .0 24.8.1.0 0 36.4 -- Imrks Specific Heat . .27.06 unhotched str.96-0.. 75-180 -- ...13 static str. 1001n. Str at 10.13 static str.97 unnotchad str.Btu/lbm-°F. str .5-12.0 F.oF 11. Limer Wm~on . Chirpy V-notch energy absorption • 5. itr m43-50 ksl.23-1. Notched strength . Str at 6600 In/in. * RT.25-25.4 11.0 --.0 16.1. Notched str .214.1. .3 ksl /To.04 static str.15 static str. Specific last a 0.0 S -- Camp.notched str.0 35. .On.0 Stt at > 100in41nrsac . -.14.5-7..notch energy absorption .. .19 static Str at 1.107 *tu/lbi-°F. Str at 10in.4 90..9 .7 kl A'n. 56.sac 1. "s 10"' In.2 Btu/(hr) (ft') (OF/ft).3 ./Inrsec.35-60 ft-lbf ISOF. 1OOInJir sec. Charpy V.30-1..0-120 62.0. -- Str at 1.031-0. 1.28-99 ft-lbf I 30 F. 20. Camp.1 Thermal conductivity m 11.1.1.•seatS Str at Notched str m 1. Str at ...0 -- 25.26-1.0-37. Str at 7 Str at 21n.8 Btu/(hr) (ft ) (°F/ft).00.0 ft-lbf * 320F./in-nsec • 1.0-11. -- -- S. Kic ..

. 100 psi 6. 0....0 -- 400-700 100-300 7220 1. 10 psi 10.oe EpoAy Methyl Methacrylate Nylon Polycarbonate (GE "texan") 65.0 0.036-0.0 -.00020 -..0-154 100-105 106-141. Tensile Yield Strgngth.9-54. 105-172 117 55-110 Specifl 650-850 480-510 540-750 .12'.. Comp..0060 0.....29v 0.35-0.0412-0.040 0.0386 Rigid Polyvinyl0.0 40...80-2.... 0.6-13.2 146-195 -- Ultimate Tensile Stringth.in..0 Spect..5 155-15.824i -- (43508F) 75.0-9.28 %)..2 3..07n RNMSP Sheet Plaett.288 20.4 .. Elpansion.5-2.. 4.o 10. Charpj BiaI Notchl KIC • KIC " Bulk q Strength.0394-0. 3SHf-...7 53.. .041 0./In.0 3.5..30-1..049 0.0475 .055 0. .60 0.- -- -- 30.0 0. 16..0020 0.5 0.8-4.34 - Shear Modusus .0002-0. -.50 0.. 10 psi 123-197 110-122.0026 .0 6. .286-0.-°F -86...5-8.0336-0.00060 0.0 3b-110 . 83-167 ..6 ElongAtion.0 5.9 . ....5-5. Comp..1r-n. .....17 0.BSn TI-6A1-4V TI-6A1-6V-2Sn 16W2-16. ..0004-0.. 0.163 --- ElestJcity 0 E.8 8. 27-29 39-61.2 Comp..025-0.. 0.00011-0..( F) (3800 F) -- W-12Cb-o.8-44.0 8. .047 0..525-0.0-16...0-3... -- 2....32-0.5 115-156 150-202 15.0383-0.090 0.... Density.3-167 3.. Izc Spect Unnot- Polyethylene.5 5. 50-300 60-110 . 0.014-0.0 0..- TI-SAI-2.1 -.054 chloride R'bb•ra Polyisobutylene Butyl Rubber Polyisoprene Rubber Polyurethane 0.043 0....6-43. % 5..2 tngstsn AZloys W-4R-O.9-21.033 0.4 2.0 15-24. .0-11.. -..1.0 --. .0325 Polystyrene 0. lbn/cu.7-50.4 33-45 28-33 ... 0.0 5. .60 0.0-43. 0.0346 high density Polypropylene 0. --- 0.0 12.5-16... 130D0 F) 190-215 190-216 ...0-25 --.0-12.0 50.. 10 psti 15.8-36.in.0-15..2 3.... 1 10....042-0.. Z-0-6.35 3.4-16.033 low d _nsty Polyethylene 0.37 .9 16. 8. 10• psi 92.. -...40-0..7 Shear Coefficient of Linear Thermal ReNar.2-16...033 0.604 ..0 .Modulus of Material itanmim and Ptanim Alloys Poisson's Ratio v 0.. 1. .? -0.6 Reduction of Iroe.50 -- 0.5 >.20-0..16-0.00015-0.000040..

-- Unnotched Izod energy absorption .. KIC a 32-95 ksi /fT1 10.. .1 --..12 Sutic Sir.33 Btu/lbm-OF. Specific Heat a 0..5 k$i.. Notched str 1. S. Specific Heat .0.4 33-45 28-33 36-110 9 Specific Heat • 0.0-11.135 unnotched str.6-43.11.30 *tu/lbn-°F..0 50. -. -- 2.0 3.42 Btu/lbm•-F..1.2 3.55 *tu/Ibm.32 ft-lbf.3-42.7-50. 1 Charpy V-notch enery absorption * 17-28. Izod energy absorption - 0.. lpRneaonr 10 psi 10" ln/tni-*F 1 Ranarks 0 !.. -- .0 40.6 x 106 psi.....07-1.53 unlaxill str. - Comp. Specific Heat * 0. Str 0 700 in/in/sec .0.15-30 ft I RT. S.0-43.10 83-167 83-167 3..AMCP 70644 Reduction of area.. . str . -. -.33 Btu/lbm-°F.5-13.35 3. 105-172 117 .. .11./Irn-..8-44. Notched izod energy absorption 0. 0 S.46 Btu/(hr) (ft 2 ) (OF/ft)..5 ft-lbf I 32 F.. Bulk modulus ...30 unnotched str. 2. Notched it-.Charpy V-notch energy absorption .5 ft-lbf.31.2 Specific Heat .. 16..4 kst * 2. 42. 11 Coefficient of Sheer Linear Themal St~ength.20-0. KIC ..8 kst. Thenral conductivity |zod V-notched energy absorption • 10-16 ft-lbf. . S. Comp. Str at c • 1.19-1. 4.5-5.8-36.F. 55-110 BS/B .. S.'.35 ft-lbf.0 ksi. str .37 uniaxlal str.9 -- . Str 5II20in.Oinjinrsec Biaxial str . str .1 -1. .7 -86. Biaxial str a 1.ec * . - Comp. ..0 27-29 39-61.35 static str.12.104-106 ki1 An..

and Notch Toughness . Cadillac Plastics and Chemical Co. 13 November 1908. "( B-7 . 8 November 1967. J. "Plastics: Sheet. T. and V. Barth. Report No. 3 February 1967. Suppl. P. 22 August 1967. St: Uermain. Weiss. 5 August 1966. Kendall and T. Asche and MR. 24 May 1967. R.I INS 72/66. Watervliet Arsenal. Davidson. 20 March 1968. Benet Laboratories. Battelle Memorial Institute. "Ferrous Alloys". Mechanical Properties of Metals. 1I. J. Aluminum and Magneslum. Doughtie. Maykuth. New York. Film". 13 May 1966.. RMSRP Tungsten Sheet.B. Isue". Mass. 2. 22 March 1967. Report No. Tube. Battelle Memorial Institute. 26 April 1968. 8. Technical Report WVT-6618. 10.H. 23 August 1968. Titanium and Titanium Alloys. et al. Effect of Tempering on the Strength. 1951: 7. J. Sel ayMrn Engineering Laboratory. Van Orsdel. 4. 17 October 1967. DeFries. Eds. 29 May 1968. DMIC Review of Recent Developments. Vallance and V.S. 1966. 5..J. Battelle Memorial Institute.of HY-130i150.A. Benet R E Laboratories. Vol.. August 1965 (AD-625 374).S. 13. F.Selector No. 24 February. Mo. R.. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. DMIC Review of Recent Developments. Solar: A Livision of International Harvester Co. K). Eds. U. Groeneveld. 5 December 1967. Wood and D. Reading. Mechanical-Property Data HP 9Ni-4Co25C Steel: Tempered Plate. November 1966 (AD-807 425). D. 16 December 1966. 9 July 1965 (AD-6Y7 733). Metallurgical Characteristics of High Strength Structural Materials. Campbell. Technical Report WVT-6629. Evaluation of. tligh-Strength Steels. Inc. Naval Research Laboratory. Argon. 19 July 1968. DMIC Review of Recent Developments. Mechanical Behavior of Materials. ASD-TDR-63-741. Design of Machine Elemtents. Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook. Materials ~Engineering. Defense Metals Information Center.D. 27 July 1966. Defense Metals Information Center. McGraw-Hill Book Co..G. 15. A. 27 September 1968. Rod. Mid-October S1967. Puzak. Defense Metals Information Center. 20 December 1967. Watervliet Arienal. 16. 23 November 1966.. An Evaluation of Elevated Temperature Materials for the 81 mm Mortar Tube.E. 3.P.P. Ta. 6364 (8th Quarterly Report).AMCP 706445 REFERENCES .S. J. Gross. 19 January 1968..S.P. October 1966 (AD-803 546). Defense Metals Information Center. 9. Bartlett. DMIC Review of Recent Developments. ER 1399-6. 1966 Catalogand Price List.L. Refractory Metals (Cb.A. 10 May 1968. 1967. 12. 4. Battelle Memorial Institute.. May 1966 (AD-637 217). 4. 16 February 1968.. Report No. McClintock and A.. "Materials Vol. Sessler and V. March 1967 (AD-819 736).. AF Materials Laboratory. AF Systems Command.E. 16 November 1966. 24 August 1967. Inc. 6. AF Materials Laboratory. DMIC Review of Recent Developments. W. Battelle Memorial Institute. 1 September 1967. Report No. Hardness. March 1966 (AD-630 464). E. The Effect of Strain Rate on Yielding in High Strength Steels. Hallowell. 28 July 1967. F. 5. 1. Defense Metals Information Center. 66. 14.

Dynamic Compression Testing of Shock Mitigating Materials. 19..M.17.C. Extruding High Density Polyethylene for Quality and Savings. J. Paper presented at the 11th Annual Wire and Cable Symposium held in Asbury Park.H. N. 28 20. Report No.S. and J. 9 Januay 1966(AD-639062). 1 October 1965 (AD-477 279). 28-30 November 1962 (AD-656 065). E. Hinckley. General Properties of the New Super-Polyethylenes. Rand and W. NOLTR 66-39.L. U. J. Naval Ordnance Laboratory.J. J. Dynamie Compression Testing of a Strain-Rate Material.P.S. Naval Ordnance Laboratory. Paper presented at the 4th Annual Wire and Cable Symposium held December 1955 (AD-656 389).S. Yang. G. NOLTR 65-10. Marshall. Sollenberger. Report No. iv~lf B-8 .l. A 18. Stiles. U. Rand.

ELASTIC BODIES 'Part A: Program Listing (UNIVAC 1108. FORTRAN IV) Part B: Input Data Part C: Additional Remarks and Output Data _ C-i .AMCP 7004U Appendix C A FINITE ELEMENT PROGRAM FOR DETERMINING THE STRESSES AND STRAINS IN AXISYMMETRIC.

PROGRAM LISTING (UNIVAC 1108.ifUMPCACEL~e tNG~te.n Z(L)=?CL-1)+DZ UR(L)=0.#ýUMFLNJUYkAT0t!UMPrACELZPANIGF.3).1001) MTYDF.0 UZ CL) :0.PACELZ.lI:NUjMTC) DO SP 1= NUMTC#6 005Se J=108 59 E T.P(900) .2002) (KVP'CAL:E('(K).).90PAO 8r CODE(I. I HH(6.TN NL=L4 1 ZX:N-1.AT..PART A .5) 140l NJNN4I IF (%*-N) 170#170#150 IX(N-2V1IX(N-1 e2)+l IX(NvS)=1X(N-1.(.CCQ.T(QOO) eIPc(200) j'3C(?On) .NUMELNUMi%4ATNUMPC. 2 CODF(900).NI.2n04) L=O 60 READ(5.XI(10) sEE(7)@Ix(aoot5ShrP%(pflo) COMMON /BANARG/ M-RAM!D.UR(ItKdpUZ(XK~hT(KK).lfl) .*NUMMAT RFAD (5.KR(10R) eA(108.10).JFTYrr).U('.JvMTYPE)=r(NUMTCJ.M. OR= (P(N) -P(L) )/ZY DZ=(Z(N)-?(L) )/ZX 7D L=L.ANP.7(900) .RO(12) .?'7(5).A WPITF (6.5) ' C-2 ..F(6.RR(4).PP(20n). AND YATERIAL PROPERTIES SM READ (5o100) I4Efl.0D6of. SAND# 'EMPvMTYPEQvNPt 1 HEO(12h#E(8ePe 12) .J:1.TT(4).R(KK).4) .MTYPE). FORTRAN IV) ) GN FIR ý.1002) COEr)*()Z().(i0) .1 IF(N-L) l1fI.AN(LE(#) COMMON /ARG/ PRR(5) .Rk) .w4) COMMON /PLANE/ tJPP READ ANDl PRINT OF COtJTOOL INFORMATTO'.GNP IF (PO0P) 54o56#. T(L)=T (L-1 ) KT GC TO 70 OP WPITEC6.54 5u WPITF (6P2008) 56 DO 50 M1.ANGFO.!JU'A(l~IP.ýMTCPO(MTYPc') XvNNj(UTYPE) RFAD (5#ln 0 5 ) C(E(!.=I:NUmTC) WRITE (6P2010) ((E(IJ.6n 1119 CtINT TT10E C PEA)~ AND PRINT OF ELEMkEliT PROPEPTIIcS WRITF (6P2001) N=O0 130 READ (5p1003) MvCIYCMsI)pI~i.ZZ(4) .QNPPNPP WRITE (6#2000) HED.)0O.10.J:1.Z(KVI) .~Jilpl¶TC.PO(MTYPF) X.XXNN(12) .10).NtJMRL.UR(900) eLZ(900).S(10.'4(6.KK=NLN) *2 *C C 'I 10M WRITE (6P2009) N IF(Nt)MNP-N) 100.O.110.R).!xN(MTYPE) WPITF (6P20111 MTYtDE.LM(4)hnO(3.%ITYPE) b1 CONTINUE READ "NOJ PRINoT OF UODAL POINT DAT..ILýON) C APPITRARY AXISYMNFTRtC SOLTOS COMMON ýJUMNPN4UMELNUMA.TP(6).D().

NUmEL 35M EPS(fj)=O.3) 2003 FORMAT (1113p4lIb1112) 2004 FORMAT (10aHINODAL POINT TYPE R-OPnINATE Z-ORDINATE R LO IAD OP DISPLACEMENT Z LOAD OR DISPLACEM'ENT TFMPERATURE I 200S FORMAT (29HOPRESSURE POUNPARY CONDITIONS/ q4 N I J PRESS lURE 2006 FORMAT (12HIN.13 / 5 30HO AXIAL ACCFLEPATIO .P.2t2Fl2.nl 1002 FORMAT (I5#F5.2 C SOLVE t'ON-LINEAP STRUCTURE lY SUCCFSSIE AOPROXIMATIONS DO 35n N=1. NUMBER leX 2HU1 1BX 2HUZ / (1112.E(2*9-I).1006) I|C(L).E12.n D0 500 NNN=1PNP C FORM STIFFNESS MATRIX CALL STIFF C SOLVE FOR DISPLACEMENTS CALL RANSOL WRITE (6t2006) (N.325P320 32f J:KK 325 CONTINUE 340 CONTINUE MRAND=2*J.WE READ 09iO PRIN T OF DRE'SURF IF (NYIMPC) 291193109.0 OUN'DAnVY CO"DTTONS 190 CON TU I.1200.zhI)L.I.------.13 / '4 30H0 NUMBER OF PRESSUPE CARDS ---.IUMrP) C COMPUTE STRESSES CALL STRESS 500 CONTINUE GO TO SO 1000 FORMAT (12A6/6ISlFjn.OO5FlO.1140 180 IF C (NIIEL-N) 190#IQaO1.sP(Ll 30n WRITE (6#200?1 ItC(L).4/ R 30HO NUMBER OF APPROWIMATIONS --.3v2F24*?7Fl2.0O) 100! FORMAT (SF10. I J K L MATERIAL 2002 FORMAT (I12sFj2. VATERIALS--.4/ 6 30HO ANGULAR VELOCITY-----------.E2."A 24P WPITF 46P2005) 00 300 L:IsNUmPC READ (5.13I 2 30HO NUMBER OF ELEMENTS ---------.)) A C-3 .2rI5) 1001 FORMAT (215p2F10.IRO.' DO 325 L=.JRC(L).z.q) 1003 FORMAT (615) 1004 FORMAT (215#FO. IF (M-11) IRO.13 / 3 30H4O NUMBER OF DIFF.14 KK=IAPS(IX(Nvl)-Il~f'pL)) IF (KK-J) 325.PP(L) 31n CONTINUE C DETEPMTINE RANn WITH J:O 00 340 NZINUqEL DO 340 I:1./ 7 30HO PEFERENCE TEMPERATUP .----------E12.6=1.•(2*N).a•.AMcP 70o4• (ii PART A - PROGRAM LISTING (Continued) l7• bRITV 16e2003) NehIIX(e.%) 2001 FORMAT IQ4HIELEMENT NO.0) 2000 FORMAT (41I 12A6/ I 30HO tIUMBER 1F NODAL POINTS ------.JSC(L).

TPOLK#(bhYI. 4VwfprR OF TEmPEPATURE CARDS= 1 13t 15HP MASS nOFISITY= 62?.4 vl6wvm.CPn Go Tn 210 90 CALL ()JAD(NoVIL) IF(VOL) 142.NUIT) T~mPrRATtPr laY 5HEPZ) fi AHNU(RZ) lIx 4I4E(T) 71( PHAI P.T 00). YIFLD STRE'5S *1 2011 Fr-AAT (l7HnivATrP!AL.S(IOlr.PROGRAM LISTING (Continued) (23HOPLANE 9T~rSS STRIJCTIPRr (I5Hfl 6X 0HPAtf'WA (1)7) i 200A FrRMbT 2Wlf FORMAT 200n~ FORMAT (26140N00AL (10PIT CARD ERROR N.ItU PAT.'.b C4 .00) .c..TT(IA3.I44 14P WQITF (6#2003) z ' al CC= I .n.jnC(20f'! .NL40 AC.200' CORPART A .hrC(.10)./9N~i ?'PP .%r'LU5 RATIO= 0!1.LM(4).N(lO) 44 COMMrN /PLANE/ PJTlTIALIZATION RE*I1.~s1. 'NGFC.F(A.ANGLF(4) COMMONJ /ARG/ IqRF(5) .)I II OX c. 2 COnr(QOO). RAND#TEMP#MTYPEPQ@NP. 0 14 C :S(115n 11=3SC1#9 1 P(1 X) :p( 1)-CCOP( 10) DC 1'.flO(3.33e CfI~ C .@I ) NA) Qn .7'7(s) ..JJ) CC=S( I J 9)/S(9.H.9 15" SC IIJfl:(JJ)=sIo r)c.* (NUMALK +I TIJ rLOCKC VSH1FT=2*NL-2 00 210~ NJ:I#N~jEL 7(l 1 ( TYf(I..AC'ýL'.4 ONFPSTIFF SLIRRO'ITINE STTFF COMUMONi NUMNPlIUMEL.: ?!.142."AIT) '59. '1kkMcFIP 13p !Ii.n 11 N:A27 STOP:O * Do 50 N=lN02 C FCRY STIPFN~cSS N¶ATPIX 6n NumIJMLK=UMBLK 41 NH=NP.O) PC I!)zP( I)-Cc*P(9) DO 16nf JJ:1.2On.Pino(Iln .0 JJ:l.

0*RIJl IF IkPP) 262..NUMPC .0 IF (ICDE(J)) 2 91#20 291 SINA:SINICOOF(J)) 2 0~ 2 9 AC- .SINA$rnR) DIII ):=E II)-RE'(S1P:A.41 0O 200 1=1#41 DO~ 2fl0 K=1*2 I1ZLVt#I)*K-KSI4IFY KK:2*t-E+K 00.'HIT JJ:=2*J-KSHIFT IF (11) 260o2tkOs26S 26w. I)*P (J) R)X:2.0 2(Ai lKS.P'20'7? 271 SJNAZZ1N (COOIL(1)) COSA=COS(COOE I ) 27p B(II-1):8(1I-1)sPgwqC0SA*fl?.0 60 TC 210 200 CONTINUE 21n~ COtJTINIJE 0!0 CIAJCENTRAED F(nýrS WITHINT C 00 2%0 NZbIL#NP OL')#CK 'I DEKI:R(K)+UZ(N) 251) RIK-l)=5(K-1)+UREWd BOUNPARY CONDITONS C 1.jj)-cc*sl9#jj) C AD0 ELEMENT STIFrMESS TO TOTAL STT7FNPSS 165 00 166 1:1.fl IF Ir0r.200.'I7-COSAbOP) 260 IF (JJ) 3000nfl028'r.J:-JC EL) PP=PP(Ll/6.?*I.IF (-D)27ft#270@28') 270 SINA:0.R( ZX:R( I )2.0*.0 IV WIUMPC) 2600320#P60 COSA=1. PPESSURC Bete C 2bi Do 300 L=I. 28A IF (JJ-ND) 290#?90e30'1 29A SINA=0.%E(I)) 271.175 17' 1F(Nr-JJ) 180*195#195 181 WPITF (6P200*) N ST0Pu1 .AMOP 706-445 PART A .262 262 RY=3.0 COSAZ1. 2P0 L=IP2 LL=2*J-2*L IF(JJI 200.?66.PROGRAM LISTiNG (Continued) 16" S(IITJJ)=S(1I.

V-NUMNP) Lr 60p4Q0Ce&&O- 2 ()ON FORMAT (26HNE1GATI"E AcFA FLIFFNT too.4).viRAtJDpf~U) '.:UR (m) 316 311 314 37fl 380 N=2*4-1-KSMIFT IF (CODEIm)) 390'o400#316 IF fC0I'E(M)-1.T(J))4T(K[.%M~AfjD0.0 DO 103 PzgoeS '4D8 CNTINJUE ENfi FILE 11 IF(STOP) 49o.aOfIFY(A.) ZZ('4) .JSC(20n).-PART A -PROGRAM LIOTING (Continual)' CflSA=COs(fro0E(.)9DO(3e3)6 I . r u.W4(6..TT(4).m. RETOP1i C-6 .500#Qqo 49A CALL FXIT 50.'aOO 31W.R(QOO).315.LM('.4H(AIO)hRR('. NPSPL*crpova ro.0 DO 420 fft).Iro(12) .J~ 29? Pfjj_:)mjjj)*pIJ1~ZxwtcjSA*PZ#SINAonp) h 1JJ)20(JJh7-X* (STNO On?C('SAeflP) 3uco CONTINUE 2.l0) .5 (10e#ln).VPTTE ALOCK OF FOtPATIWIPS ON TAPE 010C SWIFT UP LOWER SLOC'C C 00 4P'A N=1.?7(90fl) eR(9OO)@UZf9 0)I 2 CODE 1Q00) T(9003 .. 3) Lz I x 1.NUMEL#IfU%WPATNU~4PCPACF~LZeANGFVPPRANOiTEMPPMTYPEo~NP.ftZX(NP2) K= IX I N.ANGLEfI) COMMON /ARG/ PRR(S).f(6.0 IF (t.T(L))/4.) 31e7Oe37031 IF (COUE(m)-?.c..6) F(6e1O)' IP(6).9et.E(8.00 CONT IPJ)E .MnANnl.) 3qEA.MU) N:Nf+ I CALL N'ODJFY(AdsEk~fC2.XKNtI(12) .PP(70) .) 31AP30rola IF (COIE(M)-3. 1'4) 2004 FORMAT (29MOP0tED WIDTH EXCEEDS ALL'%WABLE a QN Fmq OUAr' SUPPOUTINE AL'Afl(NoVoLl COMMONa NUYNP.S1 C POR~4 STRFSS-STPATihJ RCLAT!ON~SMtp TEmP:(T(I).Nr B(NJLVNK) 8(K )=0.3gCP390 CALL .???(5I .tJ) GC TO 400 CALL WODIFY(A#8@ND2.ypCf~lO) .ND?. C 31m~ nlO d4fl M=NLeNH IF CM-NUMNP) 315.ND A(N#Y)=A(K#M3 '421~A(K. 4) PTYPF=IX(N.')=O.M.Pg0).C(4.XtIlO) COMmAN /PLANE/ NPP . 0 t HErOc1P .8.

4EE2)) Oft TlP AS .0 Do 9S'IJJ.VKIC. a' r -j 91 RA.341.O Ctu# 1=.-MC PART A -PROGRAM 7041 LISTING (Contipud) 103 CA~NT I NUE 10is RAT~zfl.~*)=-EE(2)/EEm1 Cii 1)=1.1eWlYPF)-EIM-1.7 log crlKv):EIkf-l.II#O.rP%1N) * Erm=)EEII).1RR5 3.3) C: ý.1):C (1.Q3 9(M 9pC 9.XK. !mm)ZI..2) C(3-3V0O. IK-:1. C-7 .1 .1MTYPC)) TCMP:YEMP-O IF fIDSR.TYPE .C i?) C(2@1)ZCI 1.?izC(2.5*EE( 1/(X.3) CALL SYMINV(Cv3l c FORM QUAnRILATERAL STTFPICSS MATRIX DO 94 0=1#I.O* DNrN:'M.PATIO*(E(weKK..-r(M-jv*I eVTYPk) IF fVcf'l 70071070f 71 Dc 1pl.O/E() Cf2*3)Cf 13) cc 3.1.MTYPr).PATIO [~EEM=1EMO)RATIO 104 CONdTtINUE 1l~t~1l C(1*2I:COMM.

XI + VfLV~'L: (1I3 CALL TrýISTF(394#5) VCL=VflL+XI 1) 9 ON FIQ TRQISTF SUARCNITINE TPTlSTF(Tl.oz?(s2Yi#IN(l12).PROGRAM LISTING (Continused~i IF (K-I ) 125# 120# 125 12n CALL TklIiTF(lo?#3) '0T( 30 CALTkISTF(4v1.U~t.. INGFpoMAND.J~jKK) ciV4imtrti NUMf4P. CfMmf /Ef~1FAPO/ .ýAT.J)=O.(903e C CCMM("lI /PLANE/ PIPP 1.C %e4 D(3vw)X1 (l)*C(4s42 C-8 .I2).PART A .NUPMEL .. ItIITIALI7AT!0'J) Lk'(11=11 LM(3):KK RQ (1) PRR (1!) RR(?):QRRP(JJ) RD13:=PRR(KK) RP (4):RPR (TI) ZZ(2:=ZZZ(JJ) Z?(3)=?ZZ(KK) ZZ(4:=ZZZ(1!) F(!.NIUdPC *ArELZ.#h.p(V~ln).IJR(40) .0' 1nD(I#5)=X (.5) CsLTRISTF(lo2o5) CALL TRISTF(P#3#5) .YTEMPeMTYPCOeh.t9004).

125.6 124 COfNTTNUE 00 140 1=1010 00 1'"' K=106.. 130 !34 Do 110 J=tl iIJ:i. 1J)OS!NA -TEM*STNA1. FORm COEFFICTENT.13.p P13M 120 00 129 1=1. 00 120 1=103 10H(6tJ3:DmO(3qI) 00 12's J=1@2 I:LM(J) IF (ANGLE(I)) 122.r.. 13:XI(6).33+yl*C44 D(3t6)=XJ(13*IC(1.PROGRtAM LISTING (Continued) b..*COSA 125 CONTINUE ~ CSo ~ FORM ELEMENT CTIFFNESC WATRIV 00 130 J=101O ('0 130 K=%@6 124 H(K@TJ): '3.Dii.125 122 SINA=StNAANGLFCI)l COSA=COS(ANOLE(l) 3 k~ ~4*)IF 'y 1 TEM=H(Kv U-I) H(K.C13.I3r1j C-9 . )=(RR(33-PP(23 /CVmM Dn( 3 e?3:(RPu13-PpgI))/C0MW.M II4(KJl3 lP8&130#O.13:(ZZ(2)-ZZ( 33 /COMW D0012.-O1SPLACEMENT TRANSFORMATION MATRIX 0C(lt 1=2)RI)p(3Z(2) -eRi i)*Z7(I) 3/COYM DC(2.6 C 4.(.H(Ko1J.COSAM(K.AMCP 70644 () PART A .2)(Z?(3)-ZZ(l13 /COMW~ 0013.?Or1)3C~ 100 DO~ 110 1=1#6 00 110 Jz:1.JJ)-13:TEM.

PART A .l) /0l 00 150 £1=.~z(1V)4 TPR. Oc0 IrC J=1. C-1 .1b/3 .4) D~O 2CO N=1.pp#~Zpr DIMENSION RR(1)eZZrIPy~~o COMM9ON /PLANE/ NPP DATA X().NMAXD 11./ 6)R() j)XX6 COMMA:COmM/2I4.ort** STr(3i:comm..0 R(I) :QR (1) R()P(2) R(3) :PP(3) R(4)=(P( I ).0/0 200 CCNTTNUE QN FjQ VITF0 SUBROUTINE lNTEP(X1.NMAX A(NoI4=1 .R?) 1/2.)XJ(7) XI(4)*TTr3) C FRNA STRAIN TflAtJ..:=Comm*XI(q) PF-Tuf~tI GNFi SYVYNV TP(1ircomm*xI(?) * + OTJ + XI(1)*(TT(I).PROGRAM LISTING (Continued) ""i 6.PNMAY~) OTMEI:SION A('4.&IFORM THrPMAL LoAn %4ATPX( inC0~mw'TOt9TYPE)*ANnr. A(No J) =-A (t I.TT(A)) C0YM=-kPO(%lTYPE I ACFLZ TF 4)COMV&#3 (1 TP(5p:(QMP4.T1o% 400 410 1=1.FcOPO. '.6 DO 41n) J=1@lr0 MATPIX SUBPnOY1NE SYMINV(A.NYAX no 14(1 J:1.NPAAX 101.

0 M:ZM8ANr~ K=N-kl4 IIFiX) 235#23¶S.PART A .0 25n CONJTINUE A (Mpl :1.23n 23ft REK l:P(K)-A(K#M)*U A 0(# v) =~o.240 240 B(K):P(K)-A(NvM)*ll A (N#*Mlz0.0 00 IC-0 1:1@6 x~ I(1 :xI (1 Y% II I X4)=XRX(4)*X)(MI)*ZEI)/RI X7 E): 1=1 (2)Yo /F10 Ism) XI(I)=XI(1l.30ol0 l Do ?n 1=106 Gr O 400 '0 t 4m DO 121010 5fm XT(I)0O.Cnmm NETUPN CO ON Fellq ENDTF SOPQ('UTJNE %ioflIFY(P.tnL.240.(0)A1.n 231. I REW IINO 11V GQTC~ 120 V C C REDUCE EQUATIONS RY K~OCKS 1. K:Nhli IF(NEO-K) 250.PROGRAM LISTING (Continued) I F (11PP) 10.'4ofQptiOANrt#N#U) 2!.0 s~ M) :t0 RETUDN ON FnR RANSOL SUAROUT!NF RANSOL COWI~: /BANARG/ M.5) NL:N'J. SH.IFT RLOCK OF EQUATIONS 10m Np=NP* I S-1 .

) ':eAA N d' C WAK-C%1.NN 100 N=NlJ+ I-M DC 4P K=2@Mui NlI. WRITE RLOCX OiF PEDu1CED FQU)AT!ONJS ONj TAPF 2 IF (NULIV1LK-Np) 37 .*v)#.(NMtN9) RFTUPN ON Fl'Q STRESS SL19POUTINE STRESS COMqMON NUMNP#NUMEFL #lU0AMAYtNUMPC 0ACIM~s.F rflUATI(IfS IKOTO CARE 15n READ (11) (BIN) #(A (Nom) tm 1m)vNiJpLl Nm) ~IF ('Oli) 20#)etl0#2Arn C 3.o =. WIKSPACE 12 READ) (12) (8fN) * A r:.. RFAO NEXT SLOCx . R#FnUCE PLOCK OF LotlDTIr'NIN 201' DO' 30n NZI#N~q 22R BINA= .OC.- J= 0 LO 2K0 KzL@Mr' 25t' A I Il) =4 1 IJ-C 0A (' .ANGFOPMBANOP TEMPvMTYPEvQNPv C-12 .=N+NN 8 (NM) =P (N) 459 A (NM #NA):=8(N) IF (1110) 47S5n~ll.Ph3GRAM LIsTING (Continued) DC 1:ýO N:I#Nl 6 IN) r INM) -.n .'0 A (NW4 :0 .AC PART A .K) A (t'jL )=C 270.47i.1STITT~IC'N 40..f)/A(N l)) IVJ4 I.ýr 371K 4011r~( 1211qI)*( p. CONTINUE 300' CONT INUE C 4. " 0 C 4 2.M:PMM)eN= J *NAI) BACKSPACE 12 GO TO '400 C OPEP UNXNnWtqS IN P A0 rAY 50M K=Ol 00 h'i'n N9=1vNtJ'4FRLf DC 6nn N:=104N 479ý 6014 S(KV .6- .

1 P(V) I RP(1I:TP(2) RP(21:TP(6) 1k S16 TI :-TT(Ij 00 2l0n K=1#3 C CALCULATE ENEP6CTFImr ShA DO(NP 250 e252.44 PART A LISTING (Continued) .5) CALL 'PUAO(N#VOL) IX(N. CCMYM' AMCP 706.PROGRAM I ý-EO (-12)#E(Sofo 12) #IJO 12) ..PR(I 2.I.0 00 3Sfl P4:lNJUEL mTYPr:1r1N. I 11P(11-):8(JJ-I STn~sr-Sr Do 151 1=1#2 pP (T=rI+~(T8) DO 15n K=1#8 15M RP (I ) =PR I )-S( I +B#K *f(K) IF (COM)IS151600155 Gn TO' 165 1 T0P(I)=0.2l i 25M CC:(XPR( 1 I.YX'J(1?) vp (amp) f 7(qfnfb#UP (900) 010(900)~ /PLANE/' tpr C COMP11TE ELEMENT XKErfl.0 1nTP( I :TP(1) +HH( Ip. C-1 .:)MTYPF JJ:? a X (N.

0)**'2 RP (1) CC+CR HDR(2)=CC-CR EPSINl):SQRT((QR(lI-RRCp))*.PART A -PROGRAM LISTING (Continued).2FA. lP3EIO.1lo 10A WRITE (6P2000) 11Vn mrPPJT=MPP-TNT-1 309 WRITF: (Et2001) P.r*(SIG(l)-SIC.0)**2 SIG(5.lR~eZ()(I(h~~0 IF (YKE) 310#320..U.' CR=S0QT( ((RP(2)-Prcjfl/2.l0~.5) C-14 L.2.(RRCI .f)**2 + fRPI(4)/P. 7X 114R 7y 1HZ 4X AL4R-STRESS 4x 8HZ-STRESS 4&X 1 AHT-STRESS 3Y OHR7-STOESS 2X 10H$AAX-STRES 2y IOHM4IN-STRE5S 2 37FI ANGLE IJ-STPESS JK-STRESS SH-MAR 2001 FORMAT (17.*CC-SIlG(F5) SIG( 10) =-CX*SIN2ASIG(4 )*C()52A 1 IF (M-PRINT) 110.310 31M~ W=SORT(XPE/XKE) WRITE (6#2006) W 3?! RFTLIPN 200tM FOPMAT (7HIEL.2.SIM2A4CC SIG(flV=2.-4Pf3) )**2+(RR(2)-RP(3))**2) c C 1 r ~'IUJTT STPESSFS CALCULATE PRINCIPAL STPESSES +SIG(4)**2) CR=SPRT(((SIG(2)-SIG(l))/2. 2006 FORMAT (36HOAPPROYIMATF FUNDAMENTAL FREGUENCY E12.(2) SIG(P)=CX*COS2A+SIC(c4) . jIx~rJ2) 4 Ce At'GP ATCSAN2((J)-(vRJRI) CSINA=CSI(AJE) CX=.2.tJO. mi- . 1P6EI2.0P1F7.)=CC+CR SIG(tH) CC-CR C STRESSES PARALLFL TtC LINE T-ji .2.

60 analysis =I cy. 21 -- 30 Poisson'S ratio Modulus - Pý 31 city--E -40 of elasti- 40 Angular velocity 41 .8 maximum 11 .20 Mass density of material 21 . Elements and nodal C-15 ~C. Columns 1 . MATERIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION Te following group of cards must be supplied for each different material: IT .7(800 6 - 10 Number of elements maximum) (81710. SF10.1R Number of different temperatures for which prop. B.50 Reference temperature (stress free temperature) * .0) One card 11I .70 Coefficient of thermal - 0 xsmercexpansion * ci0 Plane stress analy-718 sis * Yil teso D. NODAL POINT CARDS .(215.15 Number of different materials (12 maximum) 16 -20 Number of boundary pressure cards (200 maximum) 21 -30 Axial acceleration in the Z-direction 31 - 10 Temperature of elasti- 11I-. and oz. .0) One of the first steps in the structural analysis of a two-dimensional solid is to select a finite element representation of the cross section of the body. F5 0.5 Materials identification -.5 Number of nodal points (900 maximum) . IDENTIFICATION CARD - First Card .51 .20 Modulus city .2.30 Ratio of plastic modulus to elastic modulus Following Cards for each teraiperature Columns 1 - (72H) Columns I to 72 of this card contain information to be printed with results. aay number from 1 to 12.AMCP 708445 PART B. 2Fl10. erties are given . 3FI0...0) Columns I . 6.-INPUT DATA The following is a description of the input data used to describe the problem to the computer: A.E.(215.50 Pois-on's ratio and P. and E. O 41 . 51 - -60 Coefficient of thermal - 55 Number of approxi= expansion mations 0 xismmeric61 56 . CONTROL 215) CARD -(415.

30 Material Identification Element cards must be in element number sequence. Order nodal points counterclockwise around element. acting on a one radian segment (o- unit ". the necessary temperatures are determined by linear interpolation.20 R-ordinate S21 - i - 30 z-ordinate 40 XR 16 . The element card must always be supplied.0) F. One card for each boundary element which is subjected to a normal pressure. Triangular elements are also permissible.20 Nodal Point K 21 . The following group of punched cards numerically define the two-dimensional structure to be analyzed. and L.. E.e. 1. If element cards are omitted. There is a card for each nodal point S.60 Temperature If the number in colunn 10 is 26 .. XR and XZ are set equal to zero. the omitted nodal points are generated at equal intervals along a straight line between the defined * (C-16 As shown above. they are identified by repeating the last nodal point number (i.25 Nodal Point L 31 - 41 . Maximum difference between no ial point ID must be less than 27.XR is the specified R-load and XZ is the specified Z-displacement. the program automatically generates the omitted information by incrementing by one the preceding I.15 Nodal Point J * it cates if displacements or forces to be specified •. All loads are considered to be total forces f. One card for each element Columns 1 . and each card contains the following information: Columns I5 Nodal point number d2. Nodal point cards must be in numerical sequence. L). Surface tensile force is input as a negative pressure. 'R is the specified R-road Rilast and XZ is the specified Z load.5 Element number Oare 6oalPit 10 Nodal Point I . J. K. .AMCP 706445 points are then numbered in two numerical sequentccs each starting with one. ELEMENT CARDS . J.. the boundary code (column 10). . the boundary element must be on the left as one progresses from I to J. Columns 1 - 5 Nodal Point I 6 ---10 Nodal Point J 11-20 Normal Pressure J " €placement. placement and XZ is the specified Z-load. K. 3XR is the specified R-displacement and •XZ is the specified Z-dis- equal to the value given on the last card. 1 N b wi nodal points.• S~11 are2 Rtorbdpeiinaed6J 1 I . If cards are omitted. 2 -..50 XZ 51-. NORMAL PRESSURE thickness in the case oi plane stress analysis). The material identification code for the generated cards is set 0 -. 4.(6)15) N( E 1. IFIO. PRESSURE CARDS -(215.

1.5 3. INPUT FOR A TYPICAL PROBLEM 44 0 SAMP LE SAH^T.0 .000084111.35 2.75 n.55 0.35 0..625 1r.O .95 2.0 .154 0.55 1.49 0.0 .35 0.625 10.0 .35 84 87 8Q 90 97 9A 101 103 10U .29 10.875 2.0 1 4 5 P 30000000.1 .95 0.75 2.0 1 "0.94375 1.5 10.55 3.O .35 2.15 1. 100000000.0 .0 .2 12.0 . 1. 100000000.75 3.75 3.15 2.35 1.55 1.35 3.0 .75 1.95 .625 10.O .625 0.55 0. 6p 64 7p 7u In. 0.33 10.55 2.625 10.0 p 0.625 10.55 2.625 10. 1ino00.625 10. C-17 V t.625 10.29 n.0 .625 4 10.15 1.15 2.625 3n00o0o0.0 .33 n.625 10. 0.f25 10.0 3.35 *7& AN 1. .625 10.55 3. n.0 170000.625 0.625 1.5 1C.0 .0 .95 3. 1.75 3.55 3.35 1.75 1.0125 1.2 12.0 .AMCP 7"S44.625 1n. 111 112 IC.000253261.0 .15 3. 0. 100000000. 0. 1.0 10.n00728l9311. n0000000..55 3.35 3.0 IrO00000.0 .95 1.625 .0 3 0.75 3.625 0.95 1.75 2.95 A 45 "48 4q 52 53 56 57 60 61 64 *61.75 0.75 3.3S 3.15) q IP 1ý 16 17 2m 21 2& 2S 28 20 37 33 36 37 40 41 4 10.6)5 10.15 3.DID PRESSURE 4501 3 1 I 390" . 4 1.2 12. 1.0 .0 10.55 3.

50i "S.55 8.2 10.1125 I6.35 4.o .6. 39P 2.35 .7 6.INPUT FOR ATYPICAL PROBLEM (Continued) 116 13 I 120 11 144 14% 134 134 141 141 14U 146 141 140 15S .4 1.6312l 1.05 4.8 12.5 10.IS 7.625 4.18125 12.7 4.35 8.4 1.75 5.0 .%5 5.35 5.21875 1.5 10.26 J I 65 1.55 6.15 8.9 1A C-18 .75 6.75 'S.1s 6.75 5.n io .2 l.S2q4 4.7S 7.3f.5 1020 .75 33* 3& 1 34m 3St 35p 3511 35c 351 36 j 366 3614 36 373 376 377 380 381 384 36% 38p 38.4Q375 1.1s 7..1' 5..6 I. f-j.5 IS.75 6.625 10.15 5.75 6.25s 395 3.95 1.15 6. qS 6.35 6.35 4.55 .9S 3.0 1.4 1.is ?.35 4.0O125 1.n .7 2.15 7.0 .35 •• 16? 162 16u 16.? 1. .0 l.8 12.6 1.15 8.5 I ln .51 6.625 1.75 4.-0 6.95 3.0 .5 .' 171 176 177 I73 S lA'4 lf~ 191 1Q2 197 29' 30• 30o 31p 313 316 31$k 322 32% 2o 2 327 330 33A 6.15 5.4 15 I0. 3.3S 6.05 5.0 0.0 .625 10.E . ()-( .35 6.625 1.35 4. *6 1.95 ?.9' 1.35 8.55 6.3-% 1.625 10.15 5.3s ?.625 1-.625 1.5 250 25n 264 26n 264% 260 270 24 71 27a 28n 2A_ 284 2QR 292 2qj Into .625 1.75 5.625 1 01.A375 7.6875 2.65 1.15 6.8 10.1 5.0 12.6 p.0 62.q0625 P.5 .625 P.625 10. S 20! 204 206 208 211 21 2i0 22n 221 22# 227 23• S23 235 23s 24 241 244 25m 25? 25p 1".5 10.0 1. 6.4 10.0 5.S 5.Qs 4.75 5.55 7.0 .2 1?.15 4.15 6.7579 6.8 1.5 Into .0 1.5 ~32#.05 4.4 Il.95 4 Qf 12.5 1.315 6.35 7. .O 2:25 12.625 1.0 .6050 in.35 4.2875 1.35 4.7-N 4.15 4.15 S.115 6.51 .75 4.351 7.75 12.75 6.95 6.0 6.7r 4.15 5.55 5-55 5.625 1.5 5.55 6.55 5.75 4.35 7.S625 12.35 5.!5 5.75 5.-35b2 1.625 1.55 .00.15 1.625 1. ).04371 2.5r) 4.625 1.553 4.i5 7.s5 5. P.425 1.35 5:35 5.95 6..55 6.0 . 4 4.55 4.625 25 2.O 10.o .15 5 .5 .425 1.

s 7#6 3 309 #40F 440 .15 74 44 84 as as oo qq 102 its 101 116 75 76 949 101 lo 10o IV.0 S0625 10.3 375 446 44-0 S0 4S 10.0 .r 11.n 613 112 14514 1* 162 176 147 162 1 63 17 %5 16 163 18? 17A 07 18 1065 192 190 20p 201 207 2164 P17 221 231 231 236 I 127' 127 1271 1.0 11'3 I Pi I3 n In. 11*0 1425 .1 101.a 10.5625 1..3 ii7 1 i&I 1ý 14 . 8q 90 p4 q 14 1 2 I 3 3 113 116 117 119 131 UP 115 117 117 130 133 135 1641 146 t 2 p 1 2 3 3 2 1 84 89 V.3 12.625 q69S 90 9.1 11.625 Ir.41 36 2 646 5 *7 649 50 66 53 54 50 57 So$ 564 61 6 56 65 64 62 6q 70 66 5'8 8e 70 87 N0 73 1 1257 1 1 1 2 265 266 271 28 273 274 415% 279 2964 25' 279 280 2564 285 2fie' 297 286 26% 2644295 265 295 296 271 20q 300 280 27n) 205 2864 27 09 2 293 ?93 295 2064 30' 2q9 3013502 30' 309 310 309 314 313 2 1 2 3 3 1 N C-19 . 4111.0 1 2 1 6 r •0 t1 13 14 12. 307)4. 10.15 6S 69 7t ?7 A9 101 103 101 1 ill 127 153 36464 4.1 10.71 42m 642'4 i4 90.0 217S 625 11.5 I: 3 1-!16 173 164 1 151 71 0 140 7 ISS 1771 178 161 1864 10% 107 I0S Iis. 0A 1-.3c 10.62 75 n2 60b 9.% 11.4 1 79 7 1 35% 161 162 17' 178 642n 4 37 " 2 37 3 " 4061k I 1. 4'5s% 1 11 11%0 e ') 0625 3 .7 1I. -1 0..-MC 706445 INPUT FOR A TYPICAL PROBLEM (Co~ntie). 191 206 1O x92 1en t99 175.71 Inq1 1000.0 3125 45 I 45• 1 X Ir.?n . 4400 l.625 .f 5'9 80.425 .0 1nO .1 '21 1 12.2 1t1. 9109 10.625 n.1 N.-( 441 44.5 101 10' 91 11 119 13! 120 126 131 1364 1642 145 4P .ý l19 17A 201 202 181 206 2PD 10 216 217 217 222 3fl 10 1 2 17 10 4 3 10 1 1 396 2 201 2 20'ý 20A 1 213 2 216 1 21 250 20 2 3q 241 264 246 25a 2S6 r.4375 4 . 6452 45 ..25 . % 4.? 10.5 5 I6 9 I0 1" Is 17 1 1 1 1 IIA 1' 21 17 21 P5 20 1o 22 26 30 22 26 30 34 21 2S 29 ' 1 1 1 i 147 221 2?7 201 20S 230 21A 2?3 211 235 216 241 2644 21 225 250 224 211 231 292 2 3 3 2 226 231 250 236 262 2•6 1 2 3 I 2 3 3 1 2645 249 251 257 2645 251 252 257 260 265 R66 271 259 269 267 27f' 2S 20 3 3 37 641 645 649 364 36 !V 1 1 1 1 231 23a 2643 264 259 260 27* 273 2 3 1 2 ? 37 411 641 640 S3 7 615 69 72 4A~ 61 52 S5r 64 '.? 1191 f.6291 90.12 41' 6412 "41" .n.

0 12 16 2m 2'.26 426 430 434 413 417 411 429 420 Q!3 1 1 1 1 1 430 37'ý 374 3An 38t 383 4. 438 440 442 444.' 445 '448 4.0 1000i.0 1000. 281 2M !q2 3nq NO3 310 317 32? 3 16t 3?. 314 317 133 324 325 328 351 33Q 342 145 353 3!6 370 374 378 l82 3Pb 390 394 398 316 2% P3 2q9' 323 V26e 324 2qa 3R7 301 330 S330 3 A 311 341 31'. 31! 2f.0 1000.0 1000.33 4. I 359 367 370 374 37$1 38P 386 390 394 39P 402 3%A 366 369 371 377 3P1 38' 349 393 397 401 3 3 1 2 3 1 P 3 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 351 35U 351 4.37 . 390 '.0 1000.3 SA 442 443 445 44R 37 441 443 444 447 4.0 1000.0 1000.17 UP1 425 UPQ 410 414 418 422 414 41A 4?? .39 441 '. 52 56 1000.0 1000. !44 32' !652 324 355 32? 36q 3!0 !?3 3)1 377 33'ý 381 331 365 342 j89 34S 3Q3 34A 3q7 328 331 317 33A 330 342 345 351 3!6 2 3 2 3P7 33t 3!k7 33A 338 341 3U 3S2 3 f.0 1000.47 3AS 3A6 38' 3PA 39. 2R 3p 36 4u Usk 3? 36 'r)1 48 52 56 60 1000.0 451 45P 454 456 45P 1 1 1 1 1000.54 456 2 z 3 4 8 a 12 16 70 24 2A 451 449 451 451 451 453 455 455 4b7 457 458 lO1o.0 C-20 .INPUT FOR A TYPICAL PROBLEM (Continued).0 100000 1000.5C 1 1 1 1 1 I ? ' A 448 450 4SP 4.01 409 Urn 402 406 40'6 410 405 40Q 1 1 1 36m 363 366 36n 37) 413 4.0 V.0 1000. 27'.34.

The plastic modulus ratio and the yield stress are specified only if nonlinear materials are used. point card are then in t- -odal 1. u.179. MATERIAL PROPERTIES Material properties vs temperature are input for each material in tabular form. The properties for each element in the system are then evaluated by interpolation. + 1.20 Modulus of elasti21 . Hence.ADDITIONAL REMARKS AND OUTPUT DATA A. Nodal point displacements 3. In the case of plane stress analysis. B.0 deg. Stresses at the center of each element XR is the specified load in the s-direction XZ is the specified displacement in the n-direction .E. The an'gle 0 must always be input as a negative angle and may range from -0. it is interpreted as the magnitude of an angle in degrees. 1. Reprint of input data 2. USE OF THE PLANE STRESS OPTION A one punch in column 60 of the control card indicates the body is a plane stress structure of unit thickness. The correspondii stress-strain relationship used in the analysis is: • :+ 0 )A 1) 1 0 0 " -0 a 0- j# -P2 "Y• "S where Er r D. = displacement in the s-direction u4 displacement in the n-direction z = C. the material property cards are interpreted as follows: Columns 11 .0 deg is the same as . Listing of the coefficients of thermal expansion are necessary only for thermal stress analysis.001 to -180 deg. The mass density of the material is required only if acceleration Ioads are specified or if the approximate frequency is desired.AMCP 706-4 PART C . 2 cr 3.30 city Poisson's ratio -v __ z 31 -40 Modulus of elasticity -. The displacements of these nodal points which are printed by the program are. SKEW BOUNDARIES If the number in columns 5-10 of the nodal point cards is other than 0. OUTPUT DATA The following information is developed and printed by the program: •" •The terms in columns 31-50 of -. This angle is shown below.

.) E. A considerable amount of engineering judgment must be used in the interpretati2. i of this frequency.~ . The first 30 columns of the identification card are used as a title for the plot. iI I I I I I I . a 1 4.S. If only a plot of the mesh is desired. ' :t . the calculation of displacements and stresses may be eliminated by specifying more pressure cards than actually exist. PLOT1 OF FINITE ELEMENT MESHfothpl. In order to obtain the plot from AGC's computer operation. (The displacements for the given load condition are used as an approximate mode shape in the calculatlet of a frequency by Rayleigh's ptncedtre. The program automatically develops a plot of the outline of each element in the system. This serves as an excellent check on the Input data. an additional charge card must be submitted with the job. An approximate fundamental fre0uenc". ) I I A i *-I (• I I II I • I .~ .

ir ' '• )-I .Awn"" • 1 Appendix D ABSTRACT BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SABOT TECHNOLOGY D- >11 p ..

The first edition of the bibliography emphasized projectiles and other shots which incorporated sabots in their design. . Information concerning classified subjects may be obtained directly from the Defense Documentationi Center or from the originating source -by authorized users. Reference entries are numbered sequentially thrcughout the entire bibliography. The entries added in the second edition of the bibliography emphasizes sabot materials and their properties. Rev. Lockheed Propulsion Co. Author and corporate author indexes covering the entire bibliography are included in this issue. D-2. The major subject headings used are the same as those in the first bibliography edition with the exception of t~vo new categories.PREFACE This is the second edition of an abstract bibliography of publications related to sabot technology. i. All references contained in the first edition are included in thia second edition. 15 November 1967. This summary of sabot designs and their characteristics is included in this second handbook edition as Appendix A. 800-F. e. The first edition of this bibliography appeared in Sabot Technology Engineering Handbook. Unclassified references and unclassified abstracts of classified literature have been included in the bibliography. It therefore included a summary of pertinent data for each different sabot design. Report No. Each of the publications abstracted was reviewed and deemed appropriate to sabot technology. 0. The number of different sabot designs uncovered during preparation of the second edition was significantly decreased and therefore the sabot summary was not materially revised. a general category and one on obturators. D-.

10 D-2.) Other APFSDS Shots (371. DISCARDTNG-SABOT (HEDS) PROJECTILES 75/60-mm HEDS-AA Shell 75-mm. 76/50 mm HVAPDS Shot T102.5 D-2. Delta-Finned.13 D-2.4 D-2.3 D-2.12 D-16 D. 90/60-MM HVAPDS Shot APFSDS Projectile for 90-105 MM Guns CARDE "Minnow" Project AMF Optimum Sabot Ammunition Study T3ZG 90/40-MM APFSDS Shot T382 or M392. 90-mm.7 D-Z. T163 or T164.16 D. Armor Piercing Shot 152 mm APFSDS Shot Sabot Development for APFSDS Projectiles MIiscellaneoum HIGH EXPLOSIVE.-W to Section No.14 D-3 D-3.2 D-3.12 D D-2. PROJECTILES Canadian 20-PR APDS Shot T89 or M331.1 D-2. 120/75-MM HVAPDS Shot T137. D-3 .2 D-2.9 D-2. D-1 D-2 D-2.6 D-2.16 D-19 D-20 D-25 D-27 D-30 D-30 D-31 D-32 D-32 D-3Z D-33 ARMOR-PIERCING.8 D-2. 11 D-2.1 D-3.3 Title GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY TABLE OF CONTENTS Page D-6 DISCARDING-SABOT (APDS) D-7 D-7 D-8 D-11 D. etc. 150-MM APDS Shot T346. 120-mm HEDS-AA Shells 155/105-mm HEDS*Shell T162.

3 D-7.1 D-7. 280/203-mmHEDS Shell T144.5 D-3.4 D-6 D-7 D-7.6 D-4 D-4. .1 D-4.3 D-5.2 D-5.4 D-3.2 D-7.7 D-7.1 D-5. PROBES.3 k TIZI.8 D-8 D-9 TERMINAL BALLISTICS STUDIES FREE FLIGHT AERODYNAMIC TESTING D-66 D-9Z •.52 D-54 D-61 D-63 D-63 D-63 D-63 D-64 D-65 D-5 D-5.4 D-7. ~D-4.5 D-7.2 D-4. ..22 Caliber Flechette Multiple Projectile Shots Miscellaneous ROCKET-ASSISTED PROJECTILE (RAP) GUN-LAUNCHED ROCKETS.6 D-7.75" Spin Stabilized Discarding-Sabot Projectile Gun-Launched Anti-Missile Defense (GADS) Miscellaneous Sabot Projectiles SMALL-CALIBER SABOT PROJECTILES General 0.APW MW 44 Section No. AND SPACE VEHICLES High Altitude Reiearch Probes (HARP) HARP Instrumentation Target Placement System Gun-Launched Antimissile System (GLAM) Martlet System Related Systems Ground-Accelerated Space Platform (GASP) HIBEX Program D-33 D-35 D-35 D-37 D-37 D-38 D-38 D-40 D-40 D-43 D-46 D-49 D-50 D. 127/60-mm HEDS-AA Shell Other HEDS Shell OTHER SABOT PROJECTILES "5/3. Title D-3.

13A D.12.121 D.108 D-111 D.5 D-13 D-14 D.148 D.123 D-132 D.12.138 D-11 D-12 D.139 D.1 D-12. D-10 'Title GUN DEVELOPMENT STUDIES MUZZLE BLAST EFFECTS MATERIAL PROPERTIES Expe rimental Techniques Steels and Refractory Metals Lead Light Alloys Plastics and Rubbers SEALS AND OBTURATORS UNCLASSIFIED ABSTRACTS FROM CLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS AUTHOR INDEX AGENCY INDEX D-101 D.2 D D-12.158 A D-5 .3 D.4 D-12.AMCP 700445 ••O Section SNo.132 D.

3488. pp." U. R. target defeat. " Stevens Institute of Technology. and properties were also presented. Green. Jr. "SABOT MATERIALS AND DESIGNS FOR HIGH VELOCITY KINETIC-ENERGY ARTILLERY AMMUNITION. " Space/Aeronautics. Confidential. (AD 382 260) Experimental ballistic studies were conducted in which finstabilized. Technical Report No. Technical Report AMRA TR 67-11. Frank. (2) evaluate the durability of the plastic coating on the sabot and aluminum fin surfaces to heat and friction developed during inbore travel. An optimum pressure-velocity level was determined for the sabot material and gun tube. 3. C. making tradeoffs all the way: impact velocity vs.. March 1967. "GUN/PROJECTILE SYSTEMS. Vol. Stanley. Stephen J. kinetic-energy artillery projectiles equipped with plastic sabots were launched at high velocity to: (1) determine the feasibility of a three-segment sabot with two incorporated steel load-bearing inserts. Fedowitz. 47. Army Materials Research Agency.. Stanley. S. (AD 820 330) The purpose of this investigation has been to develop analytical and experimental procedures which can be used by ordnance engineers in the design and development of a sliding plastic obturation ring. '4 A D-6 . The feasibility of internal load-bearing inserts in a sabot to launch fin-stabilized kinetic-energy projectiles was established. 3 Geldmacher. procedures. 92-99. David. No. Finally. etc.AMCP 706445 ABSTRACTS D-! GENERAL I •Dardick. April 1967. 2 Doherty. The analytical formulation defines the parameters to be measured and the analytical solution brings forward the relative importance of each parameter. Rush. at the muzzle. Discarding characteristics of the sabot material and their relationship to terminal accuracy were also observed and evaluated. September 1967. peak chamber pressure vs.. "THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF A SLIDING PLASTIC OBTURATING RING AS USED IN THE 152 MM XM578 APFSDS PROJECTILE. projectile shape. bore size. Plastic sabot material molding techniques. the long-term storage capability of the experimental rounds at temperatures of 40 to 90°F was also noted. and works back through inflight ballistics to the weapon itself. fragment dispersion near the target vs. I : Gun system analysis starts with the mission goal.

20 Pr Gun (U)". Recommendations for design procedures are given. particularly on beams. Part III. "SURVEY OF METHODS OF ANALYSIS FOR PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF STRUCTURES UNDER DYNAMIC LOADING. P. (Confidential Report). L. Technical Memorandum No. Part II. June 1967. " Brown University. 4 Marshall. (AD 370 496) 5 Symonds. Shot Design. P. 1954. Relevant material behavior and analytical and numerical methods are summarized. D. Report 45/54. P. B. F. are given. S. (AD 659 972) This survey provides a critical study of methods for the analysis of metal structures under dynamic loads leading to large plastic deformation.. P. D-2 D-2. "STRESS ANALYSIS OF FIVE-INCH ANTI-PERSONNEL PROJECTILES. (Unclassified Abstract) Thi& report forms part of a series dealing with the principles of design of A. Armament Research Esta6lishment. From these quantities the magnitudes of the critical parameters of the system can be obtained under quasi-dynamic and dynamic conditions. Final Report. (Confidential Report). This part reports research aimed at improving the penetrative performance of A. December 1965. : "Principles of A. Sabot Design: Accuracy Trial. Emphasis is put on critical study of experiments. Examples have been calculated which illustrate the effects of changing critical parameters. S. NSRDC 1-b7. Shot Design. Melvin R. AV 4 )-7 . AD 71 766. December 1954. J. J.. Goode. DISCARDING-SABOT (APDS) PROJECTILES I Canadian 20-PR APDS Shot 6 Permutter. Armament Research Establish- ment. " U. shot design has two objects: The best penetration for a given gun energy and adequate accuracy. shot. based on the theoretical (Cont'd) analysis.AMCP 706-445 £ W' 3 Two sets of measurable quantities. 7 Permutter. Shot (U)".1 ARMOR-PIERCING.s with Experimental and Service Designs for the Q. Report 46/54. . L. T-35/65. . P. with consideration of strain rate sensitive plastic behavior. : "Principles of A. B. S. P. AD 71 765. A. Goode. Naval Weapons Laboratory. Experimental Study and Application of New Principles in the Development of New Sub-Projectiles for the 20 Pr. P. A. shot.

The first report listed contains detailed information concerning the determining of the 1000-yard accuracy of the M331AZXl design projectile at temperature. in giving a brief background on the project. 28 April 1954. They are helpful.s ranging from -40 to 125 0 F. unnumbered report on Project Number ATBBJ P-1689-6(C).(Unclassified Abstract) An improved design of sabot for the sub-projectiles report in Part II is described and details given of strength of design and accuracy trials. General Electric MPR No. 76/50MM. April 1957. CARDE Technical Memorandum No. HVAPDS-T. is less expensive to manufacture and it also increases the life of gun. Included in this report are complete round-by-round firing data. CARDE Report 313/59. period covered by these reports. (Unclassified Report). D-2. however.2 T89 or M331. I 11 "r D-8 °'I 11 IaI lI' I: il r ~ . 76/50-MM. A4 (Unclassified Abstract) A full calibre practice shot was designed to match This new shot the standard 20-pr APDS/T shot at ranges up to 1500 yards. a few design study drawings are included. September 1959. making thenm. Army Field Forces. F. AD 314 852. M331AZ". 9 149/57. AD 136 998. Also. it therefore is an ideal shot for training purposes. D. using a service charge of M17 propellant and an eimite primer. HVAPDS-T. Dr. of little value. 8 McLennan. ( j Bertrand. M331A". AD 51 005. M331A2 Improvement of Shot. 1. that of the service projectile it of nylon. C. (Unclassified Report). Very little is accomplished during the time. It is concluded that the new design is significantly more accurate than the present service design and that the major part of the improvement can be attributed to the difference in driving band material. Ritner. E. that of the experimental projectile is of fibre. : "Malfunction Investigation of Shot. XC3 for 20-Pr Gun (U)". Other accuracy trials arranged to determine the effect of sub-projectiles eccentricity in the sabot and to compare the effect of nylon and fibre driving bands are reported and the results analyzed statistically. 76/50 mm HVAPDS Shot (Unclassified Abstract) The following list of reports are mostly monthly progress reports of the General Electric Company doing work for Picatinny Arsenal on Malfunction and Improvement of Shot HVAPDS-T. 10 "Test of Cartridge. HVAPDS-T. Guy: 'Development of Cartridge Practice Shot/T. 9 November 1954. . "Development of a Cooled Cartridge for 20 Pr APDS/T (U). 76/50-MM. (Confidential Report). " (Confidential Report). M33lAw. Pictorial representations of the sabot are included. AD 46 249.

9 May 1955. General Electric MPR No. (Unclassified Report). 5. C. (Confidential Report). HVAPDS-T.: "Malfunction Investigation of Shot. C. HVAPDS-T. HVAPDS-T. 76/50-MM. 9 September 1955. (Confidential Report). 76/50-MM. M331A2". (Confidential Report). AD 58 990. M331A2 for Guns. 9 June 1955. 11. 76/50-MM. M331A2". 7. Ritner. 76/50MM. F. M331A2.: "Malfunction Investigation of Shot. 9 February 1955. HVAPDS-T. F. Improvement of Shot. 76/50MM. 9 March 1955. 76/50MM.: "Malfunction Investigation of Shot. AD 57 248.44 12 Ritner. C. AD 57 250. HVAPDS-T. : "Malfunction Investigation of Shot. (Unclassified Report). AD 74 208. 76/50MM. F. 2. (Confidential Report). HVAPDS-T. HVAPDS-T. HVAPDS-T. 76/50-MM. M331A2". Continental Army Command Report Number 1689-10. General Electric MPR No. 9 December 1954. General Electric MPR No. HVAPDS-T. 10. 76/50-MM. C. HVAPDS-T. 8. 17 August 1955. 4.: "Malfunction Investigation of Shot. 76/50-MM. 76/50MM. M331A2. C. AD 69 998. C. M331A2. General Electric MPR 15 16 17 No. NVAPDS-T. 70/50MM. HVAPDS-T. 70/50-MM. AD 68 824. General Electric MPR No. HVAPDS-T. F. AD 75 694. M331A2.August 1955. M331A2". F. (Unclassified Report). M331A2". General Electric MPR No. M32 and T124 (U)"'. 9. AD 69 999. HVAPDS-T. General Electric MPR No. M331A2". 76/50-MM. Improvement o Shot. F. Ritner. Ritner. General Electric MPR No. F. Improvement of Shot.: "Malfunction Investigation of Shot. HVAPDS-T. Ritner. C. (Confidential Report). 9 January 1955. 76/50MM. C. AD 72 743. Improvement of Shot. HVAPDS-T. M331A2. Ritner. M331A2". M331A2. "Test of Cartridge. 13 14 Ritner. 9 April 1955.: "Malfunction Investigation of Shot. F. M331A2. 76/50-MM. (Confidential Report). HVAPDS-T. Improvement of Shot. C. General Electric MPR No. 19 20 * 21 D-9 . 76/50MM. 3. Improvement of Shot.: "Malfunction Investigation of Shot. Ritner. 18 Ritner. 76/50MM. 76-MM. Improvement of Shot. (Confidential Report).AMCP 706. 6.: "Malfunction Investigation of Shot. M331A2". HVAPDS-T. M331A2. AD 57 549. M331A2". F. M331A2. Improvement of Shot. HVAPDS-T. Improvement of Shot.

(Unclassified Abstract) The following group of reports concerns development of the T89. pressure-velocity level. . TAl-5002-9. T91 (U)". 27 October 1958. (Confidential Report). P-57205. G. D-I0 . Included in the study are design drawings. 24 "Development of Shot. and diesign and development tests of the plastic-discarding sabot (including one completely moldable model). Investigation of Flight Characteristics". (Unclassified Report). HVAPDS. accuracy studies. 19 January 1954. Models E3 and E5 (U)". and in-flight photographs. HVAPDS-T. J. 76/50MM HVAPDS shot. Aberdeen Proving Ground No. HVAPDS. Report III (U)". AD 305 806. : "Shot. Guy: "Development of Shot HVAPDS/T. HVAPDS. P. January 1959. (Confidential Report). June 1959. for the 76-MM Gun (U)". 6. 22 January 1958. Nelson. Shot. AD 306 933. Rosan. 19 June 1958. 30 Bertrand. T91. 76/50-MM. P-58336. 76-MM (U)". J. D. S. TAI-5008- Nelson. 26 27 Z8 29 29 76/50-MM: Report 6195. G. 23 "Development of Shot. Peters. M331A2". T89E3". DPS/OAC-I-59/3. Aberdeen Proving Ground No. J. NAVORD 24 September 1958. AD 31 Z04. Aberdeen Proving Ground TAI-5002-8. pictorial representations. Barnet. AD 146 464. (Confidential Report). TAI1302-25. 13 August 1953. 76/50-MM. (Confidential Report). D. The study includes armorpiercing ability. 2 October 1957. Aberdeen Proving Ground No. T89E3 for 76-MM Gun. 76-MM T89 Series.AI-- All ZZ McGregor. AD 31 205. HVAPDS.'6/50-MM. (Confidential Report). . T89E3. J. AD 155 206. (Unclassified Report). : "Investigation of Launching and Flight Characteristics of Shot. T89. Aberdeen Proving Ground. 25 Peters. J. "Pressure and Velocity Limits and Accuracy of " Aberdeen Proving Ground No. : "Development Test of Plastic Discarding Sabot Shot for 76-MM Gun. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. : "Development Tests of Plastic.: "Cartridge. (Unclassified Report). AD 217 548. 76/50-MM. F. AD 303 563. M. AD 300 465. 311/59. Plastic Sabot (C)". CARDE Report No. Robert: "Plastics Sabot Development. (Confidential Report). Discarding Sabot.

T102E4 for 120-MM Gun.: "Test of Shot. 8 March 1957. 31 March 1953. "Development of 76-MM Hypervelocity Armor-Piercing Discarding-Sabot Shot. HVTP. T89 Series (U)". T102 (U)" . AD 157 411. R. W. S. Walter T. AD 312 693. DPS/TW-426/9. (Confidential Report). Thompson. for U. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. February 1960. AD 305 735. : "Design and Development of Shot. T89 (U)". Johnson. 120/75-MM. AD 18 159. E. : "Plastics Sabot Development. (Confidential Report). (Confidential Report). Prosen. Armor Plate Penetration and General Evaluation of Shot. Armament Research and Development Establishment Memorandum (P)2/59. R. Army Materiel Command. Progress Report Project TAI-1602. 120/75-MM HVAPDS Shot 33 D-2. NAVORD Report 6757. F. W. November 1957. Data calculations are started to fix the weight of the T106EI so that its trajectory crosses that of the sub-projectile of the T106E2 at 1500 yards.3 34 T102. (Unclassified Abstract) Work being performed under the subject contract is the continuation of design and development of qhot. E. Plastic Sabot. AD 351 778. (Unclassified Report). Huchital. . B. HVAPDS-T. 35 Bushey.: "Accuracy. September 1959. HVAPDS. January 1959..: "Functioning and Accuracy of Q. 76/50-MM: Report IV (U)". TIOZEZ and TI06EI initiated under the contract and is referred to as Phase II of the project. Bailey. J. (Confidential Report). (Confidential Report). HVAPDS. : "Development of Shot. E. 120-MM. 76/50-MM. Magnesium alloy for experimentation and prototypes of the sabot base and shot T102E2 is in progress. TAI-1602-14. T123 (U)". Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. P.1 Q31 32 Struve. University of Pittsburgh TIR 6-6-4AI(3). AD 315 727. 120 MM TK Experimental DS/T Practice Shot (C)". 120/75MM. T106E"1. El]ctro-Mechanical Research Co. HVAPDS-T.1417. Frankford Arsenal Report No. (Confidential Report).I . 15 December 1959. W. 36 37 D. TI02E2 and Shot. AD 131 417. 120-MM. S.

O. 39 40 41 42 43 General Electric MPR No. Tl37EL. T137 Series". O. terminal ballistics. 44 Hittenberger. General Electric MPR No.K. AD 31 948. and general functioning characteristics are studied. O. Hittenberger. 3. There is some detail concerning the design of the sabot and its parts. Flight characteristics. Hittenberger.K. HVAPDS-T. accuracy. (Unclassified of Shot. T137 Series". O. 7."D-2. (Unclassified Report). AD 31 946.4 T137. (Unclassified ReportI. AD 61 433. (Unclassified Report). 1. 9 January 1954.K. 9 February 1954. The second group are Monthly Progress Reports made by General Electric to Picatinny Arsenal for a product ergineering study of shot HVAPDS-T. General Electric MPR No. D12 __- _p a" . 9 March 1954. Hittenberger. 2. T137 Series. General Electric MPR No.: "Development of HVAPDS-T Shot 90/60MM. 9 May 1954. AD 31 944. T137 Series". General Electric MPR No. : "Development and Fabrication Report). 90/60-MM HVAPDS Shot (Unclassified Abstract) The first group of reports are General Electric Monthly Progress Reports concerning development and fabrication of HVAPDS-T Shot 90/60-MM. O. K. Hittenberger. (Unclassified Report). (Unclassified Report). T137 Series". 0. 0.K. 9 December 1953. 9 November 1953. AD 26 126. 90/60-MM. : "Development of HVAPDS-T Shot 90/60MM. AD 31 945. plate penetration at various obliquities. T137 Series". : "Development of HVAPDS-T Shot 90/60MM. : "Development of HVAPDS-T Shot 90/60MM. The other reports recorded progress in the development of the HVAPDS shot for the 90-MM. T137 Series". tank gun T119 and other related designs. AD 31 947. General Electric MPR No. K. (Unclassified Report). Hittenberger. 90-MM. L. 5. : "Development of HVAPDS-T Shot. T137 Series". Several inflight photographs of sabot separation. firing records. 38 Hittenberger. General Electric MPR No.K. 9 April 1954. : "Development of HVAPDS-T Shot 90/60MM. 4. and pictorial representations are included. parts security. 90/60MM.

F. C. C. AD 82 324. General Electric MPR No. (Confidential Report). Ritner. HVAPDST. 90/60-MM. 22. AD 47 963. : "Development and Fabrication of Shot. General Electric MPR No. 90/60-MM. K. June 1955. General Electric MPR No. C. General Electric MPR No. General Electric MPR No. 21. (Confidential Report). T137 Series (U)". AD 47 965. T137 Series". HVAPDS-T. Ritner. F. General Flectric MPR No. HVAPDST. Ritner. T137 Series (U)". F. 47 48 49 5. (Confidential Report). AD 56 396. (Confidential Report). C. T137 Series (U)". 9 November 1954. General Electric MPR No. T137 Series (U)".. T137 Series (U)". (Confidential Report). C. HVAPDST. 9 October 1954. C.MM. F. C. General Electric MPR No. 90/60-MM. (Confidential Report). T137 Series (U)". AD 47 964. 18. F. 17. C. AD 68 021. 90/60. : "Development and Fabrication of Shot. T137 Series (U)". 20.AMCP 706445 S45 46 Hittenberger. C. (Unclassified Report). 90/60-MM. 12. Ritner. F. 28. F. AD 68 02. HVAPDST.: "Development and Fabrication of Shot. : "Development and Fabrication of Shot. 0. (Confidential Report). 13. 14. Ritner. (Confidential Report). Ritner. AD 75 693. HVAPDST. F. HVAPDSr'. General Electric MPR No. 90/60-MM.: "Development and Fabrication of Shot. F. T137 Series (U)". General Electric MPR No. Ritner. 19. : "Development and Fabrication of Shot. T137 Series". : "Development and Fabrication of Shot. 90/60-MM. (Unclassified Report). : "Development and Fabrication of Shot. 90/60-MM. Ritner. (Unclassified Report). 11. 10. : "Development and Fabrication of Shot. July 1955. 9 December 1954. AD 68 661. 9 March 1955. 90/60-MM. 9 August 1955. 90/60-MM. HVAPDST. AD 101 334. 9 May 1955. 9 April 1955. HVAPDST. Ritner. 90/60-MM. 9 September 1954. (Confidential Report). C. 90/60-MM. Ritner. AD 68 023. T137 Series". C. 9 February 1956. HVAPDST. General Electric MPR No. General Electric MPR No. T137 Series (U)". : "Development and Fabrication of Shot.: "Development and Fabrication of Shot. n 51 52 53 54 55 56 D-13 . AD 56 395. 9 August 1954. : "Development and Fabrication of Shot. F. HVAPDST. F. Ritner. HVAPDST.

C. December 1955.. HVAPDS-T. 90-MM.: "Shot. Ritner. 90-MM. F. F. 90-MM.C. T137E1. Product Engineering Study (U)". (Confidential Report). T137E1. (Confidential Report). F. Ritner. General Electric MPR No. F. MPR No. T137E1. AD 91 610. AD 139 241.: "Shot. 18.C. 10. Product General Electric Engineering Study (U)". November 1955. General Electric MPR No.- . General Electric MPR No. AD 112 581. 90-MM. F. I 68 Ritner. Product Ritner. General Electric MPR No. HVAPDS-T.: "Shot. May 1956. AD 142 937. General Electric MPR No. T137El. D1 2°. Product Engineering Study (U)". September 1956. AD 99 912. January 1956.C.C.: "Shot. 90-MM. AD 134 953. Product Engineering Study (U)". 90-MM.57 Ritner. F. AD 112 027. 19. April 1956. Ritner. 58 Ritner. 12. HVAPDS-T. June 1956. 90-MM. Ritner. 90-MM. July 1956. (Unclassified Report). Product Engineering Study (U)"._. (Confidential Report). 90-MM. HVAPDS-T. T137E1. T137EI.C. HVAPDS-T. HVAPDS-T.: "Shot.C. Engineering Study (U)". T137E1.TI37EI. kD 105 769. MPR No. F. 20. 2. 8. AD 91 746. (Confidential Report). Ritner. F. T137E1. Ritner.: "Shot. HVAPDS-T. August 1956. Product Engineering Study (U)". General Electric MPR No. 90-MM. II. Engineering Study". 9. T137E1.: "Shot. General Electric MPR No. Product General Electric 59 60 Ritner. HVAPDS-T. AD 87 975. 3. T137 7. 4.C. 4 .: "Shot. Product Engineering Study (U)".C. (Confidential Report). (Confidential Report). General Electric MPR No. May 1957. General Electric MPR Nu. 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 :. (Confidential Report). (Confidential Report).: "Shot. General Electric MPR No.C. HVAPDS-T. (Confidential Report).: "Shot. Product Engineering Study (U)". HVAPDS-T. (Confidential Report).: "Shot. April 1957. AD 105 768. T137E1. HVAPDS-T.: "Shot. AD 112 026. 7. HVAPDS-T. F. F. 90-MM. 90-MM. F. C. Product Engineering Study (U)". (Confidential Report).C. March 1957. F. Ritner. Product Engineering Study (U)".

F.: "Shot. T137EI Mod 3. 75 Sheffer. General Electric 70 Ritner. C. 90/60-MM. AD 142 938. General Electric MPR No. HVAPDS-T. "Shot. General Electric MPR No. Product Engineering Study (U)"I (Confidential Report). 90-MM. AD 304 890. : "Production Engineering Study of Shot. MPR No. AD 159 881. AD 159 247. D-15 . F. June 1957. Sheffer.: "Shot. C. 27. 90-MM. F. September 1957. 23. 71 General Electric Ritner. 90/60-MM. 24. (Confidential Report). 90-MM. 22. AD 142 939. TI37EI. HVAPDS-T. 4 79 TA1-1460-38. (Confidential Report). "Final Engineering Tests of Shot. 90-MM. March 1958.: "Shot. HVAPDS-T. T137 (U)". December 1958. July 1957. J. T137E'" 72 * 73 74 Product Engineering Study (U)".: "Firing Trials of Shot. TI37E1 (U)".: "Shot. Jr. Ritner. AD 157 226. 21. HVAPDS-T. M36 (TI19) (U)". Product "Engineering Study (U)".: Product Engineering Study (U)". "Shot. 77 * S78 Crater. (Confidential Report). for 90-MM Gun. HVAPDS-T. F. AD 159 246. HVAPDS-T.: 90-MM. Riel. Sleeper. 90-MM. HVAPDS-T. T137EI. HVAPDS-T. Picatinny Arsenal Technical Report DC-TR: 12-58. General Electric MPR No. 30. E.C. 18 October 1955. (Confidential Report). F. TAI-1460-23. Bruce M. R. Bruce M. October )957. HVAPDST. (Confidential Report). T137EI. (Confidential Report). 25. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No.AMP 70-4 69 Ritner. 90-MM. Product Engineering Study (U)". AD 85 041. : "Shot. 29 January 1959. 26. HVAPDS-T. August 1957.C. Bruce M. General Electric MPR No. T137EI. (Confidential Report). T137EI. T137EI. 90-MM. 76 Sheffer. AD 305 259. (Confidential Report). November 1957. Product Engineering Study (U)". (Confidential Report). (Confidential Report). General Electric MPR No. Ritner. 90-MM. H. HVAPDS-T. General Electric SMPR No.C. R. Product MPR No. AD 157 227. C. December 1q57. T137EI.: "Shot. Engineering Study (U)". Product Engineering Study (U)". AD 154 476. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No.

D.PDS-T.: "Development of Shot. T137 (U)". (Confidential Report). April 1957. T137 for Report). F. T. (Unclassified Report). J. (T119) (U)". Picatinny Arsenal Technical Report 2443.7 (Unclassified Abstract) The following list of progress reports contains a theoretical study leading to the design of sabot ammunition of optimum performance. 9 August Joseph C. 1965. Jr.5 85 D-2. April 1958. TAI-1475-1. 90-MM. M36. (Confidential Report). HVAPDS. AD 305 260. CARDE Technical Memorandum 187/58. 90-MM Gun. AD 78 795. 6 February 1958. No. but the procedure is applicable to the other guns mentioned. Jr.: "Development Test of Shot. (Confidential Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. 81 • 82 Sleeper. Fin Stabilized. TAl-1460-40. "Arrow" Projectiles for 90 MM and 105 MM Tank Guns". (Confidential Report). Actual design was carried out for the 90-MM T-119 gun. DPS/TW-426/6. AD 149 230. November 1957. Peters.: "Test of Shot HVAPDS 90-MM T137 Mod 1.: "A Summary of Development on the Minnow Project from February 1956 to March 1957 (U)". AD 309 709. to be used in various conventional guns in the 75 to 280-MM calibre range. A 83 Jacobson. William J. CARDE "Minnow" Project Hubbard. Discarding Sabot. T137E1. 90/60MM. AMF Optimum Sabot Ammunition Study 84 D-2. (Secret Report) 14. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. TAl-1460-35. M41 (TI19 and T139) (U)". 144/57. 29 January 1959. T. "withSwivel-Cap Penetrator for Determination of Ballistic Limits Against Armor Plate at Various Obliquities (U)". J.6 86 87 D-2.. AD 300 017. APFSDS Projectile for 90-105 MM Guns Riel.80 Sleeper. D' 16. for 90-MM Gun. AD 302 575. TAl-1460-30. .: "A Summary of Development of the Minnow Project from April 1957 to March 1958 (U)". Hubbard. HVA. HVAPDS-T. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. . Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. Rieden. Aberdeen Proving Ground. Sidney: "Development of the 90-MM T137EI Mod 3 HVAPDS-T Cartridge for the M36(TI19. Technical Memorandum No. M41(TI39).H.: "Development of Armor Piercing. C. : "Development of Shot. R. AD 155 211. 21 February 1955. Jfuly 1959. Model 9. AD 149 394. and T125 Guns (U)". (Confidential Report). (Secret Report) 13. F.

28 February 1955. is presented in the above mentioned monthly progress reports of this project. are taken into account in the final report. (Confidential Report). PR-6. 30 April 1955. D-17 *1I ! ! I I I i I . (Unclassified Report).D 64 869. The final report summarizes the optimization theory developed to date. A detailed analysis of performance optimization. as well as the subsequently analyzed spin-cone stabilization procedure. 31 March 1955. AD 57 849. Machine and Foundry Report No. "Design and Development of Optimum Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons": (Confidential Report). 30 June 1955. American Machine and Foundry Report No. carried ot. 30 December 1954. American Machine and Foundry Report No. 31 May 1955. 89 90 91 92 93 I 94 V1. 31 January 1955.• @ 706446 * The scope of the project is confined to the HVAPDS (Hypervelocity Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot) shot. American Machine and Foundry Report No. American A. PR-l. AD 62 912. AD 65 515. (Unclassified Report). (Unclassified Report). AD 57 850. PR-2. American Machine and Foundry Report No. F. plus the development test of the shot. (Confidential Report). "Dcsign and Development of Optimum Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons". "Design and Development of Optimun Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons". 29 November 1954. American Machine and Foundry Report No. (Unclassified Report). American Machine and Foundry Report No. (Confidential Report). "Design and Development of Optimum Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons". numerically for an actual 90-MM gun (T-119). PR-4. PR-3. Results of tests of the 90-MM AMF sabot round. 95 "Design and Development of Optimum Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons". The theory is presented in dimensionless form to be applicable to a gun of arbitrary calibre. American Machine and Foundry Report No. "Design and Development of Optimum Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons". PR-7. AD 68 033. PR-5. AD 50 201. "Design and Development of Optimum Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons". AD 67 948. PR-8. 88 "Design and Development of Optimum Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons".

(Confidential Report). (Confidential Report). "Design and Development of Optimum Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons". American Machine and Foundry Report No. "Design and Development of Optimum Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons". (Confidential Report). 30 December 1955. 30 September 1955. (Confidential Report). (Confidential Report). AD 82 732. American Machine and Foundry Report No. American Machine and Foundry Report No. "Design and Development of Optimum Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons".X. "Design and Development of Optimum Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons". AD 95 641. 30 November 1955. (Confidential Report). Optimum Sabot (Accuracy and Plate Phase)". American Machine and Foundry Report No. Aberdeen Proving Ground TAI-5002-5. (Confidential Report). 30 March 1956. 31 July 1955. Lt. 30 September 1956. HVAPDS-T.: "Development Test of Shot. "Design and Development of Optimum Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons". 31 August 1955. AD 76 951. AD 88 042. of Optimum Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons". American Machine and Foundry Report No. 15 June 1956. (Confidential Report). H. 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 KD D-1 Q . (Confidential Report). American Machine and Foundry Report No. AD 70 961. AD 107 744. PR-13. American Machine and Foundry Report No. "Design and Development of Optimum Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons". AD 84 548. AD 71 295. March 1956. "Design and Development. Finch. PR-18. AD 108 876. 31 January 1956. "Design and Development of Optimum Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons". PR-14. (Confidential Report). AD 127 567.-) 96 "Design and Development of Optimum Sabot Ammunition for Artillery Weapons". PR-1I. American Machine and Foundry. PR-10. PR-17. Final Report. PR-15. American Machine and Foundry Report No. 90/54-MM T-. PR-9.

i e
• *
.7

D-2.8

Shot T320 90/40-MM APFSDS

AC n-4
of

(Unclassified Abstract) The following list of reports covers developmenf the APFSDS, 90-MM, T3Z0 shot for the 90-MM smoothbore gun. During development, problems arose concerning cartridge extraction and fin damage. The cartridge case of the T320 was bulging at the side walls near the base flange because of firing pressure. The fins were damaged because of excessive aerodynamic heating, causing some accuracy loss. Both situations were overcome satisfactorily after a number of changes in procedure and design.

After evaluation of various materials, the lightest possible sabot was developed for the launch. The sabot consisted of four segments and was discarded shortly after it left the muzzle. Many in-flight photographs, firing records, accuracy reports, and drawings are included in the reports. 106 Bailey, E.W. : "Development of Shot, APFSDS, 90/40-MM T320 for 90-MM Smoothbore Guns"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground TAl-1475, 21 November 1957, AD 151 245. Carothers, H. E. W. : "Development of Lightweight Sabot for Shot, APFSDS, 90/40-MM T320"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground TAI-1475-7, 27 January 1958, AD 155 273. Miller, O.G. : "Development of Shot, 90/40-MM, APFSDS, T320"; (Confidential Rcport), Aberdeen Proving Ground TAI-1475-19, May 1958, AD 300 425. Miller, O.G.: "Development of Shot, 90/40-MM, APFSDS, T320"; (Confidential Report),' Aberdeen Proving Ground TAl-1475-18, 4 June 1958, AD 300 48b. Miller, O.G. : "Development of Shot, 90/40-MM, APFSDS,

107

108

109

110

T320"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground TW-418-1, 25 June 1958, AD 300 426. il1 Allen, Ralph H.: "Test of Cartridge, 90/40-MM, APFSDS, T320E60, and Cartridge, 90-MM, HEFS, T340E14"; (Confidential Report), Aberdee:i Proving Ground TA1-1475-15, 12 August 1958, AD 301 629. Miller, O.G. : "Development of Shot, 90/40-MM, APFSDS, T320"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground TW 418-3, 4 September 1958, AD 301 967. Miller, T320"; O.G. : "Development of Shot, 90/40-MM, APFSDS, (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground

112

113

TW-418-4, 15 September 1958, AD 302 188.

[1-19
p p

rAC

-

06446
114 Miller, 0. G.: "Development T320"; (Confidential Report), TW-418-5, 15 May 1958, AD Miller, 0. C.: "Development of Shot, 90/40-MM, APFSDS, Aberdeen Proving Ground 300 428. of Shot, 90/40-MM, APFSDS,

115

T320"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground TW-418-10, 2.2 September 1958%, AD 304 717. 116 Miller, 0. G.: "Development of Shot, 90/40-MM, APFSDS, T320"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground TW-418-11, 7 November 1958, AD 303 744. Miller, O.G.: "Development of Shot, 90/40-MM, APFSDS, T320"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground TW-418-12, 12 November 1958, AD 303 745. Miller, O.G. : "Development of Shot, 90/40-MM, APFSDS, T320"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground TW-418-13, 20 January 1959, AD304 882. Miller, O.G.: "Development of Shot, 90/40-MM, APFSDS, T320"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground TW-418-15, 11 February 1959, AD 305 569. Miller, 0.G. : "Development of Shot, 90/40-MMv.. APFSDS, T320"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground TW-418-16, 12 February 1959, AD 305 626. Miller, 0.G.: "Development of Shot, APFSDS, 90/40-MM, T320 Series"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground TW-418-17, 22 April 1959, AD 307 410. T382 or M392, 150-MM APDS Shot

117

118

119

120

121

D-2.9

(Unclassified Abstract) The following group of reports deals with studies
on or related to the M392. (I) (2) (3) (4) (5) The studies include: Comparison studies of U.K. and U.S. rounds Propellant studies Emergency zero studies Ballistic tests (interior, exterior and terminal) Temperature tests

(6) Design analyses (7) Jump evaluation

1)-20

AMCP 706-445

(8) (9) (10) (11) (12)

Cartridge tests Tube wear studies Dispersion tests Accuracy tests Penetration capabilities

Several photographs, charts, graphs, etc., are included concerning all aspects of the testing. Very little detailed sabot information is included, however. The majority of the information relates firing test results. 122 Allen, Ralph H.: "Test of Cartridge, DPS/DSCLOG 517-FY58/1, 123 105-MM, APDS, T382";

(Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No.
April 1959, AD 306 683. Allen, Ralph H.: "Test of U.S. Propellant-Ignition and Shot, APDS, M392A1 for 105-MM Gun, M68"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS/DCSLOG-517-FY58/2, February 1960, AD 315 352. Allen, R.H.: "Evaluation of Preproduction Shot, APDS, 105-MM M392A1 for M68 Gun "; (Secret Report) 4, Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS/OAC-I/60/2, June 1960, AD 317 307. Heinernann, Robert W,; Schimmel, Robert T.: "Development of a Bridgewire Initiator for the 105-MM Tripartite Round "; (Secret Report) 7, Picatinny Arsenal Technical Memorandum ORDBB-TE9-31, August 1960, AD 319 754. Lamon, H. J.; Elsner, J. W.: "Determination of Emergency Zero for M60 Tank (105-MM Gun, M68, Firing 105-MM Shot,

7'
124

-6

... 125

126

HVAP-DS-T, M392E1)"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-102, November 1960,
AD 319 945.

127

Allen, Ralph H.: "Test of UK Gun,

105-MM TK X15E8, APDS
4

and HESH Ammunition, and Related Components"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-127, January 1961, AD 321 189. 128 Yuen, Jason G.: "Desert Summer Environmental Test of Cartridge, 105-MM, APDS, M392 and M392AI"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS/OTA-48, March 19ol, AD 322 266.

D-21
A • ] ! 'lr [ , , ] , l m mn'fl.• ......... ..

129

Allen, Ralph H.: "Production Evaluation of Cartridge, 105-MM, APDS-T, M392EI"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-153, March 1961, AD 322 267. Rieden, W.J. : "Preliminary Evaluation of T36 and T28 Propellants with Projectile, APDS, M392AI for 105-MM Guns, M68 (US) and S7A1 (UK)"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-207, May 1961, AD 323 049. Angstadt, R. P.: "Granulation Test of T36 Propellant for Cartridge, 105-MM, APDS-T, M392E1"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-2S7, June 1961, AD 323 961. Callis, Ben: "Evaluation of Shot, APDS-T, 105-MM, M392E1 (Modified Forward Sheath) with T36 Propellant"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-279, July 1961, AD 324 305. Elsner, James: "Jump Firings and Tube-Wear-Effect Studies of APDS-T, M392EI, and HESH, M393 (UK), 105-MM Cartridges ior the M60 Tank"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-311, A, gust 1961, AD 324 918. "Report of Project No. 2167 Service Test of Cartridge, 105-MM, APDS-T, M392I1 "; (Secret Report) 8, U.S. Army Armor Board, Fort Knox, Kentucky, 14 December 1961, AD 326 862. Lindsey, W.L.: "Production Engineering Test of MI15BI Steel Cartridge Case for 105-MM, M68 Gun"; (Unclassified Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-428, January 1962, AD 270 162. Allen, Ralph H. : "Test of Laminar Coolant in Cartridge, 105-MM, APDS-T, M392EI, for 105-MM Gun, M68"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-412, February 1962, AD 327 736. Reynolds, M.A.: "Test of 10R:-MM Gun Tank, M60E1, Pilot No. 1 (Turret Phase)"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-438, February 1962, AD 327 737. Dempsey, R.N. : "Safety Cet'tification Test of T36 Propellant with Projectile, APDS-T, M392EI for Gun, 105-MM, M68"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-449, February 1962, AD 328 041.

(

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Lindsey, W.L.: "Granulation Test of MP, T36 Propellant with 105-MM Shot, APDS-T, M39"E1 for Gun, M68"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-460, February 1962, AD 327 739. Dempsey, R.N., "Production Engineering of Armor-Penetrating Capabilities of Projectile, 105-MM, APDS-T, M392 ", (Secret Report) 5, Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-492, March 1962, AD 328 882L. Ages, J. A. Jr.: "Accuracy Test of 105-MM, M68 Gun Tube No. 978"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-499, AD 328 570. "Service Test of Cartridge, 105-MM, APDS-T, M392EI"; (Confidential Report), U.S. Army Artic Test Board Report No. 2-22, 9 May 1962, AD 329 523. Wagner, E.W. : "Artic Winter Envircnmental Tests, 1961-62, of Breech Operating Cam for Gun, 105-MM, M68; Cartridge, 105-MM, APDS, M392EI; Cartridge, 105-MM, HEP-T, M393EI; and Cartridge, 105-MM, HEAT-T, T384E4"; (Confidentidl Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No.

140

141

142

143

DPS/OTA-148, July 1962, AD 330 176.
144 Echtenkamp, A.: "Metal-Parts Security of Projectile, 105-MM, APDS-T, M392E3, Special Lot FA-5-MPC-15"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-602, July 1'-62, AD 331 499. Allen, Ralph H. : "Preliminary Evaluation of Projectile 105-MM, APDS-T M39ZE3, Assembled with Uranium Alloy Nose Pad Component"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-606, July 1962, AD 331 125. Dempsey, R. N. : "Production Engineering Test to Investigate Accuracy Dispersion of Projectile, 105-MM, APDS-T, M392"; (Confidential Report), Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-515, August 1962, AD 331 593. Allen, Ralph H. : "Sec -ind E'aluation of Projectile, 105-MM, APDL--T, M392E3, Assembled with D38 Alloy Nose-Pad Component"; (Confidential Report), Aber-deen Proving Ground Report No. DPS-667, Septe'-ber 1962, AD 332 154. Zeiler, G. A.; Kirby, R. L.; Bolte, P. L.: "Report of the Group Appointed to Evaluate the 105-MM APDS, M392A1, and Heat, M456, Projectiles "; (Secret Report), USA Armor Bodrd BRL Memorandum Report No. 1446, January 1963, AD 334 411.

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WGA-MM. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. S.: "Final Report of Engineer Design Test of Ribbed Cast Armor (Ballistic Evaluation)".of the Trilateral Military Subcommittee". Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. Germany. DPS-1643. Demaree. AD 349 915. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. (Confidential Report). 105-MM. W. U. IC-3651-60 (23-OBX).149 "Report of USATECOM Test Project No. 156 "Development of Ammunition for M68 105-MM Gun Cannon (Secret Report). U. October 1963. 155 (Unclassified Abstract) Cast homogeneous steel armor ribbed plates with three different rib designs were tested w"th 105-mm ADPS-T. Bonn. "Development of Ammunition for M68 105-MM Gun Cannon (Secret Report). M392AZ".N. M392AI". Russell W. June 1963. APDS-T. April 1965. AD 359 701.: "Final Report of Product Improvement Test of Projectile. Cast and Rolled. (Confidential Report). 150 4' 151 152 "'Minutes of the Meeting of Working Group "A" . ". Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. Dempsey. January 1966. (Confidential Report). versus Projectile.: "Final Report of Engineer Design Test of Armor Plate. Crisrman.Tanks . L.3. November 1963. DPS-1332. 105-MM. TI82El projectiles during the period 21 January to 28 February 1965.S.1. N. 105-MM. APDS-T. APDS-T. ". Photographs of plate damage are included along with round-by-round firing data. AD 335 917L. May 1964. (Confidential Report). 105-MM. D-24 . Army Materiel Command Technical Information Report I-1-2J5 Supplement I. 153 154 Scudder. C. Military Assistance Advisory Group. U. Report No.: "Comparison Test of Projectile. Check Test of Cartridge. (Confidential Report). Army Arctic Test.3. 25 April 1963. AD 360 016L. M392 and AP-T. DPS-1616. The V-50 ballistic limits (protection) were determined at 60 degrees obliquity with both projectile types. AD 337 950. AD 347 105. DPS-986. AD 369 753. Steel. (Confidential Report). M392 (Lubrication of Sabot Groove)". April 1965. Army Materiel Command Technical Information Report 27.. S. R. AD 350 145. APDS-T (Ballistic Penetration Data)". The ribbed plate designs were compared with each other and rated against flat cast armor on a weight-toweight basis.

Aberdeen Proving Ground First Report on Project TW-419. 10 D Other APFSDS Shots (371. R. G. October 1958. in T139 Gun (U)". 90/40-mm. AberdeenProving Ground Report No. ORDBB-TE 5-9. Miller. DPS/TW-426/5. (Confidential Report). AD 312 751 160 161 16Z 163 D-25 . Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. TAI-1503-4. R. (Confidential Report). Army Material Command. AD 306 432. The following aspects of development included:Arn (are S(1) A limited range target-practice round simulating the "T320. Sidney. December 1957. APFSDS.. Quasi.) AMCP 70A14 (Unclassified Abstract) The following list of reports deals with development of several different APFSDS shots. Technical Information Report 6-9-4A1(3). AD 301 446. U. HVAPDS-T.: "A Proposed Armament System for Medium Tanks (U)". 11 August 1958. T279 (U)". (Confidential Report). (Confidential Report. T342.: "Development Test of Shot. Jacobson. AD 122 068. H. (Confidential Report). Technical Memorandum Report No. V Results of U. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. D. D. AD 327 007. for 90-mm Gun T208E4 (U)". spaced-armor plate penetration of the T346EI7 Mod. T371 (U)". etc.. Elie L. T346.: "Test of Shot.S. AD 308 615. 28 January 1957. DPS/TW-424-2...: "Development of Shot. (Confidential Report). S. G. Barrieres.. 90/40 mm. March 1959. Miller.. TW-424-1. 105/60 T279 (C). APFSDS. mun.-- 158 159 Allen. June 1959.U ' D-2. AD 311 633. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. . antitank lethality trials in which KE projectiles were used Development of a smoke tracer as the trajectory-sensing device to be incorporated in the delta-wing shot "Development of 105-mm Hypervelocity Armor-Piercing Discarding Sabot Shot. Allen. July 1959. Feldman Research and Engineering Laboratories. 1.: "Evaluation of Cartridge. "Report on XM60 Weapon System Evaluation (U) ". APFSDS (2) (3) (4) (5) 157 A new fin design to resist in-gun and aerodynamic heating damage Accuracy and flight performance of T346EI7 and T346EI7 Mod. APFSDS. Quasi. (Secret Report)9.

DPS/TW-426/7. AD 327 686. 10 at 1200 meters and 0. APFSDS. and HEP rounds using the M60 tank are included. Sleeper. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. 08 at 1000 meters. 167 "Development of 105-nimm Armor-Piercing Fin-Stabilized Discarding-Sabot Shot. December 1961. medium tanksconsists of a 105-mm The system to povid incease fiepoerfrt~usiongedm tanks.: "Development of Shot. AD 311 639. T346EI7. C. It fires a discarding-sabot. The system proposed in this report is designed to incorporate discardingsabot and heat ammunition of minimum a ize and weight for ease of handling and rapid loading to minimize time to hit. The round exhibited superior performance in all tests made to date. T346 (U)".andhto sostdem smoothbore gun designed to minimize turret intrusion and gun length. APDS. Gun crews can sense a hit or miss when using the round. AD 313 368. Final engineering ard ssafety tests were satisfactory. T346E17 and T346EI7 Mod I. 166 Herring.20 at 2000 meters. The first-round hit probability is evicellent. J. 1 (Unclassified Abstract) This report covers development of the T223 105-mm smoothbore tank gun designed to provide a special weapon for continuing the test program for armor-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot projectiles. 0. User tests are complete and are being evaluated. J. Firing tests for the heat.: "Development and Fabrication of T384 Ammunition for Gun. 105/40-mm. J. M68 (U)". The probable error characteristics are about 0. (Confidential Report). APFSDS. for 105-mm Gun T210 (U)". and WP cartridges. The 40-mm penetrator and the windshield of the T320E10 90-mm APFSDS shot were adopted for the T346 shot tested in the T223 gun. US Army Material Command Technical Information Report 6-9-1A2(l) TIR 6-9-1A2(l). HE. for 105-mm Gun. kinetic-energy projectile capable of penetrating more than five inches of armor plate at 600 obliquity at a range" of Z000 yards or six inches at 600 at ranges up to 500 yards. L. November 1959. C.: "Development of Shot. This is the fifteenth and final progress report for (Unclassified Abstract) Part L of this contract. thus providing valuable time for obtaining a second shot at a target. September 1959. 165 AD 306 685. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report DPS/TW-420/I.(Unclassified Abstract) This report describes in armament system designed and toprvda to povie icresedfirepower for existing weapon system for future generation tanks. April 1959. The ammunition complement of this system will include HSEAT. 105-mm. T21O (U)". (Confidential Report. The Budd Company Report PR-15. All T384 rounds were delivered. lConfidential Report). 'Confidential Report). 105/40-mm. 164 Sleeper. D-26 .

September 1960. Firings of Kinetic Energy Projectiles Against Tanks (U)". Lamon. Armor Piercing Shot Huchital. AD 357 466. Temple. P. M456 Series for BRL Study (U) ". T. AD 428 312. (Confidential Report). GARDE T. H. I1I 175 D)-27 NEV . William. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. AD 337 629. and shaped charge . "Development of Delta Wing Armor Penetrating Shot (U)". Texas Regarding Inaccuracy of the M60 Tank-GunAmmunition Systern (U) ". AD 328 420. B. February 1963. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No.:. (Secret Report))O. "Compiltion of Results Obtained from Some U. Royal Armament Research and Development Establishment Memorandum (P)13/63. September 1958. W. S.armor piercing. "Improved APDS Shot for Tank Guns (U) ". E. April 1966. L52AI and US.: "Antitank Projectile". UK. D. BRL Memorandum Report No. Capt. 2.are described. Eugene. Shot. Jr. AD 319 07?. G. Gholutron.. Report No. S.. James.r. Robert N.. subcalibre sabot projectiles. H. 173 Bertrand. (Secret Report)' 1 . Comparative Plating Trials in 105-mam and 120-mm Calibres (U) " (Secret Report) 1 5 .UMC 168 704 4 L Benjamin. 1601 /t 4. Erwin. Foreign Technology Division Translation FTD-IT-63-643. S. Permutter. 105-mm. August 1963. Siusom. Hansen. 1295. subcalibre. (Confidential Report). Three types of projectiles . AD 371 829. Heat-T. V. DPS-483. Anderson. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. 174 Dempsey. Lt. 'Confidential Report). March 1962. (Unclassified Abstract) This article includes a brief discussion of th-t development of armor protection and of antitank projectiles designed to defeat such armor. L.: "Uranium Alloy and Tungsten Alloy Cores for A. DPS-64. AD 320 090.: 'Development of Smoke Tracer for APDS Shot (U)".. (Secret Report)1 2 -. William C. 4 D-2... N. Delta-Finned. AD 302 242. P. Nadin.: "Research Test of Cartridges. (Unclassified Report). DPS-1983. M. APDS-. B. July 1964.: 'Visit to Fort Hood. Electro Mechanical Research Co. 23 August 1963. 169 170 171 172 (Unclassified Abstract) General discussion and brief history of armor piercing. P.

. this was anticipated from experimental wind tunnel data. 11. Retardation of the flight projectile was lower than that of the arrow design. Mod. F.S.. the projectile and sabot are included. launching imparted excessive yaw to the sub-projectile and caused erratic flight. 000 psi. and that the sabot-discarding mechanism is workable. Armor. Propellant gas obturation was excellent even at the fiftieth round level in the 90-mm" smoothbore gun T208E4. I)-2JF . 3 (U)". . . (Confidential Report).. FS. Deficiencies were noted. pictorial representations. Study drawings of the sabot and delta shot are included. Barrieres. were proof-tested at the Aberdeen Proving Ground for general flight performance and security of parts.. "(Unclassified Abstract) Ten rounds of 105-mm. 105-mm.: "Design and Testing of a Delta-Finned. 178 Crox. . . "Development of Shot. Huchital. Sidney. in the launching of the sub-projectile. . (Confidential Report). (Confidential Report). . . 177 and drawings of V. Eugene: "Development of Delta Wing Armor Penetrating Shot (U)". April 1960. DPS/TW-426/13. March 1960. .MRC Report No.S. It was concludt.Penetrating Projectile for Use in the Smoothbore 90mm Gun. discarding-sabot. armor-penetrating shot were made and tested. . Several sabot "T" sections were recovered and examined. Velocities were of the order of 5550 feet per second. Jr. (Unclassified Abstract) Nine rounds of shot. 3 ammunition for the T210 gun were test-fired on a 1000-yard range. with chamber pressures at about 52.~ *.. etc. Feltman Research and Engineering Laboratories Technical Memorandum Report Nr. Mod 3. 176 Jacobson. Elie L. (Unclassified Abstract) Thia and following EMRC reports include a portion of the design and development of a delta-wing armor-penetrating shot. penetration capabilities. (Unclassified Abstract) Two designs of delta-finned. . T208E4 (U)". These designs showed that fin deterioration from in-gun and aerodynamic heating common to other hypervelocity. . F. Detailed description of the sabot is given. .. ORDBB-TE5-10.. Mention is made of the failure of the sabot used on Models l and 2 during launch. . some history of previous work and some stress analysis of the carrier are included. accuracy. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. .. however. Discarding Sabot. AD 315 926. Several in-flight photographs. Mod._ . . fin-stabilized ammunition had been eliminated. F. J. AD 312 180. AD 315 893. .a "* * _. though too lightly joined to the obturator. Aside from the normal studies of tube wear. . . . Obturation photographs are shown. June 1959.d that the stability and drag characteristics of the Model 3 design are good over a range of 1000 yards. 105/40-mm APFSDS.

HighEnergy.: "Feasibility Test of the APFSDS Delta Program (1962 Progress Report) (U)". March 1963. (Confidential Report).) 180 (Unclassified Abstract) Testing was conducted during the period July 1960 to May 1961 to evaluate the 105-/4C-mrm shot.AMCP 706-445 179 W Huchital. DPS-472.: "Development of Shot. AD 322 620. Eugene: "Design and Development of Low-Drag. 5131 fps on the 6-inch plate. 16. breaking of the sabot occurred during this firing. T. Results indicate that there was no complete breakup of any sabot assembly. W. 182 Huchital. In a firing against 6-inch plate at a range of 2000 yards 30 July 1960. 105-mm FS (Delta Wing) (U). Because of several sabot failures. 30 (Final). some of the sleeves collapsed inward. (Confidential EMRC Report No. Armor. 120/40-rnm. nor was it possible to determine the protection ballistic limits (PBL) of the shot against armor plate at 1000 yards. In May of 1961 a Model 8 design was evaluated against 5. Overall recommendations. Armor-Penetrating Projectiles (U)". (Unclassified Abstract) This program is an experimental effort to gain increased knowledge of kinetic energy antitank projectiles. Eugene: "Design and Development of Low-Drag. Aberdeen571. performance of both models is discussed. (Confidential Report. Proving Model 6 and 7 (U)".and 6-inch armor plate and also against the tripartite triple-spaced armor target. (Confidential Report). The function and performance of the sabot and obturator are given with Obturation and flight photographs are shown. HighEnergy. (Confidential Report). 181 Erwin. a PBL could not be established because of an inability to obtain a complete penetration. 31 March 1961.________________________ D-W29 • . D2 '" .______. AD 328 (Unclassified Abstract) The "Delta" projectile was developed as a kineticThe Delta incorporates energy penetrator to replace the "Arrow" projectile. APFSDS. Rolf F. AD 333 623. A PBL of 4648 fps was obtained on the 5-inch plate. Ground Report No. accuracy data were not obtained at any range. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No.-'ated.Penetrating Projectiles (U)". Photographs show that fins began to separate from the shell. DPS-816. the Arrow penetrator and a pusher-type sabot instead of the pull-type used with the Arrow. APFSDS. Ben: "Development of Shot. EMRC Report No. rJ 183 Holmes. Report). During July 1960. However. 31 October 1962. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. and 5105 on the tripartite plate. because so many rounds missed the plate. DPS-386. a Model 4 design was eval. Callis. AD 327 233. Also. Deficiencies in velocity dispersion and projectile launch were previously encountered. AD 335 255. December 1961. March 1962. Complete study drawings of both Delta models and the sabot are included.

using the 76-mm tank gun in lieu of the original 75-mm sky-sweeper gun. August 1966. respectively. Protection ballistic limits of 5169 and 5175 fps for 6-inch. P. 9 June 1958. November 1963. (Secret Report). (Secret Report). This report briefly summarizes the results of the sabot testing at UMIC between March of 1953 and December of 1957. Loss of fins because of setback loads prevented the Mod 9 shot from obtaining a PBL against the heavy triple tripartite armor target.3. Delta. 03 D-30 • " . ended the velocity-dispersion problem. 1. July 1965. University of Pittsburgh Technical Information Report 27. Barrieres. "'152-m-im Gun-Launcher Cannon. incorporated into the base of the sabot. rolled homogeneous armor were determined for Delta shot. (Secret Report). Alfred: "Analysis of Scope of Work and Report of Results for Development of Plastic Sabots (U)".13 189 (Unclassified Abstract) The scope of work under the subject contract originally was based upon the exclusive use of anti-aircraft projectiles. (Secret Report). XM150 Series (U) ". shot tank projectile. APFSDS. Universal Match Corp. this requirement was changed to the use of an A. and provides recommreadations for additional development of the sabot for use in 90. AD 351 586. AD 364 536. XM70 (MDT-70) (U) ". DPS-1109. AD 376 323. Models 11 and 12 (Armor Penetration Phase) (U) ". Sabot Development for APFSDS Projectiles Hollmann. No solution for the launch problem was found. (Secret Report). the Mod 10 could not effect a complete penetration of this target. AD 380 824. 152 mm APFSDS Shot "152-mm Gun/Launcher Full-Tracked Combat Tank. DPS-1326. A low-order detonation of the propellant severely damaged the weapon after a propellant-assessment and granulation study was complete. Aberdeen Proving Ground.1. Mod 9 and 10. Report No.and 120-mm guns.: "First Report on Ammunition Development for the US/FRG Main Battle Tank . June 1964. 12 187 188 D-2.Feasibility Study of the 120mm Delta Shot (U) ". Report. Picatinny Arsenal Technical Report 3249. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No.h le:4 A shot-start band. "Research Test of 120-mm Delta System (with Prototype Gun) "(U) ". -) -- 185 186 D-2.1. 184 "Research Test of Shot. (Confidential Report). However. 600.3. February 1967. However. AD 344 980L.2. A PBL of 4750 fps for the Delta Mod 9 shot was determined against a modified medium tripte tripartite armor.-. AD 300 685. US Army Materiel Command Technical Information Report 27. Elie L.

MR-600. discarding. "DRAG PROPERTIES AND GUN LAUNCHING LONG ARROW PROJECTILES. (AD 387 167) :1 194 * 195 r ""- .1 ii . Final Report No. August 1967.. fabrication. T208 Gun (U)". . . : "Methods of Transferring Torque to an Armour Piercing Core". (AD 135 306) MacAllister. D-2. (Unclassified Abstract) A theoretical analysis of two methods of transferring torque to an armor-piercing core is given. Brooks....14 193 Miscellaneous Galagher. Aberdeen Proving Ground (Confidential Report). April 1952. .. The torsional capacities of both methods are determined and compared with the estimated torsional requirement for spin stabilization. DPS/TW-426/3. (Confidential Report). . "Evaluation of Friction Sabot Round for 90-mm.sabot round was investigated. ER-4341. e. armor-piercing.. W. G. C.. May 1959.. "DEVELOPMENT OF Z0MM ARMOR-PIERCING CARTRIDGE TYPE MLU-36/C. Phase II was an experimental program that determined the character and several of the features desirable in the full-scale design. R-1013. " Ballistic Research Laboratories. March 1966. 2-pound projectile.. W. Inc. S.. Jr. APG. Phase I was a theoretical study establishing the expected performance of a 152-mm round employing a 8. March 1957. 1612/64. The information developed during this phase guided the design of the full-scale round.. for Picatinny Arsenal. L. 0.AMCP 706445 190 4 191 Miller. ATL-TR-67-94. plus several pictorial representations. N. Aircraft Armaments. are shown. sabot spin torques: the torsion key. Charles. " Ballistic Research "'aboratories. Phase III was a design. Settles. i. and the friction surfaces. AD 372 916. : "Dz. . Mark. L.• ip i ' r i i ii i i I. (Unclassified Report). Report No. 192 Black. P."ELEMENTS WHICH H4AVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE DISPERSION OF THE 90/40 PROJECTILE. • (Unclassified Abstract) The feasibility of adapting a friction technique to the design of a large-calibre.sign and Fabrication of APDS Shot (U)".. Calculations were made to establish the characteristics of a subscale (22-mnm) round possessing performance characteristic equivalent to the full-scale unit. The program was conducted in three phases. AD 307 407. large-calibre round. Memorandum Report No.. and test program for the development of a full-scale. . . AD 422 304. N. February 1964." AAI Corporation.. . (AD 802 165) Rottenberg. Report No. CARDE T. Clos'up still photographs of recovered sabots.

AD 99 765. : "Development of Shell. (Confidential Report). 12 0-nmm IIEDS-AA Shells D-3. drawings. and in-flight photographs. (Confidential Report). DISCARDING SALOT. Through the use of nmany firing records. the reports follow the developmvent of the sabot through miany design changes and tests. 199 Roberts.AMCP 0-4465 19b "DESIGN AND TESTING OF A DELTA-FINNED. TAI-5008-2p 26 October 1955. 200 Burns. 90-m111. Technical Information Report 6-9-4AI(3). This work was done in conjunction with the UMC contract described in the next abstract. Report No." University of Pittsburgh. 75/00-n1n1 IIEDS-AA Shell (Unclassified Abstract) The three reports listed below are progress reports dealing with the design and development of the sabot used on the 75-mm high-explosive discarding-sabot (HEDS) shell. HEDS. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. T208E4.2 75-imm. 75/60-mm (U)". AD 99 767. The following monthly progress reports from the (Unclassified Abstract) Universal Match Corporation. HEDS 90/72-mm T-(for 90-mm gun Ml and MZ) shell. Benjamin Jr.1 HIG14 EXPLOSIVE. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. ORD BB-TE5-10. "Picatinny Arsenal. pictorial representations. (AD 311 633) DISCARDING-SABOT (HEDS) PROJECTILES 197 D-3 D-3. covering the period July 1953 through February 1956. T279. (Confidential Report). E. 75/60-mm (U)". 10 January 1956. Aberdeen Proving Ground Report No. HEDS. 23 August 1957. "Test ) of Shell. D)-32 . 198 Lombard. ARMOR-PENETRATING PROJECTILE FOR USE IN THE SMOOTHBORE 90MM GUN. HEDS I20/80-mm T-(for 120-mm gun Ml) shell. "DEVELOPMENT OF 105-MM HYPERVELOCITY ARMORPIERCING DISCARDING SABOT SHOT. Maj. December 1957. 75/60-mini (U)". HEDS. deal with various stages in the design and development of: HEDS 75/60-mm T-(for 75-mm gun T83E6) shell. yaw cards. TA1-5008-3. TAI-5008-5. still photographs. AD 144 083. : ''Test of Shell. E A.

AD 25 511.5. series of reports are many 3hell. October 1953. AD 47 264. AD 26 662. 1D-33 . Several different materials ranging from fortisan. to a mixture of nylon. AD 40 047. AD 31 403. l. 30 July 1954. 24 December 1953.4 T121. AD 69 688. J. for Picatinny Arsenal. AD 25 513. AD 22 997. AD 81 603.5. 3 December 1953. AD 50 910. 22 OctQber 1955.AMCP 706445 't•- Of prime interest was the design and development of sabots to fit the above configurations best. J. E. 75-mm. 10 June 1955.: "Continued Design & Development of 155/105-mm (Discarding Sabot) H. 25 April 195. AD 54 096. Mary tta Engineering Company. AD 33 554. 4 November 1953. AD 62 673. 23 February 1954. 24 January 1955. Universal Match Corporation. 245P9. The test procedures involved static testing static testing of the complete round. 22 November 1954. T163 or Tl61. AD 35 408. 22 November 1955. Report No. 19 May 1955.: "Design & Development of 280/203-mm HEDS Shell". 5 October 1953. firing of the complete round. AD 38 692.. Report No. 20 September 1954. 25 August 1954. Shell (U)". AD 92 575. 20 March 1955. 20 February 1955. 202 Detaranto. Monthly Progress Reports. (Unclassified Report). AD 58 862. AD 75 641. chopped glass. proof and evaluating the results. AD 25 512. 203 280/'203-nmm IIEI)S shell t Detaranto. (Unclassified Report). (Unclassified Abstract) The aim of this contract was to ensure the manufacturing services of this facility in producing and evaluating twenty-five each experimental models of seven different proposed configurations of discarding sabot ammunition in the 155/105-mm calibre combination. as well as detailed drawings of both the shell and sabot with dimensions and weights. 90-mm. AD 66 552. and epon-thiokol resin were used and tested during the progress of these reports. Stress analysis of the "HEDS AA Shells. Drop test results of the sabot are also included. 201 of all components fabricated. 24 March 1954. AD 43 097. 2 February 1954. AD 50 908. May 1954. Sabot and shell stress analysis are included. (Unclassified and Confidential Reports). AD 31 406. Marotta Engineering Company.3 T1b2. AD 31 405: 27 April 1954. 20 December 1954. AD "8 263. 120-mm (U)". D-3. 226P1l.'105-nmm JIEDS Shell T-3. 21 February 1956. AD 56 865. 25 June 1954. 23 July 1953. reinforced plastic. Included in the pictorial representations of both sabot and shell and of the sabot also are given. 30 September 1954. AD 19 585.

(Confidential Report). Calculations of stability factors and dynamical of a 280/203-mim HEDS constants.. k p . and a forward multipiece sabot ring Cutaways of the sabot and shell are shown. ) (Unclassified Abstract) increased range potential of standard artillery weapor's has been of continuing interest to the Ordnance Corps. HFD3. 280 /203-mmi T121I Type (U)". wvith 155-mm sabots and 105-mm projectiles. AD 151 463. One type of sabot. was tested and is reported herein. TlI I Series (U)". change of the propelling charges used. B~ecause wvork was to begin immediately. two designs for aluminum sabots As the rt The first was a pot-type sabot with a square base. held in a 280-mm.00 more lethal conv~entional projectile. Accordingly.14apts a 3.) (Unclassified Abstrac-t) This report covers the development of 'arge-calibre 4 field artillery weapons able to cover large are-as. and variouIS means of accomplishing this end have been investigated and developed through the years. (Confidential Report).This report discusses the designing and developing (1. kIan'led with a steel rinc. HE. 205 "Development of 280-mm High-Explosive Discarding Sabot Shell. Re port No. forward bourrelet with a single steel band..ound. TA. 000 -yarde for the larger and 45P 000 and 49. the 1. rear-ariving ''pot sabot"'. in May of 1950 the Ordnance Technical Committee (OTC) approved developrn'e. shells.ubcalibre projectile to a larger bore weapon. Aberdeen Proving Ground. and the attendant reduction in weight permits substantially . Donald K. a limited charge establishment . were designed and employed to evaluate -nroposed designs for 280/203-mm projectiles. The second des-gn called for a twopiece a~sernbly consisting of a pot-type. it of the T 163 development..)nclassified Abstract) shell. S.. Technical Information Report 6. along with stress analyses of torque pins. T131. This report outlines the development progress to date using the sabot principle in the 280-mm gun. square-base. it was necessary to use existing Consequently.under all weather conditions.1-2040-8. as' -mpared to 35. sabot with three ~gil'Aifg-nwital bands and a steel cap. Army Materiel Comma-nd. and sabots. AD 311 659. May 1956. and a relatively long rear bmirielet -with two gilding-metal bands.her velocities and This feature in turn necessitates a ranges than can be reached normally. It was estimated that a hil~h-explosP'e (HE) shell and the T12 11 shell with a sabot would enable the T 13 1 gun to fire to a range of between yad. 204 Tag.122 HEDS shell. _. K December 1958. M106 (sub-projectile). :'Development of Shell. are given. a short were accep~ted. The sabot principle a. U. employing an S-inch shell. series. shells of che T163 weapons as prctotypes wherever possible.vas conducted using T161 proof slugs to simulate the wveight of the prototype :.it of Ehce T131 280-mmni gun and two rounds of ammunition for it.19-7A2(2).

MPR-25. 15 February 1953.4. (Unclassified Abstract) The purpose of this test was to determine suitability of preloaded coil springs in aiding the separation in flight of sabot segments trom the T320 projectile. are included in each report.4. The Budd Company. J.: "Engineering Progress Report on the 127/60-mnT144 and 90-mm T82 Shell (U)". The Budd Company. Murray Tube Works. (Confidential Report). 207 208 (Unclassified Abstract) A brief report is given on the evaluation of the performance of an alumninum. for Frankfort. D. and Shober. and drift as a function of distance dow:n range may be estimated for the Standard E-20 model. : "Engineering Progress Report on the 127/60-mm T144 & 90/40-mm T320 Shell (U)". R.: " On The Development of a Low-Spin. stability factor. four-segment. precession rate rate. Falvey. AD 32 157. Engineering Progress Reports. 15 April 1953. 527. November 1950. 30 June 1955. 20b Falvey D. G. AD 805 133 The data obtained from the supersonic wind tunnel at (Unclassified Abstract) M = 1. G. discarding sabot design for the 90/40-mm T320 projectile. :"The Development of a Procedure to Fabricate Shell HEDS 127/60-mm". (Unclassified Report). D)-35 . 15 March 1953. Z09 Falvey. 29 June 1954. D-3. S. R. MPR-24.72 and from the transonic range at M = 1.5 T144. (Unclassified Report). 127. AD 70 286. Final Report. projectile. AD 70 285.5 to 1. D.1 furnished a basis for estimating the center of pressure variation with Mach number for the E-20 shell configuration. . (Unclassified Report). The Budd Company. the missile velocity. plus detailed drawings. An analysis of the results furnishes a partial explanation of the results obtained from accuracy firings at 1000 yards for the Standard E-20 model.6 Other FIEDS Shell 210 Nicolaides. B. Dunne. R. AD 35 269. (Confidev-tial Report).AMCP 706-445 1 D-3.'60-mm HEDS-AA Shell The following reports are part of a series of engineering progress reports dealing with the development and testing of the HEDS 127/60-mm T144 Complete firing data on each round. AD 32 160. BRL Memorandum Report No. 15 May 1953. AD 32 157. 31 July 1955. :"Research and Development of 127/60-mm Non-Lethal Discarding Sabot". With these data and the assumption that the normal force coefficient is constant over the range of flight Mach numbers. D. P. spin. AD 32 158. AntiTank Projectile (U)". for Frankford.

Hesse-Eastern Corporation. Five sabot designs 214 "DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF SET-BACK MECHANISM FOR FUZE. propellant charge establishment. and sight reticle verification firings. June 1953. vertical target dispersion. Progress Report 21-753-6A. RDL-6.. APG Report No. The basic sabot design is discussed. AD 336 530. Theoretical Discussion (Unclassified Abstract) A brief theoretical discussion of the sabot is given. 213 Labuwi. December 1962.66. : "The Selectinns of Optimum Sabots forHE. upon which new model designs were based. FOR 127/60MM DISCARDING SABOT SHELL. AD 478 820L. HE warhead". March lC. with 81-mm. range firings. (Unclassified Report). January 1955. (Unclassified Report'. 211 Rosenberg. T-265.Calculations also are carried out for other center of gravity locations for the E-20 configuration. Data were collected from conceptfeasibility. M. including a definition of the sabot. France Progress Report. L.: "Engineer Design Test of Cartridge. R. Lewis R. LABORATOIRE D'Etudes BALISTIQUES. Picatinny Arsenal Report No. AD 75 813. Labuwi. (Unclas. DPS-1949. SpinStabilized Ammunition to Obtain Maximum Range". M371EI. fuze arming and fuze reverse functioning. and briefly It is shown both theoretically and experimentally that the performance of the E-20 shell can be substantially improved by locating the center of gravity in a particular rear position. June 1953 (AD 31 625). Progress Report 19-553. HEAT-FS.ified Abstract) The repo-At gives a short discussion of the possibility of adapting the British or American design of APDS round to French applications. 212 "Concerning the Development of the Spin Stabilized Non-Rotating Hollow Charge 105mm Shell (U)". were tested. Complete detailed sabot design drawings are included. cartridge (anti-personnel) was evaluated. (Unclassified Abstract) The performance of the 90-mm. evaluation of sabot design. The results obtained from accuracy firings of these new designs are given herein discussed. I)-30 . (Confidential Report). May 1953 (AD 31624). 90-rmm. de Saint-Louis. Progress Report 20-653-6A.

R. 75" Spin-Stabilized Discarding Sabot Projectile". : deGaetano. (Unclassified Report). (Unclassified Report). still photographs. thus shearing the stud at the silver-brazed joint. B.iB". 75" Spin-Stabilized Discarding-Sabot Projectile". Butler. 26 November 1954. Rex B. The shear release stud is a conventional stud with a 45° silver-brazed joint at midlength. Included in these reports are many drawings. B. 216 Butler. 0"/13. : "Development od the 5. R. Butler. Butler. The pot-type sabot is aluminum with a nylon rotating band and a soft-iron front bourrelet. designated the NOL XS-lB projectile. 25 October 1954. 1294. 1310. . 1300. AD 82 450. (Unclassified Report). 75" spin: (Unclassified Abstract) stabilized discarding sabot projectile developed by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory. NPG Report No. 800-ft/sec muzzle velocity. The five reports listed below deal with this development. The torque pin drive is a positive drive in which a pair of truncated conical pins are threaded to the sabot base and match corresponding conical recesses in the base of the sub-projectile.AMCP 706445 1)_4 1)-4. NPG Report No.1 OTHER SABOT PROJECTILES 51"/3. AD 47 70 1. (Conrfidential Report). : "Development of a 5"/3. (Unclassified Report). AD 45 659. although capable of further refinements and improvements. D-37 t. uses torque drive pins and gas-pressure actuated shear release studs for sabot attachment to the sub-projectile. : "Ballistic Test of 5"/3. 15 March 1954. Felix P. : deGattano. 75" Spin-Stabilized Discarding-Sabot Projectile Design XS. A group of twenty rounds fired from a special high twist 5"/38 gun barrel averaged a 3. pictorial representations. . 75" Spin Stabilized Discarding-Sabot Projectile The following reports describe the 5. R. and in-flight photographs of the projectile and sabot. NPG Report No. 0"/3.. AD 41 103.: "Ballistic Test of 5"/3. 215 C. "Development and Ev.luation of a 5"/3. L. Felix P.75" Spin-Stabilized Discarding-Sabot Projectile". NAVORD Report 3987.. 75" Spin-Stabilized Discarding Sabot Projectile Design XS-IA". 1253. . : deGaetano. NPG Report No. B. Severance is accomplished by using powder pressure to load the stud in compression by a flexible diaphragm. Felix P. is an operable round.. This projectile. 217 218 A 219 Nardis. It has been concluded that the XS-IB projectile. Sabot separation was complete for all rounds and the performance generally was satisfactory. AD 310 058. 19 September 1955.

Relative merits of using the British 127/59-mm round in the 5"/38 gun also are discussed. . F. shock tube laboratory.D-4.2 Gun-Launched Anti-Missile Defense (GADS) 220 (GADS) (U)". AD 454 983. Pictorial representations are given. Photographs and 1)-38 . M. (Unclassified Report).. 21 August 1956.S. Preliminary design details of fixed and semifixed 5-inch rounds incorporating an FSDS projectile are presented. 222 Naylor. I. NPG Report No. (Confidential Report). A simple plastic cylinder sabot is used for launching. Jones. and increased cyclic rate. 25 November 1964. handling. 223 McCallum. McMurtry. functional drawings are included. Test rounds weighed approximately 105 pounds and were supported by a discarding sabot and base plate. A.. These projectiles could be fired through rifled barrels interchangeably with standard spinstabilized ammunition. magnitude of the alterations involved would depend upon the efficiency The fixed-round. J. AD 70 790. but modifications to ammunition handling and fire control equipment would be required for compatibility with the FSDS round.: "A Summary of Firing Results in Angled Arrow Projectile Propellant Development Through 1953 (U)". (Secret Report)2 9 Naval Ordnance Laboratory Report No. 24 May 1955. Such a projectile has a definite time-to-target and range advantage over spin-stabilized projectiles. 1963. one-piece ammunition desired in the overall system. W. R. (Unclassified Abstract) A study has been made of the adaptability of finstabilized. AD 130 644. discarding sabot projectiles to the 5"/38 gun. 1378. L. (Unclassified Abstract) A summary is given of the firing results in the The material covers propellant development for the angled Arrow projectile. 48.E. W. P. W. NOLTR 62-56.: " A Preliminary Design Study of the Adaptability of Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot Projectiles to the 5"/38 Gun (U)". (Confidential Report). Th. the period from 1951-1953. "Parametric Study of Gun-Launched Anti-Missile Defense System D-4. R. 3 Sept. Suffield Experimental Station Technical Note No. ) (Unclassified Abstract) This note is an evaluation of an air-fired smoke "mortar" developed at the S. NAVORD Report 4245. : "An Adaptation of the Shock Tube to Smoke Trail Production (U)". offers several advantages in respect to stowing. The device basically is a small shock tube fired by a standard shock wave valve and using commercially available smoke-producing chemicals to give well defined white smoke trails extending from the tube "muzzle" to heights exceeding fifty feet. Miller.3 Miscellaneous Sabot Projectiles 221 Rossbacher. AD 350 416.

55-SUBCALIBER FIN-STABILIZED GUNFIGHTER PROJECTILE.. L. (AD 389 632L) Nicolarder. (Unclassified Abstract) Need for longer range effectiveness of gunfire has led to a proposal for a smoothbore saboted gun. MANUFACTURE AND PRELIMINARY TESTS. R. Burnett. TM-R-58-66-2/1. ISL-T-25/67. 3 coverage of a soft target as a measure of the effectiveness of the proposed weapon. "A TRANSONIC RANGE STUDY OF THE FREE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE OF THE 127/60 ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILE T-144E2. 226 Giraud. Comparison between molded and machine formed thrust rings established the latter as the better propelling device..5 mm long fin-stabilized projectile in a free flight test range showed a medium velocity decrease of 0. J. AD 370 647.: "Round Requirement for Area Bombardment with a Proposed Long Range Gun (U1". (AD 30 118) 228 D-39 . Duda. 225 Giraud. M. This memorandum estimates the number of rounds required for an expected 0. Goldberg. (Confidential Report). J. The proposal of "Operation Gunfighter" envisions a range of 50 miles.. "EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A SWEPT-BACK PROJECTILE.. Report No. Lindemann. Development and construction of a four-part thrust ring for firing projectiles at 1000 m/s velocity in a 30 rnm caliber smooth barrel is described. " Ballistic Research Laboratories. At an initial velocity of 1000 m/s. " Institut FrancoAllemand de Recherches. M." Institut Franco-Allemand de Recherches. M. I. NOS-IHTR-264. "OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF THE 8-INCH. the projectile stability remained high with a maximal deflection angle of less than 20 at 130 m distance from the gun muzzle. V. ISL-T-26/67.AMCP 706-445 224 of Naval Weapons Report No. "SWEPT-BACK TYPE PROJECTILES. One version of such a gun would use a bored-out 6"/47 barrel and a 3" saboted projectile. 227 Michaels. J. W. Memorandum Report No. The test evaluation of an 18. 1967 (in French).. Bureau January 1966. December 1953. " Naval Ordnance Station. M. D. Quinn. Report No... B. July 21. 1967 (in French). Report No.13 m/s per meter flight distance. J. M. MR-746. July 21. The HARP program has encouraged a renewed interest in the possibilities for subcalibre projectiles..

Based on an empirical formula and using the combined sabot-flechette weight. exterior ballistics. Stevenson. A calibre diareter (sabotless) finned flechette with terminal effects. 2-Grain Steel Flechette (U)" (Secret 2 2 Report) . September 1963. 231 Kymer. Brown. Edgewood Arsenal. the calculated velocity of the proposed flechette was determined both at the muzzle and at the 600 and 1000-yard ranges. 232 Scanlon. Army Chemical Research and Development Laboratories Technical Report CRr r1. Reagan. (Confidential Repozt). (Confidential Report).50 M2 and M85 Machine Guns (U)". AD 367 114. May 1962. molded 17. Report R-1696. R. From known interior and exterior ballistic performance of various flechettes.: "Special Ammunition for Calibre . Full-calibre diameter finned flechettes requiring no sabot are investigated to determine if they can compete. for the calibre . April 1961. and physical properties comparable to the Special Purpose Infantry Weapon (SPIW) 10-grain super calibre finned flechette. 3066. . . C63851. M64-10-1.1 SMALL-CALIBER SABOT PROJECTILES General 229 Oliver. Jules Mi. Thomas: "Sabotless Flechette in Caseless ammunition (C) Investigation of Special Projectiles in -4 - Caseless Ammunition (U)". Several designs are presented Methods of testing small diameter projectiles are discussed. (Unclassified Abstract) A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of developing. Maerkler. AD 345 372. the limit velocities required by the proposed flechettes to defeat various targets at 600 and 1000 yards. Arthur D. .: "Wound Ballistics of the 7. Drawings of various rounds (Z 1)40 . Bernard J. Alfred G. R.. Technical (Unclassified Abutract) A study was conducted to develop a sabotless flechette with solid propellant caseless ammunition. 0-grain caseless charge of IMR 4895 granular propellant was developed for firing the sabotless flechette. was demonstrated and a. (Confidential Report). AD 348 833.: "Feasibility Study of Caliber Diameter Finned Flachettes (U)". AD 323 113.V "1 1l-5 f D-5. ) 230 (Unclassified Abstract) rhe equation governing the energy decay of flechettes4 is examined theoretically in this report and the basic performance feasibility of small calibre diameter flechettes is established. J. with the sabot-type flechette. a flechette round capable of defeating armored personnel carriers at ranges greater than 600 yards. September 1963. Report No. No. accu- racy. and flechette types are included. John J. were calculated. Little. 50 M2 and M85 machine guns. (from a performance standpoint). Inc.

and B90 hardnesses were fired against steel and 2024-T4 and 5083 aluminum armor. Remington Arms. The sabot investigations consist of those given below: A. 4. (Confidential Report) Frankford Arsenal Technical Report R-1711. 234 MacMillan. and a fiber glass sabot slotted to form 16 partial segments.. F. October 1964. 3.performed (Unclassified Abstract) Report summarizes the flechette investigations by Technik. for Ordnance Corps. (IUnciassified Abstract) Calibre 5. J. The work consisted of sabot and flechette analyses. C. including flechette tracer studies. Two types of sabots were used for launching the flechettes: A four piece magnesium sabot held together by a silicone rubber ring. J. was designed to investigate problem areas and make necessary recommendations.To Develop and Supply Experimental Shotgun Ammunition" . March 1964. Sabot Sabot Sabot Sabot pulling force requirements edge sensitivity slot effect contact gap Sabot Strength Sabot Types 1. C45. R. TR #65-14. Flechette & Tracer Flechette Investigations".. J. AD 349 745. 6-mm flechette type projectiles of Rock 11 C60. Technik Incorporated. Kymer. Baldini.. Adhesive-type sabot D-41 . Report No. Report No. June 1965. AD 354 449. Straight cylinder type sabot 2. (Confi dential Report). ) 235 S. B. Sabot Gripping 1. "Sabot. The program as summarized herein. It is an edited compilation of the progress reports issued during the course of this program. . T. 2. Inc. AD 366 463. (Secret Report) 2 4 .: "Final Summary Report . AB 64-19.: "Effect of Projectile Hardness and Plate Composition on Penetration of Spin Projectiles (U)". .AMCP 706446 "S •• 233 Katlin. M. L. conditions of attack by the various projectiles against plates of equivalent areal densities. Protection ballistic limits were determined for several. under the SPIW program.

CRDLR 3308. . May 1966. 2 inch thick plate for steel and tungsten respectively (based on BRL MR1442). AD 368 026.AMCP 706441 236 Dziemian. (Confidential Report). Hartlove. (Unclassified Abstract) The objective for this program was the feasibility investigation and preliminary development of 20-mm armor piercing amnmunition using the sub calibre flechette and discarding sabot principle successfully developed for . This means that this round is capable of defeating light tanks from the sides and back in low level attack modes and all tanks. 237 Nusbaum.: "Study and Development of 20-mm Armor Piercing Ammunition (U)". The successful design permitted launching a stable penetrator at the required velocity. AD 373 665. Alfred G.ginally computed to be 0. for tungsten alloy.: Wound Ballistics of SPIW Flechettes (U)" . heavy and light from the top in 30* dive angle attack modes. July 1965. 17-mm-diameter tungsten carbide penetrator having a length-to-diameter ratio of 25. Report No. Walter C. Settles. AD 364 425. M. S. R. however. P. This resulted a projectile diameter of 0. C. Test results conformed the computed performance for steel. Arthur J. 159 in. ATL-TR-66-37. . (Unclassified Abstract) This report describes studies conducted to develop a 20-mm discarding sabot for a 4. for steel and 0. The various configurations tested under this program are illustrated.: "Small Arms Ammunition Supporting Research Defeat of Armor (U)". 8 and 1.221 in. " Edgewood Arsenal ) 2 Army Chemical R & D Lab. tungsten carbide resulted in penetrations that were 59 percent in excess of the computed performance. Report No. 8 at 0° obliquity at 1000 yard range from a ground mounted weapon. (Confidential Report). September 1965.4 2 . Extrapolation of experimental test data and analytical studies indicated that a refined tungsten carbide round should penetrate approximately 1. The report is saturated with charts. F. ITT Research Institute. 238 Hebert. Final Report DA-36-038-AM C-1685(A). McDonald. Dynamic strength evaluations made for the components used. for Fr~nkford Arsenal. projectile mass to sabot mass ratio. (Secret Report). Design studies and experimental investigation on the 20-mm ammunition established that a 370-grain sabot was adequate for a 420-grain projectile and that this assembly could be launched at a muzzle velocity of approximately 4670 ft/sec. 9 inches of armor plate at 60" obliquity or 3. The above performance figures are predicated on the stated muzzle velocity. Olivier. C. ) P1A SD. Penetration of rolled homogeneous armor plate (250 Brinell) at 60* obliquity at 1000 yards was or. The maximum projectile length that was compatible with the M103 cartridge case was 6 inches. and projectile drag coefficent of 0. 22 calibre ammunition. . graphs and pictorial representations of the test procedures and results. J. Aircraft Armaments Inc. 3.

and some of the I L Sis problems encountered during developmental studies and tests. the lightest projectile weight (14. To design and fabricate simulated production processes for fabricating and assembling the point target cartridge. To develop a 5. Report No. diameter cavity and one grain tracer charge). Dietsch. (Confidential Report) Aircraft Armaments. (Confidential Report).2 0. Aircraft Armanents. and fabrication of an a..Caven. • (Unclassified Abstract) The primary objectives were as follows: To continue the design. 5. c. . J. This presentation describes the SPIW tracer cartridge design features. AD 378 554. A special section describing the operation of the sabot injection molding machine is included . namely.SI AMCP 706445 & 239 Cavell. and the only sabot-launched small arms tracer projectile. Winston W. development. 62 mm M62 NATO tracer.usti ite the important differences in design features between special purpose individual weapon (SPIW) tracers and conventional tracers. March 195?. 5 grains). June 1966. Ronald D. ER-1026. the SPIW tracer projectile possesses the highest muzzle velocity (4600 fps). 40-mm. 6-mm. James J. 6-mm cartridge and associated accessory types of point target cartridges. as also are drawings of the sabot assembly. Frank W. D-43 . with grenade launcher. DiGirolamo.. N.: "Tracer Projectile for SPIW Point Target Ammunition (U)". Report No. (Unclassified Abstract) Of all the small arms tracer ammunition. 7. . ER-4681. Inc. V. 000 cartridges by a method simulating the mass production processes to be delivered to the Government. (Confidential Report). Inc. . AD 374 357. test. ballistic and pyrotechnic functioning characteristics. 060 in. December 1966.22 Caliber Flechette 241 LaCosta. improved model weapon system leading to a final prototype rifle. 240 "Special Purpose Individual Weapon (U)".. the smallest tracer cavity and tracer charge (0. D-5. thus making It the most unconventionil tracer ever designed and developed. To il. AD 126 947.: "Small Arms Cartridge (U)". d. b. To manufacture 130. a comparison first is presented of the arrangement of the major components of the SPIW tracer and of the smallest standard military tracer of conventional design.

"Small Calibre Demonstration Guns (U)". (Confidential Report) Aircraft Armaments.. accuracy problems and manufacturing problems is presented. A considerable improvement in round performance was achieved. 242 "Development of a Spec'il Type Small Arms Cartridge (SabotSupported) (U)". (Confidential Report). pulling problems.. lightweight rounds producible by mass production techniques are developed.. (Unclassified Abstract) Continuation of the development of a special type small arms cartridge. 22 calibre fin-stabilized sabot ammunitLon. AD 316 128. ER-1725. ER-2059. Inc.(Secret Report). the objective was to establish the fea&ibility of launching a fin-stabilized projectile at an approximate velocity of 4000 feet per seccnd. All of the rounds were launched from a calibre . ER-1414. Aircraft Armaments.22 calibre. - D-44 . 243 "Development of a Snecial Type Small Arms Cartridge (U)". Various projectiles and sabot configurations were launched successfully at this velocity. The development of a . A gun mechanism was fabricated and tested. Fort Benning. 245 18 March 1960. Inc. 244 "Evaluation of Single Flechette (U)" . Short. An extensive section ) on sabot projectile development. Report No. The major objective of the work was development of a special type small arms cartridge using a fin-stabilized projectile that could be launched at a muzzle velocity of 4000 feet per second and could achieve terminal velocities high enough to be lethal at reasonable ranges. July 1958. (Unclassified Abstract) The design and firing capabilities of a fivebarrel. 2876. The gun was developed to demonstrate a new . Aircraft Armaments. Inc. AD 309 272.22 calibre projectile puller type sabot configuration that would use a smooth surface projectile is discussed in considerable detail. Report No.AM 706445 (Unclassified Abstract) During the performance of this contract. (Unclassified Abstract) The feasibility of a new lightweight weapon system is established. June 1959. Army Infantry Board.1 22 calibre demonstration-gun are given. Several pictorial representations of different sabot types and rounds are given. including down range velocity problems. employing a fin-stabilized projectile. Georgia. . June 1960. AD 300 912. Report of Project Nr. and the feasibility of satisfying the down range velocity and accuracy objectives was proven.22 smoothbore Mann barrel. (Confidential Report). Report No. AD 317 351.

25 May 1960. Herr.AMCP 706-445 -. Photographs of the gun. On a few occasions. this penetration was deep enough to cause the butt-plate to stick to the flechette over the full range of travel. in salvos. Measurements were made of action time and velocity. 1379. 248 a Lentz. . E. BRL Technical Note No. (Unclassified Abstract) A firing range was set up and a special smooth bore . BRL Memorandum Report No.220 swift high-velocity gun was used to fire the individual flechette projectiles over a distance of 150 feet. (Confidential Report). (Unclassified Abstract) Experimental data are given on the velocity and mass distribution of particles ejected from the backside of a steel target attacked by a flechette. February 1961. characteristics under the most adverse condition. The sabots used were aluminum and soft enough for a deep penetration of the flechette point into the butt-plate when firing flechettes backward. This factor gave rise to a problem in how to sabot the projectile properly. S. 1)-45 . Muzzle velocity was 4. Sober. Mention is made of a sabot stripper threaded to the muzzle of each barrel to disperse the sabot pieces from the projectile. 0. Louis. AD 371267. AD 355 191. ET 182-60. 1311. 246 are shown. (Confidential Report). dispersions were obtained of the flechettes and sabots at several locations down range and photographs were taken of the flechettes and sabots at two positfons along their trajectories.: "An Investigation of the Characteristics of Flechette Rounds When Fired from a Multi-Barreled Tcst 6un (U)". AD 321 770. Picatinny Arsenal Report No. Grabarek. Most of the tests conducted involved firings of the flechette with 'ie front or pointed end in the rearmost The purpose here was to check stabilizing position at the time of firin. single flechette rounds in single shots. November 1960. (Unclassified Abstract) Experimental firings were conducted with a xivebarreled test gun firing cal. 247 (!6 i Ricchiazzi. (Confidential Report). The experimental method is described. assembled and disassembled. S. 400 feet per second and the peak primer pressure was 3.: "An Experimental Study of the Characteristics and Effectiveness of Particles Ejected Behind Armor Plate Attached by Flechettes (U)". The flechettes were sabot-launched by pusher type fiber sabots from smoothbore gun. Antonio J. John: "Test of Flechette Flight Characteristics (C)". The capability of the particles to incapacitate personnel is computed for a few cases. 22. 540 psi. Chester L. and in a burst at a rate of fire of 2680 rds/min.

3) stripper development. May 1964. Report No. improve accuracy. Development and Manufacture of Interim Tooling for Fabrication and Assembly of . Aeroballistic Research Report 207. to defeat HEAT projectiles.22-Calibre Ammunition (U). The remainder of the report covers the research and development activities conducted by AAI on calibre . A D-4 e . (Confidential Report) Picatinny Arsenal Technical Memorandum 1246. and 6) sabot lethality investigation. ER-3361. Z50 "Research and Development on . 220 calibre smoothbore gun. January 1964. 251 "Design. projectile. AD 363 368. The effort involved the sabot. 4) propellant charge development. and cartridge. (Confidential Report). (Unclassified Abstract) Several organiations conducted programs to investigate the vulnerability of simulated HEAT-type warheads to high velocity flechettes. 4 November 1953. February 1964. (Unclassified Abstract) This report is a description of the tooling processes for fabricating the sabot and projectile for the XMII0 cartridge. and decrease short range sabot lethality is presented with emphasis on plastic-type sabots. Results of these tests were promising since the flechettes were able to detonate the explosive filler. Angles of Best results were obtained by using a sabot consisting of an aluminum buttplate with paper wadding packed around the flechette inside the cartridge. Aircraft Armaments.: "Effectiveness of Flechettes Against the 90-rnm T108 HEAT Shell (U)". AD 350 673. 22 arrow amrnmunition during the period I July 1960 through the end of the R&D program.3 Multiple Projectile Shots 252 Long. 2) cartridge case configuration. AD 347954. Luther S. ER-3491. Remington Arms. but this did not establish the capabilities of flechettes against actual HEAT projectiles. Inc. approximately 31 January 1963. Thus. E. (Unclassified Abstract) Section II of this report gives a summary of the status of each of the following as of 30 June 1960: 1) sabot-projectile configuration.22-Calibre Arrow Ammunition (U)". Investigation of multipiece sabots and sabot materials and configurations to reduce manufacturing costs. AD 49 699. D-5. The 90-mm TI08 HEAT round was chosen as the test vehicle. 5) projectile accuracy investigation. " (Unclassified Report). a program was initiated at Picatinny Arsenal to study the possibility of using flechettes fired from a special 0.249 Martin. Report No.: "Photographic Study of Separation of Shotgun "Scatter" Projectile Clusters. Inc. attack from 0 to 90* were used for these teots. (Confidential Report) Aircraft Armaments. Included is a description of the machines used for assembling the cartridge automatically. J.

AD 84 048. AD 327 683. *Plastic (Unclassified Abstract) This report describes the preliminary study of the use of WAL Type Discarding Carriers in establishing the range-velocity characteristics of steel spheres and cylinders at velocities ranging from 700 to 4000 ft/sec. 256 4alhoun. " (Confidential Report). 255 Weistling. and compares it with standard and developmental weapons of a more conventional nature.AMCP 70. 9 January 1956. Investigation of sabot separation on launching the 20o-mm cluster is briefly included.: "Preliminitry Study of the Application of Discarding Carriers and Missile Binders for Canister Shot (C).44 tUnclassified Abstract) The purpose of this study was to find the causes of the excessive dispersion of the shotgun 'scatter' projectile clusters. . (Unclassified Abstract) This study investigates the air-to-ground effectiveness of scatter projectile weapons. and preparation of the experimental canister shot. 254 McDonough. A scatter projectile weapon is de~fined as a gun instail'tion that fires rounds containing a number of finstabilized sub-projectil 's which are constrained by a sabot while in the gun bore." (Confidential Report). but which are released as distinct projectiles at the muzzle. John P. the significance of the missile binder. Report No. " Remington Ar'nms Co. A13-62-1. 4. L. Aircraft Armaments. WAL 763/885-1. 31 January 1962. consideeing the range-velocity performance of the canister missile spheres. 3 June 1955. 69132.: Air-to-Ground Effectiveness Study of Scatter Projectiles (U). 253 McDonough.. John P. Results are presented in the form of photographs taken near the gun muzzle of the cluster in free flight.: "Development of Plastic Discarding Type Carriers as Casings for 40-mm Canister Shot. Watertown Arsenal Laboratory Report No. determines an optimum weapon of thlis type. (Unclassified Abstract) This report describes the ballistic performance of standard and special plastic compounds tested in the development of the WAL Type 40-mrm Canister Shot. Separation characteristics of the shotgun clusters have been obtained. WAL 763/885-2. Watertown Arsenal Laboratory Report No. A number of scatter projectile weapons are evaluated and compared with conventional guns and a rocket installation relative to a variety of targets and tVctical situations. Report Vo. J. T229E3 (C). A D-47 . Inc. Inc. This was accomplished by mounting a single missile separately in a plastic discarding carrier and firing it from a small arms barrel. T229E3. 3 June 1955. AD No. molding techniques. AD 68995. ER-703." (Confidential Report)." "Final Summary Report.

259 Weg. to investigate the sabot separation characteristics of the 20-mm scatter projectile clusters and the shotgun clusters. J. 9 June 1963. 257 2 Long. "(Unclassified Abstract) An experimental test program was conducted at the t-7 Ballistic Research Laboratories' 1000-foot transonic free flight range to determine feasibility of using this type of ground test facility to obtain measurements of the aerodynamic performance and structural survivability of self-dispersing configurations in unrestrained flight. : "Photographic Study of Sabot Separation of Scatter Projectile Clusters" (C). 258 Anderson. NAVORD Report 2893. allarms antiaircraft weapon system based on the scatter projectile concept. Report No. Test results are discussed. and a detailed description of the sabots used is given. M. as well as the tools and processes used to carry out this development. Velocities up to 3200 ft/sec were attained. ER-1287. Inc.. and sabots are shown in detail and briefly discussed. G. W. AD 486 505. Complete results and recommendations are detailed and test procedures are outlined'.: "Ballistic Range Testing of Self-Dispersing Shapes. S. It contains a narrative summary of all the work performed during the contractual period. Patrick E. (Confidential Report).. AVMSD-0154-66-RR. through the Office of Naval Research. H. 1 July 1957 to 24 January 1958. Detailed drawings of these are given. Inc. Incorporated. Sweeney. AD 161 411..: "Antiaircraft Feasibility Study Scatter Projectile Al!-Arme Weapon (U)". test models are discussed and shown. AD 58 813. Flesher. Aircraft Armaments. January 1958. 6 mm XM-I10. scatter projectile for use in an antiaircraft weapon system. Aberdeen Proving Ground. Report No.. . from 22 March to 31 December 1961 to develop the cartridge... i £ ii• • (Unclassified Abstract) The Naval Ordnance Laboratory was requested by Aircraft Armaments. A- (Unclassified Abstract)This report discusses briefly the history of the Aircraft Armaments. The component designs which were developed are delineated. May 1966. Inc. E. F. Chadwick. E. (Confidential Report). Primary objective of this contract was the preliminary design of an integrated.K.A sabot of minimum weight was developed of such a design and material as to reduce sabot lethality and increase projectile accuracy. Photographs taken in the • Aerodynamics Range are shown. " (Unclassified Report).I l (Unclassified Abstract) This report outlines in detail the design and development *ork conducted by Remington Arms Co. . Spherical bomblets and fluttner rotors were the two models launched from a smoothbore conventional gun. Degan. H.

: "Evaluation of Special Flechette for Beehive Ammunition (U)". V: (Unclassified Abstract) This is the first monthly report under this contract and it states that tools have been designed and are being fabricated for the manufacture of a flechette fragment composed of an incendiary -pyrophoric alloy mixture." (Confidential Report). (Unclassified Abstract) This report summarizes previous work done under the contract and is a continuation of the design and development of canister and other anti-personnel ammunition fillers. The sabot disintegrates after leaving the barrel of the gun. Manufacture and Testing of Canister Fillers (C). The plastic sabot is for use with a projectile. John P.445 The report discusses the housing of multi-projectiles in a sabot to facilitate hig)ter muzzle velocities. September 15. 472. better ballistics. AD 302 826. 260 Haag. Projectiles are to be used for mine detonation and will be fired against a "D60" steel plate target. These designs varied in dimensional size to match the flechette and were made either of balsa wood. 2. 10 July 1958. 13 December 1961. 1964. David J. C. D-49 . "SUBCALJBER PROJECTILE AND SABOT FOR HIGH VELOCITY FIREARMS' (ARMY). W. Test facilities include a calibre ..4 263 Miscellaneous Hegge. Clarke. Edward N. No. Sabot carriers for the three sizes of flechette were designed and released to shop for fabrication in trial quantities. AD 327437. A portion of the mating surfaces between the sabot and projectile is contoured to form a shear area which is capable of resisting relative movement between the sabot and the projectile during passage through the bore of the gun. Whirlpool Corp. (Confidential Report). S.7':ogress Report No. 262 Moore." U. McDonough. C. as well as photographs of the sabot and projectile. or magnesium.AMCP 706.. 1. Z61 "Summary Report Volume I . are included. D-5. Patent Office. Inc..: "Design. and greater efficiency.. ! • . hard maple wood. AD 315 434.Design. 148. October 1959. 222 barrel with the flechette driven by a plastic sabot whicýh will strip upon exit. RemingtonArms Co. C. Manufacturing and Testing of Canister Fillers (U) ": (Secret Report) Whirlpool Corporation. Report No. MPR No. 3. The ammunition is a 40-mm round containing six (6) finned sub-projectiles in a plastic sabot.. Month). Detailed-drawings. .

TYPE PROJECTILES AT EngineeringMACH NUMBERS OF 4 AND 5. . November 1953. " Naval Ordnance Laboratory. MPR-2. Arnold 4 D-6 Final Report AEDC-TR-67-259. Division of Northrop Corp. . ARR-207. January 1962. . covering period July-December 1967.. TN 1053. . Final- Report. E. 40-pound projectile was described in the progress report for April. AD 324 928. 268 (AD 386 279) Wheeler. R. Final Report. " Ballistic Research Laboratories.. Joseph W. R. Little. Report No. (AD 388 467) ) 265 McNeill. Inc. A373656. Arthur D. The results of the analysis are discussed. A69 TABLU-W6 B BOMBLET: (AD 388 328) LIGHT/RIFLE LAUNCHED WEAPONS: SATAW AND LAW. Curves are presented that show the effect of the following: (1) Sustainer thrust level and burning time on range Sustainer thrust level on Mach number and drag of the projectile Quadrant elevation on projectile drag. 67y161. No. "AN EVALUATION OF A PROPOSED SCATTER PROJECTILE FOR USE IN THE ALL-ARMS ANTIAIRCRAFT WEAPON.. (Cbnfidential Report). "1ARNO. November 1967. "Nortronics. May 1961. Monthly Progress Report No. David J. Inc.' I D-50 (2) (3. 266 (AD 384 615) Moore. 2.. Report No.M 1p iA_ • 264 Kimura. "EVALUATION OF SPECIAL FLECHETTE FOR BEEHIVE AMMUNITION. Army Concept Team in Vietnam. "DEVELOPMENT OF WDU-4A/A FLECHETTE WARHEAD. William S. (AD 49 699) ROCKET-ASSISTED PROJECTILE (RAP) 271 "Feasibility of Field-Artillery-Boosted Rockets". (AD 327 925) 267 Watt. February 1967. March 1968. Aero-ballistic Research Report No. M. Progress Report. "ANTI-PERSONNEL RECOILLESS RIFLE AMMUNITION (BEEHIVE). "FREE-FLIGHT RANGE TESTS OF FLECHETTE- NOMINAL Development Center. " Remington Arms Company. November 1955.. January 1968. 270 "PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDY OF SEPARATION OF SHOT-GUN "SCATTER" PROJECTILE CLUSTERS. "1Lockheed Missiles & Space Company. These calculations have been analyzed with the aid of an IBM 7090 Computer. Inc. (Unclassified Abstract) A series of trajectory calculations for a 155-mm.

et a0 "DYNAMIC STABILITY OF THE 5-INCH' 54 ROCKET ASSISTED PROJECTILE (THE INFLUENCE OF A NON-LINEAR MAGNUS MOMENT). "DYNAMIC STABILITY OF 275 276 THE 5-INCH/38 ROCKET ASSISTED PROJECTILE. Technical Memorandum No. August 1951. and ducted rockets for increasing the range of gun-fired projectiles is briefly assessed. Q. "COMPARISON OF T-212 ROCKET ASSIST GUN WITH CONVENTIONAL GUNS. E." Naval November 1966. " Arthur D.Allan." Ballistic Research Laboratories... Sylvester. X! (Unclassified Abstract) This report summarizes work carried out in a program comprised primarily of theoretical design studies of field artilleryboosted rocket systems. July 1964. Bulletin of 20th ISP Meeting. 0. (AD 377 331) 274 Bastress.. Arthur D. IV. Incl. S. Methods for improving the effectiveness of the XM54 projectile are described. W. D-51 . Memorandum Report No. TM K-63/66. King. and cost is presented. October 1966. . A section is included on t hards from sabot fragments. J. An evaluation of weapon systems based on the first-order criteria of propulsion efficiency. (AD 802 001) Chadwick. ramjets. 2059. Trajectories for 115-mm and 155-mm gun-boosted ziockets were computed and an analysis of the trajectories is included. Vol. launcher weight. K. D. 273 Barnett. the projectile Mach number v rsus horisontal distance. Hazards presented by the sabot to friendly troops and materials can be eliminated by suitable design. Little. Little. MR-562. AD 327 571. A brief evaluation of the performance of ou calibre (sabot) projectiles is presented. 329-343. F. P.a I (4) (5) Sustainer action on maximum range Delayed thrust on maximum range Curves that show the quadrant elevation for maximum range. R. Confidential. (AD 803 358) Weapons Laboratory. 272 "Feasibility of Field-Artillery-Boosted Rockets". Chadwick. accuracy. (Cohifidential Report). The possibility is explored of improving projectile performance by the addition of a guidance system. It is concluded that the use of a sabot with subcalibre ammunition can result in considerable range increase. and the characteristics of optimum boost sustainer systems also are included. " Naval Weapons Laboratory. W. September 1961. F. lethality. C-63625. Inc... pp. The use of sabot*. The merits of spin stabilization and fin stabilization are cornpared. R."THEORETICAL EVALUATION OF PROPULSION PARAMETERS FOR ZONED ROCKET -ASSISTED ARTILLERY PROJECTILE. Report No. Report No.

V. Technical Report No. range zoning by thrust termination was successfully demonstrated by several different techniques. et &It "ED REVIEW POINT NOTES FOR THE 105MM. in the other approach. " Naval Weapons Laboratory. Richard D. W. in one design the rocket motor action was terminated by suddenly venting the games and dropping the pressure. G. The program culminated in successful maximum range flight firings within an extended temperature range. This was done in two different ways. " Picatinny-Arsenal. (AD 368 204) Remington. Watson. Technical Note No. (AD 378 269) 278 Marshall. PROBES."ORBITAL AND HIGH ALTITUDE PROBING POTENTIAL OF GUN-LAUNCHED ID-52 . Additional studies in the 107 innm system demonstrated the feasibility of delivering an even heavier warhead to full range. a termination device was designed that caused the rocket motor to separate from the warhead section at any predetermined velocity or time. "tFIVE-INCHROCKET ASSISTED PP. " Ballistic Research Laboratories. Technical Report No. March PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR THE 105 MM THE 107 MM MORTAR BOOSTED SPIGOT Picatinny Arsenal. Parkinson. .2 . D. September 1952. T-31/65. Technical Memorandum No.. " TR 3741. July 1964. TR-3347. "SOLID ROCKET HOWITZER AND PROJECTILES. G. J. November 1966. XM548 HE ROCKET ASSISTED CARTRIDGE. Melvin R.77 Harnett. Lyster. Stephen 3. AND SPACE VEHICLES 282 Bull. TN 728. a Barnett. V. Confidential. (AD 384 622) Scharf. 1968. Additionally. October 1965. pp.. R.. Confidential. "CLOSED TUBE LAUNCHED SOLID ROCKET ORDNANCE SYSTEM. "RAM-JET ASSISTErO SHELL COMPARED WITH ARROW SHELL FOR USE AS UNGUIDED AA MISSILES.. 383-400. liquid quenching of the rocket motor caused the motor to stop burning. " Bulletin of Z0th ISP Meeting.0JECTILE (RAP) WARHEAD DEVELOPMENT TEST PROGRAM OUTLINE. A requirement was subsequently established to accomplish thrust termination without in-flight separation. IV. Vol. F I 279 280 281 A program was undertaken by the Ammunition Engineering Directorate's Solid Rocket 'Propulsion Laboratory which demonstrated the feasibility of achieving an extended range for a heavy weight supercaliber projectile when launched from the 107 mm XM95 mortar with the aid of a rocket assist. G. . Fred 0. D-7 GUN LAUNCHED ROCKETS.. Initially.

McGill University. V. J. G. November 9. "THE DEVELOPMENT OF GUN LAUNCHED ROCKETS. (AD 818 372) 287 Kardos. . October 1966. . May 1965. 337-340. SRI-R-19.. W. pp. "ANALYSIS. (AD 826 497) 292 293 t ~D-53 I . R. "NOTES ON MECHANICAL DESIGN OF GUN LAUNCHED " S286 :• VEHICLES. April 1966. "GUN LAUNCHED VEHICLES COST EFFECTIVENESS STUDY. 188 (AD 450 668) McCluney. October 1965. March 1965. "A PARAMETRIC STUDY Institute." Space Research Institute. Eugene L. "284 Eyre. April 1967. LMSC688043. Burleson. . "THEORETICAL TRAJECTORY PERFORMANCE OF 5" GUN PRCBE SYSTEM. G. (AD 807 731) 283 Cox. July 1962. TN-62-5. 154-159. R. pp. 1967. N. McGill University." Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. ERDA. "THE CASE FOR GUN-LAUNCHED SPACE PROBES. "THE DEVELOPMENT OF LARGE BORE GUN LAUNCHED ROCKETS. Report No.AM 04" ROCKETS. DESIGN. May 1965. " U. February 1968. Report No. 0.. ." Report No." Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal. W. S. Army Missile Command. see also "CONTINUATION OF GUNLAUNCHED ROCIýET PARAMETRIC STUDY. 1967. AND COGENT FLIGHTS OF THE FIRST LARGE DIAMETER GUN LAUNCHED TEST BODIES . 36. " ECOM 5015.LAHIVE. M. 143-149. "AN EVALUATION OF PAYLOAD DELIVERY SYSTEMS FOR NIKE-X. " Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal. F. " Space Research SRI-H-R-2. WSMR. RS-TR-67-4. pp. " Space Research Institute. LAUNCHED ROCKETS. 1966. September 29. - 291 Raymond. TN AS-214. N. 12. . SRI-HR-6. H. A. SRIH-R-13. M. Vol. Vol. 285 Groundwater. "ORBIT INJECTION CONTROL FOR HARP.. Hurst. Vol. 290 Parkinson. McGill University." Brown Engineering. "SIMPLIFIED FORMS OF PRELIMINARY TRAJECTORY CALCULATION FOR GUN-LAUNCHED VEHICLES. (AD 473 271) 289 OF MULTI-STAGE GUN McKee." New York Scientist." SRI-H-R-5. " Space Research Institute. F. September 15. Report No. August 1967. 11. McGill University.

1963. AD 237 038. 1252. Bradley. 63-5. Report on the First Twelve Firings and Status as of July 30. lb |K S D-54 b. are shown. 3. with successful radar tracks of both projectile and payloads. Sabot diameter and weight are given. C. In-flight photographs of sabot separation. Bedford T. October 1961. Major parts of the sabot used are briefly discussed and photographs of sabot separation are included. BRL Memorandum Report No. Report No.000 to 1. J William. AD 267 354. Douglas. J.: "Five-Inch HARP Tests at Wallops Island.. Peak altitudes from 200. 000. 297 "Project HARP.1 . March 1960. : "Feasibi)ity Test of an Upper Atmosphere Gun Probe System". (Unclassified Abstract) The results of vertical firing tests of the five-inch HARP system are presented.: "Comments on the Use of Guns to Launch High-Altitude Probes"." (Unclassified Report). Wallops Island. of the gun and projectile to optimize the system for upper atmosphere probes.High Altitude Research Probes (HARP) I-. 294 MacAllister. is described. McGill University. ( (Unclassified Abstract) The capability of current conventional and light-gas guns to launch altitude probes is reviewed. (Unclassified Report). and a fin stabilized (non-spinning) 60-mm probe. Eugene D. September 1963. Weight penalty for using sabots is discussed. November 1963. Vitagliano. Pictorial representations and photographs of probe vehicles and sabots are given. Package function and exact altitude were the prime concern. 1532. Bentley. AD 430 232. Gehring. January 1964. AD 428 795.. (Unclassified Abstract) The feasibility test of an upper atmosphere gun probe Ty stem. MacAllister. . A system are discussed. and the future prospects for sucl. L. 295 Marks. 296 Boyer. or redesign. Results obtained from the first and second vertical test series are given (a total of twelve rounds). BRL Memorandum Report No. 1368. BRL Memorandum Report No. employing a smoothbore 120-mm gun." (Unclassified Report). Leonard C. plus a still photograph of the actual projectile and sabot. The tests were conducted at the NASA facility. W. H. Spence T. (Unclassified Report).000 feet appear possible depending on the size of the gun launcher and on the arnount ox effort put into design. The present gun probe system is evaluated.

4" diameter boosted projectile fired from a 16." (Unclassified Report). 4" gun 16.4' gun 13. 3) demdnstrate the ability of these vehicles to perform studies of scientific interest. Lattal. S. TN-l. 2) determine the economic and engineering feasibility of placing significant payloads at altitudes of interest. McGill University Tech Note S.ollowing purposes: I) studies of the potential of vertical firing guns launching saboted vehicles. _ D-55 . .: "Pararnetrics Studies on use of Boosted Artillery Projectiles for High Altitude Research Probes. 3147. This report describes both the current range status and the results of test firings as of 30 July 1963. A sabot drag device is housed within the hemispherical base of the sabot. November 1964. G. The sabot also envelopes the base of the projectile.(Unclassified Abstract) Project HARP is the code name covering a program f research and development into the capabilities of vertically fired sun probes. (Unclassified Abstract) This note gives the predicted basic aerodynamic 'data pertinent to the vehicle. and 4) application of the technique for preparation in various scientific studies of the earth's atmosphere. AD 601 409. January 1964. 4" gun The rocket is supported about the periphery of the base of each compartment by the sabot.I. The combination of weight and muzzle velocity necessary to meet the 125 KM specification are presented together with center of gravity tolerance.W. Picatinny Arsenal Report No. The following systems were studied: l" diameter boosted projectile fired from a 5" gun 4. 5" diameter boosted projectile fired from a 7" gun 7" diameter boosted projectile fired from a 7'' gun 8. R. including the nozzle and folding flare stabilizer. Several pictorial representations of different Martlet vehicles and sabots are given. The rocket igniter assembly is located within the nozzle. AD 454 878. and presents performance as a function of the major parameters.4" vertical firing Sun facility has been established in Barbados for the . 8" diameter boosted projectile fired from a 16. 299 Eyle. A 16. J." (Unclassified Report)..: "Outline Aerodynamics and Periormance of the Martlet ZC. (Unclassified Abstract) This Report contains a general parametric and preliminary design study of rocket-boosted artillery projectiles for high altitude probes when fired from existing gun systems. -H. Z98 Wasserman. F. Project HARP. Smolnik.4" diameter boosted projectile fired from a 16.

I1. To accomplish this." (Unclassified Report)." (Unclassified Report). 7040 computer. J. B. 115-17. U (Unclassifieti Abstract) A general interest article on the activities of the HARP program. Spence T. AD 475 146. No. and secondly.arth orbit. with scientific data gathering \%herv possible. 7-inch. (Unclassified Abstract) The purpose of the series was to demonstrate the mechanical and ballistic performance of the 16. 1738.. Five Martlet series vehicles wer. In-flight sabot separation photographs are given. Cross sections of vehicles and sabots are shown. 58 ft gun and the Barbados Island 16-inch. and test criteria are established and evaluated. Project HARP. sabots are necessary. 3B fiberglass and 3B steel. "tThe Development of a Hfigh Acceleration Testing Technique for the Electronic Instrumentation of HARP Projectile Systems. July 1965. riS. Currently feasible is 6000 ft/sec for the saboted Martlet ZC at 400 lbs. Test results are given. . Pilcher. 41). pp.is the object of continuous improvement. Machine Design. is given. The series were successful in both aspects. Fred . January 7. 1. A typical projectilu has an aluminum sabot and four fins slightly canted to induce a roll of about 9 rev/sec. SRI-H-R-9. James 0. assembled weight. H. Trest Firing St. to conduct enginvering reliability and proving tests of vehicles and payloads. and 16-inch guns to launch sub-calibre saboted projectiles for upper atmospheric research.muzzle velocity .O 940 Trajectory studies have been run for a range of parameters on the McGill I. Test results are analyzed. BRL Memorandum Report No. 302 Marks. 80 ft gun are discussed briefly.. Results are summarized. Sabot and launch system component weights are given. Brandon. M. The dominant variable .: "Report of March 1)965. Fiberglass sabot and gun-boosted rocket syste:m. Clear photographs of thu guns and photographs of the sabot separation are shown. (Unclassified Article). 1965. One of the goals of the HARP program is to be able to put a gun-launched vehicle into (. 2C. A detailed photographic coverage of the test is given. 37. testvd: 2A. (Unclassified Abstract) A brief description of Project HARP (High Altitude Research Project) which uses smoothbore 5-inch. McGill Univ(ersity Report No. Vol. 301 Luckeot. Martlet 313 series. The acceleration testing methods employed previously are reviewed. was successfully launched at 3600 g's. i D-56 . A BRL project for the development of a satisfactory acceleration testing technique for this purpose is described. March 1966 AD 635 782.. The purposes of the Wallops Island 7-inch.4" gun at Barbados with the new 51-foot extension. Acceleration testing requirements for the electronic instrumentation of the projectiles are stated. 6500 ft/sec should soon be achieved. 300 "Shells into Orbit".

January-February 1966. aluminized balloons and parachutes. Single and multiple stage rockets launched from the 16-inch gun possess promising predicted performance and are under development. Primaly interest is in carrying a D-S7 . is presented. The attractive features if suns for this purpose include the basic eccaomy of such a system and the high inherent accuracy of guns for placement at altitude. West Indies. and tri-methyl-aluminum trails. 000 feet to 185-pound. BRL Technical Note No." (Unclassified Report). 1610. Reliability and accuracy requirements are discussed and typical field results are given. The role of the sabot in the HAP is discussed briefly. April 1966. H. Development of other active sensors is continuing. Success in measuring velocity depends chiefly on the proper functioning of the sabot. 000 feet. Sun sensors. 1771. The basic liability for such "anapproach lies in the very high accelerations experienced by gun-launched payloads. AD 640 438.nn density sensor was fired earlier. Bull. Scientific results to date are primarily wind profiles measured by radar chaff. 304 Murphy. V. BRL Memorandum Report No. 5-inch projectile reaching 240. and temperature sensors have been flown and an electi. magnetometers. July 1966. C. : "An Inbore Velocity Measuring Probe System for Large Calibre Guns. The guns used in Project HARP vary in size from 5-inch and 7-inch extended guns on mobile rnounts to transportable fixed 16-inch guns. . Altitude performance varies from 20-pound. Walter F. 1327.303 W• 704U N Braun. : "Review of the High Altitude Research Program (HARP)." (Unclassified Report). as well as accuracy in ground impact. West Indies. Shock waves at volocities above 6000 fps and leakage of powder gases past the sabot cause tz %nsientand undefinable contact switch operation. (Unclassified Abstract) The installation of a 5-inch HARP gun system at "•arbados. July 1966. 0. BRL Report No. 16-inch projectiles reaching 470.. Eugene D. : "Five-Inch HARP Tests at Barbados. (Unclassified Abstract) Of prime interest is the description of an inbore velocity measuring technique using contact switches. although a number of successful 250 MHz and 1750 MHz telemetry flights have been made. AD 637 280. Photographs of the 47 gun and sites are included. AD 645 284 (Unclassified Abstract) Project High Altitude Research Program (HARP) is directed toward the use of guns for scientific probing of the upper atmosphere. 305 Boyer. Inflight photographs of the 16-inch sabot and projectile are given." (Unclassified Report).

E. HIGHWATER. V. Report No. E.. C. L. F. H. Eugene D. Report No. April '967.. "FIVE-INCH HARP SYSTEM-INITIAL TEST SERIES -. "FIVE-INCH GUN METEOROLOGICAL SOUNDING SITE. HARP system at Vermont state borwor. L.AMW "S low-cost wind sensor to 200. (AD 825 694) Brown. T. Williamson. (AD 655 267) Braithwaite. R... "REPORT OF THE AUGUST/SEPTEMBER 1965 TEST FIRING SERIES PROJECT HARP. Space Research Institute. "FEASIBILITY TEST OF A POTENTIAL METEOROLOGICAL SHELL FOR THE STANDARD 175 MM GUN. McGill University.FORT GREELEY. Province of Quebec. A sectioned view of the HARP 5. - 4-S . " Ballistic Research Laboratories. vehicle altitude. and vehicle and sabot weight. 309 -- 310 311 312 i 313 . "HIGH ALTITUDE GUN PROBE SYSTEMS FOR METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS.. SRIR-17. K. Marks. pp. J. pp." Ballistic Research Laboratories. E. gun presaure. G. S. NASA CR-91057. t Atmore. " Ballistic Research Laboratories. D. "SEVEN-INCH HARP GUN LAUNCHED VERTICAL PROBE SYSTEM: INITIAL DEVELOPMENT. S. (AD 631 245) Brown. I "A STUDY TO GUIDE RESEARC:H AND DEVELOPMENT TOWARD AN OPERATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL SOUNDING ROCKET SYSTEM. (AD 673 712) The use of a meteorological gun-probe in demonstrated.. February 1966. Secondary interest is in the firing dafA. 000 I sq mi for the spent 307 Boyer. " Ballistic Research Laboratories. Luckert. July 1966. 306 Billings. A program utilizing the 5 Highwater. to altitudes of 230. ALASKA. near the is described. MR-1929. QUEBEC. 211-221. MR. (AD 640 825) Boyer. July 1968. 308 a confined area has been in. R. T.000 feet. 0. 10. "DEVELOPMENT OF GUN LAUNCHED VERTICAL PROBES FOR UPPER ATMOSPHERE STUDIES. A. D. May 1967. Technical Note 1657. charge weight. " The Meteorological Rocket Network. February 1965. J..1770.1 probe projectile and sabot is shown. A. pay-load acquisition. IRIG Document 111-64. October 1964. Technical Note 1584. Report No. ?4acAllister. . J. " Thiokol Chemical CorporPtion. Marks. Boyer. Wind soundings were made ft with a ground impact area limitation of projectile. 236-247. " Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal. (AD 464 583) Bull. Vol.. December 1967.

Rock Island Arsenal. R. "PROJECT HARP. "SURVEY OF DEVELOPMENTS IN GUN-LAUNCHED HIGH ALTIPROBES. pp. Memorandum Report 1464. W.. Montreal. "REPORT OF THE MAY/JUNE 1965 TEST FIRING SERIES P•ROJECT HARP. Murphy. . " AIAA Sounding Rocket Vehicle Technology Specialist Conference Proceedings. 3. An estimate of the capability of the 280-mm gun as a research tool to perform upper atmospheric studies for Sandia's Aerospace Nuclear Safety Progriam is presented. (AD 649 116) Luckert. pp. H. 482-486. Report No. Vol. Naval Propellant Plant. Bull. 581-593. November 1966. April 1963.. 0. "GUN LAUNCHED MISSILES FOR UPPER ATMOSPHERE RESEARCH. J. J. George.I "GUN BOOSTED ROCKETS FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE SOUNDING MISSIONS." Sandia Corporation. (AD 405 889) D-59 . September 1966."A SECOND TEST OF AN UPPER ATMOSPHERE GUN PROBE SYSTEM. George. LII. S. and McGill University." Ordnance. 0. H. J. "7-INCH HARP (NAVY MODEL) FINAL REPORT.. D. (AD 808 813L) Lorirnor. SRI-H-R-10. N. " Rock Island Arsenal. H. " Space Research Institute. "STUDY OF 280-MM GUN AS A TOOL FOR UPPER ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH. Technical Report 66-3411. Edwards. B. Carsey. A 316 317 STUDE 318 F * o 319 Lorimor. Kirk.. C. November 1966. Report No. MarchApril 1968. Lathtop. AJAA Preprint. SRI-R-20. V. Aberdeen Proving Ground. P. Jan6ary 1964. McGill University. E. V. Technical Report 67-296. Report No. "RIPORT OF THE NOVEMBER 1965 TEST FIRING SERIES PROJECT HARP. " Space Research Institute. Performance chavacteristice of the 280-mm gun are compared with those of the 16-inch and 7-inch guns presently used for Qpper atmospheric studies by the Ballistic Research Laboratory. January 1968. J. (AD 808 320 + 321 * 322 327L) Luckert. t Murphy. Report No. January 1967. Ternchin. " Ballistic Research Laboratories. "7-INCH HARP FINAL REPORT.AMC 706445 314 315 Bull. C. (AD 666 744) 323 Marks. No.. S. "1U. September 1966. 0.. V. 64-18. NPP/ RP 66-7. February 1967.. H. T. . Bull. Boyer. Wayne. SCRR-66-149. McGill University.

G. August 1966. October 1964. 49B. S.49. . 403-437. " The Fluid Dynamic Aspects of Ballistics. June 1968. Bull. AGARD CP 10. and trin-methyl-aluminum trails. Memorandum Report 1747. pp.. R.."1 Ballistic Research Laboratories. Scientific results to date are primarily wind profiles measured by radar chaff. V. H. (AD 482 573) 330 PROJECTILES FOR HIGH ALTITUDE RESEARCH PROBES (PROJECT HARP). 371-382.24. September 1966. aluminized balloons and parachutes. C.. Gerald V. 000 feet. M.. Bull. pp. Bull. V. S V I 326 Murphy. 640-644.. The guns used in Project HARP vary in size from 5-inc h and 7-inch extended guns on mobile mounts to transportable fixed 16-inch guns. Edwards. McGill University. Bull. although a number of successful 250 MHz and 1750 MHz telemetry flights have been made. V.324 325 Millman. pp. 32. H. Gerald V.... Salsbury.. Murphy. The attractive features of guns for this purpose are the basic economy of such a system and the high inherent accuracy of guns for placement at altitude as well as accuracy in ground impact. 5-inch projectiles reaching 240. "16-INCH HARP WORK AT ROCK ISLAND ARSENAL -. "UPPER ATMOSPHERE WINDS MEASURED BY GUN-LAUNCHED PRO- JECTILES. Charles H. "AEROSPACE APPLICATION OF GUN LAUNCHED PROJECTILES AND ROCKETS. H. May 1966. G. M. 327 Murphy. 000 feet to 185-pound. " Agency Publication No. H. "REVIEW OF THE HIGH ALTITUDE RESEARCH PROGRAM." Space Research Institute. "ROCKET ASSIST Bulletin of the 20th Interagency Solid Pro- pulsion Meeting. H. ( Murphy. C. D." Vol.. "BIG GUN ON BARBADOS.. C. 64-67. Technical Report 66-1493. P.. Bull. 328 (AD 803 753) Murphy.. pp. Report No. C. "GUN-LAUNCHED PROBES OVER BARBADOS. Vol. " Rock Island Arsenal. Vol. IV. (AD 666 746) Project High Altitude Research Program (HARP) is directed toward the use of guns for scientific probing of the upper atmosphere. February 1968. SRI. (AD 355 356) Wasserman. 16-inch projectiles reaching 590. (AD 637 850) 329 Rossmiller. The basic liability for such an approach lies in the very high accelerations experienced by gun-launched payloads. Sky and Telescope. April 1966. Chemical Propulsion Information D-60 . " Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.SUMMARY REPORT... G. Altitude performance varies from 20 pound.

C. September 1965. Bruce." Atmospheric Sciences Office. E. " AMS/AIAA Paper. " Ballistic Research Laboratories. Report No. L. McGill University. J. L. (AD 482 330) Williamson. W. February 1966. ECOM-5161. I . IV. J. Report No. 66-382. Confidential. " Ballistic Research Laboratories. L. "REPORT OF THE AUGUST/SEPTEMBER 1965 TEST FIRING SERIES PROJECT HARP. 3. March 1966.2 337 338 (AD 463 928) 339 Cruickshank. November 1966. "HIGH 'G' UHF TELEMETRY FOR GUNLAUNCHED SOUNDING PROBES. Memorandum Report No. 1651. "1750 MHz TELEMETRY/SENSOR RESULTS FROM HARP FIRINGS AT BARBADOS AND WALLOPS ISLAND." Atmospheric Sciences Lab. E. D. McGill University. Edwim Boyer. 1965. Report No. " Bulletin of the 20th ISP Meeting. White Sands Missile Range.. " Space Research Institute. No. A FEASIBILITY STUDY.. Dunfee. HARP Instrumentation Cruickshank. Kennedy. " Space Research Institute. W. SRI-R-20.. pp. R. 332 333 334 335 "REPORT OF THE NOVEMBER 1965 TEST FIRING SERIES PROJECT HARP. D. July 1964. May 1965.. Report No.. February 1967. (AD 667 914) A feasibility study has been performed which considered the applicability of an instrumented shell for a standard rifled gun as a means of obtaining meteorological data for tactical Army applications. The conclusions have shown that the technical feasibility of a meteorological shell is within the state-of-the-art of engineering practices.. (AD 815 761) A4 D-61 r . W. "METEOROLOGICAL SHELL FOR STANDARD ARTILLERY PIECES. Edwin.. "A CLOSED TUBE LAUNCHED SOUNDING ROCKET. Williamson. "f j 336 -7.. 1824. ECOM-5030. October 1967. 1632. 401-412. Williamson.331 Webster. January 1965. D. Peterson. "THE GUN-LAUNCHED METEOROLOGICAL SOUNDING SYSTEM. SRI-R-17. " Ballistic Research Laboratories. "A FEASIBILITY TEST OF A 1750 Mc/s TELEMETRY AND TRACKING SYSTEM FOR FIVE-INCH HARP PROJECTILES. "GUN-LAUNCHED VERTICAL PROBES AT WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE. S. (AD 469 653) Cruickshank. J. Memorandum Report No.. Vol. Memorandum Report No.

" Ballistic . ERB-742. " Ballistic Research Laboratories. Memorandum Repor•t No." Ballistic Research Laboratories. Li. "HIGH-G COMPONIENT TEST. "TELEMETRY SYSTEMS FOR GUN-LAUNCHED UPPER ATMOSPHERE PROBES. (AD 640 596) Northcote.. H. Septe¢nber 1965. "DEVELOPMENTAF GUN PROBE PAYLOADS AND A 1750 Mc/s TELEMETRY kYSTEM. " The Fluid Dynamic Aspects of Ballistics. Cruickshank. WALLOPS ISLAND. "EVALUATION OFA TUNNEL-DIODE OSCILLATOR FOR USE IN GUN PROBE TELEMETRY. W. 1614. F. ACARD CP 10. 439-464. Pulfer. . F. W. W. "HARP 250 MC TELEMETRY EXPERIMENTS. H...GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTATION. W. Memorandum Report No. September 1966. May 1966. (AD 805 753) Mermagen. " Ballistic Research Laboratories..." Ballistic Research Laboratories. (AD 459 576) Memor" ' 4 344 Mermagen. K. 1711. VIRGINIA. "HARP 250 Mc/sý TELEMETRY EXPERIMENTS. DURING THE PERIOD JAN-MAR 1964. W. "VHF AND UHF HIGH-G TELEMETRY INSTRUMENTATION FOR HARP VEHICLES. November 1964. D.. Canadian DND. (AD 449 867) 347 Memorandum Report No. Vrataric. 1566. TN 5/64. W. April 1964.. 1694. J. H. H.340 Evans. 1768. (AD 631 Z68)I 345 Mermagen. December 1964. 3. S. JUNE/ -OCTOBER 1964. H. "HARP Y4 SCALE MODELS -. May 1966. March 1965. andum Report No.. Memorandum Report No. W. pp. Cruickshank. W. January 1968. J. J.. 386-388.. " Inspection Services. pp. Vol. 1578. L. Memorandum Report No. Memorandum Report No. (AD 637 747) 341 Evans. J.esearch Laboratories. 1749. "HIGH '-' TELEMETRY FOR BALLISTIC RANGE INSTRUMENTATICN.. "VHF AND UHF HIGH-G TELEMETRY FOR HARP VEHICLES. W. (AD 631 514) 342 343 Marks. H." Ballistic Research Laboratories.. Mermagen. Mermagen. July 1964. (AD 444 246) 346 Mermagen. Vrataric. T. S. " National Research Council of _ A 348 349 350 Canada.. June 1966." Blallistic Research Laboratories. Report No. "TELEMETRY EXPERIMENTS CONDUCTED ON THE HARP PROJECT IN BRITISH WEST INDIES AND WALL- OPS ISLAND. (AD 655 874) D|!2 . W. November 1965. " Ordnance. .

W.. Vol. B.£"TM RESEARCH PROGRAM -- HIGH-O TESTS OF COMPONENTS. 3. D. R. N. The vacuum-air missile boost system consists of a partially evacuated vertical launching tube with a breakable seal at the top and with the lower end sealed by a missile on a held-down sabot. A. August 1966. . Marhefka. "VACUUM-AIR MISSILE BOOST SYSTEM. atmospheric pressure from air entering the base of the tube accelerates the missile.4an. ' Space Research Institute.e.. July 1965. pp.4 353 I D-7. " TN 64-4. D... SMUPA-TK-900. F. Ra... Report No. .. . L. L. Report No. . " Arnal of Spacecraft and Rocket. Palacio. 1." Picatinny Arsenal.. September-October io4. (AD 622 405) D-7. SRI-2-TN-4. M. "A GUN LAUNCH TARGET PLACEMENT SYSTEM. "THE MARTLET 2A BALLISTIC VEHICLE . SRI-R-26. (AD 475 146). 464-470. A "muzzle chamber" near the top of the tube reduces the velocity loss due to compression of/the residual air above it.SUMMARIZED PERFORMANCE DATA.. 351 Wilkdn. Aikenhead. and the D-63 . McGill University. McGill University. Report No. "CONCEPT STUDY OF A GUNLAUNCHED ANTIMISSILE SYSTEM GLAM.. " Space Research Institu'. TM-65-33. V. J. Galiana. Gun-Launched Antimissile System (GLAM) Galati. "THE EFFECT OF DISPERSION IN TRAJECTORY PARAMETERS ON A NOMINAL MARTLET IV TYPE ORBIT. D-7. September 1967.6 356 Related Systems Kumar.3 352 Target Placement System Bull. July 1964. F. " Harry Diamond Laboratory. S. D. J. N. Report No. A.. Eyre. When the sabot is released. Lyster. G. C. J. Martlet System Delfour.. May 1964.5 354 355 D-7. Aikenhead. Murray.

1. Theoretical curves of muzzle velocity vs vehicle weight are given for various tube lengths for maximum accelerations of 8 and 15 gms.25 in. pp. Results obtained in experiments in 3. A. and a shelter prior to firing. Advantages compared to the usual surface -launching technique are a significant fuel saving or an increase in payload. 360 AD 319 583. G. Report RAD-SR-26-60-54. .7 Ground-Accelerated Space Platform (GASP) "Feasibility Study of a GASP Launch Payload Vehicle. This is part of the ground accelerated space platform (GASP) program. (AD 388 535) 358 . 24-29._ D-7. Salter. Flight duration was 18 seconds. The test vehicle was launched from a 90-foot long steel tube to an altitude of 1. atomic-powered cannon is discussed. 5 July 1960. Muzzle velocities of 600 to 800 fps appear to be feasible at these &cceleration levels. quasi-steady air flows effects of muzzle chamber size. by 20-ft tubes show good agreement with theory. d.). . AVCO Corp. AFAFL-TR-67-131. Molder. A 15. S. M.i. 357 Valenti. December 1963.-mN tube length beyond the muzsle chamber serves as an "atmospheric shock reducer. Two other objectives are included: (1) Design of a sabot to guide the payload-vehicle in the tube and to protect it from the expanding high-temporature propellant gases. TR 669. viscous loss. Research and Advanced Development Division. 200 fcet. less sensitivity to surface gusts..5-inch diameter rocket motor with a short duration solid propellant grain was utilized for the demonstration. and medium-sized missiles. Vol. (Unclassified Abstract) The feasibility of launching payload-vehicles into space by the use of a mass-restrained. and turbulence are included. " The system is considered suitable for small. jD4-M . 359 "A FEASiBILITY STUDY OF THE SCRAMJET IN-TUBE CONCEPT. "GUN LAUNCHING SUPERSONIC COMBUSTION RAMJETS. and (2) determination of the extent of erosion in the launch tube caused by high-temperature and high-velocity gases sweeping over the launch tube walls and by mechanical contact of the sabot with the tube walls. Technical Report No. " Aerospace Facts (published by Thiokol Chemical Corp." (Confidential Report). April-June 1968. The primary objectives of the study was the establishment of a GASPlaunched payload-vehicle design.and 1. R. "SELF EJECT SYSTEM LAUNCH-TESTED IN UTAH. The motion of the missile is analysed by assuming incompressible. " Astronautics and Aerospace Engineering." General Applied Science Laboratories... Announcement of a test to demonstrate that chamber pressure below a missile can be regulated to allow use of the motor exhaust gases to eject the missile from a launch tube. November 1967.

and (3) develop a sabot and seals for eject launch." (Confidential Report). accomplished all program objectives and proved the feasibility of eject launch of large missiles. J. 000-pound class missiles (2) demonstrate the feasibility of an air-supported elevator fer elevation of a missile or missile segments in inaccessible launch tubes. : "Arbtlist Progress Report. . The air elevator could be remotely controlled. A launch tube was installed at Edwards Air Force Base to conduct eject launch and air-elevator feasi~ bility tests. L. Launching techniques and tests are discussed. 3.8 HIBEX Program 363 "ARPA Project HIBEX Finht Test Report Vehicle D-2. Elevating and lowering rates of approximately 4 feet per minute were achieved. The Boeitg Co. Murphy. AD'367 8VZL. R501. (Unclassified Abstract) This report resents the results of the fifth test of a HIBEX (High-g Boost Experiment) vehicle. and held in a fixed position. 361 Brogan.AMCP 70WI4 A goo* general discussion of the sabot and the problems to be concerned with is presented. W The launch demonstrated that eject launching could provide an acceptable launch velocity at a low acceleration level. AD 365 487L. was launched from a closed breech silo to evaluate launch effects and performed a programmed maneuver using both pitch and yaw TVC injection to continue 1* D-65 . D. the general status of the program is given. 11Leport No. precisely positioned. J. : "Final Report Large Cold Launch Missile (LCLM) Feasibility Demonstration. summarized in this final report. D-7. designated D-Z. J.strain rate loading are included under the topic initial shock. Douglas Aircraft Company Report No. EZ50-AN-3022. The vehicle. AD 366 574. (Unclassified Abstract) The objectives of the LCLM program were to: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of eject launch of large 300. Small. Westinghouse Electric Corporation Report No. 10 December 1965. Some comments on the basic problems dealing with high. water-filled dummy missile and sabot were Sejected from the silo using off-the-shelf rocket motors as gas generators. The tests demon* strated that the air elevator is a practical device for the assembly and maintenance of large missiles. E. DZ-99579-5. The following phases are discussed under sabot design: (1) general requirements. These tests." (Confidential Report). (Unclassified Abstract) In this 21st progress report.S. The air elevator concept was demonstrated by the assembly of the segmented dummy missile upon the sabot and by adjusting air pressure to raise and lower the dummy missile within the launch tube. 362 Barakauskas. %rmy Missile Command." (Confidential Report). Drawings of the arbalist rocket and forward supporting damping sabot are shown. 17 July 1964. The 327.A. (2) initial shock. for U. September 1965.000-pound. and (3) acceleration phase.

The gun was chambered for a standard . (Unclassified Abstract) A .: "Construction of a High Velocity Gun for Propelling Small Irregular -Shaped Pellets. The Boeing Co.evaluation of the performance of the flight control system. The external configuration of the D-3 vehicle and sabot assembly was the sanme as that of the D-2 assembly. The gun barrei was made in two sections joined together with an O-ring seal and flange. 1 January 1957. Interim Technical Report No. AD 142 784. (Unclassified Abstract) This report presents the results of the sixth flight test of the MBEX (High-g Boost Experimrent) vehicle. William S. An external burning experiment was incorporated into the second stage to provide an indication of the effectiveness of this technique for controlling guided missiles._ I& . Sabot development and stripping are described. The vehicle. 220 Swift shell and fired electrically by means of a 110 volt a-c solenoid. March 1957. was launched from a closed breech silo of reduced plenum volume from the preceding silo launch test to evaluate launch effects at relatively high silo pressure. (Unclasiified Repo rt) University of Utah. A. The barrel was smooth-bored and had an adapter on the muzzle to allow evacuation of the barrel with a mechanical vacuum pump. Accurate pitch and yaw control was obtained with reference to vehicle body axes. Following vehicle exit from the silo. 366 Partridge. Technical Note No. AD 368 691L." (Confidential Report). 17 3anuary 1966. a programmed maneuver using liquid injection thrust vector control was performed to continue evaluation of the perf-rmance of the night control system and to obtain rocket motor performance data at high lateral accelerations and aerodynamic data at large angles of attack. and the effect of silo pressure on rocket motor exhaust gas flow. DZ-99579-6. Data were obtained on silo heating rates. (Unclassified Report) Chicago Midway Laboratories. Work Assignment B-5. silo pressures. (9 F' S364 "HIBEX Flight Test Report Vehicle D-3.4. Report No. 22 calibre accelerator capable of firing irregular shaped fragments weighing 1/2 to 15 grains was constructed. 8. 4 (Unclassified Abstract) Development work and testing involved to determine feasibility of using an air gun to launch a spherical munition are described. Sabot base pressure is discussed and pictorial representations of the sabot and vehicle are included. Purpose of launching was to obtain terminalballistic data. CML-57-TNMI07. Data were obtained relative to all flight objectives. Velocit~es of 200 fps were obtained. D-8 TERMINAL BALLISTICS STUDIES 365 "Development of Sabot for Firing Spherical Munitions from the Range 7ZE Air Gun. designated D-3. Photograp~hs of sabot and stripper are given.

" H. Partridge and E. S.F." F. Keyes "Electrostatic Accelerator for Impact Studies.000 feet per second were obtained. CARDE Report No. Summers and A. H. a sabot was constructed to carry the pellets and separate from them within 36 inches from the end of the barrel. T.February 1959.ssified Report) Volume 1. F. Doran. Deputy Chief. "Third Symposium on Hypervelocity. Jr. Five-grain pellets were accelerated to a velocity of approximately 8. L.. M. D -67 . Genevese. AD 301 144. C. T.. Cook and R. Jr. Hempy and M.R." J." D. Editor.D. Morris and M.H. Redstone Arsenal. L. Schilling. 000 feet per second. D.D." W. "Dinner Address" .S." (Uncle. March 1958. TM AB-43. R. Kineke.Ultramodern." J. 368 Table of Contents (U) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) "Microsecond Framing Camera Observations of High Velocity Impact. Held 7-9 October 1958.: "Aeroballistic Range Tests of the CF-L05 Phase 1-Rounds ! to 10 .Today's Military Technology . B.W. Anderson. Vanfleet." J. Cannon "Volume-Energy Relation for Crater Formed by HighVelocity Projectiles." G." C. Partridgv. F. Research and Development Division. C. Charters (8) (9) (10) (11) "The Anomalous Behavior of Lead-to-Lead Impact. G.A. velocities of more than 9. H. C. Kells "An Analysis of Microparticle Cratering in a Variety of Target Materials. Chicago. AD 233 487. Fullmer "An Empirical Study of Residual Velocity Data for Steel Fragments Impacting on Four Materials. 367 Warren. Hendricks. W. Culp "An Experimental Study of Crater Formation in Lead. Wuerker "Cratering by High Velocity Microparticles. S. Drawings and photos are included of the gun and sabot. Gehring."(Secret Report 27).D. "Perforation and Penetration Effects of Thin Targets. The problem of measuring the velocity of these small pellets is discussed and three systems are described which were used successfully. Malick "High-Speed Impact of Metal Projectiles in Targets of Various Materials. By evacuating the barrel and using 1/2 grain pellets." M. Sheltonand R. A- To fire the irregular shaped pellets.

"Surface Roughness CAussd by Meteoroid Impacts. and T.A. F. Kefworthy "A Review of the Theories Concerning Crater Formation by Hypervelocity Impact.F." M." and E. Stresau and J. D. Dubin "The Utah Light-Gas Gun." J." G.J." R. Kornhauser "High-Velocity Impact of Small Metal Spheres Upon Flat Metal Targets. Jr. Burkdoll. Martin. Beard "Variation of Emissive Properties of Surfaces Due to Atomic Molecular Bombardment. H. C. 0. Anderson. A. Doran. B." R. D." H.E. (26) (27) Jr." R.G. F. F. P. A. Magnuson and D.B.S. James and J.S. Partridge T-) • (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) "An Experimental Study of-the Input Parameters for an NRL-Type H-Gun. Crews "An Expendable High-Explosive. Light-Gas Gun for Projecting High-Velocity Projectiles. W Atins) -"Volume-Ener gy Relations from Shaped Charge ýet Penetrations. Buchanan "Sputtering from Hypersonic Vehicles in the Free Molecule Flow Region. W." H. Allison "Interplanetary Dust Distribution and Erosion Effects.W. "Facilities and Instrumentation of the NRL Hypervelocity Laboratory. KeUs. B. Cohen. Stein "Experimental Studies of Penetration by Shaped Charge Jets. D. C. G. F.(1) (13) (14) (15) "Hypervelocity Penetration Studie W.T. Gehring." 0. J. A. Bailey. "High-Explosive Hypervelocity Projectors." S. Swift "Calibration of Micrometeoritic Detectors Used in Satellites and Rockets." F. A. E. Savitt D-68 .D." M. Hall and H. Poulter. D.B. Davenport. Clark. B. Corman and M. Hempy. Feldman.S.M. Jr." J. McKenzie. Medved "Experimental Techniques Developed for Impact Studies of Microparticles. Boyd.J." D. Cannon W.C.

" L. Abbott "Observations of Projectile Impacts of Sand Particles at Velocities Ranging from 2.H." W.Experimental Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficients." K.W.27. Air Proving Ground Center.P." F. T. Salisbury 1960.J.F.J. Zernow.900 ft/sec to 7. L." M. -Actuatod Hypervelocity Gun. McDonough and E." W. Clark and A. A28. Fleischer A Multi-Stage Hypervelocity Projector. Cowan "An Exploding Wire Hypervelocity Projector." R. W. I. D. Hall "Some Results of Hypervelocity Explosive Charge Investigations. Fort Halstead and Preliminary Results on Impact Phenomena.W.A. Slawecki.W." (Unclassified Report).Volume I (U) (1) "Hypervelocity Gun for Micrometeorite Impact Simulation Employing Capacitor Discharge in a Condensed Phase. R.AMCP 701414 S(28) (29) (30) (31) (32) "EM Accelerators. Richards "Acceleration of Projectiles with the Sequenced HighExplosive Impulse Launcher." V.O. K. E." D. McManigal and A. Swift (2) (3) (4) (5) D-69 .K.N. Kreyenhagen. Fourth Symposium. MacKensie "A Multi-Stage H.N. Bengson. Willig "Electroballistic Techniques. Wennersten A Critical Study of the Air Cavity Technique for Projecting Intact Hypervelocity Fragments.E.H. Scherrer and P.000 ft/sec. Scully and David L. April 26. Hegge "The Hyperballistics Launcher at A." H. APOC-TR-60-39 (I). September 1960." E. Table of Contents ." Charles N. E. P.N. R. Semon "Aerodynamic Heating of MissOles -. . C)ayden "Multi-Phase Magnetic Propulsion of Projectiles. Fogg and C. and F. Willig and H." J. Cox and W. AD 244 275 (33) (34) (35) 369 "Hypervelocity Impact. N.

W." James R. Allison. and M. Atkins ' : (10) 011) (12) (13) "Mechanics of Hypervelocity Impact of Solids. High-Intensity X-Ray Tube. R. Jr.A New.M. and I. F.P. Palmer. W. Grow. September 1960. Bartlett.G. Rinehart (4) (5) "A Model of Oblique Impact.G. Keys.N. Jr. Becker. Mackenzie. Dyke "Studies of Hypervelocity Impact on Lead.'ourth Symposium. Johnson. Turner "Effects of Target Temperature on Hypervelocity Cratering." J. and R. R." R. William Gehring." John H. Mauerer (2) (3) "Further Studies of Micýo-Particle Cratering in a Variety of Target Materials.'. A." E. R. APGC-TR-60-39 (III).J. Bloxom. Kineke. "Hypervelocity Penetration Studies. AD 244 477. E." G.H. D.. 1960. Zaid "Impact Crater Formation io Rock. April 26. 2." F. Kolsky "Cratering. (7) (8) (9) "The Addition of Electrical Energy to Helium. and L." W." M." F. Schmitt. (14) L 370 Table of Contents .K. Kintish "An Experimental Study of Crater Formation in Metallic Targets. L.(6) "Experimental Production of Hypervelocity Pellets by Means of Condenser Discharges in Hydrogen. 28.W. Short-Pulse." H." E. K. Experiment and Theory." (Unclassified Report) Air Proving Ground Cr:. Cook "An Analytical Approach to Hypervelocity Impact Mechanics. T.A.Volune III (U) (1) "Framing Camera Observations of Ultra-High Velocity Penetration in Transparent Targets and A Mechanism for Crater Expansion.H. Kymer "The Fexitron . Bryan William C." D." and John S. Jr. Richards "D-70 . and G.•tr. Clark. Vitali "Hypervelocity hmpact . Hopkins and H. Grundhauser and W.P.

Velocities obtainable with the gun were increased rubstantially through a series of modifications. P. Volpe and F. Slattery and W.E.W. Palmer. and D.P. plus some discussion if sabot materials and problems. J. Anurew G. are included.Improvement of APGC 37 -mm Light-Gas (Helium) Projector". Sabot design and testing. F. Kadesch. AD 240 378. R. APGC-TR60-29. Clay "A Sequential Electrical Discharge-Light Gas Gun. Brown.: "Wound Ballistics of the 0. T. Bolts." S.(6) (7) (8) "A Metallurgical Approach to the Hypervelocity Problem. W. . July 1960. Bilek. Photographs of the sabot and other components are given. Tardif "Ballistic Impacts by Microscopic Projectiles. J. 85-Grain Steel Disk ": (Secret Report) s Chemical Warfare Laboratories Technical Report CWLR 2372. May 1960. Hamermesh "The Penetration of Thin Rods into Aluminum. Grow. Improvemento to the gun made during and subsequent to this test have resulted in firings with projectile velocities in excess of 18. AD 317 999.5. (Unclassified (9) (10) (II) (12) 371 372 Report). New projectile launch and velocity measuring techniques were developed." R..E.A." Coy M. 000 fpw. to effect corrective measures. Air Proving Ground Center Report No.G. Merkler. D-71 . R. Jules M. E. : "Hypervelocity Impact Studies . Alfred G. Maiden.' R. Clark. Clark and R. Hall "Experimental Investigation of Spray Particles Producing the Impact Flash. Zimmerman Oliver. Halperson. J.J. F. Glass and Robert B. Bernard J." C. Blake "An Investigation of Spailing and Crater-Formation by Hypervelocity Projectiles. and H. (Unclassified Abstract) This project was conducted to determine the causes of difficulties encountered in the operation of the APGC 37-ms light gas (helium) projector.H." J. Charest.P. and to discover methods for increasing the velocity obtainable with the projector. Pond "High-Velocity-Projectile Drag Determination." V. Friichtenicht and B.

The major objective of the development program during the interval reported here was to upgrade the velocity capability of the APOC light gas projector to meet test requirements for current and future projects. fragments. 374 1Hegge. Research and Advanced Development Division AVCO Corporation. light gas gun. D-72 i . Either full-calibre conventional shear-type projectiles or subcalibre projectiles. practical. and other irregularly shaped missiles can be fired. Purpose of sabot. ci SThe (Unclassified Abstract) A simple. low-cost light-gas gun was developed to conduct terminal-ballistic studies in the velocity range of 6000 to 13.: "Hypervelocity Impact Facility . APGC-TN-60-102. Progress Report No. P. (Unclassified Abstract) Development efforts on the APGC light gas projector from March to August 1960 were conducted to meet specific test requirements. J. (Unclassified Report). in either smoothbored launching tubes or rifled barrels. 375 "Weapon System 107 A-Z". Watertown Arsenal Laborstories. AD 249 527.Light Gas Projector". The section concerning sabot investigation includes: The material used. Design of sabot (pictorially shown). Prepared for Air Force Ballistics Missile Division. December 1960. November 1960. N.373 Fendick. McDonough. (Unclassified Report). The light gas is shaped to flow uniformly behind the projectile through the launching tube or rifled barrel by a disposable cone of plastic material which also serves as a buffer to decelerate the piston without appreciable damage to any major structural component. : "Watertown Arsenal LightGas Gun". AD 246 789L.. E. Standard cartridge cases and propellants are used to propel a lightweight plastic piston to compress the light gas (helium). length) Propellant powder Pressure measurements. 28 February 1961. 60 projectile barrels (120-in. and The sabot stripping device. 000 ft/sec. (Confidential Report). Technical Report No. R. projectile. 4 of RAD-SR-61-25. Effort has been centered on: Sabot investigation Lightweight pistons Projectile barrel adapters Cal . the latter by means of plasticdiscarding-carrier techniques. Air Proving Ground Center Report No. and sabot designs are pictorially shown and discussed. AD 326391L. B. WAL TR 761/64.

Also included is sabot stripping and intercepting techniques. accompanied by pictorial representations. J. A. Report No. March 1961. April 1961. Tasks. Barbarek. BSC-22748. Refinements were made in saboting techniques pro-. The purpose of this theoretical analysis is to determine the design characteristics that will insure the adequate performance of a hypervelocity gun in a co. 1). (Unclassified Report). (Phase 2) (U)1:. The appendixes contain 28 papers concerning different phases of the program. 030 fps. Report No. W.TDR-61-28. (Secret Report) 2 6 . 376 Zimmerman. 800 fps and 1/4-in. B3. V".planar tactical situation. (Bendix Systems Division). (Confidential Report). (Unclassified Report). 379 D-73 . for APGC. APGC-TR-61. E. : 'Hypervelocity Impact Facility . t (Unclassified Abstract) The major Accomplishment during this reporting period was the launch of a 1/8-in. ducing clean projectile impacts on the target. 378 "Vulnerability of Mark III Nose Cone Materials Austin.AMCP ?415 O (Unclassified Abstract) This report contains only the appendixes of the complete report. : "Carde Support Program. D. diameter aluminum projectile at a velocity of 22. is given. Launching 1/4-in.31. Illinois Institute of Technology. (2) Analysis of performance requirements for hypervelocity guns. L. "Hypervelocity Weapon Feasibility Study . AD 255 805 L. Included in this section is a general definition of the sabot along with a pictorial representation. 377 Fendick. The appendix consists of three parts: (1) catalog of hypervelocity projector types. 000 fps. Report No. F. Report No. Modifications to the lightweight piston (4 oz) were responsible for achieving higher velocities. WADD-TR-61-203 (I1). AD 263 373. APGC. III. Air Proving Ground Center. C. I Y (3) The ARF traveling charge gun program. diameter tungrten carbide projectiles was successful up to 12. A discussion of sabot development and design. Heerema. at least at velocities up to 15. C. for CARDE.. diameter aluminum projectiles to 16. R. Air Proving Ground Center. AD 344 345. " The present sabot design is adequate for launchiný projectiles of tungsten carbide. July 1961. The appendix in which this study is most interested is entitled "The Development of Sabots for Hypervelocity Guns. June 1961.Volume I1".000 ft sec. * (Unclassified Abstract) This is the appendix portion of report of same title (Vol.Light-Gas Projector Development". II. I. AD 346 217.

"CARDE Support Program 1961"'. Programs being carried out either by U. The second describes the status and progress of t0 facilities during this report period. P. Tasks I. and the function of the sabot. The third considers the status of each range currently in use or under development at CARDE. BSC-29473. This report is divided into five (5) sections. BSR-543. The first describes the basic elements of a hypervelocity test range. L.L. du . for CARDE.S. The Bendix Corporation.(Unclassified Abstract) Under the CARDE support program. made of the use of sabots in light-gas gun launching.: Report ". Roney. the Bendix Systems Division of the Bendix Corporation provides a supporting staff to the Army Rocket and Guided Missile Agency (ARGMA) Project Officer. and a technical supporting staff integrated into the existing CARDE organization. Report No. Report No. 380 "Carde Support Program. AD 261 934.. and the problems of discarding. an operating budget for on-site expenses administered by the ARGMA Project Office. The report is comprised of four sections. and CARDE support is discussed. G R N6 D-74 . A 381 Brief mention i. The third gives the status cf the varioAs programs in progress. (Unclassified Report). The first describes the level of activity maintained in the project office staff and the technical support staff. TM 620/61 August 1961. and III". ('Secret Report)28. . II. (Unclassified Report). Range instrumentation and status are discussed. The fourth describes the status of the various tests complete or in process which are of concern of the project officer. "CARDE Impact Studies Progress CARDE Report No. The second describes the basic elements of a ballistic range. . 382 Cowan. the problems to be concerned with re-sabot design. June 1961. P. for CARDE. The fifth is a summary of services provided by the Bendix Corporation to the Project Office. the type used. Included are brie" comments on the sabot used in light-gas gun launching. Included are brief comments on the sabot. December 1961. AD 3 26 113. The Bendix Corporation. The contract is summarized in the fourth section. No technical discussions are included. 0 k k (Unclassified Abstract) This report covers the period I January to 30 June 1961 of the CARDE support program. sponsorship or otherwise are discussed. AD 424 196.

The present data for single targets are combined with published data on small scale rod-type projectiles against rolled homogeneous armor at 60-degree obliquity to indicate the scaling law. 385 Grabarek. Technical Memorandum RAD-TM-62-40. AD 299 606. At (Unclassified Abstract) A sabot.: "Performance of a Three-Stage Arc Heated Light Gas Gun". 28 July 1962. February 1963. Prepared for Air Force Ballistic Systems Division Air Force Systems Command. A program of developmental firings was completed. (Unclassified Abstract) This paper deals with some of the methods used in hypersonic ranges for the launching of sabot projectiles. Report No. and the air tube.383 Solnoky. MB-R-63/14. AD 605 836. 600 light gas gun. separation was achieved by burning a propellant inside the sabot while it traveled down the gun barrel. the high pressure gases imparted lateral velocity to the halves by expansion. (Confidential Repor. The result and analysis of the firings are presented in this report. 386 "Development of a Saboting Technique for Light Gas Hypervelocity Projectors". (Unclassified Report). AVCO Corp. tested against single and spaced tripartite tirgets.t). 384 McKay. cones. These provide the basic means to satisfy these requirements over a wide range of velocity. M. January 1963. P. from which performance data were obtained. Upon launch. 727/62. NY-orD"75 . A description and photograph of the push-pull type sabot used to launch the rods from a 90-mm smoothbore gun are given. CARDE T.: "Some Recent Developments in Projectile Launching Techniques at CARDE". MB Associates. AD 334 319. William It. 36-lb. and gun size when using basic aerodynamic shapes such as spheres. (Unclassified Abstract) A launcher was designed to accelerate fragile projectiles to high velocities (15. (Unclassified Abstract) Penetration data are provided for 1 and 1. BRL MemorandLm. AD 331 262. range pressure. using internal gas expansion to separate its halves. 000 fps) without distortion. Louis: "Performance of Long Rods Against Steel Armor Targets". A curve of the ratio of target thickness to rod body diameter is presented as a function of the specific limit energy for a single target at 60%. was developed for use in the launching of hypervelocity projectiles. and slender rods as projectiles. Report No. (Unclassified Report). (Confidential Report). Here. This has been accomplished by coupling an arc heating stage to the calibre 0. Most sabots are designed so that aerodynamic forces will strip parts away from the projectile. 000-20. Chester. Af. A brief description of the 4 piece delux sabot is given.. Phutographs of sabots and models are included. 1442. the arrestor tube. November 1962. Three techniques are described: the ramp deflector. tungsten carbide rod penetrators. length-to-diameter ratio of 25. Herr. Sabots are described.

each half of the sabot would be displaced 10 cm from the trajectory at 6 meters from launch when fired at a velocity of 29. 5-gram projectiles. At this velocity. Impact velocities varied from 15. Preliminary indications of material properties are discussed. 5 AD 335 636. 000 fps for the 0. The acceleration of the sabot during filled cavity as well as the projectile. lIT Research Institute Technology Center. Sponsored by the Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. Pictorial representation of a mechanical sabot stripper adapter is given. ASD-TDR-63-4. NRL Memo Report 1412. A positive augmentation effect was measured when the gun was operated under reduced parameters and electrical energy was added to the driver gas during the compression stroke. and tin) were fired at a standard spaced aluminum plate target configuration. 60 powder and light gas guns. Robert L. Report No. May I. nickel. Studies of impacts by high velocity projectiles on a variety of target configurationis also are carried out.It was desired to-achieve separation velocities of 1. Akron. AD 410 310L. 5 km/sec. were used. (Unclassified Abstract) The primary objective of this program is to launch a controlled shape projectile weighing approximately two grams to a velocity of 9. A total of 33 experimental firings was carried out from Both aluminum and fiberglas sabots cal 0. Experimental results and techniques are presented. Cleveland. Ohio. 500 feet per second. The objective of the firings was to determine the material property or properties contributing most to the maintenance of projectile integrity after first hypervelocity impact. This report also contains the results of an effort to develop explosively separating sabots for carrying sub-calibre projectiles during light-gas gun The sabots are made in two segments and contain an explosivelaunches. (Unclassified Abstract) Projectiles of various metallic materials (including tungsten.: "The Effects of Physical Projectile Properties on Thin Target Damage at Hypervelocities". 5 by 104 cm/sec. Studies are presented of the use of electrical energy pulses for augmenting the performance of light-gas guns. (Unclassified Report). 1963. 000 to 19. 387 "Hypervelocity Capability and Impact Research". This pressure causes the sabot segments to separate upon leaving the launch tube. steel.. 389 "Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Hypervelocity Impact". Armco iron. Ohio Ir D-76 4 . 2. 388 Chandler. ignites the explosive which generates a high gas its launch in the gas gun pressure within the sabot cavity. March 1963. (Confidential Report). March 1963. April 30.

. H....... . and 0. Bjork . Heyda (7) (8) (9) A D-77 .... ..... . Part I AD 423 063 (1) Review of Physical Processes in Hypervelhcity Impact and Penetration Robert L. . J M. The Calculation of Stress Waves in Solids Mark L..... . . .... H.... Walsh and J..... . Visco-Plastic Solution of Hypervelocity Impact Cratering Phenomenon T. T. .... ..... ... Shock Front Variation in Time for High Speed Impact Into Water James F. Calvit...... .. .. ... Johnson ....... ..... .. A Blast-Wave Theory of Crater Formation in SemiInfinite Targets William J.. Luttrell (6) .... ......... Kirchner..... A Hypervelocity Impact Model for Competely Deforming Projectiles (4) (5) J. Wilkins and Richard Giroux ........ . Rae and Henry P....* .. . Tillotson .. Spherical Shock Waves and Cavity Formation in Metals N.... ..... H. Properties of Spherical Shock Waves Produced by Hyper velocity Impact Ray Kinslow ....... Riney. .. ..0 Table of Contents - AMCP 706-445 Volume I1... Davids.. L... E.. (2) (3) Hydrodynamics of Hypervelocity Impact 3..... .....

(21) An Investigation of the Phenomena of Impact Flash and Its Potential Use as a Hit Detection and Target Discrimination Technique J.. Moore.. ... Goodman and C.. .G........ ..L...-es in Hypervelocity Penetration R. . Mobley... . and Richard Vitali .... ........ S...... . Halperson . ..... . .. Energy Bala... M. ... W. Part Z AD 423 064 (10) Hypervelocity Cratering Data and r Crater-Depth Model for the Regime of Fluidity Olive G. Slactery . Pond. . and D. MacCormack . E.. Summers and B..... Some Phenomena Associated with Impacts into Aluminum .. and L... .. Heitowit .. Investigation of Impact Flash at Low Ambient Pressures Robert W.. Richards . Engel .. Investigation of the Impact of Copper Filaments into Aluminum Targets at Velocities to 16.. Kineke. B. ...... Kineke. (11) Fluid Impact Craters and Hypervelocity -..... Fritchtenicht and J. Particle-Solid Impact Phenomena E. C.H.D. .. Robert Nysmith.. C.... ...... Transient Observations of Crater Formation in SemiInfinite Targets J......m Table of Contents - AWS- Volume II. .. Pat Denardo ... Glass .. F.......High-Velocity Impact Experiments in Metal and Rocks H.. .....W...M.. . .. Warnica .... . . James L. . Gault and Ezra D... D-78 .. Lites . Gault . Jr. (12) (13) (14) (15) Influence of Target Strength on Hypervelocity Crater Formation in Aluminum J.... ...... ..H.... and C.. . ......... MacCormack.H. The Partition of Energy for Hypervelocity Impact Craters Formed in Rock Donald E.. R..... Jr.. ....... 000 Feet Per Second C. (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) Ionization Associated with Hypervelocity Impact J.... 3.. Gehring and R...

.. . .. Experimental and Theoretical Results Concerning the Protective Ability of a Thin Shield Against Hypervelocity Projectiles O. . .. . .... . .. 3.. . .. (32) (33) (Confidential) Hyp~ervelocity Projectile for Multiple Thin Plate Penetration (U) R.. . ... . ..... . Table of Contents . . Watmough and F.. . . Sandorff .. . . . ..R. T.. Long .. and J. ... .. . C. . . .. (Confidential) Jet Pellet Projection Technique (U) S.Volume IV AD 345 054 (31) (Secret) Application Aspects of Hypervelocity Impact "1963 (U) 3. . .. . Margous . .. . . . . . . ...N.. Ferguson.... . D'Anna . . . Maiden . . . W... Kraus .. P. Meteoroid Effects on Nuclear Rocket Space Vehicle Success .. .. L. . . .... . .1. Brown and P.. . . ....... . ... McMillan . Hypervelocity Puncturing of Self-Sealing Structures Philip (29) 700445 (23) (24) (25) (26) . . Effects of 3 to 12 KM/SEC Impacts on Finite Targets R. A Meteoroid Bumper Design Criterion P. . Sterbentz and Loren L. K... Investig*ationni Zimmerman D-79 .. .. . . .. . ..H..* Table of Contents Volume III AD 423 602 (22) Two Dimensional Analysis ofa Hypervelocity Impact upon a Visco-Plastic Plate H. M. .E. Joyce.. .... . B. .. Reynolds and R. . . R. Kreyenhagen .. . . .. . and F. .. . Thin Plate Perforation Studies with Projectiles in the Velocity Range from 2 to 5 KM/SEC R. . ...K.. .. .. Mortensen. . .... William H. J. Gibson .. E. K.. A New System of Protection from Hypervelocity Particles B. . . . . Watson. .. .. . (30) •Mission 2. .. Kronman . . An Investigation of the Penetration of Hypervelocity Projectiles into Composite Laminates A. Becker..W. . . . . ... . Chandler.. T (27) (28) J. . .. . . Emmons . .

. K.......... Coley ....A.. Thorn .................... and R..S.. (Confidential) A Warhead Concept for Defeat of Hard Targets in Space (U) Dale M.. Christman... Rhea........ Stein....lM..... B....... G......... and Edmund M. (Confidential) Determination of Perforation Energies for Composite Targets (U) (40) Murray Rockowitz and Charles A.... (43) (44) (Confidential) Free.. N.. George Concepts (U) M.. Harrity .... Dailey . R... 3... D.... B. . W............ .. (Secret) A Short Review of the Status of the AeroThermal Phase of the Hypervelocity Kill Mechanisms Program (U) Coleman duP.... Donaldson ... Kreyenhagen... * (37) (Confidential) Hypervelocity Impact Experiments with Laminated Complex Targets (U) C......... (42) (Secret-No Foreign) Vulnerability of Large Missile Systems During the Launch Phase (U) H.. ............ ... .. ..... W... Gaydos...B.. A Hypervelocity Rocket Weapon (U) D.. and R. (Confidential) Armour Research Foundation Traveling Charge Gun (U) Louis A................ Carey ........ (35) S(36) (Secret) Aimed Warhead Samuel D. ........ D-80 .... (41) (Secret-No Foreign) Lethality of Small Fragments Versus ICBM Re-entry Vehicles (U) James J. Lane ....... ............ Cox and E.. Mortensen .. R..C.. Davis ..S. (38) (Secret-No Foreign) Hypervelocity Impacts into Ablative Materials (U) ?vMario (39) A.... Gehring...... 4 .... H. Dittrich......Table of Contents ......... Persechino .... Mortensen........ .... Barbarek . Zimney.Volume IV (Continued) (34) (Secret) Lethality of Hollow Shapes (U) W...

Mention is made that sabots are used in launching and several drawings of sabots are given. 391 Taylor. (Secret Report). 393 "Hypervelocity Kill Mechanisms Program ARPA Order !49". The impact effects. high velocity sabots are described.u of the materials phase of this work. (Unclassified Abstract) An investigation of the effects of projectile material and shape on thin plate "-npact at hypervelocities being conducted. (Unclassified Abstract) Some preliminary results are presented of spectrographic observations of the distribution of intensities -emanating from the environment of hypersonic projectiles. AD 344 803L. D8 D-81 . 392 "Effect of Projectile Physical Properties on Thin Target Damage at Hypervelocities (C)". 000 fps at 0. toughness. (Unclassified Abstract) Performance details for special purpose. 1 in. Sabot cystems for n rod penetrator device of the base-push type and combinations of pu. : "Sabot-Launching Systems for Experimental Penetrators". BRL Memorandum Report No. ASD-TDR63-36. strength. density. and pull are described. thick 2014-T6 aluminum sheets spaced 24 inches apart. 1505. Report No. Many in-flight photographs of sabot separation are included. CARDE Technical Note 1564. photographically shown. . These sabots were designed and developed for launching high-density projectiles. together with some discussion on their interpretation. (Unclassified Report).of various materials were sabot-launched in the velocity regime of 15. One-half gram projecti . (Unclassified Report). AD 417 898. A. August 1963. October 1963. AD 341 871. and latent heat of vaporization. This report covers the re . May 1963.390 D1nitrieff-Koklive. An account is given of the development of a spectrographic system suitable for operation under range conditions. were monitored with a sequential flash X-ray device and by post-fire examination of the target a 3 witness plates. September 1963. liquid metal surface tension. A large number of materials were tried to determine the effects of melting point. .: "Spectrographic Studies of the Radiation Emitted by Mypersonic Projectiles". NR'L (Naval Research Laboratory) NRL 6032. Experimental results are given. of rod form. AD 428 223. Appendix A considers the viscosity of molten metals. G to 20. UT Research Institute Technology Center. latent heat of fur i. G. (Confidential Report). with overall length to diameter ratios varying from less than one to twenty-five. Dynamics Branch Mechanics Division.

A. 9 November 1964. ATL-TR-64-69. J.ortional to the kinetic energy of I Little is said concerning the hole of the sabot.ries) NRL NR 1492. The kinematics of interaction of an impact shock in the attenuator material with the unloading wave originating from the stress-free periphery of the projectile were studied. This work is in support of project Helmet. The projectile-target interaction phenomenon was investigated analytically. fabricated. and a plastic capsulated tubular projectile. J. 500 ft. H. February 1964. -M S. 397 Malik. 395 Cable. Halperson No-. AD 358 893. against targets consisting of copper sheets inclined at 15' to the line of flight. Representative projectile configurations designed. _ (Unclassified Abstract) An experimental and analytical program was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the composite laminated projectile concept in the hypervelocity penetration of a standard alumrinum spaced target plate configuration. BRL Technical Report No. (Confidential Report). 149-60 Impact Damage Thase". liT Research Institute Technology Center Technical Report No. (Unclassified Abstract) When steel fragments in.: "Experimental Studies of the Oblique Hypervelocity Impact of Inert and Explosive Projectiles on Thin Targets". /sec. 57. : "Spaced Armor Penetration Studies". one or more particles are emitted from the rear D-82 . Program ARPA Order No. 7 ii 4. AD 350 908. a tubular projectile. J. One-dimensional effects were considered to gain insight into attenuator response. a drawing of the projectile and sabot is given. the projectile for each thickness of target. Mention is made that the projectiles were sabot-launched.== 394 Condon. December 1964. and evaluated included a rigid-core composite projectile. However. pact on and perforate astructural material. (Confidential Report). NRL (Naval Research Laborat. Donald: "The Characteristics of Particles Formed During the Perforation of Steel Armor by Steel Fragments": (Confidential Report). hole produced by inert projectiles is prop. The experiments show that under these The area of circumstances enhanced damage is caused by the use of explosive projectiles of the same mass and velocity as inert projectiles. April 1964. M. H. (Secret Report).: "Hypervelocity Kill Mechanism. 396 Nagaoka. 0 (Unclassified Abstract) Inert and explosive projectiles were fired at a velocity of 13. AD 348 245L. a plastic capsular projectile. AD 354 600. Royal Armament and Development Establishment Memo 17/64..

..D __ .. Bjork. . . Late-Stage Equivalence and Similarity Theory for OneDimensional Impacts John K. . . and R.... . . . and M.. (5) Hypervelocity Impact .. 398 "Proceedings of the Seventh Hypervelocity Impact Symposium".. W... Sponsored by Eglin Air Air Force Base. . S. D.. . . . . . M. . . L. .. .. An analysis is made of the weight. Numerical Solution of Oblique impacts K. . Heyda and T. .. Warner. N. . Yuan and R. M. Soifer. .. Chou. speed. (2) (3) F... . (2) (3) Hypervelocity Lrnpact Calculations T. Stage Equivalence P. .AMOP 70644iu * surface of the material under attack... Florida.. The Strong Plane Shock Produced by Hypervelocity Impact and Late. ... D. . . . . Cou rte r . . Walsh and W... . . . and spatial distributions and the number of these particle* when the structural material is steel armor. . . . . . . . . .J Zajac . Tampa. . H. . and L. F. . Brooks. Sidhu. 17-19 November 1964.1(4) (1) On the Theory of Hyper velocity Impact ~ ~~~~J. .*. (4) An Investigation of Crater Formation by Hypervelocity Impact S. Marnell. Bjork . Mention in made only of the fact that sabots were used for high-speed launching.. Kreyenhagen. Br~oks Peak Axial Pressures in Semni-Infinite Media Under H4ypervelocity Impact J.4 C . . . . R. . Velocities of 13. . . Zaid a. .. . - Table of Contents Volume 11 - Theory AD 463 228 p . E... Dienes . .. Riney . Heyda ...A Series Solution P. .. B. and Nancy B. . . Empirical formulas are provided rola:ing certain characteristics of these distributions to selected parameters defining the impact conditions.. . C.. . . . .W!. H. -Volume Table of Contents 111. . Theory AD 463 229 (1) Impact of a Porous Aluminum Projectile on Aluminum at 20 and 72 KM/Sec M. ... . N... . Johnson.. L. . 000 F/S were obtained. R~iney and J.

(6)

On the Mechanics of Indentation and Cratering in Solid
Targets of Strain-Hardening Metal by Impact of Hard and Soft Spheres

)

J.N. Goodier
(7)
N. Davids,

.

. .

.*.

.

.

.4

..

...

..

.

.

a..... 6

A Penetration Method for Determing Impact Yield Strength
R. Minnich,
-

and J. Sliney

.............

Table of Contents - Volume IV

Theory AD 463 230

(1) (2)

A Physical Basis for Scaling Hypervelocity Impact
Robert

3.

Naurran.f

Change of Effective Target Strength with Increasing Size of Hypervelocity Impact Craters H. 3. Moore, D. E. Gault, and E. D. Heitowit . . . . . . A Linear-Elastic Treatment of the Spall-Fracture Problem
W. J. Rae ................ . .... . . ...... .
g

. .

(3)

..

(4) (5)

Thin Sheet Impact C. J. Maiden, A. R. McMillan, and R. E. Sennett Ill

. ...

A 3tudy by a Perturbation Method of the Hypervelocity Impact of Rod-Like Projectiles Upon a Thin Viscoplastic Plate Lit S. Han and Raymond E. Hess ................. Hypervelocity Impact of End-Oriented Rods
R. L.

(6)

Bjork and M. Rosenblatt

.

. . . .

. ....

. . . . .

Table of Contents - Volume V - Experiments AD 463 231 (1) Calculation of Maximum Hypervelocity Impact Damage from Material Properties Andrew M. Dietrich, R. B. Pond, and C. M. Glass . . Energy Partitioning in High-Velocity-Impact Cratering

. . .

(2)

in Lead
E.P. Palmer and G.K. Turner ..................

(3)

The Application of Metallurgical Gaging for Hypervelocity Impact Studies

P. E.
S(4)

Kyle and G. Gerard

......

................

,C.

Energy Balances for Hypervelocity Targets
E. Mobley, Jr. , and R. B. Pond .. ..

..

..

..... ,

S(5)
4by

Electron Microprobe Study of a Crater and Ejects, Produced

Hypervelocity Impact Against a Ni-Fe Target Richard A. Schmidt, Klaus Keil, and Donald E. Gault .. D-84

S

(6)

Subjected to Hypervelocity of Wax Targets The Behavior Impacts J. T. Frasier, B. G. Karpov, and L. S. Holloway
. . ..

(7)

Experimental Studies of Impact Phenomena and Correlation with Theoretical Models
J. W. Gehring, C. L. Meyers, and J. A. Charest
......

(8) (9)

Mechanics of iypervelocity Impact . . . .. .. .... F. E. Allison

..

.

.

.

.

.

.

Comparisons Between 'iyd'odynamic Theory and Impact Experiments

S.M.
(10)

Halperson

..............

. . . . . . .

Determination of the Itield Strength as an Effectiva Mechanical Strength Property in the Catering Process of Hypervelocity Impact
R. Piacesi, R..H. Waser, V.C.D. Dawson .
. . . . . .

(11)

Effect of Target Material Yield Strength on Hypervelocity Perforation and Ballistic Limit
Robert G. Thomson and E. T. Druszewski
. . . . . . .

. .

Table of Contents - Volume VI - Experiments

AD 463 232 (1) The Effect of Material Proper t ies on Threshold Penetration
Richard H. Fish and James L. Summers .......
....

(2)

Brittle'Behavior of Beryllium, Graphite, arid Lucite Under Hypervelocity Impact
J. H. Diedrit~h, 1. J. Loeffler,

and F. S. Stepka

. . . . . . .

(3)

Observations of Hypervelocity Impact of Transparent Plastic Targets Ray Kinslow .. .. ..
.. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .

.

.

.

(4) (5)

Ihmpact Flash Investigations to 15. 4 kin/sec . . . . . . . . . F. D. Rosen and C. N. Scully
E. P. Bruce ... ... . .... ... . .. 0 . . .

. . . . ...

Hypervelocity Impact on Single Thin Sheet Structures Incipient Perforation Conditions
... 0. .

.. 4. .

.

(6)

Penetration Mechanisms of High-Velocity Rods D. R. Christman, A. B. Wenzel, and J. W. Gehring .

....

D-85

(7)

Investigation of Catastrophic Fracturing and Chemical
Reactivity of Liquid-Filled Tanks When Impacted by

Projectiles of High Velocity
Francis S. Stepka, Robert P. Dengler, and
C. Robert Morse s
. . .......

0
.

. . . .

.

.

. ......

(8) (9) (10)

Systematic Investigation of Crater Formation in Metals
Neil R. Sorensen . . .....

Dustwall Shielding Against Meteoroids
Dr. Carl N. Klahr
. . ...
,

.. .

Scaling Relixtionships for Microscale to Megascale
Impact Craters Donald E. Gault . . . . . . . . . ..
. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .
-

399

"Proceedings of the Seventh Hypervelocity Impact Symposium Volume VII - Applications"; (Secret Report). February 1965, AD 365 243. Sponsored by Eglin Air Force Base.

S~techniques.

(Unclassified Abstract) Included in this volume are sicdifferent papers on hypervelocity impact and its applications. Under the topic, "The Role of Projectile Material Properties in the Hypervelocity Penetration of Thin Plates," brief discussion is made of sabot materials and sabot stripping Under the topic, "Spatced Armor Penetration Studies," various sabot projectile configurations are khown and briefly discussed. The other sections do not relate any pertinent information on sabots. Table of Contents (1) (2) Military Uses of Hypervelocity, Impact Research R.L. Hayford and J.M. Brown The Role of Projectile Material Properties in the Hypervelocity Penetration of Thin Plates A4

-_

R. L.

Chandler and T. Watmough .

. . . . . . . .*. . . . . ...

SH.H.

S(3)
(4)

Spaced Armor Penetration Studies
Nagoaka and T.A. Zaker ..................

Effect of Projectile Geometry and Impact Angle on the Vulnerability of Multiple Sheet Targets
R.L. Warnica and D.R. Christman . .............. .. . . . . . . . . ..... .

(5) (6)

Rod Lethality Studies

3. J.

C ondon

..

.

...

.

.. .

Hypervelocity Penetration of Thin Targets by Long Rods S. Kronman, C. M. Glass, and M. Gorrell . . . . . . . .

D-8

AMCP 706.445 Volume VIII - Applications (U); (Secret Report), February 1965, AD 365 244. Sponsored by Eglin Air Force Base. (Unclassified Abstract) Hypervelocity system applications. launching mentioned. Table of Contents (1) The Air Force Program in Hypervelocity Weapons D.M . Davis .. ........ .... ... ... . . . . . Stabilized Rod Warhead P.A. Saigh and R.E. Stern No sabot

(2)

.........

....

. . . .

.

(3) (4)

Radially Expanding Fragmentation Warhead Study William R. Porter . . . . . . . . . . . ........................ Preliminary Development of an Automatic Light - Gas Weapon E. Ashley, D. M. Jeffreys, and E. Poston .......
.

. .

(5 (6)

A Traveling Charge Type Hypervelocity Projector W L.A. C. Barbarek .... .. .. .. .. .. . #. .. ..

......

Hypervelocity Penetration of Composite Targets R. W. Watso.;, K. R. Becker, and F. C. Gibson ......... Massive Impact into Ablative Structures C.D. Porter . . . . . . . ....... ..............................

(8)

Hypervelocity Lmptct into Composite Targets with One Megajoule Pellets C.M. Cox and E.R. Berus ..................... Hypervelocity Impact on Thin Plate Targets; Spall Particles Distribution B. VanZyl............ ......... . .................. Impact Failure of Pressure Vessels J.F. Lundeberg, G.T. Burch, Jr., and D. H. Lee

(9)

. . . ..

(10)

.

....

400

"Electrical Augmentation of a Light Gas Gun"; (Unclassified Report), Arnold Engineering Development Center Report No.

AEDC-TR-65-32,

January 1965, AD 455 811.

(Unclassified Abstract) This report covers the experimental and analytical research directed toward the development of a system for electrical augmentation of a light gas 11-uncher. The first phase involved the use of a medium performance light gas launcher and served the purpose of developing techniques and providing proof that electrical augmentation was experimentally practical. In the second phase, a high-performance launcher was used and optimization of those augmentation techniques was attempted.

D-87

2. W"--

............

-.

..•

; v••,A•,,•

: ..

,,

••t,.':-••

•L

A-PM445
where Higher efficiency of augmentation was obtained in the Phase I work launch velocity was lower. The highest the sabot was heavier and normal kilometers per velocity obtained with the augmented launcher was 8.23 increase of . 98 kilometers per second second, representing a velozity and a sabot kinetic energy increase of 2. 68 kilojoules. 401 "Annual Report of the Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment"; (Confidential Report), Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment, GARDE Technical Report 523/65, March IQ65. -.

(Unclassified Abstract) Included in this report on the activities at CARDE during 1964 is mention of a type of sabot capable of withstanding pressures and "g" loading experienced when firing a light-gas gun. An exceptional in-flight photo of the sabot discard is shown. Considera:, c emphasis is being placed on designing a lightweight sabot used primarily for the 105-mm tank gun. Included also is a complete list of technical reports and technical notes published by CARDE i'n 1964, and a list of lectures given by CARDE scientists during the same period. 402 Condon, J. J. : "Rod Lethality Studies"; (Confidential Report), Naval Research Lab Report No. ATL-TR-65-18, March 1965, AD 358 533.
2

(Unclassified Abstract) Data are presented for the loss in rod length of aluminum rods, with length-to-diameter ratios equal ten, after normal impact at 4. 6 km/sec and perforation of each plate in a spaced array. Various thickness aluminum plates were impacted, but each plate in an The rod consumption values are array was of constant thickness. compared with calculations based on one-dimensional analysis. Progress is summarized toward a solution of a two-dimensional hydro-dynamic The deceleration numerical analyses for the same experimental parameters. of the rod because of plate impact, plate perforation diameter, and semiinfinite target penetration are compared with published analytical and semi-empirical expressions. Preliminary results on the effect of plate and rod orientation also are examined. Brief mention of rod stability and sabot All rods were sabot-launched. launching is given. Photographs of saoots and launching are given. 403
N

)

•"A

Sodickson, Lester A. ; Carpenter, Jock W. ; Davidson, Gilbert: New Method of Producing High Speed Molecular Beams"; (Unclassified Report), American Science and Engineering, Inc. Report No. AFCRL-65-337, 17 March 1965, AD 617 142, for Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Office of Aerospace Research, United States Air Force, Bedford, Massachusetts.

(Unclassified Abstract) A new :nethod of producing a pulsed, cold beam of high velocity neutral molecules is shown to be feasible. A hollow container filled with a chosen gas is mechanically accelerated to a 1 aigh velocity in a rifle or light gas gun. The container (called a sabot) is

D-88

AEDC Report No. December 1965.. AD 368899. commercially pure titanium. "The Impact of Thin Disks into Semi-Infinite Aluminum Targets. These tubes allowed the establishnment of the desired projectile orientation. A beam of N2 crossed with a low velocity beam of CO or CO 2 produces vibrationally excited molecules in sufficient quantity to be detected with state-of-the-art techniques. mild steel. The configuration investigation consisted of experimental firings to determine the lethal effectiveness of specific projectile configurations designed to defeat specified thin-plate targets. L. "Effect of Projectile Physical Properties on Thin Target Damage at Hypervelocities. and Kennertium. May 1966. 405 Payne. 5" and a spread in velocity of *4 percent. without a mechanical stripping device. R. lIT Research Institute Technology Center. To ensure the desired projectile attitudes upon impact. including photographs and pictorial representation. (Confidential Report). (Unclassified Abstract) Experimental firings using light-gas guns were conducted as part of studies to provide a basis for maximizing the lethal effectiveness of hypervelocity fragments for specialized warhead applications. A complete section on the role of various sabot types. J.f4 Chandler. "D-89 . A photograph of the sabot is given and a description of its ftunction is included. A ýLsec pulse with an instantaneous intensity of the order of 2 x 1023 molecules/cm 2 -sec can be achieved.AMCP 70644 14 K)•. Report No. and the removal of a multipieced sabot.. T. is included. sabot opening are shown. Velocities up to about 3 km/sec can be achieved with a Super Swift rifle and up to about 10 km/sec with a light gas gun. Watmough. J. j :. "The overall program was divided into two phases: projectile material investigAtions and projectile configuration investigation. It appears feasible to measure the cross section~s for collisional ex-itation of the vibrational levels of CO 2 and CO by N2 and the cross sections for the exchange of vibrational energy between N2 and CO2 or CO. " (Unclassified Report). AD 482038. Pictorial representations of . It appears feasible to produce a pulsed beam at 10 km/sec with an angular divergence of *Z. The sabot then is slowed or deflected. The materials investigation was designed to determine material properties cantributing most to the maintenance of projectile integrity after hypervelocity impact on a thin target plate. ATL-TR-65-95. rifled launch tubes were used to produce spin stabilization. (Unclassified Abstract) Hypervelocity impact tests were performed using aluminum targets and projectiles comprising low-fineness-ratio disks of 1100-0 aluminum. also can be obtained. 404 Proposed techniques for V. The total cross section which gives the mean free path.. subsequently opened to allow the gas to emerge. AEDC-TR-66-35.he sabot are given. .

DRD-6. P.: "Small-Scale Sabot Separation Test Program. " Product Engineering. "HYPERVELOCTTY GUNS. D-90 .. It was a 0."ON THE DESIGN OF A MINIMUM WEIGHT SABOT FOR THE BALLISTIC LAUNCHING OF SPHERES. (Unclassified Abstract) The objectives*of the Small-Scale Sabot Test program were to: (1) develop design criteria for two BSD-supplied sabot/missile separation concepts." Firestone Tire &Rubber Co. (3) produce preliminary design drawings. 1962. Sabot is stripped away in a blast tank after leaving the launch tube. (Unclassified Abstract) A technique is described whereby a light gas gun was used to launch micron-size spherical particles of the stable isotope of a radioactive salt at velocities up to 18. Defense Research Div." (Confidential Report). The sabot is a bullet-shaped nylon case surrounding the projectile. September 1966.. M. It may be concluded from the overall design analysis presented in this final report that a feasible fullscale separation design can be completed for either of the two concepts developed and tested in this program.. AD-643537. DZ-36383-13. light gas gun. . Bruce. 'Feasibility of Launching Micron-Size Particles at Speeds of 12.. pp. 000 ft/sec. Report No. (2) conduct parametric and subscale demonstration testing and design studies.. BRL Memorandum Report No. In-silo sabot retention involved stopping the sabot at the top of the launch tube by engaging the sabot with a retention mechanism that absorbs sabot arrest energy by crushing a crushable material. 000 ft/sec." 2 409 . . 408 Berus. L. deflected. Walter F. September 1966.'" (Unclassified Report). N. In-flight sabot/missile separation consisted of bleeding eject-launch gases through an opening into the volume between the missile base and the sabot precharge volume. W. a material and processes report.406 McLaughlin. RA. November 12. (AD 387 269) Brooks. 000 ft/sec To 18. '. 33. L. Ralston. R.. "HYPERVELOCITY IMPACT STUDIES. AD 376505. Margaret.. Partington. 116-117. R. Canadian Armament Research and Developmeat Establishment.2 inch lexan cylinder a few thousandth inch overbore diameter. August 1964. Report No. D. BOEING Report No. Spark shadowgraph and streak camera techniques were used to observe the particles in free flight. The required sabot was successively retarded. and stopped before reaching the range area. "407 Braun. Pre-charge volume pressure then ejected the sabot axially away from the missile upon exit from the launch tube and decay of the eject gas pressures under the sabot. Pascoe. E. 1780. Vol. and (4) submit a performance specification. CAROE-TR-490/64. "1 410 Cross. and a reliability report. Describes sabot used by Armour Research Foundation in a. Armistead.

H. "EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF A SABOT STRIPPING METHOD FOR A 0. I. Vol. TR-65-50. and velocity capabilities using saboted projectiles for impact research. Research is necessary in order to produce velocities in excess of 6 km/sec with sufficiently low pressure and acceleration to avoid breakup of fragile saboted packages.5 inch light gas gun is described. Harold V. Report 7457/R1. 414 Porter..208. D. J. Dispersion of the sabot fragments was required within a length of less than two feet. 1961. R. 3." Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Hypervelocity Impact. C. 412 413 Pereshino. Schlemmer. F. and the pins interfered with the sabot to produce high energies aid pressures which dissipate the sabot material. The hypervelocity augmentor and sabot stripper is a two-stage device designed to eliminate the sabot and to provide velocity augmentation to a projectile fired from a light-gas gun by utilizing the kinetic energy in the carrier of sabot. "PENETRATION MECHANISMS OF HIUG4VELOCITY PROJECTILES.. " General Motors Defense Research Laboratories. . S. FINAL REPORT.. October 30-November 1. It was found that a combination of a gasdynamic decelerator tube and a cruciform configuration of wedge shaped tungsten pins provided best results. Sup. Use of isometric charts to interpolate Narec results to a new set of design parameters representing a specific gun has resulted in about 95 %agreement with experimental results. Swift. A study is made of high-performance gas-powered accelerators for ballistic research studies." U.212. 24 October 1967. An experimental program to develop a sabot stripping method for an 0. D-91 3 . " Computing Devices of Canada. The hypervelocity augmentor and sabot stripper is secured to the end of a gun muzzle by use of screw threads or a suitable bolt and nut or screw arrangement. Mario A. (AD 829 635) Murphy. 3. NASA CR 90503. Technical Report No. Ltd. size.. "SUMMARY OF NRL HYPERVELOCITY ACCELERATOR DEVELOPMENT. Increased energy storage and distribution capabilities and development of electric ballistic techniques will considerably extend the scope of electro-ballistics. R. Part I. The decelerator tube separated the sabot and projectile. W.AMMP 100446 SO 411 Gehring. pp. 1965.. B. 23-52. No. Sabots carrying spherical projectiles of various densities and sizes were employed. "AUGMENTOR AND SABOT STRIPPER FOR HYPERVELOCITY LIGHT GAS GUN (NAVY). Experimental work is continuing to increase mass. Fuller. 1. at velocities in excess of 20. J. Patent Office.. Denver.000 feet per second..5 INCH LIGHT GAS GUN. H.

416 "DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPLOSIVE SABOTING TECHNIQUE FOR LIGHT GAS GUNS. (AD 410 310L) tI - k + D-9 FREE FLIGHT AERODYNAMIC TE9TING 418 Clancy.-Chaplin. which causes the sabc. Another problem is in saboting a light-gas gun to carry a high density projectile. The major problem. "ADVANCES IN LIGHT-GAS GUN MODEL-LAUNCHING TECHNIQUES. H. The projectile is then free to travel down the range and strike a target without having the effects on the target obscured by parts of the sabot. 128. the aerodynamic drag on the projectile vanishes. 5. The sabot is designed to fit a 0. M. . T. so that both friction and aerodynamic drag on the sabot work to increase the separation distance. halves to fly apart. a ramp." MB Associates. principally because of wall friction.60-caliber bore and carry a spherical steel projectile. Memorandum No. Upon firing the gun. 20822084. Discarding-Sabot Projectile (U).S. April 15. D-92 . Significant gains in launch velocity capability were obtained.R. If the driving pressare is relieved when the projectile approaches the muzzle. N. At first a minute separation between the model and the sabot is achieved. March 1963. such as steel. U. with a hollowed out cavity that contains a small explosive charge with an appropriate initiation system. thus separating from the projectile. " AIAA Journal. witriout the acceleration effects causing the projectile to damage the sabot. The feasibility of an explosive sabot for use in light-gas hypervelocity guns that fire into an evacuated range is being investigated. pp. Vol. First Progress Report. covering period 1 July . Aeroballistic Research Report No. 1962. 417 "HYPERVELOCITY CAPABILITY AND IMPACT RESEARCH. the friction and drag forces begin to impede the sabot. Description of a light-gas-gun model launching technique which appears to have the advantages of both the aerodynamic and mechanical methods of stripping the sabots from the models. for example." Naval Research Laboratory. is in initiating the explosive charge without causing the sabot halves to separate. can be placed at the muzzle to deflect the sabot away from the trajectory of the model.31 December 1962. November 1967. creating a very high pressure in the cavity.: "Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Body of a Fin-Stabilized. Naval Ordnance Laboiatories. After an adequate separation is achieved. Thereafter.~~ AMCP 7*448 415 Teng. R. The sabot consists of two halves split longitudinally. the explosive charge is detonated. (Unclassified Report). 24 September 1952. MR-1412. Semiannual technical progress report. AD 76103.

0"/Z. (2) sabot must support the model rigidly during shot travel. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients and centers of pressure are g." (Confidential Report). CARDE. D-93 a . (Unclassified Abstract) Presented Is a means of launching 1/16" scale guided missile models for aerodynamic study. G. G.-. t (Unclassified Abstract) The results of test on exact scale models of the S. snmoothbore gun at velocities up to 2500 f/s. N-44-132. CARDE Memorandum (B) 26/56. Aerodynamic characteristics a-e graphically presented and discussed for the fin-stabilized discarding sabot projectile bodies. This new design is described. and to investigate the differences in drag. W. E. Smoothbore Gun (U):" (Confidential Report). S. 420 Gamblin. S. 421 Cohen. Bertrand.1) (U). 0 and compared with "theoretical" estimates given by methods currently in use. 32" and 5. 0 and 4. 419 Gamblin.. B. S. and sabot and model photographs are included. S. W. AD 365980. 125 in.: "Supersonic Wind Tunnel Tests on Scale Models of Two F. a request was given to design a sabot to launch 1/8" scale guided missile models at velocities ranging from 1200 f/s to 2400 f/s. D.en for Mach numbers between 2. 10 February 1953. Nine sabot designs are included and are verbally and photographically described. normal force.-MC 706" (Unclassified Abstract) Wind tunnel teots were conducted to obtain stability data for the body of the FSDS." S~Tests (Confidential Report). AD 116280. A radially discarding sabot was designed to meet the following requirements: (1) capable of being fired from a 3.. Projectiles (U). 9-Inc~h Smoothbore Gun (Sabot Type B. D.S. and the sabot must not interfere with the model during separation. CARDE Report No. Peacock. September 1956. I April 1953. 3.. and (4) sabot must be as light as possible. Bertrand. AD 365979.. test results are given. projectiles are presented.: "I/8-Scale Missile Model with 5.78" F.S. Technical Letter No. (3) separation must occur as soon as possible after shot ejection.: "Sabot Design for 1/16-Scale Model 3-1n. N-44-110. W.0"/1. E. because of a groove in the projectile head and a buttress thread at midbody. * • • Unclassified Abstract) Following the development of & sabot for launching I/16" scale guided missile models. and loration of center of pressure.

" (Confidential Report) Picatinny Arsenal. and drag.89. Static longitudinal stability and drag information was obtained for this configuration at angles of attack from -42 to 10".Flare Configurations (U).: Stability Derivative from Minuteman Aeroballistic Range Tests (U). 4. 425 Launching difficulties and aerodynamic Scott. John E.0. Advisory Group for Aeronautical Resuarch and Development. Boeing.00. May 1960. coefficients are discussed. E." (Confidential Report).Cylinder. on full-scale models of a delta-finned.: "Free Flight Model Tests for Drag and Stability of Three Cone.supported. June 1957.53.'P9. Technical Report 242Z. (Unclassified Abstract) The purpose of this paper is to discuss the difficulties and the advantages associated with doing high mach number research and also to discuss the high performance gun. •6 422 Loeb. as well as an analysis. 26. AD 133 377. pitching moment. Alvin: "The Use of Gun-Launched Models for Experimental Research at Hypersonic Speeds (U). (Unclassified Abstract) Three ICBM shapes were fired to determine drag. and 4. with experimental measurements of normal force.-A. and (2) light-gas gun launching. 4. 53. Mention is made that the projectile is sabot. Alfred A.00. Document No. Aerodynamic data are presented in graph form.: "Static Longitudinal Stability and Drag of a 105/40 mm Delta-Fin Shell at Mach Numbers of 4. Possible real gas effects also were noted in the drag coefficient of the bluntest shape above Mach 7. This report also discusses launching difficulties incurred in Mach 8 firings. Report No. July 1957. and 4. which extends the capabilities of the technique far out into the hypersonic regime." (Confidential Report) AVCO Corporation Report No. The material received from BRL represents experimental data. Jr. D-94 .89 (U). 424 Fontenot. D2-9557. 423 Seiff. R. 7 . Models of sabot s ar e shown ' Sabot materials are mentioned. This report presents the data. 138. stability. AD 364619. AD 150315. and pressure distribution in a Mach number range of 4. 105/40-mm projectile. Use of a sabot is mentioned. 0 (Unclassified Abstract) Wind tunnel tests were performed at Mach numbers of 4.0 to 8. 14 April 1961." (Unclassified Report). AD 321 809. Two methods of attaining hypervelocities are discussed: (1) launching upstream in a wind tunnel.

k IN (Unclassified Abstract) This report is a description of progress achieved up to 31 December 1962 in the present C .A. Supporting theoretical research at C. April 1963." (Confidential Report). 8 to 1. Description of the sabot. 427 "Status Report on the Reentry Physics Program. and 15 degrees and nose radii varying from 0.8 x 10 . re-entry physics the program. AD 403 391. One drawing and brief mention of sabot used in launching are the only two references to sabots. Mention is made and photographs are shown of the 4-petal saw-cut aluminum cup-shaped sabots used to launch the cones. 5 giving a corresponding variation in Reynolds number from I x 10 to 1. in the transonic region. The results presented consist essentially of raw data only. The models had cone half-angles of 10. is discussed. A brief description is glveu •i instrumentation employed in the radiation measurements. The Mach number range covered in the tests was frot 0. December 31. of drag coefficient and shock-wave detachment distance. November 1961.D.A. Staff of the Radiation Physics Section. '3.R.R. D. Some of the results obtained are presented. CARDE Technical Memorandum 654/61. A A 1. An appendix describes the status of hypersonic range technology at C. R. 428 Cowan. Twentyfour models were fixed and all provided useful data points. January 1963.P 0 5 . D. along with a photograph &td a pictorial representation./ (Unclassified Abstract) Subscale free-flight stability tests of the Minuteman missile were conducted during late fall and early winter of 1960 to 1961. AD 328789. In the tests." (Unclassified Report). CARDE Technical Memorandum 740. due to body geometry.: "Aeroballistics Range Test on the Transonic Drag of Spherically-Blunted Cones (U). B. Data obtained from the initial aoroballistic tests are presented. P. of a series of seven spherically-blunted cone configurations. 1962 (U). 5 of the base radius. Stability data have been reduced by assumptions of both linear and nonlinear pitching-moment characteristics. 5 and 30 million respectively. 5. (Unclassified Abstract) Tests were conducted to determine the variations. E. is given." (Unclassified Reper" GARDE Technical Note 1549. as it affects the re-entry physics program.E. 2 to 0. based on model base diameter. 426 Cheers. models of the basic missile were launched at high speed on the CARDE Aeroballistic Range. Aero/Physics Wing. E. D-95 . The tests were made at nominal MacA and Reynolds numbers of about 5. L: "A Simple Sabot Retarding Device for Light Gas Launchers (U). The models were sabot-launched via a 4 inch smoothbore powder jun.

AD 373 233. The device consists basically of a column of air contained in the launch tube at the muzzle. August 1964. The temperature results. Golbghat. P. July 1964. CAR DE T. 1. 411/64. . D-96I ." (Unclassified Report). Theoretical approaches to pojectile and sabot design are given." (Secret Report) Report No. aMd the Blue Streak GW-20. (3) Apollo Command Module." (Confidential Report). 13 August 1964. Lemay. and (6) Delta wing. (Unclassificd Abstract) This report presents the design aspect of some scaled models that were successfully fired in the CARDE Aeroballistic Range: (1) 300 bimetal cone with sabot. G. NOLTR 62-136.Semi -Angle Cone with Four Variations in Base Geometry (U) . are given for initial range pressures varying from 30 to 1 50 millimeters for sphere velocities of approximately 15.S(Unclassified Abstract) This report presents a description of a sabotretarding device for separating the sabot and model in & Hgsht gas launcher. An application of the technique for the Launching of cone models in the CARDE 20-mm launcher is 429 t0 )scribed. (Unclassified Abstract) This report covers a parametrilc study on the design of very light projectiles for use with hypervelocity liun hers. 432 Normand. AD 356609. (4) Armad Configuration." (Unclassified Report). Fpt 431 Crogan. . A photograph of the sabot and projectile is given. AD 461279. M. General comment on materials and hi h strain rate are included. are considered. Brooks. CARDE Technical Note 1657.000 feet per second. A two wavelength temperature method then was used to measure the color temperature of the radiation of the wake from immediately behind the body. L. A. the sphere. : "A Review of Model Design for Free Flight Aerodynamic Studies (U). 502/64.R. February 1965. (5) Half cone lifting vehicle. AD 448749. G.i 430 Bertrant.. the Atlas XV cone. (2) Apollo Launch Escape System. (Unclassified Abstract) The wake radiation associated with hypervelocity ablating (lexan) one-inch diameter spheres fired frorm light gas gun's into a pressurized range facility was found to be grey body within detectable limits.: "Temperature Measurement of the Near Wake Generated by Hypervelocity Bodies (U). as well as the emissivity values. Operating curves are presented for determining the loading conditions for any particular sabot discard problem. through the recompression zone to approximately seven body diameters. Three basic model configurations. The shock prespure generated by the projectile in the tube separates the sabot and projectile. and one type of sabot. the "cup" sabot which di cards radially under air drag. E.R. CARDE T.: "Parametric Study for Light Gas Gun Models (U). : Drag & Stability Obtained fiorr Free-Flight Firngsofa SheicalyBlute 10 Dg re.

and Advanced Research Projects Agency. BSD-TR-66366. and some preliminary measurements of shock-cap radiation are reported. 435 Barrett.. General Motors Corporation." (Confidential Report). A. General Motors Report No. J. July 1965. helium driver gas are shown to confirm theoretical calculations and indicate clean uniform flow during a 4. SIIII IIIII' I i I iI ' D-97 . The tests were conducted over a Mach number range of 5. AD 465893. 433 Ball. 000 fps) were attained. 000 fps). Rogers.. AD 377774.: "Second Interim Report on GM DRL'S 2-1/4 Inch Gun Project (U).6 by 10°.i "6446 The subject matter is presented according to the following inter-related topics: (1) description of range facilities.: "Free-Flight Range Tests of a Missile Configuration at Hypersonic Speeds (U). N. Of particular interest Is the design philosophy for sabots. Benjamin j. 5 km/sec (25. AD 800958. The models were light-gas gun launched by a 4-piece sabot. November 1966. 000 and 18. and (4) classification of models. counterflow operating experiences. Henry W. AEDC-TR-66-98. The shock tunnel calibration data for a room-temperature." (Unclassified Report). AEDC. for G. Welsh. Drag. AEDC-TR-65.to 5-msec run time." (Confidential Report). (2) description of guns. C. at hypersonic speeds.9 and Reynolds numbers of 7. Walter K. shadowgraphs of launch. TR66-01P. Measurements of total radiation from the shock-caps of the small spheres are in reasonable agreement with thecries and previous measurements from freeflight and shock-tube facilities.13Z. 434 Madagan. (Unclassified Abstract) Results are presented of free-flight range test of an AMICOM missile configuration. D t-•. September 1966.) were sabot-launched with a 2-stage. Aluminum spheres of 0. (3) design philosophy for sabots and models.(l May through 31 August 1966) (U). light-gas gun at velocities between 4. the performance of the mpdel launcher system. Report No. Sphere and cone firing test results. 95-cm diam (0. 375 in. AEDC Report No. During counterflow runs. Several in-flight photographs of sabot separation are given. and sphere and sabot photographs are included.0 and 5. May 1966.M. coefficients and static and dynamic stability derivatives were measured.5 km/sec (13." (Unclassified Report). 'The results of the shock tunnel calibration. AD 372 309.6 to 10.3 to 33. relative velocities up to 7. (Unclassified Abstract) This report contains an account of the results of firing rounds five through seven of the 2-1/4" light-gas gun. Report No. with and without fins. 436 "Third Technical Progress Report Hypervelocity Range Program (HYRAP II).: "Initial Operation of the Pilot Counterflow Test Unit (1) (U). (Unclassified Abstract) A small counterflow test unit consisting of a shock tunnel and a hypervelocity launcher is being evaluated at the VKF. Photographs of the sabot and model are given.

" GM Defense Research Laboratories. Two cases are considered: (a) the base has a constant thickness.. N. 439 D-98 . The sabot satisfies all requirements and operates in a satisfactory and reliable manner. the cylindrical sabot wall and the material of the base itself. and elastic rebound of the sabot. . August 1964. wake ionization studies and radiation measurements. CTN 64-04. and results of shock-tnibe studies and molecular beam experiments. theoretical ionization calculations. 438 Charters. A bibliography of technical reports generated under this program is included in an appendix. wake growth and transition. Technical Memorandum No. The broad objective of the program is the study of re-entry observables on slender bodies in a freeflight ballistic range. Flight Physics Region. All pertinent information is given in terms of physical and is expressed as dimensionless functions of the critical length of the sabot material and the combined weight of the model and cylindrical sabot wall. April 1964. In both cases. CARDE TR 493/64. A. Curtis. P. .. (AD 448 061) This report describes a successful and novel sabot which has been developed for the gun launching of aerodynamic models at GM Defense Research Laboratories. both cones ani spheres have been launched at velocities in excess of 24. It is constructed of a vacuumannealed polycarbon resin (LEXAN). John S. C. John S.A (Unclassified Abstract) This report describes work conducted at GM Defense Research Laboratories between I May and 31 August 1966 on an extension (HYRAP II) of the original Hypervetocity Range Program (HYRAP). (b) the base thickness is varied with rotational symmetry so as to provide a first approximation to a constant stress base. April 1962. Sabot separation is achieved by aerodynamic forces.•437 Brookp. muzzle blast effects. Finally a comparison is made between the two cases and also the standard cup sabot when used to launch a model of the Atlas XV nose cone. " GM Defense Research Laboratories.: "SABOTS.000 feet per second. Using this sabot. Report No. This is the final progress report on the HYRAP 11 program that extended from I September 1965 through 31 August 1966. the stress in the base is calculated for the inertial loads of the model. "HIGH VELOCITY GUNS FOR FREE-FLIGHT RANGES. •. Work described in the present report includes radar scattering from wakes. Report No. (AD 203 473) Curtis. TM 62-207..."ON THE DESIGN OF A LIGHT -WEIGHT SABOT•Ji WITH HEMISPHERICAL BASE FOR LAUNCHING AEROBALLIS- "TIC MODELS. Sparameters The design of a hemispherical-base sabot for launching nearfull-bore aeroballistic models is presented. " Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment. (AD 441 868) t.

37-mm. Memorandum Report No.-MC * 440 Fedenia. The gun cycle was investigated using three pump tube piston weights and projectile release pressures. and hype rvelocity launchers that theoretically possess very impressive hypervelocity pprformance capabilities. Chamberline. I. L. "RESEARCH FRONTIERS AT HYPERVELOCITIES. A.000 to 20. pp. pp. Report summariz-es several facets of hypervelocity.. Hyperballistic Range No." Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment. Several muzzle exit and sabot separation photographs are also given. L. Vol.000 ft. Calculated perfermance in compared with experimental results. " Ballistic Research Laboratories. 443 Motomura. (AD 44 457) A description of the use of sabots to adapt winged and/or finaedie' projectiles for gun-launching in free flight range testing is given. Hilton. explosive-driven implosion waves as drivers for shock tube. Various model and sabot designs have been launched at velocities from 13. 1964. Severe accelerating conditions to obtain high speed@ makes it difficult to launch fragile aerodynamic shapes such as slender cones and thin-walled models. 90-mm. "ON THE USE OF PLASTIC SABOTS FOR FREE FLIGHT TESTING.000 FT. July 1964. In practice. 4. 4. . Report No. 57-mm. per second. May 1954. 442 MacAllister. k D-99 __I . CARDE-TN-1604/64. . October/November 1967. I. MR-782. Denver. Good photographs of sabots and models are included. R. 347-426. and 155-mm guns are described. Nos. "EXPERIENCES IN THE LAUNCHING OF FRAGILE AERODYNAMIC SHAPES IN THE NOL 1. To investigate the projectile launching conditions. These problems are now under investigation. real gas flow and presents work on the use of stable. March 17-18. Amy A. Examples of adaptions for 20-mm. &Carter.6 in two-stage gas-gun. 13. John N. an analysis has been made of several modes of operation of the 1. D. 8/9. C.000 ft. "CONE LAUNCHING TECHNIQUES AT C. F. 706445 :• The technique of launching aerodynamic models at hypersonic speed* with a two-stage gun has been under development in the NOL 1. loss mechanisms and the projectile-integrity problem may limit the actual attainable hypervelocities of shock waves and projectiles. 517-550. Typical model and sabot construction and experiences in launching are described. Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal. E. " Third Hypervelocity Techniques Symposium. 441 L Glass. . however. HYPERBALLISTICS "RANGE NO.

The design concepts for the projectiles and the launch techniques used are presented. The base section of the sabot is partially split. and alter the characteristic flow about the cone.. Arnold E. wvhich hre been firing regularly into a 1. Photographs 0 ___0I . together with graphs that show the effect of pressure range on the stability of the cones. pp. Vol. slowly falling behind it because of the difference in drag. 29. 445 Slattery.. "A TWO-INCH LAUNCHER FOR AERODYNAMIC MODELS. . This note deals with some of the experiments carried out to launch aerodynamically stable cones at velocities of 13. Interpretation is that the sabot is immersed in a fluid with respect to which it has a subsonic velocity. (AD 247 270) The design and performance of a sabot making use of internal support (as opposed to the conventional wrap-around or external variety) are described. 1. This was achieved in a 20-mm light gas gun at the range pressures in excess of 40 mm of Mg. Murphy. countercurrent %othe flow in the trail. Efforts made to trace and analyze the source of destabilization. 446 Taylor. C. as sometimes occurs.500 fps. "INTERACTIONS BETWEEN A HYPERSONIC WAKE AND FOLLOWING HYPERSONIC PROJECTILE." Ballistic Research Laboratories. 974-975. R. E. pp. November 1962. It can propagate energy back up the coneýs trail. 1383-1384. MR1304. The presence of the sabot in the wake of a spin-stabilized cone radically altered the flow around the cone.. ) Description of the design and principles of an aerodynamicmodel launcher. Memorandum Report No. it continues down range along the same path as the cone. G. The sabot makes use of an internal string for support and the expanding gun gases for separation.. Stevens. G. R. When the sabot base fails to split. R. are also discussed in detail. so that normally it breaks upon leaving the gun muzzle and the pieces are separated from the cone's flight path by centrifugal forces. " AIAA Journal. W. Vol. . April 1963. 444 Seigel.000ft hyperballistic range since January 1962. H. "AN INTERESTING SABOT DESIGN. both by theoretical and experimental methods. . Photographs show cone after firing with the base of the sabot located in the wake of the cone changing the normal flow about the cone. Clay. September 1960. Drawings and photographs of the sabot are given. Fragile models have been fired at velocities in excess of 18.500 fps-14.S'V. of sabot discarding are also included.000 ft/sec. " Journal of the Aerospace Sciences.

hypersonic gas gun..-from ground-based launch facilities. 38. AD 336 483.AMCP 706445 447 "BALL VALVE DOUBLES AS GATE FOR PROJECTILE IN TEST FIRING. 37. S i (Unclassified Abstract) Volume I of this report summarized tha conclusions and recommendations resulting from the Helmet delivery feasibility study conducted by AMF. AD 337 575. AD 328 368. "Accuracy and Erosion Studies of Modified T254 Stries Gun Tubes for 105-mm Gun. Projectile wrapped in a plastic sabot begins its flight in the muzzle of a 264-ft. "Preliminary Final Report Project Helmet (U)". AMF Document No. February 1962.onsidered in relationship to the state of art in each subsystem area. Whitcraft. 31 December 1962. 450 "Final Report of Helmet Delivery Study (U)". R. Report 448 449 RN-62-1. a systematic investigation was undertaken to determine the technical and economic feasibility of delivering large pellet payloads. H. Army Miss•le Comer. 19 April 1963. 1966.DPS-469." Product Engineering. (Unclassified Abstract) The tecimical and economic feasibility of two highperformance methods of delivering heavy payloads to specified altitudes are analyzed. J. ilIlIII 'I "" D-101 m-- . Problem was to provide a quick-opening tunnel gate that would let a test model of a projectile pass through yet would stop the debris following close behind.-in the range of tens to thousand3 of tons. Limitations of each approach are Q. background to support conclusions reported in the first volume. October 24. elevation by shooting a test projectile at ground levei into a vacuum tank. It then passes through two tanks leaving plastic sabot in first tank where it has peeled away from the projectile. G-16262A. D-10 GUN DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Nelson. (Confidential Report). A total delivery cost model is described showing the pattern of costs for wide variations in oayload weight and peak acceleration. S. APG Report No. This document presents the analytical. Vol. With such a large sabot.. In the Helmet program.d. (Confidential Report). Work done by CARDE was to simulate space vehicle performance at 4U-mi. p.. (Confidential Report) ARPA Division. M68 (U)". the problem arises of controlling the falling pieces to avoid damage to the surrounding area. The final variation of the undergun involves fitting a 24-foot sabot to the projectile to increase the area exposed to the high-pressure propellant gases. . The program reported here was initiated to evaluate the feasibility of using an underground gun to deliver the Helmet AICBM payload.

Shearer. XM490) and the 90-mm. gun-barrel erosion. Similar results were obtained for YiOi additive with the 105-mm cartridge. (Unclassified Report). C. Richardson. "Predicted Performance of a High-Pressure. J. "Reduction of Gun Erosion. Gauthier. G. Part II. Current gun systems and recent developments in cartridge cases. 77. M431. and hyper. J. August 1963. and 90-mm firings. The 105-mm cartridge APDS-T. : "Survey of Developments in Gun Propulsion (U)"..velocity systems are-included. and other data from 30. -on of the additive. 453 Wolff. Included are pictorial representations and an extiensive bibliography. (Confidential Report). H. : "A Note on Swedish Additive (U)". Barrel Wear-Reducing Additive". as well as a note on possible future artillery applications.) additives were considered. A.ar of the gun.B. . AD 416 237. liquid gun systems.. 452 Haden. Picatinny Arsenal Technical Report 3096. would increase muzzle velocity with standard charges.. Edwards. J. was used as the vehicle for the preliminary work to provide direct comparison with laminar coolant. in a finely powde-ed state. Report No. R. July 1964.. AD 366 968. 454 Temchin. cartridge. September 1964. M. Heinen. HEAT-T. The use of the additive did not degrade ballistics. and (Z) lightweight or sabot-type projectiles. MA456 (also TP-T.451 Comer. NAVWEPS Report 8693. Nicol. (Confidential Report). F.R. Technical Data Packages were modified to include the additive for all future production of these rounds. Royal Armament Research and Development Establishment Memorandum 43/64.965. Robert B. the theory that it affects the transmission of heat from the main gas stream across the boundary layer to the bore surface. High-Velocity BRL Memorandum (Unclassified Abstract) Extrapolation of BRL 37-mam data. gun-boosted rockets. 30 June 1. Fauth. HEAT-T. Titanium dioxide was chosen for intensive evaluation on the basis of effectiveness and cost. (Confidential Report). 1573. J.I. Robert 0. Tungsten trioxide (We 3 ) and titanium dioxide (TiO. (Unclassified Abstract) Substances such as titanium dioxide. I (Unclassified Abstract) A state-of-the-art survey on various phases of gun propulsion technology is presented. M392. markcdly reduc .. Jones. Richard H. or handling characteristics of the rounds tested. W.. 4 (Unclassified Abstract) The superiority of the additive method over the laminar coolant method in reducing barrel wear was demonstrated in firings of the M392 Round with the M68 GCnn. '• .. . It is concluded that (1) hypervelocity systems offer a means of developing more effective gun systems. C. indicates that an 8-pound projectile might be launched at about 7000 ft/sec from a 120-mm gun. Richard N. storage. D-102 _ . placed around the propellant in a gun charge. AD 354 196. This note sketches a theory on one possible mode -. Liquid Propellant (U)". combined with standard or smoothbore barrels.. AD 354 590.

"A HIGH PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL SMOOTH BORE GUN. Inc. SPHERES AND CUBES. units to an 8. Robert E. J. Stinson. Report No. J. 456 Baker.May 2." Ballistic Research Laboratories. Cleveland.6 krn/sec. H.35 km/sec to 250 g "at5. CARDE TR-484/64. The component requirement for a gun with near-optimum performance were specified as (1) low detonation velocity in the first stages to allow the use of a short. D. gun. David. high pressure helium D. Gill. i. ER-4434. pp.5 in. F. An experimental study of various aspects of gun operations including projectile release... 0. April 30 . J. AD 374 741. Present accelerators Lre light-gas guns of the semi-expandablecentral-breech design which vary in size from 0. 4 j (Unclassified Abstract) This study was conducted to investigate an improved and more versatile gun system and types of ammunition for surface vessels. 1963. projectile-bore friction." Stanford Research Institute. August 1963. and a massive high-explosive round for landing support operations. 457 Bertrand. The ammunition family investigated included a sabot-launched Arrow pro"jectile(slap) round. J." Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Hypervelocity Impact.AMCP706445 455 Sylvester. Robert: "Naval Gun Study (U)". . R... Porter. an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) round consisting of four rocket-assisted sub-jrojectiles. Swift. July 1966. a multiple projectile antiaircraft (AA) round. J.. including sabots to be used in the enlarged bore. Anna B. August 1964. The sabot and its technique of operation are described in the body of the study. John K. C. .103 . Gallagher. (LSO). "HANDBOOK OF TRAJECTORY DATA FOR SPIN STABILIZED PROJECTILES. Lehner. 1. 459 (AD 809 904) Crosby.. . and sabot breakup is also being conducted. . Technical Report No. Aircraft Armaments.. " Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment. TYPICAL FIN STABILIZED FLECHETTES. August 1966. Stephen P. The operation of gas guns is being studied theoretically with a computer program. driver gas leakage. Report No. Condon. G. G. are given.2 in. (Cfinfidential Report). R-1336.30 in. Many pictorial representations and several photographs of the different types of ammunition. "I"NRL HYPERVELOCITY ACCELERATOR DEVELOPMENT. April 1967. Maroney. Vol.830 in. The current launch capability of the facility ranges from 0. 175-246.1 g at 9. "FEASIBILITY STUDY ON AN EXPLOSIVE GUN. (AD 451 971) 1 71 4'ý 458 Cam...

. 4 7> 461 5 463 464 . 462 Frankle. and comparison with experimental performance are also presented.. M. along with experiments on a constant velocity-constant wall thickness gun using thin-walled.'•cal . A theoretical design of an explosive system.. and boundary layer effects along with calculations on the NASA-Ames 4"-1" deformable piston light gas gun. (AD 218'873) de Stefano. M67-18-1. The experimental work performed on these three problems is discussed. Technical Note No. and (3) detonation velocities increasing gradually to very high values as the acceleration proceeds. It is also shown how the program can be used to simulate certain other ballistic devices. It was concluded that the gun operation was experimentally demonstrated. "AN INTERIOR BALLISTIC STUDY OF A 24INCH GUN FOR PROJECT HARP. high strength steel tubing. Report No. R. January 1967. -~ 4 D-104 . Memorandum Report No. 1-13. "MEASUREMENTS OF GUN AND SHELL STRAINS DURING FIRING. March 1959. M. The equations describing the system are presented ahd solved by Runge-Kutta methods programmed in Fortran for the Univac Solid State 90 digital computer. "INTERIOR BALLISTICS OF HIGH VELOCITY GUNS: EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM PHASE 1'" Ballistic Research Laboratories. Memorandum Report No.. radiative cooling. J. which will provide a piston with constant acceleration. Jr. TechniReport No. (AD 830 408) Geldmacher. T. February 1960. " Frankford Arsenal. 460 Darpas. " Ballistic Research Laboratories. " Ballistic Research Laboratories... G.AMP 06445 reservoir. . The computer program.: ýJ. (2) a containment of high position to allow transition section around the original projectile pressures during telw• low the : velocity stages of projectile acceleration. May 1966. (AD 486 743) Frankle. 1879. 1208. Research and Development. its input and output formats. C. J. 1606.. Different modes of gun operation were studied using the artificial viscosity computer code. ý "A DIGITAL COMPUTER SIMULATION OF BREECH-LAUNCHED ROCKETS. Roach. 4. is proposed. Leonard A. (AD 648 152) The report documents a digital computer simulation of solid propellant breech-launched rockets. Jerome M. and that fair agreement between theoretical and experimental performance was shown." General Technology Corporation. "TRANSVERSE FORCES ON PROJECTILES WHICH ROTATE IN THE BARREL. Theoretical calculations are presented on ionization.

A. Ipson. A somewhat elastic ring is secured to the projectile and is fitted within a groove rearwardly of the projectile rotating band to extend radially outward far enough for engaging an inwardly extending ledge within the chamber of the gun. Mechanics Division. The first phase involved the use of a mediu-n performance light gas launcher to develop techniques and prove that electrical augmentation was experimentally practical. 3." Arma- ment Research and Development Establishment. "PROJECTILE-(AR2MY). (AD 481 141) 467 Howell. the projectile is D-105 . September 1957. G. 305-316. 1. J. t. This third stage is designed to make use of the kinetic energy which is available in the sabot at the time that a sabot-projectile combination is normally fired from the launch tube. Kottenstette.000 pounds per square inch. S. Jr. . " Denver Research Institute.May 2. This report covers the experimental and analytical research directed toward the development of a system for electrical augmentation of a light gas launcher. pp.. It has a convergent section which acts as an acceleration chamber leading into a final launch tube having a smaller bore.. so that on rupture of the ring.216. (AD 146 319) 466 Goode. The second phase used a high performance launcher to attempt optimization of the se augmentation techniques. G. Guns and Ammunition Division. P. M. The projectile is carried centrally on the face of the sabot and fits the bore of the final launch tube. (P)48/57. The caseless round is used in a recoilless rifle. 469 Kaufman.30 June 1957. " Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Hypervelocity Impact. Propulsion Munitions Division. R.. August 1963. Progress Report No. J. W. Recht.356. April 30 . " Royal Armament Research and Development Establishment. Patent ' Office. Memorandum No. 1963. Report No. . Vol. covering period 1 January . January 1965. 1965. April 1966. November 9. 468 Howell. William F. This paper presents analytical and experimental results from an initial investigation of a light-gas-gun projection system. 6. " U.. "HYPERVELOCITY AUGMENTATION TECHNIQUES. "ELECTRICAL AUGMENTATION OF A LIGHT GAS GUN. This ring is preferably of a plastic having an ultimate shear strength of about 20. a third stage is added to the end of the launch tube of a conventional two-stage light-gas projector. No. B. W. T..- 7W44s ) 465 Goodall. Cleveland. "DEFINITIONS OF PRESSURES FOR USE IN THE DESIGN AND PROOF OF GUNS AND AMMUNITION. F. 11/66. W. "GUNS USING LIQUID PROPELLANTS.

Report No. Final Report No. Nelson. Bruce. 1855. H. February 1968. This technique is applied tc simulate proof tests of the 81/26 mm light-gas gun. " Rock Island Arsenal. Jr. ECOM 5083. V. August 26. June 1964. January 1965. "MUZZLE VELOCITY MEASUREMENT. George. The 0 D-106 ." Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory." Physics International Company. (AD 639 960) July 1966. McCluney. "SIMPLE INTERNAL BALLISTICS THEORY FOR SINGLE AND DOUBLE CHAMBER GUNS. are presented for use in HARP project. "PROOF TESTING AND COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF BRL 81/26 MM LIGHT-GAS GUN. Memorandum Report No./sec. 476 Parkinson. "EXPLOSIVE HYPERVELOCITY LAUNCHERS. T.. G. Development and Proof Services. 1966. July 1967.given more rapid acceleration and velocity for a given propellant than it would have had with a metal cartridge case having a conventional base flange arrangement. SRI-H-TN-4. (AD 661 289) A computer program and its use to simulate the performance of a light-gas gun is described. DPS-1343. McGill University. L. Report No.00 0 -g acceleration loads. if it could be designed to withstand about 1. (AD 442 313L) Oskay. NASA CR-982. Report No. E.000. "PROJECTILE DISPERSION AS CAUSED BY BARREL DISPLACEMENT IN THE 5-INCH GUN PROBE SYSTEM. " Ballistic Research Laboratories. W 471 472 473 474 475 •_. The analysis is extended to determine performance characteristics and maximum muzzle velocity attainable with a 29-gram launch wtight.. " Space Research Institute. FR-051. R.000 ft.. Report No." Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory. 470 Kennedy. Vural. Report No.. assuming instantaneous uniform density throughout the propellant gas volume. 3-65. "FIRST PARTIAL REPORT OF A STUDY TO SUMMARIZE PRESSURE AND VELOCITY DISPERSION CHARACTERISTICS FOR SEVERAL ARTILLERY WEAPONS. October 1966. " Aberdeen Proving Ground. The equations of the well-known simple one-dimensional unsteady gas dynamics model for the internal ballistics of a conventional gun. Results of computer analysis indicate that a sabot/model combination of that weight could be launched at a velocity above 21. (AD 642 859) Lorimor. E. ECOM 5060. . Moore. "ANALYSIS OF CARRIAGES SUITA3LE FOR 7-INCH HARP GUN.

. 477 Seigel. and uses either air or helium at pressures as high as 5000 psi.. Vol. Progress Report No. Long. J. The fundamental ideas and equations are fully developed. This monograph summarizes the gas dynamics of high-speed guns. Confidential. S. I.. AGARDograph-91. Lombardi. R. Vol. The gun has an inside diameter of Z-yz in.. Report No. Arnold E. Spiess. 478 Swotinsky. with the chambers separated by a free piston. The impact occurs in a vacuum with pressures as low as I0-4 mm Hg. 4/65. 479 481 "INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF RAM FORCE ON BREECH PRESSURE AND MUZZLE VELOCITY IN THE 16. a length of 100 ft. " Bulletin oi 20th Interagency Solid Propulsion Meeting. J. G.. AGC 10784-Q-1. E. Jr. A description is given of the mechanical characteristics and performance of a comp'essed gas gun capable of accelerating precisely aligned flat-faced projectiles over a wide velocity range. The gun is particularly suited for experiments in which a well-defined impact is desired. The theory is extended to cover the problem of a double chamber gun system. February 1965. May 1965. " Aerojet-General Corporation. Ingram. results are given in the form of relatations among the various significant gas pressure ratios in terms of charge to projectile and piston weight ratios. Theory and test results are presented. (The projectile is grooved for a hard rubber 0-ring with Teflon back-up rings.C 81640 principal equations give ratios of breech and space mean prossures to projectile base pressure in terms of charge to projectile weight ratio. Graham. 413-426. 1965. 11-14. D-107 . The reader is assumed to be an advanced student in engineering. pp.15 September 1965. Thurnborg. ý "THE THEORY OF HIGH SPEED GUNS.. utilizing a gas of low molecular weight at high temperature." Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development. October 15.. Again. January 1964. 35. " Inspection Services. IV. " Review of Scientific Instruments.. pp.5" SMOOTHBORE GUN.3 x 10-4 rad. covering period 7 March . A. Predetermined reproducible velocities may be achieved between 150 and 5700 ft/sec with an angular misalignment between the impacting surfaces as small as 1. "DESIGN AND USE OF A CLOSED BREECH LAUNCH SIMULATOR FOR THE SHILLELAGH GUIDED MISSILE. A. Technical Note No. "COMPRESSED GAS GUN FOR CONTROLLED PLANAR IMPACTS OVER A WIDE VELOCITY RANGE. A. Confidential. July 1964.) 480 "HYDROSTATIC COMBUSTION SEAL DEMONSTRATION FEASIBILITY.. Canadian DND.. M. C.

However. J. No analysis of the data was made at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory. 485 Salsbury. i. AD 466 D-108 . Mark J.! t •particular. W. In this way the restrictive assumptions that have been customary with respect to the jump are removed. John: "Development of UBU Muzzle Brake as Applied to the 105-mm Howitzer. AD 448 463. NAVORD Report 5759. (Unclassified Abstract) An investigation of the performance of two muzzle blast reducers for a 20-mm barrel was carried out in the Naval Ordnance Laboratory Block Mount Range. an initial yaw. August 1964. June 1949. (Unclassified Report). (2) obscuration during firing. and (4) accuracy of the weapon. 201. and an initial yawing. XMIO2 (U)". Fj i. (Unclassified Report). Rock Isiand Arsenal Research & Engineering Division Technical Report 65-1517. AD 805 876.. (Unclassified Report). (Unclassified Report). because of the considerable interest shown by many people in the spark pictures and the limited number of such pictures appearing in the literature. November 1957. for evaluating these disturbances from the observed motion of the shell (in its yawing motion). development. and the way is open for experimental verification of these assumptions and for further analysis of jump. L (Unclassified Abstract) A design. (3) overpressure in the gun crew area. Muzzle disturbances are assumed to consist of three planar vector quantities: a lateral linear momentum.D-11 MUZZLE BLAST EFFECTS 482 Zaroodny. R.: 'Spark Shadowgraph Pictures from Tests with Two 20-mm Muzzle Blast Reducers (U)". several shadowgraphs are presented comparing the muzzle blast patterns for the case of no reducer with those obtained with the two reducer designs. 703. June 1965.: "Experim ental Test of Reservoir-Type Muzzle Brake (U)". TR-64-2560.. and test program was conducted to determine what effect a Upward Blast Utilizer (UBU) muzzle brake would have on overall weapon performance with regard to: (1)overall stability during firing..: "On Jump Due to Musale Disturbances (U)". and which can also be used for analysis of the jump. (Unclassified Abstract) A review of the current approach to the problem is given. AD 162 939. S. Jr. e. 484 Berry. Formulas are compiled giving jump as a function of the muzzle disturbances. BRL Report No. 483 Witt. Rock Island Arsenal Research & Engineering Division Report No. Spark shadowgraph pictures were taken to obtain a qualitative measure of the muzzle blast intensity.

: "Development of a Gas Gun to Investigate Obscuration Effects". (Unclassified Abstract) The object of this test was to evaluate a reservoirtype muzzle brake as a blast suppression device for artillery pieces. and (3) use of an inert-gas gun as an approach in the investlgatioai of gas deflection to minimize obscuration. the instrumentation used. 'Unclassified Abstr . AD 804 815. and the data obtained. the theory being that by throttling the gases the mass rate of diecharge would be smoothed out and overpressures reduced. the test technique. K. Philip E. In an attempt to study this problem a development program was outlined and initiated on a model basis under laboratory conditions. (Unclassified Abstract) The objective of this study was to develop a method for obscuration investigation.M1iu . FSTC 381-T65-372 October 1965. U. The present effect on the delivery of the projectile paper gives a first brief expositior of "intermediate ballistics.R. A gas gun was designed and tested in conditions modeling a prototype test using flat plates as blast deflectors. Army Foreign Science and Technology Center Report No. 488 Townsend." 487 Dons. Research & Engineering Division Technical Report 66-. Three items of discussion are presented: (1) generation of the muzzle blast. LMSC Report No.an. The value of this type of muzzle brake test lies in the fact that very little actual firing data is available dealing with the theoretical aspects of a muzzle brake design instead of one specific brake. This report discusses the test program. dust. AD 480 644.ct) Intermediate ballistics means the transitional phenomena between "interior ballistics" and "exterior ballistics. and debris raised by the muzzle blast.S." near the muzzle. 4 _________ __ D-109 .. 30 September 1965. (Unclassified Abstract) A ballistic range test program wa. (Unclassified Report). AD 473 249. R. R. Johnson. Aluminum pushers and wooden (pine) sabots were used to support the launchings.: "Intermediate Ballistics". 486 Onwatitsch. (Unclassified Report). BSD TR-66-96.: "Hardening Technology Studies: Ballistic Range Test Data and Analysis Report ". these data then to be used to correlate with and confirm analytical prediction techniques. Rock Island Arsenal. (2) raising of the dust cloud with the muzzle blast. the test facility. November 1966. (Unclassified Report).3281. A serioas problem associated with artillery firings is the obscuration of the target by the cloud of smoke.conducted as part of the Hardening Technology Studies (HARTS).il. This stage is marked by the emission of gas from the barrel in front of the projectile and by the discharge of the propellant gases behind the gas and the projectile. Purpose of this test was to obtain experimental data on a re-entry vehicle flying through a blast. Here the use of the momentum of the propellant are of special interest. Basic drawings are given. C 1c.W.

. (AD 479 856) Schlenker. "THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE BLAST FIELD OF ARTILLERY WITH MUZZLE BRAKES. 1967 (in French). December 1966. (AD 805 582) White.T. TR-3499. " Laboratoire de Recherches Balistiques et Aerodynarniques. TN 1/65.489 Berry. 62-4257. John M.. Report No. Development and Proof Services. XMI19E4 (BLAST STUDY). "SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL MEASUREMENTS OF THE HARP 16. March 1966. 155-MM. (AD 467 721) Taylor. LRBA-E. November 20. (AD 828 858L) Berton. 1023-NT-12. " Picatinny Arsenal. 492 493 494 495 I _ _ _ __ _ D-1 10 i . " Rock Island Arsenal. Technical Report No. Report No. "REDUCTION OF BLAST OVERPRESSURE FIRING EXTENDED RANGE AMMUNITION IN THE 155MM M 109 SP HOWITZER. Using a gas laser as a light source. Canadian Department of National Defence. MUZZLE EXTENSION.P.. APGC-TR-65-50. (AD 296 587) Spalinger.5-INCH GUN WITH A 51 FT. "SOUND AND PRESSURE LEVEL MEASUREMENTS OF THE HARP-BARBADOS 16. " Rock Island Arsenal.5" SMOOTHBORE GUN AT BARBADOS DURING THE FIRINGS IN DECEMBER 1964. David J. C. Report No. Wayne L./ 491 Francis." Eglin Air Force Base. . 1968. Report No. DPS-1964. "ENGINEER DESIGN TEST OF CHARGE. George.. I. E. December 1962. July 1965. PROPELLING. E. Technical Report No. RIA-68-267. R.. an X-ray apparatus was placed at the mouth and intermediate chambers of the gas gun to study the passage of projectiles through the tube. Ammunition Engineering Directorate. VA 490 . Details are given on an experiment in which X-ray photography was used to study the containment and separation of the protective sabot within the mouth of an ejection tube in a light gas gun. It was concluded that the combined use of the gas laser with the X-ray equipment resulted in effective studies of the rnechanism of sabot separation and conditions which cause the separation. "ACCURACY COMPARISON FIRINGS OF 5-K AND UBU 105 MM MUZZLE BRAKES. Final Report No." Aberdeen Proving Ground.T. January 1965. " Inspection Services. "ON THE TRIGGER ACTION OF X-RAY APPARATUS AT THE MUZZLE OF A GAS TUBE TO STUDY THE BEHAVIOR OF A PROJECTILE LAUNCHED BY A LIGHT GAS GUN.

resulting in an increase in the accuracy of the reflectometer system. "Thepurpose of this report was to survey and assess metal dynamic properties published to date. AEDC-TDR-62-213. Properties were found for mild steel. quenched and tempered alloy steels. April 1958. R. : "Microwave Measurements of Projectile Kinematics Within Launcher Barrels". Development and Proof Services. Development and Proof Services. Report No. Win. Well-defined mathematical treatment enables the calculation of an accurate time history of projectile position inside the launcher barrel." Aberdeen Proving Ground. November 1962 AD 104 637. P. March 1958. H. Were this effect of sufficient magnitude. medium carbon steel. (Unclassified Abstract) This report is a general survey of published literature on the effects of rate of loading on the mechanical properties of metals. It is generally known that properties such as yield stress and ultimate stress increase with an increase in the rate of load application. However. (AD 251 955) 49? D-12 MATERIAL PROPERTIES 498 Tardif. MIA2E3. E. AEDC Report No.: "The Mechanical Propertie a of Metals Under Dynamic Loading". D46-95-35-08. aluminum alloys. DPS-169. the increase in most other metals is much smaller. PCC No. 499 D-1I I . and a few other metals. Microwave excitation in extraneous modes has been attenuated. (AD 159 775) "INVESTIGATION OF MUZZLE BLAST OF HOWITZER. CARDE. there would be an advantage in using it to lighten the weight of structures submitted to dynamic loading. Hendrix. 155-MM. (Unclassified Report). it is believed that this effect seldom is taken into account for design purposes. AD 210559. March 1961.. of the order of approximately 0 to 30%. TS4-4020-28.A"O 70-446 496 "DETERMINATION OF BLAST PRESSURE WITHIN A SUBTERRANEAN WOODEN BUNKER WHILE FIRING A 106 MM RECOILLESS RIFLE. Report No. Erickson. (Unclassified Report). (Unclassified Abstract) Microwave reflectometry has been applied successfully to the study of the kinematic behavior of projectiles within launcher barrels and of pistons within compression (pump) tubes in the Hypervelocity Pilot Range of the von Karman Gas Dynamics Facility. Although the yield stress of mild steel may be increased during dynamic deformation by as rruch as 2 or 3 times its static value." Aberdeen Proving Ground.

4-mm) caliber cone. Bijlaard for radial (normal) distributed loadings.500 Mescall. (Unclassified Report). The advantages of this procedure are two-fold: there is the prospect of greater short-term progress in systematizing information regarding dynamic material behavior. 6 x 10 5 g for a 1. 1965 . A. . as well as the natural expression of new developments in terms of the macroscopic (continuum) variables which the dynamics analyst wishes to employ. U. (Unclassified Report). structural design constitutes a prominent part of the overall problem. Jr. It covers the range of impact velocities from those just sufficient to exceed the linear elastic regime up through those attainable with hypervelocity particle projectors. 502 Huffington. Such an application is discussed and numerical results are provided. using microwave reflectometers. where departures of material behavior from the static case should be maximal. John F. AEDC-TR-65-54. such as is produced by impact or explosives. : "An Examination of Failing Loads in Model Launching Experiments". and have allowed determination of failing loads during launching. 75-in. (Ed): "Behavior of Materials Under Dynamic Loading". American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). (Unclassified Abstract) The linear equations due to Flugge for thin elastic "circular cylindrical shells are solved by use of the finite Fourier transform for the case of distributed tangential (axial) loading with simply supported This solution supplements prior results obtained by edge conditions. (44.: "Thin Cylindrical Shells Under Local Axial Loadings". blunted cone to be launched from light-gas guns in aeroballistic ranges. AD 457 907. These dynamic loads were correlated both with static compression tests and theoretical estimates. fox • D-1 12_Ii . compared favorably-with accelerations arrived at analytically. S. Because of the high accelerations of the model necessary if muzzle velocities of interest are to be attained. AEDC Report 1 No. Combining riilaard's results with the solutions obtained in this report permits discussion of localized loadings having components both normal and tangential to the shell's middle surface. (11. 501 Cable. Norris J. Measurements of model accelerations during launch. (Unclassified Report). Army Materials Research Agency Technical Report AMRA TR 64-39. ! (Unclassified Abstract) Recently. technology has made differences in material properties under dynamic and static conditions increasingly significant. or phenomenological. March 1965. December 1964. 5-mim) caliber cone to 6 x 10 5 g for a 0. The papers of this Colloquium principally employ the "macro-analytical". approach. The failing accelerations for 7075-T6 aluminum models have ranged from 1. 45-in. Drawings of the cone model and four-petaled sabot are given. J. AD 456 337. (Unclassified Abstract) Tests were conducted to evaluate the structural adequacy of the design of a 9-degree semi-angle. This book concentrates attention on intense transient loading.

The success of the direct dynamic experiments in establishing the applicability of the finite amplitude wave theory to a variety of metals is described. James F. Bell. (Unclassified Abstract) "Extended quasi-static" impact and indirect dynamic impact experiments are compared critically with direct dynamic experiments. and silver single crystals in the metal physics literature. copper. Kolsky. lead. Results are presented for a number of metals. In such direct experiments diffraction grating measurement of dynamic plastic strain and wave speeds in the symmetrical free-flight impact of polycrystals may be used to predict the stage III deformation of nearly 400 aluminum. These data include a brief description of the success of the writer's linearly temperature-dependent generalized parabolic stress-strain law governing strain rate independent finite amplitude wave propagation in predicting dynamic ultimate strength data of numerous earlier experimentalists. The information such experimental studies give with regard to suitable constitutive relations for real polymers under conditions of. H. The experimental methods described are the splkt Hopkinson pressure bar for uniaxial compression testing and a new pneumatic machine for dynamic testing under combined stress conditions. (Unclassified Abstract) Stress wave propagation in linear viticoelastic solids is discussed for one dimensional propagation along rods or filaments and in blocks where dilatational waves are propagated. D-113 . (Unclassified Abstract) Mechanical testing of metals over a wide range in strain rates is discussed. Ulric S. Recent experiments on initially work-hardened metals are discussed. Lindholm. This fact is evidence of the generality of these results. The use of numerical Fourier rhethods for treating pulse propagation also is discussed. A short account of plastic wave propagation and the information plastic wave experiments give about strain-rate effects is included. gold.triaxial loading is described. (Z) (3) Dynamic Deformation of Metals.-A were prepared by recognised SThe papers of this Colloquium the following topics: have presented their views on (1) 708" authorities who The Propagation of Mechanical Pulses in Anelastic Solids. Theoretical aspects of rate-sensitive plastic deformation of metals are discussed briefly in terms of thermally activated dislocation mechanisms. nickel. The Dynamic Plasticity of Metals at High Strain Rates: An Experimental Ge-neralization.

References are made to theoretical and experimental investigations that consider materials with strain rate dependent T . E. A.4 strains under static conditions. S.. A brief review of the dynamic properties of structural metals is given from the viewpoint of the m-ethods of incorporating the properties in structural response analyses. (5) Experimental Studies of Strain-Rate Effects and Plasti. Ripperger. The presence of a hydrostatic stress component during rapid straining of copper and iron has an appreciable effect on strain-rate sensitivity. (Unclassified Abstract) Approximations made in analytical determination of the inelastic response of structures to dynamic loading are discussed. At room ternperature the material exhibits very little ratw dependence. Malvern. Bodner. R. particle velocity measurements with an electromagnetic transducer are correlated well by a single dynamic stress-strain curve slightly above the static curve. D. For solid cylindrical specimens. E.R yield stresses. but the rate dependence increases with temperature in tests up to) 550* C. it is shown that lateral inertia has no appreciable influence on dynamic yield stress. L. Copper. The importance of strain rate effects in such analyses and in experimental results is considered in detail. copper. (Unclassified Abstract) Dynamic compressive stress-strain measurements on annealed aluminum specimens and longitudinal compressive plastic-wave propagation experiments on long bars of che same material are described and discussed in relation to the rate-dependent theory of plastic-wave propagation. and iron all are strain-rate sensitive in that (1) they are capable of developing stresses appreciably higher than the stresses at correspoindin.1 14_a . with particular reference to the applicability of rigid-plastic theory. (6) Strain Rate Effects in Dynamic Loading of Structures. In the wave-propagation studies at room temperature. and Iron. and (2) the dynamic yield stress increases with strain rate and is appreciably higher than the static yield stress. The experimental results presented indicate a logarithmic relation between plastic strain rate and the dynamic overstress ratio.-Wave Propagation in Annealed Aluminum. (Unclassified Abstract) Aluminum.AMW (4) 4U Dynamic Plastic Behavior of Aluminum. It is also shown that extensive cold-working of high-purity aluminum does not appreciably affect the strai-nrate sensitivity.

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Viscoplastic Behavior in Response of Structures to Dynamic Loading, P. S. Symonds.
(Uniclassified Abstract) Methods to analyze plastic deformations of
structures

under dynamic loads are reviewed, with exporimental

evidence from tests on mild steel and aluminum alloy beams. An approximate method for quickly estimpting final deflections, taking account of strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening, is outlined and comparisons made with relevant test results. The use of simple representations of strain rate sensitivity in dynamic structural analysis is discussed in the light of recent experiments on the behavicur of various metals. (8) Spherical Elasto-Plastic Waves in Materials, N. Davids and P. K. Mehta. (Unclassified Abstract) Expansion of spherical cavities in impulsively loaded thick metal srheres is investigated analytically and experimentally. The method of analysis is one bypassing formulation in terms of differential equations and associated boundary conditions which, due to their intractable form, would have to be solved by coding for automatic computation. Rather, the computer program is constructed directly from the physical laws and the finite formulation of the material constitutive relations. The results show that spherical plastic waves propagate at the speed of bulk compressional waves as long as discontinuities persist across the boundary, (9) Wedge Penetration in a Thick Target, W. G. Soper. (Unclassified Abstract) Analysis of a wedge penetration into a thick aluminum target is compared with penetration experiments at velocities from 1 to 500 ft/sec. The penetration data follow the "rough" wedge solution at low velocity but approach the frictionless case at several hundred ft/sec. This behavior is ascribed to adiabatic heating and consequent softening of target material adjacent to the penetrator. It is concluded that a strain-rate-insensitive Tresca maximum shear stress provides a satisfactory specification of the dynamic material properties, but that work-hardening and thermal phenomena must be included for accurate analysis.

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Hypervelocity Impact, R. J. Eichelberger. (Unclassified Abstract) Impact phenomenology at high velocities is discutsed in detail and supported by a summary of pertinent theoretical and experimental studies. Emphasis is placed upon the current understanding of the transient events leading to crater formation. The relative importance of material properties and of impact conditions in determining the form and dimensions of the crater i*s considered, and the formulas derived from both theory and experiment are described and ."X Au'k

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AD 637 217.
10 in./in./ (Unclassified. Abstract) Effect of strain rates ranging from of several high-strength alloy steels is investigated. sec on yield .trengths SQuenched and tempered-type alloys exhibit two regions of strain rate sensitivity, with the strain rL-te dividing the -sensitive and insensitive regions varying from 0. 5 to greater than 10 in/in/sec, depending (fn composition, Smicrostructure, and grain size. At the higher rates, a power law relationship is found which is consistent with a yielding model involving breakaway of dislocations from solute atmospheres. Maraging steel exhibits a continuous power law strain rate sensitivity over the entire range. The ratio of static (yield strergth) to dynamic strength is given f:r aluminum, copper, magnesium, titanium, plastic and fiberglas. 504 Groeneveld, T. P.,: "Review of Recent Developments in HighStrength Steels"; (Unclassified Report), Defense Metals Information Center, 22 March 1967, AD 810 150.

Strain Rate on Yielding in High-Strength Steels"; (Unclassified

(Unclassifiod Abstract) A review is presented of nine recent developments in high-strength steels. In particular, the effect of strain rate on yielding in high-strength steels is discussed. An equation is given describing the relationship between strain rate and yield stress. Brief comment on strain rate as a function of material grain size -s included. 505 Beebe, Wayne M.; "AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF

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4

DYNAMIC CRACK PROPAGATION IN PLASTIC AND METALS,"
ir Force Materials Laboratory, Research and Technology ,vi.iion, Report No. AFML TR 66-249, November 1966. Crack propagation experiments were conducted in polyester resin sheets containing a central crack. Uniaxial tension loading at several loading rates was applied perpendicular to the crack direction. Two types of experiments were conducted: (1) High loading rate tests at 24 0 C and -45 0 C, with a constant loading rate to .tudy the acceleration characteristics of cracks running in a glassy material, and (2) High temperature-low loading rate tests to study slow crack propagation when appreciable visccus dissipation could occur. 4p

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SWDuring crack propagation, full frame photographs were taken of the photoviscoelastic isochromatic patterns and crack tip position at framing rates from 250 to 100,000 frames per second. The principal conclusions were as follows: (1) Even at loading rates exceeding 10 psi per sec, isochromatic patterns prior to crack propagation compare closely with static patterns. (2) Constant crack velocities were achieved in the high loading rate tests and it w-s found that the isochromatic patterns compare closely with the theoretical solution of Broberg. (3) During the crack acceleration peririd, the experimental data could not be represented adequately by the Berry elastic theory. (4) For the early phase of the slow (viscous) crack growth period, the crack length could be predicted using a simple theory proposed by Schapery and Williams.
Several tests were conducted on silicon-iron metal sheets; it was concluded that the same testing technique can be applied to the study of crack growth in metals. 506 Bodner, S. R. ; "CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR DYNAMIC MATERIAL BEHAVIOR, " Material Mechanics Laboratory, Technion, Sci. Report No. 7, MML Report No. 10, September 1967. (AD 659 369) The constitutive equations that have been developed for the dynamic behavior of materials presuppose the existence of a reference "static" yield criterion. An alternative formulation motivated by the work on dislocation dynamics considers the total deformation to consist of elastic and plastic components throughout the deformation history. This procedure permits the consideration of large defoimations (finite strains) in a direct manner. The present paper outlines an elasticviscoplastic theory based on this approach and includes numerical results for an internally pressurized thick walled sphere. 507 Campbell, J. D.; "PLASTIC INSTABILITY IN R.ATE-DEPENDENT MATERIALS, " Brown University, ARPA E44, June 1967. (AD 656 732) The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the time variation of strain gradients in a tensilk specimen of rate dependent material, the analysis being based on the assumption that the strain rate in -'he material is a function of the local values of stress and strain. The theory is used to determine the criterion for the growth of strain gradients, and it is shown that for a given material there exists a region of the stress-strain plane in which these gradients increase indefinitely with time. The theory is applied to materials with specific types of rate-dependence. and the results are related to experimental data obtained at constant rates of strain. 4,

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Chu, Boa-Teh; "RESPONSE OF VARIOUS MATERIAL MEDIA TO HIGH VELOCITY LOADINGS, II. FINITE ELASTIC DEFORMATION, " General Applied Science Laboratories, Technical Report No. TR 475, March 1, 1966. (AD 803 659) Analytical prediction of the stress and finite deformation produced by an intense pressure step moving on one face of a slab of a perfectly elastic material at a speed greater than the wave propagation speeds in the medium are studied. Analytic solutions are given for the case when the slab occupies a half space. Depending on the nature of the material, a fast and/or a slow shock may be produced, or there may be no shocks at all. The characte: istic theory is then presented. Its application to the computation of stress and deformation fields in a finite slab is discussed,

509

Jones, Norman; "FINITE DEFLECTIONS OF A SIMPLY SUPPORTED RIGID-PLASTIC ANNULAR PLATE LOADING DYNAMICALLY, " International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 4, No. 6, June 1968, pp. 593-603. A theoretical analysis is presented for the dynamic behavior of a simply supported rigid, perfectly plastic annular plate subjected to a rectangular pressure pulse. It is shown that this s* theory, which considers the simultaneous influence of membrane forces and bending moments, predicts final deformations which are considerably smaller than those given by the corresponding bending theory even when maximum deflections only of the order of the plate thickness are permitted. It is believed that this theoretical analysis could be developed further in order to describe the behavior of plates having other support conditions and different dynamic loading characteristics.

510

Jones, N.; "INFLUENCE OF STRAIN-HARDENING AND STRAIN-RATE SENSITIVITY ON THE PERMANENT DEFORMATION OF IMPULSIVELY LOADED R!GID-PLASTIC BEAMS." Brown Univers.ity, ARPA E46, July 1967. (AD 657 129) A simple method is presented for estimating the combined influence of strain-hardening and strain-rate sensitivity on the permanent deformation of rigid-plastic structures loaded dynamically. A study 3s made of the particular case of a beam supported at the ends by immovable frictionless pins and loaded with a uniform impulse. The results of this work indicates that considering s..rain-hardening alone when appropriate or strain-rate sensitivity alone gives permanent deformations which are similar to those predicted by an analysis retaining both effects simultaneously. .

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511 Kramer, I. R.; "SURFACE EFFECTS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS.," Air Force Materials Laborttory, Report No. AFML TR 67-75, May 1967, (AD 816 627) The research reported was conducted in three separate parts. First the stress associated with the surface layer was determined for iron and molybdenum. The measurements show that aurface layer plays a very important role in the plastic deformation of b. c. c. metals. Secondly, the effect of diameter on the flow stress of polycrystalline aluminum (99.997 ) was studied. The increase in flow is attributed to an increase in the surface layer stress with decreasing specimen size. Finally, the low temperature transient reep behavior of polycrystalline aluminum was investigated in terms of the recovery of the surface layer stress. The creep compliance was found to vary exponentially with time. 512 Kramer, I. R.; "RELATIONSHIP OF SURFACE EFFECTS TO THE MECHANICAL BEHAVICjm OF METALS, " Air Force Materials Laboratory, Report No. AFML TR 66-2. January 1966. (AD 630 661)

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tion exists in the region at the surface of a deformed metal. This dAslocation rich layer impedes the movement of mobile dislocations. It was shown in aluminum by means of strain. rate cycling tests that for a given applied stress, the average velocity of the dislocations is affected by the surface. It appears possible to explain the surface effects in terms of stress field associated with the surface layer, and the m* values, where V0 r*rn*, V is the dislocation velocity and -r* is the effective stress. For aluminum crystals additional internal dislocation barriers were not formed in Stage I and it was possible to show that Stage I ends when the difference between the applied stress and the surface stress on the secondary slip system equals the critical resolved shear stress. The effect of the surface was found to be greater on polycrystalline specimens than on single crystals. For Armco iron, the surface stress was almost twice as great as that due to internal obstacles. It is also shown that the yield point in high purity metals is associated with the surface layer.

D- 01 19

A list of 245 references is included. In the present paper this approach is extended to encompass the dynamic load application phase. " Air Force Materials Laboratory. p-'-. Series E.A SURVEY.. Report No. The essence of the approximate approach which represents a natural extension of a previously one-dimensional a'nalysis." Journal of Applied Mechanics. "THE MECHANICS OF BALLISTIC IMPACT -. ratesensitive structures with highly non-linear yield stress-strain laws.'. In the approximate solution the yield stress is taken to be a constant associated with the peak strain rate (which occurs at the instant of load termination). a mathematical model closer to the physical situation is considered. exact and approximate responses are calculated and differ by only a few percent. EI-Kasrawy. (AD 643 282) Recently a simplified general method was developed to determine the rcsponse of impulsively loadcd. For a constant pressure pulse. Nicholas. As the prototype of a general structure the dynamically loaded thin ring is considered. 2.513 Nicholas. Nicholas. Report No. a pressure loaded rather than an impulsively loaded structural element. tly plastic. (AD 820 356) A major portion of this report is devoted to a summary of the response of materials to dynamic loading. numerical results differed by about 3%. "COMPLETE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF RATE-SENSITIVE STRUCTURES. 34. namely. July 1967. No. 2. "IMPULSIVELY LOADED STRAIN-RATESENSITIVE PLATES. October 1966. AFML TR 67-208. The response of an impulsively loaded. June 1967. Vol. For a typical example. is that the initial stress profile remains substantially constant during the dominant portion-of plastic flow. 380(AD 657 221) . pp. D-120 .84. Transactions of ASME. " Catholic University of America. ' ) 514 Perrone. 515 Perrone. isotropically ratesensitive annular plate is calculated via "exact" and approximate viewpoints. Tamim. *r. In other ternis.

.~~ ' . Denver Division. Papers presented by representatives of the Center at the conference will be included in the Second Annual Report of the Center. by test-subject ("Creep") rather than by material tested ("cushioning material")."EIGHTH QUARTERLY REPORT OF TECHNICAL PROGRESS: CENTER FOR HIGH ENERGY FORMING. . The work covers 1000 test subjects and over 4000 citations.. ~ . The citations are presented in alphabetical order. 516 Thurston. AMRA CR 66-05/9. PAWc 70644 The results suggest that one should be able to determine the cornplete response of a complex structure with arbitrary load pulse by enforcing an impulse/momentum change condition. and from physical examination of specifications relating to plastics... The complete proceedings of the conference will be edited and published at a late r date. .. promulgated by various government and national groups. Norman E. . high-*train-rate ductility.. . * •A * D-12. "GUIDE TO TEST METHODS FOR PLASTICS AND RELATED MATERIALS. Report No. This enormous simplification should bring a wide variety of practical physical problems within the scope of accurate solution via relatively modest effort. Thus there are included standardized methods and those which exist only as within-specification write ups. (AD 655 521) parametric study was initiated using the computer program to predict strains in blanks formed into ellipsoidal dies. They are identified from lists of existing standards and test methods. . A D-121 .. .':• ... Brief descriptions of papers on shock hardening.I . The associated yield stress distribution may be calculated and assumed to be constant at each field point during the entire motion.. while neglecting forces arising owing to deformation. G. Techniques and instrumentation for dynamic strain measurements have been checked out.. . July 1. Plastec Note 17.." Martin Marietta Corporation. . Picatinny Arsenal.1 517 Experimental Techniques Beach. August 1967. . A.. " Plastics Technical Evaluation Center. and strain-rate experiments that were presented at the First International Conference of the Center for High Energy Forming are in this report.•• . . explosive welding. .' . A listing of test methods pertaining to plastics materials and processes is presented. I. 1967. to determine the initial strain rate distribution. .

(AD 809 825) The response of an elastic uniaxial tension specimen to a constant velocity applied at one end is presented. Marshall. 143. H. (AD 646 609) An explosive ring test is reappraised in light of recently developed material behavior models and analytical predictive techniques. April 1965. The concept of high strain rates is shown to break down under high loading rate s. as well as the propagation of the stress wave resulting from the impact was observed. November 1966. Perrone. All the predictions made from the theories were verified experimentally. " Naval Ordnance Laboritory. (AD 626 634) It is known that some materials will behave differently when subjected to dynamic loading than when loaded statically.". The predicted deformations by the plastic rigid theory. Ball. AFML TR 66-341. Lee for material response. October 1966.7% of the measured deformations. Nicholas. The deformation. Taylor and the plastic rigid theory of E. 4 D-122 . Report No.. "STRESS WAVE PROPAGATION IN A STRAIN-RATE SENSITIVE MATERIAL. James L. "A NOTE ON TENSILE TESTING AT HIGH STRAIN RATES. 3.5% of the average measured stress. " Air Force Materials Laboratory. It is demonstrated in complete detail how this test may be utilized to determine the uniaxial flow laws of rate sensitive perfectly plastic and strain hardening materials. and the one-dimensional thecry were within 7. respectively..-MC 70446 518 Nicholas. Report No. "ON THE USE OF THE 520 Rand. An air gun was used to accelerate small lexan cylinders to a constant velocity. Res. The stress predicted by the one-dimensional theory was within 8. The purpose of this study is to examine the one-dimensional strain rate independent theory of T. NOLTR 65-11. T. impacting them against a high strength target. I.0% and 8. von Karman and G.. Report No. John M. utilizing the dynamic stress-strain properties of these "rate sensitive" materials. 519 RING TEST FOR ~DETERMINING RATE SENSITIVE MATERIAL CONSTANTS. i. Catholic University of America. The application to the problem of testing specimens with high rate testing machines where the velocity of the ram approaches the dilatational wave velocity of the material is discussed.

M. W.2 Steels and Refractory Metals Asche. however. R65-32. 5Ni-Cr-Mo-V STEEL.S. November 1965.. The notch toughness. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. Phase Report 72/66. increased with increasing tempering temperature. The beam tests indicate that the resistance function in bending for SAE 1113 steel models of 8 WF 67 sections is essentially independent of the strain rate. Pierce Edward. AND NOTCH TOUGHNESS OF HY-130/150. This machine can also be used for static loadings. the resistance function in bending is strain rate dependent. " Massa" chusetts Institute of Technology. (AD 630 464) The effect of tempering in the range of 900 to 1150F on the tensile properties. Pahl. Rowe. An equivalent single degree of freedom system yields good predictions of the experimental deflection-time curves for the beams. The frame tests confirm the observations made during the beam tests.AMCP 706-445 521 Stewart. Peter Jan. The dynamic loading machine capable of rise times of 3 milliseconds or more and maximum loads of 2000 pounds was developed.. "DYNAMIC TESTS OF MODEL STEEL STRUCTURES. March 1966. Wayne Lee. resistance function of structural elements and to develop modeling techniques for steel structures. The consistency of tests on essentially identical beams was good. Gross. (AD 628 063) The objective of this research project is to investigate the effect of 3train rate on tho. H. ' -- . The strength and hardness properties were found to be similar over a tempering range of 900 to 1050F. "EFFECT OF TEMPERING ON THE STRENGTH HARDNESS. 5Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel was investigated.D-12." U. The for the steel. hardness. Report No. 522 • investigation confirmed high tempering resistance claimed D1 ' - D-123 . and Charpy V-notch toughness of HY-130/150. Tests on SAE 1020 ateel models of 14 WF 103 beams indicate that for this steel. R.

1967. E. Superplasticity Lubrication in Metal-Deformation Processes. As part of the Metalworking Processes and Equipment Program. November 3. 1966. 525 Buttner. Battelle Mernorial Institute. consumption. . F. molybdenum. R. Reviews of Recent Developments. April 22. F. "THE REFRACTORY METALS -AN EVALUATION OF AVAILABILITY. List of manufacturers of mill products of these metals are included.. May 13. "' Defense Metals Information Center. and effects of the processes. May 10. Application of High Pressure to the Forming of Brittle Metals. 1967 (AD 814 796). January 19. information was collected on deformation characteristics of metals and their effect on processing operations. 1966 and June 10. S. VOLS. H. 524 13oulger. November 23. columbium. March 1968. W. January 26. February 16. and applications. The objective is to help the nonspecialist in recognizing the implications of scientific findings and in applying them in specific operations. 1967. These subjects are treated in two ways: (1) generalized discussions of common processes point out why specific variables must be modified in order to deform certain types of metals satisfactorily. 1968. V. and rhenium. 1968. Hale. November 8. Memorandum 235. Review of Recent Developments. E. July 19. Reports 226 and 243. et al. Information presented includes properties. " Defense Metals Information Center. Battelle Memorial Institute. Campbell. 1965 (AD 803 124). 1967. Swaging. production. Ta. 1968. This memorandum discusses the supply. Battelle Memorial Institute. " Defense Metals Information Center. % fi * 4 - - 526 Defense Metals Information Center. tantalum. 1966. July 27. W. "METAL DEFORMATION PROCESSING. II AND III: A SURVEY CONDUCTED AS PART OF THE - METALWORKING PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT PROGRAM (MPEP). Battelle Memorial Institute. . Molybdenum and tungsten. May 24. 1967. W). 1967. This report presents the information collected from technical engineering reports on Government contracts and from general engineering and metallurgical publications. Residual Stresses Produced by Deformation.AM1 00445 523 Bartlett. and (2) data on the more difficult-to-form metals are used to illustrate the principles. 1966. 1967 (AD 807 491). tungsten. 1966 (AD 803 357). October 22. Barth. August 22.. Tantalum. Reviews recent developments relating to Colurnbium. limitations. This report contains a series of articles covering the following subjects: Ductile Fracture. July 28. et al. Adiabatic Conditions in Deformation Processing. J." D-124 . 1966. D. and applications of the refractory metals. October 4.. November 9. February 3. Mo. "MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. 1968. August 5. 1966. 1968. "REFRACTORY METALS (Cb. processing characteristics. 1967. July 7.

2024-T4 NAX (high strength low alloy steel made by Great Lakes Steel Corp. H. (3) bending stiffness of thin-walled cylinders. Availability and cost of materialsofare also compared. INCO 718 steel exhibited the best combination of properties to warrant its use in the 81mm Mortar Tube. Battelle Memorial Institute. Ele-" vated temperature yield strength. (4) thin-walled cylinders under compression. and (5) buckling of thin flat plates. Manfre. (AD 657 110) Curves are presented for determining the relative efficiencies of several structural materials at elevated temperatures for various loading conditions. Applied Physics Laboratory. "BASIC METALLURGY OF TITANIUM." Johns Hopkins University. Rivello. Results of strength temperature testing the seven alloys reveals yield elevated decreases rapidly with temperature and slightly with time at temperature. 17-7PH Condition TH1050. 1. 529 DeFries. October 1956. bending. T. 1968. " Defense Metals Information Center. A. 17-7PH Condition RH950 Inconel X Solution treated HK3lA-T6. The materials considered are: Aluminum: Steel: Stainless Steel: High Nickel Alloy: Magne sium: Titanium: 6061-T6. J. HM21XA-T8 6AL-4V These materials were examined for (1) tensile ultimate strength.-7.i• D-125 . WVT 6629. and pressure loadings. Report No. (2) tensile yield strength. etc.AMCP ?"044S Review of the latest properties for steels. November 1966.) 301-1/2H. R. Memorandum 234. pp. W. Richard S. "AN EVALUATION OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE MATERIALS FOR THE 81MM MORTAR TUBE. 5Z7 Caywood. M. (AD 807 425) An evaluation of test results for room and elevated temperatures and their effect on the mechanical properties of seven steel alloys for application to the 81mm Mortar Tube was made. titanium alloys. impact and fracture toughness.." Watervliet Arsenal. ductility. "STRUCTURAL EFFICIENCY OF VARIOUS MATERIALS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES. aluminum. A survey of the properties and applications of titanium and titanium alloys. April 1. C. .. 528 Clark. 321 Annealed. APL/JHU CF-2578. Report No.. and fatigue properties are discussed.

alloy steels." Manlabs Inc. August 23. etc. etc.. February 17. P. 532 Kalish.000 to 300. Review of Recent Developments.. In the yield strength range 20. March 1966 (AD Summary of recent developments relating to high strength steels . Thermal and strain-tempering treatments applied to 9-4-45 develop two bands of precracked Charpy impact energy versus yield strength.1968. "THERMOMECHANICAL TREATMENTS APPLIED TO ULTRA-HIGH-STRENGTH STEELS. December 20. Kulin. 1967.. T. Review of Recent Developments. "HIGH-ENERGY-RATE PROCESSES. The the rmomechanical treatments involvcd austenite defwrmation processes and strain-tempering processes with either martensite or bainite being the transformation product. . (AD 614 806) The response of 9% nickel and 4% cobalt steels to thermomechanical treatments was evaluated with particular emphasis on fracture toughness. April 1965. "HIGH STRENGTH STEELS. i including properties. shock treatment. Periodic reviews and summaries of reports relating to such high-energy. 0. such as. January 12. Battelle Memorial Institute. . strengthening mechanisms. maraging steel. December 16. Final Report.45%.000 to 340.rate processes as explosive forming. 47 4'. powder compaction.A •' ~~D-126• - . titanium. The properties of undeformed structures were also measured for comparison purposes. The level of both KIC and yield strength in the 9-4-xx steels may be increased by thermomechanical treatments. corrosion characteristics. 531 Gurev. 804 273). were studied." Defense Metals Information Center.000 psi. S. one for martensites and one for bainites. such that combinations of KI_ and yield strength are obtained that are equivalent or super or to those developed in the 18 nickel maraging alloy. "1 Defense Metals Information Center. 1967. D. Strain-tempering of the 9-425 steel develops yield strengths from 200. 1967. Austenite deformation processes do not improve the impact strength of 9-4-45 for treatments involving 50% deformation. 1968 (AD 824 959). 20. explosive welding. 1967. Harold S.530 Groeneveld. A. weldability..45% carbon steel. Battelle Memorial Institute.25 and 0. Often summarizes mechanical properties of materials. September 1. Two carbon contents. At these strength levels this steel has higher impact energies than the 0.000 psi the bainites possess substantially higher impact strengths than the martensites at equivalent strength levels. etc.

price data as well as detailed data on availability of specific mill forms is given./min. "NOTCHED PROPERTIES OF HIGH STRENGTH ALLOYS AT VARIOUS LOAD RATES AND TEMPERATURES. as load duration was increased from 10 milliseconds to 5 minutes." out some of the factors which will be involved in the future supplydemand situation." TRENDS IN THE FUTURE Metals InformationUTILIZATION OF Memorial Institute. " Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Hanby. This report has been prepared almost entirely from information available in trade magazines. and the magnitude local strain was measured. r "the D-127 . October 27. M. Army Materials Research Agency.. Report No. milliseconds and 18%01 Ni maraging uranium alloy 8Mo-0..9 x 10-4 and 1. the notched and unnotched tensile strengths of these materials were maintained within 10%.. and at temperatures from -320OF to5000F. B. titanium alloy 6A1-6V-ZSn.. 534 Maykuth. but maintaining ferrite-pearlite structures. Specimens heat-treated to alter the tendency toward brittle behavior.AMCP 706448 533 Lannelli. S.5Ti. Notched strcngths of all the other alloys tested are less than their unnotched strengths in the lower test temperature range but exceed the unnotched strengths in the higher temperature range. except that they increased approximately 30% for the notched aluminum alloys. In the appendix.. (AD 635 082) The tensile fracture behavior of a mild steel at -196C has been studied in some detail.6 x I0"I in. Technical Report AMRA TR 66-13. S. (AD 647 884) Tests have been conducted to determine the notched and unnotched strengths of aluminum alloys 7001 -T6 and 7075-T6. W. 535 Owen. and mill product. The notched strength of Rocoloy steel is less than its unnotched strength over the entire test temperature range. November 5. With the aid of long thin strip specimens loaded at controlled crosshead speeds between 8. Battelle Memorandum 226. At room temperatures.. The report points out trends in the application of titanium and its alloys. L. A final section point. and provides a preliminary asLessment of that situation. Averbach. "CURRENT AND TITANIUM. "BRITTLE FRACTURE OF MILD STEEL IN TENSION AT -196C. Arraando A. Kenneth R. J." U. the strain pattern and microscopic changes preceding fracture were observed. and press releases. SSC-109. Daniel J. and decreased 30% for the unnotched uranium alloy. . steel at load durations of 10Rocoloy steels to 5 minutes. Defense Center. newspapers. 1967. 'ingot. Rizzitano. were also examined. 1967. F. Cohen. and provides some statistics on the current availability of titanium sponge. July 1966.

No. Report No. "STUDY OF THE DYNAMIC YIELD POINT OF METALS AT SHOCK VFLOCITIES TO 1000 M/SEC. "1964." Lockheed Missil-s & Space Company. 536 Polosatkin. NRL 6364. Isskedovaniya Staley I Splavov. The dynamic yield point then remained constant up to 1000 m/sec. Glazkov. e. V. D. "INFLUENCE OF WORKING TEMPERATURES ON PROPERTIES OF ALLOY EI-437. Zaytsev." Naval Research Laboratory. 537 Prosvirin. This article is an investigation of the effect of prolonged heating in the temperature range of 5500 to 700 0 C upon the properties of a Russian heat-resisting alloy designated EI-437. "Studies of Steels and Alloys (Selected Articles)". (AD 640 724) Translation of AN SSSR Nauchnyy Sovet Po Probleme Zharoprochnykh Splavov (Russian). On increasing the loading rate. and strain gages. The alloy is used in gas-turbine engines. All methods agree. 1966 (AD 644 178). P.. Kudriavtseva. Air Force Systems Command. 5. S~D-128 . June 30. . pp. Translation from Izv. 121-124.. FTD-MT-65-383. 4•. A. a critical stress is reached when fracture occurs after a delay time. I. the as-received and normalized specimens do not fracture at low yield stresses (slow loading speeds) during the spread of the Luder's bands. Machine Translation No.-I:- -C 706445 Under these conditions. B. pp. all the Liider's bands display microcracks in some ferrite grains. the residue strain. The dynamic yield point was determined for a steel alloy and aluminum using three different methods. Mortikov. A. V. Deductions from the dislocation pile-up theory of fracture in polycrystalline metals are not compatible with th. "METALLURGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL MATERIALS. G. Metally. 1966. It is concluded that the microcrack mode! suggested b' Low is more appropriate.. 1966. I. Lloyd. the fracture stress rises along with the yield stress. K. By raising the loading speed. August 1965. L. 538 Puzak. . motion picture. V. M. Some observations on the creep occurring in Luder's bands during their propagation at -196 C are included. D. The dynamic yield point was found to rise in both materials "asthe impact velocity increased up to 250 m/sec.. I. (AD 625 374) st . P. " Foreign Technology Division.. The formation of microcracks and fracture is always preceded by gross yielding. experimertal data. D2 . . However. ¶ * ifurther AN SSSR. 166-171.

Sessler. V.5Sn over respective yield strength ranges of 130-140 kai and 147-186 ksi. titanium alloys. 541 Simmons.36 x 10-1 to 5. 196U.445 A progress report covering research studies in high strength structural materials conducted in the period May 1965 to July 1965 is presented. "Studies of Steels and Alloys (Selected Articles)". 4. 1968. Kal'nitskiy. AD 819 736. COBALT-BASE. EB. AD 802 121. R. Suppl. Spp. AD 819 792).. 1I. Issledovaniya Staley I Splavov. 539 Volume IIA contains data on 54 non-ferrous heat resistant alloys. Air Force Materials Laboratory. 1-7 (AD 640 724) Translation of AN SSSR Nauchnyy Sovet Fo Probleme Zharoprochnyldh Splavov (Russian). NICKEL-BASE. M. U and IIA. 4. June 30. This is a study of the plasticity and strength of preliminary deformed cermet tungsten.XXC steels. I. Machine Translation No. with supplements issued yearly (Vol.. Air Force Systems Command. W. " Defense Metals Information Center. J. Vol. AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL METALS HANDBOOK. Report No. 114-117. The report includes fracture toughness Ni rearaging and 9Ni -4Co-. and IIA. Suppl.. Suppl. 3. Results are presented of (1) a study of the plane-strain fracture toughness of the alloys Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6AI-6V-2. and some aluminum alloys. (2) heat-treatment studies on several titanium alloys. "PLASTICITY AND STRENGTH OF TUNGSTEN DURING SHORT TIME TESTS.AMCP 70. and aluminum alloys.100 0 C. Volume I contains data for 66 ferrous alloys. P. (editors). 540 Severdenko. "RUPTURE STRENGTHS Or• SELECTED HIGH-IRON. AND REFRAC-' TORY METAL ALLOYS. G. March 1963.55 x 10-1 and over the tempe rature r'ange of 20. a studies on the 12 variety of titanium alloy MIG. Vois. II. F. Battele Memorial Institute. Vol.. May 1. Tests were conducted at strain rates of from 2. Weiss. and (3) a low cycle fatigue crack propagation study of 5Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel in dry and wet environ- ments in which considerable microcrack formation and growth was encountered. Volume II contains data on 56 light metal alloys. D-129 . IIA. V." Foreign Technology Division. I. and plasmarc weldments. Memorandum 236. 1964. The Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook consists of three volumes I. The current fracture toughness 4 index diagrams are presented for steels. pp. ASD-TDR 63-741 (in 3 volumes). FTD-MT-65-383.

1968. dimpling. S. Other data available in the open literature have been summarized and referenced to present a comprehensive picture on the state of the art of these fabrication method•s as related to titanium and its alloys. january i. in graphical form. This report represents a portion of the information contained in the Ma':. Data presented includes tensile properties over the ambient to 3000 0 F tenperature range. 1967. corrugating. (1) brake forming. 1966. lubricarts for forming and tooling materials arc discussed. N'agner. Geamain. (6) bending. August 11. and optimum temperat-es for brake forming.0. July 9. I 544 Auxiliary metalworking operations. W. January 31. ER 1399-6.. E.d the Federal Aviation Agency. Surveys and summarizes recent reports on the properties." - Soler. . "FORMING OF TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALL-)YS. (AD 617 733) The final report of a study to determine the metallurgical uniformity. (4) trapped-rubber forming. (1. (2) stretch forming. (13) joggling. (10) spinning and (11) shear forming. F. preparation for forming. F. November 3. (9) roll bending. Battelle Memorial Institute. drawing processes. 34Z St. forming characteristics. . and applications of and cobal t -based alloys. physical metallurgy. May 15. October 27.' 238.h. The impoirtant techniques discussed include. 543 Strohecker. 1967. (3) deep drawing. and for selected refractory metal alloys at 10 hours and 100 hours. and fabrication properties of tungstn sheet. " Detense Metals Information Center. (5) tube bulging. (7) drop-hammer forming. 1967. D. process cevelopment. and (14) hot sizing. 1968. and dee..OYS. are presented for selected superalloys at 100 hours and 1000 hours. five different joining techniques. Air Force Research and Technology Division. " Defense Metals Information Center. revised edition of the "Aircraft Designer's I. 'NICKEL- AND COBALT-BASE ""L!. Sinimnons. H.•-:3-P * .. (8) roll forming. May 3. 1967. { Handbook for Titanium and Titanium Alloys" which -as prepared by the Defense Metals Information Center under the joint sponsorship of the U.?t "Rupture strengths. Review of Recent Developments. blank heating methods. "EVALUATION OF RMSRP TUNGSTEN SHEET. Repo.. Nominal chenical compositions are tabulated for all of the alloys covered. Battelle Mernorial Institute.2) dimpling. joggling. 1967. 1965.. a. September 1. mechanical properties. 1967. Repcrt No. nick(e- 1) 40 .

1967. were conducted on the same speirnen geometry and in the same test stand a. Recommendations are made to eliminate the percentage elongation requirement. February 24. 1968. S~~solution k. i "TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS. The mechanical properties were measured and compared with and theofsame aging treatment. A critical analysis is made of the minimum percentage elongation requirement as an acceptance criterion. 1968. _N 5A6 Weiss. Krause. J. December 5.. October 1966.. Kot. 81MM. Maykuth. was observed from these creep tests. Report No. replace with other material characteristics. Static room temperature tension tests were performed on Ti6AI-4V specimens afte'r repeated temperature cycling through the phase change under various stresses and performing the usual aging treatment.. rtrength and ductility. A. 1967. "TENSILE TESTING OF PEARLITIC MALLEABLE CAST IRON PROJECTILE BODY. processibility. August 23. M362A 1. November 16. (AD 807 264) The influence of stress during cycling through Ti-6AI-4Vtransmens was investigated on the deformation of the phase speci- e t- formation. cycled through the phase change exhibited a small decrease of Young's modulus. May 29. Isothermal creep tests.22 x I0-5 (psi)-' was in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions of the Greenwood-Johnson pseudo-creep theory." Picatinny Arsenal. R. 1967. Final Report. Battelle Institute..AMCP 706445 * 545 Weinberg. Reviews recent developments in the properties. A linear relationship between deformation per cycle and stress was observed.conventional specimens given the treatment those The specimens'. D. causing the same flow rate as that observed in the cycling test. July 1968.• that used for the temperature cycling . required for comparison with the above theory. PA-TR-3390. G. just below the transformation temperature for stress lkvels.. " Syracuse Univerisity. The experimental slope value (6%/6a) : 2. Mark H. V. 1966. 547 Wood. Review of Recent Developments. •Memorial D-131 . " Defense Metals Information Center. August 24. (AD 673 691) A detailed study is made of the mechanical properties of 81MM pearlitic malleable cast iron projectile bodies.tests. metallurgy. A change of tIbe deformation mechanism at a constant temperature. R. using a precise method fox measuring elongation of tersile specimens. and applications of titanium and titanium alloys. A high degree of inhornogeneity is found with respect to percentage elongation. "INVESTIGATION OF PHENOMENON OF SUPERPLASTICITY IN METALS.

1967. See also: D-12. S. Vol. wire. " Brown University. "DISCONTINUOUS YIELDING OF COMMERCIALLY PURE ALUMINUM. Sci. The alloy is avialable as sheet. 520 Gondusky. The compression tests described formed part of a larger project whose purpose was to determine dynamic values of Tabor's constant for lead and its dependence on crystal orientation. October 1965. " Israel Institute of Technology. 63-77 (AD 652 082 and AD 641 995). For this purpose the results of the compression tests were combined with those of dynamic indentation tests previously performed on the same lead specimens.. including lead. See also: Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids." Air Forte Materials Laboratory. MML Rpt. plate. 2.4 550 Abstract No. September 1966 (AD 641 990). No. Technical Report 53. (AD 803 546) This data sheet was prepared by Battelle Memorial Institute. The dynamic stress-strain curves were found to lie approximately 50% higher than the corresponding static curves. and for strains up to about 20 %. "THE DYNAMIC STRESS-STRAIN RELATION OF LEAD AND ITS DEPENDENCE ON GRAIN STRUCTURE. Strain rate was held constant at approximately 1200 sec-1 for strains up to about 15%. rod. They may be compared to the value of 2..0 depending upon grain size and orientation. J. A. 15.. R. May 1967. These values are approximately equal to the corresponding static values. No. Rosen. J.548 "MECHANICAL-PROPERTY DATA HP 9Ni-4Co-25C STEEL: TEMPERED PLATE. Several specimens of commercial and high-purity lead of various grain size and crystallographic orientation were loaded dynamically in compression by means of the split Hopkinson bar.j See also: D-12. Rpt. It contains mechanical property data for a nickel-cobalt quanched and tempered martensitic steel which exhibits excellent toughness at yield-strength levels up to about 200 ksi. Duffy. bar. .. pp.8 obtained by Tabor and other investigators for numerous finegrained polycrystalline materials. and forging. 525 Light Alloys Bodner. It was found that dynamic values of Tabor's constant range from 2.3 549 Lead Abstract No. 2. M. 1'D-132 .4 to 6.

for aluminum. Report No. strains and structures. 737. " Defense Metals Information Center. 553 Kenig. commercially pure aluminum were determined under quasi-static and dynamic conditions. "EXPERIMENTS ON ANNEALED ALUMINUM. October 17. AFOSR 65-0983.AMCP 706-445 The discontinuous. Thermal fatigue behavior will be examined and the results compared with the present observations in mechanical fatigue. " Princeton University. 552 Hallowell. The destabilizing factor is shown to be the negative slope of the flow stress-strain rate relation which. is a consequence of rapid strain aging. J. April 26. rep(¢cted yielding of commercially pure aluminum under slowly applied dead weight loading is examined as a dynamic instability problem. Joseph T. (AD 618 088) The stress-strain relationship for biaxial stressing of an annealed. Survey of recent developments including alloying agents. " Air Force Materials Laboratory. Review of Recent Developments. The main points D-133 . Battelle Memorial Institute. (AD 813 619) This study is concerned with the roles of strain rate and temperature on fatigue behavior. "RESEARCH ON THE ROLE OF STRAIN RATE AND TEMPERATURE IN FATIGUE. and temperatures from 80 to 900 F were the variables studied.10 % zinc alloy were selected.. "ALUMINUM AND MAGNESIUM. 1968. January 1967. etc. Blucher. Donald L. including two phase systems. 551 Grant. properties. These test results support the explanation of the origin of the stepped stress-strain curves. More generalized models show the equivalent of progressive yielding over the specimen length and delayed yielding under incremental loading. Other strain rates. AFML TR 66-39. A siepped stress-strain curve is derived from the experimental flow stress-strain rate relation which agrees well with the observations in dead weight loading tests. For the purposes of the immediate work pure aluminum and an aluminum . 1967. applications. Marvin Jerry.. The essentials of the phenomenon are illustrated by a dry friction model which incorporates a counterpart of strain hardening. Nicholas J. Strain rates of 5 and 150% 6per minute strains of *I%. are being examined to extend the studies. To simplify analyses of the observed behavior. A number of grain sizes were utilized to evaluate the role of alloy structure.. B. an axial fatigue machine was designed to eliminate strain rate and stress gradients in the specimen cross-section. 1965. Additional experiments on an Instron testing machine were performed with variable machine flexibility and strain gage 'recording. Ritter. Report No.

At temperatures above 260 0 C.. 554 Ritter. and (2) all experimentally observed wave speeds can be predicted by shock wave and the Karman-Taylor theory with respect to strain rate effects. and center cracked tear resistance tests were conducted at room temperature. AFML TR 67-85. and -423 0 F.of the report are that (1) all existing commonly used theories of plasticity cannot possibly apply to mechanically unstable materials such as the 1100 aluminum tested. " Air Force Materials Laboratory. Double kinking in single crystals. and 539 * See also: D-12. crack growth and failure.5 k cal/mol. fatigue and creep tests. A number of crack growth curves were established. orthogonal boundary diffusion and fracture at very high temperatures. " The Boeing Company.. H1. D. Static tension tests.°F. August 15. and the role of strain rate are discussed in considerable detail. February 1968. utilizing improved replication techniques. -1090. approximately equal to that for self-diffusion along boundaries). March 1967. " The Boeing Company (Renton Division). 536. "EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE OF ALUMINUM DURING HIGH M AMPLITUDE CYCLIC STRAIN. D-134 . L. S. to study crack initiation. . 555 Smith. T. Final Report. 1964. Report No. NASA CR-996. et al. Abstract Nos. "MECHANICAL PROPERTY AND FRACTURE TOUGHNESS EVALUATION OF 2219-T6E46 FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS. notched tension. W. -3200. the one to one migration-cycles process (for fine grained materials yielded an activation energy of 18. 526. where grain boundary sliding and migration become active. "FATIGUE-CRACK-PROPAGATION AND FRACTURE-TOUGHNESS CHARACTERISTICS OF 7079 ALUMINUM-ALLOY SHEETS AND PLATES IN THREE AGED CONDITIONS. (AD 455 312) Mechanical properties and fracture toughness characteristics were determined for 2219-T6E46 aluminum alloy plate and forged ring material from room temperature to -42 0. (AD 816 195) Low cycle axial fatigue tests were performed on high purity aluminum and an AI -10 % Zn alloy. Constant strain rates of 5 and 150% per minute were employed at a strain amplitude 0 of 2% ( * 1%) over the temperature interval 20 to 482uC Electron microscopy was applied extensively.5 556 Plastics and Rubbers Eichenberger.

two kernels were sufficient to describe pure shear deformations and three kernels were required for tension. J." Plastics Technical Evaluation Center. government project and contract reports. 558 Lifshitz. 383-397.. "NON-LINEAR VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF POLYETHYLENE. A. "PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS AND RELATED MATERIALS AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES. . ". A detailed subject index and a number of supplemental indexes are included. Freudenthal. The deformations were too large for the theory of linear viscoelasticity to hold and the constitutive relations used were of multiple integral form. July 1965. 557 Landrock. The response of viscoelastic solids to quasi-static loading. plastic films. film laminations and vapor barriers. This report reviews the effects of cryogenic temperatures on plastics and such related materials as elastomers and adhesives. November 1966. liquid oxygen (LOX) compatibility. elastomers. 559 Nicholas. and conference papers.AMCP 706445 Design Allowable tensile strengths. 3. Plastic Report No. Step loading was used and the deformations were measured optically by means of traveling microscopes for the tension experiments and by the reflection of light beams from mirrors for the torsion experiments. plane strain fracture tough- ness and flaw growth characteristics. Brown University (AD 65Z 537).. Kolsky. electrical applications. wear and friction. fibers. and miscellaneous applications. under conditions where non-liitear theories have to be used. but the subject index refers to many references with information on test procedures and apparatus. It was found that for the loading range used. M.. some of the kernels involved have been determined. H. It presents an annotated bibliography of 319 references from the open literature. (AD 807 737) *1 D-135 '& . Some experiments in which two loading steps were applied are also described and discussed. Picatinny Arsenal. M. 1967. cryogenic insulation. T. "THE EFFECT OF FILLER ON THE MECHANICAL PRCOPERTIES OF AN ELASTOMER AT HIGH STRAIN RATES. structural plastic laminates. Topics covered are: molded polymeric materials (plastics). Columbia University. Vol. and sealants. 20. radiation and combined effects. Creep measurements of tension and of torsion in polyethylene specimens are described. see also International Journal of Solids and Structures. Test Methods are not treated in the discussion. Arthur H. pp. are discussed. seals. 36. adhesives. Technical Report No. and plane stress tear resistance characteristics were determined for cryogenic applications. ..

" Naval Ordnance Lab. October 1. Res. J. Ball. The data are presented in the same form as most structural materials (stress versus strain) for the purpose of comparison with the conventional "static" relationship. see also Philosophical Magazine. 1966. Ball. S. The theoretical basis is that under such conditions the mechanical properties can be attributed to the London forces between nearest atoms on neighbouring chain molecules. NOLTR 65-10.. Rpt. It has been observed that although this material is violently sensitive to the rate of loading at lower strain-rates. Yang. "POLYMER MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES. Hinckley. L.. 560 Rand. Tvpei of materials tested include rubbers. strain and strain-rate data have been obtained at room temperature for annealed Lexan. C. in/in/sec to 4 x 103 in/in/sec.. Vol. a typical polycarbonate material. W. "DYNAMIC COMPRESSION TESTING OF A STRAIN-RATE MATERIAL. 1965. 1965. No.6 x 10". January 9. (AD 477 279) Complete compressive stress. Res. OF SHOCK MITIGATING MATERIALS.tory. (AD 639 062) The purpose of this resort is to present the stress-strain relations of a variety of materials obtained at room temperature in compression and at rates of strain in excess of those acbievable by standard testing techniques. M. II. 142.. and cast resins. 3. NOLTR 66-39. " Explosives Research and Development Establishment (AD 612 979). . J. 156. No. 1-9. 562 Roberts..Results are presented which show the effect of filler size and content on the stress-straira curves of an elastomer at high strain rates. 109. 561 Rand." Naval Ordnance Laboratory. An equation is proposed for the prediction of K the apparent increase in moduluq of an elastorner due to the addition of rigid spherical particles... No. Report No.-. J. D3-136 . pp. Report No. "DYNAMIC COMPRESSION TESI . The existence of this limiting curve is an extremely significant characteristic of the material since it will permit a rate independent analysis to be used t9 predict material response at extremely high rates of strain. Marshall. for strain-rates of 1. Rpt. L.. The theoretical problem of relating the mechanical properties of a polymer to molecular structure is considered for the simplest case where an amorphous polymer is subjected to a hydrodynamic stress system at high rates of deformation. this sensitivity becomes negligible as the rate of strain is increased And the resulting stressstrain relation may be considered to be a limiting curve. J. molded thermoplastics.

Improved polymer technology h. 565 Titus. " Paper presented at Fourth Annual Wire and Cable Symposium. 563 Sollenberger. "EFFECT OF LOW TEMPERATURE (0 to -65 0 F) ON THE PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS. The material is presented by plastic family (in alphabetical order) and is divided into three parts: thermoplastics. Mechanical properties of both high and low density polyethylene are presented. Data are given at ýhree temperatures. namely. Joan B. " Plastics Technical Evaluation Center. Goerge H. December 1955. triaxial and uniaxial brittle fracture strengths and probable brittle fracture strain. Theoretical values of bulk modulus are also obtained for polyethylenes of various deg ees of crystallinity by considering strain in the amorphous regions It is indicated how time dependent or viscoelastic effects might be introduced into the analysis to describe mechanical properties at much lower rates of deformation. There are some extrusion technioue modifications necessary in order to fully utilize the superior characteristics of this material. See also: Abstract No. E.s developed the wherewithal to produce a very stable material capable of long term reliable service under the most severe environments. 519 4 . (AD 656 065) High density polyethylene has proved itself to be an excellent and cable resin from both an electrical and a mechanical point of view.A" 70. July 1967. Picatinny Arsenal..446 -For the amorphous polymers polyrnethylmethacrylate and polystyrene the calculations give room temperature values of maximum bulk modulus. . about0 65OF room temperature and around lEO F to permit complete evaluation. thermosets and foams. Plastec Report No. "EXTRUDING HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE FOR QUALITY AND SAVINGS. "GENERAL PROPERTIES OF THE NEW SUPERPOLYETHYLENES. " Paper presented at Eleventh Wire and Cable Symposium. The effects of low temperature on the mechanical. 564 Stiles. electrical and thermal properties of plastics is discussed. (AD 656 389) Lsts the properties of superpolyethylene and discusses possible applications.wire 4 4 D-137 . November 1962. 30. low temperature. Parker.

Report No. Report No. A part of the Machine Design Reference Issue series. 67-WA/LUB-24. 1965.. 1967. " Frankford Arsenal. " American Society of Mechanical Engineers Winter Annual Meeting and Energy Systems Exposition. 569 "HYDROSTATIC FEASIBILITY. Confidential. L 570 "SEALS REFERENCE ISSUE. Seals for reciprocating motion are included. Robert E. both of the flat face and of the circumferential type. J. Pittsburgh. sealing materials. and sealing techniques.. Paper No.15 October 15. " Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. "A DYNAMIC SEAL TESTER FOR PROPELLANT ACTUATED DEVICES.. and suggestions are made for needed future experimental work. September 1966.)1 D-13 SEALS AND OBTURATORS 566 Ewbank. Discrepancies between reported results are pointed out where noted. 39. "DYNAMIC SEALS A REVIEW OF THE -- RECENT LITERATURE. Vol. AFFDL TR-66-212. A. Progress 10784-Q-1. (AD 814 784) This report covers the effort involved in the investigation of material combinations and designs for 3/8 diameter unlubricated pistons and seals for use in miniature cryogenic pistons and reciprocating compressors. covering period 7 March . COMBUSTION SEAL DEMONSTRATION Aerojet-General Corporation. "INVESTIGATION OF MATERIALS AND DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR LONG LIFE RECIPROCATING PISTON SEALS. 6. Both design data and a product Si D-138 . 1967. AGC September 1965. Three separate seal testing devices were conceived. one of these concepts was placed on contract for detail design. . 568 Larsen. R-1753 SEG-TR-65-11. 567 Jepsen. " Report No. W. 3RD EDITION. No. March 9. Efforts were directed toward determination of the quantitative performance of seals. E. this issue is devoted to seals. This paper is an attempt to review and discuss all the significant papers which have been printed since 1952 on rotary shaft seals. fabrication. April 1965." Machine Design. fabrication. and preliminary evaluation of a test fixture to measure the static and dynamic performance of seals applicable to propellant actuated devices (PAD). A study was conducted concerning the conception. November 12-17. design. and preliminary performance testing.

AD 364 536. (Secret Report).utilizing flash X-ray in the muzzle blast. Model and test results are given. (9) molded pachings. Drawings of projectile and sabot. July 1965. (Unclassified Abstract) The Joint US/FRG Exploratory Development testing program for the 120mm Delta Shot evaluated five models for metal parts security. AD 351 586. The ignition and burning characteristics of the propulsion components were determined at ambient and extreme temperature conditions. These tests were conducted with and without the muzzle gas diffuser attached to the prototype gun. MP. were performed with the Delta proof slugs. -- O4 D-139 S . (11) static 0-ring seals. Tests were conducted to determine the exterior ballistics of four series of base-driven Delta shots. (8) compression packings. During the metal parts security phase. Picatinny Arsenal Technical Report 3249. 572 "Research Test of lZOmm Delta System (with Prototype Gun)(U)".AMCP 706445 directory are presented. include (1) felt radial seals. DPS-1326. Models 13 and 14. . Elie L. •. See also: Abstract No. T28EI.. Armor penetration firings were conducted to obtain protection ballistic limits against heavy armor targets on three penetrator designs. aerodynamic characteristics and armor penetration. and T36. Photographs and drawings of sabots and projectiles are given. (13) metallic gaskets. (2) radial positive-contact seals. (Secret Report). (10) diaphragm seals. (4) clearance seals. 2. smear. (5) split-ring seals. Report No. T28. (Unclassified Abstract) All testing was conducted with the Delta Prototype Gun No.Feasibility Study of the 120mm Delta Shot (U)". and (14) sealants. (12) nonmetallic gaskets. June 1964. and franming cameras and recovery of fired parts to form conclusions.: "First Report on Ammunition Development for the US/FRG Main Battle Tank -. five sub-projectile designs and four sabot designa were evaluated -. are included. Tests of various cartridge case-primer assemblies with various lots and web sizes of propellants. component functioning. 3 D-14 571 UNCLASSIFIED ABSTRACTS FROM CLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS Barrieres. (7) axial mechanical seals. Types of seals cover. (6) circurnferential seals. Aberdeen Proving Ground. (4) exclusion devices.r .

H. DPS-1109. . Empty cartridge cases were not consistently ejected. Regarding Inaccuracy of the M60 Tank-GunAmmunition System (U)". Low-energy premature initiation was experienced in the British cap. Army Armor Board. August 1960. S. 2167 Service Test of Cartridge. .. 14 December 1961. H. U. 575 "Report of Project No. Texas. Photographs of a cutaway and complete T382 round were shown. The establishment of an emergency zeroing procedure was recommended. Robert W. AD 344 980L. Kentucky. September 1960. (Unclassified Abstract) Troop tests with the M60 tank system led to reports of inaccuracy. DPS-64.: "Visit to Fort Hood.573 "Research Test of Shot. APDS. (Unclassified Abstract) Models 11 through 20 of the 120/40mm APFSDS were tested to evaluate the following projectile properties: armor penetration. Dispersion was satisfactory except in the desert firing. No. November 1963. (Unclassified Abstract) Ammunition was fired and achieved satisfactory results at 1. Report. Delta. This trip report concluded that the main difficulty during the troop test had been inability to zero the 105ram gun. Aberdeen Proving Ground. and discard characteristics of the sabot. Anderson. Aberdeen Proving Ground. and U. Lt. T382 and UK. K. Schimmel. APFSDS. sabots and petals that were recovered are shown. B. Models II and 12 (Armor Penetration Phase)(U)". Photographs of both U. (Secret Report). The test ammunition performance was similar to that of the British ammunition except for tracer burnout. AD 319 077.4 D-140 . L36AI. rounds were used in the test. Drawings and photographs of the various sabot and projectile configurations are given. Technical Memorandum ORDBB-TE-31.500 meters. Report No. Gunner zeroing inaccuracy and line-of-sight parallax caused most misses. (Secret Report). metal parts security. exterior ballistics. M392EI (U)". . (Secret Report). Fort Knox. AD 319 754. Robert T.: "Development of a Bridgewire Initiator for the 105mm Tripartite Round (U)". where USCONARC criteria were exceeded. Lamon. APDS-T. B. 105mm.. 574 Heinemann. 105mm. (Unclassified Abstract) The results of a study in developing a bridgewire igniter to replace the United Kingdom conductive composition cap in the 105mam Tripartite Round are given. (Secret Report). Picatinny Arsenal. AD 326 862.000 and 1. S. 576 Sissom.

AD 300 017. April 1957. accuracy. (Unclassified Abstract) A weapon system evaluation for the XM60 tank was conducted to provide a basis for selection of a gun-ammunition combination. (Secret Report). First Report on Project TW-419. j. October 1958. S S~AD (Unclassified Abstract) Tests of theM39 APDS projectile were conducted to evaluate plate penetration. Results are included and discussed.AMCP 706"445 577 "Report on XM60 Weapon System Evaluation (U)". The following aspects were covered: (1) armor penetration test. : "Improved APDS Shot for Tank Guns (U)". The object of the Minnow project is to establish: (1) principles upon which a kinetic energy APFSDS projectile can be designed for smoothbore guns. 578 Bertrand. 579 Hubbard. July 1964.' 1 f ( (Unclassified Abstract) The Minnow project represents a Canadian contribution to the Tripartite effort on the defeat of armor. (Secret Report). Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment. The following areas of interest are discussed: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Internal ballistics Core movement Aerodynamic characteristics Penetration Miscellaneous investigations Future program r-141 . on the "Arrow" shell launched from a smoothbore gun. D&PS Aberdeen Proving Ground. (Secret Report). and (4) overall system capabilities. T. N. 357 466. The project supplements and extends work being done in the U.. P. 144/57. Technical Memorandum No. and (2) the method of application of these principles to the use of larger cores in AP projectiles fired from rifled bore guns. F.: "A Summary of Development on the Minnow Project from February 1956 to March 1957 (U)". G. CARDE T. Conclusions and recommendations are given. (3) terminal effectiveness. 1601/64. Test results are given. AD 327 007. Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment.A.S. and bridgewire initiator. Capt. (2) rate and accuracy of fire. Hansen.

2. F. AD 380 824. 580 Hubbard. (Unclassified Abstract) Comparative plating trials were fired with uranium alloy (98% U/2% Mo) cored APDS with tungsten allow (90% W/7. (Secret Report). This cannon has a (1-EAT) guided missile or conventional rounds with combustible cartridge cases. April 1958. Royal Armament Research and Development Establishment. (Unclassified Abstract) The XM150 152mm gun-launcher cannon is the principal armament of the XM70 main battle tank being jointly developed by the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. launch photographs are included.. February 19b3. (Secret Report). centration was placed on the hanging-fin concept. S. University of Pittsburgh. (Secret Report). Temple.1. P. S~discussed An analytical Smethod for the calculation of a fin-stabilized round of non-uniform density with optimum aerodynamic performance is presented. Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment. Sectioned representatives of the projectile and sabot are given. for Army Materiel Command. CARDE Technical Memorandum 187/58. Discuosion of the following points is given: Serious doubts as to the practicability of the moving-core Minnow arose and con- (1) (2) (3) Plating trials Aeroballistic range tests Plastic sabot and sabots are given. Photographs of launches. L. separable -chamber breech and fires. AD 302 5775. E. AD 337 629. A 3/4 scale sectioned view of the 120hmm APDS L15A3 shot is given.-MC 700445 The transport zone and some of the basic problems concerned with it are under the topic aerodynamic characteristics. 5% Ni-2. Technical Information Report 27. T. Comparative Plating Trials in 105mm and 120mm Calibres (U)". 581 Permutter. selectively. projectiles. James. the moving-core Minnow and the hanging-fin Minnow. XMI50 Series (U)". This report discusses the gun-launcher and the different types of ammunition used.3. February 1967. a high explosive antitank &MP• D-142 .5% Cu) cored APDS with the object of testing the relative efficiency of the two alloys. 582 " 1 5 2 mm Gun-Launcher Cannon. (Unclassified Abstract) Two types on projectiles. : "Uranium Alloy and Tungsten Alloy Cores for APDS Shot. were investigated during the year..: "A Suimmary of the Development of the Minnow Project from April 1957 to March 1958 (U)". M. CARDE Memorandum (P) 13/63.

The single flechette is a prototype round developed for Frankford Arsenal by Aircraft Armaments. Report of Project Nr. August 1966. Fort Benning. The pull-type sabots supporting the Flechette are briefly described under the topic materials and methods. (Unclassified Abstract) All the work done in C. program uses lightweight lethal arms for launching the arrow-like Flechette. D. (Unclassified Abstract) This report is a description of the ammunition for the M68 gun cannon of the M60 and M60AI 105mm gun full-tracked combat tanks. Report No. AD 316 128. W. W..62mm machine gun. Information Report 27.1. AD 376 323. (Secret Report). I. A sectioned view of the assembled projectile is given. Arthur J. Alfred G. R.'The crew of three. 583 . L. McDonald. Walter C. stationed in the turret. I.AMCP 7OW44S "Development uf Ammunition for M68 105mm Gun Cannon (U)". . IC D-143 . University of Pittsburgh. Technical Information Report 27.) 584 "152mm Gun/Launcher Full-Tracked Combat Tank. The S. CRDLR 3308. 585 (Secret Report).. to meet a requirement to replace standard small arms ammunition. Inc. (Unclassified Abstract) An evaluation of the . A complete description of the cartrIdge.1. (Secret Report). AD 364 425. Oliver.. XM?0 (MBT-70)(U)".Army Chemical Research & Development. University of Pittsburgh. has been connected and analyzed for this report. not only have armor protection against projectiles but protection against radiation and chemical and bacteriological agents as well. 586 Diemian. flechette.: "Wound Ballistics of SPIW Flechettes (U)". Georgia. The XM70 can ford streams and can submerge for concealment or for protection against nuclear effects.3. This report describes the systems and capabilities of the XM70 tank. (Unclassified Abstract) The United States and the Federal Republic of Germany are jointly developing XM?0 152mm gun/launcher full-tracked combat tank. AD 369 753. (See October 1963 report on same subject. for Army Materiel Command. R. and sabot is given in regard to material and operation. on Flechet-es specifically designed for S. Edgewood Arsenal .22 calibre single flechette is given and recommendations are made. This tank fires both the Shillelagh extended-range guided missile and five kinds of conventional ammunition. July 1965. Army "Evaluation of Single Flechette (U)" Infantay Board.. 18 March 1960.1 January 1966. It is also armed with a 20mm automatic gun that can be retracted in the turret and a coaxial 7. P.3. (Secret Report). 2876. P.3.

: "Vulnerability of Mark III Nose Cone Materials (Phase 2)(U)".587 MacMillan. AD 315 434.unching techniques and sabot are described.W. July 1961. 4 ammunition. TM AB-43. Report No. Report N'Io. buckshot are shown for both . manufacture and test of antipersonnel ammunition fillers (Flechettes) for use in flapper and behive rounds is presented. (Secret Report).6. Report No. 1'a ': D-144 . AD 344 345.12 gauge and . Material and round loading procedures are given.410 gauge guns. and tungsten-carbide were fired against the targets at velocities ranging from 10. (Secret Report). 589 Austin. AD 301 144.000 to 20. October 1964. Eglin Air Force Base. r (i (Unclassified Abstract) The design. The le. 4 buckshot Sabot systems (complete rounds) for as an antipersonnel (. Spherical projectiles of aluminum. H. Twenty-two shots were fired against targets at room temperature and 10 against targets which had been heated to the char point. Drawings of the pushers and sabots in launching the Flechettes up to velocities of 4000 fps are included. D.9-inch smoothbore gun.000 fps and at three different angles of impact.R. APGC-TDR-61-28. AB 64-19. A des~cription of the types of sabots and the stripping techniques 'used is given. AD 354 449. T. Inc. (Secret Report).Design. (Unclassified Abstract) A 12-gauge shotshell with explosively charged No. Remington Arms Company. The models were launched from a 5. (Secret Report).) was developed and tested firing single No. The targets were either cut from a General Electric Mark III re-entry vehicle or were constructed to' resemble portions of the actual vehicle. stainless steel. March 1958. Whirlpool Corporation. Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment. delta-winged aircraft consisting of 10 rounds using 1/120th scale models fired at a Mach number of about 1. J. (Unclassified Abstract) The present report describes a preliminary series of tests of the CF-105 supersonic.. t (Unclassified Abstract) Information is presented on the results of 32 good data shots which were fired against target specimens of three different ablating materials. Manufacturing and Testing of Canister Fillers (U)".: "Aeroballistic Range Tests of the CF-105 Phase 1 Rounds I to 10 (U)". 588 "Summary Report Volume I . October 1959.240 dia. An ultra high-speed framing camera was used to obtain the projectile velocity prior to impact.: "Final Summary Report to Develop and Supply Experimental Shotgun Ammunition (U)". 590 Warren.

In the case of theAblative targets. The parameters are: propellant sound speed. "Parametric Study of Gun-Launched Anti-Missile Defense System (GADS) (U)". Report No. P. Brief general discussion of the sabot and its function in launching is given.A"C 706445 S591 Cowan. L.H. Two types of targets are used. Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment. 592 4 :' If F' D-145 .. NOLTR 62-56. No difference in damage is noted for the impact of inert and active pellets of the same density (1. Penetration is strongly dependent on pellet density. The conclusion is: the system is technically feasible but economically not useful. and the second a phenolic nose cone. Detonation of the active pellets is not definitely established for impact into either type of target. area of bore and chamber pressure. adequate estimates of gun parameters to obtain a desired muzzle velocity with a given projectile weight. (Secret Report). Crater volume in the ablative targets seems to be dependent on pellet velocity. U. (Unclassified Abstract) A comparison is made between the damage caused first is a steel plate of semi-infinite thickness. AD 326 113. The resulting gun system is described anid rough cost estimates made. Sabot separation techniques are described. The glass fiber laminate. S. but independent of pellet density for a wide range of the latter (pellet mass constant). Naval Ordnance Laboratory. No difference is noted between impact in vacuum and in atmospheric air. The report describes a method and contains graphs for simple. damage is found to vary with pellet to targets by active and inert pellets. Roney. TM 620/6 1. AD 350 416.100 calibre 16-inch gun . gun length. (Secret Report). Report No. This method is applied to a 500-pound 8-inch projectile . ~~(Unclassified Abstract) This is a report of a theoretical investigation into the feasibi~ity of using a gun-launched projectile as a system for Ballistic Missile Defense.HaO . The sabots for launching the pellets are shown. L. Two fin-stabilized discarding sabot (FSDS) projectiles for a 16-inch gun are proposed.Al . A schematic of the 16-inch sabot and projectile is included. propellant system.terial for inert pellets. 3 September 1963.: "CARDE Impact Studies Progress Report (U)".78 g/cc) into steel. August 1961. P. The sabots were made of zelux plastic. backed with aluminum to simulate an ablative re-entry m.

. AD 359 904. drag. (Secret Report). I April 1964 to I July 1964. S. J. normal force. Launching techniques.~~~i -ai" AMRp MA~ l ~. These reports deal with aerodynamic studies. Naval Ordnance Laboratory. AD 363 890L. of various cone and missile shapes launched from light gas guns. 1 July 1964 to 30 Septembe'r 1964. A general discussion of the launching techniques and the sabots used in given. general descriptions are given of several different sabots.S.N. Sabots were manufactured from ethocel. (Unclassified Abstract) Drag and stability coefficients obtained from freeflight tests of & SARV vehicle configuration are given. Naval Ordnance Laboratory Technical Report 63-189. : "Experimental Data Obtained from Free-Flight Tests of a SARV Configuration (U)". (Secret Report). U. Brief discussion of launching and range improvements. S. (Unclassified Abstract) A discussion and results of the hypervelocity wake. pitching moment. U. Test results are given and discussed.•" ' D-146 l Il II II I . U. 1 April 1965 to 30 June 1965. (Secret Report). pressure distribution. etc. turbulent wake investigation. (Unclassified Abstract) A discussion of model launching and aerodynamic characteristic s/wake characteristics. U. model and sabot designs are discussed. 596 "Polaris Progress Reports (U)". B. 597 Jusino. 595 "Polaris Progress Reports (U)".S. Brief ' ' ¶ 594 "Polaris Progress Reports (U)". Naval Ordnance Laboratory. AD 374 499. Naval Ordnance Laboratory. Shadowgraphs of the rrmodel in flight are given and a still photograph of the vehicle and sab~ot is included. (Unclassified Abstract) The aerodynamic characteristics of cones and cone shapes are discussed. ! iI ll ll ll . Brief mention of launching techniques and sabot design. AD 359 891.r "* 4 . 1 October 1964 to 31 December 1964. (Secret Report). Ordnance Laboratory. AD 373 547. (Unclassified Abqtract) This abstract covers Polaris Progress Reports in general from I April 1964 to 30 June 1965.. four reports being covered. 8 March 1965.

Some comparisons are made between impacts into an actual ablative structure and the simulated flat plate targets. aluminum and plastic spheres. The projectile velocity ranged from 3 to 7 km/sec and angles of obliquity from 90 degrees (normal impact) to 15 degrees. the backup was a one-inch aluminum honeycomb. . velocity. (Secret Report). f! (Unclassified Abstract) In this reporting period emphasis was placed on the perforation characteristics of different types of ablative materials. aluminum and magnesium varying in thickness from 1/8-inch to 1/4-inch. The thickness varied from 2-inches to 0.• ÷"•. Naval Rosa~rch Laboratory. The tests were made primarily with steel spheres. E.. For the phenolics the back-up materials were steel. For the G. February 1964. D. site and density were examined for each of the composite targets. U. projectile energy. I I l Vl ! I ll l . The projectiles were solid steel.. The targets were flat ablative plates bonded to metal plates for simulation of R/V outer construction. Series 124A. NR 1492. The ablation materials impacted were laminated and random-chopped phenolic refrasil and nylon and G.M.J. The majority of the materials used in these impact experiments were one-inch thick. Series 124A.. E. These data were gathered from materials used as targets in firings in the development of a sabot for firing dense projectiles.. A brief description is given of a solid sabot and stripping device which was developed during this period for higher velocity impacts. .-AIP 70446 598 Condon. Also included as a separate Lopic are data and discussion on steel into steel impacts.5-inch. Photographs of all impacted targets discussed in the text are shown in the Appendix.: "Hypervelocity Kill Mechanisms Program ARPA Order No. 149-60 Impact Damage Phase (U)". Correlations of the hole size with target thickness and composition. A drawing of the sabot is included. Halperson.S. S. AD 348 245L. D-14 . J.

HQ Admin Kgt Ofc DISTRIBUTION: Special fOVKRNMIpNT PRINTIN.M4CP 706-445 (ANCRD-TV) FOR THE OOEAIMER: OFFICIAL: CHARLES T.714. ?* . PHILLIPS Colonel.6Ig/44 C'1 i! . USA Chief of Staff 'I ' J. JR. OFlII'CEA (1r. HORNE. Major General. GS Chief..4 .

Part Seven. Part Three. and Related Matters 136 Servomechanism. Part Four (U) 215 C) Fuses.L T~neiea fLetI ervkm Aww. 106i 109 110 11 113 114 115 116 120 Value Engineering Elements of Armament Engineering. Part Two. Proximity. and Data for Projectiles 150 Interior Ballistics of Guns 160(S)o Elements of Terminal Ballistics Part One. Background. Part One. Basic Concepts and Analysis of Measurement Data EIII xperimntel Statistics. Collection and Analysis of Data Concerning Targets (U) 162(SRD)e Elemerts of Termifne Ballistics. Part Four. Electrical. 246 • _ . Part five (U1 is$ Hardenig Weapon Systems Against RAEnergy 230 tRcoilless Rifle Weapon System 239 *Smell Arm Weapon System 240(S)9 Grenades (U) 242 Design for Control of Projectile Flight Characteristics (REPLACES -246) 244 Amnition. Contracting for Reliability ?O *Development Guide for Ruliabil ity.atien Sore no St. Design for Terminal Anmmition. Reliability Measurement 199 *Development Guide for Reliability. Velm II. Pomer Elements and System Design 140 Trajectories. Part Four. Part One. Part Two. Basic Environmentel Factors Criteria for Environmental Control of Mobile 1= 1 -6 meoesish Gidaence for 706- W 'Helicpter Englateling. Tables Cnvliormetal Series. Part Two (UI 213 S3 Fuses. Malnufacture of Metallic Components of Artillery Ammnition 250 Guns--Gen ral 251 Muzile Devices 252 Gun Tubes 263 *Breech Mechanism Doesgn 2SS Spectral Characteristics of Muzzle Flash 260 Automatic Weapons 270 "Propellant Actuated Devices 280 Design of Aerodynamically Stabillsed Pree Rockets 281(SRD)# Weapon System Effectiveness (U) 282 +Propulsion and Propellents (REPLACED BY -285) 283 Aerodynamics 204(C)e Trajectories (U) 285 Elements of Aircraft and Missile Propulsion (REPLACES -282) 286 Structures 290(C)i Warheads--General (U) 2V1 Surface-to-Air Missiles. Electrical. Computers 294(S)f Surface-to-Air Missiles. Part On. Part Six. Measurement and Signal Converters 138 Servomchanisms. Part One. Proximity. Section 2 (U) (REPLACED BY-177) 1790 **Explosive Trains 180 Principles of Explosive Behavior 181 *Explosions in Air. Part One. Section 3. Amplification Servomechanism. Part One 128(M)e *Infrared Military System. Section 4. Dtsign for Control of Flight Characteristics (REPLACED BY -242) 2470 Ammnition. Nuclear Effects (U) 340 Carriages and Mounts--General 341 Cradles 342 Recoil Systems 343 Top Carriages 344 Bottom Carriages 345 Equilibrators 346 Elevating Mechanisms 347 Traversing Mechanisms 350 Wheeled Amphibians 3IS The Automotive Assembly 354 Automotive Suspensions 357 Automotive Bodies and Hull1 360 'M111tary Vehicle Electrical Systems 445 Sabot Technology Engineering Volume 1. Part Two (U) 130 Design for Air Transport and Airdrop of Materiel 132 *Maintenance Engineering 133 'Maintainability Engineering Theory and Practice 134 Maintainability Guide for Design 135 Inventions%. Inspection Aspects of Artillery Ammunition Deslig 249 mmunition. Section 3. Design for Projection 248 ÷Axuwnition. and Index for Series 245(C)f Amimnition Section 2. System Integration 292 Surface. Introduction. Part Five. Safety. Part Four. Part Two.iSet DESIGN 1 201 l0o 203 HANIDBOOKS of 6 . Proximity. Military Pyrotechnics. Glossary. Vol *m 1I. f evetto. 336(SRD)'oesip Engineers' Nuclear Effects Manuel. g PA 142K01D tO0e 107. with Tablaof Contents. Sample Problem (U) 327 Fire Control Systems--Goneral 329 Fire Control Compiting Systems 331 Compensating Elements 335(SRO)#*Design Engineers' Nuclear Effects Manual. OetWl Oeip Melicopter Engineering. (U) 176. Electrical. Part Two (U) 1S5e Military Pyrotechnics. Ballistics Elements of Armament Engineering. Part Three. Part Three (U) 214 S) FunSe. _ . Design of Amunition for Pyrotechnic Effects 189 Military Pyrotechnics.Electronic Systems and Logistical Systems (U) 337(SRO)#'e' Enitnon. Pert Six. Special Topics Experimental Statistics. an Wingfieltd VA11111 o 2e2111 t ersities from National Tec nial taefortmaft fe. Part Two. Methemetical Appendix and Glossary *UNDER PREPARATION--not available 'OISOLETE--out of stock "RE "VI$IUN UWDER PRLPARATION eNOT AVAILAbLE FRON NTIS . Patents. Part Five. Part One 176(C)e Solid Propellants.• Nucler Effects Mnul. Missile Armament (U) 29S(S)e Surface-to-Air Missiles. Part Two. Properties of Materials Used in Pyrotvchnic Compositions 1881 *Military Pyrotechnics. Part One 182(S)o 'Explosions In Air. Application 186 Military Pyrotechnics. Part Threef Application to Missile and Space Targets 1U) 166 Liquid-Filled Prfjectile Design 17u(C)o "Armor and Its Aplicatton. Section 1. Part Three. Section 4. (U) 212 5)e FuSes. and Planning for Army Hateriel RequIrments 196 *Development Guidefor Reliability. Countermeasures (U) 296 Surface-to-Air Missiles. Qualificdtion Assurance 204 '1elicopter Porformnce eltting 205 *Timing Systems and Compmonnts 210 Fuses ill C uags. Part Two (U) 177 Properties of Explosives of Military Interest 118(C) +Properties of Explosives of Military Interest. Pert One. Procedurts and Glossary 187. Section 3. Section 4. Section 6.. Design for Reliability 197 *Development Guid for Reliabilit . Proximity. Section 1 Artillery Amnition-General.Av•E to0 104 aINERIN Producibility Available to contractors. Part Two. Preliminary Design 144elicopter Engineern. Section 2.to-A' r Missiles. Section 2. Weapon Control 293 Surface-to-Air Missiles. Part Five. Differential Effects. Theory 137 Servomechanisms. Theory anc. Electrical.. Nuclear Environment (U) 338(SRD)*'Desi Engineers' Nuclear Effects Manual. aOneP •Systms and Components Tables of the Cumulative Binomial Probabilities Experimental Statistics. Proximity. Analysis of Enumerative end Classificatory Date Experimental Statistics. Section 5. Section 1. Sources of Energy Elements of Armament Engineering. Part Two. Voil 11. Reliability Prediction 191 *Development Guide for Reliability. Part 04. Section S. Kill Mechanisms end Vulnerability 1U) lol(S)e Elements of Terminal Ballistics. Solid Propellants. Part Three. Part Three. Bibliography 190 *Army Weapon System Analysis 191 System Analysis and Cost-Effectiveness 196 *Development Guide for Reliability. Basic Eavironmental Concepts *Environmental Series. Munitions and Weapon Sysntem (U) S139 4 121 Packaging and Pack Engineering 123 Hydraulic Fluids 125 Eectrical Wire and Cable 127 Infrared Military Systems. Electrical. Structures and Power Sources 297(S)o Surface-to-Air Missiles. Planning end Analysis of Comparative Experiments Experimental Statistics.

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