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views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.
GENDER AND LABOR MARKET ISSUES IN CAMBODIA
SUM Sreymom 15th August 2012, Cambodia
Current Overarching Policies Important Policy Provisions Which Can Assist
Application of Particular Policies to Enhance
Conclusion Remarks Selective References
A. CURRENT OVERARCHING POLICIES
The key overarching policy on economic development within
Rectangular Strategy The National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) update 2009-2013
The government requires all ministries and agencies to implement the Rectangular Strategy using NSDP and meet the target of Cambodia’s Millennium Development Goals (CMDGs) currently CMDG (2005-2015) Most important policy is the Neary Rattanak III (2009-2013)
The overall employment strategy in Cambodia is presently contained within the combination of the Rectangular Strategy, the NSDP (2009 2013) and the CMDG (2005-2015).
B. IMPORTANT POLICY PROVISIONS
WHICH CAN ASSIST WOMEN’S EMPLOYMENT
Rectangle 3 in the Rectangular Strategy : Promoting private-sector growth and employment development
NSDP (2009-2013): To enhance private-sector development and employment :
strengthening the private sector and attracting investment; creating jobs and ensuring improved work conditions of employees; promoting small and medium enterprises; and creating social safety nets.
B. IMPORTANT POLICY PROVISIONS
WHICH CAN ASSIST WOMEN’S EMPLOYMENT (CONT.)
The Neary Rattanak III (2009-2013), MoWA’s five years strategic plan Strategic area 1: “Economic Empowerment of Women”, The objective is to obtain: enhanced socio-economic status of women through gender equitable poverty reduction and rural development programmes, expansion of employment and business opportunities and protection of women workers’ rights, in particular for :
vulnerable, the poor, the unemployed, and the disabled girls and women
C. APPLICATION OF PARTICULAR POLICIES
TO ENHANCE WOMEN’S EMPLOYMENT
MoWA Targets under Neary Rattanak III Employment
i. ii. iii.
Overall Policy Micro, Small, Medium Business Enterprises Rural Women
3. 4. 5.
Training for Work Labor Market Supports Social Security and Health
MOWA TARGETS UNDER NEARY RATTANAK III
MoWA has identified 2 major targets:
1. To expand and improve employment opportunities, including those in the informal sector 2. To establish business development services for MSMEs
Actions required for these targets include:
search for the needs and opportunities to improve economic conditions of women, and search for occupation needs facilitate enhanced partnerships between government agencies, civil society actors, private sector to develop mechanisms for promoting women’s entrepreneurship; cooperate with relevant line ministries to ensure training and scholarship programmes meet women’ needs; facilitate development of mechanisms to support employment opportunities for vulnerable women including women who are illiterate, from ethnic minority, indigenous women, and women with disabilities; set up a Women’s (information/resource)Centre targeting young women, to promote informed choice through particular support programmes and actions
EMPLOYMENT OVERALL POLICY
Currently contained in the combination of 3 policies ( Rectangular Strategy, the NSDP (2009 - 2013) and the CMDG (2005-2015).
ILO has recommended that there be an overall gender sensitive National Employment Policy and Strategy. The NESP strategy is to encompass mainstreaming employment, especially for women, rural and vulnerable workers into:
macroeconomic policies, sectoral policies, skill development policies, migration policies, and enterprise development policies
EMPLOYMENT MICRO, SMALL, MEDIUM BUSINESS ENTERPRISES
NSDP 2009-2013, identifies improving the business climate for small and medium enterprises development as a priority, focusing on 4 main aspects:
the legal and regulatory framework; financing; supportive actions for small and medium enterprises; and integrating small and medium enterprises into a global value chain including prevention of smuggling
The MoWA recommendations and transforming Women in Development Centres (WID) The OVOP movement encourages interventions, entrepreneurship and self-confidence in rural areas but it does not contain include a specific gendered approach ILO partnership activities
EMPLOYMENT RURAL WOMEN
• • • • •
Women comprise the majority of rural workers, mostly unpaid Rural women are at a disadvantage in efforts to improve productivity in farm jobs and non-farm employment Not the focus of extension services Limited access to credit, Limitations on women owning land, particularly women who head households, Land law includes measures to ensure rights of women at law but low levels of literacy can limit their access to entitlements. Often lack information about markets and technology, Needs of rural women need to be specifically addressed, preferably as part of a suite of measures to designed to reduce poverty
TRAINING FOR WORK
Vocational and technical training offered by the public sector to women is basically confined to traditional women’s skills (Ex: sewing, hairdressing and beauty-maintenance related skills (MoWA, 2008)
The General Directorate for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) administers 38 training institutes and centres, which mainly offer training to school dropouts throughout the country (MoLVT 2010)
The Ministry of Women’s Affairs has established 11 Women Development Centres to provide market-oriented skills training, business development training services and socio-cultural support
Women were more likely to be enrolled in public primary short-term training compared to men, who were more likely to be engaged in longer term and technical programs (ILO, 2010)
LABOR MARKET SUPPORTS
Accessing childcare services
• • •
The domestic responsibilities, social norms and low income are the major constraints of women for women entering or continuing to work in labor markets. After maternity leave working mothers in formal economy sector, informal sectors, and women migrants who work in urban areas. Need for the Government to develop a national strategy on childcare to build on some of the legislative measures
LABOR MARKET SUPPORTS (CONT.)
extending a requirement for workplaces above certain sizes to
provide child care centres nursery rooms inside the work place or to provide child care services for them
• • •
Provide Government funded or partly funded day-care centres in urban areas to be well operated and located near working places Government to assist cooperatives of women in rural areas to employ local trained persons to care for children in the village or in the locality of work. MoLVT plays important role to enforce implementation of Labor Law provision on child care services for female employees; The MoEYS to improve the early child education programme to provide good quality of day-care centres and kindergartens in both urban and rural areas.
SOCIAL SECURITY AND HEALTH
Cambodia has faced many challenges in relation to social protection concerning basic health and education The major social protection programs are a mix of:
social security services, the National Social Safety Fund (NSSF), Health Equity Fund, Community-Based Health Insurance and many other programs
One of the major problems has been the lack of protection for informal workers who are not covered by the Law on Labor and therefore cannot rely on the Law on Social Security Schemes for benefits and protection Recently, a National Social Protection Strategy for the Poor and Vulnerable (NSPS–PV) has been developed with ILO assistance
SOCIAL SECURITY AND HEALTH (CONT.)
The main goal of the NSPS-PV: is that the most disadvantaged citizens are over the coming years increasingly protected against chronic poverty and hunger, shocks, destitution and social exclusion, and benefit from greater investments in their human capital.
The ILO in its present DWCP 2011-2015 has indicated that its contribution to the Social Protection Strategy will be fourfold:
A coordination mechanism needs to be established at national and decentralized level to The financial sustainability of investing in social protection needs to be demonstrated The benefit of investing in social protection needs to be demonstrated and the progressive graduation from poverty to decent work supported The further implementation of social protection schemes needs to be continued and supported
C. CONCLUSION REMARKS
The Cambodian government has identified a number of prioritised policies, strategies, and targets in order to address the needs of women related to such as employment, education, health, security, gender equity, and reducing gender inequality. The problems for women are not with the policies, but the lack of implementation, due in part to a lack of coordination, failure of a specific ministry to have ultimate responsibility for the implementation, the need to take a programmed approach as well as limitations of funds.
The commitment of the development partners to assist with these tasks by taking a capacity building approach with the government ministries is a vital key to achieving real outcomes for women, using a more programme based approach.
Training programmes designed by both government and development partners should include follow-up activities so as to keep track of the outcomes and challenges related the programmes.
E. SELECTIVE REFERENCES
Eng Netra and Sin Sovann (2007), Where Did all the Day Cares Go? A gender Analysis of Day Care Needs in Relation to Time Poverty and Employment Opportunities for Poor Women (Phnom Penh: MoWA) International Labour Organization (2012), Decent Work Country Programme Cambodia (2011-2015) (Phnom Penh: ILO) Kem Sothorn (2010), Policy Options for Vulnerable Groups: Income Growth and Social Protection (Phnom Penh: CDRI) Lay Samkol (2008), The Political Economy of the One Village One Product Movement and Its Implications for Cambodia Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training and International Labour Organization (2010), Policy on Labour Migration for Cambodia (Phnom Penh: MoLVT and ILO) Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (2010), Annual Report 2009 (Phnom Penh: MoLVT) Ministry of Women Affairs (2008), A Fair Share For Women: Cambodia Gender Assessment (Phnom Penh: MoWA) Ministry of Women’s Affairs (2009), Five Year Strategic Plan 2009-2013, Neary Rattanak III (Phnom Penh: MoWA) National Institute of Statistics and Directorate General for Health (2010), Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS) 2010 (Phnom Penh: NIS, Ministry of Planning, and DGH, Ministry of Health) National Institute of Statistics and International Labour Organization (2010), Labour and Social Trends in Cambodia 2010 (Phnom Penh: NIS/ILO) Royal Government of Cambodia (2011), National Social Protection Strategy for the Poor and Vulnerable (Phnom Penh: Council for Agricultural and Rural Development) Royal Government of Cambodia (2010), National Strategic Development Plan Update 2009-2013 (Phnom Penh: Royal Government of Cambodia) Royal Government of Cambodia (2011), Mid-term Review 2011 on National Strategic Development Plan Update 20092013 (Phnom Penh: Ministry of Planning) Sok Somith (2011), Study on the Employability of Rural Women Training Participants in Women’s Development Centers (Phnom Penh: MoWA, ILO, & better factories) UNDP (2011), NSDP/CMDGs) Monitoring Support Programme, Factsheet September 2011, National Strategic Development Plan and Cambodia Millennium Development Goals (access on 17 May 2012 from www.un.org.kh United States Agency for International Development (2010), Gender Assessment USAID/ Cambodia, (Phnom Penh: USIAD) 17
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