Basic Aviation Legislation for Malaysian Aircraft Engineers

(First Edition)

Hj Muzaffar Dato’ Hj Mohamad

Basic Aviation Legislation for Malaysian Aircraft Engineers (First Edition) Hj Muzaffar Dato’ Hj Mohamad  Pustaka BSM Entrprise 2003

All rights reserved. This publication is copyrighted. Extraction of content other than for private study is prohibited and is subjected to written consent from the publishers


Chapter 1: Basic Regulatory Framework
1THE INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION FRAMEWORK Introduction … … … … … … … Chicago Convention … … … … … ICAO- International Civil Aviation Organisation … … Contracting States … … … … … … ICAO Annexes … … … … … … … … … … … 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 10 10 10 12


MALAYSIAN CIVIL AVIATION REGULATORY FRAMEWORK Introduction … … … … … … … … Civil Aviation Regulations 1996 (MCAR) … … … … MALAYSIAN CIVIL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION Introduction … … … … … … Department of Civil Aviation (DCA) … … … Airworthiness Division … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …



IMPORTANT FOREIGN AIRWORTHINESS AUTHORITIES Introduction … … … … … … … Civil Aviation Authority of United Kingdom (CAA)… … Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) of the European Union … AIRWORTHINESS CODES Introduction … … … … … Concept of Airworthiness … … … British Civil Airworthiness Requirements (BCAR) Amendments to the BCAR’s … … … Joint Airworthiness Requirements (JAR) … Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) … … Airworthiness Notices… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …


Chapter 2: Approval of Operators
6LICENSING OF AIR SERVICES Introduction … … … Air Service Licence … … Air Service Permit … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 13 13 13



AIR OPERATOR CERTIFICATE Introduction … … … Operational Specifications …

… …

… …

… … … … …

… … … … …

… … … … …

14 14 16 16 17


REGISTRATION OF AIRCRAFT Introduction … … … … … Registration of Aircraft … … … Registration Marking of Malaysian Aircraft …

Chapter 3: Approval of Aircraft And Parts Design
9AIRCRAFT DESIGN CERTIFICATION Introduction … … … … … … Aircraft Design Standards … … … … Fail Safe Philosophy … … … … … FAR/JAR 23/25: AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS Introduction … … … … Aeroplane Categories Under FAR/JAR 23 … Aeroplane Categories Under FAR/JAR 25 … Scope of Standards … … … … FAR 36: NOISE CERTIFICATION … … … Introduction … … … … … Noise Categories … … … … Stage 2… … … … … … Stage 3… … … … … … TYPE CERTIFICATION Introduction … … … Definition … … … Basis of Certification … … Conformity … … … Flight testing … … … Type Certificate … … Changes to the Type Certificate Type Certificate Data Sheet … Supplemental Type Certificate Certification Documents … Production Certification … Stages in an Airline Programme … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 19 19 19 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 24 24 24 26 26 26 28 28 28 30 30 32 35 35 35

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CERTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT PARTS Introduction … … … … … Technical Standard Order system (TSO) … Parts Manufacturing Approval (FAA-PMA) …


Chapter 4: Airworthiness of Aircrafts
12 CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS Introduction … … … … … Issue and renewal of certificate of airworthiness. Special category … … … … Permit to fly … … … … … Validity of the Certificate of Airworthiness … Renewal Procedure for Certificate of Airworthiness Issue of Certificate of Airworthiness for Export … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 36 36 37 38 41 41 42 43 43 43 44 44 46 47 47 47 50 50 50 51 51 51 51 52 52 52 54 54 55 55 55

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FLIGHTS UNDER “A “, “B “AND “C “CONDITIONS Introduction … … … … … … General Rules for “A” and “B” Conditions … … “A “Conditions … … … … … Certificate of Fitness for Flight … … … ‘B’ Conditions… … … … … … “C” Conditions … … … … … FLIGHT MANUAL Introduction … … General Rules … … Amendments … … … … … … … … … … … … … …

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AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES Introduction … … … … … … Definition … … … … … … Distribution … … … … … Contents of an Airworthiness Directive … … Applicability of Ads … … … … … Effective dates… … … … … … Compliance time … … … … … Recurring/periodic ADs … … … … Alternative or equivalent means of compliance … Reference to Manufacturer's Service Bulletins in Ads

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AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES : DCA PROCEDURES Compliance … … … … … … … Requirements … … … … … … … AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES : CAA PROCEDURES UK Manufactured Products … … … … … Mandatory Aircraft Modifications And Inspections Summary (MAMIS) … … … … … … … Non-UK Manufactured Aircraft and Parts … … …



CAA Additional Airworthiness Directives … CAA Emergency Airworthiness Directives … 18 -

… …

… … … … … … … … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …

56 56 57 57 58 60 60 61 61 64 64 64 66 66 68 68 68 68 70 70 70 71

DEFERRED MAINTANENCE MEL / CDL Introduction … … … … … … MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST (MEL) Definition … … … … … Master Minimum Equipment Lists (MMEL) … Operator Minimum Equipment Lists (MEL) … MEL Repair Interval … … … … Approval of Operator MEL … … … Deferral Procedures … … … … CONFIGURATION DEVIATION LIST (CDL) Introduction … … … … … Definition … … … … … Handling CDL items … … … … DISPATCH DEVIATION GUIDE (DDG) Introduction … … … … Definition … … … … …

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CERTIFICATE MAINTANENCE REQUIREMENTS (CMR) Introduction … … … … … … … Definition … … … … … … … CMRs and Normal Maintenance Tasks … … … CMRs and Maintenance Programmes … … MAINTANENCE Introduction … Definition … Failure Management Fault tolerance … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …

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Chapter 5: Aircraft Maintenance Programme
21 MAINTANENCE PROCESSES Introduction … … … … … Hard Time … … … … … Reliability-centred maintenance (RCM) processes On condition … … … … … Condition Monitoring … … … … MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME Introduction … … … … … Hard Time Methodology … … … Condition Monitored Maintenance (MSG-3) … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 72 72 73 73 73 75 75 76

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SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME (MSG-3) Introduction … … … … … … … Objectives … … … … … … … MSG-3 Methodology … … … … … … Schedule Maintenance Content … … … MSI Analysis … … … … … … … Task interval definition … … … … … Cycle-influenced items … … … … … Time-influenced items … … … … … Maintenance recommendations … … … Maintenance Review Board … … … … … Maintenance Review Board report … … … … MAINTENANCE CHECKS Introduction … … … … … Maintenance Planning Document … … Task cards … … … … … Schedule Maintenance Package … … Block maintenance … … … … The service checks … … … … The letter checks … … … … The A check … … … … … The B check … … … … … The C check … … … … … The D check … … … … … Phased checks … … … … … Calendar checks … … … … Special inspection programs … … … Aging aircraft programme … … … Supplemental structural inspection programmes Aging systems programs … … … MAINTENANCE PACKAGE Introduction … … … Check packages … … Check package completion … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …

77 77 79 80 81 81 81 82 82 82 82 84 84 84 85 85 85 87 87 87 88 88 88 89 89 89 89 90 91 91 91 92 92 92 93 95 95

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MAINTENANCE PACKAGE INTERVAL CHANGE Introduction … … … … … … Escalation … … … … … … Short-term escalation … … … … … Permanent escalations … … … … … AMENDMENTS TO MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME General … … … … … … Adding aircraft to program … … … …

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Bridging Check/Proration… … … … … … Manufacturer’s amendments to the Maintenance Programme 28 DCA APPROVAL OF A MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME Introduction … … … … … … … General Rules … … … … … … … PERMITTED VARIATIONS TO MAINTENANCE PERIODS CERTIFICATE OF MAINTENANCE REVIEW Introduction … … … … … General Rules … … … … … Certification of Maintenance Review Signatories … … … … … …

95 96 98 98 99 100 100 100

… … … … … …

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Chapter 6: Release to Service
30 TECHNICAL LOG Introduction … … … General Rules … … … Basic Technical Log Requirements Retention of Records … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 103 103 104 106 108 108 108 111 111 112

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RELEASE TO SERVICE PROCEDURES Introduction … … … … … … … Inspections, Overhauls, Modifications, Repairs and Replacements … Certificate of Release to Service … … … … … DUPLICATE INSPECTION Definitions … … … Procedures – General … … Signatories … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …

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113 115 116 116 116 116 116 117

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REQUIREMENTS FOR MALAYSIAN REGISTERED AIRCRAFT Requirements … … … … … … … … LICENSING OF MAINTENANCE ENGINEERS Introduction … … … … … Privileges … … … … … Responsibilities … … … … Limitations … … … … … Duties … … … … … … L.W.T.R … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …


Chapter 7: Other Airworthiness Requirements
36 APPROVAL OF MODIFICATION Introduction … … … … … … Requirements … … … … … … Approved OEM (original manufacturer’s) Originated Data Approved Non-OEM Originated Data … … Data Packages … … … … … … Other than Approved Data … … … Major Modification … … … … … Minor Modifications … … … … … Common Procedures for Major and Minor Modifications Review of Modifications … … … … Effecting A Modification … … … … WEIGHT AND BALANCE AIRCRAFT Introduction … … … … Definitions … … … … General … … … … LOAD SHEETS Requirements … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 119 119 119 119 120 120 120 121 121 121 121 123 123 123 126

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FLIGHT TESTING FOR RENEWAL OF CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS Introduction … … … … … … … Applicability … … … … … … … Airworthiness Flight Test Schedules … … … … Fleet Testing Programmes … … … … MAINTANENCE, REPAIR AND OVERHAUL MANUAL Introduction … … … … … … … General … … … … … … … ATA Specification 100 … … … … … Maintenance Manuals (MM) … … … … … Overhaul Manual … … … … … … Illustrated Parts Catalogue (IPC) … … … … Wiring Diagram Manual (WDM) … … … … Structural Repair Manual (SRM) … … … … Service Bulletins (SB) and Service Notes … … …

… … … … … … … … … … … … …

127 127 127 128 129 129 129 131 132 132 132 132 132

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Chapter 8: Documents and Records
41 AIRCRAFT, ENGINE AND PROPELLER LOGBOOKS Introduction … … … … … … … General … … … … … … … Logbook Entries … … … … … … EQUIPMENT OF AIRCRAFT Introduction … … Emergency equipment … Radio Equipment of Aircraft … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 134 134 135 137 137 137 139 139 139 142 142 144 144

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OPERATIONS MANUAL / CREW MANUAL Introduction … … … … … General … … … … … Format … … … … … … Review and Amendment of Manuals … … Responsibility of Operators… … … DOCUMENTS TO BE CARRIED ONBOARD Introduction … … … … … Production of documents and records …

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Chapter 9: Special Requirements
45 EXIT AND BREAK-IN MARKINGS Introduction … … … … Markings and Locations … … Inoperative Exits … … … MANDATORY REPORTING Introduction … … … Procedures … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 145 145 145 147 147 149 149 149 149 150 152 152 153 154 viii

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EXTENDED TWIN ENGINE OPERATIONS (ETOPS) Introduction … … … … … … Regulations… … … … … … … ETOPS Approval … … … … … ETOPS Type Design Approval … … … ETOPS Operational Approval … … … ALL WEATHER OPERATIONS Introduction … … … Decision Height (DH) … … Runaway Visual Range (RVR) Maintenance Procedures … … … … … … … … … … … … …

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Chapter 10: AOC Maintenace Requirements
49 AIR OPERATOR’S CERTIFICATE – MAINTENANCE SUPPORT ARRANGEMENTS Introduction … … … … … Maintenance Support Arrangement … … … Maintenance Agreement … … … … The Engineering Manual or Exposition … …

… … … …

… … … …

155 155 155 156 157 157 158 158

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OPERATION SPECIFICATIONS – AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE Introduction … … … … … … … Maintenance Section … … … … … … … APPROVED ORGANISATION Introduction … … Approved Organisations Approval … … … … … … … … …


Chapter 11: Approval of Organisations
52 JAR-145 : APPROVED MAINTENANCE ORGANISATION Introduction … … … … … … Approval Scope … … … … … … Applicability … … … … … … … Extent of Approval … … … … … … Facilities … … … … … … … Management … … … … … … Qualification of Staff … … … … … Base Maintenance Release to Service Procedures … … Line Procedures for Release to Service … … Certifying staff and category B1 and B2 support staff … Equipment, tools and material … … … Acceptance of components … … … … … Maintenance data … … … … … Production planning … … … … … Certification of maintenance … … … … … Maintenance records … … … … … … Occurrence reporting … … … … … … Safety and quality policy, maintenance procedures and quality system … … … … … … … Maintenance organisation exposition … … … … Privileges of the organization … … … … … Limitations on the organization … … … … Changes to the organization … … … … … Continued validity … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 161 161 161 161 162 162 162 163 163 164 165 165 165 166 167 167 168 168 168 170 170 170 171


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JAR-21 SUBPART JA: APPROVED REPAIR DESIGN ORGANISATION Introduction … … … … … … … … Classification of repairs … … … … … … … Repair design … … … … … … … … … Issue of repair design approval … … … … … … Previlages of Repair Design Organisation … … … … … Production of repair parts … … … … … … … Repair embodiment … … … … … … … … Limitations … … … … … … … … Unrepaired Damage … … … … … … … … Record Keeping … … … … … … … … APPROVED STORES PROCEDURE Introduction … … … Definition … … … … Procedures … … … … Recertification of Stores … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …

173 173 173 174 174 174 174 175 175 175 177 177 177 178

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AUTHORISED RELEASE CERTIFICATE / AIRWORTHINESS APPROVAL TAG Introduction … … … … … … Procedures … … … … … … … US Aeronautical Parts … … … … … … Aeronautical Parts from JAA Member Countries … … Suspected Unapproved Parts / Bogus Parts … … … Aircraft Component Distributors … … … … JAR-OPS 1 SUBPART M: MAINTANENCE Introduction … … … … Approval of the operator’s maintenance system Maintenance responsibility … … Maintenance Management … … Quality System … … … … Operator’s Maintenance Management Exposition Operator’s Aeroplane Maintenance Programme Operator’s Aeroplane Technical Log … … Maintenance Records … … … … Occurrence Reporting … … … … Continuous Validity of Certificate … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …

179 179 181 181 183 183 186 186 186 186 186 187 187 187 188 188 189

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Chapter 12: Other Relevant JAR’s
57 JAR-66 APPROVED CERTIFYING PERSONNEL Introduction … … … … … Categories of Licenses … … … … Privileges of Licences … … … … … … … … … … … 190 190 190


Type/task training and ratings… … … Validity of the aircraft maintenance licence … Basic Training/Experience Requirement 58 -

… … …

… … …

… … … … … … … … … … … … … … …

191 192 193 194 194 194 195 195 195 195 196 196 196 197 197

JAR-147 REQUIREMENTS FOR MAINTANENCE TRAINING Introduction … … … … … … Organisational requirements … … … … … Personnel requirements … … … … … Instructional equipment … … … … … Maintenance training material … … … … Records … … … … … … … Training procedures and quality system … … Examinations … … … … … … … Training organisation exposition … … … … Privileges of the maintenance training organization … … Changes to the maintenance training organization … … Continued validity of approval … … … …

Contracting States … … … International Civil Aircraft Nationality Markings IATA World Airport Codes … … … ATA 100 Chapter and Section Headings … … … … … … … … … … … … … 198 203 208 232


Civil aviation is a dynamic industry. It altered globally relation between countries. It shrank the world making it into a single global village. Thousand kilometers distances that in the old days take weeks and months to span now only in a matter of hours. We have gotten used to the daily fact of intercontinental air travel for business and leisure, global overnight courier services, freshly imported ingredients in fancy restaurants; justin-time manufacturing that relies on air freight, fresh overseas newspapers and publication etc. We could not imagine any aspect of our lives that is not touched by civil aviation. The secret lies in the fact that civil aviation is a mature, safe, international and efficient industry. That is only possible if it is properly regulated. As such this book is intended to assists the reader in having a basic grasp of the required working knowledge of the civil aviation regulations in accordance with Malaysian DCA requirements for the grant of Aircraft Maintenance Engineer License. As civil aviation is international in nature, certain topics concerning other important foreign regulations will also be covered. Having said that, this book is only guideline in nature, it is not meant to be the last word in regulations. Readers are encouraged to do further research and base their understanding on the latest current regulations. Hereby I disclaim any errors, omissions and inclusion either intentional or not that may arise from these pages. The latest requirements are stated in the most current issues of CAP 468: British Civil Airworthiness Requirements Section L and the DCA’s Airworthiness Notices. I sincerely hope that readers will find this book for its stated purposes.

About the author
The author has 15 years experience in the civil air transport aircraft maintenance environment in various capacities including as a licensed aircraft engineer, a technical training instructor and other duties. Feedback from DCA examination candidates prompted the author to write this book.

Chapter 1 Basic Regulatory Framework

1 – THE INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION FRAMEWORK Introduction As aviation is only feasible if it is international in nature, common international standards are essential. The first steps were taken by the agreement of International Air Convention and the formation of International Commission of Air Navigation (ICAN) in 1922. It is participated by 38 states and is headquartered in Paris. The International Air Convention is consisted of 43 articles dealing with all technical, operational and organizational aspects of civil aviation. ICAN monitors developments in civil aviation and proposes measures to be taken by states. It fostered international civil aviation until World War II (1939-1945) Chicago Convention The Convention on International Civil Aviation also known as “Chicago Convention” was signed on 7th December 1944 by 52 states. The Chicago Convention superseded the International Air Convention (1922). The Chicago convention also dissolves ICAN and Provisional International Civil Organisation (PICAO) replaces it until 1947. ICAO- International Civil Aviation Organisation The ICAO was formed in 4th April 1947 and succeeded the PICAO. It is headquartered in Montreal. The purpose set forth for the ICAO as outlined by the Chicago Convention is the setting up of common guidelines on i) Principles, techniques and arrangements; to ensure that there is a uniformity of standards and procedures globally in the interest of safety in air navigation Technical standards and recommended practises; to ensure that there is a uniformity of specifications, material, performance, personnel as desirable in the interest of safety in air navigation


The ICAO is a specialized agency under the United Nations. Other UN bodies working with it includes World Meteorological Organization, International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Universal Postal Union, the World Health Organisation (WHO) and International Maritime Union. Other organisation working closely with it includes IATA (International Air Transport Association), International Association of Air Line Pilots Association and others.


Contracting States Signatories of the Chicago Convention are known as contracting states. There are currently 188 contracting states. The contracting states agree in principle to adopt ICAO guidelines as basis of their own civil aviation regulations. This unifies globally civil aviation standards and procedures and thereby enhancing safety. Malaysia as a signatory is bound to the Chicago Convention. ICAO Annexes The standards and recommendations of the ICAO are outlined in the Annexes of the Chicago Convention. They are the guidelines that are followed by the contracting states. These are not mandatory but are advisory in nature. They are 18 in number. Annex 1 - Personnel Licensing Annex 2 - Rules of the Air Annex 3 -Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation; Annex 4 - Aeronautical Charts Annex 5 - Units of Measurement to be Used in Air and Ground Operations Annex 6 - Operations of Aircraft Annex7 - Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks Annex 8 - Airworthiness of Aircraft Annex 9 - Facilitation Annex 10 - Aeronautical Telecommunications Annex 11 - Air Traffic Services Annex 12 - Search and Rescue Annex 13 - Aircraft Accident Investigation Annex 14 - Aerodromes Annex 15 - Aeronautical Information Services Annex 16 - Environmental Protection Annex 17 - Security Annex 18 - the Safe Transport and Dangerous Goods by Air Among the most significant Annexes to the aircraft engineer are Annex 1 – Personnel Licensing; It provides information on licensing of flight crews, air traffic controllers and aircraft maintenance personnel Annex 6 – Operation of Aircraft Enumerates specifications that ensure the level of safety above a prescribed minimum in similar operations globally Annex 8 – Airworthiness of Aircraft Specifies uniform procedures for certification and inspection of aircraft


2- MALAYSIAN CIVIL AVIATION REGULATORY FRAMEWORK Introduction As a contracting state, the Government of Malaysia ratifies the Chicago Convention by the Laws of Malaysia, Civil Aviation Act (Amendment) 2003. It extends the Government control on the nations’ civil aviation activities and is the law of the land. The regulations prescribed under the Act are found in Malaysian Civil Airworthiness Regulations (MCAR) 1996 enacted on 1st April, 1996. Prior to the MCAR, the British Air Navigation Order (ANO) was adopted as the source of Malaysian civil aviation regulations. Of our interest is that the current UK law of the land is ANO 2000. Civil Aviation Regulations 1996 (MCAR) The M.C.A.R consists of 204 regulations grouped under 16 separate headings identified as Parts 1 - XVI. These regulations contain broad details of the Parts. Specific guidance and interpretation of certain regulations is contained in the Schedules of the M.C.A.R. The Part 1-16 and the schedules are listed below for reference. Part I Part II Part Ill Part IV Part V Part VI Part VII Part VIII Part IX Part X Part X Part XII Preliminary Registration and Marking of Aircraft Licensing of Air Services Air Operators Certificate Airworthiness and Equipment of Aircraft Aircraft Crew and Licensing Operation of Aircraft Fatigue of Crew Documents and Records Control of Air Traffic Aerodromes, Aeronautical Lights and Radio Station Investigation of Accidents


Part XIII Part XIV Part XV Part XVI


Detention and Sale of Aircraft Aircraft Mortgages Landing, Parking and Housing, Passenger Service and Air Navigation Facility Charges General

Certain regulations are further amplified in specific schedules, which refer to these regulations. There are 16 of them in total. The Schedules of the MCAR are arranged as follows First Schedule Part A Table of general classification of Aircraft Part B Nationality and Registration Marks of a Malaysian Aircraft Second Schedule Third Schedule Fourth Schedule Fifth Schedule Sixth Schedule Seventh Schedule Eight Schedule Ninth Schedule Special conditions relating to experimental or Test Flights - A, B and C conditions Categories of Aircraft and Purpose of Flight Maintenance Engineers: Privileges of Licences Aircraft Equipment Radio and Radio Navigation Equipment to be carried in Aircraft Aircraft, Engine and Propeller Log Books Flight crew of Aircraft: Licences and Ratings Public Transport - Operational Requirements Part A - Operations Manual Part B - Crew Training and tests Part C - Training Manual Documents to be carried by Malaysian Aircraft Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Control Fees and Charges Public Transport

Tenth Schedule Eleventh Schedule Twelfth Schedule Thirteenth Schedule



Fourteenth Schedule Fifteenth Schedule Sixteenth Schedule -

Medical Requirements Vehicle In Movement Area Penalties


3- MALAYSIAN CIVIL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION Introduction The conduct of civil aviation in Malaysia falls under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Transport. The Ministry of Transport has delegated its powers to the Department of Civil Aviation (DCA). A Director General (DGCA) who reports to the Minister of Transport heads the DCA. The DGCA may delegate any of his powers to any person as he sees fit. Department of Civil Aviation (DCA) The DCA administers national aviation safety and regulatory programmes. It is primarily a government regulatory authority. Regulatory enforcement is via legislative means to ensure that aviation users conduct their activities in accordance with the regulations. The civil aviation programmes consists of i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Airworthiness Air Traffic Standards Flight Safety Airports Standards Air Transport Administration and Finance Aviation College

Each of these programmes is conducted by its appropriate divisions which are headed by their own director. Of our main interest is the Airworthiness Division of the DCA. Airworthiness Division Director of Airworthiness heads the Airworthiness Division. Its primary activities include i) ii) iii) iv) v) registration of all civil aircraft aircraft certification and manufacturing flight testing of civil aircraft aircraft maintenance standards licensing of maintenance engineers and engineering facilities.


4 – IMPORTANT FOREIGN AIRWORTHINESS AUTHORITIES Introduction Although the contracting states are many, it is the few states that are actually very influential. Often their civil aviation codes and civil aviation administration serves as a model for the rest of the world. Their pre-eminent status stems from the fact that the civil aviation activities of these states are among the most numerous and most advanced in the world. The important states include United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, the United States and the states in the European Union. We will discuss about some of their national aviation authority Civil Aviation Authority of United Kingdom (CAA) This is the specialist regulator for the civil aviation activities of the UK. Also serves as advisor to the DCA Malaysia. Malaysian DCA broadly follows the guidance given by the CAA. Its airworthiness codes forms the basis for the Malaysian airworthiness codes. In addition to that many Commonwealth countries follow the UK CAA for guidance. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States This agency issues and enforces rules, regulations and minimum standards relating to aeronautical activities in the United States. Its global influence is due to the massive presence of US aviation activities worldwide including its aviation products which used globally. Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) of the European Union The members of the European Union formed the JAA to harmonise their airworthiness codes. All EU countries accept that the JAA system of airworthiness codes as their only acceptable means of complying with their minimum airworthiness standards. The objectives of JAA are to i) ii) iii) iv) ensure common standards for certification of aircraft and products promote fair competition by removing technical barriers minimise the cost of regulations and to enhance Europe’s international competitiveness

As the UK CAA is a member of the JAA, various UK’s airworthiness codes is gradually supplanted by various JAA airworthiness codes.In the interest of global business, the FAA and JAA strive to minimise the differences of their regulations, their interpretations and their application where practicable. They participate in each other’s rulemaking processes with a view to harmonize their rules.


5– AIRWORTHINESS CODES Introduction ICAO Annexes gives broad standards required for conduct of civil aviation. These annexes are interpreted into requirements by national Aviation Authorities. These requirements are published as airworthiness codes. The airworthiness codes of major countries are often used as models by other countries of the world. We will discuss about the airworthiness codes as used by the DCA. Concept of Airworthiness Airworthiness implies that the aircraft is legally allowed to fly provided that it is i) ii) iii) designed to the approved technical standards maintained to retain the aircraft approved design standards adequately equipped for its appropriate role e.g. passenger aircraft must carry all the relevant equipment with respect to passenger safety.

Responsibility of monitoring airworthiness lies with the DCA. Responsibility of maintaining airworthiness lies with the airlines and operators. British Civil Airworthiness Requirements (BCAR) The BCAR is published by the UK CAA. It is the guidance broadly followed by the DCA for regulatory purposes. British Civil Airworthiness Requirements (BCAR) comprise minimum technical requirements, and administrative procedures, that form the basis for: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) the construction of aircraft; the approval of equipment; the approval of design, manufacturing and maintenance organisations; the approval of personnel; certification and continued airworthiness procedures.

BCAR's set out, within the framework of current aeronautical knowledge, mandatory, imperative, and permissive objectives to allow those concerned with the design, construction and maintenance of aircraft, to show possible alternative methods of compliance with the BCAR which would offer equivalent airworthiness. BCAR (of which joint Aviation Requirements (JAR) forms a part), are sub-divided as follows: Section A Airworthiness Procedures Where the CAA Has Primary Responsibility for Type Approval of the Product (CAP 553)


Section B Section L Section M Section N Section Q Section R Section S Section T BCAR 31 JAR-1 JAR-21 JAR-22 JAR-23 JAR-25 JAR-27 JAR-29 JAR- 145 JAR-APU JAR-AWO JAR-E JAR-P JAR-VLA JTSO

Airworthiness Procedures Where the CAA Does Not Have Primary Responsibility for Type Approval of the Product (CAP 554) Licensing (CAP 468) Emissions Certification (CAP 514) Noise (CAP 469) Non-Rigid Airships (CAP 471) Radio (CAP 472) Small Light Aeroplanes (CAP 482) Light Gyroplanes (CAP 643) Manned Free Balloons (CAP 494) Definitions and Abbreviations Certification Procedures for Aircraft and Related Products & Parts Sailplanes and Powered Sailplanes Normal, Utility, Aerobatic and Commuter Category Aeroplanes Large Aeroplanes Small Rotorcraft Large Rotorcraft Approved Maintenance Organisations Auxiliary Power Units All Weather Operations Engines Propellers Very Light Aeroplanes Joint Technical Standard Orders


Amendments to the BCAR’s Blue Papers - the CAA prepares For Sections M, N, Q, R, S, T and BCAR 31, amendments and additions to the Requirements. They are printed on Blue Paper, and constitute part of the Requirements with effect from the date of publication. Grey Papers - Amendments to Sections A, B and L are effected in the form of Grey Papers, which have been agreed, as appropriate, following discussions with industry. Grey Papers when approved constitute part of the Requirements with effect from the date of publication. The BCAR also incorporates ICAO standards for international operation of aircraft. Joint Airworthiness Requirements (JAR) The airworthiness requirements of JAA countries are published as the Joint Airworthiness Requirements (JAR). It includes UK CAA. It replaces and supplants the airworthiness codes of JAA nations. It is accepted EU wide as the acceptable compliance to each member nation’s aviation laws. For example, UK accepts them as equivalent to BCAR. In addition to JARs mentioned under the BCAR heading, other important JARs are JAR OPS1 Subpart M: JAR 66: JAR 147: Airplane Maintenance Certifying Staff Maintenance Approved Maintenance Training.

Amendments are by the issue of Orange Papers which are published when Notice of Proposed Amendments (NPA) are approved by the JAA. The Orange Papers then become part of JAR and effective from issue date. Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) These are airworthiness codes of US issued by the FAA. Although DCA does not follow them directly, the overwhelming quantity of US aviation products and parts in the market gave them an important influence. It governs the conduct of maintenance and flight operation and technical rules of the civil aviation activities of the US and its territories. They consisted of 50 separate titles arranged by major topics, which are further divided into appropriate number of chapters. Each Chapter are divided into appropriate number of subchapters by topics. Each Subchapter is made up of individual Parts. The individual parts may be further divided into Subparts. The US government Federal Register publishes them. For example, the air carrier behaviour is governed by


i) ii)

FAR Part 119: Certification: Air Carriers and Commercial Operators FAR Part 121: Operating Requirements: Domestic, Flag and Supplemental Requirements

Any amendment to any FAR is preceded by an NPRM (Notice of Proposed RuleMaking). The NPRM is released for public comment. Once considered, the NPRM forms the new amendment to the FAR. As for harmonization purposes, the JAA has aligned the numbering of the JAR to coincide with the specific airworthiness FAR. Together the FAR and JAR, they form the dominant standards for global air laws. Below is the listing: Administrative FAR / JAR 21: Airframe FAR/ JAR 23: Normal, Aerobatic and Commuter Airplane FAR/ JAR 25: Transport Category Airplane FAR/ JAR 27: Small Rotorcraft FAR/ JAR 29: Transport category Rotorcraft FAR 31: Manned Free Balloons JAR APU: Auxiliary Power Units JAR VLA: Very Light Aircraft Powerplant FAR 33/ JAR E: FAR 35/ JAR P: Environment FAR 34: FAR/ JAR 36: Fuel Venting and Emission Requirements for Turbine Powered Aircraft Aircraft Noise Aircraft Engines Propellers Certification procedures for Aircraft, Products and Parts

Under Approved Maintenance Standards the following applies JAR OPS1 Subpart M: FAR/JAR145: FAR65/JAR 66: Line Airplane Maintenance Approved Maintenance Organization Certifying Staff Maintenance


Airworthiness Notices Airworthiness Notices are issued by the Department of Civil Aviation (DCA) to circulate information to all concerned with the airworthiness of civil aircraft. The mandatory matters covered in the Airworthiness Notices are either absent or insufficiently covered or highlighted by other airworthiness publications. It may also clarify the DCA’s interpretation of certain airworthiness matters. All Notices are concerned with matters affecting the airworthiness of civil aircraft; the colour of paper on which they are printed indicates the type of information contained there in: (a) (b) Pink Paper: Notice, which include items with a mandatory compliance requirement White Paper: Notices, which contain general information, administrative and technical procedures.

Of particular interest to the maintenance engineers are the 2 most important Airworthiness Notices, i.e. NOTICE NO. 3, TYPE RATED LICENSED AIRCRAFT, ENGINEERS AND MEMBERS OF APPROVED ORGANISATIONS CERTIFICATION RESPONSIBILITIES NOTICE NO. 10 AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE ENGINEERS LICENCES TYPE RATINGS Complete sets of Airworthiness Notices are required to be obtained by: (a) (b) (c) Holders of Malaysia Aircraft Maintenance Engineers' Licences Organisation approved by the DCA under the Malaysian Civil Aviation Regulations Operators of Malaysian Registered aircraft.

Under Civil Aviation Act (Amendment) 2003, compliance of Airworthiness is mandatory and non-compliance is subject to prosecution.


Chapter 2 Approval of Operators

6 – LICENSING OF AIR SERVICES Introduction If a flight involves carriage of passengers, mail and cargo for hire and reward, such flights are deemed as an “Air Service”. Under Part III of MCAR, the operator of such flights must be licensed. This includes flight instructional activities of flying clubs. Air Service Licence Scheduled journey between two places with at least one in Malaysia may only be operated if the operator has an Air Service Licence issued by the DGCA. Over flights across Malaysian by other operators from other contracting states, which have Transit Agreement with Malaysia, are exempted. Before an Air Service Licence is granted the DGCA will take into account of i) ii) iii) iv) v) demand of air transport in the area applied other operators service level in the area applied the ability of applicant to deliver satisfactory service safely, reliably, affordably and efficiently the type of aircraft used availability of qualified flight crew and maintenance support

During the application process a Provisional Air Service Licence may be given to the applicant prior to the issue of the Air Service Licence. The maximum period of Air Service Licence validity is 5 years subject to conditions lay down by DGCA and may be renewed. It may be revoked if the DGCA is not satisfied with the conduct of the operator. The Air Service Licence is non-transferable. Air Service Permit Non-Scheduled journey between two places with at least one in Malaysia may only be operated if the operator has an Air Service Permit issued by the DGCA. Over flights across Malaysian by other operators from other contracting states, which have Transit Agreement with Malaysia, are exempted. Conditions with regards of issue and validity of Air Service Permit are the sole authority of the DGCA and he may at any time vary or revoke any existing conditions and imposed additional conditions as he sees fit.


7 – AIR OPERATOR CERTIFICATE Introduction In addition to the Air Service Licence, aircraft flying for the purpose of public transport must be certified that such flights are operated safely. A Malaysian aircraft shall not fly on any flight for the purpose of public transport otherwise than under and in accordance with the terms of an air operator's certificate (AOC) granted to the operator by the DGCA. The air operator's certificate certifies that the holder of the certificate is competent to secure that the aircraft operated by him on such flight is operated safely. The guidance may be found in CAP360 published by CAA or JAR-OPS 1 by JAA. The Director General shall grant an air operator's certificate if he is satisfied that that person is i) ii) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) competent, having regard in particular to his previous conduct and experience, his equipment, sufficient in quality and quantity acceptable organization structure, staffing, sufficient in coverages and quantity maintenance facilities maintenance programme, and other arrangements, especially at line stations to secure the safe operation of an aircraft

The air operator's certificate remains in force for the period specified therein. Operational Specifications The Operational Specifications defines the way the operator conducts its flight and maintenance operations, defining specific requirements and limitations. The operator may only conduct flights for the purpose of public transport following limitations and requirements set therein. Together the ASL, AOC and the Operational Specifications are the necessary documents to conduct flights for the purpose of public transport. The Operational Specifications is the acceptable interpretation of the regulations for the operator. It details compliances with regard to i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) operating rules operating environment routes and areas of operation operator experience and capability aircraft fleet maintenance organizational structure.

Any change in the operator’s operations or fleet will result in changes in the Operational Specifications.


An example of an Air Operator Certificate (Malaysia Airlines)


8 – REGISTRATION OF AIRCRAFT Introduction An aircraft shall not fly in or over Malaysia unless it bears a common mark or is registered in— i) ii) iii) Malaysia; a Contracting State; or any other State in relation to which there is in force an agreement between the Government of Malaysia and the government of that State

A glider may fly unregistered, and shall be deemed to be registered in Malaysia on any flight, which begins and ends in Malaysia without passing over any other State; and is not for the purpose of public transport or aerial work; Any aircraft may fly unregistered on any flight which i) ii) begins and ends in Malaysia without passing over any other State; is in accordance with the "B Conditions" as per MCAR Second Schedule

The Director General may, in any special circumstances and subject to such conditions or limitations as he may think fit, exempt temporarily an aircraft registered elsewhere from the requirements. Registration of Aircraft The Director General shall be the authority for the registration of an aircraft in Malaysia. The following persons shall be qualified to be the owner of a Malaysian aircraft i) ii) iii) the Government of Malaysia; a citizen of Malaysia; or a body incorporated and having its principal place of business in Malaysia.

Upon receiving an application for the registration of an aircraft and on being satisfied that the aircraft may be registered, the Director General shall, register the aircraft and issue a certificate of registration The Aircraft Register shall-include the following particulars in relation to each aircraft: (a) the number of the certificate; (b) the nationality mark of the aircraft and the registration mark assigned to it (c) the name of the constructor of the aircraft and its designation; (d) the serial number of the aircraft; (e) the name and address of the owner of the aircraft (f) any other particulars as the Director General shall think fit.


The Certificate of Registration remains valid until i) ii) iii) change of ownership, permanent withdrawal of aircraft from use or destruction of the aircraft.

Registration Marking of Malaysian Aircraft All aircraft shall not fly unless they carry on them the required registration mark. For aircraft registered in Malaysia, the nationality will be 9M followed by a hyphen and then three more capital letters. These marks shall be of a size and type and its position required by the regulation of the country. In addition to these marks, a fireproof metal plate bearing the name and address of the registered owner and the registration mark of the aircraft. All aircraft owners and operators must comply to any additional markings requirement that is mandatory for aircraft operating on the Malaysian Civil Aircraft Registry. The Minister of Transport has directed that all aircraft owned by public companies in Malaysia be painted with the Malaysian Flag and the wording 'MALAYSIA' on both sides of aircraft fuselage, preferably towards the front or nose of the aircraft.


An example of Certificate of Airworthiness, note the details (Malaysia Airlines)


Chapter 3 Approval of Aircraft And Parts Design

9 - AIRCRAFT DESIGN CERTIFICATION Introduction An aircraft design must be approved by the Airworthiness Authority before it can be legally produced and flown. It must follow the Approved Design Standards imposed by the Airworthiness Authority. The airworthiness standards are generally mutually recognized by all countries in the world as per ICAO Annex 8. However the country to which the certified aircraft is to be exported may impose its own additional design requirements before it can be certified in the importing country. Aircraft Design Standards The aircraft design is such that no single failure of structures, components, or systems may imperil the airplane or its occupants. The fundamental premises are embodied in a strategy called fail-safe design. Single failures of any component or system during any one flight are assumed, regardless of its probability. These single failures cannot prevent continued safe flight and landing, or significantly reduce the capability of the airplane or the crew to cope with the failure. Later failures during the same flight, whether detected or hidden, and combinations thereof, are assumed, unless their joint probability with the first failure is shown to be extremely improbable. Fail Safe Philosophy Fail-safe design uses a combination of design methods. 1. 2. Design integrity and quality, including life-limits, to ensure intended function and prevent failures. Redundancy, fault tolerance, or backup systems to enable continued function after any single (or other defined number of) failure(s), for example, two or more engines, hydraulic systems, flight control systems. Isolation of systems, components, and elements so that the failure of one does not cause the failure of another. Isolation is also termed independence . Proven reliability so that multiple, independent failures are unlikely to occur during the same flight. Failure warning or indication to assure failure detection.

3. 4. 5.


6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Flight crew procedures for use after failure that enable continued safe flight and landing. Testability which is the ability to check a system/component's airworthiness. Designed failure-effect limits, including the capability to sustain damage that limits the safety effects of a failure. Designed failure paths that control and direct the effects of a failure in a way that limits its safety impact. Margin of safety that allowed for any unforeseeable condition Error tolerance that considers the adverse effects of foreseeable errors during the aircraft’s design, test, manufacturer, operation and maintenance.


FAR/JAR 23/25: AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC , COMMUTER AND TRANSPORT CATEGORIES AEROPLANES Introduction The standards prescribed by FAR/JAR 23 is for the issue of type certificates and its changes with regards to aeroplanes in the normal, utility, aerobatic and commuter categories aeroplanes. Aeroplane Categories Under FAR/JAR 23 Normal Category: Airplane with 9-seat or less excluding the pilots with MTWA less than 12500 lbs intended for non-aerobatic operation As in normal category and intended for limited aerobatic operation As in utility category and intended for unrestricted aerobatic operation Airplane with 19-seat or less excluding the pilots with MTWA less than 19000 lbs, multi-engined and propeller driven intended for restricted non-aerobatic operation.

Utility Category : Acrobatic Category: Commuter Category:

Any other type of aeroplane shall be subjected to FAR/JAR 25 standards. Aeroplane Categories Under FAR/JAR 25 Transport Category: Generally, any aeroplane not covered under FAR/JAR 23 will follow FAR/JAR 25 standards including any jet-powered aeroplane irrespective of seating capacity. There is no weight limit for this category. Scope of Standards For the issue of type certificates under FAR/JAR 23/25, the standards shall cover i) flight characteristics ii) airframe and engine systems requirements and performance iii) engine requirements and performance iv) structural performance. It must be demonstrated that the above standards be fulfilled in normal, abnormal and emergency conditions with sufficient margin for safety. Instruction for continued airworthiness including maintenance manuals and instructions must also be provided.


FAR 36: NOISE CERTIFICATION Introduction The FAR-36 is an additional certification in addition to standard type certificate. It applies to FAR-25 jet-powered or otherwise subsonic transport aircraft. Small commuter propeller driven aircraft are exempted from these standards. Noise Categories The noise requirements of FAR 36 for Stage 2 and Stage 3 aircraft include exacting test procedures and repeated tests to ensure statistical significance of results. In addition, the regulation provides for trade-offs, where noise levels exceeded at one or two measuring points are offset by measurements at other points. Stage 1 aircraft are the nosiest and are effectively banned globally. Noise measurement points are located as follows: • • • Takeoff 21,325 feet from the start of the takeoff roll on the extended centerline of the runway. Approach: 6562 feet from the threshold on the extended centerline of the runway. Sideline: On a line parallel to and 1476 feet from the extended centerline of the runway where the noise after lift-off is greatest. For an airplane powered by more than three turbojet engines, the distance is 0.35 nautical miles to show compliance with stage 2 limits.

Some of the stage 2 and stage 3 noise level limits are indicated below to illustrate the effect of aircraft weight, configuration, and design stage. Values are limits of effective perceived noise level (EPNdB). Stage 2 • • Takeoff. 108 EPNdB for maximum weights of 600,000 lb or more, reduced by 5 EPNdB per halving of weight down to 93 EPNdB for 75,000 lb or less. Sideline and approach: 108 EPNdB for maximum weights of 600,000 lb or more, reduced by 2 EPNdB per halving of weight down to 102 EPNdB for 75,000 lb or less.

Stage 3 • Takeoff. Airplanes with more than three engines: 106 EPNdB for maximum weights of 850,000 lb or more, reduced by 4 EPNdB per halving of weight down to 89 EPNdB for 44,673 lb or less. Three engines: 104 EPNdB for maximum weights of 850,000 lb or more, reduced by 4 EPNdB per halving of weight down to 89 EPNdB for 63,177 lb or less. One or two engines: 10 1 EPNdB for


maximum weights of 850,000 lb or more, reduced by 4 EPNdB per halving of weight down to 89 EPNdB for 106,250 lb or less. • Sideline: Regardless of number of engines: 103 EPNdB for maximum weights of 882,000 lb or more, reduced by 2.56 EPNdB per halving of weight down to 94 EPNdB for 77,200 lb or less. Approach: Regardless of number of engines: 105 EPNdB for maximum weights of 617,300 lb or more reduced by 2.33 EPNdB per halving of weight down to 98 EPNdB for 77,200 lb.

Noise measurements are mapped and form the aircraft noise footprint. The aircraft noise footprint is made up of contours of equal-intensity sound measurements. Below is the example for Bombardier Learjet 35 noise footprint.


10 - TYPE CERTIFICATION Introduction A commercial transport aircraft will only be developed if it is profitable. The process always starts with market surveys, discussion with potential airlines, world economic forecasts and if other competing aircraft could do the same job and if it is possible to be better than them in term of performance and economy. The proposal is called the “paper aircraft”. If the manufacturer decides to enter the market, engineering and manufacturing studies are now done to ensure that the aircraft can be operated and built economically. Component and engine vendors are now consulted and the “paper aircraft” is refined in term of its range and performance. As the “paper aircraft” design is finally agreed the aircraft design is said to be “frozen”. The typical aircraft is designed for a typical 30-year economic life, incurring huge investments for its manufacturer and the manufacturer’s partners’. After this, the manufacturer begins discussions with their National Aviation Authority to familiarize them with the impending project. This ensures there is adequate time to define the project, brief the participants on the design, begin development of a certification plan, and identify issues. Both parties are better able to forecast budgets and structure resources. Issues will be resolved before they become problems. Definition Type Certification validates the conformity of the design to the basis of certification. It applies to airplanes, power plants, and propellers. It may require up to 5 years for a new airplane design. It follows the Approved Design Standards such as FAR/JAR 23/25 and any additional conditions specified by the National Airworthiness Authorities. Basis of Certification The Basis of Certification is defined as all the required Airworthiness Standards needed to be satisfied for the proposed design. This is agreed by both the manufacturer and National Airworthiness Authority i.e. the applicable FARs/JARs or other applicable regulations. It determines the i) airworthiness of the proposed aircraft ii) required maintenance activities of the proposed aircraft


Airliner program progress chart


Conformity Once the Basis of Certification has been established, the Type Certificate applicant must demonstrate how the proposed aircraft conforms to the regulations and other stipulated conditions agreed by National Airworthiness Authority. This normally in form of i) ii) iii) detailed engineering report laboratory test data demonstration of structure, systems and component reliabilities.

The National Airworthiness Authority reviews and approves if found satisfactory. Flight testing After conditions for conformity are satisfied, the first few of the proposed aircraft are built. These aircraft known as the prototype aircraft will be used for the manufacturer’s flight testing programme.The flight testing establishes i) ii) iii) iv) flying qualities flight limits performance of systems and components in-flight crew procedures

After the completion of the manufacturer’s flight test programme, the National Airworthiness Authority will conduct their flight test programme. The National Airworthiness Authority may impose extra modification to the manufacturer as a result. The National Airworthiness Authority’s flight test programme will lead to the aircraft Flight Certification. Type Certificate When full conformity to the Basis of Certification has been demonstrated the design is awarded a Type Certificate. A Type Certificate includes the type design, the operating limitations, the Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS), the applicable regulations, and any other conditions or limitations imposed. The certificate consists of i) ii) iii) The Type Design which is ' the entire body of data including the drawing system used to define the airplane The Basis of Certification which defines the rules governing the certification that define the airworthiness of the design Substantiation, which is all of the conformity, flight test data, inspection results and other documentation


iv) v)

approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) which contains the operating limitations imposed upon the type design The Type Certification Data Sheet

An example of a type certificate Boeing 777-200 series (Boeing)


Changes to the Type Certificate Throughout the life of the airplane new design features are incorporated into the model. All this requires certification. The majority of the changes that occur are simple straightforward inclusion of additional or customized features. Type Certificates are amended when the change to the type design is not so extensive as to require a new certificate. This is done in the manner of original certification. Existing certification data are amended to incorporate these changes. When changing the Type Certificate only those items or features in the design that have not previously been certificated. must go through the process. Type Certificate Data Sheet The Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) documents the conditions and limitations necessary to meet the airworthiness requirements. It is a highly structured reference document maintained by the Type Certificate holder and published by the National Airworthiness Authority. It contains i) Holder of the Type Certificate ii) Basis of Certification iii) Powerplants iv) Fuel v) Limitations vi) Required equipment vii) Qualifying aircraft (prototype) serial numbers viii) Weight and balance ix) Minimum crew x) Maximum passengers xi) Service information Supplemental Type Certificate A Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) is issued for major design changes to a Type Certificate when the change is not so extensive as to require a new Type Certificate. Minor changes do not require an STC. Supplementary Type Certificate certification projects may be very simple or very complex. The Supplemental Type Certificate is additional to the aircraft Type Certificate. Typical examples of STCs are the installation of a new passenger interior, a new powerplant type, or conversion of the airplane from a passenger to a freight airplane by installing a main deck cargo door and cargo handling system. Supplemental Type Certificates are frequently very restrictive, limiting the design change to specific airplane serial numbers rather than a complete model series.


An example of an STC issued for re-engining of Boeing 727 series (Valsan)


Certification Documents The manufacturer after obtaining the Type Certificate may produce the said aircraft provided that the manufacturer is approved to produce the aircraft. The aircraft coming out of the factories is now called series aircraft and is recognized by aircraft fuselage serial number. The manufacturer delivers the aircraft to the operator along with these documents such as: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) a valid Certificate of Airworthiness an Approved Aircraft Flight Manual a current Weight and Balance Schedule an Approved Maintenance Schedule which contains instructions for continuing airworthiness Airworthiness Directives compliance status And other required documents as required by the customer’s Aviation Authority

Production Certification Only Production Certificate holders may manufacture the approved Type Certificate or Supplementary Type Certificate design. Production Certificate may be issued to i) ii) iii) Type Certificate holder Supplementary Type Certificate holder Licensee

It is not transferrable. It is only awarded if the organisation has an approved i) ii) iii) iv) an administrative system drawing system quality control system adequate production facility

The Quality Control should oversee the Production Certificate holder’s i) ii) iii) The Material review board Inspection programme Vendor control

Production Certificate holder may i) ii) produce duplicate parts perform repairs to produced aircraft/parts if so authorised


An example of a production certificate issued to Airbus allowing it to manufacture its own aircraft. Under what regulations does this certificate refer to? (Airbus) 31

Stages in an airliner programme: i) Market research leading to programme launch

Airbus’ CEO Noel Forgeard signing agreement with Richard Branson, CEO of Virgin Atlantic Airlines, launching the A340-500/600 programme. (Airbus) ii) After design is ‘frozen’, the prototype is manufactured

Here, in Toulouse, the A340 prototype is being assembled after all system tests has been successfully completed (Airbus)



Rollout of the first prototype

Here the finished prototype, is towed out of the factory (‘rolled out’) to be painted and flight tested. (Airbus) iv) Flight –Testing

Tests are carried out as per requirements of FAR /JAR 25, such as above, Vmu i.e. the minimum safe rotation speed. (Airbus)


Other additional tests, such as cold weather trials like this, conducted in Siberia, Russia, may be conducted. (Airbus) v) Delivery After all tests are successful, the A340-500/600 receives its Type Certificate and series production may start leading to its delivery to airlines. (Airbus)


11- CERTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT PARTS Introduction Many devices or parts are capable of being used on more than one aircraft. It is impractical and costly to require that a brake, for instance, be certified every time it is installed on a new airplane. The Technical Standard Order system is a means to reduce the bureaucracy and costs incurred. Technical Standard Order system (TSO) The Technical Standard Order (TSO) system provides the means for certifying a common device once. It treats appliances as unique entities isolating them from the type design. Devices need only be certified once. When a TSO-qualified device is included in the type design only substantiation of the installation is required during Type Certification. The appliance itself is already certified. Technical Standard Orders (TSOs) are developed, controlled, and published by the FAA /JAA. The standards used for TSO certification of devices are normally defined by accepted industry standards established by such technical organizations as the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA), Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). Qualification of a device under a TSO is similar to Type but on a much smaller scale. Substantiation data that demonstrate conformity and production capability are submitted to the FAA/JAA for review and approval. Once approved the FAA/JAA issues a TSO Authorization. This authorization is the design and production approval issued to the manufacturer. It is not transferable. Changes to the device or the manufacturing operations must be documented and the device requalified by amendment to the TSO Authorization. Parts Manufacturing Approval (FAA-PMA) The FAA may permit certain organisations the approval to reverse engineer some certified aircraft parts provided it could be substantiated with the appropriate engineering and manufacturing data. In addition to that, a fabrication inspection system is required. The PMA parts may not necessarily have the original type certificate holder’s endorsement. The PMA parts may be used as an alternative aircraft parts. Airworthiness Notice No 73 governs the use of PMA parts for Malaysian aircraft. It is restricted only to FAAcertificated aircraft. Only PMA parts with export airworthiness approval may be used. Acceptability of PMA parts lies with the user.


Chapter 4 Airworthiness of Aircraft

12 – CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS Introduction No aircraft shall fly unless i) there is in force in respect thereof a Certificate of Airworthiness duly issued or rendered valid under the law of the State in which the aircraft is registered; and ii) any conditions subject to which the Certificate of Airworthiness was issued or rendered valid are complied with. An approved Aircraft Flight Manual forms a part of this certificate. Certificate of Airworthiness shall not apply to flights, beginning and ending in Malaysia without passing over any other State, of— i) ii) iii) iv) v) a glider, if it is not being used for the public transport or aerial work other than flight lessons conducted by an approved flying school; a balloon flying on a private flight; a kite; an aircraft flying in accordance with the "A Conditions" or the "B Conditions" specified in the MCAR Second Schedule; and an aircraft flying in accordance with the conditions of a permit to fly issued by the Director General in respect of that aircraft.

Issue and renewal of certificate of airworthiness. The Director General shall issue, in respect of any aircraft, a Certificate of Airworthiness if he is satisfied that the aircraft is fit to fly having regard to: i) ii) iii) the design, construction, workmanship and materials of the aircraft, including, any engines fitted therein, and any equipment carried onboard which is necessary for the airworthiness of the aircraft; the Airworthiness Notices issued by the Department of Civil Aviation and, as the Director General considers appropriate,

having regard also to the code of airworthiness certification and procedural requirements from time to time in force under— (i) (ii) (iii) the Federal Aviation Regulations of the United States of America; the British Civil Airworthiness Requirements issued by the Civil Aviation Authority of the United Kingdom; the Joint Aviation Requirements issued by the Joint Aviation Authorities of the European States; and

the results of flying trials and such other tests of the aircraft as he may require. The issue of Type Certificates by DCA or other Authorities may satisfy the above.


With regards to above the classification of aircraft are for the issue of the certificate of airworthiness i) ii) Prototype Series new design one that is similar in every respect to the design of an aircraft for which certificate of airworthiness has already been issued


Prototype (modified) - one which embodies certain design features dissimilar with prototype and are subject to design investigation

If the Director General has issued a certificate of airworthiness to a prototype aircraft or a modification of a prototype aircraft, he may dispense with flying trials, if he is satisfied that the aircraft conforms to such prototype or modification. Every certificate of airworthiness shall specify the categories as appropriate to the aircraft in accordance with the MCAR Third Schedule and the certificate shall be issued subject to the condition that the aircraft shall be flown only for the purposes indicated in the said Schedule in relation to those categories. The categories are i) ii) iii) iv) v) Public Transport (Passenger) - Any purpose Public Transport (Cargo) Aerial Work Private - Any purpose other than carriage of passengers

Any purpose other than public transport

Any purpose other than public transport or aerial work

Special Any purpose other than public transport specified in the Certificate of Airworthiness except carriage of passengers unless authorized by DGCA

The Director General may issue the certificate of airworthiness subject to other conditions relating to the airworthiness of the aircraft as he thinks fit. The Director General may renders valid for the purposes of the MCAR a certificate of airworthiness issued in respect of any aircraft under the law of any State other than Malaysia. The certificate of airworthiness shall remain in force for such period as may be specified therein, and may be renewed from time to time by the Director General. Special Category For Special Category, the aircraft may be flown within Malaysian airspace only unless the flight over any other country is permitted by the Authority of that country Special Category may be issued for an aircraft if:


i. ii.

the aircraft meets the requirement of the TC except those requirements that the DCA finds inappropriate for the intended special purpose. the aircraft has no feature or characteristic that makes it unsafe when it is operated under the limitations prescribed for its intended use.

Special Category may also be applied to aircraft type-certificated under restricted category (FAR Part 21.25), which is used for special missions such as (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) the dropping of persons by parachute the dropping of articles for the purposes of agriculture, horticulture or forestry towing an article picking up and raising of persons, animal or articles aerial photography, advertising or survey patrolling (pipelines, powerlines) weather control (cloud seeding)

Malaysian aircraft may only be used for the dropping of articles, for the purposes of agriculture, horticulture or forestry, under the provisions of an Aerial Application Certificate. An aircraft may only be used for towing, picking up and raising of person, animal or article if there is an express provision in the certificate that it may be used for that purpose. An aircraft may only be used for the purpose of aerial photography or aerial survey if permitted by DCA. Normal type-certificated aircraft can fly under Special Category, if approved, under these conditions (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) production flight testing new aircraft flight test purposes to evaluate or qualify a modification. evacuation of aircraft from impending danger customer demonstration flights (new aircraft only) overweight operation

Permit to Fly A Permit to Fly may be issued for the following purposes: (a) (b) for aircraft that is not type certificated, such as experimental aircraft, amateur-built aircraft and kitplanes. for aircraft that conforms to a type certificate (TC), which is not recognised by the DCA such as Primary Category (FAR Part 21), BCAR Section S (small light aeroplane), BCAR Section T (light gyroplanes) and JAR 22 (sailplanes).


Categories of a Permit to Fly are as follows: Standard Aircraft type certificated in the Primary Category (FAR Part 21), BCAR Section S (small light aeroplane), BCAR Section T (light gyroplanes) or JAR 22 (sailplanes), flown for pleasure and personal use. Experimental Aircraft flown for the following purposes: (i) (ii) (iii) Research and development. Testing new aircraft design concepts, new aircraft equipment, new aircraft installations, new aircraft operating techniques, or new uses of aircraft. Compliance Flight Test. Conducting flight tests and other operations to show compliance with the airworthiness regulations. Operating microlights, amateur-built aircraft and kit-built aircraft.

Where an aircraft is eligible by virtue of its type design for the issue of a Malaysian Certificate of Airworthiness, the DCA will not normally accept an application for the issue of a Permit to Fly in respect of that aircraft. A Permit to Fly restricts an aircraft to flights beginning and ending in Malaysia without passing over any other country


A sample Certificate of Airworthiness (Malaysia Airlines)


Validity of the Certificate of Airworthiness A certificate of airworthiness issued in respect of an aircraft shall remain valid as long as i) ii) iii) iv) v) the aircraft, or such of its equipment as is necessary for the airworthiness of the aircraft, is overhauled, repaired or modified, in a manner approved by the DGCA any part of the aircraft or of such equipment is removed or is replaced otherwise than and with material of a type approved by the DGCA the completion of any inspection of the aircraft or such of its equipment as is necessary for airworthiness of the aircraft, and classified as mandatory by the Director General schedule maintenance inspection required by a maintenance schedule approved be the Director General in relation to that aircraft; completion to the satisfaction of the Director General of any modification of the aircraft or of any such equipment required by the Director General for the purpose of ensuring that the aircraft remains airworthy.

Renewal Procedure for Certificate of Airworthiness The following requirements must be satisfied before the renewal survey will be considered. (a) C of A renewal application (Form JPA-AP2) together with the appropriate fee must have been received by the DCA. NOTE: If the application for renewal is not received by the DCA at least 30 days before the expiry date of the current period of validity, there is no guarantee that a surveyor will be available to complete the survey in time to ensure a consecutive period of validity. (b) Submission to the Airworthiness Unit of the pro-forma as detailed in paragraph 4 of the Airworthiness Notice #2 at least 14 days before the aircraft is presented for inspection. (c) Mutual agreement with the Airworthiness Surveyor concerned as to when the aircraft log books and associated records will be available for inspection. (d) Submission of the required Airworthiness Flight Test Report and associated load sheet at least 14 days before the expected date of aircraft inspection unless otherwise agreed with the Airworthiness Officer concerned.


Issue of Certificate of Airworthiness for Export This is a document raised by DCA to inform the Airworthiness Authority of the country to be exported that in their opinion, the subject aircraft is airworthy in all respect. Upon application for a C of A for Export the current C of A must be cancelled. This will prohibit any further flights by the aircraft until the C of A for Export is validated by the country it is re-registered in, or replaced by a Certificate issued by that country. The C of A for Export is not a statutory document, either internationally under ICAO or nationally under the MCAR. When issued it signifies, as at the date of issue, that, except for those significant derogations from the requirements listed on the front; They are listed on the front of the C of A for Export: i) ii) iii) iv) Significant deviations from the Approved build standard; Derogations from DCA requirements, Additional Requirements, and Special Conditions; Mandatory modifications and inspections with which compliance has not been shown; In respect of equipment prescribed in the MCAR: i) Such equipment, which is fitted, but has not been approved by the DCA; ii) Equipment appropriate to the certification Category, where this is not fitted. The C of A for Export does not, by itself, give authority for the aircraft to be flown such authority may, normally, be obtained by a) The Authority responsible for airworthiness in the country in which the aircraft is to be registered may issue a Certificate of Airworthiness; b) The DCA may (in conjunction with the C of A for Export) issue a Certificate of Airworthiness such as would cover the delivery of the aircraft to its destination.


13 –


Introduction In accordance with Schedule 2 of the MCAR aircraft, which does not have a Certificate of Airworthiness valid under the law, shall fly under special conditions only for specific purposes. These are covered under “ A, B and C Conditions” of the Second Schedule of MCAR. General Rules for “A” and “B” Conditions These flights are shall not carry any cargo or persons beside flight crew except i) ii) iii) iv) operator’s employees who carry out system checks with respect to the aircraft during the flight manufacturer’s employees for the purpose of testing parts, engines and other components during the flight DGCA approved persons required to furnish test reports Any other persons involved in technical evaluation of aircraft or its operation.

Such flights shall not be conducted over congested areas such as cities, towns or settlement unless approved by the DGCA and must be conducted only within Malaysian airspace. “A" Conditions An aircraft shall fly under ‘A’ Condition only for the purpose of enabling it to: i) ii) iii) iv) qualify for the issue or renewal of a Certificate of Airworthiness the validation thereof of a Certificate of Airworthiness to carry out a functional check of a previously approved modification of the aircraft; proceed to or from a place at which any inspection, repair, modification, maintenance, approval, test or weighing of, or the installation of equipment in, the aircraft is to take place or has taken place for a purpose of renewal or validation of C of A proceed to or from a place at which the installation of furnishings in, or the painting of, the aircraft is to be undertaken.


An aircraft, for which the Certificate of Airworthiness has ceased to be in force by virtue of any of the matters specified in the MCAR, shall fly under ‘A’ Conditions only for the purpose of enabling it to: i) ii) proceed to a place at which any inspection maintenance required for its continuing airworthiness


iii) iv)

proceed to a place at which any inspection, maintenance or modification required for its airworthiness is to take place and in respect of which flight the DCA has given permission in writing; carry out a functional check, test or in-flight adjustment in connection with the carrying out in a manner approved by the DCA of any overhaul, repair, previously approved modification, inspection or maintenance required for its airworthiness.

Certificate of Fitness for Flight Before an aircraft flies under ‘A’ Conditions the aircraft and its engines shall be certified as fit for flight. This is effected by the issue of Certificate of Fitness for Flight. The period of validity shall be stated but shall not exceed 7 days. The Certificate shall be issued in duplicate and one copy kept elsewhere than in the aircraft. A Certificate of Fitness for Flight shall be issued only by the following: i) ii) iii) The holder of an appropriate aircraft maintenance engineer’s licence granted or rendered valid in the United Kingdom. A firm approved by the DCA under BCAR Chapter A8 and a JAR–145 organization where the Terms of Approval refer to particular types of aircraft. Persons approved by DGCA as per case-by-case basis

If the original airworthiness condition of the aircraft is affected during the period of validity, the Certificate shall be re-issued. "B" Conditions Such flights may only be undertaken under supervision of a person approved by DGCA and additional conditions may be stipulated as he sees fit. If the aircraft is not registered in Malaysia or any foreign state, the aircraft shall be marked in a manner approved by the DGCA. The aircraft shall only fly for the purpose of i) ii) iii) experimenting with or testing the aircraft, its engines or its equipment enabling the aircraft to qualify for the issue of C of A or the approval of modification of the aircraft proceeding to and from a place which any experiment, approval, test, inspection or weighing of aircraft to take place for the purpose referred to above.



“C” Conditions The operator of the aircraft shall be the registered owner of the aircraft who shall be the holder of an aircraft dealer's certificate issued under the MCAR. The aircraft shall fly only for the purpose of: (i) (ii) (iii) testing the aircraft demonstrating the aircraft, with a view to the sale of that aircraft or other similar aircraft., proceeding to or from a place at which the aircraft is to be repaired, tested or demonstrated as aforesaid or overhauled or modified; (iv) (v) delivering the aircraft to a person who has agreed to buy, sell or lease it., or proceeding to or from a place for the purpose of storage

The operator of the aircraft shall satisfy himself before the aircraft takes off that the aircraft is in every way fit for the intended flight. The aircraft shall fly within Malaysia only.




Introduction A Flight Manual is a document prescribed by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and is intended primarily for use by the flight crew. The Manual contains limitations, recommended procedures and information of a nature such that adherence to it will enable the level of safety which is intended by the Airworthiness Requirements and the Air Navigation legislation to be regularly achieved. The Flight Manual, by definition in the MCAR, forms part of the Certificate of Airworthiness. General Rules i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Flight Manuals and amendments thereto shall be approved, amended, and published in accordance with the procedures set out in the BCAR Chapter A7. These requirements does not cover kit planes and self made gliders All Flight Manuals shall be identified by a unique document reference number Flight Manuals and all amendments thereto shall be subject to approval by the DCA. Submissions for the initial issue or amendment of a Flight Manual shall be provided only through the medium of an Organization approved by the DCA, although the DCA may also amend Flight Manuals when necessary. The Applicant for the Type Certificate or Certificate of Airworthiness, as appropriate, for the Prototype or Variant, shall prepare and submit for approval such material as is necessary to keep the Flight Manual up to date until all aircraft of the type have been permanently withdrawn from service.

Amendments i) Amendments affecting the Flight Manuals of all aircraft of the type shall be prepared and submitted only by the responsible Type Design Organization or by the Primary Authorities. Such amendments shall, when published, take the form of replacement or additional pages. Amendments affecting the Flight Manuals of specific aircraft may be prepared either by the responsible Type Design Organization, by another Approved Organization, or by the DCA. Where prepared other than by the Type Design Organization, such amendments shall, when published, take the form of Change Sheets or Supplements.



A Flight Manual title page with Certifying Airworthiness Authority’s approval


A sample page showing graphically flight performance limits from an A330-300 Flight Manual


15- AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES Introduction Over the life of aeronautical products, defects affecting airworthiness are discovered. These result from design conditions not foreseen in the original Product Certification or manufacturing deficiencies. Many become evident only after years of in-service operation and are completely unforeseen. Structural fatigue or corrosion are examples. FAR/JAR 39 forms the basis of the procedures. Definition The Airworthiness Directive (AD) system is the medium for correction for any condition that causes the product to be out of conformity to the Approved Design Standards. An AD identifies the disparity, defines its particulars, and establishes limitations for inspection, repair, or alteration under which the product may continue to be operated. They are issued by the National Aviation Authority from either the manufacturer’s or the airline’s country. Airworthiness Directives effectively alter the original certification of the product. Thus, for example an AD against a Type Certificated product becomes a part of the Type Certificate. The Airworthiness Directives may also be raised due to change in aviation legislations e.g. mandating of TCAS and EGPWS. Distribution They are distributed i) ii) iii) telegraphically to owners and operators Organisations such as IATA, ATA etc. Foreign Airworthiness Authorities

Their availability can be checked through i) ii) iii) FAA ‘Summary of Airworthiness Directives’ CAA (UK) ‘Mandatory Aircraft Modification and Inspection Summary (MAMIS)’ CAA (UK) ‘Foreign Airworthiness Directives’

These summaries are used to check any outstanding ADs against a given type of design and hence the airline and the operator would not be excused for missing any ADs.


Contents of an Airworthiness Directive Generally the Airworthiness Directive is made up of several parts: i) ii) iii) iv) v) AD title Applicability Required compliance action Effective dates Compliance time

We will proceed to detail the contents Applicability of ADs An AD contains an applicability statement specifying the product to which it applies. It applies to the make and model set forth in this statement, regardless of the classification of the product or category of the Airworthiness Certificate issued for an aircraft. it applies to each product identified in the statement, regardless of whether it has been modified, altered, or repaired in the subject areas. The presence of any alteration or repair does not remove the product from applicability. Type Certificate and Airworthiness Certification information is used to identify the product affected. Applicability may be defined by specifying serial numbers or manufacturer's line numbers, part numbers, or other identification. When there is no reference to serial numbers, all serial numbers are affected. Effective dates The effective date of the AD or an amendment is be found in the last sentence of the body of each AD. For example, "This amendment becomes effective on July 10, 1995." Similarly, the revision date for an emergency AD distributed by telegram or priority mail is the date it was issued. For example, "Priority Letter AD 95-11-09, issued May 25, 1995, becomes effective upon receipt." The "clock" tracking compliance starts with the effective date. Compliance time Compliance with an AD is mandatory. No person may operate' a product to which an AD applies, except in accordance with the conditions of the AD. An airplane that has not had an effective AD accomplished within specified limits is out of conformity and is thus not airworthy. This is consistent with the definition of airworthiness discussed before. Compliance time is stated in various ways. Typical compliance statements include; "Prior to further flight, inspect..."


"Compliance is required within the next 50 hours time in service after the effective date of this AD..." 'Within the next 10 landings after the effective date of this AD... " 'Within 50 cycles...” to which cycle refers to the complete aircraft / components operating cycles. "Within 12 months after the effective date of this AD..." No person may operate an affected product after expiration of the stated compliance time. In some instances, an AD may authorize operation after the compliance date has passed, if a special flight permit is obtained. These are granted only when the AD specifically permits it. Recurring/periodic ADs In order to provide for flexibility in administering compliance requirements, an AD should provide for adjustment of repetitive inspection intervals to coincide with inspections required by approved maintenance program inspections. Any conditions and approval requirements under which adjustments may be allowed are stated in the AD. If the AD does not contain such provisions, adjustments are usually not permitted. However, amendment, modification, or adjustment of the terms of the AD may be requested. Alternative or equivalent means of compliance Many ADs indicate the acceptability of one or more alternative methods of compliance. Any alternative method of compliance or adjustment of compliance time other than that listed in the AD must be substantiated to and approved by the certifying Airworthiness Authority before it may be used. The alternative method may address either no action, if the current configuration eliminates the unsafe condition, or different actions necessary to address the unsafe condition. It may be stated in the AD itself e.g. an extra repetitive inspection in place of a mandatory modification. Reference to Manufacturer's Service Bulletins in ADs Manufacturer's Service Bulletins are normally not related to airworthiness. Incorporation of them is, therefore, not mandatory. However, when a manufacturer's Service Bulletin is incorporated, by reference, into the Airworthiness Directive accomplishment instructions the bulletin becomes mandatory. Thus any change in the details of the bulletin constitutes alternative means of accomplishment. Changes, therefore, must be approved.


An AD issued by French Aviation Authority for Airbus A330 (Malaysia Airlines) 53

16- AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES: DCA PROCEDURES When an aircraft is affected by a mandatory inspection or modification issued by Director General of Civil Aviation (DGCA), it is illegal for the aircraft to be flown (unless permission has been granted by the DGCA either generally or in relation to a specific case) until the prescribed requirement has been complied with. In the MCAR, a mandatory inspection and mandatory modification is the definition of Airworthiness Directives Compliance (i) For aircraft, engines, propellers or installed equipment for which Malaysia is the State of Design and the Certifying Authority, DCA will issue Airworthiness Directives (AD) which will be known as CAM AD.

A summary of CAM AD will be issued in the form of an appendix known as Appendix 2 of this Notice and the CAM AD will have the following numbering system, S/No - month - year, e.g. 001 - 04 - 1997. (ii) (a) (b) For aircraft, engines, propellers or installed equipment for which Malaysia is the Validating Authority and the State of Registry, the following will apply: Airworthiness Directive issued by the Certifying Authority or State of Design (formerly known as State of Manufacturer) of the aircraft, engines, propellers or installed equipment Airworthiness Directives issued by DCA which will be known as VAM AD.

A summary of VAM AD will be issued in the Airworthiness Notice and the VAM AD will have the following numbering system, year S/No e.g. 1997 - 002. Requirements Airworthiness Directives (CAM AD) issued by the DCA in accordance with paragraph 2 (i) are an obligation as Malaysia is the State of Design in matters that affect aviation safety. These Directives arise from various sources, e.g., manufacturers Service Bulletins, in service difficulty reports or a result of design investigation by the DCA. Airworthiness Directives (VAM AD) issued by the DCA in accordance with paragraph 2 (ii) (b) are intended to introduce requirements which have a direct bearing on airworthiness or operations but which, for a variety of reasons e.g. specifically Malaysian operating experience and are unlikely to be the subject of airworthiness directive action by the State of Design. With the issuance of CAM ADs and VAM ADs, Letters to Operators (LTO) will only be issued for non-mandatory information documentation or any administrative matters to operators.


17- AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES: CAA PROCEDURES UK Manufactured Products The following modifications and inspections are classified as mandatory: (a) Those notified in a C.A.A Airworthiness Directive. Normally the manufacturers service bulletin or service letter, which has been annotated with the statement "THIS MODIFICATION/INSPECTION HAS BEEN CLASSIFIED MANDATORY BY THE DIRECTOR GENERAL". Those notified in a C.A.A Emergency Airworthiness Directive Those necessary to comply with a mandatory Airworthiness Notice

(b) (c)

Information on mandatory modifications and inspections applicable to British manufactured products are SUMMARISED in MAMIS. Mandatory Aircraft Modifications And Inspections Summary (MAMIS) Published by the CAA, this document summarizes information originally promulgated by manufacturers (via Service Bulletins, etc.) concerning modifications and inspections, which have been incorporated to ensure continued airworthiness of aircraft manufactured and registered in the U.K. MAMIS is divided into 3 parts as follows Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Aircraft Engines and Propellers Aircraft Radio Stations and Instruments and Equipment

Non-UK Manufactured Aircraft and Parts For such items, they are published in Foreign Airworthiness Directives. This publication relates to foreign constructed aircraft and includes all the modifications and inspections published as mandatory by the Authority in the country of construction. The Airworthiness Directives are presented in three volumes as follows:


Volume I -

FAA Summary of Airworthiness Directives for aircraft of 12500 lb. or less (5700 kg) FAA Summary of Airworthiness Directives for aircraft of more than 12,500 lb (5,700 kg) OTHER FOREIGN

Volume II -

Volume III - Summary of Airworthiness Directives from ALL COUNTRIES

Each volume is divided into aircraft, engines, propellers, equipment, general instruments and radio and is arranged in alphabetical order. Volume I and II are published and sent directly to the u ser by the F.A.A. (Federal Aviation Administration). Volume Ill is published by the C.A.A. CAA Additional Airworthiness Directives These are specific requirements prescribed by the CAA for aircraft of foreign construction that are registered in the UK, and are additional to the requirements made mandatory by the Airworthiness Authority of the country of aircraft origin. The C.A.A Additional Airworthiness Directive, issued for Volume 1 and Volume 11 products, are printed on blue paper and may be filed at the front of the appropriate volume; however, it is more common to file them in a book specially provided for the purpose by the C.A.A., namely, C.A.A Additional Airworthiness Directives. This is an associated publication of Volume 1 and II. Additional directives for products in Volume Ill are incorporated in the volume by the C.A.A and are added to the end of each equipment entry as a part two to that entry. CAA Emergency Airworthiness Directives Issued for both UK and non-UK products if an airworthiness matter of an urgent nature needs to be addressed by affected UK registered aircraft, engine or parts. It is issued through telex or first class post. The CAA Airworthiness Directives procedures will be superseded by JAR-39: Airworthiness Directives


18- DEFERRED MAINTANENCE MEL / CDL Introduction The regulations' traditionally specified that all installed aircraft equipment required by the airworthiness and operating regulations must be operative. However, experience indicated that, with varying levels of redundancy designed into airplanes, operation of every system or installed component was not necessary when the remaining operative equipment provided an acceptable level of safety. The Minimum Equipment List (MEL) is a document established by the operator and approved by National Authorities of the operator. Operator's MEL is developed on the base of manufacturer’s Master MEL (MMEL) and customised by the operator as a function of its own operational policies and national operational requirements. The Configuration Deviation List (CDL) is a document approved by the Airworthiness Authority having certified the aircraft. The CDL is included in the Aeroplane Flight Manual. These documents allow operations with certain items, systems, equipment, instruments or components inoperative or missing as it has been demonstrated that an acceptable level of safety is maintained by appropriate operating limitations, by the transfer of the function to another operating component(s) or by reference to other instruments or components providing the required information. MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST (MEL) Definition A MEL provides the means to release an airplane for flight with inoperative equipment. The intent is to permit operation for a limited period until repair or replacement of the defective equipment can be accomplished. It is, however, important that repair be accomplished at the earliest opportunity rather than continue operations indefinitely with inoperative equipment. Nothing in the concept disallows the authority of the pilot in command. The pilot may require that any item covered by the Minimum Equipment List be repaired before flight.


Master Minimum Equipment Lists (MMEL) During type certification, the agreement between manufacturer and the Airworthiness Authorities formalizes the Minimum Equipment as the Master MEL or MMEL. The principal criteria used when adopting an MMEL item are that: i) ii) An acceptable level of safety is assured after considering subsequent failure of the next critical component within a system. Any interrelationships between allowed inoperative items do not compromise safety.

Once adopted, a list is subject to periodic revision. As operating experience is gained, revisions arise from needs from individual operators petitioning the Airworthiness Authority. There is no defined revision cycle. There is usually a separate list for each large airplane type; for example, the MMEL for the 737 addresses all model variants of that type design. Small airplanes are covered by a generic master list.



Operator Minimum Equipment Lists (MEL) MMELs are not intended for operating use. Rather they act as the source document from which an individual operator's MEL is developed. An individual operator's MEL when appropriately authorized permits operation with inoperative equipment for those aircraft listed in his Operations Specifications. The Operator’s MEL is developed to satisfy i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) MMEL Manufacturer’s recommendations Operator’s company Standards and Policies Operator’s general company procedures Operator’s Flight Operations procedures Operator’s Maintenance procedures.

Operator MELs will frequently differ in format and content from the MMEL but they cannot be less restrictive. Operators are responsible for exercising the necessary control to ensure that an acceptable level of safety is maintained. This includes a repair program embracing the parts, personnel, facilities, procedures, and schedules to ensure timely clearance of deferred items. Suitable conditions and limitations in the form of placards, maintenance procedures, crew operating procedures, and other restrictions that are necessary must be specified. In operating with multiple inoperative items, the interrelationships between those items and the effect on airplane operation and crew workload must also be considered. MEL Repair Interval As The MEL is not intended to provide for continued operation of an aircraft for an unlimited period of time. Repairs should be made as soon as possible within the time limit imposed by Rectification Intervals. Rectification Intervals (A, B, C, and D) have been introduced in accordance with definitions of JAR-MMEL/MEL Category A. Items in this category must be repaired within the interval stated in the operator's approved MEL. Category B. Items in this category must be repaired within 3 consecutive calendar days (72 hours), excluding the day the malfunction was recorded in the maintenance record (logbook).


Category C. Items in this category must be repaired within 10 consecutive calendar days (240 hours), excluding the day the malfunction was recorded in the maintenance record (logbook). Category D. Items in this category are those which are in excess of regulatory requirements. They include items that may be installed, deactivated, or removed at the discretion of the operator. They may be added to the operator's MEL but are not required by the MMEL or are required only for a given type of operation. These must be repaired within 120 consecutive calendar days, excluding the day the malfunction was recorded in the maintenance record (logbook). Dispatch of the aircraft is not allowed after expiry of the Rectification Interval specified in the MEL unless the Rectification Interval is extended in accordance with the following: A one time extension of the applicable Rectification Interval B, C, or D, may be permitted for the same duration as that specified in the MEL provided: i) ii) A description of specific duties and responsibilities for controlling extensions is established by the operator, and The Authority is notified within 10 days of any extension authorised.

Approval of Operator MEL When reviewing the proposed MEL , the Airworthiness Authority will check for the following: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Nothing is contained in the MEL that is less restrictive than the MMEL. Nothing contradicts the FAA approved Airplane Flight Manual Nothing violates any limitations and conditions stipulated by ADs issued against the aircraft Operations (0) and maintenance (M) procedures required by the MMEL are adequate A defined management control process for administration of the MEL

Deferral Procedures Once it has been determined that an item is deferrable, a decision is made to defer or fix it. This normally involves, at the minimum, station maintenance personnel and the pilot in command. However, in many instances flight dispatch, maintenance engineering, and a central maintenance control or quality control organization will be a party to the decision. Some airlines designate, in the body of their MEL, specific individuals or organizations that have deferral authority for each item listed in their MEL.


After the decision is made to defer, specific actions will be taken by various organizations. Station maintenance personnel will: Properly secure the deferred item in accordance with company procedures. Appropriately, placard the cockpit. Clear the aircraft log by transcribing the item from the airplane log to a deferred maintenance log or its equivalent. The deferred log is carried aboard the airplane and is available to the pilot in command. Notify the record-keeping function within the airline so that the necessary bookkeeping will take place, thus ensuring that the item is properly tracked and scheduled for later repair within allowable time limits. Notify dispatch and/or the pilot in command that the item is deferred. Notify any other organizations within maintenance that may be affected by the deferral; for example, main base stores, line station maintenance, central maintenance control. Dispatch and/or the pilot in command shall, as appropriate, Observe any special limitations or modified operating procedures attendant to the deferred item. Notify other operations organizations and line stations affected by the deferral. Maintenance control or other appropriate organization charged with tracking deferred items and scheduling will take appropriate action to clear the item from the deferred log within the allowed time for deferral. Refer next page for the process chart



CONFIGURATION DEVIATION LIST (CDL) Introduction During the course of operation, certain secondary airframe or engine parts may be missing from the aircraft. Normally these will be access doors, fairings and non-structural parts. Absence of these parts does not adversely affect the basic aircraft handling and performance. As such they are not considered as airworthiness items Definition Configuration Deviation List (CDL) is a means of releasing the aircraft with items missing from aircraft standard design configuration. Determination of items is done during type certification itself i.e. they have been flight tested during certification. The CDL is a part of the Approved Aircraft Manual. Handling CDL items Although the concept of Rectification Interval does not exist for the CDL, all CDL items are not allowed to be left unrepaired for an unlimited period of time as stated in the Flight Manual. However, a specific time limit is required in the dispatch condition itself for some items. Decision for repair is under the operator responsibility. It is company policy that every effort be made to maintain 100 % serviceability with rectification being initiated at the first practical opportunity. An aircraft must not be dispatched with multiple MEL/CDL items inoperative without the Commander having first determined that any interface or interrelationship between inoperative systems or components will not result in a degradation in the level of safety and/or undue increase in crew workload. In case of defect, engineering personnel will certify in the Technical Log adjacent to the appropriate defect the MEL / CDL subject title, system and item number together with any operational limitations. When applicable, operational flight plan, take off and landing performance and fuel requirement penalties must be taken into account due to inoperative equipment or component. When a CDL item is rectified, engineering personnel should make an entry in the Technical Log identifying the item and details of the rectification, including a statement that the CDL item has been removed.



DISPATCH DEVIATION GUIDE (DDG) Introduction With increasing complexity of aircraft and its systems, airlines reliance on the manufacturer for guidance for maintenance and flight operations matters has increased. Frequently it involves tricky MEL/CDL matters. With the advent of glass cockpit aircraft, the fault messages generated by the cockpit is now tagged along with possible defect, defer and troubleshooting advise. DDG is produced to help the airlines in this respect. Definition The DDG is a guide prepared by the manufacturer to assist to operator in i) ii) developing flight operation and maintenance procedures associated with the MEL guidance with regards to CDL items

It is NOT a legal document as it is only intended as a guide and they are reference document and will not meet requirement as a standalone MEL. It is advisory in nature.



19- CERTIFICATE MAINTANENCE REQUIREMENTS (CMR) Introduction An Approved Maintenance Schedule details all the maintenance needed by the aircraft to maintain its airworthiness. It generally boils down to specific maintenance tasks to carry out at specific time and intervals on the aircraft’s structure, component and powerplant. The determination of tasks and intervals is done by testing and analysis during the type certification itself. However as aircraft becomes increasingly complex, more and more functions is being done by the aircraft’s parts and components resulting in a very integrated aircraft. Systems are no longer standalone but rather communicate with each other. Subtle interaction between systems makes failure mode analysis difficult. A hidden failure in a system may cause a cascading failure elsewhere and may even lead to danger. As it will be almost impossible to test every permutation of latent failures of systems and subsystems, statistical and numerical analysis is done on the systems. As a result inspection routines are developed to minimise the probability of hazardous or catastrophic failure that may result from multiple system hidden failures. Definition CMRs are a set of maintenance actions that minimises the probability of hazardous or catastrophic failure that may result from multiple systems hidden failures. It is integral to the aircraft Type Certificate as it is included in the Basis of Certification. Compliance is mandatory. CMRs are listed in a separate document, which is referenced in the Type Certificate Data Sheet. The CMR document is included as an appendix to the MRB report. CMRs and Normal Maintenance Tasks Normal Maintenance tasks are done for safety, operational and economic reasons whereas CMRs are only failure-finding activity that limits the exposure of aircraft to hidden failures and to fulfil a defined maintenance level. CMRs and Maintenance Programmes CMRs are now classified into two types. i) ii) One-Star CMRs Two-Star CMRs


One-star CMRs (*). The tasks and intervals specified are mandatory and cannot be changed, escalated, or deleted without the concurrence of the responsible Airworthiness Authority Two-star CMRs (**). Task intervals may be adjusted in accordance with an operator's approved escalation practices or an approved reliability program, but the task may not be changed or deleted without prior Airworthiness Authority approval. Both short- and long-term escalation of CMR inspection time is now possible. Short-term escalation is a temporary extension beyond the required inspection for a specific period. This accommodates uncontrollable or unexpected situations that prevent the CMR from being accomplished within the required interval. Long-term escalation permits permanent increases in the required inspection time. This allows credit for in-service experience. But instances of a CMR task accomplishment repeatedly finding no failure may not be sufficient justification for deleting the task or increasing the time. This is most likely the case for one-star CMRs. One-star CMRs are not good candidates for long-term escalation under an air carrier's reliability program. If world fleet service experience indicates that certain assumptions regarding component failure rates made during original certification were overly conservative then one-star CMR tasks or intervals may be changed. Sufficient statistical data to substantiate a change will more than likely not be able to be gathered.


20- MAINTANENCE Introduction Recalling the definition of Airworthiness in Chapter 1, what we have covered so far is the design part of the aircraft’s Airworthiness. In the Certificate of Airworthiness, the statement “… is considered to be airworthy if maintained and operated in accordance with… “ implies that maintenance is the other important part of Airworthiness. The aircraft is delivered to the airlines along with the Approved Maintenance Schedule. Deterioration of the aircraft due to use and time factor cannot be avoided. If it is allowed to remain unchecked, will lead to non-conformity of its Type Certificate conditions. Or it may even lead to hazardous as well as a catastrophic event. Maintenance activities rectify these conditions and restore the aircraft airworthiness. Definition Maintenance is the actions necessary to sustain and restore the airworthiness of aircraft, its engines and equipment. Primary maintenance activities are i) inspection ii) overhaul iii) repair iv) replacement v) modification of aircraft, its engines and equipment to ensure conformity with the aircraft’s Type Certificate. Failure Management As aircraft are built to fail-safe philosophy, no single failure may cause a hazardous flight conditions. Normally MEL/CDL is part of that philosophy. Design improvements are another. To maximise aircraft dispatch, a strategy incorporating both design and maintenance management techniques is adopted. Systems are designed to be i) multiple redundant ii) fault tolerance, fail-safe, fail-passive and beyond the design certification requirements.


Fault tolerance It is a system capability to work satisfactorily without noticeable degradation in performance, with certain number of faults present. It depends on the number of redundancy, but at least two or more faults must occur before failure. The design allows uninterrupted and unrestricted operation following random component failures. Fault tolerant system generally i) ii) iii) contain at least a spare subassembly in excess of certification requirement provide very good fault detection / isolation capability automatically configure themselves without any noticeable cockpit effects when faults are detected internally providing fault-free operation


Chapter 5 Aircraft Maintenance Programme

21- MAINTANENCE PROCESSES Introduction Maintenance programmes and processes control the maintenance activities of the airline and its fleet of aircraft. The United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) recognizes three primary maintenance processes. They are i) ii) iii) Hard Time, On-Condition and Condition Monitoring.

In general terms, Hard Time and On-Condition both involve actions directly concerned with preventing failure, whereas Condition Monitoring does not. However the Condition Monitoring process is such that any need for subsequent preventative actions would be generated from the process. Hard Time This is a life-based concept. It is the oldest maintenance process. It is rooted in the assumption that reliability decreases with increased operating age. Its intended purpose is to prevent failure. This is a preventative process in which known deterioration of an Item is limited to an acceptable level by the maintenance actions, which are carried out at periods related to time in service. Hard time applies a fixed time and/or cycles (e.g. calendar time, number of cycles, number of landings) that an item is permitted to operate on an airplane. Upon reaching the limit it must be overhauled or replaced (discarded). Items selected for hard time should be limited to: i) ii) Simple items subject to only one failure mode Components or assemblies which have definite life limits (for example, metal fatigue) or whose failure could have a direct adverse effect upon safety if they malfunctioned in flight

The prescribed actions normally include Servicing and such other actions as Overhaul, Partial Overhaul, replacement in accordance with instructions in the relevant manuals, so that the Item concerned (e.g. system, component, portion of structure) is either replaced or restored to such a condition that it can be released for service for a further specified period.


Reliability-centred maintenance (RCM) processes The general application of the hard time process became outmoded as the industry matured and aircraft became more complex. A methodology evolved that is oriented toward mechanical performance, Reliability-Centred Maintenance (RCM). This is an analytically based concept designed to realize the inherent reliability of a design. It accepts that the operation of a component or system may fail between required inspections, and that the airplane may be safely operated until the next inspection reveals the failure. Its application is, therefore, limited to items whose failure during airplane operation will not have catastrophic consequences. RCM uses two dominant processes. On condition This also is a preventative process but one in which the Item is inspected or tested, at specified periods, to an appropriate standard in order to determine whether it can continue in service (such an inspection or test may reveal a need for servicing actions). The fundamental purpose of On-Condition is to remove an Item before its failure in service. It is not a philosophy of 'fit until failure' or 'fit and forget it. On condition avoids predicting hard time failure wear-out points. Rather, repetitive inspections or tests that detect potential failures are adopted. These tests call for the removal or repair of individual components "on the condition" that they do not meet a defined standard of performance. A determination of continued airworthiness may be made by visual inspection, measurements, tests, or other means without a teardown inspection or overhaul. The checks are performed within the time limitations prescribed for the inspection or check. Performance tolerances and wear or deterioration limits are defined in the Approved Maintenance Schedule. On-condition maintenance can involve bench tests and is thus not restricted to on-wing inspections. However, on-wing inspections/tests are preferred. On condition considers specific failure modes. It is based on the likelihood of defining some physical evidence of reduced resistance to the failure mode in question. Until that evidence is present, units remain in service. Condition Monitoring This is not a preventative process, having neither Hard Time nor On-Condition elements, but one in which information on Items gained from operational experience is collected, analysed and interpreted on a continuing basis as a means of implementing corrective procedures. The process applies to items that show deterioration over time. It consists of observing deterioration of a component or system as it trends toward failure. Explicit operating parameters of the device, which are indicative of deterioration or wear,


are selected. Collecting and interpreting these data “monitors the condition" of the device. This form of condition monitoring is best exemplified by engine condition monitoring. Parameters such as altitude, Mach number, inlet pressure and temperature, N1 and N2, burner pressure, and EGT are collected. These gas path data are normalized and plotted against time. They are compared against known specific deterioration pattern failure modes evidenced by these parameters. These are coupled with oil sample and vibration analyses. Accurate identification of incipient failures is thus possible, thereby allowing economical repair before the occurrence of extensive costly damage; it is most beneficial with high-cost items such as engine components. Removal, disassembly, or inspection is not required. ETOPS-type of operations is heavily reliant on Condition Monitoring for its continued operation.


22- MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME Introduction Based on the maintenance processes described before, the activities may now be grouped together a maintenance programme. It covers the whole spectrum of aircraft operation. Any maintenance that arises from schedule maintenance is called unscheduled maintenance. The maintenance programme is developed concurrently during type certification. The parent document that results is the Maintenance Planning Document (MPD). There are two primary methods in which the maintenance programme is developed. They are i) Hard Time methodology for pre1980 certified aircraft ii) MSG-3 Condition Monitored Maintenance for post 1980 certified aircraft Hard Time Methodology The manufacturer will analytically determine the maintenance processes required by each aircraft parts, components and powerplant. The basis of determination will be summed up as follows: Hard Time items are: (i) (ii) Where the failure of the Item has a direct adverse effect on airworthiness and where evidence indicates that the Item is subject to wear or deterioration. Where there is a 'hidden function' i.e. components that does not give any cockpit indications of its operational status; which cannot be checked with the Item in-situ. Where wear or deterioration exists to such an extent as to make a time limit economically desirable. Where component condition or 'life' progression sampling is practised. Where limitations are prescribed in a Manufacturer's Warranty.

(iii) (iv) (v)

On-Condition items are: Where an inspection, or test of an Item to a prescribed standard (frequently in-situ) will determine the extent of deterioration, and hence the 'condition', i.e. any reduction in failure resistance.


Condition Monitoring items are: Where a failure of an Item does not have a direct adverse effect on operating safety, and where Hard Time and On-Condition processes are not prescribed and no adverse age reliability relationship has been identified as the result of analysis of the data arising from a formalized monitoring procedure or programme. Condition Monitored Maintenance (MSG-3) Condition Monitored Maintenance, as a programme, is the formalized application of the maintenance processes Hard Time, On-Condition and Condition Monitoring to specific items as prescribed in the Approved Maintenance Schedule. The controlling activity of Condition Monitored Maintenance is Condition Monitoring irrespective of whether Condition Monitoring is prescribed as a primary maintenance process in the Approved Maintenance Schedule or not. Condition Monitoring is repetitive and continuous, the key factor in its use being the introduction of aircraft embodying failure tolerant designs, which allow for replacement of some traditional failure preventative maintenance techniques by non-preventative techniques. Condition Monitoring is not a relaxation of maintenance standards or of airworthiness control; it is, in fact, more demanding of both management and engineering capabilities than the traditional preventative maintenance approaches. Each Condition Monitored Maintenance Programme is required to be approved by the Airworthiness Authorities.


23- SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME (MSG-3) Introduction The Hard Time methodology is very expensive and did not significantly improve maintenance. Consequently, Condition Monitored Maintenance is currently preferred. Standards adopted are formally known as MSG-3. MSG-3 currently includes three revisions, the most recent adopted in 1993. Airplanes certificated during the 1980s and 1990s use MSG-3 for the development of scheduled maintenance tasks. MSG-3 is dominantly task oriented rather than process oriented. Objectives The objectives of scheduled maintenance are to i) ii) iii) iv) ensure safety and reliability of aircraft restore safety and reliability that was lost by deterioration obtain sufficient necessary to improve items with inadequate target reliability accomplish these goals at minimum costs including maintenance and costs of resulting failure



MSG-3 Methodology Administration Industry Steering Committee The Industry Steering Committee (ISC) establishes policy, supports, and manages the activity of the working groups. Members are composed of representatives from the initial customers of the aircraft and the airframe and engine manufacturers. It defines the number, type, and composition of working groups and coordinates activities with the certifying Airworthiness Authority, foreign regulatory agencies, and the manufacturers. It represents the interests of the airlines to the manufacturer and the regulatory agencies. A representative from the manufacturer and the airlines jointly chair the committee. It documents working group proposals into a unified maintenance inspection plan. This document is supplied to the Airworthiness Authority. The committee gets administrative and facilities support from the manufacturer. Maintenance working groups Working groups identify and analyze maintenance significant items, beginning with the original list prepared by the manufacturer. The number of groups is determined by the steering committee. Usually there are separate groups for each system, that is, hydraulic, flight control, structure, power plant, and so on. Like the ISC, each working group is jointly chaired by a representative from the manufacturer and the airlines. Manufacturer's involvement The manufacturer participates as a member of the various working groups. Additionally, before and during the formal deliberations of the working groups, manufacturers provide information concerning the component, systems, and structures design: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Identification of an initial Maintenance Significant Items (MSI) list Definition of the function, operation, and unique features of the design Provision of failure analyses (including cause/effect), reliability data Preparation of initial MSG-3 analysis including maintenance limits, tasks and intervals Preparation of training materials and presentation familiarization classes for the working groups and ISC


Regulatory agency representatives The Aviation Authority observers offer guidance and participate in the work of the steering committee and working groups. They are members of the certifying Aviation Authority Maintenance Review Board (MRB). Representatives from foreign regulatory agencies such as the FAA/JAA also directly participate in the process. Airline representatives The airline representatives to the process bring the airline maintenance expertise and perspective to the analysis. Specialists in systems, structures, and components are members of the working groups. They participate in the MSI analysis offering guidance, including recommendations for specific tasks and inspection methods. Schedule Maintenance Content MSG-3 has identified that the Scheduled Maintenance is made up of these two major items. They are i) ii) group of tasks maintenance significant items

Identifying these is what determines the maintenance actions. The group of tasks consists of routine/repetitive tasks such as i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Lubrication/servicing, which is the replenishment of consumable materials Operational check to determine that the item is performing its intended function within quantitative tolerance Visual check to determine that the item is performing its intended function but does not involve quantitative tolerances Inspection that involves visual or specialized techniques and equipment to determine serviceability Functional check or quantitative check to determine serviceability of function(s) Restoration, the work necessary to return the item to a serviceable condition Discard that which involves the removal from service at a specified life limit

And non-scheduled tasks which is the consequence of i) ii) iii) scheduled tasks pilot reports data analysis

The MSG-3 divides the tasks and MSIs into 4 sections i) Systems / Powerplant including APU’s


ii) iii) iv)

Aircraft Structure Zonal Inspections Lightning / High Intensity Radiated Field (L/HIRF)

Maintenance Significant Items (MSI) are items in which their failure will have an effect on the aircraft either its airworthiness or economic costs. Criteria for selection of an item as an MSI addresses the consequences of an item's failure including i) the effect upon safety, ii) the undetectable failure, iii) or the failure that has a significant operational or economic impact Each MSI must be clearly identified as to its function, functional failure, failure causes, and effects. MSI Analysis MSG-3 defines a methodology called decision tree logic. It is organized to uncover evident and hidden failures and to separate safety related to economic failure in the design. Methods for defining servicing and lubrication tasks are included. The list is analyzed for importance of the following: Safety-related items. Any system or component malfunction that results in the loss of airworthiness is by definition safety related. is the malfunction readily apparent to mechanics or pilots? Is it hidden? The answer to these and other questions help define tasks. Potential economic impacts. The analysis examines such issues as high initial design, manufacturing and ownership cost, high maintenance cost, premature removal rates, significant access problems, and potential for mechanical dispatch delays. The maintenance tasks are decided after the MSI analysis has been done on the complete aircraft, parts, components and its engines. Task interval definition Airplane designs assume a specific utilization and flight spectrum. The MSI analysis uses these numbers when developing the task intervals. Accumulated flight-hours, calendar time, number of system operating cycles, or the number of landings are the accepted measurements used when specifying maintenance intervals. Aircraft utilization is a significant element in determining when an inspection or maintenance task is performed. Cycle-influenced items The number of cycles per flight-hour affects the inspections and maintenance. Short flights incur more flight cycles. Cycle-influenced items include landing gear, wheels, tires and brakes, leading, and trailing edge devices.


Flight cycles are the principal determinants of structural inspection items. They impart stresses and loads on the structure resulting in fatigue. These include gust and manoeuvring loads and pressurization loads. Engines are affected by the number of thermal cycles to which they are exposed, particularly the application of takeoff power. Time-influenced items Items subjected to operating wear and deterioration are related to the operating hours they experience. Typical examples include systems and components installed in the airplane. Some items deteriorate not from use but merely the passage of time. These items are related to calendar time rather than airplane use; an example is emergency equipment. Maintenance recommendations The product of the working groups' activities is a recommended list of inspection, check tasks, and check intervals. Inspection intervals may he expressed as flight time, calendar time, takeoff/landing cycles, and pressurization cycles as may be appropriate to the item analyzed. The maintenance/inspection recommendations are assembled into a document called the Maintenance Requirements and Review Proposal. The manufacturer submits the proposal to the Airworthiness Authority. Maintenance Review Board report will be based on the recommendations. Maintenance Review Board The Airworthiness Authority convenes the Maintenance Review Board (MRB) for examination and approval of the proposal. Final issues are identified and resolved. Many of the members of the board are participants in the deliberations of the working groups. The product of this review is known as the Maintenance Review Board (MRB) report.

Maintenance Review Board report
The MRB Report is issued by the certifying Airworthiness Authority and the primary purpose of an MRB report is to determine the initial minimum scheduled maintenance requirements for new or derivative air planes. It should not be confused with, or thought of as, a continuous airworthiness maintenance program. It is the framework around which each air carrier develops its own individual scheduled maintenance program for the airplane.


An MRB Report for Boeing 767 issued by the FAA (Boeing)


24- MAINTENANCE CHECKS Introduction With the MRB Report finalised, the maintenance programme for the aircraft is approved by the certifying Airworthiness Authority. However MRB reports on its own cannot be used directly. As MRB only define the basic type configuration, it will not cover buyer furnished items such as customised avionics package and in-flight entertainment systems. Another document is needed before a complete maintenance programme can be derived. Maintenance Planning Document The aircraft manufacturers produce the Maintenance Planning Document (MPD). It supplements the MRB and is advisory. It includes buyer furnished equipment and is customised to suit the airline’s fleet. Some manufacturers will also include information from Service Bulletins, Service Letters and other sources. A scheduled maintenance program is constructed from the MRB report and the materials contained in the MPD. Included in the MPD are: i) ii) iii) iv) Maintenance labour-hours estimates for tasks Facilities and tooling recommendations Recommended optional maintenance tasks Administrative process and planning information, including packaging methods

The airline builds its maintenance programme around the MPD. Task cards The smallest unit in a maintenance programme is a task. These individual tasks are printed on individual card for action by the maintenance crew. Task cards translate individual inspections, checks, or other maintenance work into specific task instructions to be followed by individual certifying staff when performing work. They provide space for individual sign-off by the certifying staff accomplishing the work and the appropriate inspector sign-off for Duplicate Inspection Items. They are a part of the aircraft maintenance record. They are divided into two categories, routine and non-routine. Routine cards are those tasks defined by the inspection program. They come from the scheduled maintenance program. Non-routine discrepancy cards document discrepancies discovered during the conduct of a given inspection or other maintenance activity. They are ad hoc word instructions addressing the specific repair task to be accomplished. Deficiencies discovered during flight are not recorded on non-routine cards. Rather the pilot in the aircraft technical logbook or the cabin crew in the cabin log enters them.


Schedule Maintenance Package After all the required task cards have been generated, the maintenance programme can now be packaged to suit the airline and its operation. The airline’s local Airworthiness Authority before use must approve this package. Any change must also have their approval. These packages are rarely static and they will change during the service life of the aircraft due to additional items resulting from modifications and service bulletins items. Often these will result in additional maintenance tasks. Block maintenance Scheduled maintenance tasks are grouped into work packages known as blocks. The exact nomenclature, composition, numbers, and sequencing of blocks varies between operators. Thus the packaging program for an MSG-3 aircraft like A-340 or 777 is different from that followed by pre MSG-3 aircraft like 727/DC-8 and its generation. Regardless of its structure, the intent of any package is to level the workload, minimize airplane time out of service, and simplify the control of the tasks. Regardless of the means by which the tasks are packaged, all the required work defined by the MRB will be done when all the blocks defining the overhaul cycle are complete. A typical block is shown next page to demonstrate the concept. In this simple illustration, each block is a multiple of the next higher block. Each check covers all the work performed by the preceding check plus the tasks called for in the present check. Thus each succeeding check requires an increasing amount of work. A block of maintenance work is called a check. These checks are divided into: i) ii) iii) iv) service checks letter checks phased checks calendar checks

The service checks These are the lowest levels of scheduled check. They travel under several common names: post-flight, maintenance pre-flight, service check, overnight, number 1, number 2 etc. They are cursory visual inspections of the aircraft to look for obvious damage and deterioration. They check for "general condition and security" and review the aircraft log for discrepancies and corrective action. The accomplishment of the daily check requires little specific equipment, tools, facilities, or special skills. It is a basic validation that the airplane remains airworthy. Usually this check will be accomplished every X number of days or flight hours.



The letter checks Letter checks begin to open the airplane for more detailed inspection and test. Each different letter check, A through D, is more detailed requiring more time, special tooling, special equipment, and specialists to accomplish. The C and D checks are frequently referred to as the heavy checks. The content of each lettered check, for example the C, will not necessarily be the same each time it is performed. Consider a check item that has a large interval attached to it. This item is included in a given letter check but scheduled for say only every second, third, or fourth check. For example a 2C check equals the basic C check plus those defined X-hour items accomplished every other C check. The A check This lettered check is the next highest level of scheduled maintenance. It is accomplished at a designated maintenance station in the route structure or at the main maintenance base. The check includes the daily check. It further includes the opening of access panels to check and service certain items of equipment, which are scheduled at the A check interval. Some limited special tooling, servicing, and test equipment are required. Examples of A check items include: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) General external visual inspection of aircraft structure for evidence of damage, deformation, corrosion, missing parts Crew oxygen system pressure check Emergency lights operational check Nose gear retract actuator lubrication Parking brake accumulator pressure check Proper operation of master warning and caution verification

And various tests using onboard BITE checks The B check This is a slightly more detailed check of components/systems. Special equipment and tests may be required. It does not involve, however, detailed disassembly or removal of components. Contemporary maintenance programs do not use the B check interval. For a number of reasons, the tasks formerly defined for this interval have been distributed between the A and C checks. The following two-letter checks are traditionally known as heavy cheeks. They are accomplished at the main maintenance base of the airline where specialized personnel, materials, tooling, and hangar facilities are available.


The C check This is a detailed check of individual systems and components for serviceability and function. It requires detailed inspections and checks; a thorough visual inspection of specified areas, components, and systems; and operational or functional checks of specified components and systems. It is a high-level check that involves extensive tooling, test equipment, and special skill levels. The C check includes the lower checks, that is, the A check and the daily check. Examples of C check items include: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) The D check The D check, also known as the structural check, includes detailed visual and other nondestructive test inspections of the aircraft structure. It involves detailed inspection of the structure for evidence of corrosion, structural deformation, cracking, and other signs of deterioration or distress. Structural checks involve extensive disassembly to gain access for inspection. Structural checks are worker hour and calendar time intensive. Examples of structural check items include: i) ii) iii) Inspection of stabilizer attach bolts Inspection of floor beams for... Detailed inspection of wing box etc. Visual check of flight compartment escape ropes for condition and security Check of operation of AC BPCU Visual check of the condition of entry door seals Operational check of flap asymmetry system Pressure decay check of APU fuel line shroud Inspection of engine inlet TAI ducting for cracks Operational check of RAT deployment and system

D checks are missing from most MSG-3 initiated programmes. These check items have been distributed among the C check packages. Phased checks The scheduled maintenance items for a large airplane are extensive, particularly for the higher checks, C and structural. Consequently, the accomplishment of a C check or D block removes the airplane from service for an extended period. This incurs a lot of downtime. A solution is to divide the C and D checks into segmented blocks or "Phases." This amount to distributing, say, the C checks items among the more frequent checks. Thus each lower-level check will include a different group of C check items. Some operators, rather than distribute among the lower checks, have divided the C and D check items into a discrete number of packages that may be accomplished from night to


night. Although this approach will balance the workload, it has its drawbacks. As the number of phases chosen increases, it is harder to control and record the work. A typical phase check provides for a thorough visual inspection of specified areas, components, and systems as well as operational or functional checks of specified components and systems. Each check includes the requirements of traditional A check, multiple A check work items, and multiple portions of C and structural checks at suitable intervals. These phased intervals might vary anywhere from 200 to 800 hours, depending on the work-packaging plan and other airline operating variables. Calendar checks Some operators will repackage the items from a flight time-based system to a calendar time-based system on the basis of average daily usage of the equipment. The tasks are scheduled under a system of daily checks, weekly checks, and so on. Special inspection programs Additions to the scheduled maintenance program are augmented to accommodate specific tasks defined by such programs as Extended Twin Operations (ETOPS). Specialized navigation operations like flight operations using GPS as the sole means of navigation, or navigation checks to meet the requirements of the Category 2 or Category 3 instrument approach and landing operations require additional maintenance activity. Aging aircraft programme Initially, aircraft is built to have an economic life of 15-20 years. However, as the initial certification assumptions were very conservative, many of these high-time aircraft have been found to be still productive. Many have been converted in freighters and many are operated by budget airlines due to their low second-hand value. Many are more than 15 years old and some are even close to 30 years old. Manufacturers initiate special maintenance requirement for these high-cycle aircraft known as Aging Aircraft Programme. Supplemental structural inspection programmes High time/cycle aircraft have additional supplemental structural inspections applied to them. Supplemental structural inspection programs arose partly as the result of incidents involving a high time cycle aircraft. Requirements for these programs are contained in a document called the Supplemental Structural Inspection Document (SSID). Airworthiness Directives (AD) now mandates them. The SSID is a damage tolerance program based on flight cycles. It focuses on fatigue cracks. Airplanes that are designed to damage tolerance requirements must have an Approved Airworthiness Limitations Section as part of the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness. SSID inspection intervals defined as airworthiness limitations cannot be increased or decreased without Airworthiness Authority approval.


Aging systems programs The FAA is presently engaged to identify aging issues with aircraft systems and the possibility of requiring additional checks and inspections. Subjects being investigated include such topics as aging aircraft wire bundles, deteriorated electrical insulation, and internal leakage of hydraulic components. A taskcard example


25- MAINTENANCE PACKAGE Introduction In the old Hard Time methodology, the blocks are strictly enforced in the MRB. MSG-3 practice removes the packaging of maintenance tasks from the MRB process. When a MSG analysis is conducted only the tasks and intervals are identified. The packaging into manageable blocks is left to the airline. Frequently, the manufacturer helps out. Check packages The final item is to prepare a check package that bundles mandatory and discretionary maintenance tasks. Mandatory tasks include: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) The scheduled check (for example, the C check) AD note accomplishment Certification Maintenance Requirement (CMR) inspections Clearance of deferred maintenance MEL items Hard time changes of life limited parts Ad hoc maintenance such as corrosion control, structural repair, system repairs, component removal, and replacement Special operator- or manufacturer-initiated inspections

Discretionary tasks include: i) Service bulletin accomplishment to improve departure reliability ii) Installation of passenger acceptance, appearance, and convenience items or cost-reduction items, for example, interior refurbishment and exterior painting iii) Sampling inspections to gather data for task or check escalations, etc. iv) Component replacement for convenience v) Replacement of Configuration Deviation List (CDL) items Check package completion The completed check package is gathered together and all the task cards, reference materials, and parts are shipped out to the hanger. The certifying staffs do the checks and repairs and the aircraft is returned to service. Checks are scheduled for a specific number of days. The time allowed for a check must allow accomplishment of all the mandatory tasks and sufficient for completing unscheduled work arising from the inspection findings. Should the unscheduled work exceed the time available some work tasks must be discarded to accommodate the extra work. Consequently, mandatory check items will always take precedence over discretionary items. Discretionary items, which are discarded due to nil time, are normally listed as “Carry Forward Items”.


26- MAINTENANCE PACKAGE INTERVAL CHANGE Introduction The limits and intervals set in the operator maintenance programme is more or less fixed. However operational reasons may make this sometimes unfeasible, e.g. difficulty in obtaining spares, unforeseen operational conditions etc. Reliability analyses may also find that certain components maintenance intervals are too conservative etc. The first case may warrant a short-term extension and the second case a permanent extension of the check cycle. The procedures for both are called Escalation. Escalation Escalation is a maintenance process for interval adjustment of hard time and on-condition intervals using such reliability techniques as sampling, actuarial studies, component performance, inspector and shop findings, pilot reports, removal rates, and so on. It is based on the reliability program data primarily aimed at on-condition maintained items. Today a very limited number of hard timed items will or can be escalated. Inspections contained in the Airworthiness Limitations Section of the MRB document cannot be increased or decreased without Airworthiness Authority’s approval. If the operator adopts a formal reliability program, specific approval for individual escalation is not required. It is a structured, disciplined approach. Neither large incremental increases in inspection intervals nor large-scale abandonment of maintenance inspections is the norm. Short-term escalation Occasionally an operator through no fault of his own may be unable to accomplish a given inspection or task within the required interval or effect immediate repair. This frequently occurs because of schedule disruptions during the winter months. In the case of repairs, there may be difficulty obtaining the necessary materials. An operator may extend the required inspection/task beyond the required interval. This extension of time is known as short-term escalation. Under controlled conditions, short-term escalation for an individual component, engine, or aircraft may be used without affecting safety. Short-term escalations also permit scheduling of time-controlled tasks in conjunction with other scheduled tasks when the specified intervals are different but are within close proximity of each other. Short-term escalations is limited to the required need and limited to a specific airplane or component. They are not used to authorize deferral of a maintenance program item beyond the first opportunity to accomplish that


item without an interruption to the scheduled operation of the airplane. They may not be used to extend: i) ii) iii) iv) AD note intervals Life-limited part intervals specified by the manufacturer or identified in airplane or engine Type Certificate data sheets intervals specified in the Minimum Equipment Lists (MELs) Airworthiness limitations

Close monitoring of escalation is required to prevent unsound maintenance practices, maintenance program deficiencies, or poor management decisions. Supplemental or additional checks may be required to assure airworthiness during the escalation period. Escalations must not cause items not covered by the escalation to exceed their maintenance intervals. Operators using a reliability program do not require prior approval before using escalation. They must, however, inform their Airworthiness Authority of escalation as soon as possible after as escalation is put into effect. Concession procedures are required. Short-term escalation for operators not under a reliability program must be approved in the Operations Specifications. Short-term escalation intervals are either a percentage of existing intervals for a particular inspection, or designated in hours of service, in cycles, or in other increments. Except under certain conditions, maximum time for escalation is 500 hours time in service or its equivalent. It should be noted that short-term escalation is now allowed for Certification Maintenance requirements. Permanent escalations As aircraft matures in service, reliability data of its customer airlines user is accumulated from in-service experience. The manufacturer may recommend an escalation of the aircraft check periods based on global data reliability analyses. This will ultimately lead to changes in the Maintenance Planning Document. The airlines alter their maintenance programme to suit. The aircraft spends less time for maintenance. See next page for example.



27- AMENDMENTS TO MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME General Routine changes to the program such as interval adjustments or the content of the manual system may not require specific approval of the changes. However, the local Airworthiness Authority will monitor this activity. The amendment of a airline’s maintenance program requiring extensive revision and in some cases specific local Airworthiness Authority approval is caused by many factors. Notable examples include: i) ii) iii) iv) v) The addition of an airplane into the certificate holder's fleet Increases in time intervals for scheduled inspection items arising from reliability programs (escalation) Aircraft leases, interchange agreements Changes to third-party service and maintenance providers Parts borrowing and pooling arrangements

Adding aircraft to program The addition of a new aircraft type into a maintenance program is straightforward, particularly a new type design which has not proved itself in service. Under these circumstances, the amendment consists of incorporating the 777 maintenance MRB report into the maintenance program and the Operations Specifications. Appropriate changes to facilities, quality programs, and so forth, are accomplished. However, the MRB report is a generic listing of maintenance tasks without regard either to airplane configuration or to the areas, routes, and types of operations in which a specific carrier will operate the airplane. Therefore, a maintenance program may be initially adjusted over the MRB requirements to meet these unique air carrier environments. They arise from the reliability program. The result may be more inspection tasks or the imposition of an inspection interval which is lower than the MRB report. When an airplane is transferred from one maintenance program to another because of a sale or lease, the principal activity is to adjust the inspection intervals to the program the airplane is being transferred to. Bridging Check/Proration Proration is the process for adjusting hard time and on-condition intervals when transferring an airplane or component from one continuous airworthiness maintenance program to another. Consider the following simple example.


Pump xx-xxxx-1 is hard timed at 5,000 hours under program A, The pump is transferred to maintenance program B which hard times this same pump at 9,000 hours, What is the time on the pump when it transfers to program B? 4,000/5,000 = X19,000 X = (4,000/5,000)(9,000) = 7,200 hours Proration is also used when purchasing used equipment, entering leases and allocating maintenance cost between two operators. These are frequently used for integration of a long-term lease aircraft or a newly acquired second-hand aircraft into the airlines fleet. For short-term leases it may be more cost-effective just to retain the particular aircraft’s maintenance programme. Manufacturer’s amendments to the Maintenance Programme We have briefly discussed this under escalation topic. The initial assumption on the MRB report cannot foretell every failure modes or all unexpected behaviour of the aircraft. Also during the intervening years of service, new product enhancements, global inservice reliability data may give grounds for amendments to the Maintenance Programme. The Industrial Steering Committee (ISC) will consider these inputs. These inputs are a basis to the amendments to the Maintenance Programme. The certifying Airworthiness Authority approval through the Maintenance Review Board will be in the issue of an amended Maintenance Review Board Report. The manufacturer will then produce an amended Maintenance Planning Document, a guide. The airline then amends its Maintenance Programme and submits it to the local Airworthiness Authority for approval before being used. See next page for typical example.



28 – DCA APPROVAL OF A MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME Introduction Aircraft registered in Malaysia in the Transport on Aerial Work category shall be maintained in accordance of an approved maintenance programme. The maintenance programme is satisfied with the requirements of maintenance schedule approved by Director General. General Rules When compiling the schedule the aircraft operator is to take into factors as the areas and routes over which the various types of aircraft are to be operated, frequency of operations and types of equipment necessary for operation. These factors therefore give variations between schedule contents. The schedule should contain the following, Reference Number, Issue Number, Date Registered Name and Address of the Operator Type of Aircraft, Engines, Propellers Areas of operation Provision for Recording Schedule Amendments Reference to the source of the content of the schedule e.g. MRB, MPD, Maintenance Manual. Check cycle criteria. The criteria for ‘packaging ’ checks shall be described ((e.g. A Check – 400FH,,B Check – 800 FH etc..). The layout of a maintenance schedule must confirm with A.T.A 100 specification. The schedule will state the periods at which the aircraft, engines, auxiliary power unit, propeller, components accessories, equipment, electrical, and radio apparatus and all associated systems shall be inspected, together with the type and degree of inspection stated. Periods, at which these items shall be checked, cleaned, lubricated and tested. Periods at which overhauls or replacement shall be made. When the schedule is approved by the Director General, one copy will be retained by the Director General and the other returned to the operator with the APPROVAL DOCUMENT. The document details the conditions under which the approval is granted the way to certificate the maintenance, and times at which such certificates to be issued.


PERMITTED VARIATIONS TO MAINTENANCE PERIODS The operator or their contracted Maintenance Organisation, may vary the periods prescribed by the Maintenance Schedule provided that such variations are not included in the manufacturer's programme within the limits stipulated. These apply to aircraft above 2730KG MTWA not operated for Transport and Aerial Work Variations shall be permitted only when the periods prescribed by the manufacturer cannot be complied with due to circumstances which could not reasonably have been foreseen by the Operator or by the contracted Maintenance Organisation. The decision to vary any of the prescribed periods with the exception of the Annual Maintenance Review shall be taken only by the Chief Inspector/Quality Manager or person of equivalent status acceptable as a signatory for the prescribed check, on behalf of the Operator or the contracted Maintenance Organisation. Particulars of every variation so made shall be entered in the appropriate Log Book(s). a) Items Controlled by Flying Hours Period Involved Maximum Variation of the Prescribed Period i) 5000 flying hours or less 10% ii) More than 5000 flying hours 500 flying hours b) Items Controlled by Calendar Time Period Involved Maximum Variation of the Prescribed Period i) 1 year or less 10% or 1 month, whichever is the lesser ii) More than 1 year but not 2 months exceeding 3 years iii) More than 3 years 3 months c) Items Controlled by Landing/Cycles Period Involved Maximum Variation of the Prescribed Period i) 500 landings/cycles or less 10% or 25 landings/cycles, whichever is the lesser ii) More than 500 landings/cycles 10% or 50 landings/cycles, whichever is the lesser d) Items Controlled by More Than One Limit. For items controlled by more than one limit, e.g. items controlled by flying hours and calendar time or flying hours and landings/cycles, the more restricted limit shall be applied.


29 – CERTIFICATE OF MAINTENANCE REVIEW Introduction An aircraft registered in the Malaysia in respect of which a Certificate of Airworthiness in the Transport Category (Passenger), Transport Category (Cargo) or Aerial Work Category and Private is in force, shall be subject to a maintenance review at intervals specified in the Approved Maintenance Schedule or the relevant Approval Document of the Maintenance Schedule, as appropriate. At the completion of a review, a Certificate of Maintenance Review shall be issued. General Rules The Signatory shall only issue a Certificate of Maintenance Review when satisfied, at the time of the review, that the following aspects of maintenance have been carried out: i) All maintenance specified in the Approved Maintenance Schedule has been carried out within the prescribed time period and any extension to limiting periods is in accordance with DCA approved procedures. ii) All modifications and inspections deemed mandatory by the DCA have been carried out within the prescribed time periods and any extension to limiting periods has been authorized by the DCA. Due account must be taken of any repetitive inspections. iii) All defects entered in the Technical Log have been rectified or deferred in accordance with DCA Approved procedures. iv) All Certificates of Release to Service required have been issued in accordance with the procedures of BCAR A6–7 The time intervals for the Certificate of Maintenance Review will be specified on a calendar ‘not exceed’ basis only and therefore, it is not necessarily intended to align with any check except for the renewal of the certificate of airworthiness. The issue of Certificate of Maintenance Review should not exceed 4 calendar months for all aircraft type except for private category aircraft of less than 2730kg MTWA, which shall not exceed 1 year. The Certificate of Maintenance Review requires only one signature. Certification of Maintenance Review Signatories A Certificate of Maintenance Review shall be issued only by: i) the holder of an aircraft maintenance engineer’s licence granted under the MCAR being a licence which entitles the holder to issue that certificate and possessing a Type Rated Licence valid in at least two categories (other than Category X Compasses), each category being appropriate to the particular aircraft type.


ii) iii)

A person whom the DCA has authorized to issue a Certificate of Maintenance Review in a particular case and in accordance with that authority; or a person authorized by an Organization Approved by the DCA as being competent to issue such a certificate and in accordance with that Authorization and Approval.

The signatories for the certificate of maintenance review for an Approved Organization can be found in the approval letter of the approved maintenance schedule. A certificate of maintenance review shall be issued in duplicate. One copy of the most recently issued certificate shall be carried in the aircraft and the operator elsewhere than in the aircraft shall keep the other. The operator of the aircraft shall preserve each certificate of maintenance review for a period of two years after it has been issued. The certificate of maintenance review procedures does not apply to operators operating under JAR-OPS 1 Subpart M: Maintenance.



Chapter 6 Release to Service



Introduction A technical log shall be maintained in respect of a Malaysian aircraft if in relation to such aircraft a certificate of airworthiness in either the transport or in the aerial work category is in force. This is stated in Regulation 29 of the MCAR. General Rules At the end of every flight by an aircraft, the commander of the aircraft shall enter— (i) (ii) (iii) the times when the aircraft took off and landed; particulars of any defect which is known to him and which affects the airworthiness or safe operation of the aircraft, or if no such defect is known to him, an entry to that effect shall be made; and such other particulars in respect of the airworthiness or operation of the aircraft as the Director General may require,

in a technical log, or in the case of an aircraft of which the authorised maximum total weight does not exceed 2,730 kilogrammes and which in private or special category, in such other record as shall be approved by the Director General. The commander shall in such a case sign and date the entries provided that in the case of a number of consecutive flights, each of which begins and ends— (i) (ii) (iii) within the same period of twenty-four hours: at the same aerodrome, except where each such flight is for the purpose of dropping or projecting any material for agricultural, public health or similar purposes; and with the same person as commander of the aircraft,

the commander of an aircraft may except where he becomes aware of any detect during an earlier flight, make the entries as aforesaid in a technical log at the end of the last of such consecutive flights. Upon the rectification of any defect which has been entered in a technical log a person issuing a certificate of release to service required in respect of that defect shall enter the certificate in the technical log in such a position as it will be readily identifiable with the defect to which it relates.


Basic Technical Log Requirements The Technical Log shall contain the following: i) ii) iii) A Title Page with the registered name and address of the Operator, the aircraft type and the full international registration marks of the aircraft; A valid Certificate of Maintenance Review A Maintenance Statement of the next inspection due, to comply with the inspection cycle of the Approved Maintenance Schedule and any out of phase inspection or component change due before that time;

A readily identifiable section containing sector record pages. Each page shall be preprinted with the Operator’s name and page serial number and shall make provision for recording the following: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) The aircraft type and registration mark; The date and place of take-off and landing; The times at which the aircraft took off and landed; Particulars of any defect in any part of the aircraft affecting the airworthiness or safe operation of the aircraft which is known to the Commander or, if no such defect is known to him, an entry to that effect; The date and signature of the Commander following completion of item The arrival fuel state; A Certificate of Release to Service in respect of any work carried out for the rectification of defects. This certificate shall be entered in such a position and manner as to be readily identifiable with the entry of the defect to which it relates; The quantities of fuel and oil uplifted, and the quantity available in each tank, or combination of tanks, at the beginning of each flight; The running total of flying hours, such that the hours to the next inspection can be readily determined; Provision for pre-flight and daily inspection signatures; The times when ground de-icing was started and completed.

A readily identifiable section containing acceptable deferred defect record pages. Each page shall be pre-printed with the Operator’s name and page serial number and shall make provision for recording the following: i) ii) iii) iv) A cross-reference for each deferred defect such that the original defect can be clearly identified in the sector record page section; The original date of occurrence of the defect deferred; Brief details of the defect; A cross-reference for each deferred defect such that the action in respect of such deferred defect can be readily identified on the sector record page.



Retention of Records The technical log shall be carried in the aircraft as required and copies of the entries shall be kept on the ground: In the case of an aeroplane of which the authorized maximum total weight does not exceed 2,730 kilogrammes or a helicopter, if it is not reasonably practicable for the copy of the technical log to be kept on the ground, it may be carried in the aeroplane or helicopter, as the case may be, in a container approved by the Director General for that purpose. A technical log or such other approved record required by MCAR shall be preserved by the operator of the aircraft to which it relates until a date two years after the aircraft has been destroyed or has been permanently withdrawn from use, or for such shorter period as the Director General may permit in a particular case. Adequate arrangements shall be made to extract information recorded in the Technical Log for use by the Maintenance Organisation and Component Overhaul Organisation.



31 -


Introduction In accordance with the MCAR an aircraft registered in Malaysia being an aircraft in respect of which a Certificate of Airworthiness issued or rendered valid under the MCAR is in force, shall not fly unless there is in force a Certificate of Release to Service issued in respect of any overhauls, repairs, replacements, modifications, maintenance, mandatory inspections or scheduled maintenance inspections to the aircraft or any part of the aircraft or such of its equipment as is necessary for the airworthiness of the aircraft. Inspections, Overhauls, Modifications, Repairs and Replacements Inspections, overhauls, modifications, repairs, and replacements shall be carried out in accordance with the Approved Manuals, drawings and schedules related thereto and any other documents required or recognised, by the DCA. Inspections, overhaul, modification, repair, and replacement work shall be supervised by an Organisation approved by the DCA for the purpose (as per BCAR Sub–section A8) or by an appropriately licensed aircraft maintenance engineer. Certificate of Release to Service A Certificate of Release to Service shall be issued after overhauls, modifications, repairs, replacements, modifications and mandatory inspections have been carried out on an aircraft, which is registered in the Malaysia and has a Certificate of Airworthiness in force, except as follows: i) A Certificate of Release to Service is not required for certain prescribed repairs or replacement carried out on an aircraft not exceeding 2730 kg MWTA with a Certificate of Airworthiness in the Private or Special Categories, provided the work has been carried out personally by the owner or Operator holding a pilot’s licence. If a repair or replacement of a part of an aircraft is carried out when the aircraft is at such a place that it is not reasonably practicable a. to carry out the work in a manner that a Certificate of Release to Service may be issued, or b. for the Certificate to be issued at that particular place, the Commander may fly the aircraft, to the nearest place at which a Certificate may be issued.


A Certificate of Release to Service shall only be issued for a particular inspection, overhaul, modification, repair or replacement when the signatory is (signatories are) satisfied that the work has been properly carried out, having due regard to the use of: a) up-to-date instructions including manuals, drawings, specifications, DCA mandatory modifications/inspections and company procedures; 108

b) c)

recommended tooling and test equipment which is currently calibrated where applicable; and a working environment appropriate to the work being carried out.

The Certificate of Release to Service shall contain particulars of the work done or the inspection completed and the organisation and place at which the work was carried out. Depending upon the application of the certificated, details of the aircraft type, registration, component type, part number and serial number shall be recorded as applicable. The certification shall be worded in the following manner: ‘The work recorded above has been carried out in accordance with the requirements of the MCAR for the time being in force and in that respect the aircraft/ equipment is considered fit for release to service.’ Mandatory inspections are those inspections classified as mandatory by the DCA, where the inspection itself is the work. For Organisations Approved in accordance with MCAR , the certification may be issued in accordance with procedures specified in the Organisation Exposition. For aircraft operated for the purpose of Commercial Air Transport under JAR-OPS 1, a Certificate of Release to Service shall only be issued by appropriately authorised staff on behalf of the JAR –145 Approved Maintenance Organisation,in accordance with procedures specified in the Maintenance Organisation Exposition. For Non Commercial Transport purposes, a Certificate of Release to Service shall be issued only by one of the following:
i) ii)



v) vi)

The holder of an aircraft maintenance engineer ’s licence granted under the MCAR, being a licence, which entitles the holder to issue that certificate. The holder of an aircraft maintenance engineer ’s licence granted under the law of a country other than the Malaysia and rendered valid under the MCAR in accordance with the privileges endorsed on the licence. The holder of an aircraft maintenance engineer ’s licence granted under the law of any such country as may be prescribed in accordance with the privileges endorsed on the licence and subject to any conditions which may be prescribed. The holder of an aircraft maintenance engineer’s licence or authorisation as such an engineer granted or issued by or under the law of any Contracting State other than the Malaysia in which the overhaul, repair, replacement, modification or inspection has been carried out,but only in respect of aircraft of which the Maximum Total Weight Authorised does not exceed 2730 kg and in accordance with the privileges endorsed on the licence. A person, Approved by the DCA as being competent to issue such Certificates,and in accordance with that Approval. A person Authorised by the DCA to issue the Certificate in a particular case,and in accordance with that authority. 109


A person Authorised by an Organisation Approved as being competent to issue such a certificate and in accordance with that Authorisation and Approval.

In relation only to the adjustment and compensation of direct reading magnetic compasses, the holder of an Airline Transport Pilot’s Licence (Aeroplanes) or a Flight Navigator ’s Licence granted or rendered valid under the MCAR may also issue a Certificate of Release to Service.




Definitions Vital Point. Any point on an aircraft at which single mal-assembly could lead to catastrophe, i.e. result in loss of aircraft and/or in fatalities. Certain parts in an aircraft ’s structure or system (including controls and control systems) which are vital to the safety of the aircraft, are not only designed to achieve the appropriate high integrity but are also dependent upon specified maintenance actions to safeguard their integrity throughout the life of the aircraft. For such parts normal inspection procedures and techniques may not provide verification with a sufficiently high degree of confidence, and it will be necessary for two independent (duplicate) inspections to be carried out after initial assembly, or re-assembly following disconnection or adjustment The vital points shall be identified and listed in the maintenance documents. Control System. A system by which the flight path, attitude, or propulsive force of an aircraft is changed, including the flight, engine and propeller controls, the related system controls and the associated operating mechanisms. Duplicate Inspection. An inspection first made and certified by one qualified person and subsequently made and certified by a second qualified person. Procedures – General A duplicate inspection of all Vital Points/Control Systems in an aircraft shall be made after initial assembly and before a Certificate of Release to Service has been issued after overhaul, repair, replacement, modification or adjustment and, in any case, before the first flight. The first and second inspections must take account of the full extent of the work undertaken and not simply the immediate area of disturbance. This is to ensure that distant or remote parts of the system that may have been affected by the disturbance are also subject to duplicate inspections. Where work has been carried out on other systems for safety precautions, or to enhance accessibility, the need to carry out a duplicate inspection on these systems shall be considered. Persons who carry out and certify duplicate inspections are therefore required to undertake an independent review of the complete task, as detailed in the maintenance manual and by reference to worksheets used, including shift hand-over records, to assess the scope of the duplicate inspection(s)required. 111

It may not be possible to inspect the complete Vital Point/Control System when assembled in the aircraft, due to routing the controls through conduits or boxed-in sections and the pre-sealing of various units. In these cases the persons certifying the duplicate inspection shall be satisfied that a duplicate inspection has been made previously on the units and covered sections and that the sealed units are acceptable for the particular use. Such tests as are necessary shall be completed to determine that these particular units and sections have full, free and correct directional movement. Vital Points/Control Systems subject to duplicate inspection must not be disturbed or readjusted after the first certified inspection and the second part of the duplicate inspection must, as nearly as possible, follow immediately after the first part. It is desirable that the inspections of a Control System are made as near as is practicable to the time of the intended flight and that the full extent of the disturbance is understood by both persons who carry out the duplicate inspections. If a Vital Point/Control System is disturbed after completion of the duplicate inspection, that part that has been disturbed shall again be inspected in duplicate and a Certificate of Release to Service issued before the aircraft flies. The duplicate inspection shall be the final operation to establish the integrity of the Vital Point/Control System when all the work has been completed and shall take into account all the relevant instructions and information contained in the associated technical data. Inspections shall include an inspection to ensure that full, free and correct movement of the controls is obtained throughout the systems relative to the movements of the crew controls. An additional inspection shall be made, when all covers and fairings are finally secured, to ensure that full, free and correct movement of the controls is obtained. Signatories Persons qualified to make the first and/or second part of a duplicate inspection are as follows: i) Aircraft engineers appropriately licensed in Categories A, B,C,D and X. ii) Persons employed by Approved Organisations, who are appropriately authorized to make such inspections and to certify the task itself in accordance with company procedures. iii) Should a minor adjustment of the Vital Point/Control System be necessary when the aircraft is away from base, the second part of the duplicate inspection may be completed by a pilot or flight engineer licensed for the type of aircraft concerned






The CRS-SMI is required at the completion of Scheduled Maintenance Inspections. Certification is only required in the various licensed categories when there is work in that category during an SMI. The expression "Scheduled Maintenance Inspections" (SMI) means any group of inspections and tests called up by a maintenance schedule and currently more commonly known as "Check Inspections, Periodic" etc. A CRS will not be required for any SMI scheduled at intervals of less than 45 hours or 28 days, these two limitations being applied separately. It is not necessary to raise individual CRS (SMI) certifications on each work sheets/cards, but it is mandatory to raise one document at the completion of an SMI containing all the necessary CRS signatures and making references to the work carried out. This certification shall only be made when all work actions associated with the particular group of SMI’s being certified have been satisfactorily carried out unless a company procedure acceptable to the DCA permits the certification to be made before all such work actions have been completed. Where such associated work involves deferment, then such deferment must be carried out in accordance with approved company procedures before the signatory issues the CRS-SMI. It should be noted that for aircraft other than those in the Approval for Maintenance Scheme, engineers would be required to be appropriately type-licensed. Where an organization uses approved personnel then such personnel should possess an appropriate Type Rated license. In cases of difficulty, the DCA will be prepared to give consideration to some alleviation of the requirement.





The DCA has placed the following requirements for the operation of Malaysian registered aircraft. The requirements are: a) Certificates of Release to Service shall be issued in respect of overhauls, replacements, repairs, modifications, mandatory inspections and Scheduled Maintenance inspections. Certificates of Maintenance Review shall be issued to certify completion of the requirements of a maintenance schedule approved by the DCA Any aircraft issued with Certificate of Airworthiness in any category shall be maintained in accordance with the requirements of a maintenance schedule approved by the DCA irrespective of the purpose for which it is flown. A Technical Log shall be kept in respect of any aircraft issued with Certificate of Airworthiness in Transport or Aerial Work categories, irrespective of the purpose for which it is flown. However, owners or operators of aircraft in other category are also required to keep a Technical Log for each aircraft. The Technical Log shall be in a format approved by the DCA and entries shall be made in it as directed.

(b) (c)


Operators should note that a failure to comply with the above might invalidate the Certificate of Airworthiness of the aircraft concerned.




Introduction The Director General may grant licences to aircraft maintenance engineers, which authorise them to issue certificates in respect of the airworthiness of aircraft, engines and equipment as detailed in BCAR section L. He may also validate licences granted by the airworthiness authorities of other countries to enable C.R.S. to be issued by these persons where appropriate. Any licence granted or rendered valid by the DCA will remain in force for a period of two years. Renewal reqiures at least six months of aircraft certification within the twoyear period. The licence authorises the holder to issue C.M.R.; C.R.S and C. of F. for F under A conditions as appropriate, when a Type Rating is held. Type Rated Licences confer upon the holder certain PRIVILEGES, RESPONSIBILITIES, LIMITATIONS AND DUTIES. These are dealt with in-depth in the Malaysian AN No.3 & No.10. However they can be briefly stated as follows. PRIVILEGES To issue Certificates of Release to Service, Certificate of Maintenance Review and Certificates of Fitness for Flight under "A” Conditions as appropriate. Only appropriately DCA Type-rated LAME may exercise these privileges. RESPONSIBILITIES For Condition: Assembly: and Function : physical state of item that items are fitted, assembled, attached, installed, connected, secured or adjusted in the approved manner operation of items in the approved manner with regards to its performance and movements as specified

of all parts of the aircraft, engines and equipment as appropriate. LIMITATIONS As laid down in Airworthiness Notices No.3 and AN No.10. DUTIES i) Whenever work is carried out on an aircraft, it is the DUTY of all person whom Airworthiness Notice No. 3 applied, to consider the effect such work may have, directly or indirectly on items which are the responsibility of other such persons.


In all cases where an OVERLAP of responsibility occurs, the person primarily responsible for the item must involve all other trade who are affected. ii) iii) Work carried out must be done and managed in a controlled manner with regards to manpower, facilities and equipment. All work must be adequately documented with regards to shift handover, progressive nature of certain complex maintenance tasks and paperwork must be completed no later than the end of the LAME’s shift or working period.

L.W.T.R Licence without Type Rating (LWTR) does not have any Privileges. LWTR may be a basis as a grant for Authorisations by an Approved Organisations. The privileges granted shall depend on his Company’s Approval. Validity of the Authorisations shall depend upon the Approval holder’s compliance to Approved Organisations’ company procedures and any additional conditions as the Approved Organisation sees fit. Ratings The ratings upon which the License Aircraft Engineer may excersice his previlages is listed below, provided he is type-rated as well. We shall focus only on the common ones, full details may be found in Airworthiness Notices 3 and 10 ,each line a separate subcategory of the title; i) Category ‘A’ Aeroplanes 1 Pressurised and Unpressurised Aeroplanes not exceeding 5700kg Composite Structure Aeroplanes Wooden and Combined Metal and Wooden Aeroplanes Category ‘A’ Aeroplanes 2 Pressurised Aeroplanes exceeding 5700kg Category ‘C’ Engines Piston Engine Aeroplanes Turbine Engine Aeroplanes Category ‘X’ Electrical Electrical Category ‘X’ Instrument Instruments Category ‘X’ Autopilots Automatic Pilots – Aeroplanes Automatic Pilots – Helicopters

ii) iii)

iv) v) vi)


vii) ix) x) xi)

Category ‘X’ Combined Category Combined Category Instruments / Automatic Pilots Category ‘X’ Compass Compensation Compass Compensation and Adjustment Category ‘R’ Radio Communication, Navigation and Radar Category ‘A’ & ‘C’ Rotorcraft Piston-engined Rotorcraft Turbine-engined Rotorcraft

Experience Requirements – LWTR Applications for the grant or extension of a Licence in any of these Categories (except Category ‘X’ – Compass Compensation and Adjustment) must show confirmed minimum specific periods of aviation maintenance engineering experience totalling 3 years. Applications must also show the following minimum experience, which must have been gained whilst maintaining operating aircraft and not in component workshops or on static or non-flying aircraft: a) for a Category ‘A’ and/or ‘C’ LWTR, 24 months relating to Airframe and/or Engine maintenance, 12 months of which must be in the 2 years immediately preceding the date of application. for any Category ‘R’ and/or ‘X’ LWTR (excluding Category ‘X’ – Compass Compensation and Adjustment), 24 months related to avionic systems, 12 months of which must be in the 2 years immediately preceding the date of application. 6 months, within the 12 months referred to in (a) and (b), relevant to the specific LWTR for which application is being made.



Examinations - LWTR The examinations are based on syllabus as stated in CAP 468:BCAR Section L published by the UK CAA. The examination for the initial grant of a Licence will normally be in three parts:

ii) iii)

a written examination, comprising individual multiple choice question papers, an essay question paper, and a basic licence oral examination.

For further details refer DCA Airworthiness Notices 3 and 10


Chapter 7 Other Airworthiness Requirements

36 - APPROVAL OF MODIFICATION Introduction Modifications are changes made to a particular aircraft, including its components, engines, propellers, radio apparatus, accessories, instruments, equipment, and their installations. Substitution of one type for another when applied to components, engines, propellers, radio installation, accessories, instruments and equipment, is also considered to be a modification. A repair, the design of which has not been approved under the Type Certification process, must be treated as a modification. Requirements Applicant is required to ensure that the proposed modification can be incorporated to the subject aircraft or its components and that the interrelationship between the modification and any other modification(s) incorporated will not adversely affect the airworthiness of the modified product. Inspection of appropriate documents of the aircraft or its components (such as log books and modification record book) is necessary to determine the status or history of the subject aircraft or its components. Approved OEM (original manufacturer’s) Originated Data i) ii) iii) Modifications contained in STC (FAA), STC (JAA) or AAN (UK), which are classified as OEM Data, need not be submitted for approval. Modifications contained in Service Bulletins approved by the authority for State of Design, which are classified as OEM Data, need not be submitted for approval. Modifications contained in Service Bulletins approved by the authority for State of Design, which are classified as OEM Data, need not be submitted for approval.

These may be incorporated directly provided the instructions and limitations of these modifications shall be strictly followed. Any deviation from these Approved Data shall be considered as a new modification. Approved Non-OEM Originated Data Approved Data, which are classified as Non-OEM Data, must be submitted to DCA for review and approval. These modifications may be in the form of STC (FAA), STC (JAA) or AAN (UK). These modifications shall be reviewed and approved by the DCA, either directly, or through the modification procedures of a Design Organisation Approval (DOA) holder to ensure that they are applicable and suitable for incorporation on the aircraft.


For incorporation of the modifications, the instructions and limitations (including the applicability) of these modifications shall be strictly followed without any deviation. Any deviation from these Approved Data shall be considered as a new modification. When the application for the modification is undertaken by other than a DOA holder, a Statement of Compliance (SOC) shall be completed, signed by an authorised person of the organisation and submitted to the DCA. Data Packages For both OEM-originated and non-OEM originated Approved Data, a Data Package consisting of information pertaining to the operational limitations, weight & balance changes, Flight Manual Supplements and amendments to the Illustrated Parts Catalogue (IPC) and Maintenance Manual. Only for non-OEM originated Approved Data, the Data Package must be submitted to DCA for approval. The modification will only be approved when all the conditions and requirements are satisfied. Other than Approved Data Other Data Package that is not Approved Data is classified as either Major Modifications or Minor Modifications Major Modification Changes that i) ii) iii) iv) have appreciable effect on the weight, balance, structural strength, reliability, operational characteristics, or other characteristics affecting the airworthiness of the product. or are not done according to accepted practices or cannot be done by elementary operations. or require the particulars given in the Certificate of Airworthiness, or associated documents, be amended, even though no physical change to the product is involved.

All major modifications shall be approved by the DCA. Application for major modifications shall only be made by a DOA via the SOC form, signed by an approved signatory. A Certification of Compliance Document (CCD) shall also be required for major modifications but it is not required for repair schemes.


Minor Modifications Changes other than major modifications. At an early stage of the design of a modification, brief particulars shall be provided to the DCA so that the modification may be classified and certification basis may be defined. All minor modifications shall be approved by the DCA, either directly, or through the modification procedures of a DOA. When the design of the modification is undertaken by other than a DOA, a SOC shall be completed, signed by an authorised person of the organisation and submitted to the DCA. Common Procedures for Major and Minor Modifications The applicant shall ensure, where necessary through the medium of an Organisation approved by the DCA for the purpose, that the proposed modification is such that the design of the aircraft, when modified, complies with the following i) ii) The requirements in force at the time the aircraft type were originally certified. Regulatory and design requirement that have been amended since the issue of the initial Type Certificate will also be considered. Such other requirements as the DCA may notify, in writing, in respect of the aircraft design

Each design drawing shall bear a descriptive title, drawing number, issue number and date of issue. All alterations to drawings shall be made in accordance with a drawing amendment system such as will ensure amendment to design records. All relevant design information, drawings and test reports shall be held at the disposal of the DCA. No such design records shall be destroyed without authorisation from the DCA. Information concerning the conditions of acceptance of modifications previously approved by the DCA may be made available by the DCA on request. This does not apply to design information, including drawings and test reports; these are held, by the DCA, as confidential documents. Review of Modifications DCA may conduct compliance inspections and witness tests to establish the compliance of the modification to the applicable regulations. Effecting A Modification After a modification is carried out, a certificate of release to service shall be issued and details recorded in the appropriate logbooks. In addition to that for aircraft above 2730 kg details should also be recorded in an approved Modification Record Book, however for the purpose of such recording it is not


necessary to raise a certificate of release to service in the Modification Record Book. Engines and variable pitch propellers are exempted from this procedure. The Modification Record Book forms a part of the aircraft maintenance records. A Modification Record Book of an imported aircraft is acceptable if certified by originating country’s Airworthiness Authority.




Introduction Every aircraft including gliders in respect of which a certificate of airworthiness is in force shall be weighed, and the position of its center of gravity shall be determined, at such time and in such manner as the Director General may require. Definitions Basic Weight. Basic Weight is the weight of the aircraft and all its basic equipment, plus that of the declared quantity of unusable fuel and unusable oil.In the case of turbine-engined aircraft the Maximum Total Weight Authorised of which does not exceed 5700 kg,it may also include the weight of usable oil. Basic Equipment. Basic Equipment is the unconsumable fluids, and the equipment which is common to all roles for which the Operator intends to use the aircraft. Variable Load. Variable Load is the weight of the crew, of items such as the crew ’s baggage, removable units, and other equipment, the carriage of which depends upon the role for which the Operator intends to use the aircraft for the particular flight. Disposable Load. Disposable Load is the weight of all persons and items of load, including fuel and other consumable fluids, carried in the aircraft, other than the Basic Equipment and Variable Load. NOTE: To obtain the total loaded weight it is necessary to add to the Basic Weight the weights of those Variable and Disposable Load items which are to be carried for the particular role for which the aircraft is to be used.

General Aircraft the Maximum Total Weight Authorised of which exceeds 5700 kg, shall be reweighed within two years after the date of manufacture, and subsequent check weighing shall be made at intervals not exceeding five years, and at such times as the DCA may require. A Weight and Balance Report shall be produced for each Prototype, Variant and Series aircraft the Maximum Total Weight Authorised of which exceeds 5700 kg.


Aircraft the Maximum Total Weight Authorised of which does not exceed 5700 kg, shall be re-weighed at such times as the DCA may require and Weight and Centre-of-Gravity Schedule produced. For aircraft the Maximum Total Weight Authorised of which does not exceed 2730 kg, either a Weight and Centre-of-Gravity Schedule, or a Loading and Distribution Schedule shall be produced as appropriate. When an aircraft is weighed, the condition of the aircraft (i.e. the equipment and other items of load such as fluids in tanks) shall be recorded. The equipment installed should not differ from that included in the declared list of Basic Equipment associated with the Weight and Centre-of-Gravity Schedule or the Loading and Distribution Schedule as appropriate. The Basic Weight and the corresponding c. g. position shall be determined and entered in the Weight and Centre-of-Gravity Schedule or in the Loading and Distribution Schedule as appropriate. A Weighing Record containing records of the weighing and the calculations involved shall be made available to the DCA, and such records shall be retained by the Operator. When the aircraft is again weighed the previous Weighing Record shall be retained with the aircraft records the weight schedule shall be preserved by the operator of the aircraft until the expiration at a period of six months following the next weighing.





Load sheet required by regulation 50(4) of MCAR shall contain the following particulars: the registration markings of the aircraft to which the load sheet relates, and; particulars of the flight to which the load sheet relates; the total weight of the aircraft as loaded for that flight; the weight of the several items from which the total weight of the aircraft, as so loaded, has been calculated including in particular the weight of the aircraft prepared for service and the respective total weights of the passengers, crew, baggage and cargo intended to be carried on the flight; and the manner in which the load is distributed and the resulting position of the centre of gravity of the aircraft which may be given approximately if and to the extent that the relevant certificate of airworthiness so permits, The load sheet shall be signed by the Commander of the aircraft prior to departure and have a validity of 1 flight only. The operator shall retain the load sheet for 6 months.


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Introduction Flight tests shall be completed periodically to ensure that the aircraft flight characteristics and the functioning in flight of the aircraft do not differ significantly from those acceptable to the DCA for the aircraft type. Applicability In respect of aircraft classified more than 2730kg in transport, aerial work and private category in accordance with BCAR A3–4, either: i) ii) annually; or as defined by a fleet test programme agreed between the DCA and the Operator, maintenance organisation or other organisation acceptable to the DCA.

NOTE: Additionally, for some types of aircraft the individual examples of which are not included in fleet programmes, the DCA is prepared to extend the period between airworthiness flight tests from one to three years. Airworthiness Flight Tests may normally be conducted under the supervision of the Operator or Maintenance Organisation or other organisation acceptable to the DCA, provided that the flight crew is acceptable to the DCA for that purpose. The DCA may require to carry out a proportion of these flight tests, and will notify the Operator or Maintenance Organisation accordingly. Airworthiness Flight Test Schedules. The flight tests shall be made in accordance with either a) b) To the appropriate Airworthiness Flight Test Schedule published by the DCA; or To a schedule, approved by the DCA, containing, as a minimum, the tests laid down in the Airworthiness Flight Test Schedule. Such a schedule shall contain details of the aircraft type to which it refers, shall be marked with a reference number, issue number, and date, and shall include the following: i) ii) iii) Tests to check the aircraft performance; Tests to check that the handling characteristics are satisfactory and have not deteriorated with time; Tests to check functioning of the aircraft equipment in flight.


Fleet Testing Programmes As an alternative to periodic airworthiness flight testing of individual aircraft, a programme of flight testing of sample aircraft from a fleet may be agreed with the DCA, and such sampling will be accepted by the DCA as being representative of fleet characteristics.
Basic Requirements.

To be acceptable as a fleet and eligible for a fleet testing programme, the aircraft shall: a) b) c) d) be of an acceptably similar type; be certificated in the Transport Category and have a Maximum Total Weight Authorised exceeding 2730 kg; be controlled by an organisation, or organisations acceptable to the DCA; have produced consistently satisfactory results in previous Airworthiness Flight Tests for an acceptable period of time.

The minimum annual sample required for each fleet shall be 20% of the fleet, or three aircraft, whichever is the lesser, but not less than one aircraft. The frequency and the maximum time period between consecutive tests on individual aircraft depend upon agreement with the DCA.




Introduction Manuals containing information and recommendations necessary for the maintenance, overhaul and repair of aircraft, including engines and auxiliary power units, propellers, components, accessories, instruments, electrical and radio apparatus and their associated systems, and radio station fixed fittings, shall be provided by the constructor/manufacturer/Type Design Organisation to comply with the procedures outlined in this BCAR Chapter A5-3 for aircraft to be granted a Certificate of Airworthiness. General Except as otherwise agreed by the DCA, manuals shall be certificated and published under the authority of the appropriate Approved Organisation and shall accurately reflect the design and production standard of the item concerned Manuals, published by an Approved Organisation, must bear a statement that they comply with BCAR A5-3. A copy of each certified manual must be lodged with the DCA. STATEMENT OF INITIAL CERTIFICATION signifies DCA’s approval of the manuals. Engine, auxiliary power unit and propeller constructors and manufacturers of other components shall provide the aircraft Type Design Organisation with certified manuals which relate to those of their products installed in the aircraft. In the case of approved products the certified manuals shall be provided by the manufacturer, or produced by the aircraft Type Design Organisation in collaboration with the manufacturer. All manuals shall be adequately illustrated and include such instructions and information considered necessary to meet the requirements of Continued Airworthiness. Manuals conforming with the Specification for Manufacturers ’ Technical Data – Air Transport Association of America – Specification No.100,would also be acceptable as a basis for compliance, subject to the inclusion of any variations from the Specifications which may be required by the DCA and which are defined to the Applicant. ATA Specification 100 ATA Specifications 100 has been adopted as a global standard with regards to Engineering Manuals Specifications. These standards has been adopted by both IATA and ICAO and followed by all aircraft and parts manufacturer. The intentions of the Specification are


(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

To clarify the general requirements of the airline industry with reference to coverage and preparation of technical data. To provide an airline with all necessary data for the operation, maintenance, overhaul, repair of aircraft, engines and equipment. To permit maximum usage without the necessity of rewriting to meet individual airline requirements. To standardise manual layout, format of manuals Specify Revisions Procedures for the issue of Service Bulletin

The manual defined and described by ATA Specification 100 are as follows: Maintenance Manual, Overhaul Manual, Illustrated Parts Catalogue, Tool and Equipment lists, Wiring Diagram Manual, Service Bulletins, Structural Repair Manual, Weight and Balance Manual. The following list of systems, sub-systems and titles shows examples of the breakdown of a typical manual according to ATA 100. The major divisions are termed 'Group', each group being divided into chapters and allocated blocks of chapter numbers. Thus.

Aircraft General Aircraft Systems Structures Propellers/Rotor Power Plant

1 -19 20-49 50-59 60-69 70-89

Each chapter is arranged alphabetically in a group and is divided into sections and then further sub-divided into designated subjects by a "dash number".
EXAMPLE ATA 24 – 21 – 8

24 Chapter System
Electrical Power

21 Section Sub-system
Main Generation

8 Subject Topics or

Voltage Regulator


For a complete and exhaustive listing of the ATA Chapters, please refer the Appendix The manuals are also required as a part of Instructions for Continued Airworthiness requirement of the Type Certificates/Supplementary Type Certificates of the aircraft. The Instructions for Continued Airworthiness will determine the required number of manuals required but the broad listing are as follows: Maintenance Manuals (MM) A manufacturer's maintenance manual is the primary reference tool for the LAE working on aircraft. Airframe maintenance manuals generally cover an aircraft and all of the equipment installed on it when it is in service. Powerplant maintenance manuals, on the other hand, cover areas of the engines that are not dealt with in the airframe manual. Maintenance manuals provide information on routine servicing, system descriptions and functions, handling procedures, and component removal and installation. In addition, these manuals contain basic repair procedures and troubleshooting guides for common 131

malfunctions. Maintenance information presented in these manuals is considered acceptable data by the DCA, and may be approved data for the purpose of major repairs and alterations. Overhaul Manual Overhaul manuals contain information on the repair and rebuilding of components that can be removed from an aircraft. These manuals contain multiple illustrations showing how individual components are assembled as well as list individual part numbers. Illustrated Parts Catalogue (IPC) Parts catalogues show the location and part numbers of items installed on an aircraft. They contain detailed exploded views of all areas of an aircraft to assist the technician in locating parts. Approved parts are controlled here provided it is current and not superseded by mandatory instructions. Wiring Diagram Manual (WDM) The majority of aircraft electrical systems and their components are illustrated in individual wiring manuals. Wiring manuals contain schematic diagrams to aid in electrical system troubleshooting. They also list part numbers and locations of electrical system components. Structural Repair Manual (SRM) For repair of serious damage, structural repair manuals are used. These manuals contain detailed information for repair of an aircraft's primary and secondary structure. The repairs described in a structural repair manual are developed by the manufacturer's engineering staff, and thus are usually considered approved data by the DCA. Service Bulletins (SB) and Service Notes One way manufacturers communicate with aircraft owners and operators is through service bulletins and service notes. Service bulletins are issued to inform aircraft owners and technicians of possible design defects, modifications, servicing changes, or other information that may be useful in maintaining an aircraft or component. On occasion, service bulletins are made mandatory and are incorporated into airworthiness directives to correct an unsafe condition.


The Approved Manuals under ATA Spec 100 (Boeing)


Chapter 8 Documents and Records



Introduction In addition to any other logbooks required by or under MCAR, the following logbooks shall be kept in respect of every Malaysian aircraft flying for the purpose of public transport: (a) (b) (c) an aircraft log-book; a separate log-book in respect of each engine fitted in the aircraft; and a separate log-book in respect of each variable pitch propeller fitted to the aircraft

In the case of an aircraft having an authorised maximum total weight not exceeding 2,730 kilogrammes the logbooks shall be of a type approved by the Director General. General When all the relevant work has been carried out, a Certificate of Release to Service shall be entered in/attached to the appropriate logbook. Where it is more convenient, the required particulars may be entered in a separate record, but an entry shall be made in the appropriate logbook, containing a summary of the work carried out and a cross-reference to the document containing the Certificate of Release to Service. Full particulars of work done to incorporate modifications shall be entered in the appropriate logbook, quoting the reference number of the appropriate document, e.g. Certification of Compliance Document for a Major modification, Service Bulletin for a mandatory inspection. A Certificate of Release to Service shall be issued, where appropriate, and attached thereto When it is more convenient, the information above may be entered in a separate record, which shall be certified in the same manner as that required for entry in the appropriate logbook. The reference number of this record, and the place where it may be examined, shall be entered in the logbook under a brief description of the particular modification. A similar record shall be kept when logbooks are not required. All relevant records of mandatory inspections, overhauls, modifications, repairs and replacements shall be made available to the DCA for examination on request, and these shall not be destroyed without authorisation from the DCA. NOTE: The log books, and other documents which are identified and referred to in the log books (therefore forming part of the log books) shall be preserved until a date two years after the aircraft, the engine or the variable pitch propeller, as the case may be has been destroyed, or permanently withdrawn from use.


Logbook Entries The following entries shall be included in the aircraft log-book: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) the name of the constructor, the type of the aircraft, the number assigned to it by the constructor and the date of the construction of the aircraft; nationality and registration marks of the aircraft; the name and address of the operator of the aircraft; the date of each flight and the duration of the period between take-off and landing or, if more than one flight was made on that day, the number of flights and the total duration of the periods between take-offs and landings on that day; particulars of all maintenance work carried out on the aircraft or its equipment; particulars of any defects occurring in the aircraft or in any equipment required to be carried therein the action taken to rectify such defects including a reference to the relevant entries in the technical log particulars of any overhaul, repair, replacement and modification relating to the aircraft or any such equipment except its engines and propellers.

The required entries for engine and propeller log-books are similar except certain items which are peculiar to them like i) ii) iii) part and serial number the location of installation overhaul life etc.

With ETOPS operations, APU logbooks are also mandatory.


Above is the extract of propeller logbook, the main difference for aircraft logbook is that instead of “Time Since Overhaul”, “Time Since Renewal Of Certificate of Airworthiness / Manufactured”. Engine logbook is similar. Recommended Logbooks used for aircraft MWTA exceeding 2730kg i) ii) iii) CAP 388: Variable Pitch Propeller Logbook CAP 391: Engine Logbook CAP 408: Aircraft Logbook

These logbooks are published by CAA (UK)


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Introduction An aircraft shall not fly unless it is so equipped as to comply with the law of the State in which it is registered, and to enable lights equipped and markings to be displayed, and signals to be made, in accordance with the MCAR. In the case of any Malaysian aircraft, the equipment required, in addition to any other equipment required by or under the MCAR, shall be that specified in the MCAR Fifth Schedule as applicable. The equipment shall be of the type approved by the Director General and shall be installed in a manner so approved. Emergency equipment The position of equipment provided for emergency use shall be indicated by clear markings in or on the aircraft and in every Malaysian aircraft flying for the purpose of public transport there shall be— (i) (ii) provided individually for each passenger; or if permitted, exhibited in a prominent position in every passenger compartment, a notice relevant to the aircraft in question containing pictorial— (i) instructions on the brace position to be adopted in the event of an emergency landing; (ii) instructions on the method of use of the safety belts and safety harnesses as appropriate; (iii) information as to where emergency exits are to be found and instructions as to how they are to be used; and (iv) information as to where the life jackets escape slides, life rafts and oxygen masks, if required to be provided are to be found and instructions as to how they are to be used.

Radio Equipment of Aircraft. An aircraft shall not fly unless it is equipped with radio and radio navigation equipment so as to comply with to law of the State in which the aircraft is registered and to enable communications to be made, and the aircraft to be navigated, in accordance with the MCAR, in particular, the Thirteenth Schedule such as VHF communication radio, VOR/DME equipment, ILS, RMI and radar. Permission may be granted by DCA to flight to be conducted with certain amount of radio equipment unservicability subject to MEL procedures. Details should also be included by the operator in the Operations Manual under the section Minimum Departure Standards.


An aircraft radio station license issued by the Communications and Multimedia Commision 138



Introduction The Type Design Organisation of a public transport aircraft to be granted a Certificate of Airworthiness shall provide information and instructions necessary to enable the crew to acquire an understanding of the aircraft essential for its safe operation. The information and instructions may form part of the Operations Manual, or may be produced as a separate document, which shall be entitled ‘Crew Manual’. The Manual must be available for issue to a standard of completion acceptable to the DCA at the time of issue of the Certificate of Airworthiness, unless otherwise agreed by the DCA. General The Manual shall be certified and published under the authority of the Organisation approved for design of the aircraft. The DCA reserves the right to investigate the contents of the certified Manual and to require the embodiment of any revision or amendment, which it considers necessary to satisfy the requirements. The Manual, when published by an approved Organisation, must bear a statement that it complies with the requirements of BCAR A7-3. This statement is in the form of Certification of Initial Certification. The instructions and information in the Manual must be presented in a manner suitable for use by the crew, giving sufficient detail for a proper understanding of each subject, and shall be consistent with the Flight Manual, with particular emphasis on the instruments and controls in the flight crew compartment. The Manual should not contain superfluous matter regarding engineering and construction. The advice of the DCA should be sought in cases of doubt. Format Title page. The ‘Statement of Initial Certification ’ Notes to Readers. The conventions used in the Manual (e.g. where words are in capital letters this indicates a placarded marking in the aircraft, similarly statements that all speeds given are ‘indicated airspeeds ’ )scope and purpose of the manual and list of contents. Index of Amendments List of Associated Publications


Front page of Crew Manual, note the DCA’s stamp (Malaysia Airlines) 140

Introduction. A brief introduction to the aircraft, its structure, systems, equipment and roles, including a three-view general arrangement drawing giving dimensions and such illustrations as may be necessary to cover panel coding ,bulkhead numbering and nomenclature. Flight Crew Compartment. Lay-out, crew stations, controls, equipment, instruments and lights with appropriate illustrations. Systems and Equipment. All aircraft systems as appropriate should be covered in the following way: a) Description, consisting of location of main components in diagram or table form; technical description of the system or installation; system and component functioning; controls, indicators and instruments, and power (electric, hydraulic and/or pneumatic) supplies in diagrams or table form (structural information should be given only where necessary for clarity). Management, consisting of normal conditions before flight, in flight and after flight, and abnormal conditions (i.e. malfunctioning and abnormal external conditions which do not constitute an emergency Ground Servicing, consisting of items of system ground servicing that he crew may be required to supervise or carry out in the event of a stop where full servicing facilities are not available; location of system ground servicing points in diagram form, and system replenishing and off-loading.



Limitations. As prescribed in the Flight Manual. Handling Procedures. Flight crew flight handling procedures under all operating conditions, normal and abnormal, especially procedures peculiar to the said aircraft. Emergencies. Essential operating procedures for emergency conditions which are foreseeable but unusual situations in which immediate and precise actions will substantially reduce the risk of a catastrophes. Check Lists. Crew check lists with transit checks where applicable. Flight Planning Data. Example calculations and flight plans, performance, fuel and oil consumption, etc. Loading and CG Data. Definitions, data, example calculations and typical loading examples and instructions for using the Weight and Centre-of-Gravity Schedule (BCAR Chapter A7 –10) for all reasonable combinations of loading. In the case of aircraft in which provision is made for the carriage of freight, floor loading limitations and adequate information to enable the Operator to position and secure freight.


Review and Amendment of Manuals The aircraft Type Design Organisation shall review certified Manuals at periodic intervals and where he has made changes, permanent revisions or amendments shall be published. Operators with appropriate approval may amend Manuals without reference to the Type Design Organisation, provided that the technical substance of the change is within the terms of their approval. Where Operators wish to amend manuals, co-operation with the Type Design Organisation is recommended. This also applies where amendments to manuals are necessary due to the incorporation of Minor Modifications Responsibility of Operators The operator of every aircraft shall— (a) (b) (c) make available to each member of his operating staff an operations manual; ensure that each copy of the operations manual is kept up to date; and ensure that on each flight every member of the crew has access to a copy of every part of the operations manual which is relevant to his duties on the flight.


A sample page from the Crew Manual showing the aircraft’s electrical systems (Malaysia Airlines)


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Introduction An aircraft shall not fly unless it carries the documents, which it is required to carry under the law of State in which it is registered. A Malaysian aircraft shall, when in flight, carry documents in accordance with the MCAR Tenth Schedule provided that, if the flight is intended to begin and end at the same aerodrome and does not include passage over the territory of any other State, the documents may be kept at that aerodrome instead of being carried in the aircraft. Production of documents and records. The commander of an aircraft is responsible for the mandatory documents to be produced to the relevant authorities if necessary. The mandatory documents to carried by public transport category are (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (ix) (x) the certificate of registration certificate of airworthiness in force; the licences of its flight crew; aircraft radio station licence flight manual load sheet certificate of maintenance review technical log operations manual

If the flight is international the additional document needed is: a copy of the notified procedures to be followed by the pilot-in-command of an intercepted aircraft, and the notified visual signals for use by intercepting and intercepted aircraft. An approved MEL is also required if the operator is granted permission to operate under the terms of Regulation 34 of the MCAR.


Chapter 9 Special Requirements



Introduction Every Malaysian aircraft flying for the purpose of public transport, which is carrying passengers, every exit wherefrom and every internal door in the aircraft shall be in working order, and during takeoff and landing and during any emergency, every such exit and door shall be kept free of obstruction and and shall not be locked or otherwise so as to prevent, hinder or delay its use by passengers. Markings and Locations Every exit from the aircraft, which is intended to be used by passengers in normal circumstances, shall be marked with the words "Keluar" and "Exit" in capital letters and every exit, to be used by passengers in an emergency only, shall be marked with the words "Pintu Kecemasan" and "Emergency Exit" in capital letters. Every exit from the aircraft shall be marked with instructions in the national language and English language and with diagrams, to indicate the correct method of opening the exit. The markings of the exit shall be placed on or near the inside surface of the door or other closure of the exit and, if it can be opened from the outside of the aircraft, on or near the exterior surface . Every aircraft with the authorised maximum total weight exceeds 3,600 kilograms, shall be marked upon the exterior surface of its fuselage with markings to show the areas ("break-in areas") which during rescue in an emergency, be most readily broken into from outside the aircraft. The words "Pecahkan Ketika Kecemasan" and "Cut Here in Emergency" shall be marked across the centre of each break-in area in capital letters. Aircraft with the authorised maximum total weight exceeds 5,700 kilogrammes, every exit from such an aircraft intended to be used by passengers in an emergency shall be marked upon the exterior of the aircraft by a band outlining the exit. Inoperative Exits If any of the exits are inoperative, the number of passengers may be reduced with regards to the seats closest to the inoperative exits. The seating position and the number of seats affected is as agreed by the DCA. The inoperative exit is fastened by locking or otherwise, the words "Keluar" and "Exit" or "Pintu Kecemasan" and "Emergency Exit" are covered and the exit is marked by a red disc with a horizontal white bar across it bearing the words "Dilarang Keluar" and "No Exit" in red letters.


Location of Break-in Markings on a Boeing 777-200 (Malaysia Airlines/Boeing)




Introduction Any incident relating to an aircraft in respect of any defect in or the malfunctioning of an aircraft or any of its parts or equipment, any facility on the ground used or intended to be used for purpose of or in connection with the operation of an aircraft, being an incident, defect or malfunctioning endangering, or which if not corrected would endanger the aircraft, its occupants, or any other person is a “Reportable Occurrence” Procedures Every person who— (a) is the operator or the commander of a Malaysian registered aircraft; (b) carries on the business of manufacturing, repairing or overhauling any aircraft or any equipment or part thereof; (c) a LAME or a Company Approval holder; or (d) is the licensee of a licensed aerodrome shall— make a report to the Director General of any reportable occurrence of which he knows and which is of such a description as is specified in the MCAR Thirteenth Schedule, and the report shall be made within 48 hours in writing, and shall contain such information as may be prescribed in the MCAR Thirteenth Schedule ; and make a report to the Director General, within 96 hours, in writing , being information which is not in his possession or control and which relates to a reportable occurrence.



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Introduction ETOPS (Extended Twin Operations) is defined by ICAO to describe the operation of twin-engined aircraft over a route that contains a point further than one hour's flying time, at the approved one engine inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions and in still air), from an adequate airport. Regulations ETOPS requirements are essentially the same for all the airworthiness authorities and are detailed in the following regulations: FAA issued Advisory Circular (AC) 120-42A which provides the criteria for 75-, 120- and 180-minute operations, the European Joint Airworthiness Authorities (JAA) developed the Advisory Material Joint (AMJ) 120-42 with provisions for accelerated approval for 75-, 120- and 180-minute operations (currently published as Information Leaflet (IL) number 20).

DCA regulations with regards to ETOPS are also derived from above. ETOPS Approval The approval process is summed thus Manufacturer must obtain ETOPS Type Design Approval The operator must obtain ETOPS Operational Approval

ETOPS Type Design Approval It is the responsibility of the aircraft manufacturer to ensure that the aircraft's design satisfies the ETOPS regulations. Once the airworthiness authorities have agreed that the candidate aircraft engine combination meets the requirements of the applicable regulations, the authorities declare this aircraft type capable of flying ETOPS for a given maximum diversion time. The ETOPS capability of the aircraft-engine combination is declared in the following documents approved by the Airworthiness Authorities Type Certification Data Sheet (TCDS), Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM),



Configuration, Maintenance and Procedures Standards (CMP), Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL).

The continuality of the ETOPS Type Design Approval is dependent on satisfactory global in-service experience of the said type. This is under the purview of the type certifying authority. For example, the FAA, for Boeing and other American aircraft and the JAA, for Airbus and other European aircraft. ETOPS Operational Approval An operator’s twin-engine aircraft can only operate ETOPS flight unless authorized by Operation Specification Approval (for both Maintenance and Flight Operations) issued by the local Airworthiness Authority, DCA for Malaysia. The operator has to prove that it has the appropriate experience with the considered airframe/engine combination and, that it is familiar with the considered area of ETOPS operation. ETOPS Operational Approval issued by DCA does not refer only to the approval of the operator's flight operations organisation and procedures but, more broadly, to all of the following aspects: aircraft configuration, maintenance practices, ETOPS training and dispatch practices. On the satisfaction of the DCA that the above conditions are met, these documents are amended: iv) v) vi) Crew Manual / Operation Manual Operator’s MEL Company’s Engineering Manual

Specific manual for all company ETOPS-related engineering procedures is mandatory and this is the ETOPS Maintenance Manual. Upon satisfactory application, the DCA will grant to the airline an Operational Approval to conduct ETOPS flight with a given maximum diversion time. This Operational Approval can be in the form of an approved Operations Specification containing the appropriate limitations. The ETOPS Operational Approval is for 75, 90, 120, 138, 180, and 207 minutes not exceeding the Type design approval for the aircraft itself. DCA currently provides ETOPS operational approval on a route-to-route basis. Maximum permitted diversion time upon entry into service of airframe/engine combination is 120 minutes. The continuality of the ETOPS Operational Approval shall depend on the good In-Flight Shutdown (IFSD) rate for the operator’s ETOPS fleet. Any ETOPS-related incident must be highlighted to DCA within 24 hours.


A non-ETOPS flight will be constrained by the shaded 60 min flight-time circles. A 120 min ETOPS flight-time circles would permit a direct routing.




Introduction The term All Weather Operations is used to describe aircraft operations under all runaway visibility conditions with regards to takeoff, landing and taxi. The special emphasis is on poor visibility conditions. The regulation covering this is JAR-AWO (All Weather Operations). The JAR-AWO is made of i) ii) iii) iv) v) Category I (CAT I) Category II (CAT II) Category III (CAT III) Low Visibility Take Off (LVTO) Low Visibility Taxi (LV TAXI)

The objective of CAT II / CAT III operations is to provide a level of safety when landing in low visibility conditions, equivalent to that of 'normal' operating conditions. Category II / Category III constitutes the main part of All Weather Operations (AWO). CAT I refers to good visibility i.e. 'normal' operating conditions.
Decision Height (DH) To understand the concepts of CATII/CATIII operations, it is essential to understand the term decision height (DH). Decision height is the wheel height above the runway elevation by which a go-around must be initiated unless adequate visual reference has been established and the aircraft position and approach path have been assessed as satisfactory to continue the approach and landing in safety. The DH is measured by means of radio-altimeter.


Runaway Visual Range (RVR) Another term encountered is the Runway Visual Range (RVR). It is the range over which a pilot of an aircraft on the centerline of the runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centerline.

Category II (CAT II) A category II approach is a precision instrument approach and landing with decision height lower than 60m (200ft) but not less than 30m (100ft), and a runway visual range not less than 350m (1200ft). The main objective of CAT II operations is to provide a level of safety equivalent to other operations, but in more adverse weather conditions and lower visibility. CAT II weather minima allow sufficient visual references at DH to permit a manual landing (or a missed approach) to be executed. Category III (CAT III) The main difference between CAT II / CAT III operations is that Category II provides sufficient visual reference to permit a manual landing at DH, whereas Category III does not provide sufficient visual references and requires an automatic landing system. CAT Ill is divided in three sub-categories: CAT III A, CAT III B, and CAT III C, associated with three minima levels (CAT III A is associated with highest minima, and CAT III C with lowest minima). An automatic landing system is mandatory to perform Category III operations. Its reliability must be sufficient to control the aircraft to touchdown in CAT III A operations and through rollout to a safe taxi speed in CAT III B. CAT IIIA A category III A approach is a precision instrument approach and landing with no decision height or a decision height lower than 100ft (30m) and a runway visual range not less than 700ft (200m).


CAT IIIB A category III B approach is a precision approach and landing with no decision height or a decision height lower than 50ft (15m) and a runway visual range less than 700ft (200m), but not less than 150ft (50m).

A category III C approach is a precision approach and landing with no decision height and no runway visual range limitation. CAT III C operations are not currently authorized by Airworthiness Authorities. Maintenance Procedures Approved specific procedures established by the operator govern the capability of the aircraft to conduct CAT III operations in the following conditions: i) ii) Loss of CAT 3 capability Missed approach (illumination of AUTOLAND warning light / flag).

The dispatch policy is based on the minimum equipment list (MEL) as it governs the basic criteria for operation. Maintenance actions may cause upgrading/downgrading of CAT II /CAT III capability. Therefore, upgrading/downgrading procedure must be defined so as to assist the dispatch of the aircraft to assure maximum autoland capacity. Dispatch criteria and status of aircraft must be recorded in the Technical Log Book with reference to the MEL (if any); if the defect has been rectified it should be cleared accordingly and revalidation of the aircraft status performed. A prominent placard should be displayed on the aircraft and in the maintenance control room to inform Flight Operations of the current aircraft status. In general, aircraft, which perform Cat III operation regularly under real or simulated conditions, do not need to perform system checks except if specified in Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM). After an adjustment or a repair is made on the equipment, a revalidation of the aircraft should be made by the corresponding AMM ground test. A periodic check may be requested by national authorities on an aircraft, which has not performed CAT III operations for a specific period of time (to be agreed with national authorities).


Chapter 10 AOC Maintenance Requirements

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Introduction It is the responsibility of the Operator (AOC-holder) to satisfy the DCA that his maintenance support arrangements are to a satisfactory standard. The Operator may have his own maintenance organisation or may contract-out his maintenance to another organisation approved by the DCA. Maintenance support arrangements will normally be based on an organisation approved by the DCA for the maintenance or overhaul of the type of aircraft concerned. Maintenance Support Arrangement The maintenance support arrangements for aircraft of 5,700 kg (12500 lb) MTWA or more must be based on an organisation approved by the DCA in accordance with the procedures of which is adopted by DCA as the required standard for maintenance of the said aircraft. The support arrangements for aircraft of less than 5700 kg (12500 lb) MTWA may be based on an organisation : (a) (b) approved by the DCA; or in which an acceptable number of appropriately LAMEs jointly perform the duties of a maintenance organisation (through a process of maintenance schedule approval).

An organisation may be acceptable to the DCA for maintenance support without all of the necessary facilities to accomplish certain maintenance tasks provided contracted arrangements exist with another organisation which has the facilities available and is acceptable to the DCA. All maintenance support organisations must have management systems to ensure effective support of the Operator's fleet of aircraft for which they have responsibility, over the whole of the routes operated. Quality Control and Assurance must be exercised as necessary to achieve satisfactory standards of continuing airworthiness. Maintenance Agreement Where an Operator chooses to contract maintenance to another organisation, a written agreement must be drawn up indicating the divisions of responsibility between the two parties for the overall support of the aircraft and for compliance with statutory regulations and other relevant requirements. The Operator remains responsible for the safe operation of his aircraft when accomplishment of maintenance is contracted out.


The agreements dealing with maintenance are subdivided into those tasks to be accomplished by the contractor and those tasks which will remain the responsibility of the Operator. This is particularly necessary where, for example, the Operator retains responsibility for line maintenance or spares provision. The Engineering Manual or Exposition The Operator is required to provide a description of his maintenance support arrangements for the direction and guidance of flight crew and maintenance personnel engaged in the day to day operation and maintenance support of this aircraft, throughout his operating network. The manual is also required as a basis for DCA acceptance of the arrangements and forms the pre-requisite for the grant of an AOC. This description of the arrangements will be referred to as the ENGINEERING MANUAL (EM) but may take other forms. The Operator may: (a) (b) publish a discrete EM containing a full description of the support provided for his Operation or, use the Operations Manual to satisfy the requirement for an EM including the necessary details as a Volume, Section or Chapter of that manual as appropriate or, refer in his manual to the Exposition of the approved maintenance organisation for those parts of the maintenance arrangements which are described therein or, he may use the Exposition to describe the whole of his maintenance arrangements.

(c) (d)

Where the Operator's maintenance organisation does not hold DCA Approval, or holds an approval for which an Exposition is not required, the DCA will accept a document prepared by that organisation as a substitute provided it conforms to the requirements for an Exposition. The DCA will require to hold copies of the Manual as dictated by the nature of the operation and the necessary surveillance.


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Introduction As has been noted before, an AOC-holder may only conduct flights only if it is operating in accordance with an approved Operations Specifications. Maintenance activities required for the fleet are stated within as an agreed standards and procedures between the operator and DCA. As the Operations Specifications covers all activities of the operator, only maintenance is covered here Maintenance Section In the Aircraft maintenance section of the Operations Specifications, the following may be covered subject to approval with DGCA: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii) xiii) General Check, Inspection and Overhaul Time Limits Use of an MEL Reliability Programme Authorization Short-term Escalation Authorization Maintenance Agreements Leased Aircraft Maintenance Programme Parts pooling Agreements Parts borrowing Special Flight Permit with continuing Authorizations List of total Aircraft Fleet operated Approved Aircraft Inspection Programme Additional Maintenance requirements

As every Operations Specifications is specific to each operator, the above listing may not be exhaustive. The Aircraft maintenance section of the Operations Specifications is further amplified in each operator’s Engineering Manual or equivalent document as agreed by DGCA.




Introduction Organisations which have satisfied the requirements of the Director General in respect of manufacture, overhaul, inspection, repair or modification of aircraft and their component parts may be granted an approval in one or more groups as set out in the BCAR. On the grant of an approval the organisation will receive 'TERMS OF APPROVAL’ from the Director General. Organisation Approval reference number which should be quoted on all relevant documents. The reference number is made up in three parts. Eg. AO/0001/72 (1) (2) (3) The letters AO stand for Approved Organisation A number which changes with each organisation A two digit number showing the year approval was granted

Approved Organisations Approval CAA Approved Organisations are divided into the following groups:



For the M1 category of approval JAR-145 procedures has replaced BCAR A8-13.


Chapter 11 Approval of Organisations

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Introduction Airworthiness Notice (AN) 70 reflects the administration of DCA approval of organizations for maintenance of aircraft and components. The standard adopted for this purpose is JAR-145 have replaced BCAR A8-13 with regards with Approved Organisation procedures for maintenance of aircraft more than 5700kg. No aircraft when used for Commercial Air Transport may fly unless a certificate of release to service has been issued by an Organisation for maintenance carried out on the aircraft or an aircraft component intended for fitment to such an aircraft. No Organisation may certify for release to service an aircraft or any of its components if used for Commercial Air Transport unless either i) ii) approved in accordance with JAR-145 or an accepted alternative or working under the quality system of an appropriately approved or accepted JAR-145 maintenance Organisation.

Approval Scope A maintenance Organisation approval may be granted for maintenance activity varying from that for an aircraft component to that for a complete aircraft or any combination thereof. An Organisation working under the quality system is limited to the work scope permitted under JAR-145 procedures and may not carry out a base maintenance check of an aircraft or a complete workshop maintenance check or overhaul of an engine or engine module. Applicability This JAR prescribes the requirements for issuing approvals to organisations for the maintenance of aircraft and aircraft components and prescribes the general operating rules for approved maintenance Organisations. The approval, when granted, will apply to the whole Organisation headed by the accountable manager. Extent of Approval The grant of approval is indicated by the issue of an approval certificate to the Organisation by the JAA full member Authority. The approval certificate will specify the extent of approval. The JAR- 145 approved maintenance Organisation's exposition must specify the scope of work deemed to constitute approval.


Facilities There should be sufficient facilities to cover all aspect of maintenance work such as i) protected hangars from weather ii) and workshops, properly segregated iii) offices for maintenance management work iv) suitable working environment for staff v) secure storage facilities for aircraft and components ensuring proper segregation of serviceable and unserviceable parts. Management Headed by an accountable manager and has a senior person or a group of persons directly accountable under him. All must be approved by JAA. They are responsible to ensure that requirements of JAR-145 are followed. The accountable manager shall have corporate authority for: (1) (2) (3) ensuring that all maintenance required by the customer can be financed and carried out to the standard required. ensuring that all necessary resources are available to accomplish maintenance to support the organization approval. establishing and promoting the safety and quality policy

A Quality Assurance senior person shall report directly under the accountable manager who shall inform him of quality and compliance matters. The JAR-145 approved organization shall ensure adequacy of manpower for the maintenance jobs done. The organisation shall have a maintenance man-hour plan showing that the organisation has sufficient staff to plan, perform, supervise, inspect and quality monitor the organisation in accordance with the approval. In addition the organization shall have a procedure to reassess work intended to be carried out when actual staff availability is less than the planned staffing level for any particular work shift or period. Qualification of Staff NDT of aircraft structure may be carried out by staff in accordance with i) the European or equivalent Standard recognised by the Agency ii) JAR 66 category B1 for colour contrast dye penetrant tests. Personnel who carry out any other specialised task shall be appropriately qualified in accordance with officially recognised Standards.


Any organisation maintaining aircraft shall in the case of aircraft line maintenance, have appropriate aircraft type rated certifying staff qualified as category B1 and B2 in accordance with JAR-66 and JAR-145. However, an appropriately task trained certifying staff qualified as category A in accordance with JAR-66 and JAR-145 may carry out minor scheduled line maintenance and simple defect rectification. Category A does not replace Category B however for simple defect rectification in line, it is not necessary for Category B holders to be present In the case of base maintenance of aeroplanes with a maximum take-off mass of 5700kg or above, have appropriate aircraft type rated certifying staff qualified as category C in accordance with JAR-66 and JAR-145. In addition sufficient aircraft type rated staff qualified as category B1 and B2 shall support the category C certifying staff. All maintanence (certifying and non-certifying), management, and quality audit staff shall be conversant on the application of human factors and human performance issues in the aircraft maintenance environment. Such required training shall consist of initial Human Factors training, which may be dedicated or integrated into other training, and a follow-up recurrent training programme of sufficient duration in each two-year period. Personnel previously working under another JAR-145 Organisation shall be assessed for the need to meet the current prevailing JAR-145 standards. Base Maintenance Release to Service Procedures B1 and B2 support staff shall ensure that all relevant tasks or inspections have been carried out to the required standard before the category C certifying staff issues the certificate of release to service. The organisation shall maintain a register of any such B1 and B2 support staff. The category C certifying staff shall ensure that all work required by the customer has been accomplished during the particular base maintenance check or work package, and shall also assess the impact of any work not carried out with a view to either requiring its accomplishment or agreeing with the operator to defer such work to another specified check or time limit. Line Procedures for Release to Service For aircraft line maintenance, appropriate aircraft type rated certifying staff qualified as category B1 and B2 is needed. In addition such organisations may also use appropriately task trained certifying staff qualified as category A to carry out minor scheduled line maintenance and simple defect rectification. For a repetitive pre-flight airworthiness directive, which specifically states that the flight crew may carry out such airworthiness directive, the organisation may issue a limited certification authorisation to the aircraft commander and/or the flight engineer on the basis of the flight crew licence, held. However, the organisation shall ensure that


sufficient practical training has been carried out to ensure that such aircraft commander or flight engineer can accomplish the airworthiness directive to the required standard. In the case of aircraft operating away from a supported location the organisation may issue a limited certification authorisation to the commander and/or the flight engineer on the basis of the flight crew licence held subject to being satisfied that sufficient practical training has been carried out to ensure that the commander or flight engineer can accomplish the specified task to the required standard. This shall be detailed in an exposition procedure. In unforeseen cases, where an aircraft is grounded at a location other than the main base where no appropriate certifying staff are available, the organisation contracted to provide maintenance support may issue a one off certification authorization. All such cases shall be reported to the competent authority within seven days of the issuance of such certification authorisation. The organisation issuing the one off authorisation shall ensure that any such maintenance that could affect flight safety is rechecked. Certifying staff and category B1 and B2 support staff The organisation may only issue a certification authorisation to certifying staff in relation to the basic categories or sub-categories and any type rating listed on the aircraft maintenance licence listed in JAR-66, subject to the licence remaining valid throughout the validity period of the authorisation and the certifying staff remaining in compliance with JAR-66. “Category B1 and B2 support staff” means those category B1 and B2 staff in the base maintenance environment who do not hold certification privileges. The organisation shall ensure that all certifying staff and category B1 and B2 support staff are involved in i) ii) at least six months of actual aircraft maintenance experience in any consecutive two year period. receive sufficient continuation training in each two year period

The organisation shall establish a programme for continuation training as the basis for issuing certification authorizations and a procedure to ensure compliance with JAR-66. The organisation shall assess all prospective certifying staff for their competence, qualification and capability to carry out their intended certifying duties. Quality Assurance senior person is responsible for the approval system. When above have been fulfilled by the certifying staff, the organisation shall issue a certification authorisation that clearly specifies the scope and limits of such authorisation.


The organisation shall retain the record for at least two years after the certifying staff or B1 or B2 support staff have ceased employment with the organisation or as soon as the authorisation has been withdrawn. In addition, upon request, the maintenance organisation shall furnish certifying staff with a copy of their record on leaving the organisation. Equipment, tools and material The organisation shall have the necessary equipment, tools and material available to perform the approved scope of work. The organisation shall control and calibrate tools, equipment and particularly test equipment, as appropriate, to an officially recognised standard at a frequency to ensure serviceability and accuracy. Records of such calibrations and the standard used shall be kept by the organisation. Acceptance of components The organisation shall ensure that no component is accepted unless it is in a satisfactory condition and has been appropriately released to service on an JAA Form One or equivalent Prior to installation of a component, the organisation shall ensure that the particular component is eligible to be fitted when different modifications and/or airworthiness directive standards may be applicable. The organisation may fabricate a restricted range of parts to be used in the course of undergoing work within its own facilities provided procedures are identified in the exposition. Maintenance data The organisation shall hold and use applicable current maintenance data in the performance of maintenance, including modifications and repairs. ”Applicable” means relevant to any aircraft, component or process specified in the organisation’s approval class rating schedule and in any associated capability list. In the case of maintenance data provided by an operator or customer, the organisation shall hold such data when the work is in progress. Applicable maintenance data means any of the following: (1) Any applicable requirement, procedure, airworthiness directive, operational directive or information issued by the competent authority responsible for the oversight of the product;



Any applicable data, maintenance and repair manuals, issued by an organisation under the approval of the DCA, including type-certificate and supplementary type-certificate holders and any other organisation approved to publish such data; Any applicable airworthiness directive; Unless otherwise specified by the DCA, any applicable data, such as maintenance and repair manuals, issued by an organisation under the approval or authority of the competent authority of a third country where that authority is that of the State of registry; Any applicable standard, such as maintenance standard practices recognised by the DCA as a good standard for maintenance.

(3) (4)


The organisation may only modify maintenance instructions in accordance with a procedure specified in the maintenance organisation’s exposition. Maintenance instructions for the purposes of this paragraph means instructions on how to carry out the particular maintenance task: they exclude the engineering design of repairs and modifications. The organisation shall provide a common work card or worksheet system to be used throughout relevant parts of the organisation. Where the organisation provides a maintenance service to an aircraft operator who requires their work card or worksheet system to be used then such work card or worksheet system may be used. In this case, the organisation shall establish a procedure to ensure correct completion of the aircraft operators’ work cards or worksheets. The organisation shall establish a procedure to ensure that maintenance data it controls is kept up to date. In the case of operator / customer controlled and provided maintenance data, the organisation shall be able to show that either it has written confirmation from the operator / customer that all such maintenance data is up to date or it has work orders specifying the amendment status of the maintenance data to be used or it can show that it is on the operator / customer maintenance data amendment list. Production planning The organisation shall have a system appropriate to the amount and complexity of work to plan the availability of all necessary personnel, tools, equipment, material, maintenance data and facilities in order to ensure the safe completion of the maintenance work. The planning of maintenance tasks, and the organising of shifts, shall take into account human performance limitations.


When it is required to hand over the continuation or completion of maintenance tasks for reasons of a shift or personnel changeover, proper handover between outgoing and incoming personnel must be done. Certification of maintenance A certificate of release to service shall be issued by appropriately authorized certifying staff when it has been verified that all maintenance required by the customer of the aircraft or component has been properly carried out by the organisation in accordance with the JAR-145, taking into account the availability and use of the maintenance data specified in JAR-145; and that there are no non-compliances which are known that could hazard flight safety. A certificate of release to service shall be issued before flight at the completion of any package of maintenance containing one of the following elements: (1) (2) checks or inspections from the operator’s aircraft maintenance program; airworthiness directive implementation, overhaul of aircraft or components, repairs to aircraft or components, modifications, component replacements and defect rectification; any other applicable operator maintenance requirements.


A certificate of release to service shall be issued at the completion of any maintenance on a component whilst off the aircraft. The authorised release certificate or airworthiness approval tag or JAA Form 1 constitutes the component certificate of release to service. Maintenance records The organisation shall record all details of maintenance work carried out in a form and manner established by DCA. As a minimum, the organization shall retain records necessary to prove that all requirements have been met for issuance of the certificate of release to service, including sub-contractor’s release documents. The organisation shall provide a copy of each certificate of release to service to the aircraft operator, together with a copy of any specific approved repair/modification data used for repairs/ modifications carried out. The organisation shall retain a copy of all detailed maintenance records and any associated maintenance data for two years from the date the aircraft or component to which the work relates was released from the organisation. Where an organisation approved under JAR-145 terminates its operation, all retained maintenance records covering the last two years shall be distributed to the last owner or


customer of the respective aircraft or component. If it is impossible to trace the owner or customer, the maintenance records shall be stored as specified by DCA. Occurrence reporting The organisation shall report to the competent authority and to the authority responsible for the design of the aircraft or component any condition of the aircraft or component identified by the organisation that has resulted or may result in an unsafe condition that could seriously hazard the aircraft. The organisation shall establish an internal occurrence reporting system as detailed in the exposition to enable the collection and evaluation of such reports, including the assessment and extraction of those occurrences to be reported The organisation shall make such reports in a form and manner established by DCA and ensures that they contain all pertinent information about the condition and evaluation results known to the organisation. The organisation shall produce and submit such reports as soon as practicable but in any case within 48 hours of the organisation identifying the condition to which the report relates. Safety and quality policy, maintenance procedures and quality system The organisation shall establish a quality system that includes the following: (1) Independent audits in order to monitor compliance with required aircraft/aircraft component standards and adequacy of the procedures to ensure that such procedures invoke good maintenance practices and airworthy aircraft / aircraft components and A quality feedback reporting system to the person or group of persons which is the Engineering Management, and ultimately to the accountable manager that ensures proper and timely corrective action is taken in response to reports resulting from the independent audits established.


The organisation shall establish procedures agreed by the DCA taking into account human factors and human performance to ensure good maintenance practices and compliance with JAR-145 which shall include a clear work order or contract such that aircraft and components may be released to service in accordance with JAR-145. Maintenance organisation exposition “Maintenance organisation exposition” means the document or documents that contains the material specifying the scope of work deemed to constitute approval and showing how the organisation intends to comply with JAR-145. The organisation shall provide the competent authority with a maintenance organisation exposition, containing the following information:



A statement signed by the accountable manager confirming that the maintenance organisation exposition and any referenced associated manuals define the organisation’s compliance with JAR-145 and will be complied with at all times. When the accountable manager is not the chief executive officer of the organisation then such chief executive officer shall countersign the statement; the organisation’s safety and quality policy the title(s) and name(s) of the persons nominated; the duties and responsibilities of the persons nominated including matters on which they may deal directly with the DCA on behalf of the organisation; an organisation chart showing associated chains of responsibility between the persons nominated; a list of certifying staff; a general description of manpower resources; a general description of the facilities located at each address specified in the organisation's approval certificate; a specification of the organisation’s scope of work relevant to the extent of approval; the notification procedure for organisation changes; the maintenance organisation exposition amendment procedure; the procedures and quality system established by the organisation a list of operators, where applicable, to which the organisation provides an aircraft maintenance service; a list of sub-contracted organisations, where applicable a list of line stations, where applicable; a list of contracted organisations, where applicable.

(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16)

The maintenance organisation exposition shall be amended as necessary to remain an up to date description of the organisation. Any amendment shall be approved by the DCA.


Privileges of the organization As per JAR-145 the organisation shall be entitled to carry out the following tasks: (a) (b) Maintain any aircraft and/or component for which it is approved at the locations identified in the approval certificate and in the organization exposition; Arrange for maintenance of any aircraft or component for which it is approved at another organisation that is working under the quality system of the organisation. Maintain any aircraft or any component for which it is approved at any location subject to the need for such maintenance arising either from the unserviceability of the aircraft or from the necessity of supporting occasional line maintenance, subject to the conditions specified in the exposition; Maintain any aircraft or component for which it is approved at a location identified as a line maintenance location capable of supporting minor maintenance and only if the organisation exposition both permits such activity and lists such locations; Issue certificates of release to service in respect of completion of maintenance in accordance with JAR-145;




Limitations on the organization The organisation shall only maintain an aircraft or component for which it is approved when all the necessary facilities, equipment, tooling, material, maintenance data and certifying staff are available. Changes to the organization The organisation shall notify the DCA of any proposal to carry out any of the following changes before such changes take place to enable the competent authority to determine continued compliance with JAR-145. These changes must be notified at the earliest opportunity: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) the name of the organisation; the main location of the organisation; additional locations of the organisation; the accountable manager; any of the persons nominated;



the facilities, equipment, tools, material, procedures, work scope or certifying staff that could affect the approval.

Continued validity An approval shall be issued for an unlimited duration. It shall remain valid subject to: (1) (2) (3) the organisation remaining in compliance with JAR-145, particularly the provisions related to the handling of audit findings and; the DCA being granted access to the organisation to determine continued compliance with this Part; and the certificate not being surrendered.


JAR-145 Organization Corporate Board

Accontable Manager

Engineering Director

Aircraft Maintenance Manager

Workshop Maintenance Manager

Quality Assurance Manager

Planning Staff

Planning Staff

QA Staff

Tech Records Staff

Maintenance Staff

Maintenance Staff

Aircraft Certifying Staff

Workshop Certifying Staff

Sample JAR-145 Organisation Structure The above figure shows a typical acceptable structure for a large JAR-145 Organisation. The Engineering Director may be an accountable manager if it is a Corporate Board position and meet all other requirements for an accountable manager. Typically, such a position may be titled Vice President (Engineering) Quality Assurance staff must be independent of the Maintenance Managers. Certifying staff may report instead to Quality Assurance Manager. Technical Records staff may report instead to Aircraft/Workshop Maintence Managers.


On smaller organisations, it is sufficient just to have a maintenance manager and a quality assurance manager that report directly to the accountable manager 53 JAR-21 SUBPART JA: APPROVED REPAIR DESIGN ORGANISATION

Introduction A JAR-145 Organisation may perform 'repairs' which means elimination of damage and/or restoration to an airworthy condition following initial release into service by the manufacturer of any product, part or appliance provided no design activity is required. Exceptions to the above are repairs that are of simple design in which the Authority will apply such alternative procedures as are necessary to provide equivalent confidence in the findings of compliance with requirements. Other than that, only Organisations approved Design Organisation Approval under Subpart JA, may design repairs. Classification of repairs A repair must be classified "major" or "minor" either by i) ii) the Authority, or by an appropriately approved Design Organisation under a procedure agreed with the Authority.

Repair design The repair design must i) Show compliance with the requirements incorporated by reference in the Type Certificate or Supplemental Type Certificate, as applicable, or those in effect on the date of application (for repair design approval), plus any amendments to those requirements or special conditions the Authority finds necessary to establish a level of safety equal to that established by the requirements incorporated by reference in the TC or STC. Submit all necessary substantiation data, when requested by the Authority. Declare compliance with the above requirements

ii) iii)

If the Design Organisation is not a TC or STC holder, the above may be done from the Design Organisation’s own resources or through an arrangement with the Type Certificate or Supplemental Type Certificate holder (manufacturer/vendor) as applicable.


Issue of repair design approval When it has been declared and has been shown that the repair design meets the applicable requirements of, it shall be approved i) ii) iii) by the Authority, or by an appropriately approved organisation that is also the Type Certificate or the Supplemental Type Certificate holder, for minor repairs only, by an appropriately approved design organisation (for example, an the airline’s Technical Service Department)

Previlages of Repair Design Organisation The Approved Repair Design Organisation may i) ii) iii) use previously approved data for other applications, if justifications, conditions and limitations are the same as before design temporary repair, limited by a defined service period design temporary repair, which releases aircraft before full fatigue and damage evaluation is completed for a limited defined service period

The Approved Repair Design Organisation may exercise the above without requiring Authority involvement. The Authority will monitor the organisation within the surveillance plan for the relevant organisation. When the organisation exercises this privilege, the repair release documentation should clearly show that the approval is under their Design Organisation Approval privilege. Production of repair parts Parts and appliances to be used in the repair must be manufactured in accordance with production data based upon all the necessary design data as provided by the repair design approval holder by (i) (ii) (iii) TC or STC holder if approved, or Approved Production Organization Approved Maintenance Organisation for its own use

Repair embodiment The design organisation must transmit to the maintenance organisation implementing the repair all the necessary installation instructions. The embodiment of a repair may only be made by i) ii) an appropriately approved Maintenance Organisation, or a Production Organisation appropriately approved.


Limitations A repair design may be approved subject to limitations, in which case the repair design approval must include all necessary instructions and limitations. Instructions and limitations associated with repairs should be specified and controlled by those procedures required by the applicable operations rules e. g. Technical Log or equivalent, the Flight Manual, etc.). Unrepaired Damage When a damaged product, part or appliance, is left unrepaired, the evaluation of the damage for its airworthiness consequences may only be made by the Authority or an appropriately approved design organisation. These are for cases not covered in the manufacturer's documentation. Any necessary limitations must be processed by the applicable operations rules e. g. Technical Log or equivalent, the Flight Manual, etc.). Record Keeping For each repair, all relevant design information, drawings, test reports, instructions and limitations possibly issued, justification for classification and evidence of the design approval, shall be held by the design approval holder at the disposal of the Authority and shall be retained by the repair design approval holder in order to provide the information necessary to ensure the continued airworthiness of the repaired products, parts or appliances. On the following an excerpt from a sample JAR-21 Subpart JA showing privileges of the Organisation.


Previlages of a JAR-21 Subpart JA that allows Airbus to design its own repair schemes (Airbus)


54 – APPROVED STORES PROCEDURE Introduction Information to incorporate aeronautical parts from suppliers for aircraft, its engines, propellers or equipment can be found in the D.C.A AIRWORTHINESS NOTICE NO. 29. Information and storage conditions for aeronautical parts can be found in C.A.A.I.P Leaf/BL 1-8. Definition (a) Aeronautical parts are items intended for incorporation into an aircraft, its engines, propellers or equipment, being item the failure or partial filure of which could adversely affect the continuing airworthiness or reliability of the aircraft or the safety of its occupants. The User is the person or organisation incorporating the aeronautical part into an aircraft, its engines, propellers, or equipment. A Design Organisation is an organisation recognised by the D.C.A as competent to design complete aircraft, engines, propellers, equipment, or modifications to such parts The Responsible Authority is the body in a foreign country which exercises control in a similar manner to the DCA in respect of regulatory procedures and airworthiness control of the item under consideration.

(b) (c)


Procedures These can be stated fairly simply as follows i) That all parts and materials used in the construction, servicing, maintenance, repair and modification of civil aircraft must ORIGINATE from a DCA APPROVED SOURCE, or a source acceptable to the DCA When stores are released, evidence must be provided that the said stores conform to the requirements as laid down in the relevant section of B,C.A.R.'s and Airworthines Notices. This evidence will be in the form of an APPROVED CERTIFICATE, an AIRWORTHINESS RELEASE CERTIFICATE, CERTIFICATE (CERTIFICATE OF CONFORMITY), FAA FORM 8130 depending on the circumstances. In all cases the verifying document must bear the signature of an appropriately authorised person. All organisations concerned with the manufacture, maintenance, repair and overhaul of civil aircraft must maintain a BONDED STORE. This store will




contain ONLY those parts intended for aeronautical use and which have been found to conform to all REQUIREMENTS. iv). As well as a Bonded Store, organisations must maintain a QUARANTINE STORE. On receipt, all parts must be placed in this store until it can be confirmed that they meet ALL the standards required for transfer to the Bonded Store. The confirmation process will involve a scrutiny of the verifying document (s) and a physical inspection of the item to ensure its serviceability. When parts are issued from the Bonded Store the relevant incoming Authorised Release Certificate/Airworthiness Approval Tag SERIAL NUMBER must be quoted on all relevant documentation, including, in particular, an entry made in the Aircraft or Engine LOG BOOK, when the parts are eventually fitted to an aircraft. As clearly stated in the D.C.A Airworthiness Notice No. 29, the final responsibility for ensuring that parts originate from an approved source rests on the USER.



Recertification of Stores From time to time, it is necessary to carry out inspections and tests on items held in the Bonded Store to ensure that they remain serviceable. On occasions, these tests may be carried out on items which have a finite shelf life, such as flexible pipelines. It should be understood that re-certification of such during a long period when they are held in the Bonded Store, DOES NOT mean that the SHELF LIFE reverts to zero after re-certification. All such periods of shelf life are CUMULATIVE and the Part must be SCRAPPED when its FINITE LIFE is reached, irrespective of how serviceable that Part may seem.


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Introduction A DCA Authorised Release Certificate (ARC) / Airworthiness Approval Tag is required to be issued for aircraft parts, other than standard parts which are intended for use in civil aircraft. It constitutes a Certification which conforms in all respects to the approved drawings, specifications and, where applicable, test procedures laid down in the relevant section of the B.C.A. R. Procedures The purpose of the Certificate is to release assemblies/items/components/items (hereinafter referred to as 'items') after maintenance work carried out on such items under the DCA Malaysia approval. This certificate allows items removed from one aircraft/aircraft component to be fitted to one aircraft/aircraft component. The Certificate serves as an official certificate for the delivery of items from the manufacturer/maintenance organization to users. The Certificate however is not a delivery or shipping note. The Certificate may only be issued by organizations approved by DCA, within the scope of such an Approval. The Certificate may be used as a rotable tag by utilizing the available space on the reverse side of the Certificate for any additional information and dispatching the item with two copies of the Certificate so that one copy may eventually returned with the item to the maintenance organization. The alternative solution is to use the existing rotable tags and also supply a copy of the Certificate, Aircraft are not to be released using the Certificate. Under no circumstances may a Certificate be issued for any item when it is known that the item has a defect considered a serious hazard to flight safety. A Certificate should not be issued for any item when it is known that the item is unserviceable except in the case of an item undergoing a series of maintenance processes at several DCA Approved maintenance organizations and the item needs a Certificate from the previous maintenance process carried out for the next DCA Approved maintenance organization to accept the item for subsequent maintenance processes. A clear statement of limitation should be endorsed in the Certificate. Every Certificate must be signed by an AUTHORISED SIGNATORY. The authorisation of this person is subject to DCA Approval, although the person concerned will be nominated by the Chief Inspector of the Approved Organisation. The form must always be raised in duplicate, at least, the top copy or certified true copy to be sent out with the parts, and the raising organisation will keep a copy on file.



When a Certificate is received in an Organisation, it must be filed, together with any other relevant document, and retained for a minimum period of 5 years. The certificate should not be destroyed while the items are held in stock. On completion of the 5 years period, if the items have been issued from stores and used on aircraft, the filing information may be destroyed, except in the case of major assemblies or components where documentation should not be destroyed without prior consultation with the DCA. US Aeronautical Parts The DCA will accept that an appliance has those characteristics vouched for on an FAA Airworthiness Approval Tag (FAA Form 8130-3). The procedures given in the following sub-paragraphs provide acceptable alternative means of compliance for appliances other than radio: i) ii) iii) The appliance has been accepted by the FAA as complying with the Minimum Performance Standards of the applicable Technical Standard Order (TSO) published in FAR 21 or, In lieu of approval under a TSO, the appliance has been accepted by the FAA as meeting the applicable FAR's and the terms of the parts specifications. All parts must be accompanied by FAA Form 8130-3

Parts manufactured in the USA are classified according to their degree of importance. CLASS 1 CLASS 2 complete type certified aircraft, aircraft engines and propellers. a major component of a Class 1 product eg. wings, fuselages, empanage assemblies, landing gears, power transmissions, control surfaces etc, the failure of which would jeopardise the safety of a Class 1 product; or any part, material or appliance, approved and manufactured under the Technical Standard Order (T. S. 0) system in the 'C' Series. any aircraft part or component which is not a Class 1 or Class 2 product, and includes standard parts, i.e. those designated AN, NAS, SAE, etc.


Aeronautical Parts from JAA Member Countries The DCA will accept that an appliance has those characteristics vouched for on a JAA Airworthiness Approval Tag (JAA Form One). The procedures given



in the following subparagraphs provide acceptable alternative means of compliance for appliances other than radio: i) The appliance has been accepted by the JAA as complying with the Minimum Performance Standards of the applicable Joint Technical Standard Order (JTSO) published in JAR 21 or, In lieu of approval under a JTSO, the appliance has been accepted by the JAA as meeting the applicable JAR's and the terms of the applicant's specifications. A JAA Airworthiness Approval Tag must be supplied with all appliances.

ii) (iii)

Suspected Unapproved Parts / Bogus Parts Unapproved parts (“Bogus Parts”) include, but are not limited to: (a) Parts specified in the illustrated parts catalogues (IPC) of a type certificated aircraft, but which have been manufactured, reclaimed or reworked and then marked by an unauthorised source and provided with documents which indicate falsely that the part(s) are genuine and conform to the approved type design, or meet a particular industry standard and are offered for use as conforming with an aircraft manufacturers authorized IPC. Parts shipped directly to users by, manufacturers, suppliers, or distributors who do not themselves hold appropriate production approvals, for the parts, and have not been authorised to make direct shipments to users or stockists, by the type certificate holder, who alone has production approval e.g. production overruns. Parts which have not been maintained, overhauled or repaired in accordance with the requirements of approved airworthiness data and/or statutory requirements, or that have been maintained, overhauled or repaired by persons not authorised to perform and certify these functions.



Aircraft Component Distributors Aircraft component distributors are not approved by the DCA and when acting in the distributor role are not required to possess the necessary technical expertise to establish the status of aircraft components. It follows that Distributors should use DCA Approved Organisations if they wish Certifying Persons to accept such components with a minimum of investigation. Where a Distributor uses a DCA Approved Organisation source, it is acceptable for Distributor documentation to be endorsed:



‘The aircraft components identified above have been obtained from or maintained by a DCA AN 29 Appendix 1 source.' When the source available to the Distributor is not a DCA Approved Organisation then the Certifying Person before acceptance must exercise extreme caution. The Certifying Person must be satisfied that ensure that the original OEM paperwork and certifications are fully available for the said part.


56 -


Introduction JAR-OPS 1 Subpart M spells out maintenance requirements of an AOC holder under JAA rules. An operator shall not operate an aeroplane unless it is maintained and released to service by an organisation appropriately approved/accepted in accordance with JAR145 except that pre-flight inspections need not necessarily be carried out by the JAR-145 organisation. Approval of the operator’s maintenance system An applicant for the initial issue, variation and renewal of an AOC who meets the requirements, in conjunction with an appropriate JAR-145 approved/accepted maintenance organisation’s exposition, is entitled to approval of the maintenance system by the Authority Maintenance responsibility An operator shall ensure the airworthiness of the aeroplane and the serviceability of both operational and emergency equipment by procedures performed in accordance with procedures acceptable to the JAA. Maintenance Management An operator must be appropriately approved in accordance with JAR-145 to carry out the requirements specified in JAR-OPS 1except when the Authority is satisfied that the maintenance can be contracted to an appropriate JAR-145 approved/accepted organisation. An operator must employ a person or group of persons acceptable to the Authority to ensure that all maintenance is carried out on time to an approved standard such that the maintenance responsibility requirements prescribed in JAR-OPS 1are satisfied The person, or senior person as appropriate, is the nominated postholder. The Nominated Postholder for Maintenance is also responsible for any corrective action resulting from the quality monitoring of a Quality System prescribed under JAR-OPS 1. Suitable office accommodation at appropriate locations for the personnel must be provided. Quality System For maintenance purposes, the operator,s quality system, as required must additionally include at least the following functions: (1) Monitoring that the activities of AOC holder are being performed in accordance with the accepted procedures;


(2) (3)

Monitoring that all contracted maintenance is carried out in accordance with the contract; and Monitoring the continued compliance with the requirements of JAR-OPS 1

Where the operator is approved in accordance with JAR-145, the quality system may be combined with that required by JAR-145. Operator’s Maintenance Management Exposition An operator must provide an operator’s Maintenance Management exposition containing details of the organisation structure including: (1) (2) The nominated postholder responsible for the maintenance system required by JAR-OPS 1 and the person, or group of persons The procedures that must be followed to satisfy the maintenance responsibility of JAR- OPS 1 and the quality functions of JAR-OPS 1, except that where the operator is appropriately approved as a maintenance organisation in accordance with JAR-145, such details may be included in the JAR-145 exposition.

An operator’s maintenance management exposition and any subsequent amendment must be approved by the Authority. Operator’s Aeroplane Maintenance Programme An operator must ensure that the aeroplane is maintained in accordance with the operator’s aeroplane maintenance programme. The programme must contain details, including frequency, of all maintenance required to be carried out. The programme will be required to include a reliability programme when the Authority determines that such a reliability programme is necessary. An operator’s aeroplane maintenance programme and any subsequent amendment must be approved by the Authority. Operator’s Aeroplane Technical Log An operator must use an aeroplane technical log system containing the following information for each aeroplane: (1) (2) (3) (4) Information about each flight necessary to ensure continued flight safety; The current aeroplane certificate of release to service; The current maintenance statement giving the aeroplane maintenance status of what scheduled and out of phase maintenance is next due except that the Authority may agree to the maintenance statement being kept elsewhere; All outstanding deferred defects that affect the operation of the aeroplane; and


(5) Any necessary guidance instructions on maintenance support


The Authority must approve the aeroplane technical log system and any subsequent amendment. Maintenance Records An operator shall ensure that the aeroplane technical log is retained for 24 months after the date of the last entry. All detailed maintenance records in respect of the aeroplane and any aeroplane component fitted thereto 24 months after the aeroplane or aeroplane component was released to service; The total time and flight cycles as appropriate, of the aeroplane and all life-limited aeroplane components 12 months after the aeroplane have been permanently withdrawn from service; The time and flight cycles as appropriate, since last overhaul of the aeroplane or aeroplane component subjected to an overhaul life Until the aeroplane or aeroplane component overhaul has been superseded by another overhaul of equivalent work scope and detail; The current aeroplane inspection status such that compliance with the approved operator’s aeroplane maintenance programme can be established Until the aeroplane or aeroplane component inspection has been superseded by another inspection, of equivalent work scope and detail; The current status of airworthiness directives applicable to the aeroplane and aeroplane components 12 months after the aeroplane has been permanently withdrawn from service; and Details of current modifications and repairs to the aeroplane, engine(s), propeller(s) and any other aeroplane component vital to flight safety 12 months after the aeroplane has been permanently withdrawn from service. An operator shall ensure that when an aeroplane is permanently transferred from one operator to another operator the records specified above and the time periods prescribed will continue to apply to the new operator. Occurrence reporting The organisation shall report to the competent authority any condition of the aircraft or component identified by the organisation that has resulted or may result in an unsafe condition that could seriously hazard the aircraft or persons. Such reports shall follow Mandatory Occurrence Procedures as agreed by the Authority.


Continuous Validity of Certificate Will remain valid as long as AOC conditions is adhered to.


Chapter 12 Other Relevant JARs



Introduction JAR-145 requires appropriately authorised certifying staff to issue a certificate of release to service on behalf of the JAR-145 approved maintenance Organisation when satisfied that all required maintenance has been completed. JAR-66 prescribes the requirements for the qualification of those personnel authorised by a JAR-145 approved maintenance Organisation to issue certificates of release to service. Currently, the Malaysian DCA does not use JAR-66. Categories of Licenses Certifications are made in accordance with the procedures of the JAR-145 approved maintenance Organisation and within the scope of the authorisation. Certifying staff qualified in accordance with JAR-66, and holding a valid aircraft maintenance licence with where applicable the appropriate type ratings, will be eligible to hold a JAR-145 certification authorisation in one or more of the following categories: Category A: Line maintenance certifying mechanic ;

Category B1: Line maintenance certifying technician – mechanical Category B2: Line maintenance certifying technician – avionics Category C: Base maintenance certifying engineer

Categories A and B1 are subdivided into subcategories relative to combinations of aeroplanes, helicopters, turbine and piston engines. The subcategories are: - A1 and B1.1 Aeroplanes Turbine - A2 and B1.2 Aeroplanes Piston - A3 and B1.3 Helicopters Turbine - A4 and B1.4 Helicopters Piston Privileges of Licences The aircraft maintenance licence alone does not permit the holder to issue certificates of release to service in respect of aircraft used for commercial air transport. To issue a certificate of release to service for such aircraft, the aircraft maintenance licence holder must in addition hold a JAR-145 certification authorisation issued by the JAR-145 approved maintenance Organisation.


A category A aircraft maintenance licence permits the holder to issue certificates of release to service following minor scheduled line maintenance and simple defect rectification within the limits of tasks specifically endorsed on the authorisation. The certification privileges shall be restricted to work that the licence holder has personally performed. A category B1 aircraft maintenance licence shall permit the holder to issue certificates of release to service following maintenance, including aircraft structure, powerplant and mechanical and electrical systems. Replacement of avionic line units, requiring simple tests to prove their serviceability, shall also be included in the privileges. Category B1 shall automatically include the appropriate A subcategory. A category B2 aircraft maintenance licence shall permit the holder to issue certificates of release to service following maintenance on avionic and electrical systems. A category C aircraft maintenance licence shall permit the holder to issue certificates of release to service following base maintenance on aeroplanes with a maximum take off mass above 5700kg or helicopters of a maximum take off mass above 3175 kg. The privileges apply to the aircraft in its entirety. The holder of an aircraft maintenance licence may not exercise certification privileges unless : i) ii) in compliance with the applicable requirements of JAR-145 or JAR-OPS 1 Subpart M in the preceding two-year period he/she has, either had six months of maintenance experience in accordance with the privileges granted by the aircraft maintenance licence or, met the provision for the issue of the appropriate privileges. he/she is able to read, write and communicate to an understandable level in the language(s) in which the technical documentation and procedures necessary to support the issue of the certificate of release to service are written.


Type/task training and ratings Category A The holder of a category A aircraft maintenance licence may only exercise certification privileges on a specific aircraft type following the satisfactory completion of the relevant category A aircraft task training carried out by an appropriately approved JAR-145 or JAR-147 organisation. The training shall include practical hands on training and theoretical training as appropriate for each task authorised. Satisfactory completion of training shall be


demonstrated by an examination and/or by workplace assessment carried out by an appropriately approved JAR-145 or JAR-147 organisation. The training shall include practical hands on training and theoretical training as appropriate for each task authorised. Satisfactory completion of training muste be demonstrated by an examination and/or by workplace assessment carried out by an appropriately approved JAR-145 or JAR-147 organisation. Category B and C Holder of a category B1, B2 or C aircraft maintenance licence shall only exercise certification privileges on a specific aircraft type when the aircraft maintenance licence is endorsed with the appropriate aircraft type rating. Ratings shall be granted following satisfactory completion of the relevant category B1, B2 or C aircraft type training approved by the competent authority or conducted by an appropriately approved JAR-147 maintenance training organisation. Completion of approved aircraft type training shall be demonstrated by an examination. For Category B, it will cover both written and practical whilst for Category C, only written. The holder of a category B1, B2 or C aircraft maintenance licence may also exercise certification privileges on a specific aeroplane type with a maximum take off mass of 5700 kg or less and helicopters with a maximum take off mass of 3175 kg or less, when the aircraft maintenance licence is endorsed with the appropriate group ratings, or manufacturer group ratings, unless the Agency has determined that the complexity of the aircraft in question requires a type rating. Validity of the aircraft maintenance licence The aircraft maintenance licence becomes invalid five years after its last issue or amendment, unless the holder submits his/her aircraft maintenance licence to the competent authority that issued it, in order to verify that the information contained in the licence is the same as that contained in the competent authority records. Any certification privileges based upon a aircraft maintenance licence becomes invalid as soon as the aircraft maintenance licence is invalid. The aircraft maintenance licence is only valid when issued and/or amended by the competent authority and when the holder has signed the document.


Basic Training/Experience Requirement The knowledge requirement and training curricula is detailed in JAR-66. An applicant for an aircraft maintenance licence shall have acquired for : Category A, and subcategories B1.2 and B1.4 : (i) (ii) three years of practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft , if the applicant has no previous relevant technical training; or two years of practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft and completion of training considered relevant by the competent authority as a skilled worker, in a technical trade; or one year of practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft and completion of an approved basic training course, pursuant to Part-147.


Subcategories B1.1 and B1.3 or B2 : (i) five years of practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft if the applicant has no previous relevant technical training; or (ii) three years of practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft and completion of training considered relevant by the competent authority as a skilled worker, in a non-aviation technical trade; or two years of practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft and completion of an Part-147 approved basic training course.


Category C : (i) three years of experience exercising category B1.1, B1.3 or B2 privileges or as Part-145 base maintenance support staff, or, a combination of both; or (ii) (iii) five years of experience exercising category B1.2 or B1.4 privileges or as Part145 base maintenance support staff, or a combination of both; or for an applicant holding an academic degree in a technical discipline, from a university or other higher educational institution recognised by the competent authority, three years of experience working in a civil aircraft

For all applicants, at least one year of the required experience must be recent maintenance experience on aircraft of the category/subcategory for which the initial aircraft maintenance licence is sought. For subsequent category/subcategory additions to an existing aircraft maintenance licence, the additional recent maintenance experience required may be less than one year, but must be at least three months.




Introduction JAR-147 prescribes the requirements to be met by Organisations seeking approval to conduct approved training / responsibility examination of certifying staff as specified in JAR-66. Approved basic training is required by JAR-66 to qualify for the maximum reduction in total maintenance experience specified in JAR-66. An Organisation may not be approved to conduct only examinations. Organisational requirements These are summed as below : i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) fully weather protected facilities for training and examination comfortable environment for both students and instructors for basic training course, basic training workshops and/or maintenance facilities separate from training classrooms or any other agreed and approved arrangements for aircraft type/task training course access, shall be provided to appropriate facilities containing examples of aircraft type Secure storage facilities shall be provided for examination papers and training records. A library shall be provided containing all technical material appropriate to the scope and level of training undertaken.

Personnel requirements These are summed as below: i) ii) an accountable manager who has corporate authority for ensuring that all training commitments can be financed and carried out to the standard required A person or group of persons, directly reporting to the accountable manager, whose responsibilities include ensuring that the maintenance training organisation is in compliance the requirements. The senior person or one person from the group of persons may also be the accountable manager sufficient staff to plan/perform knowledge and OJT instructions, conduct theory and practical assessments in accordance with the approval. when another organisation is used to provide OJT and assessments, such other organisation’s staff may be nominated to carry out OJT training and assessments. The experience and qualifications of instructors, knowledge examiners and practical assessors shall be established as an officially recognised standard. The knowledge examiners and practical assessors shall be specified in the organization exposition for the acceptance of such staff.

iii) iv)




Instructors and knowledge examiners shall undergo updating training at least every twenty-four months relevant to current technology, practical skills, human factors and the latest training techniques appropriate to the knowledge being trained or examined. Records for all teaching, examination and OJT staff shall be kept and updated as required. Terms of reference shall be drawn up for all instructors, knowledge examiners and practical assessors.

Instructional equipment i) ii) iii) iv) Each classroom shall have appropriate presentation equipment The basic training workshops and/or maintenance facilities must have all tools and equipment necessary The basic training workshops and/or maintenance facilities must have an appropriate selection of aircraft, engines, aircraft parts and avionic equipment. The aircraft type training organization must have access to the appropriate aircraft type. Additional training devices such as CBT and simulators may be used, if it is agreed upon and approved.

Maintenance training material Shall be provided to the student and cover as applicable: (1) (2) (3) the basic knowledge syllabus specified in JAR-66 for the relevant aircraft maintenance licence category or subcategory and, the type course content required by JAR-66 for the relevant aircraft type and aircraft Students shall have access to examples of maintenance documentation and technical information of the library

Records The organisation shall keep all student training, examination and assessment records for at least five years following completion of the particular student’s course. Training procedures and quality system The organisation shall establish procedures acceptable to competent authority to ensure proper training standards and compliance with all relevant requirements The organisation shall establish a quality system including: (1) an independent audit function to monitor training standards, the integrity of knowledge examinations and practical assessments, compliance with and adequacy of the procedures, and



a feedback system of audit findings to the person(s) and ultimately to the accountable manager to ensure, corrective action.

Examinations The examination staff shall ensure the security of all questions. Any misdemeanor on the part of students or examiner of their conduct during examination shall be dealt with procedures agreed upon with the Authorities. Training organisation exposition The organisation shall provide an exposition for use by the organisation describing the organisation and its procedures and containing the following information: i) ii) a statement signed by the accountable manager of commitment to comply with the agreed requirements of JAR-147 for the training organization. the title(s) and name(s) of the nominated person(s) the duties and responsibilities of the of nominated person(s) including matters on which they may deal directly with the competent authority on behalf of the maintenance training organisation. a maintenance training organisation chart showing associated chains of responsibility a list of the training instructors, knowledge examiners and practical assessors. a general description of the training and examination facilities a list of the maintenance training courses which form the extent of the approval. exposition amendment procedure. training organisation’s operating procedures at home facilities as well as at other locations. a list of organisations, which have the organization have agreements in support of compliance any subsequent amendments to the exposition shall be approved by the competent authority.

iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x)

Privileges of the maintenance training organization The maintenance training organisation may carry out the following as permitted by and in accordance with the maintenance training organisation exposition: (1) (2) (3) basic training courses to the JAR-66 syllabus, or part thereof. aircraft type / task training courses in accordance with JAR-66. the conduct of examinations on behalf of the competent authority, including the examination of students who did not attend the basic or aircraft type training course at the maintenance training organisation.



the issue of certificates following successful completion of the approved basic or aircraft type training courses and examinations as required

Training, knowledge examinations and practical assessments may only be carried out at the locations identified in the approval certificate and/or at any location specified in the maintenance training organisation exposition. For other locations, it should be in accordance with a control procedure specified in the maintenance training organisation exposition. Such locations need not be listed in the maintenance training organisation exposition. Changes to the maintenance training organization Any proposed changes to the organisation that affect the approval, must be notified, before any such change takes place, in order to enable the competent authority to determine ontinued compliance with JAR-147 and to amend if necessary the maintenance training organisation approval certificate. Failure to inform the competent authority of such changes may result in suspension or revocation of the maintenance training organisation approval certificate backdated to the actual date of the changes. Continued validity of approval An approval shall be issued for an unlimited duration as long as a) b) c) the organisation remaining in compliance with JAR-147 especially with regards with internal or Authority audit findings; the competent authority being granted access to the organisation the certificate not being surrendered.



APPENDIX Contracting States Below is listed all the currently (2003) available 188 contracting states, in English, French, Spanish and Russian. Also given is their ISO country code
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Afghanistan Albanie Algérie Andorre Angola Antigua-etBarbuda Argentine Arménie Australie Autriche Azerbaïdjan Bahamas Bahreïn Bangladesh Barbade Bélarus Belgique Belize Bénin Bhoutan Bolivie BosnieHerzégovine Botswana Brésil Bulgarie Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodge Cameroun Canada Cap-Vert Afganistán Albania Argelia Andorra Angola Афганистан Албания Алжир Андорра Ангола AF AL DZ AD AO AG AR AM AU AT AZ BS BH BD BB BY BE BZ BJ BT BO BA BW BR BN BG BF BI KH CM CA CV

Antigua y Barbuda Антигуа и Барбуда Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaiyán Bahamas Bahrein Bangladesh Barbados Belarús Bélgica Belice Benin Bhután Bolivia Bosnia y Herzegovina Botswana Brasil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Camboya Camerún Canadá Cabo Verde Аргентина Армения Австралия Австрия Азербайджан Багамские Острова Бахрейн Бангладеш Барбадос Беларусь Бельгия Белиз Бенин Бутан Боливия Босния и Герцеговина Ботсвана Бразилия Болгария Буркина-Фасо Бурунди Камбоджа Камерун Канада Кабо-Верде

Brunei Darussalam Brunéi Darussalam Brunei Darussalam Бруней-Даруссалам


Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Côte d'Ivoire

République centrafricaine Tchad Chili Chine Colombie Comores Congo Iles Cook Costa Rica Croatie Cuba Chypre Côte d'Ivoire

República Centroafricana Chad Chile China Colombia Comoras Congo Islas Cook Costa Rica Croacia Cuba Chipre Côte d'Ivoire República Popular Democrática de Corea República Democrática del Congo Dinamarca Djibouti República Dominicana Ecuador Egipto El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Etiopía Fiji Finlandia Francia Gabón Gambia Georgia Alemania Ghana Grecia

Центральноафриканская Республика Чад Чили Китай Колумбия Коморские Острова Конго Острова Кука Коста-Рика Хорватия Куба Кипр Чешская Республика Кот-д’Ивуар Корейская НародноДемократическая Республика Демократическая Республика Конго Дания Джибути Доминиканская Республика Эквадор Египет Сальвадор Экваториальная Гвинея Эритрея Эстония Эфиопия Фиджи Финляндия Франция Габон Гамбия Грузия Германия Гана Греция


République tchèque República Checa

République Democratic populaire People's Republic of démocratique de Korea Corée Democratic Republic of the Congo Denmark Djibouti Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece République démocratique du Congo Danemark Djibouti République dominicaine Equateur Egypte El Salvador Erythrée Estonie Ethiopie Fidji Finlande France Gabon Gambie Géorgie Allemagne Ghana Grèce


Guinée équatoriale Guinea Ecuatorial


Grenada Guatemala Guinea-Bissau Guinea Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali

Grenade Guatemala Guinée-Bissau Guinée Guyana Haïti Honduras Hongrie Islande Inde Indonésie Iran (République islamique d') Iraq Irlande Israël Italie Jamaïque Japon Jordanie Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Koweït Kirghizistan République démocratique populaire lao Lettonie Liban Lesotho Libéria Jamahiriya arabe libyenne Lituanie Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaisie Maldives Mali

Granada Guatemala Guinea-Bissau Guinea Guyana Haití Honduras Hungría Islandia India Indonesia Irán (República Islámica del) Iraq Irlanda Israel Italia Jamaica Japón Jordania Kazajstán Kenya Kiribati Kuwait Kirguistán República Democrática Popular Lao Letonia Líbano Lesotho Liberia Jamahiriya Árabe Libia Lituania Luxemburgo Madagascar Malawi Malasia Maldivas Malí

Гренада Гватемала Гвинея-Бисау Гвинея Гайана Гаити Гондурас Венгрия Исландия Индия Индонезия Иран (Исламская Республика) Ирак Ирландия Израиль Италия Ямайка Япония Иордания Казахстан Кения Кирибати Кувейт Кыргызстан Лаосская НародноДемократическая Республика Латвия Ливан Лесото Либерия Ливийская Арабская Джамахирия Литва Люксембург Мадагаскар Малави Малайзия Мальдивы Мали



Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Monaco Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Nigeria Niger Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Republic of Korea Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Rwanda

Malte Iles Marshall Mauritanie Maurice Mexique Micronésie (États fédérés de) Monaco Mongolie Maroc Mozambique Myanmar Namibie Nauru Népal Pays-Bas Nouvelle-Zélande Nicaragua Nigéria Niger Norvège Oman Pakistan Palaos Panama PapouasieNouvelle-Guinée Paraguay Pérou Philippines Pologne Portugal Qatar République de Corée République de Moldova Roumanie Fédération de Russie Rwanda

Malta Islas Marshall Mauritania Mauricio México

Мальта Маршалловы Острова Мавритания Маврикий Мексика


Micronesia Микронезия (Федеративные FM (Estados Federados Штаты) de) Mónaco Mongolia Marruecos Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Países Bajos Nueva Zelandia Nicaragua Nigeria Níger Noruega Omán Pakistán Palau Panamá Papua Nueva Guinea Paraguay Perú Filipinas Polonia Portugal Qatar Монако Монголия Марокко Мозамбик Мьянма Намибия Науру Непал Нидерланды Новая Зеландия Никарагуа Нигерия Нигер Норвегия Оман Пакистан Палау Панама Папуа-Новая Гвинея Парагвай Перу Филиппины Польша Португалия Катар MC MN MA MZ MM NA NR NP NL NZ NI NG NE NO OM PK PW PA PG PY PE PH PL PT QA KR MD RO RU RW

República de Corea Республика Корея República de Moldova Rumania Federación de Rusia Rwanda Республика Молдова Румыния Российская Федерация Руанда


Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Thailand The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan

Saint-Kitts-etNevis Sainte-Lucie Saint-Vincent-etles Grenadines Samoa Saint-Marin Sao Tomé-etPrincipe Arabie saoudite Sénégal Serbie-etMonténégro Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapour Slovaquie Slovénie Iles Salomon Somalie Afrique du Sud Espagne Sri Lanka Soudan Suriname Swaziland Suède Suisse République arabe syrienne Tadjikistan Thaïlande L'ex-République yougoslave de Macédoine Togo Tonga Trinité-et-Tobago Tunisie Turquie Turkménistan

Saint Kitts y Nevis Сент-Китс и Невис Santa Lucía San Vicente y las Granadinas Samoa San Marino Santo Tomé y Príncipe Arabia Saudita Senegal Serbia y Montenegro Seychelles Sierra Leona Singapur Eslovaquia Eslovenia Islas Salomón Somalia Sudáfrica España Sri Lanka Sudán Suriname Swazilandia Suecia Suiza República Árabe Siria Tayikistán Tailandia La ex República Yugoslavia de Macedonia Togo Tonga Trinidad y Tabago Túnez Turquía Turkmenistán Сент-Люсия Сент-Винсент и Гренадины Самоа Сан-Марино Сан-Томе и Принсипи Саудовская Аравия Сенегал Сербия и Черногория Сейшельские Острова Сьерра-Леоне Сингапур Словакия Словения Соломоновы Острова Сомали Южная Африка Испания Шри-Ланка Судан Суринам Свазиленд Швеция Швейцария Сирийская Арабская Республика Таджикистан Таиланд Бывшая югославская Республика Македония Того Тонга Тринидад и Тобаго Тунис Турция Туркменистан



Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United Republic of Tanzania United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

Ouganda Ukraine Emirats arabes unis Royaume-Uni République-Unie de Tanzanie Etats-Unis Uruguay Ouzbékistan Vanuatu Venezuela Viet Nam Yémen Zambie Zimbabwe

Uganda Ucrania Emiratos Árabes Unidos Reino Unido

Уганда Украина Объединенные Арабские Эмираты Соединенное Королевство


República Unida de Объединенная Республика Tanzanía Танзания Estados Unidos Uruguay Uzbekistán Vanuatu Venezuela Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Соединенные Штаты Америки Уругвай Узбекистан Вануату Венесуэла Вьетнам Йемен Замбия

International Civil Aircraft Nationality Markings This is the complete listing of all the world’s civil aircraft nationality markings as per ICAO
Afghanistan Algeria Angola Argentina Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium YA 7T D2 LQ LV EK P4 VH OE 4K C6 A9C S2 8P EW OO


Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia/Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Canada Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Coatia Columbia Congo Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Dem. Kampuchea Denmark Djibouti Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Estonia



Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Greece Grenada Grenadines Guatemala Guinea Bissau Guinea Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kenya Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao Latvia Lebanon



Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein (plus national emblem) Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Mexico Mexico Monaco Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Myanmar Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand New Zealand New Zealand Niger Nigeria North Korea Norway Oman Pakistan Panama



Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Portugal Principe & San Tome Qatar Republic of Korea Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Rwanda San Tome & Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Africa South Africa Spain Sri Lanka St. Lucia St. Vincent Sudan Surinam Swaziland Sweden Switzerland (plus national emblem)



Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Tobago & Trinidad Togo Tonga Trinidad & Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United Kingdom Colonies & Protectorates United Kingdom Colonies & Protectorates United Kingdom Colonies & Protectorates United States of America Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Western Samoa Yemen Zaire Zambia Zimbabwe

YK EY 5H HS 9Y 5V A3 9Y TS TC EZ 5X A6 G VP VQ VR N CX YV XV 5W 70 9Q 9J Z

IATA World Airport Codes Here is the listing of some of the IATA global airport 3-alphabet codelisting, alphabetically sorted A
• • • •

AAE Annaba, Algeria AAL Alborg, Denmark AAR Aarhus, Denmark ABD Abadan, Iran 208

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ABE Allentown, Pennsylvania, United States near Bethlehem, Pennsylvania ABI Abilene, Texas, United States ABJ Port Bouet Airport, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire ABM Bamaga, Australia ABQ Albuquerque International Sunport, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States ABR Aberdeen, South Dakota, United States ABS Abu Simbel, Egypt ABX Albury, Australia ABY Albany, Georgia, United States ABZ Aberdeen, United Kingdom ACA Alvarez International Airport, Acapulco, Mexico ACC Kotoka International Airport, Accra, Ghana ACE Arrecife, Spain, near Lanzarote ACY Atlantic City International Airport, Atlantic City, New Jersey, United States ADA Adana, Turkey ADD Bole International Airport, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ADE Aden, Yemen ADL Adelaide International Airport, West Beach, Australia, near Adelaide ADX Aktyubinsk, Kazakhastan ADY Alldays, South Africa AER Adler and Sochi, Russia AES Ålesund Airport Vigra, Norway AEX Alexandria, Louisiana, United States AGA Agadir, Morocco AGB Augsburg, Germany AGS Augusta Regional Airport, Augusta, Georgia, United States AGU Aguascalientes, Mexico AGZ Aggneys, South Africa AHN Athens, Georgia, United States AHO Alghero Sassari, Italy AHU Al Hoceima, Morocco AJA Ajaccio, France AJN Anjouan, Comoros AJU Aracaju, Brazil AJY Agades, Niger AKL Auckland International Airport, Mangere, New Zealand, nearAuckland ALB Albany International Airport, Albany, New York, United States ALC Alicante, Spain ALG Algiers, Algeria


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ALH Albany, Australia ALJ Alexander Bay, South Africa ALV Andorra La Vella, Andorra ALY Alexandria, Egypt AMA Amarillo International Airport, Amarillo, Texas, United States AMD Ahmedabad International Airport, Ahmedabad, India AMM Queen Alia Airport, Amman, Jordan AMS Schiphol Airport, Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands, near Amsterdam ANB Anniston, Alabama, United States ANC Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport, Anchorage, Alaska, United States ANK Ankara, Turkey ANR Antwerp, Belgium ANU V. C. Bird International Airport, Antigua, Antigua and Barbuda AOH Lima Allen County Airport, Lima, Ohio AOI Ancona, Italy AOJ Aomori, Japan AOO Altoona, Pennsylvania, United States APF Naples Municipal Airport, Naples, Florida, United States APN Alpena County Regional Airport, Alpena, Michigan, United States APW Apia, Western Samoa AQJ Aqaba, Jordan ARB Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States ARN Arlanda Airport, Stockholm, Sweden ASE Aspen-Pitkin County Airport, Aspen, Colorado, United States ASJ Amami, Japan ASK Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire ASP Alice Springs, Australia ATH Eleftherios Venizelos Airport, Athens, Greece ATL William B. Hartsfield International Airport, Atlanta, Georgia, United States ATQ Amritsar, India ATW Appleton, Wisconsin, United States, near Neenah, Wisconsin, and Menasha, Wisconsin AUA Queen Beatrix International Airport, near Orenjasted, Aruba AUG Augusta Airport, Augusta, Maine, United States AUH Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates AUR Aurillac, France


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AUS Bergstrom International Airport, Austin, Texas, United States AVL Asheville Regional Airport, Fletcher, North Carolina, United States, near Asheville, North Carolina AXA Anguilla AXS Armenia, Colombia AXT Akita, Japan AYQ Ayers Rock, Australia AYR Ayr, Australia AYT Antalya, Turkey AZO Kalamazoo-Battle Creek International Airport, Kalamazoo, Michigan, United States

• • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

BAH Bahrain BAK Baku, Azerbaijan BAQ Ernesto Cortissoz International Airport, Barranquila, Colombia BBI Bhubaneswar, India BBT Berberati, Central African Republic BBY Bambari, Central African Republic BCN El Prat International Airport, El Prat de Llobregat, Spain, near Barcelona BDA Bermuda International Airport, Ferry Reach, Bermuda, near Hamilton BDL Bradley International Airport, Hartford, Connecticut, United States, near Bridgeport, Connecticut, and Windsor Locks, Connecticut BDQ Baronda, India BDS Brindsi, Italy BDU Bardufoss Airport, Norway BEG Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro BEH Benton Harbour, Michigan, United States BEL Belem, Brazil BEN Benghazi, Libya BER All Airports, Berlin, Germany BES Brest, France BET Bethel, Alaska, United States BEW Beira, Mozambique BEY Beirut International Airport, Beirut, Lebanon BFD Bradford, Pennsylvania, United States, near Warren, Pennsylvania, and Olean, New York BFL Meadows Field Airport, Bakersfield, California, United States BFN Bloemfontein Airport, Bloemfontein, South Africa


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BFS Belfast International Airport, Belfast, United Kingdom BGF Bangui, Central African Republic BGI Grantley Adams International Airport, Bridgeport, Barbados BGO Bergen Airport Flesland, Bergen, Norway BGR Bangor, Maine, United States BGU Bangassou, Central African Republic BGW All Airports, Baghdad, Iraq BGY Orio al Serio International Airport, Bergamo, Italy, near Milan BHD Belfast City Airport, Belfast, United Kingdom BHE Blenheim, New Zealand BHM Birmingham International Airport, Birmingham, Alabama, United States BHO Bhopal, India BHV Bahawalpur, Pakistan BHX Birmingham International Airport, Birmingham, United Kingdom BIA Bastia, France BIL Billings Logan Airport, Billings, Montana, United States BIO Bilbao, Spain BIQ Biarritz, France BIS Bismarck, North Dakota, United States, near Mandan, North Dakota BJI Bemidji, Minnesota, United States BJL Banjul, Gambia BJS All Airports, Beijing, China BJX Leon, Mexico BJZ Badajoz, Spain BKK Don Muang Airport, Bangkok, Thailand BKW Beckley, West Virginia, United States BKO Senou International Airport, Bamako, Mali BLA Barcelona, Venezuela BLF Bluefield, West Virginia, United States BLI Bellingham International Airport, Bellingham, Washington, United States BLL Billund, Denmark BLQ Gugliemo Marconi Airport, Bologna, Italy BLR Hindustan International Airport, Bangalore, India BLZ Chileka Airport, Blantyre, Malawi BMG Bloomington, Indiana, United States BMI Bloomington, Illinois, United States, near Normal, Illinois BMP Brampton Island, Australia


• • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

BNA Nashville International Airport, Nashville, Tennessee, United States BNE Brisbane International Airport, Brisbane, Australia BNK Ballina, Australia BNP Bannu, Pakistan BOB Bora Bora, French Polynesia BOD Bordeaux, France BOG El Dorado International Airport, Bogota, Colombia BOI Boise Air Terminal, Boise, Idaho, United States BOJ Burgas, Bulgaria BOM Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai, India BON Flamingo International Airport, near Kralendijk, Bonaire BOO Bodø Airport, Bodø, Norway BOS Lt. General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport, East Boston, Massachusetts, United States, near Boston] BOW Bartow, Florida, United States BOY Bobo and Dioulasso, Burkina Faso BPT Jefferson County Airport, Beaumont, Texas, United States, near Port Arthur, Texas BQH unnamed? Biggin Hill, United Kingdom BQK Brunswick, Georgia, United States, near Glyncouster, Georgia BQN Rafael Hernandez Airport, Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, United States BRD Brainerd, Minnesota, United States BRI Bari, Italy BRN Belp Airport, Bern, Switzerland BRS Bristol, United Kingdom BRU Brussels International Airport, Brussels, Belgium BSB Brasilia, Brazil BSL Basel-Mulhouse International Airport, Basel, Switzerland and Mulhouse, France BTR Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States BTS Bratislavia, Slovakia BTU Bintulu, Malaysia BTV Burlington, Vermont, United States BUD Ferighey Airport, Budapest, Hungary BUE All Airports, Buenos Aires, Argentina BUF Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, New York, United States BUG Bengueka, Angola BUH All Airports, Bucharest, Romania


• • • • • • • • • • • • •

BUR Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena Airport, Burbank, California, United States BVA Beauvais Airport, Tille, France BVB Boa Vista, Brazil BWI Baltimore-Washington International Airport, between Baltimore, Maryland and Washington, DC, United States BWN Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei BXO Bissau, Guinea Bissau BXS Borrego Springs, California, United States BYK Bouake, Côte d'Ivoire BYU Bayreuth, Germany BZE Phillip S. W. Goldson International Airport, Ladyville, Belize, northwest of Belize City BZL Barisal, Bangladesh BZN Albert Gallatin Airport, Bozeman, Montana, United States BZV Brazzaville, Congo

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

CAA Chennai International Airport, Chennai, India CAE Columbia Metropolitian Airport, Columbia, South Carolina, United States CAI Cairo International Airport, Cairo, Egypt CAK Akron, Ohio, near Canton, Ohio, United States CAN Guangzhou, China CAS All Airports, Casablanca, Morrocco CAT Cat Island, Bahamas CCS Maiquetia International Airport, Maiquetia, Venezuela, near Caracas CDC Cedar City, Utah, United States CDG Charles De Gaulle International Airport, Roissy, France, near Paris CDQ unnamed? Croydon, Australia CEI Chiang Rai International Airport, Chiang Rai, Thailand CEN Ciudad Obregon, Mexico CFE Clermont-Ferrand, France CGK Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Jakarta, Indonesia CGX Meigs Field, Chicago, Illinois, United States CHA Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States CHI All Airports, Chicago, Illinois CHO Charlottesville, Virginia, United States CHS Charleston International Airport, Charleston, South Carolina, United States CID Cedar Rapids, Iowa, United States


• • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

CJS Ciudad Juarez, Mexico CKB Clarksburg, West Virginia, United States CKY Conakry, Guinea CLE Hopkins International Airport, Cleveland, Ohio, United States CLO Alfonso Bonilla Aragon International Airport, Cali, Colombia CLT Charlotte Douglas International Airport, Charlotte, North Carolina, United States CMH Port Columbus International Airport, Columbus, Ohio, United States CMN Mohammed V International Airport, Casablanca, Morocco, United States CMX Houghton County Memorial Airport, Boston Location, Michigan, United States, near Hancock, Michigan and Houghton, Michigan CNF Belo Horizonte, Brazil CNS Cairns Airport, Cairns, Australia CNX Chiang Mai International Airport, Chiang Mai, Thailand COD Cody, Wyoming, United States COO Cotonou, Benin COS Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States CPE Campeche, Mexico CPH Kastrup Airport, Amager, Denmark, near Copenhagen CPQ Viracopos: Campinas International Airport, Brazil CPR Casper, Wyoming, United States CPT Cape Town International Airport, Cape Town, South Africa CGH Congonhas Airport, Sao Paulo, Brazil CRW Yeager Airport, Charleston, West Virginia, United States CRP Corpus Christi, Texas, United States CSG Columbus, Georgia, United States CTA Catania, Italy CTS Chitose International Airport, Sapporo, Japan CUR Hato International Airport, near Wilemstad, Curaçao CUN Cancun International Airport, Cancun, Mexico CUL Culiacan, Mexico CUU Chihuahua, Mexico CVG Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Aiport, Covington, Kentucky, United States, near Cincinnati, Ohio CZM Cozumel, Mexico


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DAB Daytona Beach, Florida, United States DAC Zia International Airport, Dhaka, Bangladesh DAL Love Field, Dallas, Texas, United States DAM Damascus, Syria DAR Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania DAY James M. Cox International Airport, Dayton, Ohio, United States DCA Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, Arlington, Virginia, United States, near Washington, DC DEL Indira Gandhi International Airport New Delhi, India DEN Denver International Airport, Denver, Colorado, United States DFW Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, between Dallas, Texas and Fort Worth, Texas, United States DHN Dothan, Alabama, United States DKR Dakar-Yoff-Leopold Sedal Senghor International Airport, Dakar, Senegal DLA Douala, Cameroon DME Domodedovo International Airport, Moscow, Russia DMM King Fahad International Airport, Dammam, Saudi Arabia DOG Dongola, Sudan DOH Doha, Qatar DPS Denpasar, Indonesia DSM Des Moines, Iowa, United States DTT All Airports, Detroit, Michigan, United States DTW Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, near Detroit, Michigan, United States DUB Dublin International Airport, Dun Laoghaire, Ireland, near Dublin DUR Durban International Airport, Durban, South Africa (Formerly Louis Botha Airport) DUS Düsseldorf International Airport, Düsseldorf, Germany DXB Dubai International Airport, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

• • •

EAP Basel-Mulhouse International Airport, Basel, Switzerland and Mulhouse, France EDI Edinburgh International Airport, Edinburgh, United Kingdom EIN Eindhoven Airport, Eindhoven, Netherlands


• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

EIS Beef Island, British Virgin Islands, near Tortola, British Virgin Islands EIW County Memorial Airport, New Madrid, Missouri, United States EKO Elko, Nevada, United States ELM Elmira-Corning Regional Airport, Elmira, New York and Big Flats, New York, United States ELP El Paso International Airport, El Paso, Texas, United States ELS East London Airport, East London, South Africa ERI Erie, Pennsylvania, United States ESF Alexandria, Louisiana, United States EUG Mahlon Sweet Airport, Eugene, Oregon, United States EVV Evansville, Indiana, United States EWR Newark Liberty International Airport, Newark, New Jersey, United States, near New York City EXT Exeter, United Kingdom EYW Key West International Airport, Key West, Florida, United States EZE Ministro Pistarini International Airport, Ezeiza, Argentina, near Buenos Aires

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

FAI Fairbanks International Airport, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States FAR Hector International Airport, Fargo, North Dakota, United States FAT Fresno Yosemite International Airport, Fresno, California, United States FAY Fayetteville, North Carolina, United States FCA Glacier Park International Airport, Kalispell, Montana, United States FCO Leonardo Da Vinci International Airport Fiumicino, Italy, near Rome FJR Fujairah, United Arab Emirates FLG Flagstaff, Arizona, United States FLL Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States, near Hollywood, Florida FLO Florence, South Carolina, United States FLR Amerigo Vespucci Airport, Florence, Italy FMY Page Field, Florida, United States FNT Flint, Michigan, United States FPO Grand Bahama International Airport, Freeport, Bahamas FPR Fort Pierce, Florida, United States


• • • •

FRA Frankfurt International Airport, Frankfurt am Main, Germany FUK Fukuoka Airport, Fukuoka, Japan FWA Fort Wayne International Airport, Fort Wayne, Indiana FYV Fayetteville, Arkansas, United States

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• •

GCI Guernsey, United Kingdom GCM Owen Roberts International Airport, near Georgetown, Cayman Islands GDL Guadalajara, Mexico GEG Spokane International Airport, Spokane, Washington, United States GEO Cheddi Jagan International Airport, Georgetown, Guyana GIG Rio De Janeiro International Airport, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil GJT Grand Junction, Colorado, United States GLA Glasgow International Airport, Glasgow, United Kingdom GLH Mid-Delta Regional Airport, Greenville, Mississippi, United States GND Port Salines International Airport, Grenada GNV Gainesville Regional Airport, Gainesville, Florida, United States GOA Genoa, Italy GOT Gothenburg, Sweden GPA Araxos, Greece GPT Gulfport-Biloxi International Airport, Gulfport, Mississippi, United States GRB Green Bay, Wisconsin, United States GRJ George Airport, George, South Africa GRR Gerald R. Ford International Airport, Grand Rapids, Michigan, United States GRU Guarulhos International Airport, Sao Paulo, Brazil GSO Piedmont Triad International Airport, Greensboro, North Carolina, United States, near High Point, North Carolina and Winston-Salem, North Carolina GSP Greenville-Spartanburg International Airport, Greer, South Carolina, United States, near Greenville, South Carolina and Spartanburg, South Carolina GTF Great Falls, Montana, United States GTR Columbus, Missouri, United States


• • • • • • •

GUA Guatemala City International Airport, Guatemala City, Guatemala GUB Guerrero Negro, Mexico GUM Antonio B. Won Pat International Airport, Tamuning, Guam, United States, near Hagåtña, Guam GVA Cointrin International Airport, Geneva, Switzerland GWY Galway Airport, Carnamore, Ireland, near Galway GYE Simon Bolivar International Airport, Santiago de Guayaquil, Ecuador GYM Guaymas, Mexico

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HAJ Hanover, Germany HAM Hamburg, Germany HAN Hanoi, Vietnam HAV Jose Marti International Airport, Havana, Cuba HDY Hat Yai International Airport, Hat Yai, Thailand HEL Helsinki-Vantaa Airport, Vantaa, Finland, near Helsinki HFD All Airports, Hartford, Connecticut, United States HHN Frankfurt-Hahn Airport, Hahn, Germany HKG Hong Kong International Airport, Hong Kong, China HKT Phuket International Airport, Phuket, Thailand HLN Helena, Montana, United States HMO Hermosillo, Mexico HND Tokyo International Airport, Tokyo, Japan HNL Honolulu International Airport, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States HBA Hobart, Australia HOU William P. Hobby Airport, Houston, Texas, United States HPN Westchester County Airport, White Plains, New York, United States HRL Harlingen, Texas, United States HSV Huntsville International Airport, Huntsville, Alabama, United States, near Decatur, Alabama HTS Tri-State Airport, Huntington, West Virginia, United States

• •

IAD Washington Dulles International Airport, in Chantilly, Virginia, United States, near Washington, DC IAH George Bush Intercontinental Airport Houston, Texas, United States


• • • • • • • • • • • •

ICN Incheon International Airport, Incheon, South Korea, near Seoul IDA Idaho Falls, Idaho, United States IEV All Airports, Kiev, Ukraine ILE Killeen, Texas, United States ILM Wilmington, North Carolina, United States IND Indianapolis International Airport, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States IST Ataturk International Airport, Istanbul, Turkey ITM Osaka International Airport, Itami, Japan, near Osaka IRO Biraro, Central African Republic ISP Long Island MacArthur Airport, Islip, New York, United States IXG Belgaum, India IGI New Delhi, India

• • • • • • • • • •

JAC Jackson Hole, Wyoming, United States JAN Jackson, Mississippi, United States JAX Jacksonville International Airport, Jacksonville, Florida, United States JED King Abdulaziz International Airport, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia JER Jersey, United Kingdom JFK John F. Kennedy International Airport , Jamaica, New York, United States in New York City JNB Johannesburg International Airport, Johannesburg, South Africa JNU Juneau, Alaska, United States JRO Kilimanjaro International Airport, Tanzania JRS Jerusalem International Airport, Jerusalem

• • • • • • • • •

KBL Kabul International Airport, Kabul, Afghanistan KBP Kyiv, Ukraine KEF Keflavik International Airport, Keflavik, Iceland, near Reykjavic KHH Kaohsiung International Airport, Kaohsiung, Taiwan KHI Karachi International Airport , Karachi, Pakistan KIJ Niigata, Japan KIM Kimberley Airport, Kimberley, South Africa KIN Norman Manley International Airport, Kingston, Jamaica KIX Kansai International Airport, Osaka, Japan


• • • • • •

KOA Keahole Airport Kailua, Hawaii and Kona, Hawaii, United States KOJ Kagoshima, Japan KPB Zhulyany International Airport, Kiev, Ukraine KSC Kosice, Slovakia KUL Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia KWI Kuwait International Airport, Kuwait City, Kuwait

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

LAN Capital City Airport, Lansing, Michigan, United States LAP La Paz, Mexico LAS McCarran International Airport, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States LAX Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles, California, United States LBA Leeds/Bradford Airport, West Yorkshire, Uinted Kingdom LBB Lubbock, Texas, United States LBI Albi, France LBV Libreville, Gabon LCY London City Airport, London, Uinted Kingdom LED Pulkovo International Airport, Saint Petersburg, Russia LEX Lexington, Kentucky, United States LFT Lafayette, Louisiana, United States LFW Lome, Togo LGA La Guardia Airport, Flushing, New York, United States, in New York City LGB Long Beach Municipal Airport, Long Beach, California, United States, near Los Angeles, California LGW London Gatwick Airport nearby London, United Kingdom LHR London Heathrow Airport, London, United Kingdom LIA Lima, Ohio, United States LIG Limoges, France, United States LIH Lihue Airport Lihue, Hawaii, United States LIM Jorge Chavez International Airport, Callao, Peru, near Lima LIN Linate Airport, Milan, Italy LIR Guanacaste Liberia, Costa Rica LIS Portela Airport, Lisbon, Portugal LIT Little Rock National Airport, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States LLH Las Limas, Honduras LMM Los Mochis, Mexico


• • • • • • • • • • • • •

LON All Airports, London, United Kingdom LOS Lagos Murtala Muhammed International Airport, Lagos, Nigeria LOV Monclova, Mexico LPL Liverpool John Lennon Airport, Liverpool, United Kingdom LRM La Romana, Dominican Republic LRT Lorient, France LST Launceston, Australia LTO Loreto, Mexico LTN London Luton Airport, Luton, United Kingdom, near London LUN Lusaka, Zambia LWB Lewisburg, West Virginia, United States LYH Lynchburg, Virginia, United States LYS Saint-Exupéry International Airport (formerly Satolas), Lyon, France

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

MAA Chennai International Airport, Chennai, India MAD Barajas International Airport, Madrid, Spain MAF Midland-Odessa International Airport, between Midland, Texas and Odessa, Texas, United States MAN Manchester International Airport, Manchester, United Kingdom MBJ Sangster International Airport, Montego Bay, Jamaica MBS MBS International Airport, Saginaw, Michigan, United States MCI Kansas City International Airport, Kansas City, Missouri, United States MCN Macon, Georgia, United States MCO Orlando International Airport, Orlando, Florida, United States MDE Jose Maria Cordova International Airport, Medellin, Colombia MDT Capital City Airport, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, United States MDW Midway International Airport, Chicago, Illinois, United States MEI Meridian, Mississippi, United States MEL Melbourne Airport, Tullamarine, Australia, near Melbourne MEM Memphis International Airport, Memphis, Tennessee, United States


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• • • •

MEX Benito Juarez International Airport, Mexico City, Mexico MFM Macau International Airport, Macau, China MFR Rogue Valley International-Medford Airport, Medford, Oregon, United States MGA Augusto C. Sandino International Airport, Managua, Nicaragua MGM Montgomery, Alabama, United States MHT Manchester Airport, Manchester, New Hampshire, United States MIA Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida, United States MID Meridia, Mexico MIL All Airports, Milan, Italy MJV San Javier-Murcia Airport, Murcia, Spain MKC All Airports, Kansas City, Missouri, United States MKE General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States MLB Melbourne International Airport, Melbourne, Florida, United States MLH Mulhouse, France MLI Quad City International Airport, Moline, Illinois, United States MLU Monroe, Louisiana, United States MOB Mobile Regional Airport, Mobile, Alabama, United States MOL Molde Airport Årø, Molde, Norway MOW All Airports, Moscow, Russia MPL Montpelier, France MRS Marseilles, France MRY Monterey, California, United States MSN Dane County Regional Airport, Madison, Wisconsin, United States MSO Missoula, Montana, United States MSP Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport, near Saint Paul, Minnesota and Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States MSY Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport, Kenner, Louisiana, United States, near New Orleans (formerly Moisant Field) MTY Monterrey, Mexico MUC Franz Josef Strauß International Airport, Munich, Germany MXL Mexicali, Mexico MXP Malpensa International Airport, Varese, Italy, near Milan


• •

MYR Myrtle Beach Airport, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, United States MZT Mazatlan, Mexico

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

NAN Nadi International Airport, Nadi, Fiji NAP Naples, Italy NAS Nassau, Bahamas NBO Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Nairobi, Kenya NCE Côte d' Azur International Airport, Nice, France NCY Annecy, France NDJ N'Djamena, Chad NGS Nagasaki, Japan NGO Komaki International Airport, Nagoya, Japan NIM Niamey, Niger NKC Nouakchott, Mauritania NTY Pilanesburg International Airport, Pilanesburg, South Africa NRT New Tokyo International Airport, Narita, Japan, near Tokyo NSI Yaounde, Cameroon NTE Nantes, France NUE Nuremburg, Germany NYC All Airports, New York City, United States

• • • • • • • • • • •

OAK Oakland International Airport, Oakland, California, United States, near San Francisco OAX Oaxaca, Mexico OGG Kahului International Airport, Kahului, Hawaii, United States OIT Oita, Japan OKC Will Rogers World Airport, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States OKJ Okayama, Japan OMA Eppley Air Field, Omaha, Nebraska, United States OMR Oradea International Airport, Oradea, Romania ONT Ontario International Airport, Ontario, California, United States, near Los Angeles OPO Porto, Portugal ORD O' Hare International Airport, Chicago, Illinois, United States (formerly Orchard Field)


• • • • • • • •

ORF Norfolk International Airport, Norfolk, Virginia, United States, near Virginia Beach, Virginia and Williamsburg, Virginia ORK Cork International Airport, Cork, Ireland ORM Sywell Airport, Northampton and Peterborough, United Kingdom OSA All Airports, Osaka, Japan OSL Oslo Airport Gardermoen, Ullensaker, Norway, north of Oslo OSR Ostrava, Czech Republic OTP Otopeni International Airport, Otopeni, Romania, near Bucharest, Romania OUA Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso OUZ Zouerate, Mauritania

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • •

PAP Port-au-Prince International Airport, Port-au-Prince, Haiti PAR All Airports, Paris, France PAH Paducah, Kentucky, United States PBI Palm Beach International Airport, West Palm Beach, Florida, United States, near Palm Beach, Florida PDS Piedras Negras, Mexico PDX Portland International Airport, Portland, Oregon, United States PEI Matecana International Airport, Pereira, Colombia PEK Beijing Capital International Airport, Beijing, China PER Perth Airport, Perth, Australia PFN Panama City-Bay County International Airport, Panama City, Florida, United States PHC Omagawa International Airport, Port Harcourt, Nigeria PHL Philadelphia International Airport, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States PHX Sky Harbor International Airport, Phoenix, Arizona, United States PIA Peoria, Illinois, United States PIE Saint Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport, Clearwater, Florida, United States, near Saint Petersburg, Florida PIH Poctatello, Idaho, United States PIK Glasgow Prestwick International Airport, Ayrshire, Scotland, United Kingdom, near Glasgow PIT Pittsburgh International Airport, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States PLH Plymouth Airport, Plymouth, United Kingdom


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

PLS Providencales, Turks and Caicos Islands PLZ Port Elizabeth Airport, Port Elizabeth, South Africa PMO Palermo, Italy PNS Pensacola Regional Airport, Pensacola, Florida, United States POP Puerto Plata Airport, Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic POS Piarco International Airport, Piarco, Trinidad and Tobago, near Port of Spain PRG Ruzyne International Airport, Prague, Czech Republic PSA Pisa, Italy PSC Tri-City Airport, Pasco, Washington, United States PSE Mercedita Airport, Ponce, Puerto Rico, United States PSP Palm Springs, California, United States PTY Tocumen International Airport, Panama City, Panama PUB Pueblo, Colorado, United States PUJ Punta Cana, Dominican Republic PUS Gimhae International Airport, Gimhae, Korea, near Busan PVD T. F. Green Airport, Providence, Rhode Island, United States PVG Pu Dong International Airport, Shanghai, China PVR Gustavo Diaz Ordaz International Airport, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico PWM Portland International Jetport, Portland, Maine, United States (Originally stood for Portland-Westbrook Municipal) PZH Zhob, Pakistan

• •

QLI Limassol, Cyprus QNB Anand, India

• • • • • • • •

RAK Menara International Airport, Marrakech, Morocco RDM Roberts Field, Redmond, Oregon, United States RDU Raleigh-Durham International Airport, Durham, North Carolina, United States, near Raleigh, North Carolina RGN Yangon, Myanmar RIC Richmond International Airport, Richmond, Virginia, United States RLT Arlit, Niger RNO Reno/Tahoe International Airport, Reno, Nevada, United States ROM All Airports, Rome, Italy


• • •

ROR Koror, Palau RSW Southwest Florida International Airport, Fort Myers, Florida, United States RUH King Khaled International Airport, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

SAC All Airports, Sacramento, California, United States SAL Comalapa International Airport, San Salvador, El Salvador SAN San Diego International Airport, San Diego, California, United States SAP Ramon Villeda Morales International Airport, San Pedro Sula, Honduras SAT San Antonio International Airport, San Antonio, Texas, United States SAV Savannah International Airport, Savannah, Georgia, United States, near Hilton Head, South Carolina SBD San Bernardino International Airport, San Bernardino, California, United States SCL Arturo Merino Benitez International Airport, Santiago, Chile SDA Baghdad International Airport, Baghdad, Iraq SDF Louisville International Airport, Louisville, Kentucky, United States SDQ Las Americas International Airport, Punta Caucedo, Dominican Republic, near Santo Domingo SEA Seattle-Tacoma Airport, SeaTac, Washington, United States, near Seattle, Washington and Tacoma, Washington SEL Gimpo Airport, Seoul, South Korea SEX Sembach Airport, Finsterwalde, Germany SFB Orlando Sanford International Airport, Sanford, Florida, United States, near Orlando SFO San Francisco International Airport, San Francisco, California, United States SGN Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam SHA Hongqiao Airport, Shanghai, China SID Amilcar Cabral International Airport, Sal Island, Cape Verde SIN Changi International Airport, Changi, Singapore SJC Norman Yoshio Mineta San Jose International Airport, San Jose, California, United States SJD Los Cabos, Mexico SJO Juan Santa Maria International Airport, San Jose, Costa Rica


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

SJU Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport, San Juan, Puerto Rico, United States SLC Salt Lake City International Airport, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States SLU Vigie Airport, Castries, Saint Lucia SMF Sacramento International Airport, Sacramento, California, United States SNA John Wayne Airport, Santa Ana, California, United States SNN Shannon International Airport, Shannon, Ireland SRQ Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport, Sarasota, Florida, United States near Bradenton, Florida STI Santiago, Dominican Republic STL Lambert-Saint Louis International Airport, Saint Louis, MissouriSantiago, Chile STN London Stansted Airport, Essex, United Kingdom, near London STO All Airports, Stockholm, Sweden STR Echterdingen Airport, Stuttgart, Germany STT Cyril E. King International Airport, Charlotte Animalie, United States Virgin Islands STX Henry E. Rohlsen International Airport, Saint Croix, United States Virgin Islands SUF Lamezia Terme, Italy SUJ Satu Mare International Airport, Satu Mare, Romania SUM Hagåtña, Guam, United States SVG Stavanger Airport Sola, Stavanger, Norway SVO Sheremetyevo International Airport, Moscow, Russia SWF Stewart International Airport, Newburgh, New York, United States SXF Schönefeld International Airport, Berlin, Germany SYD Kingsford Smith International Airport, Mascot, Australia, near Sydney SZB Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

• • • •

TAB Crown Point International Airport, Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago TAS Vostochny International Airport, Tashkent, Uzbekistan TGU Toncontin International Airport, Tegucigalpa, Honduras THF Tempelhof International Airport, Berlin, Germany


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

TIJ General Abelardo L. Rodriguez International Airport, Tijuana, Mexico TLH Tallahassee Regional Airport, Tallahassee, Florida, United States TLL Tallinn Airport, Tallin, Estonia TLV Ben Gurion International Airport, Lod, Israel, near Tel Aviv TNR Annantarivo, Madagascar TPA Tampa International Airport, Tampa, Florida, United States TPE Chiang Kai Shek International Airport, Taoyuan, Taiwan, near Taipei TRF Sandefjord Airport Torp, Torp, Norway, near Sandefjord TSR Timisoara, Romania TUL Tulsa International Airport, Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States TUN Carthage Airport, Tunis, Tunisia TUS Tucson International Airport, Tucson, Arizona, United States TVC Cherry Capital Airport, Traverse City, Michigan, United States TXL Tegel International Airport, Berlin, Germany TYO All Airports, Tokyo, Japan TYS McGhee Tyson Airport, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States

• • • • •

UCA Utica, New York, United States UIO Mariscal Sucre International Airport, Quito, Ecuador UTN Upington Airport, Upington, South Africa URC Urumqui, China UVF Hewanorra International Airport, Vieux-Fort, Saint Lucia

• • • • • •

VCE Marco Polo International Airport, Venice, Italy VIE Vienna International Airport, Vienna, Austria VKO Vnukovo Airport, Moscow, Russia VLI Bauerfield International Airport, Port Vila, Vanuatu VNO Vilnius International Airport, Vilnius, Lithuania VNY Van Nuys Airport, Van Nuys, California, United States


• •

VPS Okaloosa Regional Airport, Valparaiso, Florida, United States, near Fort Walton Beach, Florida VVI Viru Viru International Airport, Santa Cruz, Bolivia

• •

WAW Frederick Chopin International Airport, Warsaw, Poland WDH Windhoek International Airport, Windhoek, Namibia

• •

XMN Xiamen, China XNA Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport, Bentonville, Arkansas, United States, near Fayetteville, Arkansas, and Springdale, Arkansas

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

YAK Yakutat, Alaska, United States YAO Yaounde, Cameroon YAT Attawapiskat, Northwest Territories, Canada YBC Bagotville, Quebec, Canada YBL Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada YCD Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada YCG Castlegar, British Columbia, Canada YDF Deer Lake, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada YEA All Airports, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada YEG Edmonton International Airport, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada YFB Iqaluit Airport, Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada YFC Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada YFO Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada YGK Kingston, Ontario, Canada YGP Gaspe, Quebec, Canada YHZ Halifax International Airport, Enfield, Nova Scotia, Canada, near Halifax YKA Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada YKM Yakima, Washington, United States YKZ Buttonville Municipal Airport, Markham, Ontario, Canada YLW Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada YMM Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada YMQ All Airports, Montreal, Quebec, Canada YMX Montreal-Mirabel International Airport, Mirabel, Quebec, Canada, near Montreal


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

YNB Yanbu, Saudi Arabia YOK Yokohama, Japan YOW Macdonald-Cartier International Airport, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada YPR Prince George, British Columbia, Canada YQB Jean Lesage International Airport, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada, near Quebec City YQG Windsor, Ontario, Canada YQL Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada YQM Greater Moncton International Airport, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada YQQ Comox, British Columbia, Canada YQR Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada YQT Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada YQU Grande Prairie, Alberta, Canada YQX Gander International Airport, Gander, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada YQY Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada YSB Sudbury, Ontario, Canada YSJ Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada YTH Thompson, Manitoba, Canada YTS Timmins, Ontario, Canada YTO All Airports, Toronto, Ontario YTZ Toronto City Centre Airport, Toronto, Ontario, Canada YUL Montreal-Dorval International Airport, Dorval, Quebec, Canada in Montreal YUM Yuma, Arizona, United States YUY Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec, Canada YVO Val d'Or, Quebec, Canada YVR Vancouver International Airport, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, near Vancouver YWG Winnipeg International Airport, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada YWK Wabush, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada YXC Cranbrook, British Columbia, Canada YXE Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada YXH Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada YXJ Fort St. John, British Columbia, Canada YXS Prince George, British Columbia, Canada YXU London International Airport, London, Ontario, Canada YXX Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada YXY Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada YYB North Bay, Ontario, Canada YYC Calgary International Airport, Calgary, Alberta, Canada


• • • • • • • • •

YYF Penticton, British Columbia, Canada YYG Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada YYJ Victoria, British Columbia, Canada YYR Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada YYT St. John's Airport, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada YYZ Lester B. Pearson International Airport, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada near Toronto YZF Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada YZR Sarnia, Ontario, Canada YZV Sept-Iles, Quebec, Canada

• • • • • • • • •

ZAD Zadar, Croatia ZAG Zagreb, Croatia ZAZ Zaragoza, Spain ZBO Bowen, Australia ZCL Zacatecas, Mexico ZIH Zihuatenejo, Mexico, near Ixtapa ZND Zinder, Niger ZRH Zurich International Airport, Zurich, Switzerland ZTH Zakynthos, Greece





05 -00 -10



-20 -30 -40 -50 06


07 -00 -10 -20 08 -00 -10 -20 09 -00 -10 -20 10 -00 -10 -20 -30 11 -00 -10 -20 -30 12 -00 -10 -20



-30 18


-00 -10 -20




21 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 22 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 23 -00 -10 -15 -20 -30 -40 -50



-60 -70 -80 24 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 25 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 26 -00 -10 -20 -30 27 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70



-80 28 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 29 -00 -10 -20 -30 30 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 31 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 32 -00



-10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 33 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 34 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 35 -00 -10 -20 -30 36 -00 -10 -20 37 -00



-10 -20 38 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 39 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 41 -00 -10 -20 -30 45 -00 -05 -19 -20 -44 -45 -46 -49 -50 -59 -60 -69 -70





-40 -50 -60 -70 -80 53 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 54 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 55 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 56



-00 -10 -20 -30 -40 57 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90




61 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 62 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 63



-00 -10 -20 -30 -40 64 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 65 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 66 -00 -10 -20 -30 67 -00 -10 -20 -30




71 -00



-00 -20 -10 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 72(T) -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 72(R) -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 73 -00 -10 -20 -30


-00 -10 -20 -30



75 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 76 -00 -10 -20 77 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 78 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 79 -00 -10 -20 -30 80 -00 -10 81



-00 -10 -20 82 -00 -10 -20 -30 -40 83 -00 -10 -20 84 -00 -10





This book intends to give a solid foundation of Aviation Legislation for anyone who is involved either directly or indirectly with commercial transport aircraft maintenance in Malaysia especially for candidates applying for Malaysian Department of Civil Aviation Aircraft Maintenance License. The largely legal language is simplified and arranged for ease of understanding. This book should also be of interest to the curios public on behind the scene legislations which made civil aviation the safest mode of transport.