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1. Radiation Pattern
An antenna radiation pattern is defined as “a graphical
representation of the radiation properties of the antenna
as a function of space coordinates. In most cases, the
radiation pattern is determined in the farfield region.
Radiation properties include radiation intensity, field
strength, phase or polarization.
Coordinate System
Idealized
Point Radiator
Vertical Dipole Radar Dish
Isotropic
Omnidirectional Directional
Types of Radiation Patterns
Full Null Beamwidth
Between
1st NULLS
Radiation Pattern Lobes
Main lobe
Side lobes
Back lobes
Radiation Pattern Lobes
Field Regions
D
R
1
R
2
Reactive nearfield region
ì
3
1
62 . 0
D
R =
Radiating nearfield
(Fresnel) region
ì
2
2
2
D
R =
Farfield (Fraunhofer)
region
Radiation Intensity
Aside on Solid Angles
µ
µ = length arc
rad 0 . 1 = u
r
sr 0 . 1 = O
2
r area surface =
radians ce circumfran total t 2 =
2 2
4 r r S area surface total
o
O = = = t
sr
r
S
o
2
= O
 u u d d r ds ) sin(
2
=
infinitesimal area
of surface of sphere
 u u d d
r
ds
d ) sin(
2
= = O
Radiation Intensity
}}
O = ¬
O
=
t 4
d U P
sr
W
d
dP
U
tot
rad
tot
rad
}}
= ¬ = ds P P
m
W
ds
dP
P
rad
tot
rad
tot
rad
rad 2
rad
P r U
2
=
) , , ( r P
rad
 u decays as 1/r
2
in the far field
since
) , (  u U will be independent of r
Radiation Intensity
max
2 2
2
2 2
2
*
) , (
) , (
2
) , (
2
1 ~
2
1 ~ ~
2
1
) , , (
U
U
U
E E
r
U
E E E H E r P
rad
¢ u
¢ u
q
¢ u
q q
¢ u
¢ u
¢ u
=
+ =
+ = = × =
Radiation Intensity
Examples
0 . 1
) , (
) , (
4
) , , ( ) , (
4
) , , (
max
2
2
= =
= = =
=
U
U
U
const
P
r P r U
r
P
r P
tot
rad
rad
tot
rad
rad
¢ u
¢ u
t
¢ u ¢ u
t
¢ u
1. Isotropic radiator
2. Hertzian Dipole
) ( sin
) , (
) , (
) ( sin
4 2
) sin(
4 2
1
2
1
) , (
0 ) , , (
) sin(
4
) , , (
2
max
2
2
0
2
0
2
2 2
2
0
u
¢ u
¢ u
u
t
 q
u
t

q
q q
¢ u
¢ u
u
t

q ¢ u

 u


u
= =


.

\
 A
=
A
· = + =
=
A
=
÷
÷
U
U
U
I l
r
e I l
r E E r U
r E
r
e I l
j r E
r j
r j
Directive Gain
) ( 1 4
) , (
4
4
) , ( ) , (
) , (
max
max
y directivit
P
U
D D
P
U
P
U
U
U
D
tot
rad
o
tot
rad
tot
rad ave
> = =
= = =
t
¢ u
t
t
¢ u ¢ u
¢ u
Directivity
Examples
0 . 1
0 . 1
) , (
4 ) , (
4
) , (
=
= =
= =
o
tot
rad
tot
rad
o
D
P
U
D
P
U U
¢ u
t ¢ u
t
¢ u
1. Isotropic radiator
2. Hertzian Dipole
2
3
) ( sin
2
3 ) , (
4 ) , (
3
8
4 2
) sin( ) ( sin
4 2
) , (
) ( sin
4 2 2
1
) , (
0 ) , , ( ), sin(
4
) , , (
2
2
0
2
0 0
2
2
0
4
2
2
0
2 2 2
=
= =


.

\
 A
= ·


.

\
 A
= O =


.

\
 A
= + =
=
A
=
} } }}
÷
o
tot
rad
tot
rad
r j
D
P
U
D
I l
d d
lI
d U P
I l
E E r U
r E
r
e l
j r E
u
¢ u
t ¢ u
t
t
 q
u  u u
t
 q
¢ u
u
t
 q
q
¢ u
¢ u u
t

q ¢ u
t t
t
 u


u
Antenna Gain
input
P
U
G
) , (
4 ) , (
¢ u
t ¢ u =
POWER DENSITY IN A CERTAIN DIRECTION
DIVIDED BY THE TOTAL POWER RADIATED
POWER DENSITY IN A CERTAIN DIRECTION
DIVIDED BY THE TOTAL INPUT POWER
TO THE ANTENNA TERMINALS (FEED POINTS)
IF ANTENNA HAS OHMIC LOSS…
THEN, GAIN < DIRECTIVITY
DIRECTIVITY
GAIN
Antenna Gain
Sources of Antenna System Loss
1. losses due to impedance mismatches
2. losses due to the transmission line
3. conductive and dielectric losses in the antenna
4. losses due to polarization mismatches
According to IEEE standards the antenna gain does not include losses due to
impedance or polarization mismatches. Therefore the antenna gain only
accounts for dielectric and conductive losses found in the antenna itself. However
Balanis and others have included impedance mismatch as part of the antenna gain.
The antenna gain relates to the directivity through a coefficient called the
radiation efficiency (e
t
)
) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ¢ u ¢ u ¢ u D e e e D e G
d c r t
· = · =
conduction losses dielectric losses
1 s
t
e
impedance mismatch
Overall Antenna Efficiency
The overall antenna efficiency is a coefficient that accounts for all the different
losses present in an antenna system.
losses dielectric conductor e
losses dielectric e
losses conduction e
mismatch impedance ef f iciency ref lection e
mismatches on polarizati e
e e e e e e e e
cd
d
c
r
p
cd r p
e
d c r p
t
&
) (
=
=
=
=
=
· = =
Reflection Efficiency
The reflection efficiency through a reflection coefficient (I) at the input (or feed)
to the antenna.
) (
) (
1
2
O =
O =
+
÷
= I
I ÷ =
impedance output generator R
impedance input antenna R
R R
R R
e
output
input
generator input
generator input
r
Radiation Resistance
The radiation resistance is one of the few parameters that is relatively
straight forward to calculate.
2
4
2
) , ( 2
2
o o
total
rad
rad
I
d U
I
P
R
}}
O
= =
t
¢ u
Example: Hertzian Dipole
2
2
2
2
2
0 0
2
2
4
3
2
3
8
4
3
8
4 2
2
3
8
4 2
) sin( ) ( sin
4 2
) , (
2

.

\

A
=


.

\
 A
=


.

\
 A
=


.

\
 A
= ·


.

\
 A
= O =
} } }}
ì
t
q
t
t

q
t
t
 q
t
t
 q
u  u u
t
 q
¢ u
tt
t
l l
I
I l
R
I l
d d
I l
d U P
o
o
rad
o o tot
rad
Radiation Resistance
Example: Hertzian Dipole (continued)
0063 . 0
9 . 7 50
9 . 7 50
1
079 . 0
10000
1
3
2
377
377
100
1
3
2
3
8
4
3
8
4 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
~

.

\

+
÷
÷ ~
O = =
O = =
A

.

\

A
=


.

\
 A
=


.

\
 A
=
r
rad
o
o
rad
e
R
and
l
let
l l
I
I l
R
t
q
ì
ì
t
q
t
t

q
t
t
 q
Antenna Radiation Efficiency
rad cd
rad
cd
R R
R
e
+
=
Conduction and dielectric losses of an antenna are very difficult to separate and
are usually lumped together to form the e
cd
efficiency. Let R
cd
represent the actual
losses due to conduction and dielectric heating. Then the efficiency is given as
For wire antennas (without insulation) there is no dielectric losses only conductor
losses from the metal antenna. For those cases we can approximate R
cd
by:
o
eµ
t 2 2
o
cd
b
l
R =
where b is the radius of the wire, e is the angular frequency, o is the conductivity
of the metal and l is the antenna length
Example Problem:
A halfwavelength dipole antenna, with an input impedance of 73O is to be
connected to a generator and transmission line with an output impedance of
50O. Assume the antenna is made of copper wire 2.0 mm in diameter and the
operating frequency is 10.0 GHz. Assume the radiation pattern of the antenna is
Find the overall gain of this antenna
SOLUTION
First determine the directivity of the antenna.
) ( sin ) , (
3
u  u
o
B U ~
tot
rad
P
U
D
) , (
4 ) , (
¢ u
t ¢ u =
697 . 1
3
16
) ( sin
3
16
4
3
) ( sin
4 ) , (
max 0
3
2
0
3
= = =
=


.

\

=
t
u
t
t
u
t ¢ u
D D
B
B
D
o
Example Problem: Continued
SOLUTION
Next step is to determine the efficiencies
965 . 0 )
50 73
50 73
1 ( ) 1 (
2
2
=
+
÷
÷ = I ÷ =
=
r
cd r t
e
e e e
rad cd
rad
cd
R R
R
e
+
=
964 . 0 9991 . 0 965 . 0
9991 . 0
0628 . 0 73
73
0628 . 0
10 7 . 5 2
10 4 10 10 2
) 001 . 0 ( 2
015 . 0
2 2
7
7 9
= · = =
=
+
=
O =
· ·
· ·
= =
÷
cd r t
cd
o
cd
e e e
e
b
l
R
t t
t o
eµ
t
Example Problem: Continued
SOLUTION
Next step is to determine the gain
dB dB G
G G
G
D e e G
cd r
14 . 2 ) 636 . 1 ( log 10 ) (
636 . 1
3
16
964 . 0
) ( sin
3
16
964 . 0 ) , (
) , ( ) , (
10 0
max 0
3
= =
= = =
=
=
t
u
t
¢ u
¢ u ¢ u
Antenna Type Gain (dBi) Gain over
Isotropic
Power Levels
Half
Wavelength
Dipole
1.76 1.5x
Cell Phone
Antenna
(PIFA)
3.0 2.0x 0.6 Watts
Standard Gain
Horn
15 31x
Cell phone
tower
antenna
6 4x
Large
Reflecting
Dish
50 100,000x
Small
Reflecting
Dish
40 10,000x
Effective Aperture
plane wave
incident
A
physical
P
load
inc physical load
W A P
?
=
Question:
Answer: Usually NOT
inc
load
eff inc eff load
W
P
A W A P = ¬ =
Directivity and Maximum Effective Aperture
(no losses)
Antenna #2
transmit
receiver
R
Direction of wave propagation
Antenna #1
A
tm
, D
t
A
rm
, D
r
o em
D A
t
ì
4
2
=
Directivity and Maximum Effective Aperture
(include losses)
Antenna #2
transmit
receiver
R
Direction of wave propagation
Antenna #1
A
tm
, D
t
A
rm
, D
r
2
*
2
2
ˆ ˆ
4
) 1 (
a w o cd em
D e A µ µ
t
ì
· I ÷ =
conductor and
dielectric losses
reflection losses
(impedance mismatch)
polarization mismatch
Friis Transmission Equation (no loss)
Antenna #2
Antenna #1
R
The transmitted power density supplied by Antenna #1
at a distance R and direction (u
r
,
r
) is given by:
2
4
) , (
R
D P
W
t t gt t
t
t
¢ u
=
(u
t
,
t
)
(u
r
,
r
)
The power collected (received) by Antenna #2 is given by:
) , ( ) , (
4
4
) , (
4
) , (
4
) , (
2
2
2 2
r r gr t t gt
t
r
r r gr t t gt t
r
t t gt t
r t r
D D
R P
P
D
R
D P
A
R
D P
A W P
¢ u ¢ u
t
ì
t
ì ¢ u
t
¢ u
t
¢ u


.

\

=
= = =
Friis Transmission Equation (no loss)
Antenna #2
Antenna #1
R
(u
t
,
t
)
(u
r
,
r
)
) , ( ) , (
4
2
r r gr t t gt
t
r
D D
R P
P
¢ u ¢ u
t
ì


.

\

=
If both antennas are pointing in the direction of their maximum radiation pattern:
ro to
t
r
D D
R P
P
2
4


.

\

=
t
ì
Friis Transmission Equation ( loss)
Antenna #2
Antenna #1
R
(u
t
,
t
)
(u
r
,
r
)
2
*
2
2 2
ˆ ˆ
) , ( ) , (
4
) 1 )( 1 (
a w r r gr t t gt t r cdr cdt
t
r
D D
R
e e
P
P
µ µ  u  u
t
ì
·


.

\

I ÷ I ÷ =
conductor and
dielectric losses
transmitting antenna
conductor and
dielectric losses
receiving antenna
reflection losses in transmitter
(impedance mismatch)
reflection losses in receiving
(impedance mismatch)
polarization mismatch
free space loss factor
Friis Transmission Equation: Example #1
A typical analog cell phone antenna has a directivity of 3 dBi at its operating frequency of
800.0 MHz. The cell tower is 1 mile away and has an antenna with a directivity of 6 dBi.
Assuming that the power at the input terminals of the transmitting antenna is 0.6 W, and
the antennas are aligned for maximum radiation between them and the polarizations are
matched, find the power delivered to the receiver. Assume the two antennas are well
matched with a negligible amount of loss.
nW watts P
r
65 . 1 4 2
609.344 1 4
375 . 0
6 . 0
2
= · ·

.

\

·
· =
t
2
*
max max
2
2 2
ˆ ˆ
4
) 1 )( 1 (
a w r t t r cdr cdt
t
r
D D
R
e e
P
P
µ µ
t
ì
·


.

\

I ÷ I ÷ =
= 0
= 0
= 1
= 1
= 1
0 . 4 10
0 . 2 10
375 . 0
6 800
8 3
10 / 6 max
10 / 3 max
= =
= =
= = =
r
t
D
D
m
e
e
f
c
ì
Friis Transmission Equation: Example #2
A half wavelength dipole antenna (max gain = 2.14 dBi) is used to communicate from an
old satellite phone to a low orbiting Iridium communication satellite in the L band (~ 1.6
GHz). Assume the communication satellite has antenna that has a maximum directivity of
24 dBi and is orbiting at a distance of 781 km above the earth. Assuming that the power at
the input terminals of the transmitting antenna is 1.0 W, and the antennas are aligned for
maximum radiation between them and the polarizations are matched, find the power
delivered to the receiver. Assume the two antennas are well matched with a negligible
amount of loss.
pW watts P
r
15 . 0 251 64 . 1
781,000 4
1875 . 0
0 . 1
2
= · · 
.

\

·
· =
t
2
*
max max
2
2 2
ˆ ˆ
4
) 1 )( 1 (
a w r t t r cdr cdt
t
r
D D
R
e e
P
P
µ µ
t
ì
·


.

\

I ÷ I ÷ =
= 0
= 0
= 1
= 1
= 1
0 . 251 10
64 . 1 10
1875 . 0
6 800
8 3
10 / 24 max
10 / 14 . 2 max
= =
= =
= = =
r
t
D
D
m
e
e
f
c
ì
Friis Transmission Equation: Example #2
A rooftop dish antenna (max gain = 40.0 dBi) is used to communicate from an old satellite
phone to a low orbiting Iridium communication satellite in the Ku band (~ 12 GHz).
Assume the communication satellite has antenna that has a maximum directivity of 30 dBi
and is orbiting at a distance of 36,000 km above the earth. How much transmitter power is
required to receive 100 pW of power at your home. Assume the antennas are aligned for
maximum radiation between them and the polarizations are matched, find the power
delivered to the receiver. Assume the two antennas are well matched with a negligible
amount of loss.
W
watts
P
t
82
1000 000 , 10
36,000,000 4
025 . 0
10 100
2
12
=
· · 
.

\

·
·
=
÷
t
2
*
max max
2
2 2
ˆ ˆ
4
) 1 )( 1 (
a w r t t r cdr cdt
t
r
D D
R
e e
P
P
µ µ
t
ì
·


.

\

I ÷ I ÷ =
= 0
= 0
= 1
= 1
= 1
0 . 1000 10
000 , 10 10
025 . 0
6 800
8 3
10 / 30 max
10 / 40 max
= =
= =
= = =
t
r
D
D
m
e
e
f
c
ì
Radar Range Equation
Definition: Radar cross section or echo area of a target is defined as the area when intercepting
the same amount of power which, when scattered isotropically, produces at the receiver the same
power density as the actual target.
2 2
2
4 lim
4
lim m
W
W
R
R
W
W
inc
s
R
inc
R
s (
¸
(
¸
= ¬
(
¸
(
¸
=
· ÷ · ÷
t o
t
o
o (radar cross section) m
2
R (distance from target) m
W
s
(scattered power density) W/m
2
W
inc
(incident power density) W/m
2
Radar Range Equation (no losses)
Power density incident on the target is a function
of the transmitting antenna and the distance
between the target and transmitter:
2
4
) , (
t
t t gt t
inc
R
D P
W
t
¢ u
=
The amount of power density scattered by the
target at the location of the receiver is then given
by:
2 2
) 4 (
) , (
4
r t
t t gt t
r
inc s
R R
D P
R
W W
t
¢ u
t
o
= =
The amount of power delivered by the receiver is
then given by:
t
ì
¢ u
t
¢ u
o
4
) , (
) 4 (
) , (
2
2
r r gr
r t
t t gt t
r s r
D
R R
D P
A W P = =
t
¢ u ¢ u
t
ì
o
4
) , ( ) , (
) 4 (
2
2
r r gr t t gt
r t t
r
D D
R R P
P
=
) , , , (
r r t t
¢ u ¢ u o o =
Note that in general:
Radar Range Equation (losses)
2
*
2
2 2
ˆ ˆ
4 4
) , ( ) , (
) 1 )( 1 (
a w
r t
r r gr t t gt
t r cdr cdt
t
r
R R
D D
e e
P
P
µ µ
t
ì
t
 u  u
o ·


.

\

I ÷ I ÷ =
Radar Cross Section (RCS)
Definition: Radar cross section or
echo area of a target is defined as
the area when intercepting
the same amount of power which,
when scattered isotropically,
produces at the receiver the same
power density as the actual target.
2 2
2
4 lim
4
lim m
W
W
R
R
W
W
inc
s
R
inc
R
s (
¸
(
¸
= ¬
(
¸
(
¸
=
· ÷ · ÷
t o
t
o
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
4 lim 4 lim m
E
E
R m
E
E
R
inc
scat
R inc
scat
R
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
¸
(
¸
/
/
=
· ÷ · ÷
t
k
k
t o
) , , , (
r r t t
¢ u ¢ u o o =
r t r t
¢ ¢ u u = = ,
Transmitter and receiver not in
the same location (bistatic RCS)
r t r t
¢ ¢ u u = = ,
Transmitter and receiver in the
same location (usually the same
antenna) called monostatic RCS
Radar Cross Section (RCS)
RCS Customary Notation:
Typical RCS values can span 10
5
m
2
(insect) to 10
6
m
2
(ship). Due to the
large dynamic range a logarithmic
power scale is most often used.


.

\

=


.

\

= =
1
log 10 log 10
2 2
2
10 10
m
ref
m
dBm
dBsm
o
o
o
o o
100 m
2
20 dBsm
10 m
2
10 dBsm
1 m
2
0 dBsm
0.1 m
2
10 dBsm
0.01 m
2
20 dBsm
Coordinate System
Types of Radiation Patterns
Idealized Point Radiator Vertical Dipole Radar Dish
Isotropic
Omnidirectional
Directional
Radiation Pattern Lobes Main lobe Full Null Beamwidth Between 1st NULLS Side lobes Back lobes .
Radiation Pattern Lobes .
62 D R1 R2 Radiating nearfield (Fresnel) region R2 2 D2 .Field Regions Farfield (Fraunhofer) region D Reactive nearfield region 3 R1 0.
Radiation Intensity Aside on Solid Angles surface area r 2 1.0 rad arc length r 1.0 sr total circumfrance 2 radians total surface area S o 4 r 2 r 2 So 2 sr r infinitesimal area ds r 2 sin( ) d d of surface of sphere ds d 2 sin( ) d d r .
. ) will be independent of r . r ) decays as 1/r2 in the far field U ( .Radiation Intensity tot dPrad W U sr d tot dPrad W Prad m2 ds tot Prad U d 4 tot Prad Prad ds U r 2 Prad since Prad ( .
) E E 2 U ( .Radiation Intensity 1 ~ ~* 1 ~ 2 1 2 2 Prad ( . ) U max . ) U ( . . r ) E H E E E 2 2 2 r2 2 2 U ( .
r ) 0 l I 0 e jr l I 0 2 2 2 1 2 1 U ( . r ) 4 r 2 tot Prad U ( . ) U ( .Radiation Intensity Examples 1. Isotropic radiator tot Prad Prad ( . ) r Prad ( . Hertzian Dipole l I 0 e jr E ( . ) U ( . . ) r E E r sin( ) 2 2 4 r 2 4 U ( .0 U max 2 2. . ) 1. r ) j sin( ) 4 r E ( . ) sin 2 ( ) U m ax 2 sin 2 ( ) 2 . . r ) const 4 U ( . .
) tot 4 tot Prad U ave Prad 4 U Dm ax Do 4 m ax 1 (directivity ) tot Prad D( . ) U ( .Directive Gain U ( . ) . ) U ( .
. ) 4 1 . E ( . ) U o 4 U ( . r ) 0 4 r 1 l I 0 2 2 U ( . ) r 2 E E 2 2 4 sin 2 ( ) 2 2 2 lI 0 P U ( .0 tot Prad Do 1.1. ) D ( . ) 3 2 sin ( ) tot Prad 2 . Isotropic radiator Directivity Examples U ( . Hertzian Dipole tot Prad l e jr E ( . r ) j sin( ). .0 2. )d 2 4 4 tot rad 2 2 l I 0 8 sin ( ) sin( )d d 2 4 3 0 0 D( . ) 4 Do 3 2 U ( .
) 4 Pinput DIRECTIVITY POWER DENSITY IN A CERTAIN DIRECTION DIVIDED BY THE TOTAL POWER RADIATED GAIN POWER DENSITY IN A CERTAIN DIRECTION DIVIDED BY THE TOTAL INPUT POWER TO THE ANTENNA TERMINALS (FEED POINTS) IF ANTENNA HAS OHMIC LOSS… THEN. ) G ( .Antenna Gain U ( . GAIN < DIRECTIVITY .
) et D( .Antenna Gain Sources of Antenna System Loss 1. The antenna gain relates to the directivity through a coefficient called the radiation efficiency (et) impedance mismatch conduction losses dielectric losses G ( . However Balanis and others have included impedance mismatch as part of the antenna gain. ) et 1 . 3. ) er ec ed D( . 2. losses due to impedance mismatches losses due to the transmission line conductive and dielectric losses in the antenna losses due to polarization mismatches According to IEEE standards the antenna gain does not include losses due to impedance or polarization mismatches. Therefore the antenna gain only accounts for dielectric and conductive losses found in the antenna itself. 4.
et e e p er ec ed e p er ecd e p polarization mismatches er reflection efficiency(impedance mismatch) ec conduction losses ed dielectric losses ecd conductor & dielectric losses .Overall Antenna Efficiency The overall antenna efficiency is a coefficient that accounts for all the different losses present in an antenna system.
Reflection Efficiency The reflection efficiency through a reflection coefficient (G) at the input (or feed) to the antenna. er 1 G G 2 Rinput Rgenerator Rinput Rgenerator Rinput antenna input impedance () Routput generator output impedance () .
)d 4 Io 2 l I o tot Prad U ( . Rrad Example: Hertzian Dipole 2P I total rad 2 o 2 U ( .Radiation Resistance The radiation resistance is one of the few parameters that is relatively straight forward to calculate. )d 4 2 4 Rrad 2 2 l I o sin 2 ( ) sin( )d d 2 4 0 0 8 2 l 3 3 2 2 8 3 2 l I o 2 2 4 2 Io 8 3 l 4 2 .
9 .0063 50 7.079 3 10000 2 l 50 7.Radiation Resistance Example: Hertzian Dipole (continued) Rrad let Rrad l I o 2 2 4 2 Io 8 3 l 4 2 8 2 l 3 3 2 2 1 and 377 100 2 1 377 0.9 er 1 0.
is the angular frequency. For those cases we can approximate Rcd by: Rcd o 2b 2 l where b is the radius of the wire. Let Rcd represent the actual losses due to conduction and dielectric heating. is the conductivity of the metal and l is the antenna length .Antenna Radiation Efficiency Conduction and dielectric losses of an antenna are very difficult to separate and are usually lumped together to form the ecd efficiency. Then the efficiency is given as ecd Rrad Rcd Rrad For wire antennas (without insulation) there is no dielectric losses only conductor losses from the metal antenna.
) 4 U ( . ) tot Prad Bo sin 3 ( ) 16 3 D( .0 mm in diameter and the operating frequency is 10. ) Bo sin 3 ( ) Find the overall gain of this antenna SOLUTION First determine the directivity of the antenna. Assume the radiation pattern of the antenna is U ( .0 GHz. Assume the antenna is made of copper wire 2.697 3 . with an input impedance of 73 is to be connected to a generator and transmission line with an output impedance of 50. ) 4 sin ( ) 2 3 3 B0 4 D0 Dm ax 16 1.Example Problem: A halfwavelength dipole antenna. D ( .
015 2 10 109 4 107 Rcd 0.Example Problem: Continued SOLUTION Next step is to determine the efficiencies et er ecd 73 50 er (1 G ) (1 ) 0.0628 et er ecd 0.001) 2 5.965 73 50 2 2 ecd Rrad Rcd Rrad l o 0.7 10 73 0.964 ecd .0628 7 2b 2 2 (0.965 0.9991 0.9991 73 0.
636) 2.964 .636 3 G0 (dB) 10 log 10 (1. ) 16 3 sin ( ) 3 16 G0 Gmax 0. ) er ecd D( .964 1.Example Problem: Continued SOLUTION Next step is to determine the gain G ( .14 dB G ( . ) 0.
0x 0.Antenna Type Gain (dBi) Half Wavelength Dipole Cell Phone Antenna (PIFA) 1.000x Small Reflecting Dish 40 10.6 Watts Standard Gain 15 Horn Cell phone tower antenna Large Reflecting Dish 6 31x 4x 50 100.76 Gain over Isotropic 1.5x Power Levels 3.0 2.000x .
Effective Aperture Pload Aphysical plane wave incident Question: Pload AphysicalWinc Pload Aeff Winc Aeff Pload Winc ? Answer: Usually NOT .
Dr 2 Aem Do 4 .Directivity and Maximum Effective Aperture (no losses) Antenna #1 Antenna #2 Direction of wave propagation receiver transmit Atm. Dt R Arm.
Directivity and Maximum Effective Aperture (include losses) Antenna #1 Antenna #2 Direction of wave propagation receiver transmit Atm. Dt R Arm. Dr 2 * 2 ˆ ˆ Aem ecd (1 G ) Do w a 4 2 conductor and dielectric losses reflection losses (impedance mismatch) polarization mismatch .
r) is given by: Wt Pt Dgt ( t . r )2 4 R 2 4 The power collected (received) by Antenna #2 is given by: Pr Wt Ar Pt Dgt ( t .Friis Transmission Equation (no loss) Antenna #1 Antenna #2 (r. t ) 4 R 2 2 Ar Pr 4 R Dgt ( t . t ) Dgr ( r .r) (t. t ) 4 R 2 Pt Dgt ( t . t ) Dgr ( r . r ) Pt .t) R The transmitted power density supplied by Antenna #1 at a distance R and direction (r.
t ) Dgr ( r . r ) Pt If both antennas are pointing in the direction of their maximum radiation pattern: 2 Pr 4 R Dto Dro Pt 2 .r) (t.t) R Pr 4 R Dgt ( t .Friis Transmission Equation (no loss) Antenna #1 Antenna #2 (r.
t ) Dgr ( r .t) R conductor and dielectric losses receiving antenna reflection losses in receiving (impedance mismatch) 2 free space loss factor Pr 2 2 * 2 ˆ ˆ ecdtecdr (1 Gr )(1 Gt ) 4 R Dgt ( t .r) (t. r ) w a Pt conductor and dielectric losses transmitting antenna reflection losses in transmitter (impedance mismatch) polarization mismatch .Friis Transmission Equation ( loss) Antenna #1 Antenna #2 (r.
375 Pr 0.6 W. Assuming that the power at the input terminals of the transmitting antenna is 0.Friis Transmission Equation: Example #1 A typical analog cell phone antenna has a directivity of 3 dBi at its operating frequency of 800.375 m f 800 e6 Dtm ax 10 3 /10 2.0 MHz. The cell tower is 1 mile away and has an antenna with a directivity of 6 dBi.6 watts 2 4 1. and the antennas are aligned for maximum radiation between them and the polarizations are matched.0 0. Assume the two antennas are well matched with a negligible amount of loss.344 2 .65 nW 4 1 609. find the power delivered to the receiver.0 Drm ax 10 6 /10 4. 2 Pr 2 2 max max ˆ w a* ˆ ecdtecdr (1 Gr )(1 Gt ) 4 R Dt Dr Pt 2 =1 =1 =0 =0 =1 c 3e8 0.
0 W.000 . 2 Pr 2 2 max max ˆ w a* ˆ ecdtecdr (1 Gr )(1 Gt ) 4 R Dt Dr Pt 2 =1 =1 =0 =0 2 =1 c 3e8 0. find the power delivered to the receiver.14 dBi) is used to communicate from an old satellite phone to a low orbiting Iridium communication satellite in the L band (~ 1.0 watts 1.64 251 0.1875 Pr 1.Friis Transmission Equation: Example #2 A half wavelength dipole antenna (max gain = 2.15 pW 4 781.6 GHz).1875 m f 800 e6 Dtm ax 10 2.14 /10 1. Assume the two antennas are well matched with a negligible amount of loss.0 0. and the antennas are aligned for maximum radiation between them and the polarizations are matched.64 Drm ax 10 24 /10 251 . Assume the communication satellite has antenna that has a maximum directivity of 24 dBi and is orbiting at a distance of 781 km above the earth. Assuming that the power at the input terminals of the transmitting antenna is 1.
Assume the antennas are aligned for maximum radiation between them and the polarizations are matched.025 m f 800 e6 Drm ax 10 40 /10 10 . Assume the two antennas are well matched with a negligible amount of loss. How much transmitter power is required to receive 100 pW of power at your home. find the power delivered to the receiver. 2 Pr 2 2 max max ˆ w a* ˆ ecdtecdr (1 Gr )(1 Gt ) 4 R Dt Dr Pt 2 =1 =1 =0 =0 =1 c 3e8 0.Friis Transmission Equation: Example #2 A rooftop dish antenna (max gain = 40.000 1000 4 36.0 Pt 100 1012 watts 0.0 dBi) is used to communicate from an old satellite phone to a low orbiting Iridium communication satellite in the Ku band (~ 12 GHz).000 Dtm ax 10 30 /10 1000 .000 2 82 W .025 10. Assume the communication satellite has antenna that has a maximum directivity of 30 dBi and is orbiting at a distance of 36.000.000 km above the earth.
when scattered isotropically.Radar Range Equation Definition: Radar cross section or echo area of a target is defined as the area when intercepting the same amount of power which. produces at the receiver the same power density as the actual target. Winc 2 Ws 2 Ws lim lim 4 R m 2 R 4 R R Winc (radar cross section) m2 R (distance from target) m Ws (scattered power density) W/m2 Winc (incident power density) W/m2 .
r ) . r ) Pr Pt (4 Rt Rr ) 2 4 2 Pt Dgt ( t . t ) Dgr ( r . r . t ) Note that in general: ( t . t ) 2 (4 Rt Rr ) 2 4 Rr 2 Pr Ws Ar Dgr ( r .Radar Range Equation (no losses) Power density incident on the target is a function of the transmitting antenna and the distance between the target and transmitter: Winc Pt Dgt ( t . r ) 2 (4 Rt Rr ) 4 Dgt ( t . t . t ) 4 Rt 2 The amount of power density scattered by the target at the location of the receiver is then given by: The amount of power delivered by the receiver is then given by: Ws Winc Pt Dgt ( t .
r ) Pr 2 2 * 2 ecdtecdr (1 Gr )(1 Gt ) 4 R R w a ˆ ˆ Pt 4 t r 2 .Radar Range Equation (losses) Dgt ( t . t ) Dgr ( r .
t . when scattered isotropically. t r the same location (bistatic RCS) t r .Radar Cross Section (RCS) Definition: Radar cross section or echo area of a target is defined as the area when intercepting the same amount of power which. Winc W Ws lim lim 4 R 2 s m 2 R 4 R 2 R Winc lim 4 R 2 R 2 E scat 2 E scat 2 m 2 lim 4 R 2 m R inc 2 E E inc 2 ( t . t r Transmitter and receiver in the same location (usually the same antenna) called monostatic RCS Transmitter and receiver not in . r ) t r . r . produces at the receiver the same power density as the actual target.
01 m2 10 dBsm 0 dBsm 10 dBsm 20 dBsm . dBsm dBm 2 m2 10 log10 ref 10 log 10 m 2 1 20 dBsm 100 m2 10 m2 1 m2 0.Radar Cross Section (RCS) RCS Customary Notation: Typical RCS values can span 105m2 (insect) to 106 m2 (ship).1 m2 0. Due to the large dynamic range a logarithmic power scale is most often used.
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