ABSTRACT

The conventional method of power generation and supply to the customer is wasteful in the sense that only about a third of the primary energy fed into the power plant is actually made available to the user in the form of electricity. At Kozhikode Diesel Power Plant the eight diesel engines, producing power, gives out exhaust gas at high temperature, thus wasting heat. So a waste heat recovery system will be profitable and it’s also energy conservation. Here I suggested a waste heat recovery system with the intention of producing power in the form of electricity and will look into, what all are the major requirement for this system. The major requirements like heat exchanger is designed to produce steam from exhaust waste gas, steam turbine is selected to get rotary power by utilizing steam and alternator is designed to convert rotary power to electricity and an approximate economic analysis done to know the payback period and profit. By this waste heat recovery system with the investment of 13 crore, which will be paid back within 2.5 year, there will be a 5 crore profit every year after payback period. Considerable amount of waste heat can be utilized and thus energy can be conserved. Heat exchanger is designed to produce 3500C 11 bar steam and a steam turbine of 1500kW 6000 rpm single stage is selected and an alternator is designed to produce 1.5MW electricity by using the rotary power from steam turbine. By utilising software we can easily get approximate required parameters for heat exchangers. Software used for iteration purposes in steam turbine selection also makes turbine selection easy. As the plant itself producing electricity, the control and transport of produced electricity by waste recovery will be simplified.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all I would like to thank the Sovereign Almighty who is taking care of me always and whose blessings have helped me to complete the thesis in the best way I can. I express my sincere thanks and deep sense of gratitude to Head of department T Krishna Kumar. Also I express my sincere thanks to Assistant Professor A.K. Mubarak, for his support, motivation and having guided me all through. I also thank other professors K.K Ramachandran, Jayee K Varghese & E.C Ramakrishnan for their suggestions throughout this thesis work. I sincerely thank Damodaran, Assistant Mechanical Engineer at Kozhikode Diesel Power Plant for his expert practical advice in this thesis work. I thank all the teaching and non teaching staffs, my classmates and friends for sharing their knowledge and valuable suggestions.

LIST OF CONTENTS No. Content Name
Pg. No

1.1 1.2 1.3 21

3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7 3.3 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.4.5 3.4.6 3.4.7 3.4.8 3.4.9 3.4.10 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9.1 3.9.2 3.9.3 3.9.4 3.9.5 3.9.6

CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION Cogeneration Profile of Plant Need for cogeneration CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE SURVEY Cogeneration Technology CHAPTER 3 – DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER AND ALTERNATOR, SELECTION OF STEAM TURBINE AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS Introduction to shell and tube heat exchanger Design of heat exchanger Rating the preliminary design Shell side heat transfer and pressure drop Shell side heat transfer coefficient Shell side pressure drop Tube side heat transfer coefficient Tube side pressure drop Effectiveness of Heat exchanger Software based design of heat exchanger Introduction to steam turbine Steam turbine Steam turbine working Impulse and reaction turbine Comparison of impulse and reaction turbines Steam turbine staging can vary Single valve and multivalve Single stage and multistage Shortcut graphical method of turbine selection Selection of single valve single stage steam turbine for the purpose Selection of single valve multistage steam turbine for the purpose Basic nozzle design Basic design of turbine blade Single arc method of blade profile design Introduction to alternator Design of alternator Specific Loading Flux density in air gap Permeability Reluctance and permeance Magnetic motive force Gilbert

1 1 1 2 3 3 6

7 8 18 20 20 22 23 25 33 34 41 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 46 55 60 68 69 71 74 75 76 78 79 80 80 80

3.9.7 3.9.8 3.9.9 3.9.10 3.9.11 3.9.12 3.9.13 3.10

Length of air gap Whirling speed of rotor Number of phases Single layer winding Eddy current loss Leakage coefficient Designed values of alternator Economic analysis CHAPTER 4 – RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS CHAPTER 5 – CONCLUSIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY

80 84 85 87 89 95 100 101 103 110 111

LIST OF TABLES No. Table Name
Pg. No

3.2 (a) 3.2 (b) 3.2 (c) 3.2 (d) 3.2.5 3.2.6 (a) 3.2.6 (b) 3.2.6 (c) 3.3 3.4.8 (a) 3.4.8 (b) 3.4.8 (c) 3.9.1 3.9.7 (a) 3.9.7 (b) 3.9.13

TEMA design fouling resistance for industrial fluids Fouling resistance for water Dimensional data for commercial tubing Typical film heat transfer coefficient for shell and tube heat exchangers Correlations for fully developed turbulent forced convection through a circular duct with constant properties Tube shell layouts (tube counts) Properties of water Wall temperature properties Manual and software calculated values General Specifications for simple single stage steam turbines Approximate dimensions of simple single-stage steam turbine Temperature of dry and saturated steam Value of specific loading with respect to output of AC generator Approximate values of apparent air gap density Distribution factor w.r.t no of slots per pole per phase Designed values of Alternator

10 10 11 15 24 27 28 29 39 49 49 53 77 81 83 100

LIST OF FIGURES No. Figure Name
Pg. No

2.1.1 3.1.1 3.2 (a) 3.2 (b) 3.2 (c) 3.2 (d) 3.2.1 3.2.3 3.2.7 3.4.1 (a) 3.4.1 (b) 3.4.1 (c)

3.4.2 (a) 3.4.2 (b) 3.4.3 (a) 3.4.3 (b) 3.4.5 3.4.8 (a) 3.4.8 (b) 3.4.8 (c) 3.4.8 (d) 3.4.8 (e) 3.4.8 (f) 3.4.8 (g) 3.4.8 (h) 3.4.8 (i) 3.4.8 (j) 3.4.8 (k) 3.4.8 (l)

Steam turbine based cogeneration system Constructional parts and connections Schematic sketches of most common TEMA shell types Tube layout Standard shell types and front end and rear end head types Plate baffle types Rating program of heat exchanger design Square and triangular pitch tube layouts Designed heat exchanger showing dimensions Steam turbine showing main outer parts Longitudinal schematic section of typical steam turbine A simple schematic representation of steam showing the variation in velocity and pressure as the steam pass through nozzle and blades A schematic section of an impulse turbine with a two row velocity compounded stage A longitudinal schematic section of an impulse turbine with three pressure stages Impulse and reaction turbine Nozzles and diaphragms Stages of steam turbine Simple mollier diagram Mollier diagram Mollier diagram showing determination of theoretical steam rate Base steam rates of single valve single stage steam turbine 560 kW Base steam rates of single valve single stage steam turbine 1050 kW Base steam rates of single valve single stage steam turbine 1850 kW Base steam rates of single valve single stage steam turbine 2600 kW Base steam rates of single valve single stage steam turbine 2250 kW Mechanical losses of valve and stage single steam turbine 560 kW Mechanical losses of valve and stage single steam turbine 1050 kW Mechanical losses of valve and stage single steam turbine 1850 kW Mechanical losses of valve and stage single steam turbine 2600 kW

4 8 9 11 12 13 19 21 34 41 42 42

43 43 43 44 45 46 47 47 50 50 50 51 51 51 52 52 52

3.4.8 (m) 3.4.8 (n) 3.4.8 (o) 3.4.8 (p) 3.4.9 (a) 3.4.9 (b) 3.4.9 (c) 3.4.9 (d) 3.4.9 (e) 3.4.9 (f) 3.4.9 (g) 3.4.9 (h) 3.4.9 (i) 3.4.9 (j) 3.4.9 (k) 3.4.9 (l) 3.4.9 (m) 3.4.9 (n) 3.4.9 (o) 3.4.9 (p) 3.4.9 (q) 3.4.9 (r) 3.4.9 (s) 3.4.9 (t) 3.5 3.6 (a) 3.6 (b)

Mechanical losses of valve and stage single steam turbine 2250 kW Superheat correction factor Inlet size requirements for single valve, single stage steam turbines Exhaust size requirements for single valve, single stage steam turbines CYR base steam rates of single valve single stage steam turbine 1850 kW CYR mechanical losses of single valve single stage steam turbine 1850 kW Approximate dimensions of simpler single stage turbine of frame CYR Presently available single stage steam turbine from Elliot’s Company Longitudinal schematic diagram of steam turbine shown in Fig 3.4.9 (d) Selection charts, three stages, single valve turbines (condensing) MODEL 2E2 Selection charts, five stages, single valve turbines (condensing) MODEL 2E4 Selection charts, eight stages, single valve turbines (condensing) MODEL 2E7 Selection charts, four stage, single valve turbines (noncondensing) MODEL 2E3 Selection charts, five stages, single valve turbines (noncondensing) MODEL 2E4 Selection charts, four stages, single valve turbines (noncondensing) MODEL E4 Selection charts, five stages, single valve turbines (condensing) MODEL SB5 Selection charts, three stages, single valve turbines (condensing) MODEL SB4-3 Inlet nozzle sizing for single valve, multi stage steam turbine Exhaust nozzle sizing for single valve, multi stage steam turbine Dimensions and weights of typical single valve, multistage steam turbine Selection charts, four stage, single valve turbines (non condensing) Dimensions of selected multistage steam turbine Elliot’s presently available multistage steam turbine Longitudinal sectional diagram of steam turbine shown in Fig 3.4.9 (s) Simple nozzle section Velocity triangle on blade of steam turbine Velocity diagram for the approximate chosen blade construction

53 53 54 54 58 58 59 60 60 60 61 61 61 62 62 62 63 64 64 65 66 67 68 68 68 69 70

3.7 (a) 3.7 (b) 3.8 (a) 3.8 (b) 3.9 (a) 3.9.9 3.9.10 (a) 3.9.10 (b) 3.9.10 (c) 3.9.11 (a) 3.9.11 (b) 3.9.12 (a) 3.9.12 (b) 3.9.12 (c)

Single arc blade profile design Designed profile of blade Alternator main parts Stator and rotor Vector diagram showing voltage relations in Y-connected three phase generator Single phase, two phase and three phase armature winding Three phase, single layer winding; three slots per pole per phase Three phase, single layer winding; four slots per pole per phase “Developed” section through stator and rotor teeth of 1500 KVA turbo alternator Armature stampings of 1500 k.v.a turbo alternator Losses in armature stampings Rotor of four pole turbo alternator with radial slots Flux lines entering toothed armature Tooth densities in terms of air gap density 1500 k.v.a turbo alternator

71 72 74 74 76 86 87 87 89 91 92 95 97 97

LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
Heat Exchanger Th1 Th2 Exhaust gas inlet temperature Exhaust gas outlet temperature Tc1 Tc2 ṁ Cp Water inlet temperature Water outlet temperature Mass flow rate of water Specific heat capacity of water at constant pressure Q Heat transferred between two fluids ho Shell side heat transfer coefficient hi Tube side heat transfer coefficient Uf Overall heat transfer coefficient with fouling resistance Uc Overall heat transfer coefficient with clean surface lm cf Af Logarithmic mean Counter flow Required area with fouling resistance As ∆ps ∆pt Nb Bundle cross flow area Shell side pressure drop Tube side pressure drop Number of baffles CL PR De K Gs Re h do di Ds Nt L CTP Ao Ac Required area with clean surface Total outer surface area of tubes Outer diameter of tubes Inner diameter of tubes Shell diameter Number of tubes Length of tube Tube count calculation constant Tube layout constant Tube pitch ratio Equivalent diameter thermal conductivity Shell side mass velocity Reynolds number heat transfer coefficient

f Pr OD ID B Np Tb ρ μ Tw At

Friction factor Prandtl Number Tube outer diameter Tube inner diameter Baffle spacing Number of tube pass Bulk mean temperature Density Dynamic Viscosity Wall temperature Heat transfer area based on the inside surface area of tubes

Va Vb J D1 g u V1 U1

Inlet velocity to nozzle Outlet velocity of nozzle Joules constant Diameter at outlet of nozzle Acceleration due to gravity peripheral velocity of blades Velocity at outlet from nozzle Steam velocity relative to blades at inlet

U2

Steam velocity relative to blades at outlet

V2

Absolute velocity of steam at outlet from blades

um U

Average velocity inside tubes Overall heat transfer coefficient

α β1 β2 Va1

Jet angle Inlet angle of blades Outlet angle of blades Axial component of velocity at inlet of blades

C

a) Clearance b)Heat Capacity Steam Turbine

TSR h SR D N

Theoretical steam rate Enthalpy Steam rate Pitch diameter Speed

Va2

Axial component of velocity at exit of blades

Vw1

Whirl component of velocity at inlet of blades

Vw2

Whirl component of velocity at inlet of blades

Vw

Sum of whirl components of velocity at inlet and outlet

m.m.f Magnetic motive force δ Z Length of air gap Number of inductors in series per phase λ K la ln Slot pitch Distribution factor Axial length of armature core Net length of iron in the armature core ∆ t Rd R m l” ϕa ϕl Bs Current density Tooth density Net radial length Resistance Circular mills Length expressed in inches Useful flux Leakage flux Density in the slot and air spaces δ Length of actual air gap tooth top to pole face d Bt μ Depth of armature slot Actual tooth density Permeability

ρ

Radius Alternator

p f N u D1 D Ea Ia E I W E q τ (SI)a ɸ B Bg l

Number of poles Frequency Speed peripheral velocity rotor Internal diameter of armature Diameter of rotor Phase voltage Armature current Line voltage Line current Output power Terminal Voltage Specific loading pole pitch Armature amp-turns per pole Magnetic flux Flux density Flux density in the air gap Length

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