ELECTRONIC BRAKE FORCE DISTRIBUTION

INTRODUCTION
 Electronic brake force distribution is an automobile brake technology that automatically varies the amount of force applied to each of a vehicle's brakes, based on road conditions, speed, loading, etc. Always coupled with anti-lock braking systems, EBD can apply more or less braking pressure to each wheel in order to maximize stopping power When braking heavily in a car you get a dramatic forwards weight transfer. The body pivots forward, the front suspension is compressed, and more weight is transferred to the front tyres. More weight acting on the front tyres means more grip is available, and conversely the more lightly laden rear wheels have less grip at their disposal. an equal amount of braking force was applied to the front and rear wheels in a heavy braking scenario, the lighter rear wheels would run out of grip first and be much more prone to wheel lock Electronic Brake Force Distribution (EBD) provides an automatically adjusting bias depending on conditions to ensure the front and rear axles exert the most effective braking possible without wheel lock. EBD systems work in conjunction with ABS and use an electronically controlled valve which diverts hydraulic pressure to the front and rear axles in real time according to the conditions and scenario. Electronic brake force distribution (EBFD) is a braking system that monitors factors like vehicle weight and road condition and adjusts the vehicle's braking force accordingly. Some vehicle manufacturers provide EBFD as a standard feature In a vehicle without electronic brake force distribution, brake force is distributed evenly to front and rear tires every time the brakes are applied. Since vehicles tend to shift weight to the front when braking, this can sometimes cause the rear brakes to lock, resulting in a potential skid An electronic brake force distribution system uses sensors to monitor the condition of the road and the vehicle's weight distribution to determine where the most brake force is necessary. It automatically increases or decreases force accordingly The advantage of having an electronic brake force distribution system is that it adjusts automatically to a variety of conditions to ensure the brakes are used as efficiently as possible. It reduces the risk of brakes locking and prevents tire skids

WORKING OF EBD
 Electronic Brake force Distribution always works in conjunction with the antilock brakes. It completely differs from traditional braking technology

Talking about the traditional braking technology, when brake is applied, the brake fluid passes to the brake cylinder where the pressure of the fluid pushes the piston out. This further pushes out the brake pads and causes them to rub against the caliper. This rubbing creates friction and results in locking of the wheels. To improve the stopping power antilock brakes were introduced to monitor individual wheel speed and prevent wheel lock up. The force that prevents wheel lock up comes from the braking circuit that detects extreme and rapid deceleration in any of the four car wheels Further it was realised that different amount of braking force is required to lock a wheel rotating on different types of road surfaces. This requirement was fulfilled with the introduction of electronic brakeforce distribution that detects different road and speed conditions

For example, if a car takes a corner turn, one wheel of the car may be on mud, and the remaining three on a smooth road surface. Under this situation, the wheel on the mud requires a different pressure than the one on the road for efficient performance. Electronic Brake force Distribution works electronically to monitor such conditions through installed sensors. These sensors are designed and installed to monitor the movement of the wheels and distribution of pressure in response to the conditions met. The regulation and functioning of the EBD is controlled by the ABS Electronic Control Unit. Together, both these innovative car technologies help to optimize braking performance and provide a more precise braking under all possible conditions

Operation description   The skid control ECU receives speed signals from each speed sensor to detect the slip conditions of the wheels and sends control signals to the solenoid. The solenoid valve controls the brake fluid pressure of each wheel cylinder and divides the control power properly between the front and rear wheels and the right and

left wheels. The BRAKE warning light comes on to indicate malfunctions in the EBD system ABS with EBD OPERATION Based on the signals received from each of the 4wheel speed sensors, the skid control ECU calculates the speed and deceleration of each wheel, and checks the wheel slippage conditions. The ECU controls the pressure holding valve and pressure reduction valve in order to adjust the brake fluid pressure of each wheel cylinder in accordance with the slippage conditions  When a failure occurs in the ABS system, the ABS warning light comes on and its operation is prohibited. In addition to this, when a failure which disables the EBD operation occurs, the brake warning light comes on and its operation is prohibited. If control is prohibited due to a malfunction during operation, control is disabled gradually to avoid sudden vehicle instability

FUNCTIONS OF COMPONENT Front speed sensor    Detects the wheel speed and sends a signal to the skid control ECU. The front speed sensor (semiconductor speed sensor) with the integrated bearing and the sensor rotor (magnetic sensor rotor) are installed on the front axle hub.. The magnetic field changes as the magnetic sensor rotor rotates. The semiconductor speed sensor detects the change and outputs it as the vehicle speed pulse

Skid control sensor   The skid control sensor (semiconductor speed sensor) and the sensor rotor (magnetic sensor rotor) are installed on the rear axle carrier. The skid control sensor has the same structure and functions as the front speed sensor.

Skid control ECU   Processes the signals from the sensors to control the brake actuation. Sends and receives control signals to and from the ECM via CAN communication

Brake actuator  Consists of the master cylinder cut solenoid valve, holding solenoid valve, pump motor, and reservoir, and adjusts the brake fluid pressure applied to each wheel cylinder. Houses the skid control ECU.

Solenoid relay

 

Supplies power to each solenoid. Housed in the skid control ECU

ABS warning light  Illuminates to inform the driver that a malfunction in the ABS has occurred.

Blinks to indicate DTCs that relate to the ABS BRAKE warning light  Illuminates to inform the driver that the parking brake is ON when the system is normal, and when the brake fluid has decreased.

Illuminates to inform the driver that a malfunction in the EBD has occurred BENEFITS OF EBD     The advantage of having an electronic brake force distribution system is that it adjusts automatically to a variety of conditions to ensure the brakes are used as efficiently as possible. It reduces the risk of brakes locking and prevents tire skids. Utilization of driving stability, wear, temperature stress and pedal force The sensors are so sensitive, and the actuation is so quick that the system may correct direction before the driver reacts. ABS helps prevent wheel lock-up and EBD helps apply appropriate brake force to make ESC work effectively