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Hong Minh Qun - THPT Ngc To - H Ni

NG DNG BT NG THC CAUCHYSCHWARZ DNG ENGEL TRONG CHNG MINH BT NG THC Bt ng thc l mt ch a dng v hp dn vi nhiu bn tr. Ni n bt ng thc nhiu bn trong chng ta thng quan tm ti bt ng thc i s m c nhiu k thut khai thc v chng minh.Bi vit sau y s trnh by mt k thut nh nhng kh hu ch trong vic p dng bt ng thc CauchySchwarz chng minh cc bt ng thc.Nhm gip bn c hiu r hn tng v cch tip cn mi bi ton bt ng thc th i vi mi bi ton ti u phn tch hng tip cn, sau nu tng lm bi v cui cng l li gii chi tit cho bi ton , y chng ta xt vi bt ng thc ba bin, i vi cc bt ng thc nhiu bin hn chng ta lm tng t. Hi vng bi vit s hu ch cho nhiu bn c. Bi vit c xem xt k nhng cng kh trnh khi thiu st.Mi kin ng gp cho bi vit thm phong ph v hon thin hn xin gi v a ch: hoangquan9@gmail.com. H Ni, ngy 25 thng 3 nm 2012 Ngi vit Hong Minh Qun

Hong Minh Qun

THPT Ngc To-H Ni

I.Pht biu v chng minh bt ng thc CauchySchwarz dng Engel. Gi s a1 , a2 , ..., an l cc s thc bt k v b1 , b2 , ..., bn l cc s thc dng.Khi , ta lun c: a2 a2 a2 (a1 + a2 + ... + an )2 1 + 2 + ... + n () b1 b2 bn b1 + b2 + ... + bn a1 a2 an ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi = = ... = b1 b2 bn Chng minh Trc ht chng ta chng minh bt ng thc n gin sau: Cho a, b, x, y l cc s thc v x, y > 0.Khi : a2 b2 (a + b)2 + x y x+y Tht vy, bt ng thc c vit li thnh a2 y(x + y) + b2 x(x + y) (a + b)2 xy (ay bx)2 0 (Lun ng) ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a b = . Vy bt ng thc (1) c x y (1)

chng minh. Vi 6 s a, b, c, x, y, z v x, y, z > 0.p dng bt ng thc (1) hai ln ta c: a2 b2 c2 (a + b)2 c2 (a + b + c)2 + + + x y z x+y z x+y+z Do bng php quy np ton hc vi a1 , a2 , ..., an l cc s thc bt k v b1 , b2 , ..., bn l cc s thc dng.Khi , ta lun c: a2 a2 a2 (a1 + a2 + ... + an )2 1 2 n + + ... + b1 b2 bn b1 + b2 + ... + bn ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a1 a2 an = = ... = b1 b2 bn ()

II.ng dng bt ng thc CauchySchwarz dng Engel vo cc bi ton in hnh Bi ton 1 Cho ba s thc dng x, y, z tha mn x + y + z 3.Chng minh rng: y2 3 x2 z2 + + x + yz y + zx z + xy 2 Phn tch bi ton: Tip cn bi ton chng ta thy v tri ca bt ng thc c dng phn thc, t s ca mi biu thc c dng bnh phng nh vy chng ta ngh ngay ti vic p dng dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel a v bt ng thc n gin hn bit cch lm.Vy ta lm nh sau: Chng minh p dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel, ta c: y2 z2 (x + y + z)2 x2 + + x + yz y + zx z + xy x + y + z + xy + yz + zx Hong Minh Qun 2 THPT Ngc To-H Ni

Mt khc: x+y+z nn ta c:

xy + yz + zx

y2 z2 (x + y + z)2 x+y+z 3 x2 + = + x + yz y + zx z + xy x+y+z+x+y+z 2 2 ( V gi thit x + y + z 3). ng thc xy ra x = y = z Bi ton 2 Cho ba s thc dng a, b, c.Chng minh rng: a b c + + 1 b + 2c c + 2a a + 2b Phn tch bi ton: Tip cn bi ton, chng ta thy v tri ca bt ng thc c dng phn s, iu gi nh cho chng ta c th s dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel, nhng mun vy t s ca mi phn thc phi l bnh phng ca mt s. Do ta ngh ti vic nhn c t v mu ca mt phn thc vi mt s ta p dng c bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel.Do chng ta lm nh sau: Chng minh p dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel, ta c: a2 b2 c2 (a + b + c)2 (a + b + c)2 VT = + + =1 a(b + 2c) b(c + 2a) c(a + 2b) 3(ab + bc + ca) (a + b + c)2 ng thc xy ra x = y = z Bi ton 3 Cho cc s thc dng a, b, c.Chng minh rng: a3 b3 c3 a+b+c + 2 + 2 a2 + ab + b2 b + bc + c2 c + ca + a2 3

(1)

Phn tch bi ton: Tip cn bi ton, chng ta thy v tri ca bt ng thc c dng phn s, v quan a3 chng ta thy t s l a3 v chng ta mong st s hng i din chng hn 2 a + ab + b2 mun gim bc i cho d lm.iu ny gi cho chng ta ngh ti s dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel a v chng minh bt ng thc mi n gin hn. Chng minh Ta s tm cch a v tri (1) v dng dng c bt ng thc CauchySchawrz. V T (1) = = b3 c3 a3 + 2 + 2 a2 + ab + b2 b + bc + c2 c + ca + a2

a4 b4 c4 + + a(a2 + ab + b2 ) b(b2 + bc + c2 ) c(c2 + ca + a2 ) (a2 + b2 + c2 ) 3 a + b3 + c3 + ab(a + b) + bc(b + c) + ca(c + a)


2

Hong Minh Qun

THPT Ngc To-H Ni

V a3 + b3 + c3 + ab(a + b) + bc(b + c) + ca(c + a) = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 ) Nn (a2 + b2 + c2 ) a2 + b2 + c2 V T (1) = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 ) a+b+c Ta ch cn chng minh a+b+c a 2 + b 2 + c2 a+b+c 3 Hay a2 + b2 + c2 a + b + c 0 3(a2 + b2 + c2 ) (a + b + c)2 a+b+c 3 tng ng 2a2 + 2b2 + 2c2 2ab 2ac 2bc 0 tng ng (a b)2 + (b c)2 + (c a)2 0 ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a = b = c Bi ton 4 (IMO1995)Cho cc s thc dng a, b, c tha mn abc = 1 Chng minh rng: 1 1 1 3 + 3 + 3 3 (b + c) a b (c + a) c (a + b) 2 Phn tch bi ton: Bi ton ny khi tip cn, chng ta thy v tri ca bt ng thc c dng phn s, bc ca mu s ln hn bc ca t s. iu gip chng ta ngh ti bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel. n y nu p dng trc tip lun, chng ta c: 1 1 1 (1 + 1 + 1)2 + + 3 a3 (b + c) b3 (c + a) c3 (a + b) a (b + c) + b3 (c + a) + c3 (a + b) Khi bi ton tr nn phc tp hn, v d dn ti b tc trong gii quyt. V vy 1 1 a2 mt cht chng ta thy 3 = , lc ny vic p dng bt ng thc a (b + c) a(b + c) Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel mang li hiu qu r rt. Chng minh Ta c: 1 1 1 + 3 + 3 VT = 3 a (b + c) b (c + a) c (a + b) ( 1 1 1 )2 1 1 1 + + (ab + bc + ca)2 a2 b2 c2 = + + a b c = a(b + c) b(c + a) c(a + b) 2(ab + bc + ca) 2(ab + bc + ca) ab + bc + ca 2 p dng bt ng thc AMGM, ta c: Vy V T 3 ab + bc + ca 3 a 2 b 2 c2 3 VT = =VP 2 2 2 Hong Minh Qun 4 THPT Ngc To-H Ni
2

ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a = b = c = 1 Bi ton 5 Cho cc s thc dng x, y, z tha mn x2 + y 2 + z 2 Chng minh rng: y3 z3 1 x3 + + 2x + 3y + 5z 2y + 3z + 5x 2z + 3x + 5y 30 Phn tch bi ton: Quan st bi ton chng ta thy y l bt dng thc i xng ba bin c dng phn thc, iu gi cho chng ta ngh ti bt ng thc CauchySchawrz dng Engel nhm gim bc ca phn thc gip chng ta c nh gi d dng hn. T tip x3 x4 cn v tri , ta phn tch = p dng bt ng thc 2x + 3y + 5z x(2x + 3y + 5z) CauchySchawrz. Chng ta lm nh sau: Chng minh p dng bt ng thc Cauchy Schawrz dng Engel ta c: VT = y4 z4 x4 + + x(2x + 3y + 5z) y(2y + 3z + 5x) z(2z + 3x + 5y) (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) + 8(xy + yz + zx) Li c: x2 + y 2 + z 2 xy + yz + zx nn (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) x2 + y 2 + z 2 1 VT = 2 + y2 + z2) 10(x 10 30 ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi x = y = z = 1 3
2 2

1 3

Bi ton 6 Cho ba s thc dng a, b, c.tha mn a2 + b2 + c2 = 3abc.Chng minh rng: a b c 9 + 2 2+ 2 2 2 c2 b ca ab a+b+c Phn tch bi ton: Tip cn bi ton chng ta thy v tri ca bt ng thc c dng phn thc,.Nh vy chng ta ngh ti s dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel chng minh.V gi thit bi cho a2 + b2 + c2 = 3abc nn tn dng ti a gi thit ny th chng ta lm cho xut hin a2 + b2 + c2 .iu gii thch cho ti sao chng ta li a4 a a2 a phn tch 2 2 = 3 2 2 ch khng phn tch 2 2 = 2 2 d chng cng a v dng bc abc bc ab c bnh phng t s. Chng minh p dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel, ta c: VT = a4 b4 c4 + 3 2 2+ 3 2 2 a3 b2 c2 b c a cab
2

(3abc)2 9 (a2 + b2 + c2 ) = 2 2 2 = 2 2 2 a b c (a + b + c) a b c (a + b + c) a+b+c Hong Minh Qun 5 THPT Ngc To-H Ni

ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi x = y = z = 1 Bi ton 7 Cho ba s thc dng a, b, c tha mn abc = 1.Chng minh rng: a4 b4 c4 3 + + 2 2 2 8 (a + b) (a + c) (b + c) (b + a) (c + a) (c + b) Phn tch bi ton: Tip cn bi ton chng ta thy , v tri ca bt ng thc c dng phn s, nh vy chng ta c th s dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwartz dng Engel chng minh. a4 (a+b)2 a4 mt cht chng ta thy c th vit li thnh v nh 2 cyc (a + b) (a + c) cyc (a + c) vy du hiu s dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel xut hin. Cng vic ca chng ta ch l p dng chng minh. Chng minh p dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel, ta c: ( ) a2 2 a+b a4 cyc (1) 2(a + b + c) (a + b)2 (a + c) cyc Mt khc, p dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel, ta c: a2 (a + b + c)2 a+b+c = (2) a+b 2(a + b + c) 2 cyc T (1) v (2) ta c:
cyc

( a+b+c )2 a+b+c 3 3 abc 3 a4 2 = = 2 2(a + b + c) 8 8 8 (a + b) (a + c)

ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi x = y = z = 1 Bi ton 8 Cho ba s thc dng a, b, c.Chng minh rng: a3 b3 c3 + + 1 a3 + abc + b3 b3 + abc + c3 c3 + abc + a3 Phn tch bi ton: Tip cn bi ton chng ta thy , v tri ca bt ng thc c dng phn s, nh vy chng ta c th s dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwartz dng Engel chng minh. Tuy nhin quan st chng ta li thy bc ca t s v mu s ca mi phn thc u cng bc ba. Do y l bt ng thc thun nht n gin chng ta c th chun ha abc = 1.Vi vic chun ha abc = 1, chng ta s dng php th thch hp a bt ng thc cho v bt ng thc n gin hn m chng ta d nhn ra vic p dng c bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel chng minh. Chng minh Bt ng thc thun nht nn ta chun ha abc = 1 . x y z 3 3 ,b = ,c = 3 Vi x, y, z > 0 t a = y z x Ta c: x a3 x2 y = x = 2 z a3 + abc + b3 +1+ x x + xy + yz y Hong Minh Qun 6 THPT Ngc To-H Ni

Khi bt ng thc cn chng minh tr thnh: x2 y2 z2 + 2 + 2 1 x2 + xy + yz y + yz + zx z + zx + xy p dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel, ta c: y2 z2 (x + y + z)2 x2 + + 2 x2 + xy + yz y 2 + yz + zx z 2 + zx + xy x + y 2 + z 2 + 2(xy + yz + zx) Hay x2 y2 z2 (x + y + z)2 + 2 + 2 =1 x2 + xy + yz y + yz + zx z + zx + xy (x + y + z)2 ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi x = y = z = 1 hay a = b = c = 1. Bi ton 9 Cho ba s thc dng a, b, c .Chng minh rng: a2 + b2 b2 + c2 c2 + a2 + + a+b+c a+b b+c c+a Phn tch bi ton: Quan st bi ton chng ta thy bt ng thc ca bi ra nhn kh phc tp v cha c du hiu g cho vic s dng c bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwartz nhng bng vic nm chc s dng Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel th chng ta c th tch ra c cc phn thc c t s l dng bnh phng. Bi ton n y tr nn d dng hn ri. Chng minh Ta c: a2 + b2 b2 + c2 c2 + a2 a2 b2 b2 c2 c2 a2 + + = + + + + + a+b b+c c+a a+b a+b b+c b+c c+a c+a p dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwartz dng Engel, ta c: a2 b2 b2 c2 c2 a2 [2(a + b + c)]2 + + + + + =a+b+c a+b a+b b+c b+c c+a c+a 4(a + b + c) (iu phi chng minh)ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a = b = c. Bi ton 10 (USAMO 2003)Cho ba s thc dng a, b, c .Chng minh rng: (2b + c + a)2 (2c + a + b)2 (2a + b + c)2 + + 8 2a2 + (b + c)2 2b2 + (c + a)2 2c2 + (a + b)2 Phn tch bi ton: y l mt bi ton kh hay trong k thi hc sinh gii nc M nm 2003, bi ton ny c kh nhiu cch chng minh v tht th v chng ta c th gii bng cch s cp l p dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel. Khi giagr dy gio vin phn tch cho hc sinh hiu ti sao chng ta ngh ra c cch gii ny. Tip cn bi ton chng ta thy v tri ca bt ng thc c dng phn thc, d t s ca mi phn s u c dng bnh phng .iu gi cho chng ta ngh ti s dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwarz dng Engel nhng chng ta cha th s dng ngay c v du ca bt ng thc cho l du . Vy ta tm cch a v bt Hong Minh Qun 7 THPT Ngc To-H Ni

ng thc m c th s dng tt bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwartz dng Engel.Khi (2a + b + c)2 2(b + c a)2 = chng ta thy :3 2a2 + (b + c)2 2a2 + (b + c)2 Do : (2b + c + a)2 (2c + a + b)2 (2a + b + c)2 + + 8 2a2 + (b + c)2 2b2 + (c + a)2 2c2 + (a + b)2 tng ng 2(b + c a)2 2(c + a b)2 2(a + b c)2 + + 1 2a2 + (b + c)2 2b2 + (c + a)2 2c2 + (a + b)2 n y vic s dng bt ng thc Cauchy- Schwartz dng Engel l d dng.Chng ta lm bi ny nh sau: Chng minh (2a + b + c)2 2(b + c a)2 = Ta c nhn xt sau: 3 2a2 + (b + c)2 2a2 + (b + c)2 Do bt ng thc cho c vit li. 2(b + c a)2 2(c + a b)2 2(a + b c)2 + + 1 2a2 + (b + c)2 2b2 + (c + a)2 2c2 + (a + b)2 By gi chng ta chng minh Bt ng thc (1). p dng bt ng thc CauchySchwarz dng Engel ta c: a2 + b2 ta c: (a + b)2 2(a2 + b2 ), (b + c)2 2(b2 + c2 ), (a + c)2 2(a2 + c2 ) nn V T (1) = 2(b + c a)2 2(c + a b)2 2(a + b c)2 + + 2a2 + (b + c)2 2b2 + (c + a)2 2c2 + (a + b)2 (a + b)2 t 2 (1)

2(c + a b)2 2(a + b c)2 2(b + c a)2 + + 2(a2 + b2 + c2 ) 2(a2 + b2 + c2 ) 2(a2 + b2 + c2 ) (b + c a)2 + (c + a b)2 + (a + b c)2 Vy ta cn chng minh 1 tc l ta ch cn a2 + b2 + c2 chng minh (b + c a)2 + (c + a b)2 + (a + b c)2 a2 + b2 + c2 tng ng a2 + b2 + c2 (ab + bc + ca) 0 (ng) . Vy ta c iu phi chng minh. ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a = b = c. Nh vy qua vic phn tch v cch gii 10 bi ton trn cho nhiu tnh hung khc nhau. Hi vng bn c s nm c tng ca vic p dng bt ng thc Cauchy Schawrz vo vic chng minh cc bi ton bt ng thc.Sau y l mt s bi ton mi bn c t gii cng c thm k nng lm bi: Bi ton 11 (Nebits)Cho ba s thc dng a, b, c.Chng minh rng: b c 3 a + + b+c c+a a+b 2 Bi ton 12 (Croatia 2004) Cho ba s thc dng a, b, c.Chng minh rng: y2 z2 3 x2 + + (x + y)(x + z) (y + z)(y + x) (z + x)(z + y) 4

Hong Minh Qun

THPT Ngc To-H Ni

Bi ton 13 (Rumani 2004) Cho ba s thc dng a, b, c. Chng minh rng: a b c 27 + + bc(c + a) ca(a + b) ab(b + c) 2(a + b + c) Bi ton 14 (Vasc)Cho ba s thc a, b, c khng m v hai trong ba s khng ng thi bng 0.Chng minh rng: 1 1 1 1 1 + 2 + 2 + 4a2 + b2 + c2 4b + c2 + a2 4c + a2 + b2 2(a2 + b2 + c2 ) ab + bc + ca Bi ton 15 (Hong Minh Qun)Cho cc s thc a, b, c > 0 tha mn ab + bc + ca = 1.Chng minh rng: b c 9 a + + 3 3 3 (3b + 5c) (3c + 5a) (3a + 5b) 512 TI LIU THAM KHO 1. Phm Kim Hng, Sng to bt ng thc, NXB H Ni. 2. Phm Vn Thun, L V, Bt ng thc suy lun v khm ph, NXB HQG H Ni. 3. V Quc B Cn,Trn Quc Anh , Bt ng thc v nhng li gii hay, NXB H Ni,2009. 4. T.Andreescu,V.Cirtoaje, G.Dospinescu, M.Lascu.Old and New Inequalities, Gil publishing House 5. http://forum.mathscope.org/index.php; http://onluyentoan.vn/index.php; http://diendantoanhoc.net/forum/index.php?act=idx

Hong Minh Qun

THPT Ngc To-H Ni