Problems for IB HL Mathematics

and SL Mathematical Methods
Kai Arste, Atlantic College

January 2003

e-mail: kai.arste@uwc.net, website: http://www.kahome.co.uk
1
Contents
1 Sets, Relations, Functions 3
2 Algebra, Exponential and Logarithm Functions 6
3 Straight Lines, Linear Equations 8
4 Quadratics, Polynomials, Rational Functions 11
5 Inequalities, Linear Programming 17
6 Sequences, Series 18
7 Trigonometry, Circles 21
8 Differentiation 31
9 Integration 40
10 Vectors 47
11 Complex Numbers 52
12 Linear Transformations and Matrices 54
13 Mathematical Induction 58
14 Probability 59
15 Statistics 65
Some Answers 71
2 CONTENTS
1 Sets, Relations, Functions
1. (a) In this problem, x ∈ ¦1, 2, 3, ..., 12¦ . Write down the following sets by listing their
elements:
i. E = ¦x [ x is even¦, O = ¦x [ x is odd¦, P = ¦x [ x is a prime number¦,
G = ¦x [ x ≤ 4¦ .
ii. E ∩ P, E ∩ O, P

, E ∪ G, G∪ P

.
(b) Represent the following set in a Venn diagram: A∪(A

∩B). What is a simpler way
of writing the same set?
2. By drawing two clear Venn diagrams, show that (A ∪ B)

= A

∩ B

.
3. By drawing two clear Venn diagrams, show that (A

∩ B)

= A ∪ B

.
4. In the Venn diagrams provided, clearly mark the following sets; (note that A

denotes the
complement
¢¡
£
A of the set A):
(a) (A ∩ B)

∩ C , c
(b) (A

∩ C) ∪ (B

∩ C) . c
5. On a typical cold evening at Atlantic College, with the heaters on in all buildings, 18
empty classrooms were checked in different buildings. The lights were on in 4 rooms and
a window was open in 11 rooms (– and usually just above one of the radiators ...) If
the lights were on and the windows open in 2 classrooms, in how many of the empty
classrooms were the lights turned off and the windows closed?
6. Given that A = B = ¦1, 2, 3¦, list the elements of the product set A B .
Also list the elements of the following three relations and represent them in three separate
1 SETS, RELATIONS, FUNCTIONS 3
lattice diagrams: R
1
= ¦(x, y) ∈ A B[ y − x ≥ 0¦, R
2
= ¦(x, y) ∈ A B[ y < x + 1¦
and R
3
= R
1
∩ R
2
.
Which, if any, of these relations are functions? Give reasons for your answer.
Try to describe the last of the relations in a simple way.
7. In this problem, x, y ∈ ¦−4, −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2¦.
(a) List the ordered pairs in the relation R
1
= ¦(x, y) : x = [ y[¦.
(b) Write down the domain and the range of the relation R
1
.
(c) List the ordered pairs in the relation R
2
= ¦(x, y) : y = x
2
¦.
(d) Write down the relations R
3
= R
1
∪ R
2
and R
4
= R
1
∩ R
2
.
(e) Which of the four relations are functions, if any? For each one that you think is not
a function, give your reason.
8. Given that x, y ∈ IR, represent the following relations in a coordinate system.
(a) ¦(x, y) : 2x + y = 3¦
(b) ¦(x, y) : x −y ≤ 1¦
(c) ¦(x, y) : y = x
2
+ 1¦
9. State, with reasons, which of the following relations are not functions, and which, if any,
are even or odd.
(a) ¦(x, y) ∈ IR IR : y =
1
x
2
¦
(b) ¦(x, y) ∈ IR IR : [ y[ =
1
x
¦
(c) ¦(x, y) ∈ IN IN :
y
x
∈ IN and x ,= 1 and x ,= y¦
10. Given functions f and g such that f(x) = x − 4 and g(x) = 5x, for all x ∈ IR, find the
following fucntions:
f ◦ g, g ◦ f, f
−1
, g
−1
, g
−1
◦ f
−1
, (f ◦ g)
−1
, (g ◦ f)
−1
.
(Write these functions down in the same way as f and g are written above.)
What do you notice? (– in fact this result holds generally.)
11. Given the function f : x → −2x + 3, where x ∈ IR, write down f(4) and f ◦ f(2), and
solve the equation f(x) = 7.
Also find the general expressions for f ◦ f(x) and f
−1
(x).
12. Given the functions f : x → 3x −2 and g : x → x
2
−4 , where x ∈ IR,
(a) write down the values of f(1) , g(2) , f ◦ g(3) and g ◦ g(4) ,
(b) determine the domains and the ranges of the two functions, and state whether either
of them is even or odd, and
4 1 SETS, RELATIONS, FUNCTIONS
(c) find the following functions: f ◦ g , g ◦ f , f
−1
and g
−1
, simplifying your results
where possible.
13. Given the functions f, g : IR → IR such that f(x) = 3x −1 and g(x) = x
2
+ 2,
(a) find and simplify the functions f ◦ g and g ◦ f ,
(b) find the range of f and the range of g ,
(c) find the inverse function f
−1
of f .
14. Given functions f and g such that f(x) = 2x −3 and g(x) = x
2
, for all x ∈ IR,
(a) find the inverse function f
−1
of f,
(b) find the compound functions f ◦ g and g ◦ f, and write down their values for x = 5,
(c) sketch the graphs of f, f
−1
and g clearly in one coordinate system, and
(d) from your diagram estimate the coordinates of the point where the graphs of f and
f
−1
intersect each other.
15. Given the two functions f(x) =
1
x −2
and g(x) = x
2
+ 1, where x ∈ IR,
(a) state the greatest possible domains and ranges of f and of g,
(b) sketch the graph of g in a coordinate system,
(c) find the inverse functions f
−1
and g
−1
of f and g, and
(d) find the compound functions f ◦ g and g ◦ f.
These materials are made freely available for non-commercial, teaching purposes
only, by Kai Arste, Atlantic College.
1 SETS, RELATIONS, FUNCTIONS 5
2 Algebra, Exponential and Logarithm Functions
1. Solve the equation 2
3x
= 8 (4
x−
1
2
) for x.
2. Simplify the following expressions:
(a)

8 4
1
3
16
1
6
2
(Hint: convert into powers of 2.)
(b)
p
5
6
p

1
3

p
(c)
2 +

2
2 −

2
3. (a) Simplify the following expressions:
i. log
8
32 + log
8
4 −log
8
2 ,
ii. log
8
128 −2 log
8
4 .
(b) Guess an integer approximation to the solution of the following equation, indicating
your reasoning, and then use logarithms to find the solution (accurate to 3 significant
figures, of course): 3
x−1
= 28 .
4. (a) Evaluate i. log
2
32 ii. log
2
1
4
iii. ln e
3
.
(b) Evaluate log
9
15 + log
9
6 −log
9
10.
(c) Express log
a
2
b
c
3
in terms of log a, log b and log c.
(d) Given that 3
x
= 78,
i. estimate the value of x correct to one s.f.
ii. find the value of x accurate to three s.f.
(e) Find x, given that 3
2x−1
= 9.
5. (a) Without using a calculator, simplify the following expression: log
2

3
2
−log
4
12.
(b) Guess an integer approximation to the solution of the following equation, indicating
your reasoning, and then solve it: 5
1−2x
= 120.
(c) Solve the following equation for x: log
4
x + 8 log
x
4 = 6.
6. (a) Simplify 2 log
5
10 −log
5
2 −2 , giving your answer precisely, as a single logarithm.
(b) Use logarithms to solve the equation 3
x
5
x−1
= 8.
7. (a) The line with equation x + y = 1 + e cuts the graph of y = e
x
at P and the graph
of y = ln x at Q. Sketch the line and the two curves in one diagram.
What is the distance between P and Q? (On the Maths Methods paper from which
this comes students were not given the hint that a very simple guessing step is
required.)
6 2 ALGEBRA, EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS
(b) Use logarithms to determine the set of integers n for which (
3
4
)
n
≤ 0.1.
These materials are made freely available for non-commercial, teaching purposes
only, by Kai Arste, Atlantic College.
2 ALGEBRA, EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS 7
3 Straight Lines, Linear Equations
1. Given the points A(−2, 3) and B(6, −1),
(a) determine the equation of the line through the two points,
(b) find the coordinates of the midpoint M of the line segment AB, and
(c) hence determine the equation of the perpendicular bisector, i.e. of the line through
the midpoint M perpendicular to the line through A and B.
2. Given the points A(−2, 1) and B(4, 5), find the midpoint M and the perpendicular bi-
sector of the line segment AB, and the distance between the two points.
3. A quadrilateral (i.e. a shape bounded by four straight lines) has vertices A(−1, −3),
B(3, −1), C(5, 3) and D(−4, 3). Find the midpoints K, L, M and N of the sides AB,
BC, CD and DA. Show that KL and NM have the same gradient and the same length.
What kind of quadrilateral is KLMN therefore?
4. Given the points A(−2, 1) and B(4, 3),
(a) calculate the distance between them,
(b) find the equation of their perpendicular bisector, i.e. of the straight line through
the midpoint of the line segment AB perpendicular to the line AB.
5. (a) Given the two points A(−2, 4) and B(1, −2), find the distance AB.
(b) Find the equation of the line parallel to AB which passes through P(2, 4).
(c) Also find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the line segment AB.
6. Consider the triangle ABC with vertices A(0, 3), B(4, 5), C(0, 13).
(a) What is the length of the side AB? (You do not need to use a calculator. Note that
this length is the only number in the test which is not a ‘nice’ number.)
(b) Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the side AB, (i.e. of the line
perpendicular to AB through its midpoint.)
(c) Find the equation of the median through A, (i.e. of the line through A and the
midpoint of the opposite side, BC.)
(d) Find the point of intersection of the two lines you have found.
(e) Write down the equation of the line through A and C.
7. Solve the following sets of equations: (a) 2x −3y = −8 (b) 3x + 8y = 4
3x + 2y = 1 2x −3y = 1
8. Two straight lines have equations 2x −y = 4 and kx + 2y = −1.
8 3 STRAIGHT LINES, LINEAR EQUATIONS
(a) If k = 3, find the coordinates of the point of intersection of the two lines.
(b) For which value of k do the lines have no point of intersection, i.e. for which value
of k are they parallel?
(c) For which value of k are the two lines perpendicular?
9. (a) Given the points A(−3, −2), B(1, 4) and C(5, −4), find
i. the equation of the line AB, and the distance between A and B,
ii. the midpoint of the line segment BC, and hence the perpendicular bisector of
that line segment.
(b) Solve the following simultaneous equations: 6x + 2y = 3
4x + 3y = 1
10. If two pads of paper and five pens cost £ 5.50, and three pads and 4 pens cost £ 6.50,
what are the prices of one pad and of one pen?
11. A triangle has vertices A(0, 1), B(8, −3) and C(2, 5).
(a) Find the gradients of the sides AB and AC. Comparing these gradients, what can
you say about the directions of the sides? What kind of triangle is it therefore?
Find the lengths of the sides AB and AC, and use them to calculate the area of the
triangle.
(b) What is the equation of the side BC, and at what point does it intersect the x-axis?
(c) Find the coordinates of the midpoint P of side AB and of the midpoint Q of side
AC.
Hence find the equations of the medians through the vertices C and B, and the
coordinates of the point G of intersection of the two medians.
Also find the averages of the coordinates of A, B and C. What do you observe?
12. The line
1
has equation y = −2x + 1 and P is the point with coordinates (6, −1) .
(a) Find the equation of the line
2
through P perpendicular to
1
.
(b) Find the coordinates of the point F of intersection of
1
and
2
.
(c) Hence determine the distance of the point P from the line
1
.
13. The line l has equation y =
1
2
x −2 and P is the point with coordinates (4, −5).
(a) Find the equation of the straight line perpendicular to l through point P, and the
point of intersection of the two perpendicular lines. (Two lines are perpendicular, if
the product of their gradients is −1.)
(b) Hence find the shortest distance of line l from point P, giving your answer precisely,
as a root.
3 STRAIGHT LINES, LINEAR EQUATIONS 9
14. Given the points A(2, −3), B(−2, 5) and C(5, 6), find
(a) the equation of the line AB,
(b) the equation of the line through C which is perpendicular to AB,
(c) the coordinates of the point F of intersection of the two lines, and
(d) the distance between the points F and C.
(e) How far then is the point C from the line AB?
15. A triangle has vertices A(−2, −2), B(6, 2), C(3, 3). (Note that all points you need in this
problem have integer coordinates. Leave the distances you calculate as roots.)
(a) Find the equation of the line through A and B, and the distance between these two
points.
(b) Find the equation of the median through C.
(c) Find the equation of the line through C which is perpendicular to AB.
(d) Find the point F of intersection of with the line AB, and the distance between C
and F, i.e. the altitude or height of the triangle.
(e) Using some of your previous answers, calculate the area of the triangle.
16. (a) Solve the following equations simultaneously: 4x − y = 1
7x + 2y = 4
(b) The graph of the function y = ax
2
+bx+c passes through the three points P(−1, 6),
Q(0, 3) and R(1, 4). By substituting the coordinates of these points into the given
equation, obtain three simultaneous equations for a, b and c. Solve the equations to
find a, b and c.
These materials are made freely available for non-commercial, teaching purposes
only, by Kai Arste, Atlantic College.
10 3 STRAIGHT LINES, LINEAR EQUATIONS
4 Quadratics, Polynomials, Rational Functions
1. Solve the following quadratic equations, giving all your answers precisely (i.e. not as an
approximate decimal number.)
(a) x
2
−6x = 0,
(b) x
2
−6x + 9 = 0,
(c) x
2
−3x + 2 = 0,
(d) 2x
2
−3x −2 = 0,
(e) 3x
2
+ 2x −4 = 0,
(f) 3x
2
+ 2x + 4 = 0.
2. Determine how many distinct real roots, or solutions, each of the following quadratic
equations has, and solve the equation(s) that can be solved.
(a) 2x
2
−3x −2 = 0.
(b) −2x
2
−3x −2 = 0.
(c) x
2
−6x + 9 = 0.
3. For what values of k do the following quadratic equations have just one solution?
(a) kx
2
−12x + 9 = 0
(b)
1
x
=
x
kx −9
(Hint: you have to rewrite the equation in the standard form first.)
4. Write down a quadratic equation with integer coefficients whose roots are 1/3 and −2.
5. (a) Solve the quadratic equation x
2
−2x −35 = 0 ; (this can be done by factorisation.)
(b) Find the simplest quadratic equation with integer coefficients whose roots (solutions)
are
2
3
and 6.
(c) For which values of k does the equation x
2
+ 4x + k = 0 have no (real) solutions.
6. (a) If the roots of the equation 2x
2
+ 3x + 5 = 0 are α and β, write down the sum and
the products of the roots, and find the equation whose roots are
2
α
and
2
β
.
(b) For which value of p do the parabola y = 2x
2
+3x+5 and the straight line y = −x+p
have just one common point, (i.e. the simultaneous equations have one solution)?
7. Sketch the graph of the parabola which crosses the x−axis at (−1, 0) and (3, 0), and the
y−axis at (0,
3
2
) , find its equation, and the coordinates of its vertex.
8. The curve with equation y = ax
2
+bx+c passes through the origin O(0, 0) , and through
the points P(1, −1) and Q(2, 2) . By substituting the coordinates and solving simultane-
ous equations, or otherwise, find the values of a , b and c .
4 QUADRATICS, POLYNOMIALS, RATIONAL FUNCTIONS 11
9. The graph of a quadratic function y = ax
2
+ bx + c passes through the three points
R(−2, 0), S(4, 0) and T(0, 4).
(a) Find the values of a, b and c.
(b) What are the coordinates of the vertex V of the parabola?
10. (a) If the straight line with equation y = mx−7 passes through the point A(3, 8), what
is the value of m ?
(b) Similarly, if the parabola with equation y = ax
2
+ bx −2 passes through the points
P(−1, 6) and Q(3, 10), what are the values of a and b ?
11. When an object is thrown upwards at time t = 0 sec with velocity v
0
from an initial
height s
0
above the ground, its height at time t is given by s = −
1
2
gt
2
+ v
0
t + s
0
; (use
the approximation g = 10 m/sec
2
.)
A diver jumps from a springboard 15 m above the surface of a pool with an upward
velocity of 6.5 m/sec.
(a) When does the diver fall past the springboard on the way down?
(b) At what time does the diver reach the greatest height, and how high above the pool
is that?
(c) When will she hit the surface of the water?
12. A point P has coordinates x = −t + 1 and y = 2t −1.
(a) By eliminating t from the equations for the x- and the y-coordinates, find the equa-
tion of the straight line on which P will lie for all values of t.
(b) Find a formula in terms of t for the distance d between P(−t + 1, 2t − 1) and the
point C(5, 6). Let s be the square of that distance.
(c) Write s as a simple quadratic function of t. For which value of t is s a minimum?
For that value of t, what are the values of s and of d ?
13. A parabola has equation y = x
2
−4x + 1 .
(a) Sketch the parabola, labelling the points of intersection with the axes and the vertex
clearly.
(b) Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the parabola and the straight
line with equation y = 2x −4 .
14. (a) Sketch the graph of the function y = −x
2
+ 4x −3 in a large diagram, labelling the
points of intersection with the axes and the vertex clearly. (Note that most of the
diagram will be below the x-axis, so leave enough space.)
(b) In the same diagram sketch the graph of the function y = 2x −6.
12 4 QUADRATICS, POLYNOMIALS, RATIONAL FUNCTIONS
(c) Find the coordinates of the points of intersection between the two graphs and mark
them in your diagram.
15. (a) In a clear diagram, sketch the parabola with equation y = 2x
2
−4x −6, marking all
the significant points on the graph.
(b) In the same diagram, sketch the line with equation y = −4x + 2.
(c) Calculate the coordinates of the points of intersection between the parabola and the
line, and mark them in your diagram.
(d) For each value of k, y = −4x + k is the equation of some straight line. For which
value of k does this line just touch the parabola, i.e. for which value of k do the
parabola and the line have just one common point?
(Method: Eliminate y from the equations of the parabola and this line; there will
still be a k in the resulting quadratic equation. If you write down the discriminant
of that quadratic equation, it will also still have a k in it. You can then find k by
using the condition that there should be only one solution.)
16. Sketch the parabola with equation y = x
2
−2x−8 in a large diagram, labelling the points
of intersection with the axes and the vertex clearly.
For what value of k is the straight line with equation y = 2x+k a tangent to the parabola,
i.e. for what value of k do the parabola and the straight line have precisely one common
point? Sketch the tangent in the same diagram as the parabola.
17. (a) By first finding the intersections with the axes and the coordinates of the vertex,
sketch the graph of the function y = x
2
+ 2x −8.
(b) What are the coordinates of the points where the line with equation y = x −2 cuts
the parabola in part (a) ? Sketch the line in the same diagram, and mark the points
of intersection.
(c) For what value of k is the line y = −2x + k a tangent to the parabola in part (a) ?
(Hint: solve the equations of the parabola and the line simultaneously, and use the
condition for the resulting quadratic equation to have only one solution.) Sketch the
tangent in the same diagram.
(d) Find the coordinates of the common point of the parabola in part (a) and the
parabola with equation y = x
2
.
18. Consider the parabolas with equations y = x
2
+ 3x + 2 and y = −x
2
−x + c.
(a) If c = 8, sketch the graphs of the two functions in one large, clearly labelled diagram,
and find the coordinates of the two points of intersection of the two parabolas.
(b) Find the value of c for which the two parabolas just touch, i.e. for which they have
one common point. In the same diagram as before, sketch the graph of the second
parabola for that value of c.
4 QUADRATICS, POLYNOMIALS, RATIONAL FUNCTIONS 13
19. Two parabolas have equations y = x
2
+ 1 and y = −x
2
+ 4x +p.
(a) If p = 17, find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the two parabolas.
Draw a very rough sketch of the parabolas: estimate the intersections with the x-axis
from the calculator.
(b) For which value of p do the parabolas touch one another, i.e. for which value of p
do they have one common point?
20. (a) Sketch the graph of the function y =
1
2
x
2
+x−4, marking the intersections with the
axes and the vertex clearly.
(b) From your graph determine the set of values of c for which the equation
1
2
x
2
+ x −4 = c has two different solutions for x.
(c) Find the points of intersection of the parabola with the line y = −x + 2 and sketch
that line in the same diagram, marking the points of intersection.
(d) Find the value of k so that the line y = −x +k is a tangent of the parabola, i.e. so
that the line has only one point in common with the curve.
21. (a) Sketch a graph of y = −x
2
+ 4x + 5 in a large diagram, making sure you label all
the significant points clearly.
For which value of k ∈ IR does the straight line with equation y = 2x +k have only
one common point with the parabola? Sketch that line in the same diagram.
(b) By substituting u = x
2
and first solving the resulting quadratic equation for u, solve
the following equation for x: x
4
−2x
2
−8 = 0.
22. (a) Sketch the graph of the function y = x
2
− 6x + 5, labelling all significant points in
your diagram carefully.
(b) Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the graph in part i. and the line
with equation y = −x + 11.
(c) For what value of k is the line y = −x+k a tangent to the curve, i.e. for what value
of k do the curve and the line have precisely one common point? Draw this line into
your diagram.
23. (a) What is the remainder when the polynomial P(x) = x
3
−7x+6 is divided by (x+2)?
(Note that the first term of that polynomial is not x
2
...)
(b) Guess, or otherwise find, one solution of the equation P(x) = 0, and hence factorise
the polynomial completely.
24. Let P(x) be the polynomial 2x
3
−5x
2
−11x −4 .
(a) Without using polynomial division, find the remainder when P(x) is divided by
(2x −1) .
14 4 QUADRATICS, POLYNOMIALS, RATIONAL FUNCTIONS
(b) The equation P(x) = 0 has one solution which is a small integer. Find that solution
by trial and error. By dividing P(x) by a suitable factor and equating the resulting
quadratic to zero, obtain the other two solutions.
(c) Calculate the sum and the product of the three solutions you found in (b). How
might they be related to the coefficients in the polynomial?
25. (a) What is the remainder when x
4
+ 3x
3
+ 2x
2
+ 4x + 5 is divided by x + 1 ?
(b) Simplify the following expression:
(x + 1)
3
2
−(x + 1)
1
2
(x + 1)
1
2
.
26. (a) What is the remainder when x
4
+ 3x
3
+ 2x
2
+ 4x + 5 is divided by x + 1 ?
(b) For what value of k is (x −2) a factor of the polynomial 2x
3
+ 3x
2
−8x + k ?
For that value of k, factorise the polynomial completely.
27. (a) The polynomial P(x) = 2x
4
+3x
3
+ax
2
+bx+7 has a remainder of 15 when divided
by (x −1), and a remainder of −3 when divided by (x +2). What are the values of
a and b ?
(b) Divide the polynomial 4x
3
+ 8x
2
+ x −2 by 2x
2
+x −1 .
28. (a) Sketch the graph of y =
2x + 3
1 −x
, labelling the intersections with the axes and the
asymptotes clearly.
(b) If the graph of y =
x + b
x +d
has a vertical asymptote at x = 2 and crosses the x-axis
at x = −3, what are the values of b and d ?
29. The vertical asymptote of the graph of the function y =
ax + 2
x + b
is x = 2, and it intersects
the x-axis at x = −3.
(a) What are the values of a and b ? (These values are not needed for part (b).)
(b) Write down
i. the equation of the vertical asymptote and
ii. the intersection with the x-axis
of the graph of the reciprocal function y =
x + b
ax + 2
.
30. The diagram on the right shows the graph of a
function y =
ax + b
x +c
. What are the values of a, b, c
and d ?
-
6
y
x
−2
1
−1
d
4 QUADRATICS, POLYNOMIALS, RATIONAL FUNCTIONS 15
31. Write down the equation of the horizontal asymptote of the graph of y =
x
2
(x + 1)(x −3)
,
and find the x-coordinate of the point where the graph intersects that asymptote.
Determine the set of y-values that the function cannot take. (Hint: rewrite as a quadratic
equation for x and use the condition that there should be no real solution.)
These materials are made freely available for non-commercial, teaching purposes
only, by Kai Arste, Atlantic College.
16 4 QUADRATICS, POLYNOMIALS, RATIONAL FUNCTIONS
5 Inequalities, Linear Programming
1. For what range or ranges of x-values do the following inequalities hold?
(a) 4 −3x > 10
(b) 2x
2
−3x ≤ 2 (Hint: Write as a quadratic inequality and factorise.)
(c)
x −2
2x + 5
> 0
2. In one coordinate system, sketch the two straight lines with equations y = −x + 4 and
y = 2x −5.
Mark the area in the coordinate system where y ≥ −x + 4 and y ≤ 2x −5.
Which point in the area you marked is closest to the origin? What is the distance of that
point from the origin?
3. A manufacturer makes two varieties, V and W, of an article having parts that must be cut,
assembled, and finished; the manufacturer knows that as many articles as are produced
can be sold. An article of variety V takes 25 minutes to cut, 60 minutes to assemble, and
68 minutes to finish; it yields £30 profit. An article of variety W takes 75 minutes to cut,
60 minutes to assemble, and 34 minutes to finish, and yields a £40 profit. Not more than
450 minutes of cutting time, 480 minutes of assemb
(a) One of the constraints on x and y is 25x + 75y ≤ 450. Write down the other
constraints as inequalities, and represent the set of feasible solutions as a region in
an xy-plane.
(b) Write down an expression for the profit P in terms of x and y. How many articles
of each variety should be manufactured each day to maximise profit?
(c) When articles of the two varieties are manufactured so as to maximise profit, the
time of one of the three departments – cutting, assembling or finishing – is not fully
used. Determine from your graph which department it is, and calculate at what
percentage of full capacity it is working.
These materials are made freely available for non-commercial, teaching purposes
only, by Kai Arste, Atlantic College.
5 INEQUALITIES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING 17
6 Sequences, Series
1. (a) Rewrite in Σ−notation: 5 + 8 + 11 + 14 + ... + 50 .
(b) Evaluate separately the following expressions, showing clearly what terms you are
adding, and compare the results.
i. Σ
5
r=3
(r
3
−2 r
2
) ii. Σ
5
r=3
r
3
−2 Σ
5
r=3
r
2
2. The three numbers x+2, 3x−1, x
2
+2 are the first three terms of an A.P.. By using the
definition of an A.P., or otherwise, find the possible values of x, and in each case write
down the first four terms of the A.P.
3. (a) The numbers x + 1 and 2x and x
2
− 5 are the first three terms of an A.P.. Find
the two possible values of x, and for each of those values the first term and constant
difference of the sequence.
(b) An A.P. has first term 3 and constant difference −2. What is the sum of the first 20
terms of this series?
4. (a) −3 and 6 are the first two terms of an arithmetic progression. Write down the
constant difference, and calculate the 23rd term, and the sum of the first 23 terms.
(b) Which term a
n
of this A.P. is equal to 276 ?
5. −3 and 6 are the first two terms of a geometric progression. Write down the common
ratio, and the next two terms. Calculate the 10th term, and the sum of the first ten
terms.
6. (a) The third term of a G.P. is 10 and the seventh term is 40. Find the two possible
values for the common ratio, and the first term.
(b) A G.P. has a common ratio of
2
3
and a sum to infinity of 108. What is the first term,
and what is the sum of the first 3 terms?
7. A geometric progression has first term 3 and its sum to infinity is 10. Find the common
ratio r and the fourth term.
8. Write down the common ratio r and the sum of the first three terms of the following GPs:
(a) 9 −12 + ... (b) 9 + 6 + ...
Also for both of these series, write down the sum S

to infinity, if it exists. (The sum to
infinity of a GP is given by S

=
a
1 −r
. If it does not exist, state that it does not exist.)
9. (a) By using the definition of a G.P., or otherwise, find the values of x ∈ IR for which
x −1 , x + 2 and 3x form the first three terms of a G.P., and write down what the
values of the first three terms are in each case.
18 6 SEQUENCES, SERIES
(b) The sum of the first n terms of an A.P. is given by S
n
= 3n
2
+ 2n. Write down
S
1
, S
2
and S
3
, and hence find the first three terms of the A.P., and its common
difference.
(c) Use the formula, S
n
=
n
2
(2a + (n − 1) d), for the sum of the first n terms of an
arithmetic progression with first term a and common difference d, to find, in terms
of n, (i) the sum N
n
of the first n natural numbers (not including 0,) (ii) the
sum E
n
of the first n even natural numbers (not including 0,) and (iii) the sum
O
n
of the first n odd natural numbers.
Show that O
n
+E
n
= N
2n
and that O
n
+n = 2N
n
, and explain in simple terms why
these relations should hold.
10. Calculate the sums of the following arithmetic progressions.
(a) S
1
= 11 + 13 + 15 + 17 + ... + 99,
(b) S
2
= 15 + 21 + 27 + 33 + ... + 99.
Hence find S
3
= 11 + 13 + 17 + 19 + 23 + ... + 97.
11. (a) The 2nd term of a geometric progression is 24 and its 6th term is 1.5 . Find the
possible values of the common ratio and the first term, and of the sum to infinity.
(b) A piece of string of length 200 cm is to be cut into 5 pieces whose lengths form
an arithmetic progression, with the longest piece being three times as long as the
shortest. What should the lengths of the pieces be?
(c) By using the definition of an A.P., or otherwise, find the values of x so that the
numbers x, 10 and x
2
are the 3rd, 4th and 5th term, respectively, of an arithmetic
progression. Taking the positive value of x, what are the first term and the common
difference of the series?
(d) Write down the 11th term of the sum:
21

r=1
(
3
2
+
r
2
) , and evaluate the sum.
(You may find the following formula for the sum of the first n terms of an A.P. helpful:
S
n
=
n
2
(2a + (n −1)d) .)
12. A car cost $ 12000 new. In the first year it loses 20% of its value, and in each year after
that a further 10%. What is its value after 1, 2 and 3 years?
For n ≥ 2, find a formula for its value after n years.
13. (a) An AP and a GP have the same first term 5 and the same second term, and the
fourth term of the AP is the same as the third term of the GP. Set up two equations
for the constant difference d of the AP and the common ratio r of the GP. What are
the possible values of d and r ?
(b) Two people, Mr A and Miss G, plan to invest £2000 each in two different bank
accounts.
6 SEQUENCES, SERIES 19
i. If Mr A invests in a bank account that pays 6% simple interest per year, write
down how much money there will be in the account after 1, 2 and 3 years. Find
a general formula for the amount of money in the account after n years, and
hence calculate how much money will be in the account after 10 years. When
will the initial investment have doubled in value?
ii. If Miss G invests in an account that pays 4.5% compound interest per year,
write down how much money there will be in the account after 1, 2 and 3 years.
Find a general formula for the amount of money in the account after n years,
and hence calculate how much money will be in the account at the end of the
10th year. At the end of which year will the initial investment have doubled in
value?
iii. Another bank offers Mrs G an account, also paying compound interest, so that
after 10 years she will have the same amount of money as Mr A does after 10
years. What interest rate is that bank paying?
14. According to legend, the inventor of chess was rewarded as follows: for the first square on
the board, he was to receive 1 grain of rice, for the second square 2 grains, for the third
square 4, for the fourth 8, and so on.
If the world’s population is six billion (6 10
9
) people, and a meal requires 200g of rice,
and each gram of rice contains 20 grains, after how many squares would the total amount
of rice have been enough for a rice meal for the whole population of the earth?
15. Find the constant term, i.e. the term without x in it, in the binomial expansion of
(2x −
1
x
)
6
.
16. Find the constant term, i.e. the term without x, in the expansion of (

2 x −
2
x
)
8
,
simplifying your answer as much as possible.
17. Find the term with a
3
in the binomial expansion of (2 +
a
2
)
7
.
These materials are made freely available for non-commercial, teaching purposes
only, by Kai Arste, Atlantic College.
20 6 SEQUENCES, SERIES
7 Trigonometry, Circles
Trigonometric Ratios, their Graphs
1. Evaluate the following trigonometric ratios, giving your answers accurately, i.e. without
using a calculator:
(a) cos 60

,
(b) sin 225

,
(c) tan
5
6
π.
2. (a) On a sunny day, a vertical pole 8 m high casts a shadow of length 11 m on horizontal
ground. What is the angle of the sun above the horizon?
(b) One angle in a right-angled triangle is 25

, and the opposite side has a length of 45
cm. How long are the other two sides?
3. A road goes straight up one side of a small hill and straight down the other side. The hill
is 50 m high.
(a) On the way up, the road covers a horizontal distance of 600 m, as measured on a
map. What is the angle that the road makes with the horizontal?
(b) On the way down, a car travelling along the road measures it to be 600 m long.
What is the angle that the road makes with the horizontal on this side? Is it steeper
or less steep than on the other side?
How long is the road down as measured on the map?
4. Find all the angles θ, where 0

≤ θ ≤ 360

, such that
(a) sin θ = −0.5 (b) cos θ =

3
2
(c) tan θ = 4
5. By writing 15

as 45

−30

and using the identity sin(A−B) = sin Acos B−cos Asin B,
find the precise value of sin 15

in the form a

6+b

2, where a and b are simple fractions.
Use the Pythagorean identity sin
2
θ +cos
2
θ = 1 to derive the precise value of cos
2
15

, in
the form p + q

3, where p and q are again simple fractions.
6. (a) Find the precise values, i.e. without using a calculator, of
i. cos 135

,
ii. cot 210

.
(b) Find the angles θ, where 0

≤ θ ≤ 360

, such that tan θ = −1.
(c) Use your calculator to evaluate 2 sin 37

cos 37

, and then find the acute angle θ such
that sin θ = 2 sin 37

cos 37

. What general rule does this suggest?
7 TRIGONOMETRY, CIRCLES 21
7. (a) Without using a calculator, find the value of 2 sin 30

cos 30

and the angle θ such
that sin θ equals that value. What general rule does this suggest?
(b) Using a calculator, find the value of cos 20

cos 50

− sin 20

sin 50

and the angle θ
such that cos θ equals that value. What general rule does this suggest?
8. (a) If for some acute angle A, cos A =
5
13
, find without using a calculator the values of
sin A and tan A.
(b) If for some obtuse angle B, sin B =
1
2
, what is the value of cos B ?
(c) For what angles θ, where 0

≤ θ ≤ 360

, is tan θ = 10 ?
9. Sketch the graphs of the following functions for 0

≤ θ ≤ 360

and state the lengths of
their periods:
(a) 2 cos θ −2 , and
(b) sin 3θ .
10. Sketch the graph of y = cos(2x −
π
2
) + 1 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π.
11. For 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π, sketch the graph of y = 3 sin(
x
2
+
π
3
) + 2, labelling all the intersections
with the x- and y-axes accurate to 3 s.f..
What is the greatest y-value? For which value of x does the graph reach that highest
point?
12. (a) i. Sketch the graph of y = 2 sin(
x
2

π
6
) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π , marking the intersections
with the axes clearly.
ii. Find the precise values of the solutions between 0 and 2π, inclusive, of the
equation 2 sin(
x
2

π
6
) = 1 , and mark your solutions on the graph in (a).
(b) In one diagram, sketch the graphs of y = 2 cos x and y = x + 1 for −π ≤ x ≤ π.
Indicate on your graph how you could estimate the positive solution of the equation
2 cos x = x + 1 . Find the solution accurate to 3 s.f. using the calculator.
(c) Write down the greatest and least values of the function y = 3 cos(2x −
π
4
) +
3
2
.
13. (a) Write down the period of the function y = 2 sin
1
2
x − 1. Sketch the graph of this
function for 0 ≤ x ≤ 360

.
(b) i. In one diagram, sketch the graphs of the functions y = cos x and y = sin 2x.
Hence determine how many solutions the equation cos x = sin 2x has in the
range 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π .
ii. Use the identity sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x to find all the solutions of the equation
cos x = sin 2x in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π .
14. (a) In one diagram, sketch the graphs of y = cos x and y = sec x, for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π, clearly
labelling all intersections, asymptotes, and so on.
22 7 TRIGONOMETRY, CIRCLES
(b) The diagram on the right shows the
graph of the function
y = a sin(kx +α) + c.
Write down the period and the ampli-
tude of the function. What are the val-
ues of a, k, α and c ?
T
E
π/8 π
6
x
y
Triangles, Circles
15. A triangle has sides of lengths 5 cm, 8 cm and 11 cm. Find the smallest angle in the
triangle, and hence also the area of the triangle.
16. Three straight roads form a triangle between three cities: the distance from P-ville to
Q-town is 7 km, from Q-town to R-burg 9 km, and from R-burg to P-ville 12 km.
Calculate the angle between the two roads from R-burg, to Q-town and to P-ville, and
hence find the area enclosed by the three roads.
17. (a) The three sides of a triangle have lengths 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm. Find the value
of the largest angle in the triangle, and hence the area of the triangle.
(b) From a boat out at sea, the angle of elevation (i.e. the angle between the horizontal
and the line of sight) of the top of a cliff is 30

. When the boat has moved 60 m
further away from the shore, the angle of elevation is 20

.
Draw a clear diagram of the situation, and find first the distance between the first
position of the boat and the top of the cliff, and hence the height of the cliff.
18. In the triangle ABC the lengths of sides a and b are 17 cm and 20 cm, and the angle A
is 40

. Find the possible values of the other two angles.
19. In the triangle ABC, angle B = 30

, side b = 15 cm and side c = 20 cm. Find the
possible values of the other two angles.
Draw one sketch, clearly showing the two possible triangles.
20. A straight road 12 km long runs N from A-city to B-town; C-town lies 9 km to the NW
of B-town, and there is another straight road between them.
How far is it from A-city to C-town as the crow flies, i.e. in a straight line?
Another straight road is proposed to run directly from A-city to C-town. Find the angle
the new road would make with the old one from A-city to B-town.
The area enclosed by the three roads would become an industrial zone. If the value of
land in the proposed industrial zone is £1.50 per m
2
, what would the total value be of
that area?
7 TRIGONOMETRY, CIRCLES 23
21. (a) If the distance between the moon and the earth is 382,100 km and the diameter of
the earth is about 12,700 km, what angle approximately does the earth subtend at
the moon? (For comparison, the moon apparently subtends an angle of 31’ at the
earth.)
(b) From a boat at a certain distance from the bottom of a cliff, the top of the cliff
appears at an angle of elevation of 18

, (i.e. the line to the top of the cliff makes
that angle with the horizontal.) When the boat has moved 30 m closer to the cliff,
the angle of elevation is 24

. How high is the cliff?
(c) Calculate the greatest angle in the triangle whose sides have lengths 4 cm, 5 cm and
7 cm. What then is the area of the triangle?
22. A road runs along the straight line of a coast. From point A on the road, a buoy B out
at sea is seen on a line which makes an angle of 40

with the road ahead. After driving
2 km along the road, to point C, the buoy is seen on a line which makes an angle of 25

with the road behind.
(a) Draw a clearly labelled diagram of road AC and the buoy B.
(b) How far from point A is the buoy?
(c) What then is the distance of the buoy from the coast?
23. The village Mura, the town Tokai and the capital Shuto are connected by three straight
roads. The distance from Tokai to Shuto is 31 km, and from Tokai to Mura 29 km, and
the roads to Mura and Tokai make an angle of 60

as they leave Shuto.
(a) Using the sine-rule, find the two possible angles which the roads to Shuto and Mura
could make at Tokai, and hence the two distances which Mura could be from Shuto.
What is the distance, accurate to 3 significant figures, between the two possible
locations of Mura ?
(b) Using the cosine-rule, but not any of the results of (a), find the two distances which
Mura could be from Shuto.
What is the precise distance between the two possible locations of Mura ?
(c) Given that no-one could walk in an hour from Shuto to Mura, what is the area
enclosed by the three roads ?
If another straight road is to be built from Tokai, to meet the road between Mura
and Shuto at right angles, how long will that new road be?
24. A-town, B-ville and C-burg are connected by straight roads. B-ville lies 8 km due East
of A-town, and C-burg lies to the North-East of A-town, at a distance of 7 km.
(a) How far is C-burg from B-ville?
(b) On what compass bearing does one drive on the road from B-ville to C-burg?
24 7 TRIGONOMETRY, CIRCLES
(c) What is the area enclosed by the three roads between the three places?
(d) What is the shortest distance between C-burg and the road from A-town to B-ville?
25. A and B are two points on the circumference of a circle of radius r = 12 cm. If the
distance AB is 10 cm, what angle does the chord AB subtend at the centre of the circle?
What then is the length of the minor arc AB?
26. (a) A and B are two points on the circumference of a circle of radius 10 cm. The line
segment AB (called ‘a chord’) subtends an angle of 120

at the centre O of the circle,
i.e. the angle
¯
AOB is 120

. Find
i. the length of the minor (= shorter) arc AB , and
ii. the area of the smaller segment of the circle cut off by the chord AB .
(b) What angle (in radians) does a chord of length 24 cm subtend at the centre of a
circle of radius 16 cm?
What is the area of the sector with that angle in that circle?
27. (a) A and B are points on the circumference of a circle of radius r = 12 cm and centre
C, and the chord (line) AB subtends an angle of 75

at C. By finding the area of
the sector and the area of the triangle ABC, find the area of the minor (smaller)
segment cut off by AB.
(b) In another circle, of radius r, a chord AB subtends an angle of 30

at the centre C.
Write down the formula, in terms of r, for the area of the minor segment cut off by
AB.
If the area of that segment is 1.18 cm
2
, find the radius r of the circle.
28. A and B are points on the circumference of the circle with centre O and radius 12 cm. If
the length of the chord AB is 12

3 cm, find the angle

AOB.
What then is the area of the smaller segment cut off by AB?
29. A and B are two points on the circumference of a circle of radius r and centre O. Find
the angle

AOB, to the nearest degree, such that the perimeter of the segment cut off by
the chord AB is equal to the diameter of the circle.
(The perimeter of a segment consists of two pieces, a chord AB and an arc

AB.)
30. (a) One side of a triangle is of length 12 cm, and the angles at the vertices at the ends
of that side are 45

and 60

. What is the area of the triangle?
(b) A circle has a radius of 20 cm, and a sector in that circle has an area of 500 cm
2
.
What is the length of the arc of the sector?
7 TRIGONOMETRY, CIRCLES 25
31. The logo of S-company is made up out of parts of circles, as shown in the
diagram on the left. The radius of the inside circles is 5 cm and that of the
outside circles 10 cm.
What is the area of the S-shape? (Hint: Draw a larger version of half of the
S-shape, and calculate the difference between the areas of two sectors.)
What is the area of the enclosing rectangle, and what percentage of the
whole area is inside the S-shape?

Trigonometric Identities and Equations
32. One of the four formulae below is valid for all angles A and B. By substituting values,
or otherwise, determine which is the correct version. (There is no need to show all your
working, as long as it is clear what you are doing.)
(a) sin(A + B) = cos Acos B + sin Asin B
(b) sin(A + B) = cos Acos B −sin Asin B
(c) sin(A + B) = sin Acos B + cos Asin B
(d) sin(A + B) = sin Acos B −cos Asin B
By writing 75

= 45

+ 30

and then applying the correct version, calculate the precise
value (in terms of roots) of sin 75

.
33. Solve the following equations.
(a) cos
2
x =
3
4
, 0 ≤ x ≤ π .
(b) sin(2θ −40

) = −0.5, 0

≤ θ ≤ 360

.
(c) tan
x + π
2
=

3, the general solution in radians.
34. Find the values of x, where 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π, such that 2 sin
2
x + cos x −2 = 0.
35. Find the general solution of the trigonometric equation: 2 sin
2
x + 11 cos x + 4 = 0 .
36. Using the identity tan
2
θ + 1 = sec
2
θ, find all the values of x, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π such that
2 tan
2
2x + 3 sec 2x = 0.
37. (a) Solve the equation cos θ = −
1
2
, where 0

≤ θ ≤ 360

.
(b) Find the general solution of tan 2θ =

3.
(c) By using a suitable identity, rewrite the equation 2 cos
2
x + sin x = 1 as a quadratic
for sin x. Hence solve the equation, for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π, giving your answers in radians.
38. (a) Given that tan θ = 2 and that θ is a reflex angle, i.e. greater than 180

, find the
precise values of the other trigonometric functions of θ .
26 7 TRIGONOMETRY, CIRCLES
(b) In one diagram, sketch the graphs of y = sin 2x and y = cos x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π. Use
your diagram to estimate the solutions in that range of the equation sin 2x−cos x = 0.
(c) Find the general solutions in degrees of 2 sin
2
x −3 cos x = 0 .
39. Solve the following trigonometric equations. Give the solutions precisely, in the appro-
priate unit.
(a) sin 2x + 4 cos x = 0, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π (You may use sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x.)
(b) 2 cos(θ −20

) = −1, 0

≤ θ ≤ 360

(c) cos
2
θ −sin
2
θ = 0, 0

≤ θ ≤ 360

(Hint: use that sin
2
θ + cos
2
θ = 1 for all θ.)
40. In one large, carefully labelled diagram sketch the graphs of the functions y = sin x + 1
and y = cos 2x, for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π.
From your graph determine the number of solutions of the equation sin x +1 = cos 2x in
that range.
41. (a) In one diagram, sketch the graphs of the two functions y = sin 2x and y = cos x for
0 ≤ x ≤ 2π. Hence determine the number of solutions in that range of the equation
sin 2x −cos x = 0 .
(b) Find the general solutions of the equation cos 2x −sin x = 0.
42. (a) Given that the angle A is obtuse, calculate the unknown side and angles of a triangle
ABC in which a = 5, b = 3 and B = 30

. Also find the area of the triangle.
(b) It is given that cos θ =
17
32
. Using a double angle formula, or otherwise, but without
using a calculator, find the possible values of cos
θ
2
.
43. Find the solutions of the following equations in the ranges specified.
(a) sin(3θ −30

) = −
1
2
, where 0

≤ θ ≤ 180

,
(b) 3 cos
2
x + sin
2
x = 2 , where 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π .
44. Rewrite the function y = 2 cos x −sin x in the form Rcos(x + α).
Hence, or otherwise, find the maximum and minimum values of the function, and the
value(s) of x between 0 and 2π for which the function has a maximum.
45. By rewriting the function f(x) = 4 sin x + 3 cos x in the form Rsin(x + α), or otherwise,
determine (a) the greatest value of f(x), and
(b) the smallest positive value of x for which f(x) takes that greatest
value.
46. (a) Rewrite f(x) = sin x + cos x in the form Rsin(x + α) and hence solve the equation
f(x) = 1, where 0

≤ x ≤ 360

.
7 TRIGONOMETRY, CIRCLES 27
(b) What are the greatest and the least values of 3 sin θ −2 cos θ ?
47. Write down the greatest and the least values of the following functions:
(a) y = 4 cos 2x −3 sin 2x ;
(b) y = (4 cos 2x −3 sin 2x)
2
+ 1 ;
(c) y =
2
4 cos 2x −3 sin 2x + 7
.
48. Find the solutions, between 0 and 2π, of the equation cos 2x + cos x = 0 ,
(a) approximately, by drawing two suitable graphs and finding their points of intersec-
tion;
(b) by using a suitable double angle formula; and
(c) by using the factor formula cos P + cos Q = 2 cos
P + Q
2
cos
P −Q
2
.
49. (a) Find the general solution (in radians) of the equation 2 sin
2
x −cos x −1 = 0.
(b) Use the identity sin A −sin B = 2 cos
A + B
2
sin
A −B
2
to find the precise values of
θ such that sin 3θ = sin 2θ and 0 ≤ θ ≤ π .
50. (a) Find the values of x, where 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π, such that cos 2x = sin x.
(b) Rewrite 3 sin x + 4 cos x in the form r cos(x −α).
For what values of k does the equation 3 sin x+4 cos x = k have any solutions? Find
the smallest positive solution if k = 2.5.
(c) Solve the equation cos 5θ −cos θ = 3 sin θ, giving all solutions from 0

to 180

.
(The following identity may be useful: cos A −cos B = −2 sin
A + B
2
sin
A −B
2
.)
51. Only one of the following two statements is a valid identity. Decide which one it is, and
explain why you think the other one is not. Prove the one that is.
(a) cos(x + y) cos(x −y) = cos
2
x −sin
2
y, (b) cos(x + y) cos(x −y) = cos
2
x + sin
2
y.
(You may find the following two formulae useful: cos(A±B) = cos Acos B∓sin Asin B.)
52. (a) By combining the compound angle formula cos(A+B) = cos Acos B −sin Asin B
with the corresponding formula for cos(A −B) , express sin Asin B in terms of a
sum or difference of trigonometric ratios.
Use a suitable substitution to derive a formula for cos P − cos Q , and use it to
factorize cos 3x −cos 7x .
(b) Only one of the following four propositions is a valid trigonometric identity. Deter-
mine which one, carefully stating your reasoning.
i. cos 4θ = 8 cos
4
θ + 8 cos
2
θ + 1
ii. cos 4θ = 8 cos
4
θ + 8 cos
2
θ −1
28 7 TRIGONOMETRY, CIRCLES
iii. cos 4θ = 8 cos
4
θ −8 cos
2
θ + 1
iv. cos 4θ = 8 cos
4
θ −8 cos
2
θ −1
53. Suppose that over the year, the time (on a 24-hour clock) of sunrise in a certain place is
given by r and the time of sunset by s, where
r = 6 + 2 cos(
π
6
t −
π
6
) and s = 18 −2 cos(
π
6
t +

18
),
t being the time in months from the beginning of the year, (so that t = 2 on March 1, for
instance, because 2 months have passed since the beginning of the year.)
(a) Sketch the function r(t) for 0 ≤ t ≤ 15. What is its period?
(b) Find the times of sunrise and of sunset on August 1, and hence the total time that
the sun is up that day.
(c) Express, in terms of a single trig-function, the time between sunrise and sunset for
any time t during the year. For what t is this function a minimum? What then is
the date of the shortest day of the year?
You may find the following identity useful: cos P + cos Q = 2 cos
P + Q
2
cos
P −Q
2
(– twice, in fact: for one problem it might be useful to substitute Q = 0 into this identity.)
Inverse Trigonometric Functions
54. (a) Find the greatest and the least values of the following functions:
i. f(x) = 5 sin x −12 cos x,
ii. g(x) = 5 sin x −12 cos x + 7 ,
iii. h(x) = (5 sin x −12 cos x + 7)
2
.
(b) Simplify the following expression, (i.e. write it without trig- or inverse trig-functions,
as a simple polynomial in x): cos(2 arcsin x) .
55. (a) Find the precise values of
i. cos(arctan 2) ,
ii. arcsin(cos
π
6
) . (Remember that cos θ = sin(90

−θ) for any θ.)
(b) Solve the following equation for x: arctan x −arctan(x −1) = arctan
1
7
.
56. (a) Find the precise value of sec arcsin
1
3
.
(b) Find x such that 2 arctan 3 = arcsin x .
(c) Solve the equation arcsin x − arccos x = arcsin
1
2
; to gain full marks, you must
give the answer precisely.
7 TRIGONOMETRY, CIRCLES 29
57. (a) Either using your calculator, or not, sketch the graph of y = cot x, for −π ≤ x ≤ π.
Hence sketch the graph of y = arccot x. What is the domain of this function?
Suggest a suitable range.
(b) Find the value of x such that arctan 6 − arctan x = arctan 2. (Only half the marks
will be given if the answer is not the precise value.)
These materials are made freely available for non-commercial, teaching purposes
only, by Kai Arste, Atlantic College.
30 7 TRIGONOMETRY, CIRCLES
8 Differentiation
The Gradient Function, Methods of Differentiation
1. The top diagram on the right shows
the graph of a function y = f(x), with
the same scale being used along the
two axes.
In the bottom diagram, sketch the
graph of the derivative or gradient
function y

= f

(x), using the same
scale.
(Note that you have to hand in this
sheet, with your name written on it.)
E
T
E
T
2. Differentiate the following functions w.r.t. (= with respect to) x.
(a) y = (x + 2)(x
2
−3)
(b) y =
x
4
+ 5
x
2
(c) y = 6

x
3
+
4x + 2

x
(d) V = k x
3
3. Differentiate the following functions:
(a) f(x) = (x + 1)

x .
(b) f(x) =
3 −x
x
2
.
(c) f(x) = 7(3x −2)
5
.
(d) f(x) = 2 sin x −cos(2x) .
4. Differentiate the following functions with respect to the variable indicated and simplify:
(a) y =

x(x +
1
x
) (w.r.t. x,)
(b) y = 3 sin x −4 cos x + k
2
(w.r.t. x,)
(c) y = arctan x +
1
x
(w.r.t. x,)
(d) y = ln e
2x−3
(w.r.t. x,)
8 DIFFERENTIATION 31
(e) v = e
u+2
(w.r.t. u,)
(f) s =
1
2
gt
2
+ v
0
t + s
0
(w.r.t. time t.)
5. Differentiate the following functions with respect to x and simplify your results.
(a) y = 4

x
(b) y = sin
2
x −cos
2
x
(c) y = x
5
ln x
6. ‘Eleven derivatives in fifteen minutes’:
(a) y = 7e
2x−1
(b) y = (x
2
−3)
2
(c) y = ln e
3x
(d) y =
x
2
−3
x
3
(e) y = x
3

2 −x
(f) y = sin 2x cos 3x
(g) y = 2 tan(x −
π
3
)
(h) y =
2x −1
x + 3
(i) y = ln(3x −1)
2
(j) y = x
2
e
2x
cos x
(k) s(t) = −
1
2
gt
2
+ 10t + 3
(Note that derivatives w.r.t. time t are denoted by a dot: ˙ s(t).)
7. Differentiate the following functions w.r.t. x and simplify your results.
(a) y = −ln cos x ,
(b) y = x
3
sin 3x ,
(c) y = ln e
x
,
(d) y =
(x −2)
3
x
7
.
8. Differentiate the following functions w.r.t. x and simplify your results.
(a) y = ln tan x ,
(b) y = x e
(x
2
)
,
(c) y =
2x −4

x
,
(d) y =
(x + 3)
7
x
2
.
32 8 DIFFERENTIATION
Tangents, Normals, Graphs
9. Find the equations of the tangent and of the normal to the graph of y = 5 + 2x − x
2
at
the point where x = 2. Sketch the parabola and the two lines. (You are not required to
find the intersections with the x-axis.)
10. (a) Differentiate the following functions with respect to x and simplify your results:
i. y = e
3−2x
,
ii. y = e
x
sin 2x ,
iii. y =
ln x
x
,
iv. y = ln(cos x) .
(b) Find the equation of the tangent to the graph of y = x

x −1 at the point where
x = 2 .
11. Find the equation of the normal to the graph of y =
3
2
x
2

5
2
x + 3 at the point where
x = 1.
Where does that normal intersect the two axes, and what is the area of the triangle
bounded by that normal and the axes?
12. Find the equation of the normal to the graph of y =
1
2
x
2
−x −4 at the point P where it
cuts the x-axis and x ≥ 0.
Then find precisely, or accurately to 3 s.f., the x-coordinate of the point Q where that
normal cuts the curve again.
13. Consider the function y = x
3
−3x + 2 and its graph.
(a) Find the coordinates of the point where the graph crosses the y-axis and determine,
by trial and error, the coordinates of the two points which it has in common with
the x-axis. (All the coordinates are simple integers.)
(b) Find the coordinates of the two turning points of the graph and determine their
nature.
(c) Using the results of parts (a) and (b), sketch the graph of the function.
(d) Find the equation of the normal to the graph at the point where x = 2 .
14. Use differentiation to find the stationary point on the graph of y = x
2
+
16
x
and determine
its type. Also find the intersection of the graph with the x-axis.
Use the calculator’s graphing function to draw a sketch of the graph, marking the points
you have found. (You should use the results that you calculated to set a window-size so
you can see the important features of the graph.)
15. Use the product rule to differentiate the function f(x) = (x − 1)
3
(x + 3) and simplify
your result. Hence find all the stationary points of the graph of y = f(x) and determine
8 DIFFERENTIATION 33
their nature. Sketch the graph of the function, marking the intersections with the axes
clearly. (Hint: all the answers in this problem are integers.)
16. (a) Find the stationary points of the graph of the function y = x
2
e
x
and determine their
nature.
(b) Consider the behaviour of the graph for large positive and negative values of x; (you
may want to use your calculator for this.) Also find any intersections with the axes.
(c) Use the information you have to sketch the graph of the function.
17. Given the function y = x
2
e
2x
,
(a) find the point(s) of intersection of its graph with the axes,
(b) find the coordinates of the stationary points and determine their type, and
(c) find the x-coordinates of the points of inflection.
Hence sketch the graph of the function in a large diagram, clearly marking all the points
you found above.
18. Determine the number n of stationary points (i.e. how many such points there are,) and
the number m of points of inflection of the graph of y = 3x
4
+ 8x
3
−5.
If the function is defined only for the domain ¦x ∈ IR : −3 ≤ x ≤ 1¦, what are the
greatest and the least values, (i.e. the highest and the lowest values)?
19. Consider the function f(x) = x ln x, for x ≥ 0, and its graph.
(a) Find the stationary point of the graph, and determine what type it is.
(b) What happens to the gradient function f

(x) near x = 0 ?
(c) Given that f(x) → 0 as x → 0 , sketch the graph of y = f(x) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 ,
showing clearly the behaviour near x = 0 .
Applications: Maxima and Minima, Iterative Methods
20. (a) This part requires no differentiation.
Sketch the graph of y = (x − 1)(x − 3) , and hence find the greatest value and the
least value it takes in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 5 .
(b) When an apple is thrown vertically upwards at time t = 0 sec with initial velocity
v = 12 m/sec, its height above the ground at time t is given by s = −
1
2
gt
2
+ 12t ,
where g is a constant for which you should use the approximate value 10 m/sec
2
.
What are the height of the apple and its velocity 0.5 sec after it was thrown?
After how much time is the velocity of the apple 0 m/sec, and what is its height at
that time?
34 8 DIFFERENTIATION
21. The product of two positive numbers x and y equals 9. Write down an expression for
z = 4x + y in terms of x, and hence find the least (smallest) possible value of z.
22. x and y are two positive numbers whose sum is 24. What is the greatest value that the
product z of one of these numbers with the square of the other one can be? (Hint: you
must first obtain a relation between z and just one of the other variables.)
23. The graph of y = x
3
−x+4 has two stationary points, a local maximum and a local min-
imum. Find (a) the precise y-value at the local maximum, and
(b) the greatest value of the function in the range −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 .
24. A rectangular box with a square base of side x cm and height h cm is to be open at the
top and have volume of 500 cm
3
.
(a) Write down an equation connecting x and h, and a formula for the surface area
A cm
2
in terms of x and h .
(b) Deduce that A = x
2
+
2000
x
, and hence find the dimensions of the box which make
the surface area a minimum.
25. A long straight road runs along a field, and the farm of Old MacDonald lies by the road.
By walking along the road for 1 km, to a point A, and then at right angles to the road
across the field for 1 km, Old MacDonald can reach one of his barns.
(a) If he walks at a speed of 5 km/h along the road and 3 km/h across the field, how
long does it take him to walk from his farm to A along the road and then across the
field to the barn? (You are reminded that velocity is distance over time.)
(b) How long would it take him to walk in a straight line across the field from his farm
to the barn?
(c) One day, Old MacDonald decides to take a shortcut: he walks from his farm along
the road to a point P, x km from A, and from there in a straight line across the field
to the barn. Find an expression for the time that this walk takes him.
(d) Find the value of x that makes this time a minimum. What then is that shortest
time?
8 DIFFERENTIATION 35
26. A canal has at one point a right angled corner,
its width being a = 43.2 m on one side of the
corner and b = 25 m on the other. A pole of
negligible thickness floating in the canal is to
be manoevred around the corner in horizontal
position.
By expressing the length l of the pole in terms
of θ, a and b, as in the diagram, or otherwise,
find the greatest possible length of the pole to
3 s.f.
l
θ
T
c
a
E '
b
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
27. A mural (wall painting) 4 m high is painted on a vertical wall such that its bottom edge
is 1 m above the eye level of a typical viewer.
(a) If a typical viewer stands at x m distance from the bottom of the wall looking up
at the mural, the angle at her eye between the top and the bottom edge is θ. Using
the formula tan(A ±B) =
tan A ±tan B
1 ∓tan Atan B
, show that tan θ =
4x
x
2
+ 5
.
(b) Differentiate the function t =
4x
x
2
+ 5
, and hence find the stationary point and de-
termine its nature.
At what distance x does the typical viewer therefore have to stand from the wall to
see the mural at its largest? What is that largest angle at which she can view the
mural?
(c) Briefly explain why the value of x you found by differentiating t does give the greatest
value of θ.
28. The diagram shows a cross section through a rectangular
tank 2m high and a m wide; the top half is filled with a
medium in which light travels at speed u, and the bottom
half with a medium in which the speed of light is v. Light
shines from the top right edge A of the tank to the bottom
left B, crossing the interface a distance z from the side of
the tank, and making angles x and y with the vertical sides
at A and B. Note that y is a function of x.
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢

a m
1 m
1 m
A
B
x
y
z
36 8 DIFFERENTIATION
(a) Express both tan x and tan y in terms of z, and hence find the simple equation
relating tan x and tan y.
(b) Differentiate the equation obtained in part (a) implicitly, to show that
dy
dx
= −
cos
2
y
cos
2
x
.
(c) Write down the distance travelled in each medium in terms of x and y. Hence
express the total time t that the light needs from A to B, in terms of x and y (and
the velocities u and v of course).
(d) Find dt/dx, (remembering that y is a function of x,) and deduce a condition for the
total time t to be a minimum.
(e) By substituting the result of part (b) into the condition in part (d) and simplifying,
show that
sin x
sin y
=
u
v
(Snell’s Law.)
29. (a) Calculate the values of the function f(x) = 2x
2
+x−25 for x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 , and use
these values to estimate the positive solution of f(x) = 0 , accurate to one decimal
place.
(b) Use the Newton-Raphson method once to improve your first estimate.
(c) Use the formula for the roots of a quadratic equation to determine the solution.
What is the percentage error of the estimate you obtained in part (b) ?
30. Given that 1

=
π
180
= 0.01745 (radians), use the method of small changes to find an
approximation to the value of tan 43

. What is the percentage error of the approximation?
(You may, or may not, find the following formula helpful: f(a + h) = f(a) + f

(a)h.)
31. (a) Without using a calculator, find an approximation to the cube root of 7.76. Us-
ing the accurate value given by the calculator, what is the percentage error of the
approximation?
(b) If the value of x is changed by p %, find the percentage change of x
3
.
Hence, or otherwise, find the percentage change of
3

x if x is changed by p %.
Reminder:
the formula for small changes is ∆y ≈
dy
dx
∆x, and the relative change in x is
∆x
x
.
Implicit and Parametric Differentiation, Rates of Change
32. Given that 5x
2
− xy + y
2
= 7 , find
dy
dx
in terms of x and y. Hence find the equation of
the normal to the curve with that equation at the point where x = 1, y = 2 .
33. Differentiate 4x(y +1) −ln x+2e
y
= 7 w.r.t. x. Hence find the normal to the graph given
by that implicit function at the point (1, 0).
34. Differentiate the equation 4y
2
−x
2
y
2
−9x
2
= 0 implicitly with respect to x.
Hence find the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point (1,

3).
8 DIFFERENTIATION 37
35. (a) Find the value of k such that the graph of the relation (x
2
+2)y +sin y −4e
x
+k = 0
passes through the point P(0,
π
2
).
For that value of k differentiate the relation implicitly w.r.t. x . Find the gradient of
its graph at the point P and write down the equation of the tangent at that point.
(b) Differentiate the relation y
4
+ y = x
6
+ x
4
implicitly w.r.t. x and find the value of
dy
dx
at the point (1, 1) .
Differentiate the relation a second time implicitly w.r.t. x and find the value of
d
2
y
dx
2
at the same point.
36. Find the value of k ∈ IR such that the graph of the relation y
2
sin x + e
2y
− x
2
+ k = 0
passes through the point (π, 1), and find the gradient of the graph at the given point.
37. A curve is given parametrically by x = cos t, y = sin
2
t. Find the gradient function dy/dx,
in terms of the parameter t, and simplify it. Hence determine the x- and y-coordinates
of the point where the gradient of the graph is 1.
38. A curve has parametric equations given by x =
1 + t
1 −2t
, y =
1 + 2t
1 −t
.
(a) Find
dy
dx
in terms of t , simplifying your answer as much as possible.
(b) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point where t = 2.
39. A curve is given in parametric form by x = 1 + 3 sin t , y = 2 −2 cos t .
(a) Write down the greatest and least values of x and y .
(b) Find
dy
dx
in terms of t, and determine for which values in the range 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π it
is zero. Hence find the coordinates of the points where the curve has a horizontal
tangent.
(c) Also find
d
2
y
dx
2
in terms of t, and use it to determine the nature of the stationary
points you found in b).
40. Find the gradient function
dy
dx
, in terms of the parameter t, of the curve given by
x = 2 sin t, y = 3 tan t.
Hence find the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point where t =
π
6
.
41. A curve is given parametrically by x = sin 2t, y = 2 sin t, where 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. Find
dy
dx
in
terms of t.
Find the x- and y-coordinates and the gradient of the curve for t = 0,
π
2
, π,

2
, 2π, and
mark the five points and the direction of the curve at these points in a diagram. Hence
sketch the graph of the curve.
38 8 DIFFERENTIATION
42. Draw a large sketch of the curve with parametric representation x = 3 sin θ, y = 2 cos 3 θ,
for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π, marking clearly the minimum and maximum x- and y-values. In your
diagram, mark the point A at which θ = π/4.
Find the gradient function
dy
dx
, also in terms of θ, and hence calculate the gradient of the
curve at A. Without finding its equation, draw the tangent at A.
Briefly explain
(a) why the graph of a function can never cross itself, and
(b) how it can happen that in the graph you have drawn, although x and y are both
functions, the graph can cross itself.
43. Sketch the curve given parametrically by x = 2 sin t, y = 3 sin 2t. Write down the two
values of the parameter t , 0 ≤ t < 2π, for which (x, y) is the origin.
Find the gradient
dy
dx
as a function of the parameter t, and write down the gradients of
the curve at the point where it crosses itself.
44. Air is being pumped into a spherical baloon at a rate such that the radius increases at
a constant rate of 0.5 cm/min. If the baloon is empty to begin with, at what rate is the
volume of the baloon increasing when the radius is 10 cm? At what rate does the air
have to be pumped in when the volume has reached 4000 cm
3
?
(The volume of a sphere of radius r is V =
4
3
πr
3
.)
45. The two equal sides of an isosceles triangle have a length of 4 m and an angle θ between
them. Write down an expression for the area of the triangle.
If the angle changes at a constant rate of 0.035 (which is about 2

) per day, what is the
rate of change of the area of the triangle, in m
2
/day, when θ =
π
3
(which is 60

)?
What then is the rate of change of the area in cm
2
/hour?
46. A rocket R is rising straight up into the air, from a point P which is 3000 m away from
an observer O in the same horizontal plane. The angle of elevation of the rocket is the
angle

ROP above the horizontal at which the rocket is seen by the observer.
When the angle of elevation is 30

, the rate of change of the angle of elevation is 0.1

/sec.
What then is the speed of the rocket at that moment? (Remember to change the angles
into the right unit!)
These materials are made freely available for non-commercial, teaching purposes
only, by Kai Arste, Atlantic College.
8 DIFFERENTIATION 39
9 Integration
Methods of Integration
1. Do the following indefinite integrals:
(a)
_
(2x + 3)
5
dx
(b)
_
5

x −2

x
dx (Hint: Rewrite the function as a sum before integrating.)
(c)
_
(4 cos 2x + 3 sin
x
2
) dx
2. Find the following indefinite integrals and simplify your answers:
(a)
_
(e
1−x
+ 1) dx ,
(b)
_
x
2
(7

x + 6) dx .
3. (a) Do the following indefinite integrals:
i.
_
(2e
x
+
3
x
) dx
ii.
_
5

x −2

x
dx (Hint: Rewrite the function as a sum before integrating.)
(b) Evaluate the following definite integrals:
i.
_
π
0
(4 cos 2x + sin
x
2
) dx (You may be able to find the answer without in-
tegrating.)
ii.
_
2
1
(2x −3)
4
dx
4. (a) Integrate the following two functions:
i. f(x) = 6x
2


x
ii. f(x) = 2 cos πx + 4e
2x
(b) Evaluate the following definite integrals:
i.
_
2
−2
x(x + 3) dx
ii.
_
3
1
e
1−x
dx
5. (a) Differentiate i. y = ln x
3
ii. y = 5 ln 2x.
(b) Evaluate
_
3
2
4
2x −1
dx.
6. Find (a) the derivative, and (b) the integral of the function f(x) = x e
1+x
2
.
7. Find
_
(x
2
+ 5) cos x dx.
40 9 INTEGRATION
8. (a) i.
_
xe
x
2
dx
ii.
_
xe
2x
dx
iii.
_
x
2
e
x
dx
(b)
_
x(x
2
+ 3)
5
dx
(c)
_
3x −1
x
3
−x
2
dx
(d)
_
sin θ cos θ dθ
(e)
_
1 + sec
2
x
x + tan x
dx
9. ‘Eight integrals in 25 minutes,’ and simplify your results.
(a)
_
cos
5
x sin x dx
(b)
_
2x sin 2x dx
(c)
_
x −1

x
dx
(d)
_
sec
2
θ e
tanθ

(e)
_
18
x
2
+ 9
dx
(f)
_
18
x
2
−9
dx
(g)
_
18x
x
2
+ 9
dx
(h)
_
12
5
2
2x −3
dx
10. Perform the following integrations:
(a)
_
x
2
(2x −3) dx
(b)
_
2

1 −9x
2
dx
(c)
_
xe
2x−3
dx
(d)
_
cot x dx
(e)
_
cos
2
x dx
11. Integrate the following functions: (a) xe
x
2
, (b) xe
2x
.
12. Find the integral
_
1

1 −x
2
dx by using (a) the substitution x = sin θ, (b) the substitu-
tion x = cos θ.
9 INTEGRATION 41
Explain why the results of the integrations look different. (It may help to sketch the two
integral functions on the calculator.)
13. The gradient function of y = f(x) is f

(x) = e
2x
+ 1 , and the graph of y = f(x) passes
through the point P(0.5, 1.5) . Find the function f(x) .
14. Evaluate the following definite integrals precisely:
(a)
_
1
0
4x

1 −x
2
dx
(b)
_
1
−1
2
4 −x
2
dx
15. (a) Do
_
x ln x dx .
(b) If
_
π/2
0
x cos x dx = pπ +q, where p, q ∈ I Q, find p and q.
16. In this problem, let C
n
=
_
π/2
0
cos
n
x dx. Evaluate C
1
.
Given the reduction formula C
n
=
n −1
n
C
n−2
, find the value of
_
π/2
0
cos
7
x dx , giving
your answer precisely, as a fraction reduced to its lowest terms. (Note: you are not asked
to prove that reduction formula.)
17. It is given that the equation of motion of a body moving under gravity is
d
2
s
dt
2
= −g,
where you should take g = 10 m/sec
2
, and s and t denote the vertical displacement of the
body and time, respectively.
At the Olympics in Barcelona, a diver jumped upwards at time t = 0 sec with a velocity
of v = 6 m/sec from a springboard which is s = 8 m above the water surface.
(a) By integrating the equation of motion and determining the value of the constant of
integration, find an expression for the velocity v(t) at time t.
(b) By integrating your expression for v(t) and determining the constant of integration,
find an expression for the height s(t) of the diver above the surface at time t.
(c) Hence calculate the time after his jumping up when he hit the surface of the water,
i.e. when s = 0, and calculate his velocity at that moment.
18. A car is standing still next to me on a long straight road. After one minute (at t = 1 min)
it starts to move, and for the next three minutes its speed in km/min is given by v =
1
27
(−4t
3
+ 30t
2
− 48t + 22). After that, from t = 4 min onwards, it continues to move
along at the speed it has reached.
(a) Calculate the speed of the car at t = 1 min and t = 4 min. Use your calculator to
sketch a diagram of the speed v(t) of the car between t = 0 min and t = 7 min and
describe the movement of the car in a brief sentence.
42 9 INTEGRATION
(b) Find a formula for the acceleration a(t) of the car for the time between t = 1 min
and t = 4 min, and sketch its graph.
(c) At what time does the car accelerate most strongly and what is its greatest acceler-
ation, in km/min
2
?
(d) What distance does the car travel between t = 4 min and t = 7 min ?
(e) Similarly, what distance does it travel between t = 1 min and t = 4 min ?
(f) How far then has the car travelled from where I am still on the side of the road in
the first 7 minutes, and what has been its average speed during that time?
Areas and Volumes
19. (a) Evaluate the following definite integral:
_
13
1
1
2x + 1
dx , giving your answer in the
form ln p , where p ∈ IN.
(b) Find the area below the graph of f(x) = 2 sin x , between x = 0 and x =
1
2
π . Hence
find the area bounded by the graph of that function, the y-axis and the line y = 2 .
20. Find one of the (infinitely many) areas enclosed by the x-axis and the graph of y =
1 −cos x. (It may help to sketch the graph first ...)
21. Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the graphs of y = x
2
+2 and y = x+8.
Then find the area enclosed by the two graphs.
22. Find the points of intersection of the graphs of y =
2
x
and y = −2x + 5, and calculate
the area enclosed by the two curves.
23. Consider the graph of y = sin x for 0 ≤ x ≤ π. Find the points of intersection of that
graph with the line y = 0.5, and hence the area bounded by the curve and the line. To
gain full marks, give your answer for the area in the form p

3 + qπ, where p, q ∈ I Q.
24. Find the area bounded by the graph of y = x
2
+1, the x -axis, and the two lines x = ±2.
Hence find the area bounded by the graph of y = x
2
+ 1 and the line y = 5.
25. (a) i. Evaluate the integral
_
1
0
1

x
dx.
ii. Use your calculator to sketch the graph of y =
1

x
, and mark the area corre-
sponding to the definite integral you calculated in part i.. What do you observe?
(b) Consider the function f(x) =
x(x −2)
(x + 1)(x −3)
.
i. Find the points of intersection of the graph of y = f(x) with the axes, and
the vertical and horizontal asymptotes, and use this information to sketch the
graph.
9 INTEGRATION 43
ii. Differentiate the function f(x) and hence determine the coordinates of the
stationary point of the curve.
iii. Integrate the function f(x) and simplify your result.
iv. Calculate the small area bounded by the graph of y = f(x) and the x-axis.
26. (a) Find the values of
_ π
2
0
x sin x dx and
_ π
4
0
sin
3
x cos x dx
.
(b) Sketch the graphs of y = sin x and y = cos x, for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π, in the same diagram.
Find the area enclosed by the two graphs.
(c) Find the volume of revolution when the area bounded by the x-axis, the graph of
y =

x and the line with equation x = 4 is rotated about the x-axis.
27. Consider the function y =

4 −x
2
, defined for −2 ≤ x ≤ 2.
(a) Differentiate the function. Hence find the stationary point (turning point) and de-
termine its nature.
Find the intersections of the graph of the function with the axes, and investigate the
gradient function as x → ±2. Hence sketch the graph of the function.
(b) Use the substitution x = 2 sin θ to evaluate the integral
_
2
0

4 −x
2
dx. Deduce the
area of a circle of radius 2.
(c) Find the volume generated when the area bounded by the positive x-axis and the
positive y-axis and the curve is rotated around the x-axis. Deduce the volume of a
sphere of radius 2.
28. (a) Sketch the graphs of the functions y = sin x and y = cos x for −π ≤ x ≤ π, and write
down the coordinates of the points of intersection, giving the values precisely. Let P
be the point of intersection of the two graphs with the smallest positive x-coordinate.
(b) Find the precise value of the area enclosed by the two graphs between those points
of intersection in your diagram.
(c) What is the equation of the tangent to the graph of y = sin x at P ?
(d) Find the angle that the tangent you found in part (c) makes with the x-axis, and
hence find the angle at which the graphs of the two functions intersect at P, accurate
to 3 significant figures.
29. Sketch the graph of the function y =
1
x
2
for x > 0 and find, in terms of k, the area below
the graph between x = 2 and x = k, where k > 2.
Discuss what happens to that area as k → ∞ (i.e. as k increases more and more,) and
deduce the area below the graph to the right of x = 2 .
30. (a) Given the function f(x) = e
−x
2
/2
, find its derivative f

(x) and hence find the coor-
dinates of any stationary point(s) the graph of the function may have.
44 9 INTEGRATION
(b) Find the second derivative f

(x), and use it to determine the nature of the stationary
point(s) you found in part (a), and to find the coordinates of any points of inflection
of the graph of y = f(x).
(c) Hence sketch the graph of y = f(x), labelling clearly any points you previously
found, and any intersection(s) with the axes.
Write down the equation of the asymptote of the graph.
(d) It is given that as N → ∞, the integral
_
N
−N
e
−x
2
/2
dx → L, (i.e. as N becomes
larger and larger, the value of the integral comes closer and closer to some fixed
number L.) Use your calculator, and a suitable (not too large) number N, to find
the value of L accurate to 3 decimal places.
L can actually be written in the form

kπ, where k ∈ IN. From your approximation,
find k.
(e) Using a suitable substitution, find the indefinite integral
_
xe
−x
2
/2
dx. Hence find,
in terms of N, the value of the definite integral M =
_
N
−N
xe
−x
2
/2
dx. What happens
to the value of M as N → ∞ ?
(f) It is also given that as N → ∞, the integral
_
N
−N
x
2
e
−x
2
/2
dx → V . Find the value
of V accurate to 3 decimal places. What then is the value of
V
L
?
(g) This problem has been about differentiation and integration, but what is the signif-
icance of the function that has been discussed?
Differential Equations
31. (a) A car is rolling freely to a stop, slowed down by friction only, so that the deceleration
(i.e. negative acceleration, acceleration being the rate of change of velocity,) is
proportional to the square root of the velocity. Set up a differential equation for the
velocity v and find its general solution.
(b) If the initial velocity of the car was 100 km/h and the velocity after 1 minute (i.e.
at time t =
1
60
h) is 16 km/h, show that the velocity at time t, measured in hours,
is v = 100(1 −36t)
2
. After how much time will the car come to a stop?
(c) Using the fact that v = ds/dt, write down a differential equation for the displacement
s and solve it. How far will the car have travelled before it comes to a stop?
[Over most of the velocity range in the problem, friction would actually be approximately
proportional to the square of the velocity, not to its square root.]
32. Solve the differential equation
dy
dx
= 2

y.
Sketch the graphs of the solution for three different values of the constant.
Find the equations of the two curves of the ‘family’ that pass through the point (1, 4).
9 INTEGRATION 45
33. Find the general solutions of the following differential equations:
(a) x
2
dy
dx
+ xy = 1.
(b) x
2
dy
dx
= y.
34. Solve the differential equation (x
2
− 5x + 6)
dy
dx
= y, giving your answer in the form
y = f(x), and find the particular integral such that y = 3 when x = 4.
Numerical Integration
35. (a) Evaluate the definite integral
_
3
1

x dx precisely.
(b) Use the trapezium rule with 5 ordinates, (i.e. with 4 strips,) to find an approximation
to the value of the integral in (a).
(c) From the results of (a) and (b) deduce an approximation to the value of

3. What
is the percentage error of your estimate?
36. (a) List the values of the function f(x) =

1 −x
2
for x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 .
(b) Find the derivative f

(x) of the function and evaluate it for x = 0 and x = 1 .
(c) Use your answers to the previous two parts to sketch the graph of y = f(x) for
0 ≤ x ≤ 1 . What simple curve is the graph a part of?
(d) Use the trapezium rule with 6 ordinates, i.e. with 5 strips, to find the area under
the graph approximately.
(e) Use your answers to the last two parts to estimate the value of π .
These materials are made freely available for non-commercial, teaching purposes
only, by Kai Arste, Atlantic College.
46 9 INTEGRATION
10 Vectors
1. A swimmer in heading due West at a speed of 2 km/h while being carried along by a
stream flowing North to South, also at 2 km/h. What are the speed and direction of the
swimmer relative to land?
2. A plane flying at 500 km/h is heading on a bearing of 210

in a storm blowing at 200 km/h
from due West. At what speed is the plane moving relative to the ground, and on what
bearing?
(The bearing of a direction is the angle it makes with the north, measured clockwise, i.e.
towards the east.
You are reminded that in a triangle c
2
= a
2
+b
2
−2ab cos C and
sin A
a
=
sin B
b
=
sin C
c
.)
3. From his overnight-camp, a hiker has walked 10 km to the south-east, and then 5 km on
a bearing of 75

, but he can still see the camp. How far away is the camp now, and on
what bearing from his present position?
(The bearing of a direction is the angle it makes with the north, measured clockwise, i.e.
towards the east.
You are reminded that in a triangle c
2
= a
2
+b
2
−2ab cos C and
sin A
a
=
sin B
b
=
sin C
c
.)
4. (a) The vectors
−→
OA,
−→
OB and
−→
OC form edges of a rectangular box. You are sitting inside
this box, in such a way that
−→
OA is running from left to right in front of you and
−→
OB
is pointing upwards.
If a =
−→
OA,

b =
−→
OB and c =
−→
OC, express the following vectors in terms of a,

b and c:
i. from O to the upper right-hand corner in front of you;
ii. from O to the upper corner behind you on the right;
iii. from the lower corner behind you on the left to A;
iv. from B to the lower corner behind you on the right.
(b) P, Q, R and S are any four points. Simplify the following vector expressions:
i.
−→
PQ −
−→
PR
ii.
−→
QR −
−→
SR + 2
−→
SQ.
5. (a) If a =
_
−2
1
_
and

b =
_
7
12
_
, solve the equation 3a −2x =

b.
(b) For what values of k are the vectors
_
−2
1
_
and
_
k
−3
_
i. parallel,
ii. perpendicular?
6. (a) Given that p =
_
2
4
_
and q =
_
−1
3
_
, find the values of λ ∈ IR such that p + λq is
i. parallel to the vector
_
2
−1
_
,
10 VECTORS 47
ii. perpendicular to the vector
_
3
0
_
.
(b) Find any vector x perpendicular to a =
_
4
3
_
. Then find the unit vector
´
x , i.e. the
vector of magnitude 1 in the direction of x.
7. (a) Find the cosine of the angle between
_
−2
1
_
and
_
4
3
_
. Estimate what the angle is
by drawing a diagram, using a unit of 1 = 2 cm .
(b) Write down the unit vector in the same direcion as
_
−2
1
2
_
.
8. (a) Find the values of k, l and m such that
_
k
−5
2
_
+
_
−7
l
1
_
+ m
_
2
1
−1
_
=
_
0
0
0
_
.
(b) Find the angle between the vectors
_
2
1
2
_
and
_
3
3
0
_
.
9. Consider the vectors p =
_
−2
−1
2
_
and q =
_
3
k
l
_
.
(a) If l = −1, find the value of k so that p and q are perpendicular.
(b) Find the values of k and l so that p and q are parallel.
(c) If k = 4 and l = 0, what is the angle between the vectors?
10. It is given that r = −ı + 3 and s = 4ı + . Find
(a) the magnitude of the resultant r +s , and
(b) the angle between the vectors r and s .
(c) Represent the four vectors r , s , r +s and r −s in a single diagram.
11. A rectangular room has a floor area of 5 m by 4 m, and a height of 2.5 m. Choosing
suitable base-vectors ı ,  ,

k , represent a diagonal across the floor, and the diagonal from
the same corner of the floor to the opposite corner on the ceiling in vector form. Hence,
or otherwise, find the angle between the two diagonals.
12. Do not use a calculator in this problem. It may help to draw simple sketch in two dimen-
sions.
The triangle ABC has vertices at A(1, 7, 2), B(0, 4, −3) and C(4, 2, 1).
(a) Find the coordinates of the midpoint M of side BC.
(b) What are the lengths of the side BC and the median AM?
(c) Calculate the value of the scalar product
−→
BC
−→
AM. What kind of triangle is ABC
therefore?
(d) Use the results of parts (b) and (c) to find the area of the triangle ABC.
48 10 VECTORS
13. (a) Given the three points P(1, −2, 3), Q(1, 3, −4) and R(0, 1, −1), find the vectors
−→
PQ
and
−→
PR, and calculate their vector-product
−→
PQ
−→
PR.
Hence find the area of the triangle PQR.
(b) By considering the 2-dimensional xy-plane as the plane in 3-dimensional space where
z = 0, adapt the method used in part (a) to find the area of the triangle in the xy-
plane with vertices X(2, −1), Y (3, 4) and Z(−2, 2).
14. A triangle has vertices P(−1, 5, 2), Q(2, 5, 6) and R(1, 4, 0).
(a) Find the vectors
−→
PQ and
−→
PR, and their magnitudes, and use the scalar product to
find the cosine of the angle between them. Hence find the area of the triangle.
(b) Also calculate the vector product
−→
PQ
−→
PR, and use it to find the area of the
triangle again, showing clearly how you arrive at your answer.
15. The points A and B are the ends of a diameter of a circle of radius r, and C is any other
point on the circumference.
Using the centre O of the circle as the origin, express
−→
AC and
−→
BC in terms of the position
vectors of A and C (only), and hence show that the angle subtended by AB at C is a
right angle.
16. From O-town, there is a straight road to A-ville, which is 9 km to the East and 6 km
North of O-town. Mount B is 5 km West and 1 km South of A-ville. At the moment
there is only a dirt road to Mount B, which runs straight from O-town.
(a) Choose a suitable vector basis, and express the vector from O-town to Mount B in
terms of that basis. How long is that road?
As tourism to Mount B has increased greatly, it is decided to build a straight road from
Mount B to join with the road from O-town to A-ville at some point X, but to save costs,
the new road should be as short as possible.
(b) Suppose that X lies a fraction λ along the way from O-town to A-ville, and express
the road from Mount B to X as a vector, in terms of λ.
(c) Use the condition that the new road should be as short as possible to determine the
value of λ. Hence describe the location of X relative to O-town.
3-Dimensional Vector Geometry
17. Rewrite the following Cartesian equations of three lines in parametric form, and find the
angle between the first two lines:
x −2
2
=
y + 3
−1
=
z
2
,
x −1
6
=
y −1
2
=
1 −z
3
,
x −7
3
=
z + 11
5
, y = 2
10 VECTORS 49
18. It is given that of the following three lines

1
: r =
_
1
2
3
_
+ λ
_
−1
2
1
_
,
2
: r =
_
−2
5
3
_

_
2
−4
−2
_
,
3
: r =
_
−4
3
8
_
+ ν
_
−1
−1
1
_
two are parallel, one is perpendicular to the other two, and two intersect in one point.
State, with reasons, which ones are parallel and which perpendicular, and find the coor-
dinates of the point of intersection of the two lines that intersect.
19. (a) Convert the following equation of a line to vector (parametric) form:
x −1
2
=
y + 1
3
=
2z
3
.
(b) Convert the following equation of a plane Π to Cartesian form:
r =
_
−1
0
3
_
+ λ
_
1
1
−2
_
+ µ
_
0
2
−1
_
.
(c) Hence find the angle between the line and the plane Π .
20. Consider the planes Π
1
: x −2y + 2z = 2 and Π
2
: 3x −4z = 12.
(a) Calculate the cosine of the angle between the two planes;
(b) find the vector-product of the normals of Π
1
and Π
2
, and
(c) the coordinates of any point that lies on both planes, and hence
(d) a vector equation for their line of intersection; and
(e) obtain the point of intersection of the two planes with a third plane,
Π
3
: x −y + z = −1.
21. (a) Determine if the following planes are parallel.
i. If they are, find the distance between them;
ii. if they are not, find the angle between them and the equation of their line of
intersection.
x +y −z = 3 and 2x −y + 2z = −4 .
(b) Determine if the following line and plane are parallel.
i. If they are, find the distance between them;
ii. if they are not, find their point of intersection.
r =
_
−1
−11
7
_
+ κ
_
−3
2
2
_
and r
_
−2
−6
3
_
= −9 .
22. Given the plane with normal equation r
_
2
1
−2
_
= −1, and the point P(6, 3, −1),
(a) find the vector equation of the line through the point P and perpendicular to the
plane, and the coordinates of the point F of intersection of and the plane.
50 10 VECTORS
(b) Hence find the distance of point P from the plane, and
(c) the coordinates of the image point P

when the point P is reflected in the plane.
23. Find the equation of the line through P(−1, 2, 4) perpendicular to the plane with equation
r
_
−2
−1
2
_
= 26.
Then find the point F of intersection of the plane and the line, and hence the distance of
P from the plane.
Also find the point P

which is the reflection of point P in the given plane.
(Note that all coordinates and other values in this problem are integers.)
24. (a) Find the equation of the plane through the three points K(3, 2, −1), L(4, −2, 3) and
M(3, −2, 0), in vector (or parametric) form.
(b) Deduce that the Cartesian form of the equation of that plane is 12x −y −4z = 38.
(c) Find the cosine of the angle between this plane and a second plane with equation
3x + y − z = 7, and also the equation of the line of intersection between the two
planes.
(d) Find the point of intersection of the two planes with a third plane, x + 2y = 0.
(Note that the last two parts of the problem can be done without having done the first
two parts.)
25. Find the area of the triangle with vertices A(1, 1, 0), B(−3, 2, 0), C(0, −3, 0).
What is the distance of the point D(−2, 0, 4) from the plane of the triangle? (This
question does not require any calculation.)
Hence, or otherwise, find the volume of the tetrahedron ABCD.
These materials are made freely available for non-commercial, teaching purposes
only, by Kai Arste, Atlantic College.
10 VECTORS 51
11 Complex Numbers
1. (a) For which z is (4 + i)z + (−11 + 10i) = 0 ?
(b) Solve the following equations simultaneously:
2i z + (1 + i) w = 2 + 2i,
3 z + (2 −i) w = 5 −i.
(c) Find the two values of z such that:
z
2
+ (−2 −2i)z + (−4 + 2i) = 0.
2. (a) Use the algebraic method to find the square roots of z = 12 + 16 i, and represent
them in an Argand diagram.
(b) Use the standard formula, and the result of part (a) above, to solve the following
quadratic equation: i z
2
+ (2 −2 i) z + (−6 + 3 i) = 0 .
3. (a) Find a quadratic equation with real coefficients, one of whose roots is 1 −2i.
(b) Find a quadratic equation whose roots are 1 −2i and 2 + i.
(c) Solve the quadratic equation iz
2
+ (2 + 4i)z + (4 −13i) = 0.
4. (a) If z = −3 + 4 i, express z, its complex conjugate ¯ z and its reciprocal
1
z
in modulus-
argument form.
(b) A quadratic equation with real coefficients has (1 −
1
2
i) as one of its roots (or so-
lutions.) Write down the other root, and find the simplest such equation with all
integer coefficients.
5. (a) Solve the following equation for z: (3 −4 i) z −2 + i = 0 .
(b) Find the moduli and arguments of z = −2 −2 i and w = 1 +

3 i . Hence calculate
the modulus and argument of (a) zw , (b)
z
w
.
6. (a) Use the algebraic method to find the square roots of z = −24 −10 i, and represent
them in an Argand diagram.
(b) Use deMoivre’s Theorem to find the modulus and arguments of the cube roots of
z = −4

2 + 4

2 i, and represent the roots in an Argand diagram.
7. Solve the following equations by the methods specified. (Pay attention to the number of
solutions in each case.)
(a) (1 −2i) z + (2 −i) = −1 + i , by subtractiung and dividing;
(b) z
2
= 15 + 8i , by setting up and solving simultaneous equations for the real and
imaginary parts of z ;
(c) z
2
= 1 −2i , using your calculator, giving the real and imaginary parts accurate to
2 decimal places;
52 11 COMPLEX NUMBERS
(d) z
3
+ 8 = 0 ,
i. by rewriting −8 in modulus-argument form and using deMoivre’s theorem, and
ii. by first factorising the LHS using the identity a
3
+b
3
= (a + b)(a
2
−ab +b
2
).
8. (a) i. Write 3

2 e

4
i
in the form a + bi where a, b ∈ IR .
ii. Express −5 + 12i in modulus-argument form.
(b) Using the algebraic method, find the square roots of z = −8 − 6i and represent z
and its two roots in an Argand diagram.
(c) Use deMoivre’s theorem to find the modulus and the arguments of the five 5th roots
of z = −32 and represent these roots in an Argand diagram.
9. By rewriting e
e
2+
π
3
i
in the form r e

, find the precise values of the modulus and the
argument of the number.
10. (a) Represent the following locus in an Argand diagram: arg(z −1 −i) =

4
.
(b) Use the substitution z = x +iy to express the following condition in terms of x and
y and simplify it; sketch the locus in an Argand diagram: [ z −1[ = ·(z + i).
(Note that ·(z) denotes the imaginary part of the complex number z, so that if
a, b ∈ IR then ·(a + b i) = b.)
11. (a) Represent the following locus in an Argand diagram: [ z −2 + I[ = 2.
(b) Use the substitution z = x +iy to express the following condition in terms of x and
y and simplify it; sketch the locus in an Argand diagram: '(
1
z
) = '(z).
(Note that '(z) denotes the real part of the complex number z, so that if a, b ∈ IR
then '(a + b i) = a.)
12. Sketch the following loci in separate Argand diagrams.
(a) arg(z −2 −i) = −

4
,
(b) [ 1 −i −z[ = 1 ,
(c) [ z + 1[ = [ z −1 −2i[,
(d) '( (¯ z −6) z ) = −5, where ¯ z is the complex conjugate of z. (Hint: let z = x + iy .)
13. (a) Mark the following loci in one Argand diagram.
i. [ z + 2 −i[ = 2 ,
ii. arg (z + 2 −3i) = −
π
4
,
iii. [ z + 1[ = [ z + 3 −2i[ .
(b) If z = x +iy , write the following locus in Cartesian form: '(z
2
) + 2z¯ z = 3.
These materials are made freely available for non-commercial, teaching purposes
only, by Kai Arste, Atlantic College.
11 COMPLEX NUMBERS 53
12 Linear Transformations and Matrices
1. Solve the following equation to find the matrix X:
_
3 −1 2
4 2 0
_
−2X =
_
5 5 0
1 −2 20
_
.
2. Solve the following matrix equations to find the matrix X in each case:
(a) 2X +
_
3 −1 2
−4 2 0
_
= 3
_
5 3 0
−1 −2 20
_
,
(b) X
_
2 1
4 3
_
=
_
2 0
−1 3
_
.
3. Which, if any, of the following are not valid matrix identities? State your reasons carefully.
(a) (A + 2B)
2
= A
2
+ 4AB + 4B
2
,
(b) (A+λI)
3
= A
3
+3λA
2
+3λ
2
A+λ
3
, where λ is a scalar and I is the identity matrix.
4. Solve each of the following equations for the matrix X:
(a)
_
1 −2 3
0 5 −1
_
−2X =
_
3 4 0
−2 1 −3
_
.
(b) X
_
4 1
2 3
_
=
_
1 2
0 1
_
.
(c)
_
4 1
2 3
_
X =
_
1 2
0 1
_
.
5. A linear transformation T has matrix M
T
=
_
1 −2
2 1
_
.
(a) If the triangle OAB has vertices O(0, 0), A(4, 0) and B(2, 2), find the vertices of its
image OA

B

under the transformation T.
(b) Choosing a suitable scale, sketch the triangles OAB and OA

B

in the same diagram.
(c) Calculate the area of triangle OAB and the determinant det M
T
of the matrix, and
hence find the area of triangle OA

B

.
(d) By comparing the triangle OAB and its image, try to describe the effect of the linear
transformation T.
(e) Find the inverse M
−1
of the matrix M, and hence solve the following simultaneous
equations: x −2y = 7
2x + y = −9
6. (a) The linear transformation T transforms the vector
_
2
0
_
into the vector
_
−4
2
_
, and
_
1
3
_
into
_
1
−2
_
. Find the matrix M
T
of that linear transformation.
Into what vector is
_
3
3
_
transformed by T ?
54 12 LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS AND MATRICES
(b) The linear transformation with matrix M =
_
1 2
−2 1
_
maps the triangle with ver-
tices A, B and C to the triangle with vertices A

(1, 1), B

(4, 1) and C

(3, 5) .
i. Find the coordinates of vertex C.
ii. Sketch the triangle A

B

C

and find its area. Then use the determinant of M to
deduce the area of triangle ABC.
iii. Describe the linear transformation.
7. It is given that A =
_
2 1
−1 2
_
and B =
_
1 2
0 1
_
.
(a) Find the following matrices: AB, A
−1
, B
−1
, (AB)
−1
, A
−1
B
−1
, B
−1
A
−1
.
What do you observe? Try to generalise.
(b) Use a matrix method to solve the simultaneous equation: 2x + y = 1
−x + 2y = 4
(c) What types of linear transformations do matrices A and B represent?
8. (a) i. Describe in geometrical terms the linear transformation represented by the ma-
trix P =
_
3 −2
2 3
_
. (Hint: Consider the effects on the vectors

i,

j and

i +

j.)
ii. Write down the inverse matrix P
−1
of P.
iii. If Q =
_
−1 −4
4 −1
_
, find the product PQ of the two matrices.
(b) i. Rewrite the complex number z = 3 + 2i in modulus-argument form.
ii. Find the complex number
1
z
, giving your answer in the form a + bi.
iii. If w = −1+4i, find the product zw of the two numbers, again in the form a+bi.
(c) i. Calculate the complex number
−2 + 5i
3 −4i
, again giving your answer in the form
a + bi.
ii. Briefly outlining your reasoning, use the results of the previous parts of this
problem to write down the matrix
_
−2 −5
5 −2
__
3 4
−4 3
_
−1
.
9. (a) Given the two matrices X =
_
a b
c d
_
and Y =
_
p q
r s
_
, show that the determi-
nant of their product is the product of their determinants, i.e. that det(XY ) =
(det X)(det Y ).
(b) Hence prove by induction that if A is any 2 2 -matrix det(A
n
) = (det A)
n
, for all
n ∈ IN.
(c) If A is an n n -matrix and λ ∈ IR is any scalar, is the following a valid identity:
det(λA) = λdet A ? If it is not, give a corrected version of it.
12 LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS AND MATRICES 55
(d) In 3-dimensional space, with the usual base vectors

i,

j and

k, the vector operation
⊗ is defined as follows: if x =
_
_
_
_
a
b
c
_
_
_
_
and y =
_
_
_
_
p
q
r
_
_
_
_
, then x ⊗y =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸

i

j

k
a b c
p q r
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
.
If x =
_
_
_
_
2
−1
2
_
_
_
_
and y =
_
_
_
_
0
4
−3
_
_
_
_
,
i. evaluate the determinant x ⊗y and write the result as a column vector,
ii. find the angles between x ⊗y and x, and between x ⊗y and y,
iii. find the cosine of the angle θ between x and y, and verify that
[x ⊗y[ = [x[ [y[ sin θ.
What other vector operation do these results suggest that the operation ⊗ is the
same as?
10. Find the value of k so that the matrices
1
21
_
_
_
_
−7 6 −10
−14 3 −5
k 0 7
_
_
_
_
and
_
_
_
_
1 −2 0
3 1 5
−1 2 3
_
_
_
_
are
inverses of each other. Hence solve the following system of equations:
x − 2y = 0
3x + y + 5z = 2
−x + 2y + 3z = 1.
11. Consider the following system of equations: x + 2y + z = a
2x + y + z = 0
λx − y − 2z = 0
(a) If λ = 5 and a = 7, rewrite the set of equations in the form M
_
x
y
z
_
= v, use
your calculator to find the inverse matrix M
−1
, and hence find the solution of the
equations.
(b) If a = 0, this is a set of homogeneous equations. For which value of λ do the
equations have a non-trivial solution, i.e. a solution other than x = y = z = 0 ?
Write down one such other solution.
12. For which value of p does the following system of homogeneous equations have a non-
trivial solution? For that value of p, find the general form of the solution.
x − y + z = 0
2x − y − z = 0
px + 6y + 2z = 0.
56 12 LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS AND MATRICES
13. A farmer is moving from crops to lifestock, by investing in land and buildings, and
buying dairy cattle, pigs and horses; of course the different kinds of animals have different
requirements of land area and building space, as shown in the first matrix. He has to
decide between two plans, which are as shown in the second matrix.
R =
_
_
cattle pigs horses
land 10 3 6
building 4 7 9
_
_
P =
_
_
cattle pigs horses
plan I 20 40 10
plan II 40 20 0
_
_
.
(a) Consider the four ‘products’ RP, R
T
P, RP
T
and R
T
P
T
, (where M
T
denotes the
transpose of the matrix M.) Which of these four is, or are, defined? Which of them
is meaningful?
(b) Calculate the meaningful one of the four ‘products’ in (a). Explain what kind of
information this product gives.
(c) The cost of the land used is £15/unit and the cost of the building space is £20/unit.
Represent this information in another matrix, and use it to calculate the costs of the
two plans.
14. The results from a survey in two apartment blocks, A and B, of the numbers of male and
female residents (humans) and of male and female pets (dogs and cats) are summarised
in the matrices M and F; matrix Q summarises some well-known facts of biology.
M =
_
_
mh mp
A 8 3
B 11 2
_
_
F =
_
_
f h f p
A 9 4
B 10 5
_
_
Q =
_
_
heads arms legs
humans 1 2
pets 4
_
_
(a) Copy and complete the matrix Q in the most suitable way.
(b) Decide which of the following matrix expressions (i) can be calculated and (ii) are
meaningful. Calculate the ones that are meaningful, and very briefly describe the
information they show.
MF M + Q MQ QF M + F (M + F)Q
These materials are made freely available for non-commercial, teaching purposes
only, by Kai Arste, Atlantic College.
12 LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS AND MATRICES 57
13 Mathematical Induction
1. Of the following two propositions only one is true. By trying different values for n, decide
which is the true one and prove it by induction.
(a) n
2
+ 2n is a multiple of 3 for all n ∈ IN .
(b) n
3
+ 2n is a multiple of 3 for all n ∈ IN .
2. Of the following two propositions only one is true. By trying different values for n, decide
which is the true one and prove it by induction.
(a)
n

r=0
2
r
= n
2
+n + 1, for n = 0, 1, 2, ... ;
(b)
n

r=0
2
r
= 2
n+1
−1, for n = 0, 1, 2, ... .
3. (a) Prove by induction that the number of ways in which n people can be arranged
around a round table is (n−1) ! . (At a round table, if everyone just moves one seat
to the right, it is the same arrangement.)
(b) Prove by induction that 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n =
1
2
n(n + 1).
From the formula for the sum, deduce the value of the sum 1 +2 +3 +... +3n, and
the value of the sum 3 + 6 + 9 + ... + 3n, both in terms of n.
Hence find the value of 1 + 2 + 4 + 5 + 7 + 8 + ... + 50.
These materials are made freely available for non-commercial, teaching purposes
only, by Kai Arste, Atlantic College.
58 13 MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
14 Probability
1. Write down how many distinct, equally likely outcomes there are when
(a) three fair dice are rolled,
(b) four people arrive at a meeting in random order,
(c) two pencils are picked at random from five pencils of different colours?
2. Write down the probabilities of the following events:
(a) that three coins that are tossed show either all Heads or all Tails;
(b) that two dice that are rolled have a total score of 10 or less;
(c) that four sheets of paper numbered 2, 4, 7, 11, picked up at random, are neither in
ascending nor in descending numerical order.
3. 6 grey and 10 blue socks are hanging on a washing line, and two socks are taken at
random. Write down the probabilities of the following events:
(a) the first sock is blue.
(b) both socks are blue.
(c) the socks are of the same colour.
(d) one sock is blue and the other is grey.
(e) one of the socks is red.
4. Two dice are rolled. Write down the probabilites of the following events:
(a) the second die shows a Four.
(b) both dice show a Three.
(c) the two dice show different numbers.
(d) the sum of the numbers is 4.
(e) the sum of the numbers is at most 11.
5. (a) Five coins have been tossed. What is the probability that they are neither all Heads
nor all Tails?
(b) Someone has dropped five pages of an essay, numbered 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, and picked
them up in random order. What is the probability that they are in the right order
or in the opposite to the right order?
6. Two coins have been tossed. If you have been told that at least one of the coins has come
up Heads, what is the probability that both coins have come up Heads?
14 PROBABILITY 59
7. Six students regularly study together, and each day they decide randomly who has to buy
some chocolate. In the five days from Monday to Friday, what are the probabilities that
(a) it is always the same person who has to buy the chocolate, and
(b) it is a different person on each of the five days?
8. (a) A combination lock has four dials, each with numbers 0, 1, 2, ..., 9. How many
possible four-digit combinations are there?
(b) Another lock has buttons labelled 0, 1, 2, ..., 9, X, Y, Z, C. Opening the lock requires
pressing the C-button, followed by four different number-buttons, in any order, fol-
lowed by one of the other letter-buttons (i.e. not ’C’.) How many combinations are
there?
(c) 5 different keys, for 5 similar locks, have been put back on their 5 hooks in random
order.
i. How many different arrangements are there of the keys?
ii. If two of the keys are a little thicker, what is the probability that these two keys
are hanging next to eachother?
iii. If someone tries all the keys on the first lock until it opens, and then the re-
maining ones on the next lock, and so on, and it takes 4 seconds to try a key
in a lock, how long might it take someone to open all the locks if they are very
unlucky?
9. (a) i. Three dice are rolled. What is the probability that they all show a Six?
ii. What is the probability that two show a Six each and one an odd number?
(b) i. Two cards are drawn from a deck (without replacement.) What is the probability
that both are Hearts?
ii. What is the probability that one is Hearts and the other Spades?
10. A conscientious person puts eight bottles, three of white glass and five of green glass, into
a bottle bank, in random order, for recycling. What are the probabilities that
(a) the first two bottles are green,
(b) the first bottle is green and the second bottle is white,
(c) the first two bottles are of different colours,
(d) the first bottle is green or the second bottle is white,
(e) the last two bottles are both green?
11. 25% of the chips produced by a machine are faulty.
(a) If two chips are chosen at random, what is the probability that neither is faulty?
60 14 PROBABILITY
(b) A box contains eight chips, of which two are faulty. If two chips are chosen from the
box at random, what is the probability that neither is faulty?
12. Two events A and B have probabilities p (A) =
2
3
and p (B) =
1
4
. What is p (A ∨ B) , or
p (A ∪ B) , in the following two cases:
(a) the events A and B are mutually exclusive?
(b) the events A and B are independent?
13. If A and B are events such that p (A) = 0.2 and p (B) = 0.5, find p (A ∨ B) given that
(a) A and B are mutually exclusive events, and
(b) A and B are independent events.
14. A, B and C are events with probabilities
1
/
2
,
2
/
3
and
2
/
5
respectively.
(a) If A and B are independent, what is the probability of A ∨ B ?
(b) If A and C are mutually exclusive, what is the probability of A ∨ C ?
(c) If A and B are exhaustive, what is the probability of A ∧ B ?
15. Suppose that A and B are events such that p(A) = 2/3 and p(A ∧ B) = 2/5.
(a) If A and B are independent events, find p(B) and hence p(A ∨ B).
(b) What is p(B) if A and B are exhaustive events?
What does it mean, in terms of probabilites, to say that two events X and Y are mutually
exclusive?
16. The events K and L have probabilities p (K) = 0.6 and p (L) = 0.3 . Find the following
probabilities:
(a) p (K ∪ L), if K and L are mutually exclusive.
(b) p (K ∪ L), if K and L are independent events.
(c) p ( (K ∪ L)

) (i.e. the probability of the event: not K or L), again if K and L are
independent.
17. Given that p(A) =
3
4
, p(B) =
5
7
and p(A ∨ B) =
13
14
, find p(A ∧ B). Check whether the
events A and B are independent.
18. Given that p(M) = 3/4, p(M ∧ N) = 1/2 and p(M ∨ N) = 11/12, find p(N).
Are events M and N independent? State your reason briefly.
19. Of two coins, one is fair while on the other Heads has a probability of
2
3
. One of the coins
is picked at random and rolled. Find the probabilities of the following events:
14 PROBABILITY 61
(a) the fair coin was picked and it came up Heads;
(b) the coin that was picked came up Heads;
(c) the fair coin was picked, given that it came up Heads.
20. Of two bags, bag X contains 3 red, 3 blue and 6 green balls, bag Y contains 6 red and 2
blue balls. One of the bags is chosen at random, and then one ball from that bag taken
at random.
(a) Given that the ball is green, what is the probability that it came from bag X?
At the bottom of this page, clearly draw and label a probability tree to represent the
situation, and hence find the probability that
(b) the ball is from bag Y and is red,
(c) the ball is red,
(d) the ball is from bag Y, given that it is red.
Finally, the balls in the two bags are put together and one is taken at random.
(e) What is the probability that it is a red ball?
21. According to an opinion poll in a certain society, 60% of the population are in favour of
the death penalty and 20% support Amnesty International. What is the probability that
a person chosen at random from the society is in favour of the death penalty or supports
Amnesty International (or does both) in the following three cases:
(a) the two opinions are mutually exclusive;
(b) the two opinions are independent;
(c) 30% of those who support Amnesty are in favour of the death penalty?
In each case, what is the probability that the person does neither?
22. In a certain community, X is the ‘event’ that someone has not written a letter for AI,
and Y the ‘event’ that (s)he is against the death penalty, where X and Y are such that
p (X) = 0.5 and p (Y ) = 0.8;
(a) what is p (X ∧ Y ) if X and Y are exhaustive, and
(b) what is p (X ∨ Y ) if X and Y are independent?
If X and Y are exhaustive, what cannot happen in that community?
23. In a certain community, the probability of a person claiming to be environmentally con-
scious is
5
6
, and the probability that someone who claims to be environmentally conscious
uses recycled paper is
3
4
. What is the probability that a person chosen at random is
62 14 PROBABILITY
environmentally conscious and uses recycled paper?
If the proportion of people actually using recycled paper is
2
3
, what is the probability that
someone will claim to be environmentally conscious, given that they use recycled paper?
24. In some population, 0.2% of all people have a rare medical condition C. This condition
is not noticeable, and one has to test for it, but the test is only 90% accurate, i.e. in 10%
of the cases where someone does in fact have C the test gives a negative result, and in
10% of the cases where a person does not have C the test still comes out positive.
(a) Draw a probability tree to represent the situation; (start with the person either
having or not having C, and in each case distinguish the test coming out positive or
negative.)
(b) If a person is chosen at random, what is the probability the he or she has C and the
test comes out positive?
(c) What is the probability that the test comes out positive?
(d) If my test has come out positive, what is the probability that I do in fact have
condition C? (– a surprising outcome?)
25. 0.1% of the population have a certain medical condition. There is a test for that condition,
but it is wrong in 20% of all cases, (i.e. 20% of all who really have the condition test
negative, and 20% of those who don’t have it nevertheless test positive.) Represent this
information in a clearly-labelled, complete tree diagram.
For what percentage of the whole population does the test come out positive? If someone
is told that they tested positive, find the probability that they actually have the condition.
(The vast majority of doctors apparently think that it is about 80%. It isn’t.)
26. After working in the Quiet Room of their House, three students walk out together, leaving
no-one behind. Each has a probability of
1
4
of thinking of switching the lights off, (and
their actions are independent.) What are the probabilities (a) that no-one remembers,
and hence (b) that at least one of them remembers?
How many such students would have to walk out together for the probability that at least
one of them remembers to be greater than 95% ?
27. (a) Find the term without x in the expansion of (2x
2
+
1
x
)
9
.
(b) Write down the first three terms in the expansion of (2 − 3x)
5
, starting with the
lowest power of x. Substitute a suitable value for x to find an approximation for
1.97
5
. Using your calculator, determine the precentage error of your approximation.
(c) Suppose birthdays are evenly distributed over all 12 months. In a group of 21
randomly selected people, how many would you expect to have a birthday this
month? But out of those 21, what is the most likely number of people to have a
birthday this month?
14 PROBABILITY 63
28. Five colleagues from work try car-pooling: i.e. they travel together to work in one car.
The person who is driving his car will certainly turn up at the meeting point, but the
probability for each of the others of making it is 0.9 , (and their behaviour is independent.)
What is the probability that there are four people, (i.e. the driver and three others,) in
the car on a given day?
29. A tetrahedral (i.e. four-sided) die, with its sides labelled Blue, Green, Red and Yellow,
is rolled 5 times. What are the probabilities of
(a) Red being at the bottom (precisely) 4 times, and
(b) Red being at the bottom at most 3 times?
30. The probability that a smoker will die early, of a smoking-related disease, is about 40%.
Using that figure, find the probabilities, as percentages, that of four smoking friends
(a) no-one will die of a smoking-related disease,
(b) just one of them will, and
(c) at least two of them will die of smoking-related diseases.
Random Variables
31. What is the expected value of the following game for me?
A fair coin is tossed, and if it comes up Heads I have to pay you £2 and the game is over;
but if it comes up Tails, it is tossed again. If on this second toss it comes up Heads, I
have to pay you £1 and the game is over; but if it comes up Tails again, you have to pay
me £6.
32. According to a certain model, when someone has contracted the disease D at time t = 0,
the p.d.f. of the onset of symptoms is as follows:
φ(t) =
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
0 : t < 5
k(t −5)(9 −t) : 5 ≤ t < 9
0 : t ≥ 9
where t is the number of days.
Determine the value of k, sketch the graph of the p.d.f., and write down the mean time
until the onset of symptoms.
On this model, after how much time will
1
/
3
of those infected have started to show the
symptoms?
These materials are made freely available for non-commercial, teaching purposes
only, by Kai Arste, Atlantic College.
64 14 PROBABILITY
15 Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
1. When the ages of twenty children were added up, the sum was found to be 180; when the
squares of their ages were added up, the sum was found to be 1700. Using the definition
of the mean, and the formula below for the variance (with a suitable value for A), find
the mean and the standard deviation of the ages of the children in the group.
Formula for the variance s
2
=

(x
r
−A)
2
f
r

f
r
−(m−A)
2
.
2. The number of letters in the words of a brief abstract of a book were counted, and the
following distribution of word-lengths was found:
letters/word: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
word frequency: 41 130 114 114 91 64 59 49 30 29 21 16 4 1 3 3
Using your calculator where necessary, write down the following parameters of the dis-
tribution of the number of letters per word, giving your answers accurate to one decimal
place, (e.g. don’t write 12, or 12.28, but 12.3):
total number of words =
mode =
median =
mean length of words =
standard deviation =
3. 50 components produced by a machine were categorised, very roughly, by length, into
four ‘classes’, and the following distribution was obtained:
length (in mm): 999 – 1001 1001 – 1003 1003 – 1005 1005 – 1007
number of components: 8 20 16 6
(a) Draw a clear histogram of the frequency distribution, and also the cumulative fre-
quency graph. What is the modal class?
(b) Using suitable mid-class values, find the mean and the standard deviation of the
lengths, both to the nearest 0.1 mm.
(Show your working clearly; you will receive up to half the marks for this part if you
appear to have used the statistical functions on a calculator.)
You may find the following formulae useful: mean m =

(x
r
−A)f
r

f
r
+A,
variance s
2
=

(x
r
−A)
2
f
r

f
r
−(m−A)
2
.
4. The number of words in the 14 lines of a sonnet by Michael Drayton are 11, 10, 10, 8, 8,
8, 9, 8, 9, 7, 9, 7, 10 and 9 respectively.
15 STATISTICS 65
(a) Set up a frequency distribution table for the number of words in a line, and draw a
histogram and a cumulative frequency diagram.
(b) Find the mode and the median of the number of words per line. Then find the mean,
without using the statistical function on the calculator.
(c) Write down the range and the inter-quartile range of the number of words per line.
Use your calculator to find the standard deviation.
5. A machine fills bags with sugar, and each bag is supposed to contain 1 kg of sugar. When
50 bags were weighed carefully, the following distribution of weights was found:
weight (in g) number of bags
998 - 1000 4
1000 - 1002 9
1002 - 1004 18
1004 - 1006 12
1006 - 1008 7
(a) Draw a histogram and a cumulative frequency diagram of the distribution. Use one
of your two diagrams to estimate the median weight of sugar in a bag, accurate to
one tenth of a gram.
(b) Find the mean and standard deviation of the weights of the 50 bags of sugar, accurate
to two decimal places.
6. The arrival times of a group of 60 students at a lecture were recorded, and the following
distribution was found; (x = 0 is when the lecture starts, and negative times mean that
the students arrived early):
arrival time x, in minutes -6 to -4 -4 to -2 -2 to 0 0 to 2 2 to 4
number of students 8 15 19 12 6
(a) Draw the histogram of this frequency distribution, and
(b) the cumulative frequency curve, in separate diagrams.
(c) On your histogram, show how to locate the median arrival time; (give the value as
accurately as your graph allows.)
(d) On your cumulative frequency curve, show how to find the first and third quartile
value of the arrival times; (give the values as accurately as your graph allows.)
(e) Using your calculator or the formulae given below, find the mean arrival time, and
(f) the standard deviation of the arrival times.
(Some formulae, if you want to use them: m =

x
r
f
r

f
r
s
2
=

x
2
r
f
r

f
r
−m
2
. )
66 15 STATISTICS
7. The length of time that the sun was shining on each of the 30 days of June in some year
was measured in some place, and the following distribution was found:
length of time (in hours): 0 – 4 4 – 8 8 – 12 12 – 16
number of days: 4 8 12 6
(a) Draw a clear histogram of the distribution, and estimate the mode of the number of
hours of sunshine, accurate to the nearest hour.
(b) Calculate the cumulative frequencies, and draw a cumulative frequency diagram.
(c) From one of your two diagrams, estimate the median number of hours of sunshine
per day, accurate to the nearest half hour. Show your method clearly.
(d) Using suitable mid-interval values, find the mean number of hours of sunshine, and
the standard deviation of the number of hours.
(e) There is a rule which says that, roughly, mode ≈ mean − 3 (mean − median) .
Substitute the values you estimated in (a) and (c) for the mode and the median into
this rule, to find the value of the mean approximately.
What is the percentage error of the approximation in this case?
8. The cumulative frequency distribution of a continuous variable x has the following points
on it: x 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 100
F
r
0 5 15 30 39 45 48 48
Draw a cumulative frequency graph, connecting the given points with a smooth curve.
Use your graph to estimate the median of the distribution of the variable.
Copy and complete the following frequency distribution table, using the cumulative fre-
quencies given: x x
r
f
r
35 - 45 40 5
45 - 55 50 10
Draw the histogram of this distribution, and without using your calculator, find the mean
of this distribution, showing all your working clearly.
9. A variable x is distributed with mean 17 and standard deviation 4.
Another variable, y, is calculated by doubling each value of x and adding 6. What then
will be the mean and the standard deviation of y?
10. The variable x is distributed such that its mean is 9 and its standard deviation 2. What
are the mean and standard deviation of the variable y = 3x −4 ?
11. The mean of the three numbers a, 6a and x is 3a. Find x in terms of a.
If the variance of this distribution is 10.5, find the value of a. (Hint: it will be easiest
here to use the definition of the variance as the mean square deviation from the mean.)
15 STATISTICS 67
Normal Distribution
12. A random variable x is normally distributed with mean 1002.8 and standard deviation
1.8 . What are the probabilities that one value of the variable is
(a) greater than 1005,
(b) less than 1001,
(c) greater than 1005 or less than 1001 ?
13. The weights of a random sample of 200 apples from a certain orchard are distributed as
follows:
weights (in grams): 100-130 130-160 160-190 190-220 220-250 250-280 280-310
number of apples: 2 7 35 72 60 20 4
Apples with a weight below 180g are only used to make juice; apples whose weight is in
the top 25% can be sold at a higher price.
(a) Using suitable mid-class values, find the mean and standard deviation of the distri-
bution of weights.
(b) Find the cumulative frequencies, and draw a smooth cumulative frequency diagram.
From your diagram estimate
i. how many apples are only used to make juice, and
ii. the weight above which an apple can be sold at a higher price.
Indicate which points on the diagram you are using to find your answers.
(c) If weights of apples from the orchard are known to be normally distributed, with the
mean and standard deviation you found for the sample, find
i. the percentage of all apples which have a weight above 200g,
ii. the weight such that a quarter of all apples weigh less than it.
14. The weights of 40 students in a class at a school (in Britain!) were measured and found
to have the following distribution:
weight (in stones): 7 – 8 8 – 9 9 – 10 10 – 11
number students: 2 15 18 5
(a) Draw a clear histogram of the distribution, and a cumulative frequency diagram.
(b) From one of your two diagrams, estimate the median weight. Show your method
clearly.
(c) Using suitable mid-interval values, find the mean weight and the standard deviation
of the distribution of weights.
(d) Assuming now that the students’ weights are normally distributed, with the mean
and standard deviation you found in (c), how many students in the class would you
expect, on the basis of this model, to have a weight
68 15 STATISTICS
i. between 8 and 10 stones,
ii. below 9 stones,
iii. above 10 stones 7 pounds? (Note: 1 stone = 14 pounds.)
Compare your answers to i. and ii. to the observed frequencies in the table above.
Any comments?
15. The mass of sugar in bags filled by a certain machine is known to be normally distributed
with standard deviation 3g. If 95% of the bags are found to have a mass less than 505g
what is the mean mass of the bags?
16. A normal distribution has mean µ = 120.
(a) If the standard deviation is σ = 15, what proportion of values will lie between 100
and 150?
(b) If 20% of the values lie below 100, what is the standard deviation σ ?
17. The accuracy of a machine to fill oil into bottles is such that the standard deviation of
the amount of oil is 48 ml. (Write down all your answers accurate to two decimal places.)
(a) If the mean is set to 5080 ml per bottle, then the proportion of bottles that will
contain
i. fewer than 5000 ml =
ii. more than 5100 ml =
(b) At the same setting of the machine, if 5% of all bottles are rejected for being too
light, then the required amount of oil =
(c) If on another day the machine is set so that only 25% of all bottles contain more
than 5100 ml, what is the mean amount of oil per bottle on that day?
18. A machine is used to fill pint-bottles with milk. The precision of the machine is such that
the standard deviation of the volume per bottle is 1.2 ml. (You can assume the volume
of milk per bottle to be normally distributed.)
(a) At a certain setting of the machine, the mean volume of milk per bottle is 571 ml.
What percentage of bottles contain less than 568 ml? In a crate of 20 bottles, how
many do you expect will contain less than 568 ml?
(b) One morning, before the machine has been properly set, 55% of all bottles contain
less than 568 ml. What is the mean volume of milk per bottle at that setting?
(568 ml, incidentally is one (British) pint; a US pint is smaller.)
19. (a) For some integer k, a sample of values of a variable x was found to have the following
frequency distribution: x
r
4 5 6
f
r
3 2k k + 1
15 STATISTICS 69
If the mean of the sample is m = 5.125, what is the value of k ?
For that value of k find the standard deviation s of the sample.
(b) The heights of a large group of students is normally distributed with mean µ =
169 cm and standard deviation σ = 12 cm. What proportion of students do you
expect to be taller than 184 cm ?
If three students are selected at random, what is the probability that all three are
taller than 184 cm?
(c) Estimate the mean and the standard deviation of the ages of teachers at Atlantic
College. (No credit given for flattery!)
20. The distribution in problem 6, above, was for a lecture in the middle of the morning. For
another lecture, early in the morning, the mean arrival time was −0.5 minute, and the
standard deviation of the arrival times was 2.6 minutes. The students’ arrival times can
be assumed to have a normal distribution.
(a) Using your calculator or the table, find the proportion of students that will arrive
within one minute of the start of the lecture, i.e. between one minute before and
one minute after it starts.
(b) Also find the proportion of students that will have arrived on time, i.e. at x = 0.
(c) What proportion of students will arrive more than 4 minutes after the lecture has
started? If 60 students attend the lecture, how many would you expect to be that
late?
(d) After the teacher has taken strong measures, students are more careful. If the mean
arrival time is now −1.1 minutes, but 75% of all students are on time, (i.e. they
have arrived at x = 0,) what is the new standard deviation of the arrival times?
These materials are made freely available for non-commercial, teaching purposes
only, by Kai Arste, Atlantic College.
70 15 STATISTICS
Answers to Selected Problems
2 Algebra, Exponential and Logarithm Functions
p. 6 Qu. 4 (a) i. 5 ii. −2 iii. 3 (b) 1 (c) 2 log a + log b −3 log c
(d) i. 4 ii. 3.97 (e) 1.5
3 Straight Lines, Linear Equations
p. 8 Qu. 2 M(1, 3), y = −
3
2
x +
9
2
, AB = 2

13
p. 8 Qu. 3 K(1, −2), L(4, 1), M(0.5, 3), N(−2.5, 0), m = 1, d = 3

2 : parallelogram
p. 8 Qu. 5 (a) AB = 3

5 (b) y = −2x + 8 (c) y =
1
2
x +
5
4
p. 8 Qu. 8 (a) (1, −2) (b) k = −4 (c) k = 1
p. 9 Qu. 9 (a) i. y =
3
2
x +
5
2
, 2

13 ii. (3, 0), y =
1
2
x −
3
2
(b) x = 0.7, y = −0.6
p. 9 Qu. 10 one pad costs £ 1.50, one pen £ 0.50
p. 10 Qu. 14 (a) y = −2x + 1 (b) y =
1
2
x +
7
2
(c) F(−1, 3) (d) (e) 3

5
4 Quadratics, Polynomials, Rational Functions
p. 11 Qu. 1 (a) 0, 6 (b) 3 (c) 1, 2 (d) −
1
/
2
, 2 (e)
−1 ±

13
3
(f) no such x
p. 11 Qu. 4 3x
2
+ 5x −2 = 0 (or any integer multiple of this)
p. 11 Qu. 6 (a) α +β = −
3
2
, αβ =
5
2
, 5x
2
+ 6x + 8 = 0 (b) p = 3
p. 12 Qu. 9 (a) a = −
1
2
, b = 1, c = 4 (b) V (1,
9
2
)
p. 12 Qu. 12 (a) y = −2x + 1 (b) d =

65 −20t + 5t
2
(c) t = 2 : d = 3

5
p. 13 Qu. 15 (a) intercepts (−1, 0), (3, 0), (0, −6), vertex (1, −8) (c) (2, −6), (−2, 10)
(d) k = −6
p. 13 Qu. 18 (a) (−3, 2), (1, 6) (b) c = 0
p. 14 Qu. 19 (a) (−2, 5), (4, 17) x = −2.58, 6.58 (b) p = −1
p. 14 Qu. 23 (a) 12 (b) 1 (or 2, or −3), P(x) = (x −1)(x −2)(x + 3)
p. 15 Qu. 27 (a) a = −2, b = 5 (b) Q(x) = 2x + 3, R = 1
p. 15 Qu. 29 (a) a =
2
3
, b = −2 (b) i. x = −3 ii. x = 2
p. 15 Qu. 30 a = −2, b = 1, c = −1, d =
1
2
p. 16 Qu. 31 y = 1, x = −
3
2
, 0 ≤ y ≤
3
4
(can estimate these from the graph)
6 Sequences, Series
SOME ANSWERS 71
p. 18 Qu. 2 x = 2, first 4 terms: 4, 5, 6, 7, or x = 3, first 4 terms: 5, 8, 11, 14
p. 18 Qu. 4 (a) d = 9, a
23
= 195, S
23
= 2208, (b) n = 32
p. 18 Qu. 5 r = −2, next two terms: −12, 24, a
10
= 1536, S
10
= 1023
p. 18 Qu. 8 (a) r = −
4
3
S
3
= 13 S

does not exist
(b) r =
2
3
S
3
= 19 S

= 27
p. 19 Qu. 13 (a) r = 2, d = 5 or r = 1, d = 0
(b) i. £ 2120, 2240, 2360, 2000 + 120n, 3200; after 16.7 years
ii. £ 2090, 2184.05, 2282.33, 2000 1.045
n
, 3105.94; end of 16 years
iii. 4.81 %
7 Trigonometry, Circles
p. 21 Qu. 3 (a) 4.76

(b) 4.78

, steeper 598 m
p. 21 Qu. 4 (a) 210

, 330

(b) 30

, 330

(c) 76.0

, 256

p. 22 Qu. 11 intersections: (0, 4.60), (5.65, 0), y
max
= 5, when x =
π
3
p. 22 Qu. 12 (a) i. intersections (
π
3
, 0), (0, −1) ii.

3
, 2π (b) using calculator: 0.624
(c) greatest = 4.5, least = −1.5
p. 22 Qu. 14 (a) asymptotes x =
π
2
,

2
(b) period = π, amplitude = 3, y = 3 sin(2x +
π
4
) + 3
p. 23 Qu. 16 angle = 35.4

area = 31.3 km
2
p. 23 Qu. 19 C
1
= 41.8

, A
1
= 108.2

C
2
= 138.2

, A
2
= 11.8

p. 24 Qu. 22 (b) 0.933 km (c) 0.599 km
p. 24 Qu. 23 (a) 52.2

or 7.78

, 26.5 or 4.53 km, 21.9 km (b)
31 ±

481
2
, difference =

481 (c) for SM = 26.5 km, area = 355 km
2
, new road = 26.8 km
p. 24 Qu. 24 (a) 5.81 km (b) 328

(c) 14

2 = 19.8 km
2
(d)
7

2
2
= 4.95 km
p. 25 Qu. 26 (a) i.
20π
3
= 20.9 cm ii. (
100π
3
−25

3) = 61.4 cm
2
(b) 1.70, 217 cm
2
p. 25 Qu. 28

AOB = 120

, area = 48π −36

3 = 88.4 cm
2
p. 25 Qu. 29 59

p. 25 Qu. 30 (a) 45.6 cm
2
(b) 50 cm
p. 25 Qu. 31 353 cm
2
, 700 cm
2
, 50.5 %
p. 26 Qu. 32 using (c):
1
4
(

6 +

2)
p. 26 Qu. 33 (a)
π
6
,

6
(b) 5

, 125

, 185

, 305

(c) −
π
3
+ 2nπ
p. 26 Qu. 35 ±

3
+ 2nπ
72 SOME ANSWERS
p. 26 Qu. 36 x =
π
3
,

3
,

3
,

3
p. 27 Qu. 39 (a)
π
2
,

2
(b) 140

, 260

(c) 45

, 135

, 225

, 315

p. 27 Qu. 45 greatest value = 5, smallest positive x = 0.927
p. 27 Qu. 46 (a)

2 sin(x + 45

), x = 0

, 90

, 360

(b)

13, −

13
p. 28 Qu. 49 (a) x = ±
π
3
+ 2nπ, π + 2nπ (b) θ = 0,
π
5
,

5
, π
p. 28 Qu. 52 (a)
1
2
(cos(A −B) −cos(A +B)), 2 sin
P + Q
2
sin
Q−P
2
, 2 sin 5x sin 2x
(b) let θ = 1: only iii. is not a contradiction
p. 29 Qu. 56 (a)
3

8
(b)
3
5
(c)
1
2

3
8 Differentiation
p. 31 Qu. 2 (a) y

= 3x
2
+ 4x −3 (b) y

= 2x −
10
x
3
(c) y

= 9

x +
2

x

1

x
3
(d)
dV
dx
= 3kx
2
p. 32 Qu. 6 (a) 14e
2x−1
(b) 4x(x
2
−3)
(c) 3 (d)
9 −x
2
x
4
(e)
12x
2
−7x
3
2

2 −x
(f) 2 cos 2x cos 3x −3 sin 2x sin 3x
(g) 2 sec
2
(x −
π
3
) (h)
7
(x + 3)
2
(i)
6
3x −1
(j) xe
2x
(2(1 + x) cos x −x sin x)
(k) ˙ s(t) = −gt + 10
p. 32 Qu. 7 (a) tan x (b) 3x
2
(sin 3x + x cos 3x) (c) 1 (d)
2(x −2)
2
(7 −2x)
x
8
p. 32 Qu. 8 (a) 2 cosec 2x (b) e
x
2
(1 + 2x
2
) (c)
x + 2
x

x
(d)
(x + 3)
6
(5x −6)
x
3
p. 33 Qu. 9 tangent: y = −2x + 9, normal: y =
1
2
x + 4
p. 33 Qu. 10 (a) i. −2e
3−2x
, ii. e
x
(sin 2x + 2 cos 2x), iii.
1 −ln x
x
2
, iv. −tan x
(b) tangent: y = 2x −2
p. 33 Qu. 12 x + 3y = 4 x = −
8
3
p. 33 Qu. 14 stationary point (2, 12), minimum; x = −
3

16
p. 33 Qu. 15 min at (−2, −27), pt of infl at (1, 0), intersections (1, 0), (−3, 0), (0, −3)
p. 34 Qu. 16 (a) min at (0, 0), max at (−2, 4/e
2
)
(b) as x → ∞, y → ∞, quickly, and as x → −∞, y → 0, intersection (0, 0)
p. 34 Qu. 17 (a) (0, 0) (b) max at (−1, 1/e
2
), min at (0, 0) (c) x = −1 ±
1
2

2
p. 34 Qu. 18 n = 2 m = 2 greatest value = 22 least value = −21
SOME ANSWERS 73
p. 35 Qu. 22 2048
p. 35 Qu. 23 (a) y =
2
9

3 + 4 (b) 10
p. 36 Qu. 28 (a) tan x + tan y = a (c) t =
sec x
u
+
sec y
v
(d)
dt
dx
=
sec x tan x
u
+
sec y tan y
v
dy
dx
and
dt
dx
= 0
p. 37 Qu. 29 (a) x
0
= 3.3 (b) x
1
= 3.294366197 (c) error = 1.36 10
−4
%
p. 37 Qu. 31 (a)
3

7.76 ≈ 1.98, error = 0.0103 % (b) 3p %,
1
3
p %
p. 37 Qu. 32
dy
dx
=
y −10x
2y −x
, normal 3x −8y + 13 = 0
p. 38 Qu. 35 (a) k = 3 −π, 2xy + (x
2
+ 2)y

+ cos y y

−4e
x
= 0, y = 2x +
π
2
(b) 4y
3
y

+y

= 6x
5
+4x
3
, 2, 12y
2
(y

)
2
+4y
3
y

+y

= 30x
4
+12x
2
, −
6
5
p. 38 Qu. 36 π
2
−e
2
,
2π + 1
2e
2
p. 38 Qu. 37 dy/dx = −2 cos t, (−
1
2
,
3
4
)
p. 38 Qu. 41
dy
dx
=
cos t
cos 2t
(0, 0), 1; (0, 2), 0; (0, 0), −1; (0, −2), 0; (0, 0), 1
p. 39 Qu. 42 A(
3
2

2, −

2),
dy
dx
= −
2 sin 3θ
cos θ
(a) A function cannot have two y-values for one x-value. (b) Still different
y-values for the same x-value, but they happen for different values of θ.
p. 39 Qu. 43 t = 0, π,
dy
dx
=
3 cos 2t
cos t
, m = ±3
p. 39 Qu. 44 dV/dt = 200π = 628 cm
3
/min, when r = 9.84 cm, dV/dt = 609 cm
3
/min
p. 39 Qu. 45 area = 8 sin θ m
2
, 0.14 m
2
/day = 58.3 cm
2
/hr
p. 39 Qu. 46
20π
9
m/sec
9 Integration
p. 40 Qu. 3 (a) i. 2e
x
+ 3 ln x + c, ii. 5x −4

x + c (b) 2, 0.2
p. 40 Qu. 4 (a) i. 2x
3

2
3

x
3
+ c ii.
2
π
sin πx + 2e
2x
+c (b) i.
16
3
ii. 1 −
1
e
2
p. 40 Qu. 5 (a) i. y

=
3
x
, ii. y

=
5
x
, (b) 2 ln
5
3
p. 40 Qu. 6 (a) e
1+x
2
(1 + 2x
2
) (b)
1
2
e
1+x
2
+ c
p. 40 Qu. 7 (x
2
+ 3) sin x + 2x cos x + c
p. 41 Qu. 9 (a) −
1
6
cos
6
x + c (b) −x cos 2x +
1
2
sin 2x + c
(c)
2
3

x(x −3) + c (d) e
tanθ
+ c
(e) 6 arctan
x
3
+ c (f) 3 ln
¸
¸
¸
¸
x −3
x + 3
¸
¸
¸
¸
+ c
(g) 9 ln(x
2
+ 9) + c (h) ln 3
74 SOME ANSWERS
p. 41 Qu. 10 (a)
1
2
x
4
−x
3
+ c (b)
2
3
arcsin 3x + c
(c)
1
4
e
2x−3
(2x −1) + c (d) ln sin x +c
(e)
1
4
sin 2x +
1
2
x + c
p. 41 Qu. 12 (a) arcsin x+c (b) −arccos x+c ⇐ the two functions differ by a constant
p. 42 Qu. 13 f(x) =
1
2
e
2x
+x + 1 −
1
2
e
p. 42 Qu. 14 (a) 4 (b) ln 3
p. 42 Qu. 15 (a)
1
4
x
2
(2 ln x −1) + c (b) p =
1
2
, q = −1
p. 42 Qu. 16 C
1
= 1,
16
35
p. 42 Qu. 17 (a) v = −10t + 6 (b) s = −5t
2
+ 6t + 8 (c) t = 2 sec, v = −14 m/sec
p. 42 Qu. 18 (a) v(1) = 0 km/min, v(4) = 2 km/min (b) a(t) =
1
9
(−4t
2
+ 20t −16)
(c) a
max
= 1 km/min
2
at t = 2.5 min (d) 6 km (e) 3 km
(f) 9 km, 1.29 km/min
p. 43 Qu. 20 2π (Note: this can be shown from the graph, by inspection.)
p. 43 Qu. 21 intersections (−2, 6), (3, 11), area =
125
6
p. 43 Qu. 23 x =
π
6
,

6
, area =

3 −
π
3
p. 43 Qu. 24
28
3
,
32
3
p. 43 Qu. 25 (a) 2, finite area, but infintely high!
(b) i. intersections (0, 0), (2, 0), asymptotes x = −1, 3, y = 1
ii.
6(1 −x)
(x
2
−2x −3)
2
, (1, 0.25) iii. x +
3
4
ln
¸
¸
¸
¸
x −3
x + 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
+ c iv. 0.352
p. 44 Qu. 28 (a) P(
1
4
π,
1
2

2), Q(−
3
4
π, −
1
2

2) (b) 2

2 (c) y = 0.707x + 0.152
(d) 35.3

, 109.5

(or 70.5

)
p. 44 Qu. 29
1
2

1
k
, area →
1
2
p. 44 Qu. 30 (a) (0, 1) (b) maximum, (±1, 1/

e) (c) asymptote y = 0
(d) L ≈ 2.507, k = 2 (e) −e
−x
2
/2
+ c, M = 0 (f) V ≈ 2.507,
V
L
= 1
(g) normal distribution
p. 46 Qu. 34 y = C
x −3
x −2
, particular integral: C = 6
p. 46 Qu. 35 (a) 2

3 −
2
3
(b) 2.793 (c)

3 ≈ 1.730, error = −0.126%
10 Vectors
p. 47 Qu. 1 2

2 = 2.83 km/h, SW
p. 47 Qu. 2 v = 436 km/h bearing = 187

p. 47 Qu. 3 d = 13.2 km bearing = 296

p. 48 Qu. 8 (a) k = 1, l = 2, m = 3 (b) θ = 45

SOME ANSWERS 75
p. 47 Qu. 5 (a) x =
_
−6.5
−4.5
_
(b) i. k = 6 ii. k = −
3
2
p. 47 Qu. 6 (a) i. λ = −2 ii. λ = 2 (b)
´
x = ±
_
−0.6
0.8
_
p. 48 Qu. 7 (a) −
1

5
, about 117

(b)
1
3
_
−2
1
2
_
p. 48 Qu. 9 (a) k = −8 (b) k =
3
2
, l = −3 (c) θ = 132

p. 48 Qu. 10 (a) [ r +s [ = 5 (b) θ = 94.4

p. 48 Qu. 12 (a) M(2, 3, −1) (b) BC = 6, AM =

26 (c)
−→
BC
−→
AM= 0, isosceles
triangle (d) area = 3

26
p. 49 Qu. 14 (a)
_
3
0
4
_
, 5,
_
2
−1
−2
_
, 3, −
2
15
, area = 7.43 (b)
_
4
14
−3
_
p. 49 Qu. 15
−→
AC
−→
BC= (c −a)(c +a) = c
2
−a
2
= r
2
−r
2
= 0
p. 49 Qu. 16 (a) OB =

41 (b)
−→
BX= λ
_
9
6
_

_
4
5
_
(c) λ =
22
39
, X lies 5.08 km E and 3.38 km N of O
p. 50 Qu. 19 (a) r =
_
1
−1
0
_
+ κ
_
4
6
3
_
(b) 3x + y + 2z = 3 (c) 55.2

p. 50 Qu. 21 (a) not parallel ii. 101

r =
_
0
2
−1
_
+ λ
_
−1
4
3
_
, or some such
(b)

d n = 0, so parallel i. distance = 14
11 Complex Numbers
p. 52 Qu. 7 (a) −
7
5

4
5
i (b) z = ±(4 + i) (c) z = ±(1.27 −0.79 i)
(d) z = 2 or z = 1 ±

3 i
p. 53 Qu. 9 r = e
e
2
/2
, θ = e
2

3/2
p. 53 Qu. 13 (a) i. circle, centre at −2 + i, radius 2 ii. halfline from −2 + 3 i, to the SE
iii. perpendicular bisector of −1 and −3 + 2 i
(b) 3x
2
+ y
2
= 3
12 Linear Transformations and Matrices
p. 55 Qu. 8 (a) i. rotation through arctan
2
3
= 33.7

and enlargement by

13
ii. P
−1
=
1
13
_
3 2
−2 3
_
iii. PQ =
_
−11 −10
10 −11
_
(b) i. z =

13 (cos 33.7

+ i sin 33.7

)
ii.
1
z
=
1
13
(3 −2i) iii. zw = −11 + 10i
(c) i. −
26
25
+
7
25
i ii.
1
25
_
−26 −7
7 −26
_
reasoning: z = a +bi apparently always corresponds to P =
_
a −b
b a
_
76 SOME ANSWERS
p. 56 Qu. 11 (a) x = −0.7, y = 6.3, z = −4.0 (b) λ = −5, e.g. x = 1, y = 1, z = −3
p. 57 Qu. 14 (a) Q =
_
1 2 2
1 0 4
_
(b) (i) MF, MQ, M + F, (M + F)Q, (ii) MQ, M + F, (M + F)Q,
MQ : numbers of (human and pet) male body parts in each apartment block,
M + F : numbers of human and of pet residents in each block,
(M + F)Q : numbers of (human and pet) body parts in each block
13 Mathematical Induction
p. 58 Qu. 1 (b) is true. Step:
(n +1)
3
+2(n +1) = n
3
+3n
2
+3n +1 +2n +2 = (n
3
+2n) +3(n
2
+n +1).
p. 58 Qu. 2 (b) is true. Step:
n+1

r=0
2
r
=
n

r=0
2
r
+ 2
n+1
= (2
n+1
−1) + 2
n+1
= 2 2
n+1
−1 = 2
(n+1)+1
−1.
14 Probability
p. 59 Qu. 3 (a) 5/8, (b) 3/8, (c) 1/2, (d) 1/2, (e) 0
p. 59 Qu. 4 (a) 1/6, (b) 1/36, (c) 5/6, (d) 1/12, (e) 35/36
p. 59 Qu. 5 (a) 15/16 (b) 1/60
p. 59 Qu. 6 1/3 (Of the equally likely outcomes, it can’t be TT, leaving TH, HT, HH.)
p. 60 Qu. 7 (a) 1/1296 (b) 5/54
p. 60 Qu. 8 (a) 10000 (b) 630 (c) i. 120, ii.
2
5
, iii. 60 sec
p. 61 Qu. 14 (a)
5
6
(b)
9
10
(c)
1
6
p. 61 Qu. 15 (a) 3/5, 13/15 (b) 11/15 mutually exclusive: p(X ∧ Y ) = 0
p. 61 Qu. 17
15
28
, independent
p. 61 Qu. 18 2/3, independent, because p(M) p(N) = p(M ∧ N)
p. 62 Qu. 20 (a) 1 (b) 3/8 (c) 1/2 (d) 3/4 (e) 9/20
p. 63 Qu. 24 (b) 0.0018 (c) 0.1016 (d) 9/508
p. 63 Qu. 25 20.1% 0.399%
p. 63 Qu. 26 (a)
27
64
(b)
37
64
11 students
p. 63 Qu. 27 (a) 672 (b) 32 −240x + 720x
2
−..., x = 0.01: 29.7, error = 0.00361%
(c) 1.75, p(1) > p(2)
p. 64 Qu. 29 (a) 15/1024 (b) 63/64
p. 64 Qu. 31 £ 0.25
p. 64 Qu. 32 k =
3
32
, µ = 7 days T = 6.55 days
SOME ANSWERS 77
15 Statistics
p. 65 Qu. 2 Σf
r
= 769, mode = 2.2, median = 3.9, m = 5.1, s = 3.0
p. 65 Qu. 4 (b) mode = 8.5, median = 8.75, m = 8.79
(c) range = 4, interquartile range = 2, s = 1.15
p. 66 Qu. 5 (a) median = 1003.3 g (b) m = 1003.36 g, s = 2.25 g
p. 66 Qu. 6 (c) median ≈ 1.3 (d) Q
1
≈ −3, Q
3
≈ 0.5 (e) m = −1.23 (f) s = 2.34
p. 67 Qu. 7 (a) mode = 10, (c) median = 9, (d) m = 8.67, s = 3.77,
(e) m ≈ 8.5, error = 1.92%
p. 67 Qu. 8 median ≈ 62, m = 62.1
p. 67 Qu. 9 m
y
= 40, s
y
= 8
p. 68 Qu. 14 (b) median ≈ 9.2 (c) m = 9.15, s = 0.760
(d) i. 32.1 ii. 16.9 iii. 1.51 the fit is very close, perhaps too close
p. 69 Qu. 16 (a) 88.6% (b) 23.8
p. 69 Qu. 17 (a) 4.78%, 33.85% (b) 5001.05 ml (c) 5067.62 ml
p. 70 Qu. 20 (a) 0.294 (b) 0.576 (c) 0.0417, 2.50 (d) 1.63
78 SOME ANSWERS

Contents
1 Sets, Relations, Functions 2 Algebra, Exponential and Logarithm Functions 3 Straight Lines, Linear Equations 4 Quadratics, Polynomials, Rational Functions 5 Inequalities, Linear Programming 6 Sequences, Series 7 Trigonometry, Circles 8 Differentiation 9 Integration 10 Vectors 11 Complex Numbers 12 Linear Transformations and Matrices 13 Mathematical Induction 14 Probability 15 Statistics Some Answers 3 6 8 11 17 18 21 31 40 47 52 54 58 59 65 71

2

CONTENTS

1
1.

Sets, Relations, Functions

(a) In this problem, x ∈ {1, 2, 3, ..., 12} . Write down the following sets by listing their elements: i. E = {x | x is even}, G = {x | x ≤ 4} . ii. E ∩ P, E ∩ O, O = {x | x is odd}, P, E ∪ G, P = {x | x is a prime number}, G∪P .

(b) Represent the following set in a Venn diagram: A ∪ (A ∩ B). What is a simpler way of writing the same set? 2. 3. 4. By drawing two clear Venn diagrams, show that (A ∪ B) = A ∩ B . By drawing two clear Venn diagrams, show that (A ∩ B) = A ∪ B . In the Venn diagrams provided, clearly mark the following sets; (note that A denotes the £  complement ¢¡A of the set A ): (a) (A ∩ B) ∩ C , E

(b) (A ∩ C) ∪ (B ∩ C) .

E

5.

On a typical cold evening at Atlantic College, with the heaters on in all buildings, 18 empty classrooms were checked in different buildings. The lights were on in 4 rooms and a window was open in 11 rooms (– and usually just above one of the radiators ...) If the lights were on and the windows open in 2 classrooms, in how many of the empty classrooms were the lights turned off and the windows closed? Given that A = B = {1, 2, 3}, list the elements of the product set A × B . Also list the elements of the following three relations and represent them in three separate 3

6.

1 SETS, RELATIONS, FUNCTIONS

y) : y = x2 }. x. (Write these functions down in the same way as f and g are written above. give your reason. g ◦ f . y) : y = x2 + 1} 9. y) : x − y ≤ 1} (c) {(x. Given that x.) What do you notice? (– in fact this result holds generally. −1. (g ◦ f )−1 . solve the equation f (x) = 7. are even or odd. y) ∈ I × I : N N ∈ I and x = 1 and x = y} N x (a) {(x. State. for all x ∈ I find the R. 7. y) : 2x + y = 3} (b) {(x. and 12. 2}. if any? For each one that you think is not a function.lattice diagrams: R1 = {(x. (e) Which of the four relations are functions. (a) List the ordered pairs in the relation R1 = {(x. (c) List the ordered pairs in the relation R2 = {(x. 0. (a) write down the values of f (1) . y ∈ I represent the following relations in a coordinate system. f ◦ g(3) and g ◦ g(4) . 8. RELATIONS. and which. (b) Write down the domain and the range of the relation R1 . with reasons. following fucntions: f ◦ g. where x ∈ I R. of these relations are functions? Give reasons for your answer. FUNCTIONS . y ∈ {−4. y) ∈ A × B | y < x + 1} and R3 = R1 ∩ R2 . −2. R. (d) Write down the relations R3 = R1 ∪ R2 and R4 = R1 ∩ R2 . g −1 ◦ f −1 . g −1 . (f ◦ g)−1 . 1. R2 = {(x. (a) {(x. 1 } x2 1 (b) {(x. g(2) . if any. Given functions f and g such that f (x) = x − 4 and g(x) = 5x. Try to describe the last of the relations in a simple way. y) ∈ I × I : | y| = } R R x y (c) {(x. and state whether either of them is even or odd. where x ∈ I write down f (4) and f ◦ f (2). In this problem.) 11. y) : x = | y|}. if any. and R. y) ∈ A × B | y − x ≥ 0}. −3. Which. y) ∈ I × I : y = R R 10. Given the function f : x → −2x + 3. f −1 . (b) determine the domains and the ranges of the two functions. 4 1 SETS. Given the functions f : x → 3x − 2 and g : x → x2 − 4 . Also find the general expressions for f ◦ f (x) and f −1 (x). which of the following relations are not functions.

Given functions f and g such that f (x) = 2x − 3 and g(x) = x2 . x−2 (a) state the greatest possible domains and ranges of f and of g. simplifying your results where possible. Atlantic College. and (d) from your diagram estimate the coordinates of the point where the graphs of f and f −1 intersect each other. R R (a) find and simplify the functions f ◦ g and g ◦ f . 13. These materials are made freely available for non-commercial. g : I → I such that f (x) = 3x − 1 and g(x) = x2 + 2. FUNCTIONS 5 . f −1 and g −1 . f −1 and g clearly in one coordinate system. by Kai Arste. (b) find the range of f and the range of g . g ◦ f . and (d) find the compound functions f ◦ g and g ◦ f . (c) sketch the graphs of f . RELATIONS. 14. and write down their values for x = 5. (c) find the inverse function f −1 of f . (c) find the inverse functions f −1 and g −1 of f and g.(c) find the following functions: f ◦ g . for all x ∈ I R. (a) find the inverse function f −1 of f . (b) find the compound functions f ◦ g and g ◦ f . where x ∈ I R. Given the two functions f (x) = 1 and g(x) = x2 + 1. Given the functions f. (b) sketch the graph of g in a coordinate system. 15. teaching purposes only. 1 SETS.

(b) Use logarithms to solve the equation 3x 5x−1 = 8. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS 6 . of course): 3x−1 = 28 . c x (d) Given that 3 = 78. 3. (b) Guess an integer approximation to the solution of the following equation. and then use logarithms to find the solution (accurate to 3 significant figures. 7. ln e3 . 1 iii. indicating your reasoning. (a) Simplify 2 log5 10 − log5 2 − 2 .2 1. given that 32x−1 = 9. 2. (a) Evaluate i. (e) Find x. simplify the following expression: log2 (c) Solve the following equation for x: log4 x + 8 logx 4 = 6. log b and log c. ii. giving your answer precisely. √ 5.f. Simplify the following expressions: √ 1 8 × 43 (a) (Hint: convert into powers of 2. (a) The line with equation x + y = 1 + e cuts the graph of y = ex at P and the graph of y = ln x at Q. 6. 4 (b) Evaluate log9 15 + log9 6 − log9 10. What is the distance between P and Q? (On the Maths Methods paper from which this comes students were not given the hint that a very simple guessing step is required. as a single logarithm. log8 128 − 2 log8 4 . ii. log2 i. 2 (b) Guess an integer approximation to the solution of the following equation. Exponential and Logarithm Functions 1 Solve the equation 23x = 8 (4x− 2 ) for x.f. 4.) 2 ALGEBRA. and then solve it: 51−2x = 120. Algebra. log8 32 + log8 4 − log8 2 .) 1 16 6 × 2 5 1 p 6 p− 3 (b) √ p √ 2+ 2 √ (c) 2− 2 (a) Simplify the following expressions: i. find the value of x accurate to three s. a2 b (c) Express log 3 in terms of log a. indicating your reasoning. Sketch the line and the two curves in one diagram. log2 32 ii. estimate the value of x correct to one s. (a) Without using a calculator. 3 − log4 12.

1. 2 ALGEBRA.(b) Use logarithms to determine the set of integers n for which ( 3 )n ≤ 0. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS 7 . 4 These materials are made freely available for non-commercial. by Kai Arste. Atlantic College. teaching purposes only.

B(3.e. (b) find the coordinates of the midpoint M of the line segment AB. and (c) hence determine the equation of the perpendicular bisector. (b) Find the equation of the line parallel to AB which passes through P (2.e. A quadrilateral (i. BC. Consider the triangle ABC with vertices A(0.) (c) Find the equation of the median through A. i. B(4. 3) and D(−4. a shape bounded by four straight lines) has vertices A(−1. (a) Given the two points A(−2. (e) Write down the equation of the line through A and C. −3). (c) Also find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the line segment AB. i. 5. What kind of quadrilateral is KLM N therefore? Given the points A(−2. and the distance between the two points.e. of the line through A and the midpoint of the opposite side. 2. 3). find the distance AB. (a) What is the length of the side AB? (You do not need to use a calculator. 8 Two straight lines have equations 2x − y = 4 and kx + 2y = −1. of the line perpendicular to AB through its midpoint. L. 1) and B(4. 4). C(0.e. Show that KL and N M have the same gradient and the same length. of the line through the midpoint M perpendicular to the line through A and B. −2). 5). 7. 5). Straight Lines. 4) and B(1. (a) determine the equation of the line through the two points. (a) calculate the distance between them. 3. Given the points A(−2. (b) find the equation of their perpendicular bisector. Find the midpoints K. −1). BC. find the midpoint M and the perpendicular bisector of the line segment AB. 3). Solve the following sets of equations: (a) 2x − 3y = −8 3x + 2y = 1 (b) 3x + 8y = 4 2x − 3y = 1 8. M and N of the sides AB. 3) and B(6.e. 3). CD and DA. C(5. 6. 13). 3 STRAIGHT LINES. LINEAR EQUATIONS . (i. Note that this length is the only number in the test which is not a ‘nice’ number. 1) and B(4. 4. (i. Linear Equations Given the points A(−2. of the straight line through the midpoint of the line segment AB perpendicular to the line AB.) (b) Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the side AB. −1).) (d) Find the point of intersection of the two lines you have found.3 1.

LINEAR EQUATIONS 9 . 1 The line l has equation y = 2 x − 2 and P is the point with coordinates (4. and three pads and 4 pens cost £ 6. (a) Find the gradients of the sides AB and AC. . B(8. as a root. If two pads of paper and five pens cost £ 5. . Comparing these gradients. 12. 3 STRAIGHT LINES. i. −3) and C(2. B(1. Hence find the equations of the medians through the vertices C and B. find the coordinates of the point of intersection of the two lines. (a) Given the points A(−3. and the point of intersection of the two perpendicular lines. and the distance between A and B. and at what point does it intersect the x-axis? (c) Find the coordinates of the midpoint P of side AB and of the midpoint Q of side AC. B and C. (Two lines are perpendicular.e. −1) . find i. giving your answer precisely. (a) Find the equation of the straight line perpendicular to l through point P . (b) What is the equation of the side BC. (b) For which value of k do the lines have no point of intersection. and hence the perpendicular bisector of that line segment. 5). and the coordinates of the point G of intersection of the two medians.50.(a) If k = 3. and use them to calculate the area of the triangle. What do you observe? 11. what are the prices of one pad and of one pen? A triangle has vertices A(0. (b) Find the coordinates of the point F of intersection of and 1 (c) Hence determine the distance of the point P from the line 13. (b) Solve the following simultaneous equations: 6x + 2y = 3 4x + 3y = 1 10.) (b) Hence find the shortest distance of line l from point P . what can you say about the directions of the sides? What kind of triangle is it therefore? Find the lengths of the sides AB and AC. ii. the midpoint of the line segment BC. Also find the averages of the coordinates of A. the equation of the line AB. 4) and C(5. 2 (a) Find the equation of the line through P perpendicular to 1 1 2 . −4). The line 1 has equation y = −2x + 1 and P is the point with coordinates (6. for which value of k are they parallel? (c) For which value of k are the two lines perpendicular? 9. if the product of their gradients is −1. −5). −2). 1).50.

(b) Find the equation of the median through C.) (a) Find the equation of the line through A and B. the altitude or height of the triangle. (c) the coordinates of the point F of intersection of the two lines. (b) the equation of the line through C which is perpendicular to AB. b and c. (e) Using some of your previous answers. 6). These materials are made freely available for non-commercial. (a) Solve the following equations simultaneously: 4x − y = 1 7x + 2y = 4 (b) The graph of the function y = ax2 + bx + c passes through the three points P (−1. A triangle has vertices A(−2. (d) Find the point F of intersection of with the line AB. b and c. and the distance between C and F . i. obtain three simultaneous equations for a. Q(0. Solve the equations to find a. teaching purposes only. 5) and C(5. 3). 3) and R(1. C(3. 6). calculate the area of the triangle. 4). 10 3 STRAIGHT LINES. 2). 16. B(6. (e) How far then is the point C from the line AB? 15. Leave the distances you calculate as roots. by Kai Arste. Atlantic College. Given the points A(2. −2). LINEAR EQUATIONS . −3). and the distance between these two points.14. B(−2. By substituting the coordinates of these points into the given equation. (c) Find the equation of the line through C which is perpendicular to AB. and (d) the distance between the points F and C. find (a) the equation of the line AB.e. (Note that all points you need in this problem have integer coordinates.

and through the points P (1. (a) Solve the quadratic equation x2 − 2x − 35 = 0 . (a) If the roots of the equation 2x2 + 3x + 5 = 0 are α and β. (c) x2 − 3x + 2 = 0. each of the following quadratic equations has. POLYNOMIALS. and the coordinates of its vertex.e. giving all your answers precisely (i. and the 3 y−axis at (0. write down the sum and 2 2 the products of the roots.) (a) x2 − 6x = 0. 4 QUADRATICS. 2) . The curve with equation y = ax2 + bx + c passes through the origin O(0. 0) . (b) −2x2 − 3x − 2 = 0. Determine how many distinct real roots. (this can be done by factorisation. (e) 3x2 + 2x − 4 = 0. and find the equation whose roots are and . and solve the equation(s) that can be solved. 11 7. 6. (a) 2x2 − 3x − 2 = 0. By substituting the coordinates and solving simultaneous equations. −1) and Q(2. b and c . the simultaneous equations have one solution)? Sketch the graph of the parabola which crosses the x−axis at (−1. (i. 2. 5. or solutions. (b) x2 − 6x + 9 = 0. (c) For which values of k does the equation x2 + 4x + k = 0 have no (real) solutions.e. 0) and (3. find its equation. or otherwise. Write down a quadratic equation with integer coefficients whose roots are 1/3 and −2.4 1. (f) 3x2 + 2x + 4 = 0. (d) 2x2 − 3x − 2 = 0. 2 ) . Polynomials. not as an approximate decimal number. (c) x2 − 6x + 9 = 0. find the values of a .) x kx − 9 4. Quadratics.) (b) Find the simplest quadratic equation with integer coefficients whose roots (solutions) 2 are 3 and 6. RATIONAL FUNCTIONS . For what values of k do the following quadratic equations have just one solution? (a) kx2 − 12x + 9 = 0 1 x (b) = (Hint: you have to rewrite the equation in the standard form first. α β (b) For which value of p do the parabola y = 2x2 +3x+5 and the straight line y = −x+p have just one common point. 3. 0). Rational Functions Solve the following quadratic equations. 8.

A parabola has equation y = x2 − 4x + 1 . so leave enough space. 14. what are the values of a and b ? 11. 0) and T (0. 6). (use 2 the approximation g = 10 m/sec2 . 6) and Q(3. 2t − 1) and the point C(5.) (b) In the same diagram sketch the graph of the function y = 2x − 6. labelling the points of intersection with the axes and the vertex clearly. (b) Find a formula in terms of t for the distance d between P (−t + 1. 8). (c) Write s as a simple quadratic function of t. POLYNOMIALS. RATIONAL FUNCTIONS . (a) If the straight line with equation y = mx − 7 passes through the point A(3. its height at time t is given by s = − 1 gt2 + v0 t + s0 . what are the values of s and of d ? 13. find the equation of the straight line on which P will lie for all values of t. b and c. (b) What are the coordinates of the vertex V of the parabola? 10. For which value of t is s a minimum? For that value of t. (a) Find the values of a.) A diver jumps from a springboard 15 m above the surface of a pool with an upward velocity of 6. S(4. (a) Sketch the graph of the function y = −x2 + 4x − 3 in a large diagram. (a) By eliminating t from the equations for the x. (b) Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the parabola and the straight line with equation y = 2x − 4 .and the y-coordinates. 0). (Note that most of the diagram will be below the x-axis. (a) Sketch the parabola. When an object is thrown upwards at time t = 0 sec with velocity v0 from an initial height s0 above the ground. Let s be the square of that distance. and how high above the pool is that? (c) When will she hit the surface of the water? 12.9. if the parabola with equation y = ax2 + bx − 2 passes through the points P (−1. 4). 10). A point P has coordinates x = −t + 1 and y = 2t − 1. 12 4 QUADRATICS. what is the value of m ? (b) Similarly.5 m/sec. The graph of a quadratic function y = ax2 + bx + c passes through the three points R(−2. (a) When does the diver fall past the springboard on the way down? (b) At what time does the diver reach the greatest height. labelling the points of intersection with the axes and the vertex clearly.

for which they have one common point. and mark the points of intersection. In the same diagram as before. and use the condition for the resulting quadratic equation to have only one solution. RATIONAL FUNCTIONS 13 . (b) Find the value of c for which the two parabolas just touch. labelling the points of intersection with the axes and the vertex clearly. (b) In the same diagram. (a) In a clear diagram.e. 18.) 16. POLYNOMIALS. (a) By first finding the intersections with the axes and the coordinates of the vertex. i. 17. sketch the line with equation y = −4x + 2. it will also still have a k in it. for what value of k do the parabola and the straight line have precisely one common point? Sketch the tangent in the same diagram as the parabola. and mark them in your diagram.e. 4 QUADRATICS. sketch the parabola with equation y = 2x2 − 4x − 6. i. You can then find k by using the condition that there should be only one solution. there will still be a k in the resulting quadratic equation. (d) For each value of k. and find the coordinates of the two points of intersection of the two parabolas. (a) If c = 8. sketch the graph of the second parabola for that value of c. Consider the parabolas with equations y = x2 + 3x + 2 and y = −x2 − x + c.(c) Find the coordinates of the points of intersection between the two graphs and mark them in your diagram. (c) For what value of k is the line y = −2x + k a tangent to the parabola in part (a) ? (Hint: solve the equations of the parabola and the line simultaneously. Sketch the parabola with equation y = x2 − 2x − 8 in a large diagram. sketch the graphs of the two functions in one large. For which value of k does this line just touch the parabola. (d) Find the coordinates of the common point of the parabola in part (a) and the parabola with equation y = x2 . clearly labelled diagram. i. (c) Calculate the coordinates of the points of intersection between the parabola and the line. marking all the significant points on the graph.) Sketch the tangent in the same diagram. y = −4x + k is the equation of some straight line. (b) What are the coordinates of the points where the line with equation y = x − 2 cuts the parabola in part (a) ? Sketch the line in the same diagram. If you write down the discriminant of that quadratic equation. sketch the graph of the function y = x2 + 2x − 8. 15. for which value of k do the parabola and the line have just one common point? (Method: Eliminate y from the equations of the parabola and this line. For what value of k is the straight line with equation y = 2x+k a tangent to the parabola.e.

(c) For what value of k is the line y = −x + k a tangent to the curve. and the line with equation y = −x + 11.e. (a) If p = 17. for what value of k do the curve and the line have precisely one common point? Draw this line into your diagram. For which value of k ∈ I does the straight line with equation y = 2x + k have only R one common point with the parabola? Sketch that line in the same diagram. (b) By substituting u = x2 and first solving the resulting quadratic equation for u . (a) Sketch the graph of the function y = x2 − 6x + 5. Draw a very rough sketch of the parabolas: estimate the intersections with the x-axis from the calculator. labelling all significant points in your diagram carefully. (a) Sketch a graph of y = −x2 + 4x + 5 in a large diagram.e. find the remainder when P (x) is divided by (2x − 1) . marking the intersections with the 2 axes and the vertex clearly. i. (a) Without using polynomial division. 14 4 QUADRATICS. Two parabolas have equations y = x2 + 1 and y = −x2 + 4x + p. Let P (x) be the polynomial 2x3 − 5x2 − 11x − 4 . RATIONAL FUNCTIONS . so that the line has only one point in common with the curve. and hence factorise the polynomial completely. POLYNOMIALS. 21. (b) For which value of p do the parabolas touch one another. (a) Sketch the graph of the function y = 1 x2 + x − 4. solve the following equation for x: x4 − 2x2 − 8 = 0. for which value of p do they have one common point? 20. (d) Find the value of k so that the line y = −x + k is a tangent of the parabola. (a) What is the remainder when the polynomial P (x) = x3 −7x+6 is divided by (x+2)? (Note that the first term of that polynomial is not x2 .) (b) Guess. making sure you label all the significant points clearly. 23. one solution of the equation P (x) = 0. 2 (c) Find the points of intersection of the parabola with the line y = −x + 2 and sketch that line in the same diagram. 24.. or otherwise find. 22. i. (b) Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the graph in part i.e. (b) From your graph determine the set of values of c for which the equation 1 2 x + x − 4 = c has two different solutions for x. find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the two parabolas..19. marking the points of intersection. i.

(x + 1) 2 − (x + 1) 2 (x + 1) 2 1 3 1 . x+b . and a remainder of −3 when divided by (x + 2). 27. POLYNOMIALS.) (b) Write down i.(b) The equation P (x) = 0 has one solution which is a small integer. ax + 2 y 6 d −1 −2 1 - The diagram on the right shows the graph of a ax + b function y = . b. (c) Calculate the sum and the product of the three solutions you found in (b). (a) The polynomial P (x) = 2x4 + 3x3 + ax2 + bx + 7 has a remainder of 15 when divided by (x − 1). the equation of the vertical asymptote and ii. Find that solution by trial and error. obtain the other two solutions. What are the values of a and b ? (b) Divide the polynomial 4x3 + 8x2 + x − 2 by 2x2 + x − 1 . what are the values of b and d ? ax + 2 is x = 2. (a) Sketch the graph of y = asymptotes clearly. labelling the intersections with the axes and the 1−x x+b has a vertical asymptote at x = 2 and crosses the x-axis x+d at x = −3. factorise the polynomial completely. (a) What is the remainder when x4 + 3x3 + 2x2 + 4x + 5 is divided by x + 1 ? (b) For what value of k is (x − 2) a factor of the polynomial 2x3 + 3x2 − 8x + k ? For that value of k. How might they be related to the coefficients in the polynomial? 25. (b) If the graph of y = 2x + 3 . and it intersects x+b 29. the intersection with the x-axis of the graph of the reciprocal function y = 30. (a) What are the values of a and b ? (These values are not needed for part (b). 28. What are the values of a. By dividing P (x) by a suitable factor and equating the resulting quadratic to zero. RATIONAL FUNCTIONS 15 . c x+c and d ? x 4 QUADRATICS. The vertical asymptote of the graph of the function y = the x-axis at x = −3. (a) What is the remainder when x4 + 3x3 + 2x2 + 4x + 5 is divided by x + 1 ? (b) Simplify the following expression: 26.

teaching purposes only. by Kai Arste. RATIONAL FUNCTIONS . Write down the equation of the horizontal asymptote of the graph of y = x2 .31.) These materials are made freely available for non-commercial. POLYNOMIALS. (Hint: rewrite as a quadratic equation for x and use the condition that there should be no real solution. (x + 1)(x − 3) and find the x-coordinate of the point where the graph intersects that asymptote. 16 4 QUADRATICS. Atlantic College. Determine the set of y-values that the function cannot take.

5 1. Atlantic College. of an article having parts that must be cut. and represent the set of feasible solutions as a region in an xy-plane. and finished. Linear Programming For what range or ranges of x-values do the following inequalities hold? (a) 4 − 3x > 10 (b) 2x2 − 3x ≤ 2 x−2 >0 (c) 2x + 5 (Hint: Write as a quadratic inequality and factorise. it yields £30 profit. 5 INEQUALITIES. In one coordinate system. 480 minutes of assemb (a) One of the constraints on x and y is 25x + 75y ≤ 450. by Kai Arste. assembling or finishing – is not fully used. LINEAR PROGRAMMING 17 . 60 minutes to assemble. Determine from your graph which department it is. assembled. and 34 minutes to finish. Mark the area in the coordinate system where y ≥ −x + 4 and y ≤ 2x − 5.) 2. teaching purposes only. the manufacturer knows that as many articles as are produced can be sold. V and W. An article of variety V takes 25 minutes to cut. and calculate at what percentage of full capacity it is working. How many articles of each variety should be manufactured each day to maximise profit? (c) When articles of the two varieties are manufactured so as to maximise profit. These materials are made freely available for non-commercial. Which point in the area you marked is closest to the origin? What is the distance of that point from the origin? 3. An article of variety W takes 75 minutes to cut. and 68 minutes to finish. and yields a £40 profit. Inequalities. A manufacturer makes two varieties. sketch the two straight lines with equations y = −x + 4 and y = 2x − 5. Write down the other constraints as inequalities. 60 minutes to assemble. (b) Write down an expression for the profit P in terms of x and y. Not more than 450 minutes of cutting time. the time of one of the three departments – cutting.

(b) Which term an of this A. Σ5 (r3 − 2 r2 ) ii. and write down what the values of the first three terms are in each case. SERIES 8. is 10 and the seventh term is 40. x2 + 2 are the first three terms of an A. Find the two possible values of x.. (a) The third term of a G. find the values of x ∈ I for which R x − 1 . The three numbers x + 2. i. 4. if it exists. 3x − 1. (b) 9 + 6 + . and calculate the 23rd term. (b) Evaluate separately the following expressions. showing clearly what terms you are adding. and for each of those values the first term and constant difference of the sequence.. (a) The numbers x + 1 and 2x and x2 − 5 are the first three terms of an A. state that it does not exist.P. and in each case write down the first four terms of the A. (a) −3 and 6 are the first two terms of an arithmetic progression.P.. A geometric progression has first term 3 and its sum to infinity is 10. or otherwise. What is the first term. 18 . −3 and 6 are the first two terms of a geometric progression.. and the next two terms. Write down the common ratio. and compare the results. Also for both of these series.. Write down the constant difference. (b) An A. By using the definition of an A.P. + 50 ...P. and the sum of the first ten terms.P. What is the sum of the first 20 terms of this series? 3. 7. Find the two possible values for the common ratio. Series 5 + 8 + 11 + 14 + . Σ5 r3 − 2 Σ5 r2 r=3 r=3 r=3 2. or otherwise. x + 2 and 3x form the first three terms of a G. and the first term.. (The sum to a . 6 SEQUENCES.P. has a common ratio of 2 and a sum to infinity of 108. and the sum of the first 23 terms. is equal to 276 ? 5. Find the common ratio r and the fourth term.6 1.P. 9. write down the sum S∞ to infinity. Write down the common ratio r and the sum of the first three terms of the following GPs: (a) 9 − 12 + . (a) Rewrite in Σ−notation: Sequences. If it does not exist. Calculate the 10th term..P..P.P. 3 and what is the sum of the first 3 terms? 6. (b) A G.) infinity of a GP is given by S∞ = 1−r (a) By using the definition of a G. has first term 3 and constant difference −2.. find the possible values of x.

+ 99. and in each year after that a further 10%. (a) An AP and a GP have the same first term 5 and the same second term.. Taking the positive value of x.. 4th and 5th term. + 97.. and of the sum to infinity. (i) the sum Nn of the first n natural numbers (not including 0. plan to invest £2000 each in two different bank accounts. A car cost $ 12000 new..P. and its common difference. Write down S1 . 11. find the values of x so that the numbers x. (a) S1 = 11 + 13 + 15 + 17 + . and explain in simple terms why these relations should hold. 2 r=1 2 (You may find the following formula for the sum of the first n terms of an A. with the longest piece being three times as long as the shortest.(b) The sum of the first n terms of an A. Find the possible values of the common ratio and the first term. What are the possible values of d and r ? (b) Two people. 10. SERIES 19 13. is given by Sn = 3n2 + 2n. Sn = (2a + (n − 1) d).) 2 12. of an arithmetic progression. . respectively. find a formula for its value after n years. to find. for the sum of the first n terms of an 2 arithmetic progression with first term a and common difference d. (b) A piece of string of length 200 cm is to be cut into 5 pieces whose lengths form an arithmetic progression. 6 SEQUENCES.P.. + 99. (b) S2 = 15 + 21 + 27 + 33 + . n (c) Use the formula.. What should the lengths of the pieces be? (c) By using the definition of an A. and evaluate the sum. Set up two equations for the constant difference d of the AP and the common ratio r of the GP. Hence find S3 = 11 + 13 + 17 + 19 + 23 + .P. In the first year it loses 20% of its value. S2 and S3 . (a) The 2nd term of a geometric progression is 24 and its 6th term is 1. helpful: n Sn = (2a + (n − 1)d) .. Mr A and Miss G. or otherwise. 10 and x2 are the 3rd. and the fourth term of the AP is the same as the third term of the GP. Show that On + En = N2n and that On + n = 2Nn .5 . what are the first term and the common difference of the series? 21 3 r (d) Write down the 11th term of the sum: ( + ) . Calculate the sums of the following arithmetic progressions. and hence find the first three terms of the A..P. 2 and 3 years? For n ≥ 2. What is its value after 1. in terms of n.) (ii) the sum En of the first n even natural numbers (not including 0.) and (iii) the sum On of the first n odd natural numbers.

Another bank offers Mrs G an account. the term without x in it. for the second square 2 grains. and a meal requires 200g of rice. i. 2 and 3 years. 20 6 SEQUENCES. and hence calculate how much money will be in the account after 10 years. x simplifying your answer as much as possible. When will the initial investment have doubled in value? ii. and hence calculate how much money will be in the account at the end of the 10th year.e. he was to receive 1 grain of rice. 2 15. At the end of which year will the initial investment have doubled in value? iii. 17. If Miss G invests in an account that pays 4. Find a general formula for the amount of money in the account after n years. also paying compound interest. According to legend.e. so that after 10 years she will have the same amount of money as Mr A does after 10 years. a Find the term with a3 in the binomial expansion of (2 + ) 7 . for the third square 4. If Mr A invests in a bank account that pays 6% simple interest per year. the inventor of chess was rewarded as follows: for the first square on the board. write down how much money there will be in the account after 1. Atlantic College. in the binomial expansion of 1 (2x − ) 6 . These materials are made freely available for non-commercial. What interest rate is that bank paying? 14. i. teaching purposes only. after how many squares would the total amount of rice have been enough for a rice meal for the whole population of the earth? Find the constant term. in the expansion of ( 2 x − ) 8 . and each gram of rice contains 20 grains. the term without x.5% compound interest per year. x √ 2 Find the constant term. write down how much money there will be in the account after 1.i. by Kai Arste. for the fourth 8. SERIES . 2 and 3 years. Find a general formula for the amount of money in the account after n years. 16. If the world’s population is six billion (6 × 109 ) people. and so on.

(c) tan 5 π. Evaluate the following trigonometric ratios. What is the angle that the road makes with the horizontal? (b) On the way down. (a) Find the precise values. Find all the angles θ. The hill is 50 m high. as measured on a map. CIRCLES 21 . of i. i. cot 210◦ . without using a calculator. √ √ find the precise value of sin 15◦ in the form a 6+ b 2. the road covers a horizontal distance of 600 m. their Graphs 1. ii. (a) On the way up. a vertical pole 8 m high casts a shadow of length 11 m on horizontal ground. in √ the form p + q 3. 6 2. A road goes straight up one side of a small hill and straight down the other side. cos 135◦ . giving your answers accurately. Use the Pythagorean identity sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1 to derive the precise value of cos2 15◦ . Circles Trigonometric Ratios. What is the angle of the sun above the horizon? (b) One angle in a right-angled triangle is 25◦ . where a and b are simple fractions. a car travelling along the road measures it to be 600 m long. What general rule does this suggest? 7 TRIGONOMETRY. (a) On a sunny day.e.7 Trigonometry. such that √ 3 (a) sin θ = −0. 6. without using a calculator: (a) cos 60◦ . (b) Find the angles θ. and then find the acute angle θ such that sin θ = 2 sin 37◦ cos 37◦ . where 0◦ ≤ θ ≤ 360◦ .e. such that tan θ = −1.5 (b) cos θ = (c) tan θ = 4 2 By writing 15◦ as 45◦ − 30◦ and using the identity sin(A − B) = sin A cos B − cos A sin B. 5. How long are the other two sides? 3. where 0◦ ≤ θ ≤ 360◦ . (c) Use your calculator to evaluate 2 sin 37◦ cos 37◦ . What is the angle that the road makes with the horizontal on this side? Is it steeper or less steep than on the other side? How long is the road down as measured on the map? 4. (b) sin 225◦ . where p and q are again simple fractions. and the opposite side has a length of 45 cm. i.

Indicate on your graph how you could estimate the positive solution of the equation 2 cos x = x + 1 . what is the value of cos B ? 2 (c) For what angles θ. 1 (b) If for some obtuse angle B. What general rule does this suggest? 8. of the x π equation 2 sin( − ) = 1 . using the calculator. π 3 (c) Write down the greatest and least values of the function y = 3 cos(2x − ) + .7. Hence determine how many solutions the equation cos x = sin 2x has in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π .f. 2 6 (b) In one diagram. 10. 9. sketch the graphs of y = cos x and y = sec x. 7 TRIGONOMETRY. (a) In one diagram. asymptotes. is tan θ = 10 ? Sketch the graphs of the following functions for 0◦ ≤ θ ≤ 360◦ and state the lengths of their periods: (a) 2 cos θ − 2 . What is the greatest y-value? For which value of x does the graph reach that highest point? (a) x π i. Sketch the graph of y = cos(2x − 12. In one diagram. 4 2 13. Use the identity sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x to find all the solutions of the equation cos x = sin 2x in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π .. inclusive. (a) Write down the period of the function y = 2 sin 1 x − 1.f. Sketch the graph of this 2 ◦ function for 0 ≤ x ≤ 360 . (b) i. labelling all the intersections 2 3 with the x. 11. Find the precise values of the solutions between 0 and 2π. sketch the graphs of y = 2 cos x and y = x + 1 for −π ≤ x ≤ π. (a) Without using a calculator. sketch the graph of y = 3 sin( + ) + 2. CIRCLES 22 . ii. 14. and (b) sin 3θ . and mark your solutions on the graph in (a).and y-axes accurate to 3 s. ii. Sketch the graph of y = 2 sin( − ) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π . clearly labelling all intersections. 2 x π For 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π. 5 (a) If for some acute angle A. cos A = . π ) + 1 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π. where 0◦ ≤ θ ≤ 360◦ . sketch the graphs of the functions y = cos x and y = sin 2x. What general rule does this suggest? (b) Using a calculator. find without using a calculator the values of 13 sin A and tan A. and so on. for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π. sin B = . find the value of cos 20◦ cos 50◦ − sin 20◦ sin 50◦ and the angle θ such that cos θ equals that value. marking the intersections 2 6 with the axes clearly. find the value of 2 sin 30◦ cos 30◦ and the angle θ such that sin θ equals that value. Find the solution accurate to 3 s.

from Q-town to R-burg 9 km. Find the possible values of the other two angles. 8 cm and 11 cm. Find the value of the largest angle in the triangle. side b = 15 cm and side c = 20 cm.(b) The diagram on the right shows the graph of the function y = a sin(kx + α) + c. the angle between the horizontal and the line of sight) of the top of a cliff is 30◦ . to Q-town and to P-ville. the angle of elevation (i. If the value of land in the proposed industrial zone is £1.e. 18. When the boat has moved 60 m further away from the shore. and hence find the area enclosed by the three roads. Three straight roads form a triangle between three cities: the distance from P-ville to Q-town is 7 km.50 per m2 . and hence the area of the triangle. 15 cm and 20 cm. In the triangle ABC. CIRCLES 23 . Find the smallest angle in the triangle. and hence the height of the cliff. Draw one sketch. 20. and hence also the area of the triangle. (b) From a boat out at sea.e. In the triangle ABC the lengths of sides a and b are 17 cm and 20 cm. A straight road 12 km long runs N from A-city to B-town. α and c ? y T 6 E x π/8 π Triangles. The area enclosed by the three roads would become an industrial zone. in a straight line? Another straight road is proposed to run directly from A-city to C-town. Find the angle the new road would make with the old one from A-city to B-town. C-town lies 9 km to the NW of B-town. clearly showing the two possible triangles. 17. Calculate the angle between the two roads from R-burg. and the angle A is 40◦ . Find the possible values of the other two angles. what would the total value be of that area? 19. 7 TRIGONOMETRY. Circles 15. 16. Write down the period and the amplitude of the function. A triangle has sides of lengths 5 cm. and from R-burg to P-ville 12 km. Draw a clear diagram of the situation. and there is another straight road between them. What are the values of a. angle B = 30◦ . How far is it from A-city to C-town as the crow flies. i. k. (a) The three sides of a triangle have lengths 10 cm. and find first the distance between the first position of the boat and the top of the cliff. the angle of elevation is 20◦ .

to meet the road between Mura and Shuto at right angles. The distance from Tokai to Shuto is 31 km. What is the precise distance between the two possible locations of Mura ? (c) Given that no-one could walk in an hour from Shuto to Mura. (a) If the distance between the moon and the earth is 382. B-ville lies 8 km due East of A-town. (i. What is the distance. How high is the cliff? (c) Calculate the greatest angle in the triangle whose sides have lengths 4 cm. The village Mura.21. What then is the area of the triangle? 22. After driving 2 km along the road.100 km and the diameter of the earth is about 12. From point A on the road. the buoy is seen on a line which makes an angle of 25◦ with the road behind. find the two distances which Mura could be from Shuto. a buoy B out at sea is seen on a line which makes an angle of 40◦ with the road ahead. A road runs along the straight line of a coast. to point C. between the two possible locations of Mura ? (b) Using the cosine-rule. the top of the cliff appears at an angle of elevation of 18◦ . and C-burg lies to the North-East of A-town. the town Tokai and the capital Shuto are connected by three straight roads. what is the area enclosed by the three roads ? If another straight road is to be built from Tokai.) When the boat has moved 30 m closer to the cliff. but not any of the results of (a). 5 cm and 7 cm.700 km. the moon apparently subtends an angle of 31’ at the earth. A-town.e. CIRCLES . accurate to 3 significant figures. (a) Using the sine-rule. and from Tokai to Mura 29 km. and the roads to Mura and Tokai make an angle of 60◦ as they leave Shuto. (a) How far is C-burg from B-ville? (b) On what compass bearing does one drive on the road from B-ville to C-burg? 24 7 TRIGONOMETRY. how long will that new road be? 24. at a distance of 7 km. the angle of elevation is 24◦ . B-ville and C-burg are connected by straight roads.) (b) From a boat at a certain distance from the bottom of a cliff. (a) Draw a clearly labelled diagram of road AC and the buoy B. what angle approximately does the earth subtend at the moon? (For comparison. and hence the two distances which Mura could be from Shuto. (b) How far from point A is the buoy? (c) What then is the distance of the buoy from the coast? 23. find the two possible angles which the roads to Shuto and Mura could make at Tokai. the line to the top of the cliff makes that angle with the horizontal.

what angle does the chord AB subtend at the centre of the circle? What then is the length of the minor arc AB? 26. 30. the area of the smaller segment of the circle cut off by the chord AB . find the area of the minor (smaller) segment cut off by AB. A and B are two points on the circumference of a circle of radius r = 12 cm. What is the area of the triangle? (b) A circle has a radius of 20 cm.18 cm2 . What then is the area of the smaller segment cut off by AB? A and B are two points on the circumference of a circle of radius r and centre O. A and B are points on the circumference of the circle with centre O and radius 12 cm. and a sector in that circle has an area of 500 cm2 . Find the angle AOB. If the distance AB is 10 cm. the length of the minor (= shorter) arc AB . If the area of that segment is 1. a chord AB subtends an angle of 30◦ at the centre C. the angle AOB is 120◦ . CIRCLES 25 . Write down the formula.e. (b) What angle (in radians) does a chord of length 24 cm subtend at the centre of a circle of radius 16 cm? What is the area of the sector with that angle in that circle? 27. By finding the area of the sector and the area of the triangle ABC. and the angles at the vertices at the ends of that side are 45◦ and 60◦ . find the radius r of the circle. i. to the nearest degree. The line segment AB (called ‘a chord’) subtends an angle of 120◦ at the centre O of the circle. 28. If √ the length of the chord AB is 12 3 cm. (a) A and B are two points on the circumference of a circle of radius 10 cm. (The perimeter of a segment consists of two pieces. find the angle AOB. (a) A and B are points on the circumference of a circle of radius r = 12 cm and centre C.(c) What is the area enclosed by the three roads between the three places? (d) What is the shortest distance between C-burg and the road from A-town to B-ville? 25. a chord AB and an arc AB. Find i. of radius r. (b) In another circle. What is the length of the arc of the sector? 7 TRIGONOMETRY. (a) One side of a triangle is of length 12 cm. such that the perimeter of the segment cut off by the chord AB is equal to the diameter of the circle. and ii.) 29. in terms of r. and the chord (line) AB subtends an angle of 75◦ at C. for the area of the minor segment cut off by AB.

31. and what percentage of the whole area is inside the S-shape?  . and calculate the difference between the areas of two sectors. The radius of the inside circles is 5 cm and that of the outside circles 10 cm. as shown in the diagram on the left. What is the area of the S-shape? (Hint: Draw a larger version of half of the S-shape. The logo of S-company is made up out of parts of circles.) What is the area of the enclosing rectangle.

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5. as long as it is clear what you are doing. Using the identity tan2 θ + 1 = sec2 θ. such that 2 sin2 x + cos x − 2 = 0. Solve the following equations. 0 ≤ x ≤ π . 7 TRIGONOMETRY. (c) By using a suitable identity. giving your answers in radians. √ (b) Find the general solution of tan 2θ = 3. for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π. x+π √ (c) tan = 3. calculate the precise value (in terms of roots) of sin 75◦ . 3 (a) cos2 x = . greater than 180◦ . 35. 36. 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π such that 2 tan2 2x + 3 sec 2x = 0. 38. One of the four formulae below is valid for all angles A and B. Find the general solution of the trigonometric equation: 2 sin2 x + 11 cos x + 4 = 0 . (There is no need to show all your working. rewrite the equation 2 cos2 x + sin x = 1 as a quadratic for sin x. determine which is the correct version. CIRCLES 26 . 33. find all the values of x. find the precise values of the other trigonometric functions of θ .e. where 0◦ ≤ θ ≤ 360◦ .) (a) sin(A + B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B (b) sin(A + B) = cos A cos B − sin A sin B (c) sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B (d) sin(A + B) = sin A cos B − cos A sin B By writing 75◦ = 45◦ + 30◦ and then applying the correct version. 0◦ ≤ θ ≤ 360◦ . 2 34. 1 (a) Solve the equation cos θ = − 2 . the general solution in radians.   Trigonometric Identities and Equations 32. 37. 4 (b) sin(2θ − 40◦ ) = −0. By substituting values. Find the values of x. where 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π. (a) Given that tan θ = 2 and that θ is a reflex angle. i. or otherwise. Hence solve the equation.

or otherwise. CIRCLES . calculate the unknown side and angles of a triangle ABC in which a = 5. 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π (You may use sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x. (a) sin 2x + 4 cos x = 0. in the appropriate unit. and the value(s) of x between 0 and 2π for which the function has a maximum. (b) Find the general solutions of the equation cos 2x − sin x = 0. 42. Using a double angle formula. determine (a) the greatest value of f (x). (a) Rewrite f (x) = sin x + cos x in the form R sin(x + α) and hence solve the equation f (x) = 1. 2 17 32 43.) 40. (b) 2 cos(θ − 20◦ ) = −1. sketch the graphs of y = sin 2x and y = cos x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π. Hence determine the number of solutions in that range of the equation sin 2x − cos x = 0 . 39. where 0◦ ≤ x ≤ 360◦ . In one large. 1 (a) sin(3θ − 30◦ ) = − .(b) In one diagram. (c) cos2 θ − sin2 θ = 0. b = 3 and B = 30◦ . 44. From your graph determine the number of solutions of the equation sin x + 1 = cos 2x in that range. (a) In one diagram. and (b) the smallest positive value of x for which f (x) takes that greatest value. where 0◦ ≤ θ ≤ 180◦ . 27 7 TRIGONOMETRY. but without θ using a calculator. By rewriting the function f (x) = 4 sin x + 3 cos x in the form R sin(x + α). Use your diagram to estimate the solutions in that range of the equation sin 2x−cos x = 0.) 0◦ ≤ θ ≤ 360◦ 0◦ ≤ θ ≤ 360◦ (Hint: use that sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1 for all θ. for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π. Give the solutions precisely. (c) Find the general solutions in degrees of 2 sin2 x − 3 cos x = 0 . or otherwise. sketch the graphs of the two functions y = sin 2x and y = cos x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π. (a) Given that the angle A is obtuse. carefully labelled diagram sketch the graphs of the functions y = sin x + 1 and y = cos 2x. or otherwise. 46. find the maximum and minimum values of the function. 2 2 2 (b) 3 cos x + sin x = 2 . Find the solutions of the following equations in the ranges specified. Rewrite the function y = 2 cos x − sin x in the form R cos(x + α). 41. Hence. (b) It is given that cos θ = . find the possible values of cos . Solve the following trigonometric equations. 45. Also find the area of the triangle. where 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π .

cos 4θ = 8 cos4 θ + 8 cos2 θ + 1 ii. Write down the greatest and the least values of the following functions: (a) y = 4 cos 2x − 3 sin 2x . Prove the one that is. and explain why you think the other one is not. express sin A sin B in terms of a sum or difference of trigonometric ratios. such that cos 2x = sin x. (c) y = 4 cos 2x − 3 sin 2x + 7 48. P +Q P −Q cos . carefully stating your reasoning. where 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π. and use it to factorize cos 3x − cos 7x . by drawing two suitable graphs and finding their points of intersection. Only one of the following two statements is a valid identity. (b) y = (4 cos 2x − 3 sin 2x)2 + 1 . between 0 and 2π.(b) What are the greatest and the least values of 3 sin θ − 2 cos θ ? 47. (b) by using a suitable double angle formula.) 2 2 50. (You may find the following two formulae useful: cos(A ± B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B. (a) approximately. and (c) by using the factor formula cos P + cos Q = 2 cos 49. cos 4θ = 8 cos4 θ + 8 cos2 θ − 1 28 7 TRIGONOMETRY. (a) cos(x + y) cos(x − y) = cos2 x − sin2 y. 2 2 (a) Find the general solution (in radians) of the equation 2 sin2 x − cos x − 1 = 0. i.) 52. A+B A−B (The following identity may be useful: cos A − cos B = −2 sin sin . Decide which one it is. For what values of k does the equation 3 sin x + 4 cos x = k have any solutions? Find the smallest positive solution if k = 2. Determine which one.5. (a) By combining the compound angle formula cos(A + B) = cos A cos B − sin A sin B with the corresponding formula for cos(A − B) . (b) Rewrite 3 sin x + 4 cos x in the form r cos(x − α). Use a suitable substitution to derive a formula for cos P − cos Q . (a) Find the values of x. 51. Find the solutions. (b) cos(x + y) cos(x − y) = cos2 x + sin2 y. (c) Solve the equation cos 5θ − cos θ = 3 sin θ. giving all solutions from 0◦ to 180◦ . 2 . CIRCLES . of the equation cos 2x + cos x = 0 . A+B A−B (b) Use the identity sin A − sin B = 2 cos sin to find the precise values of 2 2 θ such that sin 3θ = sin 2θ and 0 ≤ θ ≤ π . (b) Only one of the following four propositions is a valid trigonometric identity.

the time (on a 24-hour clock) of sunrise in a certain place is given by r and the time of sunset by s. in terms of a single trig-function. h(x) = (5 sin x − 12 cos x + 7)2 .) (a) Sketch the function r(t) for 0 ≤ t ≤ 15. because 2 months have passed since the beginning of the year. arcsin(cos ) . (c) Express. to gain full marks. iii. For what t is this function a minimum? What then is the date of the shortest day of the year? P +Q P −Q cos 2 2 (– twice. g(x) = 5 sin x − 12 cos x + 7 . What is its period? (b) Find the times of sunrise and of sunset on August 1. (so that t = 2 on March 1. f (x) = 5 sin x − 12 cos x . 7 1 (c) Solve the equation arcsin x − arccos x = arcsin . and hence the total time that the sun is up that day. 55.) You may find the following identity useful: cos P + cos Q = 2 cos Inverse Trigonometric Functions 54. (a) Find the greatest and the least values of the following functions: i.) 6 (b) Solve the following equation for x: arctan x − arctan(x − 1) = arctan 56.or inverse trig-functions. you must 2 give the answer precisely. CIRCLES 29 .e. ii. in fact: for one problem it might be useful to substitute Q = 0 into this identity. (a) Find the precise values of i. sec arcsin 1 . cos 4θ = 8 cos4 θ − 8 cos2 θ − 1 53. cos(arctan 2) . 3 2 arctan 3 = arcsin x . (i. the time between sunrise and sunset for any time t during the year. 6 6 6 18 t being the time in months from the beginning of the year. (a) Find the precise value of (b) Find x such that 1 . (b) Simplify the following expression.iii. (Remember that cos θ = sin(90◦ − θ) for any θ. write it without trig. cos 4θ = 8 cos4 θ − 8 cos2 θ + 1 iv. π ii. where π π π 5π r = 6 + 2 cos( t − ) and s = 18 − 2 cos( t + ). for instance. Suppose that over the year. as a simple polynomial in x): cos(2 arcsin x) . 7 TRIGONOMETRY.

(b) Find the value of x such that arctan 6 − arctan x = arctan 2. (a) Either using your calculator. Hence sketch the graph of y = arccot x. Atlantic College. sketch the graph of y = cot x. by Kai Arste.) These materials are made freely available for non-commercial. CIRCLES . What is the domain of this function? Suggest a suitable range.57. for −π ≤ x ≤ π. teaching purposes only. 30 7 TRIGONOMETRY. (Only half the marks will be given if the answer is not the precise value. or not.

t.t. Differentiate the following functions w. (b) f (x) = x2 (c) f (x) = 7(3x − 2)5 .t.) (a) y = √ 8 DIFFERENTIATION 31 .) x (b) y = 3 sin x − 4 cos x + k 2 (w. In the bottom diagram. x. Methods of Differentiation 1.r. with your name written on it. Differentiate the following functions with respect to the variable indicated and simplify: 1 x(x + ) (w.r. x. sketch the graph of the derivative or gradient function y = f (x).r. (= with respect to) x.) T E T E 2. x. (Note that you have to hand in this sheet.r.r.) (c) y = arctan x + x (d) y = ln e2x−3 (w. The top diagram on the right shows the graph of a function y = f (x). x. (d) f (x) = 2 sin x − cos(2x) . 4.t. Differentiate the following functions: √ (a) f (x) = (x + 1) x .t.) 1 (w. with the same scale being used along the two axes.8 Differentiation The Gradient Function. using the same scale. 3−x . (a) y = (x + 2)(x2 − 3) (b) y = x4 + 5 x2 √ 3 4x + 2 (c) y = 6 x + √ x (d) V = k x3 3.

t. (c) y = ln ex .t. Differentiate the following functions with respect to x and simplify your results.r. u. √ (a) y = 4 x (b) y = sin2 x − cos2 x (c) y = x5 ln x 6. (x − 2)3 .) (w. ‘Eleven derivatives in fifteen minutes’: (a) y = 7e2x−1 (b) y = (x2 − 3)2 (c) y = ln e3x (d) y = x2 − 3 x3 √ (e) y = x3 2 − x (f) y = sin 2x cos 3x π (g) y = 2 tan(x − ) 3 2x − 1 (h) y = x+3 (i) y = ln(3x − 1)2 (j) y = x2 e2x cos x 1 (k) s(t) = − 2 gt2 + 10t + 3 (Note that derivatives w. x and simplify your results.(e) v = eu+2 (w. time t are denoted by a dot: s(t).) (f) s = 1 gt2 + v0 t + s0 2 5. (d) y = x7 8. x2 8 DIFFERENTIATION 2 32 .r. (b) y = x e(x ) .r. (b) y = x3 sin 3x .t. 2x − 4 . (c) y = √ x (d) y = (x + 3)7 .r.t. x and simplify your results. time t.) ˙ 7. (a) y = − ln cos x . Differentiate the following functions w.t. (a) y = ln tan x .r. Differentiate the following functions w.

) (b) Find the coordinates of the two turning points of the graph and determine their nature. ln x iii. Normals. Then find precisely. (c) Using the results of parts (a) and (b). x iv. y = e3−2x . 14.. 8 DIFFERENTIATION . Use the calculator’s graphing function to draw a sketch of the graph. (All the coordinates are simple integers. 13. by trial and error. Also find the intersection of the graph with the x-axis.f. marking the points you have found. Hence find all the stationary points of the graph of y = f (x) and determine 33 15. y = . or accurately to 3 s.) (a) Differentiate the following functions with respect to x and simplify your results: i. 11. (You are not required to find the intersections with the x-axis. Consider the function y = x3 − 3x + 2 and its graph. the x-coordinate of the point Q where that normal cuts the curve again. √ (b) Find the equation of the tangent to the graph of y = x x − 1 at the point where x=2. Sketch the parabola and the two lines. 16 Use differentiation to find the stationary point on the graph of y = x2 + and determine x its type. y = ex sin 2x . (You should use the results that you calculated to set a window-size so you can see the important features of the graph. 10. 5 Find the equation of the normal to the graph of y = 3 x2 − 2 x + 3 at the point where 2 x = 1. y = ln(cos x) .Tangents. Find the equations of the tangent and of the normal to the graph of y = 5 + 2x − x2 at the point where x = 2. (d) Find the equation of the normal to the graph at the point where x = 2 . Where does that normal intersect the two axes. (a) Find the coordinates of the point where the graph crosses the y-axis and determine. Graphs 9.) Use the product rule to differentiate the function f (x) = (x − 1)3 (x + 3) and simplify your result. Find the equation of the normal to the graph of y = 1 x2 − x − 4 at the point P where it 2 cuts the x-axis and x ≥ 0. sketch the graph of the function. and what is the area of the triangle bounded by that normal and the axes? 12. ii. the coordinates of the two points which it has in common with the x-axis.

(Hint: all the answers in this problem are integers. 2 where g is a constant for which you should use the approximate value 10 m/sec2 . (b) When an apple is thrown vertically upwards at time t = 0 sec with initial velocity v = 12 m/sec. Applications: Maxima and Minima. (i.) 16. sketch the graph of y = f (x) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 . marking the intersections with the axes clearly. what are the R greatest and the least values. (b) What happens to the gradient function f (x) near x = 0 ? (c) Given that f (x) → 0 as x → 0 . 19. clearly marking all the points you found above. and hence find the greatest value and the least value it takes in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 5 . showing clearly the behaviour near x = 0 .5 sec after it was thrown? After how much time is the velocity of the apple 0 m/sec.their nature. the highest and the lowest values)? Consider the function f (x) = x ln x. (b) find the coordinates of the stationary points and determine their type. its height above the ground at time t is given by s = − 1 gt2 + 12t . (a) This part requires no differentiation.e. Given the function y = x2 e2x . and its graph. (a) Find the stationary point of the graph. If the function is defined only for the domain {x ∈ I : −3 ≤ x ≤ 1}. (c) Use the information you have to sketch the graph of the function. 17. and (c) find the x-coordinates of the points of inflection. Determine the number n of stationary points (i. Hence sketch the graph of the function in a large diagram. Sketch the graph of y = (x − 1)(x − 3) . and what is its height at that time? 34 8 DIFFERENTIATION . for x ≥ 0. how many such points there are. Iterative Methods 20. and determine what type it is.) and the number m of points of inflection of the graph of y = 3x4 + 8x3 − 5.e. Sketch the graph of the function. (b) Consider the behaviour of the graph for large positive and negative values of x. (a) find the point(s) of intersection of its graph with the axes. (you may want to use your calculator for this.) Also find any intersections with the axes. (a) Find the stationary points of the graph of the function y = x2 ex and determine their nature. What are the height of the apple and its velocity 0. 18.

24. 22. What then is that shortest time? 8 DIFFERENTIATION 35 .21. how long does it take him to walk from his farm to A along the road and then across the field to the barn? (You are reminded that velocity is distance over time. x and y are two positive numbers whose sum is 24. and then at right angles to the road across the field for 1 km. A long straight road runs along a field.) 23. and a formula for the surface area A cm2 in terms of x and h . (a) Write down an equation connecting x and h. to a point A.) (b) How long would it take him to walk in a straight line across the field from his farm to the barn? (c) One day. The product of two positive numbers x and y equals 9. What is the greatest value that the product z of one of these numbers with the square of the other one can be? (Hint: you must first obtain a relation between z and just one of the other variables. x km from A. 25. and hence find the dimensions of the box which make (b) Deduce that A = x2 + x the surface area a minimum. 2000 . Write down an expression for z = 4x + y in terms of x. (d) Find the value of x that makes this time a minimum. and from there in a straight line across the field to the barn. Find an expression for the time that this walk takes him. By walking along the road for 1 km. The graph of y = x3 − x + 4 has two stationary points. Find (a) the precise y-value at the local maximum. and the farm of Old MacDonald lies by the road. Old MacDonald can reach one of his barns. and hence find the least (smallest) possible value of z. and (b) the greatest value of the function in the range −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 . (a) If he walks at a speed of 5 km/h along the road and 3 km/h across the field. a local maximum and a local minimum. Old MacDonald decides to take a shortcut: he walks from his farm along the road to a point P . A rectangular box with a square base of side x cm and height h cm is to be open at the top and have volume of 500 cm3 .

the top half is filled with a medium in which light travels at speed u. By expressing the length l of the pole in terms of θ. crossing the interface a distance z from the side of the tank.26. the angle at her eye between the top and the bottom edge is θ. as in the diagram. 1m z ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢  A  x           y¢ B¢ 36 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1m am 8 DIFFERENTIATION . At what distance x does the typical viewer therefore have to stand from the wall to see the mural at its largest? What is that largest angle at which she can view the mural? (c) Briefly explain why the value of x you found by differentiating t does give the greatest value of θ. Light shines from the top right edge A of the tank to the bottom left B. Using tan A ± tan B 4x the formula tan(A ± B) = . A canal has at one point a right angled corner. find the greatest possible length of the pole to 3 s.2 m on one side of the corner and b = 25 m on the other. or otherwise. (a) If a typical viewer stands at x m distance from the bottom of the wall looking up at the mural.f. 28. A mural (wall painting) 4 m high is painted on a vertical wall such that its bottom edge is 1 m above the eye level of a typical viewer. and making angles x and y with the vertical sides at A and B. and the bottom half with a medium in which the speed of light is v. show that tan θ = 2 . Note that y is a function of x. 1 tan A tan B x +5 4x (b) Differentiate the function t = 2 . T a c J J J J Jl J J J J θJ J J J J ' b E 27. a and b. and hence find the stationary point and dex +5 termine its nature. The diagram shows a cross section through a rectangular tank 2m high and a m wide. A pole of negligible thickness floating in the canal is to be manoevred around the corner in horizontal position. its width being a = 43.

2. (e) By substituting the result of part (b) into the condition in part (d) and simplifying. to show that =− 2 . (d) Find dt/dx. Differentiate the equation 4y 2 − x2 y 2 − 9x2 = 0 implicitly with respect to x. (a) Without using a calculator. 1. (b) Use the Newton-Raphson method once to improve your first estimate.r. find the percentage change of x3 . and the relative change in x is . sin x u show that = (Snell’s Law. or may not. √ Hence find the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point (1. find in terms of x and y. Hence find the normal to the graph given by that implicit function at the point (1. dx cos x (c) Write down the distance travelled in each medium in terms of x and y. accurate to one decimal place. Reminder: dy ∆x the formula for small changes is ∆y ≈ ∆x. x. Hence find the equation of dx the normal to the curve with that equation at the point where x = 1.01745 (radians).76. what is the percentage error of the approximation? (b) If the value of x is changed by p %. 37 33. 3). in terms of x and y (and the velocities u and v of course). √ Hence. dy cos2 y (b) Differentiate the equation obtained in part (a) implicitly. Rates of Change 32. find an approximation to the cube root of 7. dy Given that 5x2 − xy + y 2 = 7 . and use these values to estimate the positive solution of f (x) = 0 . find the following formula helpful: f (a + h) = f (a) + f (a)h. Differentiate 4x(y + 1) − ln x + 2ey = 7 w. 4 . find the percentage change of 3 x if x is changed by p %.) sin y v 29. Hence express the total time t that the light needs from A to B. use the method of small changes to find an approximation to the value of tan 43◦ . What is the percentage error of the approximation? (You may.t. or otherwise. (c) Use the formula for the roots of a quadratic equation to determine the solution. 34. π Given that 1◦ = 180 = 0. (remembering that y is a function of x.) 31.) and deduce a condition for the total time t to be a minimum. y = 2 .(a) Express both tan x and tan y in terms of z. What is the percentage error of the estimate you obtained in part (b) ? 30. 3. (a) Calculate the values of the function f (x) = 2x2 + x − 25 for x = 0. 0). Using the accurate value given by the calculator. and hence find the simple equation relating tan x and tan y. dx x Implicit and Parametric Differentiation. 8 DIFFERENTIATION .

1) . Find the gradient of its graph at the point P and write down the equation of the tangent at that point. 1). y = 3 tan t. dx d2 y Differentiate the relation a second time implicitly w. 38. and 2 2 mark the five points and the direction of the curve at these points in a diagram. y = 2 − 2 cos t . dy in terms of t . of the curve given by Find the gradient function dx x = 2 sin t. π 3π Find the x.t. y = sin2 t.and y-coordinates and the gradient of the curve for t = 0. . dy . y = 2 sin t. π Hence find the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point where t = . π. 6 dy in A curve is given parametrically by x = sin 2t. 39.t.and y-coordinates of the point where the gradient of the graph is 1. x .r.35. 2 For that value of k differentiate the relation implicitly w. 2π. (b) Differentiate the relation y 4 + y = x6 + x4 implicitly w. Find dx terms of t. in terms of the parameter t. A curve is given in parametric form by x = 1 + 3 sin t . where 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. Find the value of k ∈ I such that the graph of the relation y 2 sin x + e2y − x2 + k = 0 R passes through the point (π.r. (b) Find dy in terms of t. 8 DIFFERENTIATION 41. 1−t 37. and determine for which values in the range 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π it dx is zero. Hence sketch the graph of the curve. π ). (c) Also find d2 y in terms of t. in terms of the parameter t. (a) Write down the greatest and least values of x and y . (a) Find the value of k such that the graph of the relation (x2 + 2)y + sin y − 4ex + k = 0 passes through the point P (0. Find the gradient function dy/dx. 36. A curve is given parametrically by x = cos t. Hence determine the x. x and find the value of dy at the point (1. 38 . .r. x and find the value of dx2 at the same point. and simplify it. A curve has parametric equations given by (a) Find x= 1+t .t. dx (b) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point where t = 2. and use it to determine the nature of the stationary dx2 points you found in b). 1 − 2t y= 1 + 2t . Hence find the coordinates of the points where the curve has a horizontal tangent. simplifying your answer as much as possible. and find the gradient of the graph at the given point. 40.

Atlantic College. When the angle of elevation is 30◦ . y = 3 sin 2t. when θ = (which is 60◦ )? 3 What then is the rate of change of the area in cm2 /hour? A rocket R is rising straight up into the air. Write down the two values of the parameter t . and write down the gradients of Find the gradient dx the curve at the point where it crosses itself. 43.and y-values. If the baloon is empty to begin with. and (b) how it can happen that in the graph you have drawn. Sketch the curve given parametrically by x = 2 sin t. draw the tangent at A.1◦ /sec. mark the point A at which θ = π/4. in m2 /day. 8 DIFFERENTIATION 39 . Without finding its equation. from a point P which is 3000 m away from an observer O in the same horizontal plane. These materials are made freely available for non-commercial.035 (which is about 2◦ ) per day. In your diagram. marking clearly the minimum and maximum x. and hence calculate the gradient of the dx curve at A. for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π. y) is the origin.5 cm/min. by Kai Arste. 0 ≤ t < 2π. 46. dy as a function of the parameter t. Draw a large sketch of the curve with parametric representation x = 3 sin θ. The angle of elevation of the rocket is the angle ROP above the horizontal at which the rocket is seen by the observer. y = 2 cos 3 θ. dy Find the gradient function . Air is being pumped into a spherical baloon at a rate such that the radius increases at a constant rate of 0. If the angle changes at a constant rate of 0. what is the π rate of change of the area of the triangle. although x and y are both functions. for which (x.) 3 The two equal sides of an isosceles triangle have a length of 4 m and an angle θ between them. 45. Write down an expression for the area of the triangle. teaching purposes only. the graph can cross itself. at what rate is the volume of the baloon increasing when the radius is 10 cm? At what rate does the air have to be pumped in when the volume has reached 4000 cm3 ? 4 (The volume of a sphere of radius r is V = πr3 . also in terms of θ.42. Briefly explain (a) why the graph of a function can never cross itself. What then is the speed of the rocket at that moment? (Remember to change the angles into the right unit!) 44. the rate of change of the angle of elevation is 0.

√ x2 (7 x + 6) dx . Find (x2 + 5) cos x dx. 2 −2 3 1 x(x + 3) dx e1−x dx i. and (b) the integral of the function f (x) = x e1+x . Integration Do the following indefinite integrals: (a) (b) (c) (2x + 3)5 dx √ 5 x−2 √ dx x (Hint: Rewrite the function as a sum before integrating.) x (4 cos 2x + 3 sin ) dx 2 2. dx (Hint: Rewrite the function as a sum before integrating. y = ln x3 4 dx. 5. 2x − 1 ii.) x (b) Evaluate the following definite integrals: π x i. 40 Find (a) the derivative. 9 INTEGRATION 2 . f (x) = 2 cos πx + 4e2x (b) Evaluate the following definite integrals: i. 7. (a) Integrate the following two functions: √ i. f (x) = 6x2 − x ii. Find the following indefinite integrals and simplify your answers: (a) (b) (e1−x + 1) dx .) ii.9 Methods of Integration 1. ii. y = 5 ln 2x. (4 cos 2x + sin ) dx (You may be able to find the answer without in2 0 tegrating. 2 1 (2x − 3)4 dx 4. 3. (2ex + ) dx √ x 5 x−2 √ ii. (a) Do the following indefinite integrals: 3 i. (a) Differentiate (b) Evaluate 3 2 6.

√ (b) xe2x . ii. Perform the following integrations: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) x2 (2x − 3) dx √ 2 dx 1 − 9x2 xe2x−3 dx cot x dx cos2 x dx (a) xex . 12. 1 dx by using (a) the substitution x = sin θ.’ and simplify your results. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) cos5 x sin x dx 2x sin 2x dx x−1 √ dx x sec2 θ etan θ dθ 18 dx +9 18 dx 2−9 x 18x dx x2 + 9 12 2 dx 2x − 3 5 x2 10.8. 2 11. Integrate the following functions: Find the integral tion x = cos θ. (a) i. x(x2 + 3)5 dx 3x − 1 dx x3 − x2 sin θ cos θ dθ 1 + sec2 x dx x + tan x ‘Eight integrals in 25 minutes. (b) the substitu1 − x2 41 9 INTEGRATION . iii. xex dx xe2x dx x2 ex dx 2 (b) (c) (d) (e) 9.

and s and t denote the vertical displacement of the body and time. 1.e. At the Olympics in Barcelona. I π/2 0 16. After that. d2 s = −g. Find the function f (x) . i.5) . 1 0 1 −1 14. find an expression for the height s(t) of the diver above the surface at time t. Evaluate the following definite integrals precisely: (a) (b) 15. q ∈ Q.) 13. as a fraction reduced to its lowest terms. find an expression for the velocity v(t) at time t. find p and q. let Cn = cosn x dx. Given the reduction formula Cn = π/2 n−1 Cn−2 . 18. The gradient function of y = f (x) is f (x) = e2x + 1 . (It may help to sketch the two integral functions on the calculator. Use your calculator to sketch a diagram of the speed v(t) of the car between t = 0 min and t = 7 min and describe the movement of the car in a brief sentence. from t = 4 min onwards. and calculate his velocity at that moment. √ 4x dx 1 − x2 2 dx 4 − x2 x ln x dx . (a) By integrating the equation of motion and determining the value of the constant of integration. find the value of cos7 x dx . In this problem. giving n 0 your answer precisely.Explain why the results of the integrations look different.) 17. respectively. (a) Calculate the speed of the car at t = 1 min and t = 4 min. 42 9 INTEGRATION . and the graph of y = f (x) passes through the point P (0. It is given that the equation of motion of a body moving under gravity is dt 2 2 where you should take g = 10 m/sec . After one minute (at t = 1 min) it starts to move. A car is standing still next to me on a long straight road. (c) Hence calculate the time after his jumping up when he hit the surface of the water. π/2 (a) Do (b) If 0 x cos x dx = pπ + q. when s = 0. and for the next three minutes its speed in km/min is given by v = 1 (−4t3 + 30t2 − 48t + 22).5. Evaluate C1 . (Note: you are not asked to prove that reduction formula. a diver jumped upwards at time t = 0 sec with a velocity of v = 6 m/sec from a springboard which is s = 8 m above the water surface. (b) By integrating your expression for v(t) and determining the constant of integration. where p. it continues to move 27 along at the speed it has reached.

1 √ dx.. (c) At what time does the car accelerate most strongly and what is its greatest acceleration. Find one of the (infinitely many) areas enclosed by the x-axis and the graph of y = 1 − cos x. Find the points of intersection of that graph with the line y = 0.. I Find the area bounded by the graph of y = x2 + 1. 23.5. 2 Find the points of intersection of the graphs of y = and y = −2x + 5. Find the points of intersection of the graph of y = f (x) with the axes. giving your answer in the 2x + 1 1 (b) Find the area below the graph of f (x) = 2 sin x . Hence find the area bounded by the graph of y = x2 + 1 and the line y = 5. and the vertical and horizontal asymptotes. and use this information to sketch the graph.. (It may help to sketch the graph first . between x = 0 and x = 2 π . 20. in km/min2 ? (d) What distance does the car travel between t = 4 min and t = 7 min ? (e) Similarly.(b) Find a formula for the acceleration a(t) of the car for the time between t = 1 min and t = 4 min. Consider the graph of y = sin x for 0 ≤ x ≤ π. x 0 1 ii. 25. (x + 1)(x − 3) i. and calculate x the area enclosed by the two curves. 24. N 13 1 1 dx . give your answer for the area in the form p 3 + qπ. Hence find the area bounded by the graph of that function. the y-axis and the line y = 2 . q ∈ Q. (a) Evaluate the following definite integral: form ln p . 22. and hence the area bounded by the curve and the line. where p. and what has been its average speed during that time? Areas and Volumes 19. Evaluate the integral 1 9 INTEGRATION 43 . Then find the area enclosed by the two graphs. 21. Use your calculator to sketch the graph of y = √ . where p ∈ I . and the two lines x = ±2. what distance does it travel between t = 1 min and t = 4 min ? (f) How far then has the car travelled from where I am still on the side of the road in the first 7 minutes.) Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the graphs of y = x2 +2 and y = x+8. What do you observe? x(x − 2) (b) Consider the function f (x) = . and sketch its graph. the x -axis. and mark the area correx sponding to the definite integral you calculated in part i. To √ gain full marks. (a) i.

√ Consider the function y = 4 − x2 . defined for −2 ≤ x ≤ 2. as k increases more and more. 1 Sketch the graph of the function y = 2 for x > 0 and find. Integrate the function f (x) and simplify your result. in the same diagram. Hence sketch the graph of the function. Hence find the stationary point (turning point) and determine its nature. Deduce the 0 area of a circle of radius 2. Find the area enclosed by the two graphs. (c) What is the equation of the tangent to the graph of y = sin x at P ? (d) Find the angle that the tangent you found in part (c) makes with the x-axis. 2√ (b) Use the substitution x = 2 sin θ to evaluate the integral 4 − x2 dx. Calculate the small area bounded by the graph of y = f (x) and the x-axis. (a) Sketch the graphs of the functions y = sin x and y = cos x for −π ≤ x ≤ π. . and write down the coordinates of the points of intersection. iv. where k > 2. (a) Find the values of 0 π 2 π 4 x sin x dx and 0 sin3 x cos x dx (b) Sketch the graphs of y = sin x and y = cos x. for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π. (c) Find the volume of revolution when the area bounded by the x-axis. Differentiate the function f (x) and hence determine the coordinates of the stationary point of the curve. giving the values precisely. Discuss what happens to that area as k → ∞ (i.ii. 44 . (c) Find the volume generated when the area bounded by the positive x-axis and the positive y-axis and the curve is rotated around the x-axis.) and deduce the area below the graph to the right of x = 2 .e. (a) Given the function f (x) = e−x /2 . (b) Find the precise value of the area enclosed by the two graphs between those points of intersection in your diagram. the graph of √ y = x and the line with equation x = 4 is rotated about the x-axis. iii. 29. find its derivative f (x) and hence find the coordinates of any stationary point(s) the graph of the function may have. 30. Let P be the point of intersection of the two graphs with the smallest positive x-coordinate. Deduce the volume of a sphere of radius 2. and investigate the gradient function as x → ±2. 28. in terms of k. (a) Differentiate the function. Find the intersections of the graph of the function with the axes. and hence find the angle at which the graphs of the two functions intersect at P . the area below x the graph between x = 2 and x = k. 26. 9 INTEGRATION 2 27. accurate to 3 significant figures.

dx. write down a differential equation for the displacement s and solve it. show that the velocity at time t.) Use your calculator. and use it to determine the nature of the stationary point(s) you found in part (a). 4). 1 at time t = 60 h) is 16 km/h.e. and to find the coordinates of any points of inflection of the graph of y = f (x). is v = 100(1 − 36t)2 . friction would actually be approximately proportional to the square of the velocity. (d) It is given that as N → ∞. labelling clearly any points you previously found.e. Solve the differential equation dx Sketch the graphs of the solution for three different values of the constant.] 32. so that the deceleration (i. and a suitable (not too large) number N . Hence find. the integral N −N e−x 2 /2 dx → L. the value of the definite integral M = to the value of M as N → ∞ ? (f) It is also given that as N → ∞. What then is the value of ? L (g) This problem has been about differentiation and integration.) is proportional to the square root of the velocity. After how much time will the car come to a stop? (c) Using the fact that v = ds/dt. find the indefinite integral in terms of N . where k ∈ I . dy √ = 2 y. √ L can actually be written in the form kπ. Set up a differential equation for the velocity v and find its general solution. Find the value V of V accurate to 3 decimal places. (b) If the initial velocity of the car was 100 km/h and the velocity after 1 minute (i. Find the equations of the two curves of the ‘family’ that pass through the point (1. (a) A car is rolling freely to a stop. but what is the significance of the function that has been discussed? x2 e−x 2 /2 Differential Equations 31. How far will the car have travelled before it comes to a stop? [Over most of the velocity range in the problem. (i. slowed down by friction only. (e) Using a suitable substitution. acceleration being the rate of change of velocity. measured in hours. Write down the equation of the asymptote of the graph. From your approximation. What happens dx → V . as N becomes larger and larger. the integral N −N N −N xe−x xe −x2 /2 2 /2 dx.e. (c) Hence sketch the graph of y = f (x).(b) Find the second derivative f (x). and any intersection(s) with the axes. to find the value of L accurate to 3 decimal places. not to its square root. negative acceleration. the value of the integral comes closer and closer to some fixed number L. N find k. 45 9 INTEGRATION .

What simple curve is the graph a part of? (d) Use the trapezium rule with 6 ordinates. with 4 strips. (a) Evaluate the definite integral 3 1 √ x dx precisely. What is the percentage error of your estimate? √ (a) List the values of the function f (x) = 1 − x2 for x = 0.) to find an approximation to the value of the integral in (a). with 5 strips. Numerical Integration 35. 0. (b) Use the trapezium rule with 5 ordinates.e. by Kai Arste. i. (c) Use your answers to the previous two parts to sketch the graph of y = f (x) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 . 46 9 INTEGRATION . 0. (i. (e) Use your answers to the last two parts to estimate the value of π . dx dy = y. 36. Atlantic College.4. (b) Find the derivative f (x) of the function and evaluate it for x = 0 and x = 1 .2. giving your answer in the form dx y = f (x).8. and find the particular integral such that y = 3 when x = 4. 0. to find the area under the graph approximately. √ (c) From the results of (a) and (b) deduce an approximation to the value of 3. Find the general solutions of the following differential equations: dy + xy = 1. teaching purposes only.33. 0. (b) x2 dx (a) x2 34. dy Solve the differential equation (x2 − 5x + 6) = y. These materials are made freely available for non-commercial.6.e. 1 .

towards the east. b and c: i. ii. OB and OC form edges of a rectangular box. iii. QR − SR + 2 SQ. towards the east. You are sitting inside −→ −→ this box. from B to the lower corner behind you on the right. What are the speed and direction of the swimmer relative to land? A plane flying at 500 km/h is heading on a bearing of 210◦ in a storm blowing at 200 km/h from due West. i. 4. find the values of λ ∈ I such that p + λq is R 3 −2 1 6. Q. −1 47 10 VECTORS . Vectors A swimmer in heading due West at a speed of 2 km/h while being carried along by a stream flowing North to South. a hiker has walked 10 km to the south-east. At what speed is the plane moving relative to the ground. How far away is the camp now. also at 2 km/h. 5. parallel to the vector −1 . sin A sin B sin C You are reminded that in a triangle c2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos C and = = . measured clockwise. (b) P. (a) If a = and b = ii. 3.10 1. parallel.) a b c (a) The vectors OA. from O to the upper corner behind you on the right. Simplify the following vector expressions: i. from O to the upper right-hand corner in front of you. iv. and on what bearing? (The bearing of a direction is the angle it makes with the north. P Q − P R ii. perpendicular? (a) Given that p = 2 and q = 4 i. and then 5 km on a bearing of 75◦ . solve the equation 3a − 2x = b. 2 . R and S are any four points.) a b c From his overnight-camp. but he can still see the camp. in such a way that OA is running from left to right in front of you and OB is pointing upwards. 7 . −→ −→ −→ −→ −→ −→ −→ −→ 2. sin A sin B sin C You are reminded that in a triangle c2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos C and = = . from the lower corner behind you on the left to A. −→ −→ −→ If a = OA.e. b = OB and c = OC. measured clockwise. i. express the following vectors in terms of a. 12 k (b) For what values of k are the vectors −2 and −3 1 i.e. and on what bearing from his present position? (The bearing of a direction is the angle it makes with the north.

l and m such that (b) Find the angle between the vectors −2 −1 2 2 1 2 + 3 3 . the 3 vector of magnitude 1 in the direction of x . −→ −→ 12. and (b) the angle between the vectors r and s . k . using a unit of 1 = 2 cm . r + s and r − s in a single diagram. 48 10 VECTORS . −3) and C(4.5 m. It may help to draw simple sketch in two dimensions. i. and a height of 2. 0 9. (b) What are the lengths of the side BC and the median AM ? (c) Calculate the value of the scalar product BC · AM . (a) Find the cosine of the angle between −2 and 1 by drawing a diagram. What kind of triangle is ABC therefore? (d) Use the results of parts (b) and (c) to find the area of the triangle ABC. perpendicular to the vector 3 . or otherwise. It is given that r = −ı + 3 and s = 4ı +  . and the diagonal from the same corner of the floor to the opposite corner on the ceiling in vector form. find the angle between the two diagonals. Consider the vectors p = and q = 3 k . s .ii. represent a diagonal across the floor. 4 . what is the angle between the vectors? 10. 7.  . 2. 0 (b) Find any vector x perpendicular to a = 4 . Choosing suitable base-vectors ı . (c) Represent the four vectors r . Then find the unit vector x . Do not use a calculator in this problem. 4. 11.e. (c) If k = 4 and l = 0. 0 (b) Write down the unit vector in the same direcion as k −5 2 and 8. (b) Find the values of k and l so that p and q are parallel. The triangle ABC has vertices at A(1. l (a) If l = −1. 1). Estimate what the angle is 3 −2 1 . 7. 2). Hence. B(0. (a) Find the values of k. find the value of k so that p and q are perpendicular. 2 −7 l 1 +m 2 1 −1 = 0 0 . A rectangular room has a floor area of 5 m by 4 m. Find (a) the magnitude of the resultant r + s . (a) Find the coordinates of the midpoint M of side BC.

express AC and BC in terms of the position vectors of A and C (only). 16. 6) and R(1. 5. and their magnitudes. 4. −4) and R(0. (a) Find the vectors P Q and P R. A triangle has vertices P (−1. Hence find the area of the triangle. 2). Rewrite the following Cartesian equations of three lines in parametric form. How long is that road? As tourism to Mount B has increased greatly. The points A and B are the ends of a diameter of a circle of radius r. −1). and C is any other point on the circumference. adapt the method used in part (a) to find the area of the triangle in the xyplane with vertices X(2. From O-town. 2 −1 2 10 VECTORS x−1 y−1 1−z = = . find the vectors P Q −→ −→ −→ and P R. (b) By considering the 2-dimensional xy-plane as the plane in 3-dimensional space where z = 0. (b) Suppose that X lies a fraction λ along the way from O-town to A-ville. and calculate their vector-product P Q × P R. the new road should be as short as possible. and find the angle between the first two lines: y+3 z x−2 = = . Hence find the area of the triangle P QR. and express the vector from O-town to Mount B in terms of that basis. and hence show that the angle subtended by AB at C is a right angle. Y (3. −→ −→ Using the centre O of the circle as the origin. −2. Q(2.13. and use it to find the area of the triangle again. and express the road from Mount B to X as a vector. (b) Also calculate the vector product P Q × P R. Hence describe the location of X relative to O-town. and use the scalar product to find the cosine of the angle between them. (c) Use the condition that the new road should be as short as possible to determine the value of λ. 6 2 3 x−7 z + 11 = . there is a straight road to A-ville. (a) Given the three points P (1. but to save costs. in terms of λ. 3). Mount B is 5 km West and 1 km South of A-ville. 3. −→ −→ −→ −→ 15. −1). which is 9 km to the East and 6 km North of O-town. 5. At the moment there is only a dirt road to Mount B. 2). 4) and Z(−2. which runs straight from O-town. 0). −→ 14. 1. showing clearly how you arrive at your answer. it is decided to build a straight road from Mount B to join with the road from O-town to A-ville at some point X. 3-Dimensional Vector Geometry 17. Q(1. (a) Choose a suitable vector basis.y = 2 3 5 49 .

(a) Determine if the following planes are parallel. It is given that of the following three lines 1 :r= 1 2 3 +λ −1 2 . and two intersect in one point. ii. and (e) obtain the point of intersection of the two planes with a third plane. State. find the distance between them. 1 2 :r= −2 5 3 2 + µ −4 . −2 3 :r= −4 3 8 −1 + ν −1 1 two are parallel. −1). Consider the planes Π1 : x − 2y + 2z = 2 and Π2 : 3x − 4z = 12. (a) find the vector equation of the line through the point P and perpendicular to the plane. 7 2 3 22. find the angle between them and the equation of their line of intersection. 50 10 VECTORS . i. If they are. and the point P (6. and (c) the coordinates of any point that lies on both planes. find their point of intersection. and the coordinates of the point F of intersection of and the plane. i. and hence (d) a vector equation for their line of intersection. 19. 3 −2 −1 (c) Hence find the angle between the line and the plane Π . find the distance between them. (b) Determine if the following line and plane are parallel. and find the coordinates of the point of intersection of the two lines that intersect. (b) find the vector-product of the normals of Π1 and Π2 . which ones are parallel and which perpendicular. with reasons. Given the plane with normal equation r · 2 1 −2 = −1. (a) Convert the following equation of a line to vector (parametric) form: x−1 y+1 2z = = . (a) Calculate the cosine of the angle between the two planes. if they are not.18. If they are. −1 −2 −3 r = −11 + κ 2 and r · −6 = −9 . Π3 : x − y + z = −1. 20. ii. x+y−z =3 and 2x − y + 2z = −4 . 2 3 3 (b) Convert the following equation of a plane Π to Cartesian form: −1 1 0 r = 0 +λ 1 +µ 2 . one is perpendicular to the other two. 3. if they are not. 21.

Atlantic College.) 25. −2. −1). 2. 2. 4) from the plane of the triangle? (This question does not require any calculation. in vector (or parametric) form. or otherwise. 23. L(4. 2 Then find the point F of intersection of the plane and the line. 24. teaching purposes only. (b) Deduce that the Cartesian form of the equation of that plane is 12x − y − 4z = 38. Also find the point P which is the reflection of point P in the given plane. 2. Find the area of the triangle with vertices A(1. and also the equation of the line of intersection between the two planes. (Note that the last two parts of the problem can be done without having done the first two parts. 0). find the volume of the tetrahedron ABCD. −3. 0). 10 VECTORS 51 . (c) Find the cosine of the angle between this plane and a second plane with equation 3x + y − z = 7. and (c) the coordinates of the image point P when the point P is reflected in the plane. 0). (d) Find the point of intersection of the two planes with a third plane. x + 2y = 0. 0).(b) Hence find the distance of point P from the plane.) (a) Find the equation of the plane through the three points K(3. −2. (Note that all coordinates and other values in this problem are integers. 1.) Hence. What is the distance of the point D(−2. Find the equation of the line through P (−1. 3) and M (3. 4) perpendicular to the plane with equation −2 r · −1 = 26. and hence the distance of P from the plane. 0. by Kai Arste. C(0. These materials are made freely available for non-commercial. B(−3.

by setting up and solving simultaneous equations for the real and imaginary parts of z . 3. (b) Find the moduli and arguments of z = −2 − 2 i and w = 1 + z the modulus and argument of (a) zw .11 1. (c) z 2 = 1 − 2i . and represent them in an Argand diagram. (b) A quadratic equation with real coefficients has (1 − 1 i) as one of its roots (or so2 lutions. (a) Find a quadratic equation with real coefficients. by subtractiung and dividing. 2. express z. 52 11 COMPLEX NUMBERS . 3 z + (2 − i) w = 5 − i. 5. w √ 3 i . (c) Solve the quadratic equation iz 2 + (2 + 4i)z + (4 − 13i) = 0. 1 (a) If z = −3 + 4 i. (b) .) (a) (1 − 2i) z + (2 − i) = −1 + i . (b) Use the standard formula. (b) Use deMoivre’s Theorem to find the modulus and arguments of the cube roots of √ √ z = −4 2 + 4 2 i. and represent them in an Argand diagram. its complex conjugate z and its reciprocal z in modulus¯ argument form. (c) Find the two values of z such that: z 2 + (−2 − 2i)z + (−4 + 2i) = 0. and represent the roots in an Argand diagram. 4. giving the real and imaginary parts accurate to 2 decimal places. (a) Solve the following equation for z: (3 − 4 i) z − 2 + i = 0 . 7. (a) Use the algebraic method to find the square roots of z = −24 − 10 i. (Pay attention to the number of solutions in each case. using your calculator.) Write down the other root. Hence calculate 6. to solve the following quadratic equation: i z 2 + (2 − 2 i) z + (−6 + 3 i) = 0 . and find the simplest such equation with all integer coefficients. and the result of part (a) above. Complex Numbers (a) For which z is (4 + i)z + (−11 + 10i) = 0 ? (b) Solve the following equations simultaneously: 2i z + (1 + i) w = 2 + 2i. (b) z 2 = 15 + 8i . (b) Find a quadratic equation whose roots are 1 − 2i and 2 + i. (a) Use the algebraic method to find the square roots of z = 12 + 16 i. Solve the following equations by the methods specified. one of whose roots is 1 − 2i.

(d) z 3 + 8 = 0 . so that if a. √ 3π i. find the precise values of the modulus and the argument of the number. 4 iii. sketch the locus in an Argand diagram: | z − 1| = (z + i). b ∈ I then (a + b i) = b. 4 13. ¯ i. find the square roots of z = −8 − 6i and represent z and its two roots in an Argand diagram. teaching purposes only. 4 (b) Use the substitution z = x + iy to express the following condition in terms of x and y and simplify it. (Note that (z) denotes the imaginary part of the complex number z. (b) Use the substitution z = x + iy to express the following condition in terms of x and 1 y and simplify it. Atlantic College.) 11. π 8. b ∈ I . so that if a. arg (z + 2 − 3i) = − (b) If z = x + iy . (c) Use deMoivre’s theorem to find the modulus and the arguments of the five 5th roots of z = −32 and represent these roots in an Argand diagram. These materials are made freely available for non-commercial. sketch the locus in an Argand diagram: ( z ) = (z). π . Sketch the following loci in separate Argand diagrams. | z + 2 − i| = 2 . write the following locus in Cartesian form: (z 2 ) + 2z z = 3. (Hint: let z = x + iy . 12. and ii. Write 3 2 e 4 i in the form a + bi where a. by first factorising the LHS using the identity a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 − ab + b2 ). 5π . | z + 1| = | z + 3 − 2i| . (a) arg(z − 2 − i) = − (b) | 1 − i − z| = 1 .) z ¯ 3π . (a) Mark the following loci in one Argand diagram. (a) 10. i. Express −5 + 12i in modulus-argument form. where z is the complex conjugate of z. (Note that (z) denotes the real part of the complex number z. R ii. 2+ 3 i By rewriting e e in the form r eiθ . (c) | z + 1| = | z − 1 − 2i|. 9. ii. (b) Using the algebraic method. (d) ( (¯ − 6) z ) = −5.) R (a) Represent the following locus in an Argand diagram: arg(z − 1 − i) = (a) Represent the following locus in an Argand diagram: | z − 2 + I| = 2. by rewriting −8 in modulus-argument form and using deMoivre’s theorem. b ∈ I R then (a + b i) = a. 11 COMPLEX NUMBERS 53 . by Kai Arste.

2). Find the matrix MT of that linear transformation. 0) and B(2. 2. find the vertices of its image OA B under the transformation T . 4 3 −1 3 . (a) (A + 2B)2 = A2 + 4AB + 4B 2 . of the following are not valid matrix identities? State your reasons carefully. (c) Calculate the area of triangle OAB and the determinant det MT of the matrix. A(4. 3 3 transformed by T ? 12 LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS AND MATRICES Into what vector is 54 . 0). A linear transformation T has matrix MT = (a) If the triangle OAB has vertices O(0. (d) By comparing the triangle OAB and its image. 5. 2 1 3 4 0 −2 1 −3 . Linear Transformations and Matrices 3 −1 2 − 2X = 4 2 0 5 5 0 . and hence find the area of triangle OA B . try to describe the effect of the linear transformation T .12 1. 1 −2 . sketch the triangles OAB and OA B in the same diagram. 1 −2 20 Solve the following equation to find the matrix X: Solve the following matrix equations to find the matrix X in each case: (a) 2X + (b) X 3 −1 2 5 3 0 =3 −4 2 0 −1 −2 20 2 1 2 0 = . (b) Choosing a suitable scale. and . . where λ is a scalar and I is the identity matrix. 4. (a) The linear transformation T transforms the vector 1 3 into 1 −2 2 0 into the vector −4 2 . and hence solve the following simultaneous equations: x − 2y = 7 2x + y = −9 6. Solve each of the following equations for the matrix X: 1 −2 3 0 5 −1 4 1 (b) X = 2 3 4 1 (c) X= 2 3 (a) − 2X = 1 0 1 0 2 1 2 1 . (e) Find the inverse M −1 of the matrix M . 3. if any. (b) (A + λI)3 = A3 + 3λA2 + 3λ2 A + λ3 . Which.

that det(XY ) = (det X)(det Y ). 7. A−1 B −1 . Find the complex number . A−1 . give a corrected version of it. (a) i. N (c) If A is an n × n -matrix and λ ∈ I is any scalar. j and i + j. Sketch the triangle A B C and find its area. If Q = . What do you observe? Try to generalise. find the product zw of the two numbers.(b) The linear transformation with matrix M = 1 2 maps the triangle with ver−2 1 tices A. Write down the inverse matrix P −1 of P . is the following a valid identity: R det(λA) = λ det A ? If it is not. Calculate the complex number . Describe in geometrical terms the linear transformation represented by the ma3 −2 trix P = . (b) (c) (b) Hence prove by induction that if A is any 2 × 2 -matrix det(An ) = (det A)n . 1).e. i. ii. 4 −1 i. It is given that A = 2 1 −1 2 and B = 1 2 0 1 . (b) Use a matrix method to solve the simultaneous equation: 2x + y = 1 −x + 2y = 4 (c) What types of linear transformations do matrices A and B represent? 8. ii. (a) Find the following matrices: AB. Find the coordinates of vertex C. find the product P Q of the two matrices. iii. z iii.) 2 3 ii. B −1 A−1 . B and C to the triangle with vertices A (1. giving your answer in the form a + bi. 1) and C (3. for all n∈I . B (4. −1 −4 iii. 5) . again giving your answer in the form 3 − 4i a + bi. (AB)−1 . Briefly outlining your reasoning. Describe the linear transformation. show that the determic d r s nant of their product is the product of their determinants. Then use the determinant of M to deduce the area of triangle ABC. 12 LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS AND MATRICES 55 . Rewrite the complex number z = 3 + 2i in modulus-argument form. 1 ii. If w = −1 + 4i. again in the form a + bi. (a) Given the two matrices X = a b p q and Y = . −2 + 5i i. (Hint: Consider the effects on the vectors i. B −1 . i. use the results of the previous parts of this −1 −2 −5 3 4 problem to write down the matrix . 5 −2 −4 3 9.

and verify that |x ⊗ y| = |x| |y| sin θ. Hence solve the following system of equations: x − 2y = 0 3x + y + 5z = 2 −x + 2y + 3z = 1. What other vector operation do these results suggest that the operation ⊗ is the same as? 10. j and k. and hence find the solution of the equations. the     a p      b  and y =  q . Consider the following system of equations: x + 2y + z = a 2x + y + z = 0 λx − y − 2z = 0     11. x − y + z = 0 2x − y − z = 0 px + 6y + 2z = 0. iii. p q r i. with the usual base vectors i. For which value of p does the following system of homogeneous equations have a nontrivial solution? For that value of p. (b) If a = 0. use z your calculator to find the inverse matrix M −1 . find the cosine of the angle θ between x and y. then x ⊗ y = ⊗ is defined as follows: if x =     c r     2 0     If x =  −1  and y =  4 . −7 6 −10 1 −2 0    1   −14 3 −5  and  3 1 5  are Find the value of k so that the matrices     21 k 0 7 −1 2 3 inverses of each other. and between x ⊗ y and y. x (a) If λ = 5 and a = 7. 56 12 LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS AND MATRICES .     2 −3 vector operation i j k a b c . rewrite the set of equations in the form M y = v. a solution other than x = y = z = 0 ? Write down one such other solution. this is a set of homogeneous equations.(d) In 3-dimensional space.e. ii. 12. evaluate the determinant x ⊗ y and write the result as a column vector. find the angles between x ⊗ y and x. For which value of λ do the equations have a non-trivial solution. find the general form of the solution. i.

MF M +Q MQ QF M +F (M + F )Q These materials are made freely available for non-commercial. The results from a survey in two apartment blocks. defined? Which of them is meaningful? (b) Calculate the meaningful one of the four ‘products’ in (a). pigs and horses. (where M T denotes the transpose of the matrix M .) Which of these four is. by Kai Arste. A and B. and use it to calculate the costs of the two plans. He has to decide between two plans.  mh mp   fh fp   heads arms legs 1 2 4   A 8 M=  B 11 3  2 A 9 F =  B 10 4  5 humans  Q= pets (a) Copy and complete the matrix Q in the most suitable way. (a) Consider the four ‘products’ RP. (c) The cost of the land used is £15/unit and the cost of the building space is £20/unit. matrix Q summarises some well-known facts of biology. teaching purposes only. Calculate the ones that are meaningful. and very briefly describe the information they show. cattle pigs horses cattle pigs horses      R= land 10  building 4 3 7 6 9 P = plan I  20 plan II 40 40 20 10 0 . which are as shown in the second matrix. (b) Decide which of the following matrix expressions (i) can be calculated and (ii) are meaningful. RP T and RT P T . or are.13. 14. and buying dairy cattle. Explain what kind of information this product gives. A farmer is moving from crops to lifestock. 12 LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS AND MATRICES 57 . RT P. as shown in the first matrix. Atlantic College. by investing in land and buildings. of course the different kinds of animals have different requirements of land area and building space. Represent this information in another matrix. of the numbers of male and female residents (humans) and of male and female pets (dogs and cats) are summarised in the matrices M and F .

These materials are made freely available for non-commercial. n (a) r=0 n 2r = n2 + n + 1... deduce the value of the sum 1 + 2 + 3 + . for n = 0. 1. N 2. decide which is the true one and prove it by induction. 2r = 2n+1 − 1. for n = 0.. (b) r=0 3.. (a) Prove by induction that the number of ways in which n people can be arranged around a round table is (n − 1) ! . Hence find the value of 1 + 2 + 4 + 5 + 7 + 8 + . (At a round table. + 3n. 58 13 MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION . 2. + 50. Mathematical Induction Of the following two propositions only one is true... if everyone just moves one seat to the right. By trying different values for n.. both in terms of n. + 3n. . .) 1 (b) Prove by induction that 1 + 2 + 3 + . by Kai Arste.. Of the following two propositions only one is true. it is the same arrangement.. 2.. . teaching purposes only. From the formula for the sum. . and the value of the sum 3 + 6 + 9 + .13 1. 1. Atlantic College.. (a) n2 + 2n is a multiple of 3 for all n ∈ I . By trying different values for n. decide which is the true one and prove it by induction. + n = 2 n(n + 1).. N (b) n3 + 2n is a multiple of 3 for all n ∈ I .

(c) two pencils are picked at random from five pencils of different colours? 2. 5. (c) the two dice show different numbers. and picked them up in random order. Write down the probabilities of the following events: (a) the first sock is blue. 6 grey and 10 blue socks are hanging on a washing line. (b) both dice show a Three. (e) the sum of the numbers is at most 11. (b) four people arrive at a meeting in random order. 7. 2. 3. Two coins have been tossed. equally likely outcomes there are when (a) three fair dice are rolled.14 1. (b) that two dice that are rolled have a total score of 10 or less. If you have been told that at least one of the coins has come up Heads. 4. Probability Write down how many distinct. are neither in ascending nor in descending numerical order. (a) Five coins have been tossed. (d) the sum of the numbers is 4. Write down the probabilities of the following events: (a) that three coins that are tossed show either all Heads or all Tails. (e) one of the socks is red. 11. (c) the socks are of the same colour. What is the probability that they are neither all Heads nor all Tails? (b) Someone has dropped five pages of an essay. (b) both socks are blue. and two socks are taken at random. Two dice are rolled. What is the probability that they are in the right order or in the opposite to the right order? 6. 4. picked up at random. numbered 1. 3. Write down the probabilites of the following events: (a) the second die shows a Four. (d) one sock is blue and the other is grey. 4 and 5. what is the probability that both coins have come up Heads? 59 14 PROBABILITY . (c) that four sheets of paper numbered 2.

In the five days from Monday to Friday. (a) If two chips are chosen at random. (a) i. for recycling. what is the probability that these two keys are hanging next to eachother? iii. 25% of the chips produced by a machine are faulty. followed by one of the other letter-buttons (i. Opening the lock requires pressing the C-button. Six students regularly study together. (b) the first bottle is green and the second bottle is white. what are the probabilities that (a) it is always the same person who has to buy the chocolate. and (b) it is a different person on each of the five days? 8. three of white glass and five of green glass.. What is the probability that they all show a Six? ii. into a bottle bank. 1. Z. (c) the first two bottles are of different colours. 9.) How many combinations are there? (c) 5 different keys.e. What is the probability that one is Hearts and the other Spades? 10. A conscientious person puts eight bottles. and each day they decide randomly who has to buy some chocolate. in random order.. and it takes 4 seconds to try a key in a lock. 2.7. (e) the last two bottles are both green? 11. X.. Y. Two cards are drawn from a deck (without replacement. what is the probability that neither is faulty? 60 14 PROBABILITY . for 5 similar locks. Three dice are rolled. how long might it take someone to open all the locks if they are very unlucky? 9. How many possible four-digit combinations are there? (b) Another lock has buttons labelled 0.) What is the probability that both are Hearts? ii. What is the probability that two show a Six each and one an odd number? (b) i. i.. 2. followed by four different number-buttons. (a) A combination lock has four dials. have been put back on their 5 hooks in random order. C. 9. If two of the keys are a little thicker. . What are the probabilities that (a) the first two bottles are green.. and then the remaining ones on the next lock.. If someone tries all the keys on the first lock until it opens. 1. not ’C’. each with numbers 0. in any order. How many different arrangements are there of the keys? ii. (d) the first bottle is green or the second bottle is white. . and so on.

2 and p (B) = 0. Given that p(M ) = 3/4. (a) If A and B are independent events. If A and B are events such that p (A) = 0. 2 Of two coins.(b) A box contains eight chips. and (b) A and B are independent events. what is the probability of A ∧ B ? 15. again if K and L are independent. find p(N ).5. 18. what is the probability that neither is faulty? 12. what is the probability of A ∨ B ? (b) If A and C are mutually exclusive. in terms of probabilites. find p (A ∨ B) given that (a) A and B are mutually exclusive events. of which two are faulty. p(B) = and p(A ∨ B) = . Find the probabilities of the following events: 14 PROBABILITY 61 . 14. (c) p ( (K ∪ L) ) (i. p(M ∧ N ) = 1/2 and p(M ∨ N ) = 11/12. (a) If A and B are independent. Find the following probabilities: (a) p (K ∪ L). 2/3 and 2/5 respectively. Are events M and N independent? State your reason briefly. One of the coins is picked at random and rolled.6 and p (L) = 0. if K and L are mutually exclusive. Two events A and B have probabilities p (A) = p (A ∪ B) . one is fair while on the other Heads has a probability of 3 . find p(B) and hence p(A ∨ B). in the following two cases: 2 3 and p (B) = 1 . if K and L are independent events. find p(A ∧ B). the probability of the event: not K or L). Suppose that A and B are events such that p(A) = 2/3 and p(A ∧ B) = 2/5. to say that two events X and Y are mutually exclusive? 16. What is p (A ∨ B) . If two chips are chosen from the box at random. 19. 17.e. or 4 (a) the events A and B are mutually exclusive? (b) the events A and B are independent? 13. The events K and L have probabilities p (K) = 0.3 . 3 5 13 Given that p(A) = . (b) What is p(B) if A and B are exhaustive events? What does it mean. (b) p (K ∪ L). B and C are events with probabilities 1/2. Check whether the 4 7 14 events A and B are independent. A. what is the probability of A ∨ C ? (c) If A and B are exhaustive.

60% of the population are in favour of the death penalty and 20% support Amnesty International.8. In a certain community. and then one ball from that bag taken at random. 20. One of the bags is chosen at random. the balls in the two bags are put together and one is taken at random.5 and p (Y ) = 0. clearly draw and label a probability tree to represent the situation. (b) the coin that was picked came up Heads. and (b) what is p (X ∨ Y ) if X and Y are independent? If X and Y are exhaustive. (e) What is the probability that it is a red ball? 21. (c) the fair coin was picked. (d) the ball is from bag Y. bag Y contains 6 red and 2 blue balls. In a certain community. given that it came up Heads. what is the probability that the person does neither? 22. what cannot happen in that community? 23. What is the probability that a person chosen at random from the society is in favour of the death penalty or supports Amnesty International (or does both) in the following three cases: (a) the two opinions are mutually exclusive. What is the probability that a person chosen at random is 4 14 PROBABILITY 62 .(a) the fair coin was picked and it came up Heads. what is the probability that it came from bag X? At the bottom of this page. (a) what is p (X ∧ Y ) if X and Y are exhaustive. given that it is red. and hence find the probability that (b) the ball is from bag Y and is red. (a) Given that the ball is green. 3 blue and 6 green balls. and Y the ‘event’ that (s)he is against the death penalty. (c) the ball is red. Of two bags. (c) 30% of those who support Amnesty are in favour of the death penalty? In each case. the probability of a person claiming to be environmentally con5 scious is 6 . Finally. X is the ‘event’ that someone has not written a letter for AI. and the probability that someone who claims to be environmentally conscious uses recycled paper is 3 . bag X contains 3 red. (b) the two opinions are independent. According to an opinion poll in a certain society. where X and Y are such that p (X) = 0.

given that they use recycled paper? 24. There is a test for that condition. (start with the person either having or not having C. what is the probability the he or she has C and the test comes out positive? (c) What is the probability that the test comes out positive? (d) If my test has come out positive. . how many would you expect to have a birthday this month? But out of those 21. complete tree diagram. what is the probability that I do in fact have condition C? (– a surprising outcome?) 25.e.) After working in the Quiet Room of their House. and in each case distinguish the test coming out positive or negative. It isn’t. what is the probability that 3 someone will claim to be environmentally conscious.1% of the population have a certain medical condition.e. and one has to test for it. i. 0.) Represent this information in a clearly-labelled. three students walk out together.environmentally conscious and uses recycled paper? If the proportion of people actually using recycled paper is 2 . Substitute a suitable value for x to find an approximation for 1. This condition is not noticeable. in 10% of the cases where someone does in fact have C the test gives a negative result. and in 10% of the cases where a person does not have C the test still comes out positive. find the probability that they actually have the condition. (The vast majority of doctors apparently think that it is about 80%. determine the precentage error of your approximation. 27. In a group of 21 randomly selected people. and 20% of those who don’t have it nevertheless test positive.) (b) If a person is chosen at random. leaving 1 no-one behind. what is the most likely number of people to have a birthday this month? 14 PROBABILITY 63 26. 0. 20% of all who really have the condition test negative.) What are the probabilities (a) that no-one remembers. but it is wrong in 20% of all cases. starting with the lowest power of x. For what percentage of the whole population does the test come out positive? If someone is told that they tested positive. (a) Draw a probability tree to represent the situation. x (b) Write down the first three terms in the expansion of (2 − 3x) 5 . (i.97 5 . In some population. (and their actions are independent. Using your calculator. but the test is only 90% accurate. and hence (b) that at least one of them remembers? How many such students would have to walk out together for the probability that at least one of them remembers to be greater than 95% ? 1 (a) Find the term without x in the expansion of (2x2 + ) 9 .2% of all people have a rare medical condition C. (c) Suppose birthdays are evenly distributed over all 12 months. Each has a probability of 4 of thinking of switching the lights off.

) What is the probability that there are four people. Determine the value of k.f. and (b) Red being at the bottom at most 3 times? 29. four-sided) die. (and their behaviour is independent. they travel together to work in one car.e. of the onset of symptoms is as follows:   0 : t<5   φ(t) =  k(t − 5)(9 − t) : 5 ≤ t < 9   0 : t≥9 where t is the number of days.) in the car on a given day? A tetrahedral (i. 64 14 PROBABILITY .f. you have to pay me £6. sketch the graph of the p. the driver and three others. I have to pay you £1 and the game is over. but if it comes up Tails again. teaching purposes only. find the probabilities. Five colleagues from work try car-pooling: i.d. but the probability for each of the others of making it is 0.9 . These materials are made freely available for non-commercial. but if it comes up Tails. with its sides labelled Blue. 30. The person who is driving his car will certainly turn up at the meeting point. is about 40%. Random Variables 31. of a smoking-related disease. If on this second toss it comes up Heads. (b) just one of them will. that of four smoking friends (a) no-one will die of a smoking-related disease. after how much time will 1/3 of those infected have started to show the symptoms? 32. when someone has contracted the disease D at time t = 0.28.d.. by Kai Arste. and (c) at least two of them will die of smoking-related diseases. Red and Yellow. as percentages.e. and if it comes up Heads I have to pay you £2 and the game is over. Green. Using that figure. Atlantic College. What are the probabilities of (a) Red being at the bottom (precisely) 4 times. the p. it is tossed again. What is the expected value of the following game for me? A fair coin is tossed. is rolled 5 times. According to a certain model.e. On this model. (i. The probability that a smoker will die early. and write down the mean time until the onset of symptoms.

50 components produced by a machine were categorised. (e.28. by length. 10. 7. 65 15 STATISTICS . Formula for the variance s2 = (xr − A)2 fr − (m − A)2 . 8. What is the modal class? (b) Using suitable mid-class values. or 12.) (xr − A)fr You may find the following formulae useful: mean m= + A. 10 and 9 respectively. 9. into four ‘classes’. 9. giving your answers accurate to one decimal place.1 mm. (Show your working clearly. 8. 8. and the formula below for the variance (with a suitable value for A). Using the definition of the mean. very roughly. and the following distribution was obtained: length (in mm): 999 – 1001 1001 – 1003 1003 – 1005 1005 – 1007 number of components: 8 20 16 6 (a) Draw a clear histogram of the frequency distribution. The number of words in the 14 lines of a sonnet by Michael Drayton are 11. both to the nearest 0. Statistics When the ages of twenty children were added up. the sum was found to be 180. find the mean and the standard deviation of the ages of the children in the group. and also the cumulative frequency graph. 9. you will receive up to half the marks for this part if you appear to have used the statistical functions on a calculator.15 Descriptive Statistics 1. the sum was found to be 1700. 7.g. 10. fr 4. find the mean and the standard deviation of the lengths. The number of letters in the words of a brief abstract of a book were counted. don’t write 12. when the squares of their ages were added up. but 12. 8.3): total number of words mode median mean length of words standard deviation = = = = = 3. and the following distribution of word-lengths was found: letters/word: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 word frequency: 41 130 114 114 91 64 59 49 30 29 21 16 4 1 3 3 Using your calculator where necessary. write down the following parameters of the distribution of the number of letters per word. fr 2. fr 2 (xr − A) fr variance s2 = − (m − A)2 .

(b) Find the mean and standard deviation of the weights of the 50 bags of sugar.1004 18 12 1004 . show how to locate the median arrival time. find the mean arrival time. (x = 0 is when the lecture starts. When 50 bags were weighed carefully.1008 7 (a) Draw a histogram and a cumulative frequency diagram of the distribution. 5. The arrival times of a group of 60 students at a lecture were recorded. if you want to use them: m= xr f r fr s2 = x2 f r r − m2 . 6. Use one of your two diagrams to estimate the median weight of sugar in a bag.1006 1006 .) (e) Using your calculator or the formulae given below.(a) Set up a frequency distribution table for the number of words in a line.) (d) On your cumulative frequency curve. A machine fills bags with sugar. Use your calculator to find the standard deviation. and (f) the standard deviation of the arrival times. and negative times mean that the students arrived early): arrival time x. ) fr 15 STATISTICS 66 . (give the values as accurately as your graph allows. (Some formulae. without using the statistical function on the calculator. (give the value as accurately as your graph allows. in minutes -6 to -4 -4 to -2 -2 to 0 0 to 2 2 to 4 number of students 8 15 19 12 6 (a) Draw the histogram of this frequency distribution. (c) On your histogram. Then find the mean. and the following distribution was found. accurate to two decimal places. show how to find the first and third quartile value of the arrival times.1002 9 1002 .1000 4 1000 . in separate diagrams. and each bag is supposed to contain 1 kg of sugar. (b) Find the mode and the median of the number of words per line. the following distribution of weights was found: weight (in g) number of bags 998 . and (b) the cumulative frequency curve. accurate to one tenth of a gram. (c) Write down the range and the inter-quartile range of the number of words per line. and draw a histogram and a cumulative frequency diagram.

using the cumulative frefr 5 10 Draw the histogram of this distribution. roughly. connecting the given points with a smooth curve. to find the value of the mean approximately. and the standard deviation of the number of hours.) 11. A variable x is distributed with mean 17 and standard deviation 4. 15 STATISTICS 67 . 6a and x is 3a. and draw a cumulative frequency diagram. estimate the median number of hours of sunshine per day. showing all your working clearly. If the variance of this distribution is 10. find the mean of this distribution. Find x in terms of a. What is the percentage error of the approximation in this case? 8. mode ≈ mean − 3 · (mean − median) . What are the mean and standard deviation of the variable y = 3x − 4 ? The mean of the three numbers a.7. (b) Calculate the cumulative frequencies. (c) From one of your two diagrams. The variable x is distributed such that its mean is 9 and its standard deviation 2. Another variable. (d) Using suitable mid-interval values. and estimate the mode of the number of hours of sunshine. y. and the following distribution was found: length of time (in hours): 0 – 4 4 – 8 8 – 12 12 – 16 number of days: 4 8 12 6 (a) Draw a clear histogram of the distribution. Show your method clearly.55 50 frequency distribution table. and without using your calculator. find the mean number of hours of sunshine. Use your graph to estimate the median of the distribution of the variable. The cumulative frequency distribution of a continuous variable x has the following points on it: x 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 100 Fr 0 5 15 30 39 45 48 48 Draw a cumulative frequency graph. (e) There is a rule which says that. Copy and complete the following quencies given: x xr 35 . (Hint: it will be easiest here to use the definition of the variance as the mean square deviation from the mean. find the value of a. accurate to the nearest hour. is calculated by doubling each value of x and adding 6.45 40 45 . accurate to the nearest half hour. 9. What then will be the mean and the standard deviation of y? 10.5. The length of time that the sun was shining on each of the 30 days of June in some year was measured in some place. Substitute the values you estimated in (a) and (c) for the mode and the median into this rule.

14. and ii. (b) Find the cumulative frequencies. (c) Using suitable mid-interval values. and draw a smooth cumulative frequency diagram. (b) From one of your two diagrams. the weight above which an apple can be sold at a higher price.8 and standard deviation 1. with the mean and standard deviation you found for the sample. (b) less than 1001. the weight such that a quarter of all apples weigh less than it. the percentage of all apples which have a weight above 200g.8 . on the basis of this model. ii. with the mean and standard deviation you found in (c). (c) If weights of apples from the orchard are known to be normally distributed. Indicate which points on the diagram you are using to find your answers. how many apples are only used to make juice. find the mean and standard deviation of the distribution of weights. find the mean weight and the standard deviation of the distribution of weights. From your diagram estimate i. What are the probabilities that one value of the variable is (a) greater than 1005. Show your method clearly. (c) greater than 1005 or less than 1001 ? 13. estimate the median weight. The weights of 40 students in a class at a school (in Britain!) were measured and found to have the following distribution: weight (in stones): 7 – 8 8 – 9 9 – 10 10 – 11 number students: 2 15 18 5 (a) Draw a clear histogram of the distribution. (a) Using suitable mid-class values. find i. and a cumulative frequency diagram. how many students in the class would you expect. to have a weight 68 15 STATISTICS . A random variable x is normally distributed with mean 1002.Normal Distribution 12. (d) Assuming now that the students’ weights are normally distributed. apples whose weight is in the top 25% can be sold at a higher price. The weights of a random sample of 200 apples from a certain orchard are distributed as follows: weights (in grams): 100-130 130-160 160-190 190-220 220-250 250-280 280-310 number of apples: 2 7 35 72 60 20 4 Apples with a weight below 180g are only used to make juice.

what proportion of values will lie between 100 and 150? (b) If 20% of the values lie below 100. then the required amount of oil = (c) If on another day the machine is set so that only 25% of all bottles contain more than 5100 ml. and ii. The precision of the machine is such that the standard deviation of the volume per bottle is 1.) 19. (a) If the standard deviation is σ = 15. ii. incidentally is one (British) pint. If 95% of the bags are found to have a mass less than 505g what is the mean mass of the bags? A normal distribution has mean µ = 120. (Write down all your answers accurate to two decimal places. then the proportion of bottles that will contain i.2 ml. 17. the mean volume of milk per bottle is 571 ml. The accuracy of a machine to fill oil into bottles is such that the standard deviation of the amount of oil is 48 ml. What is the mean volume of milk per bottle at that setting? (568 ml. more than 5100 ml = (b) At the same setting of the machine. to the observed frequencies in the table above. between 8 and 10 stones.i. what is the standard deviation σ ? 16. iii.) (a) At a certain setting of the machine.) (a) If the mean is set to 5080 ml per bottle. a US pint is smaller. (a) For some integer k. A machine is used to fill pint-bottles with milk.) Compare your answers to i. The mass of sugar in bags filled by a certain machine is known to be normally distributed with standard deviation 3g. (You can assume the volume of milk per bottle to be normally distributed. What percentage of bottles contain less than 568 ml? In a crate of 20 bottles. if 5% of all bottles are rejected for being too light. before the machine has been properly set. above 10 stones 7 pounds? (Note: 1 stone = 14 pounds. what is the mean amount of oil per bottle on that day? 18. below 9 stones. 55% of all bottles contain less than 568 ml. Any comments? 15. a sample of values of a variable x was found to have the following frequency distribution: xr 4 5 6 fr 3 2k k + 1 69 15 STATISTICS . fewer than 5000 ml = ii. how many do you expect will contain less than 568 ml? (b) One morning.

e. between one minute before and one minute after it starts. by Kai Arste. The students’ arrival times can be assumed to have a normal distribution. For another lecture. early in the morning.If the mean of the sample is m = 5. (a) Using your calculator or the table. The distribution in problem 6.e. the mean arrival time was −0. and the standard deviation of the arrival times was 2. what is the probability that all three are taller than 184 cm? (c) Estimate the mean and the standard deviation of the ages of teachers at Atlantic College.6 minutes. (i. (b) Also find the proportion of students that will have arrived on time.1 minutes. (c) What proportion of students will arrive more than 4 minutes after the lecture has started? If 60 students attend the lecture. teaching purposes only. (b) The heights of a large group of students is normally distributed with mean µ = 169 cm and standard deviation σ = 12 cm. If the mean arrival time is now −1.e. i. find the proportion of students that will arrive within one minute of the start of the lecture. students are more careful.) what is the new standard deviation of the arrival times? These materials are made freely available for non-commercial. at x = 0. above.5 minute. i. (No credit given for flattery!) 20. but 75% of all students are on time. they have arrived at x = 0. 70 15 STATISTICS . Atlantic College. was for a lecture in the middle of the morning. what is the value of k ? For that value of k find the standard deviation s of the sample. What proportion of students do you expect to be taller than 184 cm ? If three students are selected at random.125. how many would you expect to be that late? (d) After the teacher has taken strong measures.

Answers to Selected Problems
2 Algebra, Exponential and Logarithm Functions
p. 6 Qu. 4 (a) i. 5 (d) i. 4 ii. −2 iii. 3 (b) 1 ii. 3.97 (e) 1.5 (c) 2 log a + log b − 3 log c

3 Straight Lines, Linear Equations
p. 8 p. 8 p. 8 p. 8 p. 9 p. 9 Qu. 2 Qu. 3 Qu. 5 Qu. 8 Qu. 9 Qu. 10 √ K(1, −2), L(4, 1), M (0.5, 3), N (−2.5, 0), m = 1, d = 3 2 : parallelogram √ 1 5 (a) AB = 3 5 (b) y = −2x + 8 (c) y = x + 2 4 (a) (1, −2) (b) k = −4 (c) k = 1 √ 3 (a) i. y = 3 x + 5 , 2 13 ii. (3, 0), y = 1 x − 2 (b) x = 0.7, y = −0.6 2 2 2 one pad costs £ 1.50, one pen £ 0.50 (a) y = −2x + 1 (b) y = 1 x + 2
7 2

M (1, 3),

9 y = −3x + 2, 2

√ AB = 2 13

p. 10 Qu. 14

(c) F (−1, 3)

√ (d) (e) 3 5

4 Quadratics, Polynomials, Rational Functions
p. 11 Qu. 1 p. 11 Qu. 4 p. 11 Qu. 6 p. 12 Qu. 9 p. 12 Qu. 12 p. 13 Qu. 15 p. 13 Qu. 18 p. 14 Qu. 19 p. 14 Qu. 23 p. 15 Qu. 27 p. 15 Qu. 29 p. 15 Qu. 30 p. 16 Qu. 31 √ −1 ± 13 (a) 0, 6 (b) 3 (c) 1, 2 (d) − 1/2, 2 (e) (f) no such x 3 3x2 + 5x − 2 = 0 (or any integer multiple of this) 3 5 (a) α + β = − , αβ = , 5x2 + 6x + 8 = 0 (b) p = 3 2 2 9 1 (a) a = − , b = 1, c = 4 (b) V (1, ) 2 2 √ √ (a) y = −2x + 1 (b) d = 65 − 20t + 5t2 (c) t = 2 : d = 3 5 (a) intercepts (−1, 0), (3, 0), (0, −6), vertex (1, −8) (d) k = −6 (a) (−3, 2), (1, 6) (a) 12 (b) c = 0 (b) p = −1 P (x) = (x − 1)(x − 2)(x + 3) (a) (−2, 5), (4, 17) x = −2.58, 6.58 (b) 1 (or 2, or −3), (c) (2, −6), (−2, 10)

(a) a = −2, b = 5 (b) Q(x) = 2x + 3, R = 1 2 (a) a = , b = −2 (b) i. x = −3 ii. x = 2 3 a = −2, b = 1, c = −1, d = 1 2 3 3 y = 1, x = − , 0 ≤ y ≤ (can estimate these from the graph) 2 4

6 Sequences, Series
SOME ANSWERS 71

p. 18 Qu. 2 p. 18 Qu. 4 p. 18 Qu. 5 p. 18 Qu. 8 p. 19 Qu. 13

x = 2, first 4 terms: 4, 5, 6, 7, or x = 3, first 4 terms: 5, 8, 11, 14 (a) d = 9, r = −2, (a) r = − 4 3 (b) r = 2 3 a23 = 195, S3 = 13 S3 = 19 S23 = 2208, (b) n = 32 a10 = 1536, S10 = 1023 next two terms: −12, 24,

S∞ does not exist S∞ = 27

(a) r = 2, d = 5 or r = 1, d = 0 (b) i. £ 2120, 2240, 2360, 2000 + 120n, 3200; after 16.7 years ii. £ 2090, 2184.05, 2282.33, 2000 · 1.045n , 3105.94; end of 16 years iii. 4.81 %

7 Trigonometry, Circles
p. 21 Qu. 3 p. 21 Qu. 4 p. 22 Qu. 11 p. 22 Qu. 12 p. 22 Qu. 14 (a) 4.76◦ (a) 210◦ , 330◦ (b) 4.78◦ , steeper (b) 30◦ , 330◦ 598 m (c) 76.0◦ , 256◦

p. 23 Qu. 16 p. 23 Qu. 19 p. 24 Qu. 22 p. 24 Qu. 23

π ymax = 5, when x = 3 π 2π (a) i. intersections ( , 0), (0, −1) ii. , 2π (b) using calculator: 0.624 3 3 (c) greatest = 4.5, least = −1.5 π 3π (a) asymptotes x = , 2 2 π (b) period = π, amplitude = 3, y = 3 sin(2x + ) + 3 4 ◦ 2 angle = 35.4 area = 31.3 km intersections: (0, 4.60), (5.65, 0), C1 = 41.8◦ , A1 = 108.2◦ (b) 0.933 km

C2 = 138.2◦ , A2 = 11.8◦ 31 ± √

(c) 0.599 km

p. 24 Qu. 24 p. 25 Qu. 26 p. 25 Qu. 28 p. 25 Qu. 29 p. 25 Qu. 30 p. 25 Qu. 31 p. 26 Qu. 32 p. 26 Qu. 33 p. 26 Qu. 35

481 (a) 52.2 or 7.78 , 26.5 or 4.53 km, 21.9 km (b) , difference = 2 √ 481 (c) for SM = 26.5 km, area = 355 km2 , new road = 26.8 km √ √ 7 2 2 ◦ (a) 5.81 km (b) 328 (c) 14 2 = 19.8 km (d) = 4.95 km 2 √ 20π 100π (a) i. = 20.9 cm ii. ( − 25 3) = 61.4 cm2 (b) 1.70, 217 cm2 3 3√ ◦ AOB = 120 , area = 48π − 36 3 = 88.4 cm2 59◦ (a) 45.6 cm2 353 cm2 , (b) 50 cm 700 cm2 , 50.5 % √ 1 √ using (c): ( 6 + 2) 4 π 5π (a) , (b) 5◦ , 125◦ , 185◦ , 305◦ 6 6 2π + 2nπ ± 3

(c) −

π + 2nπ 3

72

SOME ANSWERS

p. 26 Qu. 36 p. 27 Qu. 39 p. 27 Qu. 45 p. 27 Qu. 46 p. 28 Qu. 49 p. 28 Qu. 52 p. 29 Qu. 56

π 2π 4π 5π , , , 3 3 3 3 π 3π (a) , (b) 140◦ , 260◦ (c) 45◦ , 135◦ , 225◦ , 315◦ 2 2 greatest value = 5, smallest positive x = 0.927 √ √ √ (a) 2 sin(x + 45◦ ), x = 0◦ , 90◦ , 360◦ (b) 13, − 13 π π 3π (a) x = ± + 2nπ, π + 2nπ (b) θ = 0, , , π 3 5 5 1 P +Q Q−P 2 sin sin , (a) (cos(A − B) − cos(A + B)), 2 2 2 (b) let θ = 1: only iii. is not a contradiction 3 3 1√ (a) √ 3 (b) (c) 5 2 8 x=

2 sin 5x sin 2x

8 Differentiation
p. 31 Qu. 2 10 (a) y = 3x2 + 4x − 3 (b) y = 2x − 3 x √ 2 1 dV (c) y = 9 x + √ − √ 3 (d) = 3kx2 x dx x (a) (c) 14e2x−1 (b) (d) (f) (h) (j) (k) p. 32 Qu. 7 p. 32 Qu. 8 p. 33 Qu. 9 p. 33 Qu. 10 p. 33 Qu. 12 p. 33 Qu. 14 p. 33 Qu. 15 p. 34 Qu. 16 p. 34 Qu. 17 p. 34 Qu. 18 (a) tan x (a) 2 cosec 2x 3 12x2 − 7x3 √ (e) 2 2−x π (g) 2 sec2 (x − ) 3 6 (i) 3x − 1 4x(x2 − 3) 9 − x2 x4 2 cos 2x cos 3x − 3 sin 2x sin 3x 7 (x + 3)2 xe2x (2(1 + x) cos x − x sin x) s(t) = −gt + 10 ˙ (c) 1 (c) x+2 √ x x (d) 2(x − 2)2 (7 − 2x) x8 6 (x + 3) (5x − 6) (d) x3

p. 32 Qu. 6

(b) 3x2 (sin 3x + x cos 3x) (b) ex (1 + 2x2 )
2

tangent: y = −2x + 9,

normal: y = 1 x + 4 2 iii. 1 − ln x , x2 iv. − tan x

(a) i. −2e3−2x , ii. ex (sin 2x + 2 cos 2x), (b) tangent: y = 2x − 2 x + 3y = 4 x = − 8 3 stationary point (2, 12), minimum;

√ x = − 3 16

min at (−2, −27), pt of infl at (1, 0), intersections (1, 0), (−3, 0), (0, −3) (a) min at (0, 0), max at (−2, 4/e2 ) (b) as x → ∞, y → ∞, quickly, and as x → −∞, y → 0, intersection (0, 0) √ (a) (0, 0) (b) max at (−1, 1/e2 ), min at (0, 0) (c) x = −1 ± 1 2 2 n=2 m=2 greatest value = 22 least value = −21

SOME ANSWERS

73

(0. 32 p. 3 ) 4 dy cos t = (0. (0. 28 2048 (a) y = 2 9 √ 3+4 (b) 10 p. 38 Qu.0103 % (b) 3p %.2 (b) i. 39 Qu. 37 p. 39 Qu. (0. 36 p. 41 p. √ 3 (a) i. 38 Qu. −1. 35 Qu. but they happen for different values of θ.36 × 10−4 % √ 1 (a) 3 7. 0. 1 dx cos 2t √ dy 2 sin 3θ 3√ 2. 4 p. 42 p. 41 Qu. (0. error = 0. (b) Still different y-values for the same x-value. 39 Qu. 7 p.98. 5 p. 46 2π + 1 2e2 1 dy/dx = −2 cos t. 2 π (b) 2. 40 Qu. (− 2 . ii. 45 p. 20π m/sec 9 0. 40 Qu. 38 Qu. 44 p. m = ±3 dx cos t dV /dt = 200π = 628 cm3 /min. 38 Qu. π 2 2 2 3 4 12y (y ) + 4y y + y = 30x + 12x2 . 39 Qu. 37 Qu.3 cm2 /hr 6 5 9 Integration p. 2). 0. 16 3 sin πx + 2e2x + c ii. 1 − 3 5 5 .14 m2 /day = 58.p. 0). 43 p. 2xy + (x2 + 2)y + cos y y − 4ex = 0. 37 Qu. 29 p. 5x − 4 x + c ii. 35 sec x sec y (a) tan x + tan y = a (c) t = + u v dt sec x tan x sec y tan y dy dt (d) = + and =0 dx u v dx dx (a) x0 = 3. y = . 3 p.84 cm. normal 3x − 8y + 13 = 0 dx 2y − x (a) k = 3 − π. 2ex + 3 ln x + c. y = √ ii.3 (b) x1 = 3. area = 8 sin θ m2 . π. y = 2x + − p. 40 Qu. 31 p. 9 (a) i.294366197 (c) error = 1. 36 Qu. =− A( 2 dx cos θ (a) A function cannot have two y-values for one x-value. 23 p. 6 p. 3 p % dy y − 10x = . 40 Qu. −2). = . 0). (b) 4y 3 y + y = 6x5 + 4x3 . dy 3 cos 2t t = 0. when r = 9. 0). 1. 0. 35 Qu. dV /dt = 609 cm3 /min π 2 − e2 . 39 Qu.76 ≈ 1. 40 Qu. 2. 22 p. (b) 2 ln x x 3 1+x2 2 1 1+x2 +c (a) e (1 + 2x ) (b) 2 e (x2 + 3) sin x + 2x cos x + c (a) (c) 1 − 6 cos6 x + c √ 2 x(x − 3) + c 3 x (e) 6 arctan + c 3 (g) 9 ln(x2 + 9) + c 1 e2 −x cos 2x + 1 sin 2x + c 2 etan θ + c x−3 (f) 3 ln +c x+3 (h) ln 3 (b) (d) 74 SOME ANSWERS . 37 Qu. 2x3 − 2 x + c 3 (a) i. − 2).

l = 2.5 min (d) 6 km (e) 3 km (f) 9 km.25) iii. (3. 20 p.126% (a) 2 3 − 3 2π 10 Vectors p.152 4 2 2 (d) 35.) 125 intersections (−2. asymptotes x = −1. 42 Qu. 11).507.352 2 (x − 2x − 3) 4 x+1 √ √ √ 3 (a) P ( 1 π. 44 Qu. finite area. 43 Qu. 46 Qu. 44 Qu.2 km bearing = 187◦ bearing = 296◦ (b) θ = 45◦ 75 (a) k = 1. 44 Qu.5◦ (or 70. 35 (a) v = −10t + 6 (b) s = −5t2 + 6t + 8 (c) t = 2 sec. 3. 43 Qu. area = 6 √ π 5π π x = . (±1. 43 Qu. 24 p. 0). 17 p. − 1 2) (b) 2 2 (c) y = 0. 13 p. 35 (Note: this can be shown from the graph. 3 3 (a) 2. 0). 30 p. 0. 25 p.5◦ ) 1 1 1 − . x + ln + c iv. 42 Qu. 28 p. 1 2). SW v = 436 km/h d = 13. 48 Qu. area = 3 − 6 6 3 28 32 . 14 p.793 (c) 3 ≈ 1. v(4) = 2 km/min (b) a(t) = 9 (−4t2 + 20t − 16) (c) amax = 1 km/min2 at t = 2. 47 Qu. 42 Qu.707x + 0. 41 Qu. 15 p.730. 34 p. 42 Qu. but infintely high! (b) i. 6). 10 (a) (c) (e) 1 4 x − x3 + c 2 1 2x−3 e (2x − 1) + 4 1 sin 2x + 1 x + c 4 2 c (b) (d) arcsin 3x + c ln sin x + c ⇐ the two functions differ by a constant 2 3 p. 8 √ 2 2 = 2. y = 1 6(1 − x) 3 x−3 ii. 47 Qu. 2 p. particular integral: C = 6 x−2 √ √ 2 (b) 2. =1 L (g) normal distribution x−3 y=C· . (2. 23 p. k = 2 (e) −e−x /2 + c. 18 (a) arcsin x + c f (x) = (a) 4 (a) 1 4 1 2x e 2 (b) − arccos x + c 1 e 2 +x+1− (b) ln 3 x2 (2 ln x − 1) + c (b) p = 1 .3◦ . . 109. 16 p. 1/ e) (c) asymptote y = 0 V 2 (d) L ≈ 2. 46 Qu.29 km/min p. q = −1 2 16 C1 = 1. 12 p. intersections (0. 0. 1) (b) maximum.507.p. 47 Qu. 21 p. 42 Qu. 3 p. 43 Qu. 29 p. Q(− 4 π. m = 3 SOME ANSWERS . 43 Qu. 1. 42 Qu. v = −14 m/sec 1 (a) v(1) = 0 km/min. area → 2 k 2 √ (a) (0. by inspection.83 km/h. (1. 1 p. 41 Qu. error = −0. M = 0 (f) V ≈ 2. 2 .

9 p. z = 13 (cos 33. 6 p. radius 2 ii. 8 (a) i.7◦ ) 1 1 ii. 50 Qu. 21 AC · BC= (c − a)(c + a) = c 2 − a 2 = r2 − r2 = 0 −→ √ (a) OB = 41 (b) BX= λ 9 − 4 6 5 22 (c) λ = 39 . 101◦ r = 2 + λ 4 . 5.6 0. 25 25 25 7 −26 a −b reasoning: z = a + bi apparently always corresponds to P = b a SOME ANSWERS 76 .7◦ + i sin 33. distance = 14 −→ −→ 11 Complex Numbers p. λ = −2 1 (a) − √ .8 −2 1 (b) 1 3 2 (c) θ = 132◦ p. 49 Qu. 47 Qu.7◦ and enlargement by 13 3 3 2 −11 −10 1 −1 iii. 7 p.43 (b) 14 (a) 0 . k = − 3 2 (a) i. about 117◦ 5 (a) k = −8 (b) k = 3 . isosceles √ triangle (d) area = 3 26 2 3 4 2 −1 .5 −4. θ = e2 3/2 (c) z = ±(1. −1) (b) BC = 6. λ = 2 ii. 48 Qu. 53 Qu. circle. 49 Qu. 47 Qu.38 km N of O 1 4 (a) r = −1 + κ 6 (b) 3x + y + 2z = 3 (c) 55.5 (b) i. to the SE iii. 15 4 −3 −2 p. k = 6 ii. 10 p. 53 Qu. zw = −11 + 10i z 13 26 7 1 −26 −7 (c) i.4◦ (b) x = ± −0.2◦ 0 3 −1 0 (a) not parallel ii. halfline from −2 + 3 i. AM = 26 (c) BC · AM = 0.79 i) (a) i. centre at −2 + i. 15 p.27 − 0. 12 (a) x = −6. 9 p. 48 Qu. 5 p. area = 7. perpendicular bisector of −1 and −3 + 2 i (b) 3x2 + y 2 = 3 12 Linear Transformations and Matrices p. 48 Qu. = (3 − 2i) iii. 49 Qu. 50 Qu. 14 p. P Q = ii.p. 7 p. so parallel i. 52 Qu. l = −3 2 (a) | r + s | = 5 (b) θ = 94. rotation through arctan √ 2 = 33. − . 55 Qu. 3. 16 −→ −→ √ (a) M (2. 19 p.08 km E and 3. 13 7 (a) − 5 − 4 i (b) z = ±(4 + i) 5 √ (d) z = 2 or z = 1 ± 3 i √ 2 r = ee /2 . P = 13 −2 3 10 −11 √ (b) i. X lies 5. − + i ii. 3. or some such −1 3 (b) d · n = 0. 48 Qu.

63 Qu.1% (a) 27 64 13/15 (b) 11/15 mutually exclusive: p(X ∧ Y ) = 0 independent independent. HH.p. 15 p. M + F. (M + F )Q. 64 Qu. leaving TH. 64 Qu. 27 p. 61 Qu. because p(M ) · p(N ) = p(M ∧ N ) (b) 3/8 0. (ii) M Q. (M + F )Q. 2/3. z = −4. M Q : numbers of (human and pet) male body parts in each apartment block.) (c) i. 63 Qu. 4 p. error = 0. (b) 1/36. y = 1. e.1016 11 students (a) 672 (b) 32 − 240x + 720x2 − .3. p(1) > p(2) (a) 15/1024 £ 0. 31 p.01: 29.g. M + F. it can’t be TT. 26 p. 7 p.75.7. 8 p. 14 Probability p. M + F : numbers of human and of pet residents in each block. 120. 62 Qu. 1 p. 1 6 2 ii. 6 p. 63 Qu. (b) is true. (M + F )Q : numbers of (human and pet) body parts in each block 13 Mathematical Induction p. 58 Qu. z = −3 1 2 2 (a) Q = 1 0 4 (b) (i) M F.. (c) 1/2. 60 Qu.. 17 p. 59 Qu. 5 . 3 p. 18 p. 61 Qu. 24 p.25 k= 3 . (d) 1/2. 32 (b) 63/64 T = 6. 63 Qu. 57 Qu. Step: (n + 1)3 + 2(n + 1) = n3 + 3n2 + 3n + 1 + 2n + 2 = (n3 + 2n) + 3(n2 + n + 1). (c) 5/6. 28 5 6 (b) 1/60 (b) 5/54 (b) 630 9 10 (Of the equally likely outcomes. x = 0. 14 p. (d) 1/12.00361% (c) 1. M Q.55 days µ = 7 days SOME ANSWERS 77 . x = 1. 29 p. 61 Qu. 60 sec (b) (c) (a) 3/5. (e) 35/36 (a) 15/16 1/3 (a) 1/1296 (a) 10000 (a) 15 . 61 Qu. 64 Qu. HT. (b) 3/8.. (a) 1 20. Step: n+1 r=0 2r = n r=0 2r + 2n+1 = (2n+1 − 1) + 2n+1 = 2 · 2n+1 − 1 = 2(n+1)+1 − 1. 2 (b) is true. 58 Qu.0 (b) λ = −5. 32 (a) 5/8. 25 p.0018 (c) 0. 59 Qu. 59 Qu. 20 p. y = 6. 14 (a) x = −0. 56 Qu. 59 Qu. 60 Qu.399% (b) 37 64 (c) 1/2 (d) 3/4 (d) 9/508 (e) 9/20 (b) 0. 5 p.7. (e) 0 (a) 1/6. iii. 11 p.

15.63 (b) 0. 2.77.36 g. 4 p. 67 Qu. 66 Qu. 33. s = 3. median = 3. 65 Qu. 32. 2 p. (d) Q1 ≈ −3. 1. 20 Σfr = 769.576 (c) 0. 66 Qu. s = 1.25 g (e) m = −1.5.3 g (c) median ≈ 1. 16.34 (d) m = 8.78%.1. (c) median = 9.294 (b) 23.0 (b) mode = 8.9.50 (a) 4.85% 78 SOME ANSWERS .0417. sy = 8 (b) median ≈ 9.3 (b) m = 1003.15 Statistics p. 69 Qu. 65 Qu. 6 p.15 (a) median = 1003. median = 8.75.5 (a) mode = 10.2. 16 p.62 ml (d) 1. 67 Qu.2 (c) m = 9.1 ii. interquartile range = 2. 17 p.51 the fit is very close. s = 0.05 ml (c) 5067. m = 5. 7 p. s = 3. 14 p. mode = 2. 9 p.5.79 (c) range = 4. perhaps too close (a) 88. m = 8. (e) m ≈ 8. 8 p. s = 2.23 (f) s = 2. Q3 ≈ 0.67.1 my = 40.92% median ≈ 62.6% (a) 0. 67 Qu.760 (d) i. 68 Qu. 5 p. error = 1. 69 Qu.9 iii. 70 Qu.8 (b) 5001. m = 62.

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