Dual-clutch transmission (DCT

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A dual-clutch transmission, (DCT) (sometimes referred to as a twin-clutch gearbox or doubleclutch transmission), is a type of semi-automatic or automated automotive transmission. It uses two separate clutches for odd and even gear sets. It can fundamentally be described as two separate manual transmissions (with their respective clutches) contained within one housing, and working as one unit They are usually operated in a fully automatic mode, and many also have the ability to allow the driver to manually shift gears, albeit still carried out by the transmission's electrohydraulics.

In DCTs where the two clutches are arranged concentrically, the larger outer clutch drives the odd numbered gears, whilst the smaller inner clutch drives the even numbered gears. Shifts can be accomplished without interrupting torque distribution to the driven roadwheels, by applying the engine's torque to one clutch at the same time as it is being disconnected from the other clutch. Since alternate gear ratios can pre-select an odd gear on one gear shaft whilst the vehicle is being driven in an even gear (and vice versa), DCTs are able to shift more quickly than cars equipped with single-clutch automated-manual transmissions (AMTs), a.k.a. single-clutch semiautomatics. Also, with a DCT, shifts can be made more smoothly than with a single-clutch AMT, making a DCT more suitable for conventional road cars.

Clutch types
There are two fundamental types of clutches utilised in dual-clutch transmissions: either two wet multi-plate clutches which are bathed in oil (for cooling), or two dry single-plate clutches. The wet clutch design is generally used for higher torque engines which can generate 350 newton metres (258 lbf·ft) and more (the wet multi-plate clutch DCT in the Bugatti Veyron is designed to cope with 1,250 N·m (922 lbf·ft)), whereas the dry clutch design is generally suitable for smaller vehicles with lower torque outputs up to 250 N·m (184 lbf·ft).However, whilst the dry clutch variants may be limited in torque compared to their wet clutch counterparts, the dry clutch variants offer an increase in fuel efficiency, due to the lack of pumping losses of the transmission fluid in the clutch housing.

Clutch installation
There are now three variations of clutch installation. The original design used a concentric arrangement, where both clutches shared the same plane when viewed perpendicularly from the transmission input shaft, along the same centre line as the engine crankshaft; when viewed headon along the length of the input shaft, this makes one clutch noticeably larger than the other. The second implementation utilised two single-plate dry clutches which are side-by-side from the perpendicular view, but again sharing the centre line of the crankshaft. A latest variation uses two separate but identical sized clutches; these are arranged side-by-side when viewed head-on (along the length of the input shaft and crankshaft centre line), and also share the same plane when viewed perpendicularly. This latter clutch arrangement (unlike the other two variations) is driven via a gear from the engine crankshaft.

Shifts can be accomplished without interrupting torque distribution to the driven roadwheels.a. a. . whilst the smaller inner clutch drives the even numbered gears. Also. making a DCT more suitable for conventional road cars. (and vice versa). shifts can be made more smoothly than with a single-clutch AMT. single-clutch semiautomatics. DCTs are able to shift more quickly than cars equipped with single-clutch automated-manual transmissions (AMTs). by applying the engine's torque to one clutch at the same time as it is being disconnected from the other clutch Since alternate gear ratios can pre-select an odd gear on one gear shaft whilst the vehicle is being driven in an even gear. with a DCT.In DCTs where the two clutches are arranged concentrically.k. the larger outer clutch drives the odd numbered gears.

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