CAD Package for Electromagnetic and Thermal Analysis using Finite Elements
FLUX 2D Application
®
Synchronous motor technical paper
Copyright  April 2006
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This technical paper was edited on 18 April 2006 Ref.: K205Q920ENEN04/06
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it is enclosed by angled brackets < >. Menu commands should be selected with the mouse. symbolised in this document by ↵.
P3
P3 P4
. If there is no ambiguity. a keyboard answer can be shortened. (P3) point number 3 or (P3__P4) line connecting point number 3 and point number 4.. simply press the Return/Enter key. point coordinates. Graphical input such as selection of a point. a line. • All dialogue text between the user and FLUX2D is written in courier font: Name of the region to be created : bdg ↵ Color of this region : <M>AGENTA Select a surface or a menu item : <Q>uit [q]uit ↵ The conventions used for the dialogue between the user and FLUX2D are presented below: Text in italic Text in bold ↵ Bdg ↵ [q]uit ↵ <T>ext in bold <M>AGENTA <Coil>
Message or question displayed on the screen by FLUX2D User input to FLUX2D using the keyboard (name of a region. This answer should be validated by the Return/Enter key.. If the menu must be necessarily selected using the mouse. you should press the characters indicated between square brackets [ ] . Item that you should select from the graphics screen. a surface.. . the following conventions have been used: • All the information and comments describing the current actions are written in the same way as this sentence. if there is no ambiguity.. In this case.CONVENTIONS USED
To make this tutorial easy to read. To enter a default response.
↵ CREATE
The reply is by default. by entering the first character of the word displayed between angled brackets < >. A menu item of the graphical window can be selected using the mouse or.).
REMARK The files corresponding to different cases studied in this technical paper are available in the folder:
…\DocExamples\Examples2D\SynchronousMotor\FluxFiles\
The corresponding applications are ready to be solved.
.. This allows you to adapt this technical paper to your needs.
..................................................................35 Physical conditions ......................2 4...................................................................................... 31
3...............................................41 Physical conditions ..............................................4
Circuits models.....................25 AC_SSFR_D_AXIS_POS...............33 Analysis .......................................................................2 3.............................. 3
2...............................3..............................3.....3 3...............................................................................................4 Purpose .......2 2.. 5
2.................32 Solving conditions...........................................................4..............3......3
2..........................................................34 Purpose ...37 Analysis .....................................2........................26 AC_SSFR_Q_AXIS_POS..............................................................................................2...................................................... 4 The Geometry .................................................................................................................................................1 2......................................3.............................................................................................................2 Creation of coordinate systems...............................4
4............................................4
2....................2..1 2..................................35 Solving conditions.....1 2................4.................... Shortcircuit tests......... Defining the problem ..........................................1 2.......................................................................... 31
3...................4.........................3 4...........1.......3
Xd and Xq according to the stator current...............................................................................................15 Regions......................................................................................1 3...................................3...................................................1 Unloaded operating. 1 2....................2 3..................................................1.........3......................... Xq in magneto static .......................................................37
3............28
2........................................................................................................................................................................3
The mesh and regions ...27 TM_NETWORK ....................................1..............FLUX 2D®9..................1 3............... Overview of synchronous motor technical paper................................ 24
2...............................44 Analysis ................................. 41
4........................45
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE A
............................................................................2 Introduction ........... 31 Angles corresponding to Xd and Xq.......................................3...................................................................2 Building method for the geometry and mesh .....................1 4..... 29 Boundary conditions.............4 Purpose ........................ geometrical parameters ...............3 3.. 35
3...............................................................................20
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1................3 2..........................................2...........2.............15 Assigning the mesh .................................................1.................................................2.....6
Materials data...........2 2..................................................5 2.....................7 Creation of discretisations .4.......................................................................................................19 ME_CC ..................1 3...........................41 Solving conditions.. 15
2...... 30
3.......................... Parameters Xd.....................6 Geometry and faces building and transformation creation........................ 41
4..............................................................................31 Physical conditions ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
........................................................97
6......3.......3.............................2 6...........2........................83 Purpose.....3 4...............................................1....................................101
6...........62 Analysis..........................................................................................4
5.......................................................................................................1 6................................................................................................100 Analysis.......................................................47 Physical conditions ...............................................3.91 Solving parameters .......2
Single phase short circuit..........2.........1 5.............................................................................................................................3.53
4................... 79
6..............4 Purpose.............................................................................97 Physical conditions .....................................................................4
6.............................................................................3 6.............................................2 6.....................94 Analysis.............3 5...............................................79
6.......................................................................2 6.......51 Purpose..............................................69 Purpose................................................91 Physical conditions ........................2 5........................79 Physical conditions ........................3
Loaded on the network with appropriated motor torque .......................................................................4...............89 Analysis....2........74 Analysis..........................86 Physical conditions ......................................................1 4......90 Purpose.47 Solving conditions ...........71
5.............................................................................................3 Purpose....1 6.....................................2............2
Classical SSFR...................................................................61 Physical and solving conditions .......2 5..1..............................3 6...................................................4
Loaded on the network with appropriated field current and motor torque ...................................2...............50 Analysis.................................3 6.............4..............................................................................................................1............................................................................................................2 4.............................57
4....................................................................................................................................................53 Physical conditions ........20
4............2.................2..........................................1................................................................... 61
5.......................................................................................82 Analysis..............................................................................2...................................97 Solving parameters ............................4.........................................................................................56 Analysis...75
5...............................................................53 Solving conditions ......................2......4
6..............................................................79 Solving parameters ...........................1 6....3................. Loaded on the network .......................3.........1 5.......................3 4........1 4............................................................................................................1 Direct and quadrature axis determination........................3....2 6....................................................................94 Purpose...........................................1 Unloaded on the network..........4 Purpose....................... StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR) ...........2...1..................................................................................4............................................86 Solving parameters ......................................................................71 Physical conditions ......4
PAGE B
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.....................1....................................................................................................61
5...2
Loaded on the network without regulation .........................2...................................1 6...........86
6.........1.......................................................................................................3.........................71 Solving conditions ............................................................................................................................3
Three phase short circuit ..............................................2.......................................................................2 4.............................................................91
6...............................................TABLE OF CONTENTS
FLUX 2D®9...3 6.............................................4
6................................................47
4..
transient magnetic and magnetodynamic. the calculation’s resolution are defined. Finally. will be detailed. magnetodynamic. will be modelled. Shortcircuit test and standstill frequency response. corresponds to a magnetic state changing without movement of the machine. The last type. This paper contains two principal sections : • DEFINING THE PROBLEM (chapter 2) : Creation of geometry. This part provides too the description of the circuits associated to different field cases (representing the electrical wiring diagram of machine with its supplying) as well as data on the materials. The magnetostatic analysis corresponds to a machine without movement and a magnetic steadystate. supplied by the software as transformations or geometrical parameters. will allow to characterise the machine by these time constants and reactances. a connection to the network of the generator. Xq. The two following tests. Several methods can be used to determine them. The transient magnetic analysis corresponds to a machine in movement with a magnetic state in evolution. with or without regulation.
•
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 1
.FLUX 2D®9. Finally. We shall present here some of them. the study domain will be defined by the boundary conditions.
Overview of synchronous motor technical paper
This document presents some models for finite element based on analysis of synchronous motor. Two configurations of the motor will be taken into account: with coil absorber or massive absorber. Loaded on the network. the main characteristics of the machine are evaluated. will allow to define the angles and the values of the direct and quadrature synchronous reactances. circuit models and materials data. They correspond in fact to the longitudinal and transversal reactance. By postprocessing the numerical results of the problems associated to these models. Each test includes also the solving parameters and an analysis of simulation results.20
Overview of synchronous motor technical paper
1. The regions. in order to optimise the model. used to assign the physical proprieties to the machine. These simulations are used according to the characteristics studied and the operating of the machine. DIFFERENT SIMULATIONS AND ANALYSIS (chapter 3 to 6) : This section is composed of several simulation’s types that is to say the magnetostatic. The first test. The simulation’s type. the initial conditions. Parameters Xd. mesh. This section describes the construction of geometry and mesh in using the functions.
Overview of synchronous motor technical paper
FLUX 2D®9.20
PAGE 2
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.
20
Defining the problem
2. having the following characteristics :
CHARACTERISTICS Number of poles Voltage Frequency Power Slots number Armature Number of turns per phase Number of wires by slot Field Number of turns per pole D axis .a : Synchronous machine 2 74 DATA 4 220 / 127 V 50 Hz 3 kVA 54 108 12 215 4 74
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 3
.wires by slot Fig 2.FLUX 2D®9.
Defining the problem
This numerical simulations refer to a 4 poles synchronous motor.slots by pole D axis . threephase.slots by pole Q axis .wires by slot Absorber Q axis .
creation of faces .complement to the geometry with lines .creation of transformations necessary to obtain the six slots absorber .creation of transformation necessary to obtain the half Ending of the building : .creation of half slot absorber mesh . In this tutorial.2. the geometry and mesh are linked during the construction that’s why a method is presented to understand the sequences of construction. the building method of stator is the following one : .complement to the geometry of eighth of rotor with lines .creation of lines of half slot absorber and field of rotor . Nevertheless.creation of the eighth rotor mesh .creation of faces . shows the overview of the machine :
Field Armature
Stator wires
Electrical absorber
2.creation of lines of half slot of stator .4.creation of points of half slot absorber and one field of rotor .creation of lines to close the airgap .Defining the problem
FLUX 2D®9.creation of the stator mesh .creation of transformation necessary to obtain the half stator The building method of rotor is the following one : .creation of airgap mesh
PAGE 4
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.creation of faces of half slot absorber .20
A cross section.creation of transformation necessary to obtain the complete stator slot .creation of points of half slot of stator .1
Building method for the geometry and mesh
The model will be create in following each chapter until the 2. given below.
Some dimensions are nevertheless given to close the construction. only an half machine will be described with two poles as it is shown below.2
The Geometry
The machine being build up of four poles and in a symmetric way.
Poles Field coils
Armature wires 3 phases
The most part of the geometry construction will be created from geometrical parameters.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 5
.FLUX 2D®9.20
Defining the problem
2.
34 mm 202. geometrical parameters
• Coordinate system The armature and the field are created in two different systems in order to be able to simulate an eccentricity of the rotor.5 mm 127. [Coord sys].35 mm 1 mm 114.9 mm 101.14 mm 1. [New]
PAGE 6
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.5*airgap 54
Note : To create geometrical parameter : [Geometry]. The different systems are:
Name Comments Definition Type Origin Origin Origin X Y Z Unit of length Unit of angle
XY1 STATOR ROTOR
Default system Stator system Rotor system
2D_Global
Cartesian 2D
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
Millimeter Degree Millimeter Degree Millimeter Degree
2D_Global Polar 2D 2D_Global Polar 2D
Note : To create coordinate systems : [Geometry].6 mm 82.2 mm 96.5 ° 50.75 mm 109.04 mm 177.84 mm 3.48 mm 111.2.1
Creation of coordinate systems.33 ° (360/108) 1.20
2.Defining the problem
FLUX 2D®9.05 mm 111. [Geometric Parameter]. [New] • Geometrical parameters The geometrical parameters used in geometry building are: Parameter names RIR RER AIR AER AOIR RAHA FSIR FSMR FOIR FOER ST SIR SER SSIR SSER SSHA AIRGAP MESH_AIRGAP NBSS Comments Rotor internal radius Rotor external radius Absorber internal radius Absorber external radius Absorber opening internal radius Rotor slot halfangle Field slot internal radius Field slot medium radius Field opening internal radius Field opening external radius Skin thickness Stator internal radius Stator external radius Stator slot internal radius Stator slot external radius Stator slot halfangle Airgap Use for the mesh Number of stator slots Values in [mm] or [°] 28.93 mm 4.575 mm 113.
57 0 0 SSHA Coordinate system STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
Create with mirror_stator transformation
Fig 2.FLUX 2D®9.20
Defining the problem
2.28) (SSIR+SSER) / 2 ((SSIR+SSER)/2) * cosd(2.2.2.0.57) SER SER θ coordinate 0 0 SSHA .28 SSHA SSHA 1.87 2.a : Overview of a stator slot with the points designation
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 7
. the rotor and stator will be built from an half slot for the rotor and half slot for the stator.2
Geometry and faces building and transformation creation
In order to simplify the geometry construction.87) SSIR SSIR ((SSIR+SSER)/2) * cosd(1.98 0 1.points of half slot of stator N° P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 R coordinate 0 SIR SIR 118.5 SSIR*COSD(0.76) SSER SSER * cosd(1.053) SSER * cosd(1.39 0 0 0 0. • Creation of half stator slot .2 124. Some transformations will be used in order to propagate the original shape and to obtain the final geometry.1.
15
2.20
N° L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L10 L11 L12 L13 L14 L15 L16 L17 L18 L19 L20 L21 L22
lines of half stator slot Type of line Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Arc_2pt_pt_center Arc_2pt_pt_center Arc_2pt_pt_center Arc_2pt_radius Arc_2pt_pt_center Arc_2pt_pt_center Starting point P3 P7 P10 P11 P10 P13 P12 P15 P14 P14 P9 P9 P6 P6 P5 P4 P2 P7 P15 P5 P3 P8 End point P8 P10 P11 P12 P13 P12 P16 P14 P13 P9 P10 P6 P7 P5 P4 P2 P3 P8 P16 P4 P50 P51 P1 P1 P1 P1 P1 3.b : Overview of a stator slot with the lines designation
PAGE 8
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.1.1
Center point
Angle
Coordinate system STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
Fig 2.Defining the problem
FLUX 2D®9.2.2.2.1.
2.c Base shape of stator
Fig 2.d complete stator
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 9
. Z Comment transformation comp. and then a multiple rotation to create the halfstator.2. Rot. system STATOR_ROT Create all of Rot_coo_ang 0 0 360/NBSS STATOR stator slot Note : To create geometric transformation : [Geometry]. The lines 21 and 22 will be created before building half stator. Geometric transformation MIRROR_STATOR Type Affine_line_2pt First point P1 Second point P16 Ratio 1 Comment Create mirror image of a half slot of stator
Geometric Theta Coordinate Type R comp.1.FLUX 2D®9. [Transformation].20
Defining the problem
•
Creation of transformation necessary for the stator construction
Symmetry will be used to end the complete slot. [New]
Fig 2.1.
873 15 18 18 18 20.points of eighth of rotor N° P17 P18 P19 P20 P21 P22 P23 P24 P25 P26 P27 P28 P29 P30 P31 P32 P33 P34 P35 P36 P37 P38 P39 P40 P41 P42 Radius RIR RIR FSIR FSIR FSMR ((AIR * COSD (2.5 22.5 18 14 0 0 0 0 2.868 21.65) AIR * COSD (2.312 88.868 19.109) – 3.5 Coordinate system ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
PAGE 10
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.5 22.673 2.5 22.391 19.857 21.109) – 6.Defining the problem
FLUX 2D®9.20
•
Creation of half rotor .109)) – 6.873) FOER * COSD (2.5) 91.85 22.6 FOIR * COSD (2.109) AIR * COSD (2.673) RER FOER FOIR RER RER AER AIR AIR AER RER RER AOIR AOIR * COSD (0.2) / COSD (4.2 Angle 0 45 0 22.56 AIR *COSD (2.5 22.
FLUX 2D®9.20
Defining the problem
Fig 6 : Overview of a part of rotor with the points designation
N° L23 L24 L25 L26 L27 L28 L29 L30 L31 L32 L33 L34 L35 L36 L37 L38 L39 L40 L41 L42 L43 L44
lines of eighth of rotor
Type of line Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Starting point P1 P17 P19 P20 P22 P23 P24 P25 P25 P29 P26 P26 P22 P22 P33 P33 P32 P32 P36 P35 P34 P35 End point P17 P19 P24 P21 P23 P24 P25 P26 P29 P28 P28 P27 P42 P33 P32 P34 P35 P31 P35 P34 P40 P38 Center point Radius Coordinate system ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 11
.
56 P1
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
Note : the lines 93. 156.20
N° L45 L46 L47 L48 L49 L50 L51 L52 L53 L54 L55 L56 L57 L58 L59 L93 L156 L157 L1377 L1378
Type of line Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Segment Arc_2pt_pt_center Arc_2pt_pt_center Arc_2pt_ray Arc_2pt_ray Arc_2pt_pt_center Arc_2pt_pt_center Arc_2pt_pt_center Arc_2pt_pt_center Arc_2pt_ray Arc_2pt_pt_center Segment Segment Segment Segment
Starting point P38 P38 P39 P40 P41 P28 P17 P19 P29 P22 P27 P30 P31 P36 P41 P37 P1 P18 P2 P277
End point P37 P39 P40 P41 P42 P30 P18 P20 P22 P21 P30 P31 P36 P37 P34 P58 P18 P99 P27 P816
Center point
Radius
Coordinate system ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
P1 P1 32.Defining the problem
FLUX 2D®9.6 32. 157. 1377 and 1378 are created at the end of the construction in order to close the airgap region.
L55
Fig 7 : Overview of part of rotor with the lines designation
PAGE 12
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.6 P1 P1 P1 P1 3.
Geometric transformation MIRROR_ABSORBER MIRROR_ROTOR_1 MIRROR_ROTOR_2 Geometric transformation ABSORBER_ROT Type Affine_line_2pt Affine_line_2pt Affine_line_2pt R comp. The line 92 will be created to end the first absorber slot and the lines 155 and 156 will be created before applying the first rotor symmetry. 0 P39 P18 P678 1 1 1 Comment Create mirror image of a half slot of absorber Create a quarter of rotor Create an half of rotor
Type Rot_coo_ang
Rot.20
Defining the problem
•
Creation of transformation necessary for the rotor construction
Symmetry will be used to end the absorber slot then a multiple rotation to create the two other ones.FLUX 2D®9. Z 9
Coordinate Comment system 2 Times to create ROTOR the three first slot of absorber
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 13
. A first symmetry will be used to create the quarter of rotor then another one to finish the half rotor. 0 First point Second point Ratio P1 P1 P1 Theta comp.
[Build Faces]
PAGE 14
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.[Build]].Defining the problem
FLUX 2D®9. Note : To create faces : [Geometry].20
Fig 7 and 8 : Different steps of creation of the rotor
Create with Mirror absorber
Create with Absorber_rot
Create with Mirror rotor 1
Create with MIRROR_ROTOR_2
•
Creation of faces
The faces must be built before and after each transformation whether it is for the rotor or the stator. Warning: Before propagating faces. select the options [add faces and associated Linked Mesh Generator] in order to create faces automatically and to affect the mesh of the original shape to the whole geometry.
P47.P45. Furthermore. the mesh applied to the airgap does not correspond to equilateral triangle. the discretisation will be carried out by Flux 2D but in order to optimize the number of nodes.P16.P44. [New] • Mesh lines Type Arithmetic Arithmetic Arithmetic Geometric with imposed number of elements Value 2 3 8 2 1.P12.P46.3
The mesh and regions
Further to an automatic meshing. the “mapped” option will be applied.P11.P23.P26.2
Assigning the mesh
In using the propagate function with the option “add faces and associated Linked Mesh Generator”.P21.3.P10. knowing the circulating direction of flux density.P49 P4.P15.P41.3 Ratio Color Magenta Green Turquoise Yellow
Names A2 A3 A8 GEO_1
2.P9.3.P35. some elements are not standard. On some faces. • Mesh points Points P7. some discretisations will be assigned to points and lines.P42.P22.FLUX 2D®9.P34.1
•
Creation of discretisations
Mesh points Value (in mm) 18 12 6 3 Mesh_airgap Color Cyan Turquoise Yellow Red Magenta
Names BIG LARGE MEDIUM SMALL AIRGAP
Note : To create mesh point: [Mesh]. the mesh will be assigned only to the original shapes.20
Defining the problem
2.[Mesh Point]. With the automatic mesh.P52.P48 P6.P43.P13.P51 All points in relation with the airgap region
Names BIG LARGE MEDIUM SMALL AIRGAP
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 15
.P14. the customized mesh point and mesh line will be applied.P38.P5.P39.P53 P8. In order to improve the mesh.
2.
This mesh is assigned to faces. 10. 25
Note : To assign mapped mesh : [Mesh].L47.L66. 9.L25.L42. 13.2.[Assign mesh information]. select the little arrow and then choose [Selection by surfacic region] • Mesh lines Lines L8.[Assign mesh information].a : A2 mesh lines
PAGE 16
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.L28.L44. 24.L64.L19.[Assign mesh point to Points].L72 L55 L2.L52. the mapped mesh will be used. 11.L74 L19 L64 L22
L8 Fig 2. 14.[Assign mesh information].3.L75 L20.L12.L59.L43. Names MAPPED Faces 5.L22.L60.[Assign mesh point to Points] Note : To assign with a relation : [Mesh]. 12.[Assign mesh generator to Faces].L26.L17. • Mapped Mesh In order to simplify the mesh and reduce the number of node. This mesh assigns a surface where the shape of mesh is quadrangular. 17. select the faces and assign [Mapped]
L44 L60 L75 L59 L52 L28 L17.L74.20
Note : To assign mesh point : [Mesh].Defining the problem
FLUX 2D®9.L67
Names A2 A3 A8 GEO_1
Note : Please check that you have 563 faces created Note : Please check that you have only 4 faces with bad quality elements corresponding to the edges of field horns. 7.
2.3.2.3.20
Defining the problem
L47 L43 L42 L72 L25 L20 L55
L26
Fig 2.3. e : Mapped mesh
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 17
.2.c : A8 mesh lines
L6 L6 L2 L1
Fig 2.2.d : GEO_1 mesh lines
Fig 2.3.FLUX 2D®9.b : A3 mesh lines
Fig 2.
2.h : medium mesh points
Fig 2.Defining the problem
FLUX 2D®9.3.2.3.3.j : small mesh points
PAGE 18
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.2.g : Large mesh points
Fig 2.i : airgap mesh points
Fig 2.3.3.2.2.20
Fig 2.f : Big mesh points
Fig 2.
3.20
Defining the problem
Fig 9 : Overview of complete mesh
About 7150 nodes will be created but it could be different according to the model. • Creation of regions Comment Holes in the stator and horns in the rotor Opening slot of absorber Airgap between the stator teeth Airgap between stator and rotor Absorber Absorber Absorber Absorber Absorber Absorber Absorber Absorber Absorber Absorber Absorber Absorber Stator negative phase 1 Stator positive phase 1 Stator negative phase 2 Stator positive phase 2 Stator negative phase 3 Stator positive phase 3 Field negative phase 1 Color Magenta Magenta Magenta Yellow White White White White White White White White White White White White Yellow Red Yellow Red Yellow Red Turquoise
PAGE 19
Names AIR 1 AIR 2 AIR 3 AIRGAP AM 1 AM 2 AM 3 AM 4 AM 11 AM 22 AM 33 AM 44 AQ 1 AQ 2 AQ 11 AQ 22 COIL 1M COIL 1P COIL 2M COIL 2P COIL 3M COIL 3P Field 1M
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.FLUX 2D®9.3
Regions
29 regions will be created. Each coil of armature and field will be dissociated as well as all absorbers.
2.
b Stator core region
Fig 2.Defining the problem
FLUX 2D®9.3.3.2.3.a Rotor core region
Fig 2.2.c Shaft region
Fig 2.2.20
Names Field 1P Field 2M Field 2P SHAFT ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE
Comment Field positive phase 1 Field negative phase 2 Field positive phase 2 Motor shaft Rotor magnetic core Stator magnetic core
Color Red Turquoise Red Turquoise Cyan Cyan
Note : To create region : [Physics].2.[New] • Assigning the surface region to faces The region will be assigned to the faces according to the following pictures:
Fig 2.d Airgap region
PAGE 20
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.[Face Region].3.
2.h Coil 1P region
Fig 2.i Coil 1M region
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 21
.3.FLUX 2D®9.g Air 3 region
Fig 2.3.2.3.3.20
Defining the problem
Fig 2.e Air 1 region
Fig 2.2.2.2.3.f Air 2 region
Fig 2.
3.n Field 1P region
Fig 2.r Field 2M region
PAGE 22
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.2.2.20
Fig 2.2.q Field 2P region
Fig 2.2.3.l Coil 3P region
Fig 2.3.3.3.3.2.2.2.j Coil 2P region
Fig 2.3.p Field 1M region
Fig 2.3.Defining the problem
FLUX 2D®9.k Coil 2M region
Fig 2.m Coil 3M region
Fig 2.2.
FLUX 2D®9. [Assign regions to faces]
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 23
.[Assign regions to geometric entities].2.s All absorber regions Note : To assign regions to faces : [Physics].20
Defining the problem
AM 11 AM 22 AQ 22 AQ 11 AM 2 AM 1
AM 33 AM 44 AQ 2 AQ 1 AM 4 AM 3
Fig 2.3.
Defining the problem
FLUX 2D®9.20
2.4
Circuits models
These circuits are used for dynamic and transient simulations. They will model: • the three phases of the armature with or without the coil end winding • The field coils for the two poles. • The twelve absorbers which can be represented by two variants : some coil conductors or solid conductors. • Some resistance with high value (106 or 104 Ω) in order to model the voltmeters. • The type of test, in which the circuit is used, and an abbreviation of test name compose the name of each circuit. Note : To create circuit : In the supervisor, choose [Circuit], [file], [New]
PAGE 24
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
FLUX 2D®9.20
Defining the problem
2.4.1
ME_CC
This circuit will be used: • to know the evolution of stator voltage in function of the supply in current of field. • to know the behavior of machine in case of sudden shortcircuit. Different shortcircuit will be modeled (single phase, three phase …) in modifying the value of resistors in which the stator is linked. Names B1,B2,B3 B_ROTOR L1, L2, L3 R1, R2, R3,R6 L4 RU1, RU2, RU3, AM1, AM2, AM3, AM4, AM11, AM22, AM33, AM44, AQ1, AQ2, AQ11, AQ22 R5,R7,R8, ……. …..R23, R24, R25 L5,L6,L7, …….. …..L22, L23, L24 Type Coils Coils Inductances Resistors Inductances Resistors Values 181.2 mΩ 5.0136 Ω 1.104 mH According to test (106 or 106Ω) 8.8 mH 106 Ω ρ = 2.7 108 Ω.m 2.89 106 Ω 109 H
Solid conductors Resistors Inductances
Fig 10 : ME_CC
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 25
Defining the problem
FLUX 2D®9.20
2.4.2
AC_SSFR_D_AXIS_POS
This circuit will be used to determine the position of rotor in D axis for the SFFR test. Names B1, B2, B3 B_ROTOR B5 B6 L1, L2, L3 L4 L5 L6 V1 Type Coils Coils Coils Coils Inductances Inductances Inductances Inductances Voltage source Values 181.2 mΩ 5.0136 Ω 8.486 Ω 9.358 Ω 1.104 mH 8.8 mH 15.6 mH 11.2 mH According to the test
Fig 11 : AC_SSFR_D_AXIS_POS circuit
PAGE 26
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
L2.FLUX 2D®9.104 mH 8. R20. L3 L4 R1 R2. … ….2 mΩ 5. B3 B_ROTOR B5 B6 L1.3
AC_SSFR_Q_AXIS_POS
This circuit will be used to know the characteristics of machine with the StandStill Frequency Rotor or locked rotor. Names B1. L7.0136 Ω 8. B2.8 mH 10 Ω 2.486 Ω 9.R3.R4.20
Defining the problem
2. L6.89 106 Ω 109 H According to the test
4
Fig 12 : AC_SSFR_Q_AXIS_POS circuit
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 27
. L23. R21 L5.358 Ω 1. … …. R19. L24 V1 Type Coils Coils Coils Coils Inductances Inductances Resistance Resistors Inductances Voltage source Values 181.4. L22.
L3 L4 L5 L6 R1. L2.0136 Ω 8.6 mH 11. V2.2 mH According to the test According to the test According to the test According to the test
Fig 13 :TM_NETWORK circuit
PAGE 28
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.104 mH 8. L8. B2.4
TM_NETWORK
This circuit will be used to know the behavior of machine when it is connected to the network. Names B1. L9 V1. R2.20
2.4.358 Ω 1.Defining the problem
FLUX 2D®9. V3 I_rotor Type Coils Coils Coils Coils Inductances Inductances Inductances Inductances Resistances Inductances Voltage source Current source Values 181.2 mΩ 5.8 mH 15. B3 B_ROTOR B5 B6 L1.486 Ω 9. R3 L7.
FLUX 2D®9. Characteristics : iso_resistivity = 2.6T and µr = 8000 for B(H) curve.[Material] then [Property] • ALU_BAR
This material is defined by a resistivity corresponding to aluminium bars for the absorbers. Characteristics : Js = 1.5
Materials data
Three types of materials will be used in the different simulations. 108 Ω. to solid bars for the absorbers and to a resistive material for the rotor.20
Defining the problem
2. They correspond to a magnetic core for the stator and rotor. This resistivity is given for 20° C temperature.m • RESISTIV_ROTOR
This material is defined by a B(H) curve. and a resistivity. The simple analytic saturation curve allows to characterise it by the saturation value Js and the slope of the origin of the curve. Characteristics : Js = 1.7 108 Ω. Iso_resistivity = 15.6T and µr = 8000
Fig 11 : B(H) curve of magnetic core
Note : To create material : In the supervisor. This material will characterise the rotor property for some SSFR tests. choose [Materials Database] : [Add].m
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 29
. Materials can be entered in a material database. • STEEL_NLIN
This material is defined by the B(H) curve. identical to the steel_nlin material. or can be created directly in each FLUX project.
20
2. this condition means zero value of the magnetic vector potential along the two boundaries. Expressed in terms of magnetic vector potential.6
Boundary conditions
The boundaries of computation domain are outer contour of stator magnetic core and the lines delimiting the section cut of the machine.Defining the problem
FLUX 2D®9. The conditions will be: . Indeed.Cyclic along of the section of machine.
Dirichlet
Cyclic Fig 12 : Boundaries conditions
Note : All the boundary conditions are set automatically by Flux 2D
PAGE 30
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. the magnetic flux through these boundaries is considered as null. Indeed.Dirichlet on the outer contour of stator magnetic core. the flux lines through these boundaries are considered as perpendicular to these boundaries and distributed symmetrically against the middle of machine. .
corresponding to the representation in the Park transformation.ω corresponding to the synchronous reactance.2
3. the parameters of equivalent schema will be studied. picture of stator voltage. Xq in magneto static
3. will give the two corresponding angles.FLUX 2D®9. Xq in magneto static
3. The longitudinal reactance is obtained when the north pole of rotor is lined up with a stator phase.1
Angles corresponding to Xd and Xq
Purpose
Reminder : equivalent schema : The machine is represented in generator convention.2. The menu “Physical” in the supervisor will be used to describe the physical propriety of each region.
Parameters Xd. the angle of rotor will be used as parameter in a magnetostatic simulation. The evolution of flux. the menu “Solve” to give the solving parameter and launch the computation and the menu “Result” to analyse the results supplied by Flux 2D.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 31
. In order to determine the positions of the rotor corresponding exactly to these two reactances.1
Introduction
This section will supply the simulation conditions and the possible analysis for each type of test. The value X = L.
3.20
Parameters Xd. In this section. The transversal reactance is in quadrature with the longitudinal position. longitudinal and transversal. This reactance is decomposed in two reactances.
COIL_2M. Xq in magneto static
FLUX 2D®9. 2 coeff. COIL_3P Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Material STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR ROTOR STATOR
Mechanical set ROTOR STATOR
PAGE 32
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. AM_3. COIL_3M. AM_11.2
Physical conditions
Angle_det Magneto static Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account) Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions Name of material STEEL_NLIN
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Type Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.Parameters Xd. COIL_1M. COIL_1P. AM_2.2.6
Mechanical Comment Type Set name ROTOR Rotor Rotation around one axis STATOR AIRGAP Stator Airgap FIXED COMPRES SIBLE

Rotation axis Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz 
Pivot External Point characteristic (0. AQ_1. AQ_11.) Coord. COIL_2P. AQ_22. AQ_2.20
3. AM_22. AM_44. AM_33. System ROTOR
Initial relative permeability 8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1. AM_4.0.0) Multistatic


Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT AM_1.
[Parametrisation]. choose Geometry and physics [New]
3.3
Solving conditions
Solving parameters : .20
Parameters Xd.Angle of rotor [10. step [5] . [Parameter].FLUX 2D®9. [Solve] or click on
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 33
. 80]. [Parameter] or [Direct] and click on Note : To create links between currents : [Direct]. choose Solve [Direct]. [Link] Note : To launch the solving process : [Computation]. [Parametrisation].Initial position of rotor: 0° Note : To enter solving parameters : In the supervisor. Xq in magneto static
Stranded coil Name B_ROTOR Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P Turn number 215 215 215 215 Associated coil component B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR
Stranded coil with imposed current 2 orientation Symmetries and periodicities All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series Mechanical Set ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
negative positive negative positive
Boundary condition
automatically set by Flux 2D
Note : To create physic properties : In the supervisor.2.
2.
θ Xd = 55 ° θ Xq = 10 °
θd = 55 °
θq = 10 °
6
3 4
Fig 3. According to the result curve.20
3.2.[Isovalue] or click on Note : To jump to an other angle : [Parameter]. [Flux by region] and a Coil. The parameter of angular position is applied on the airgap region.b : Flux in COIL_3P curve according the position of rotor
Note : To obtain the flux : [Computation].Parameters Xd.[2D curves manager] or click on chosse [parameter]. when flux is minimum. then the computation will be carried out on this one. choose Result Note : To see flux lines : [Result]. the quadrature position.[Manager] or click on
(E3) Weber
Cur
1
0
1
2
3
degres
0
25
50
75
Fig 3. [New cursor]
then
PAGE 34
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. the direct position (θd) is 55 degrees compared with the initial position (0°) and 10 degrees for the quadrature position (θq). Xq in magneto static
FLUX 2D®9. [Inductance]. Note : To obtain the cursor : [2D Curve].a : Equiflux lines in the direct and quadrature axis positions
Note : To analyze the results : In the supervisor.2.4
Analysis
As the flux is the picture of voltage. When the flux is maximum. we obtain the direct position (pole lined up with a phase). it may be used to know the positions of the rotor corresponding to two reactances.
the current.3. Xq in magneto static
3. Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2 Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Type of periodicity Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions Name of material STEEL_NLIN
Type Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.6
Mechanical Comment Set name ROTOR Rotor
Coord. voltage and frequency of the machine. It will be given in total value.) Type Rotation around one axis
Initial relative permeability 8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1. will be the parameter which may be modified around the nominal value (7.20
Parameters Xd.1
Xd and Xq according to the stator current
Purpose
The values of synchronous reactance are determined for the nominal values of current.0. 2 coeff. The field region will correspond to a source with a current equal to zero.3.0) around one axis parallel to Oz 
External characteristic Multistatic
PAGE 35
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.2
Physical conditions
XdXq_Is Magneto static Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation • •
For this simulation. supplying the stator phases. The position of the rotor will be also considered as a parameter in order to see the influence of the saturation on the two reactances. System ROTOR
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED COMPRESSIBLE

Rotation Pivot axis Point Rotation (0.84 Amperes).3
3.
3.FLUX 2D®9. The rotor is lined up with the stator coil corresponding to the third one. This simulation will allow then to determine the reactances but also to observe the influence of the saturation of the magnetic material for different values.
AQ_11. AQ_22. AQ_2.0. Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Stranded coil Name B_ROTOR B1 B2 B3 Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M Turn number 215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54 Associated coil component B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3 Material STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR ROTOR
Mechanical set ROTOR STATOR Stranded coil with imposed current 0 .20
Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT AM_1. Xq in magneto static
FLUX 2D®9. AQ_1.5 0. AM_3. AM_4.Parameters Xd. AM_44. AM_11.5 1 orientation Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
negative positive negative positive Positive negative Positive negative Positive negative
Boundary condition
automatically set by Flux 2D
PAGE 36
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. AM_33. AM_2. AM_22.
400.3
• • •
Solving conditions
Stator current : [100.
(E3) Weber
400
300
200
100
(E3) Ampere
0. The two reactances will be computed from this flux by using the following expression:
X =
(4 × π × f × Φ )
⎛ I AT ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 54 ⎠
with . 650. 150. 1200] Angle of rotor : [10 . It is computed for one phase then two coils. 300.φ corresponding to the flux given by Flux 2D in Weber . 700. 550. Xq in magneto static
3. 800. 270.3.5 1
Fig 3. 600. 1000.4
Analysis
The reactances can not be obtained directly by Flux 2D. 350.54 corresponding to the number of stator slots The following curve gives the flux for different currents in direct position. 200. 250.3. 500. 450.FLUX 2D®9. 750.3.20
Parameters Xd. The flux values will be computed by Flux 2D for the different rotor positions and stator current.f corresponding to the nominal frequency : 50 Hz .a : Flux curve in COIL_3 in direct position according to the stator current
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 37
. 55] Initial position of rotor : 0° Warning : Don’t forget to select multiparameter in the Solver or click on
3.
12 20.36E01 3.80E01 3.51 17.60E01 3.47 21.19E01 2.40 21.98 20.85 14.57E01 2.36 13.24 15. [Write all in review file]
Is in At 100 150 200 250 270 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 1000 1200 Flux D in Wb Flux Q in Wb Xd in Ω Xq in Ω
3.20E01 2.23 15.22 15.57E01 1. [Modify] All the flux values may be get back in order to be analyzed by a computer software like Excel.09 14.20 15. [Coefficients].35 19.26E01 1.33E01 2.70E01 2.Parameters Xd.19 18.96E01 4.70E01 1.44 13.74E02 8.24 15.43 21.46
Fig 3.48 21.21E01 1.07 12.74 20.09E01 4.35 21.09E01 3.42E02 6.93E01 3.50E01 2.34E01 1.38 21.27
15.24 15.73 12.48E02 1.43E02 4.20E01 4.38E01
21.30 21.89E01 2. Note : To obtain the flux values : Right click on the flux curve.45 21. Each reactance will be computed for each value of current and a curve of the reactance evolution may be plotted.49E02 6.45E01 2.98E02 1.33E02 9.80E01 3.82 15.21 15.20
Note : To create a group of two coils : [Supports]. [Group manager] Warning : Do nott forget to give the turns number of each coil (54) in [Physics].44 11.b : Reactances values computed from flux values computed by Flux 2D
PAGE 38
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. choose [Values].15 15. Xq in magneto static
FLUX 2D®9.83 19.81E01 2.79E01 2.18 15.12E01 1.22 21.3.87 13.00E01 2.58E01 1.50E01
2.
00
12.20
Parameters Xd.3.00
10.FLUX 2D®9. Xq in magneto static
REACTANCES / I Stator
22.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 39
. The machine is then designed at the limit of magnetic saturation.00
Xd in ohm Xq in ohm
14.00
I nominal
18.00 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
stator current in At
Fig 3. c : Reactance in direct and quadrature axis according to stator current A drop of reactance values can be noted above the nominal current.00
Reactances
16.00
20.
Parameters Xd. Xq in magneto static
FLUX 2D®9.20
PAGE 40
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.
1. the field voltage will correspond to 0.20
Shortcircuit tests
4.
Shortcircuit tests
4. As the magnetic circuit must not be saturated during the short circuit.1
4.1. In order to avoid the transient phenomena. the simulation will break down in two parts : • a first part where the simulation duration will be long with some important time steps • a second part where the simulation duration will be short with little time steps
4.FLUX 2D®9.2
Physical conditions
bemf Transient_magnetic 2D Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account) Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 41
.1
Unloaded operating
Purpose
This simulation is necessary because of it is used as the initial condition for the different short circuit tests.35 times the nominal voltage.
R7.L7.. R25 L5. ….104 mH 8. L2. L23.) B(H) : Linear isotropic J(E) : isotropic resistivity Type
Isotropic Initial relative Saturation value permeability magnetization (T) 8000 1. ……. L3 L4 R5. R2. 2 coeff. R3.L6. System ROTOR Rotation axis Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz Pivot Point (0.89 106 Ω 109 H
Mechanical set ROTOR STATOR
PAGE 42
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. R6 L1.0) Imposed speed 1500 rpm
Mechanical Comment Set name ROTOR Rotor
Rotation around one axis
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED COMPRESSIBLE

Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR

Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Circuit Components V1 R1. …….L22. …. R24.76 V 109 1.8 mH 2.7e8 Ωm Coord..R8..Shortcircuit tests
FLUX 2D®9.20
Name of material STEEL_NLIN
Type B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.6
ALU_BAR ALU_BAR
1 2. L24 Material STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN ME_CC Values 8.R23.0.
FLUX 2D®9.2 mΩ orientation Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series Orientation ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
Associated coil component B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
negative positive negative positive Positive negative Positive negative Positive negative
Name of face region (solid conductor region type) AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Material
Associated solid conductor M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22
Mechanical set
Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar
positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 43
.2 mΩ 181.20
Shortcircuit tests
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1 B2 B3 Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M Turn number 215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
Resistance 5.2 mΩ 181.0136 Ω 181.
001] Initial position of rotor : 85 °
PAGE 44
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.3
• • • •
Solving conditions
Initialized by static computation Time length : [0.20
Name of solid conductor 2 terminals M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22 Boundary condition • •
Symmetries and periodicities Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel automatically set by Flux 2D
Number of conductors in parallel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
To simulate an unloaded circuit at stator. The rotor will be lined up with the coil 1 (85°). step [5] Time length : [20.20].04].Shortcircuit tests
FLUX 2D®9.1.
4.20. step [0. some important values resistors will be used.
999E3
5
10
15
20
•
Voltage
Fig 4.999E
Fig 4.1. 20.999E3 0. the voltage of the phase 1 is equal to zero.03 39.999E3 0.16+ x)
0 0.c : Current curve on the two last periods
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 45
.01 19.1.1.3.20
Shortcircuit tests
4.01 19.3.FLUX 2D®9.16+ x)
0 0.03 39.a). The frequency is equal to 50 Hz.4
Analysis
In the first part of simulation.
49.1.999
0
0
50
50
(20. • Current
50E9
0
50E9
(20.13.2] s Fig 4.999
49. each points of stator voltage and current must be close to zero because of it corresponds to a complete rotation of rotor (Fig 4.b : Voltage on two last period
In the second part.a : Voltage curve between [5 .3. The transient phenomena will no exist before beginning the second part composed of short time steps. the unloaded steady state is reached in 2 periods and at the last step.
Note : To create multicurve picture : On the curve. select several curve in Selection Menu. [2D spectrum manager] or click on
PAGE 46
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.
Note : To create spectrum : [Computation].5
10
The spectral analysis allows checking the quality of signal.13.6 8 u d mn l 7 1
S E T U S e tr_ s1 P C R M pc V
50
25
0
2.20
The current can be considered as sinusoidal and close to zero Ampere.5
5
7.d : Spectrum of the phase A voltage
The preponderance of the fundamental harmonic shows that the harmonics of upper order are practically not present.Shortcircuit tests
FLUX 2D®9. choose Superimposed and the Range of Xaxis in Display Menu • Spectral analysis
Volt
75
F mV ro s1 F n a e ta 4 . click right and choose [Properties].
Fig 4.
The different rotor and stator currents. Exactly.FLUX 2D®9. at the end of the simulation unloaded_operating. The phase voltage on which the short circuit is triggered must be close to zero at this moment. with a transient magnetic analysis.) B(H) : Linear isotropic J(E) : isotropic resistivity
Isotropic Initial relative Saturation value permeability magnetization (T) 8000 1.
4.2. Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions Name of material STEEL_NLIN SC_MONO Transient_magnetic 2D Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account) Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Type B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg. the torque and the phenomena in the absorbers will be studied in particular.2.6
ALU_BAR ALU_BAR
1 2.1
Single phase short circuit
Purpose
The purpose of this simulation is to know the behavior of the generator further to a sudden shortcircuit on a phase only (between one phase and neutral).20
Shortcircuit tests
4. 2 coeff. This shortcircuit will be activated from an unloaded operating of the alternator at the steady state speed.2
4.2
Physical conditions
The short circuit will be triggered from a unloaded operating in steady state speed.7e8 Ωm
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 47
.
89 106 Ω 109 H Resistance 5.R8. R24. …….20
Mechanical Comment Set name ROTOR Rotor
Type Rotation around one axis
Coord. L24 Material STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN ME_CC Values 8. L23.104 mH 8.0.8 mH 2.R23.R7.2 mΩ 181. R25 L5.. …….2 mΩ
Mechanical set ROTOR STATOR
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1 B2 B3
PAGE 48
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.Shortcircuit tests
FLUX 2D®9. R3 L1.L6.L7. L3 L4 R5.76 V 106 Ω 10+6 Ω 1. System ROTOR
Rotation axis Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz 
Pivot Point (0. …. L2.. R6 R2.0)
Imposed speed 1500 rpm
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED COMPRESSIBLE

Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR

Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Circuit Components V1 R1.2 mΩ 181.0136 Ω 181.L22. …..
FLUX 2D®9.20
Shortcircuit tests
Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
Turn number 215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
Associated coil component B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
orientation
Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
negative positive negative positive Positive negative Positive negative Positive negative
Name of face region (solid conductor region type) AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Material
Associated solid conductor M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22
Orientation
Mechanical set
Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar
positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 49
.
step [0.20
Name of solid conductor 2 terminals M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22 Boundary condition
Symmetries and periodicities Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel automatically set by Flux 2D
Number of conductors in parallel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Warning : You must assign correctly each region to his corresponding component in the external circuit. the others will stay opened.3
• •
Solving conditions
From the last step of the back emf simulation Time length : [0. The phases in open circuit will be represented by important resistors and the phases in short circuit will be represented by weak resistors.
4.5]. [Computation]. choose Solve [Direct].35 x the nominal voltage unloaded.0005s]
Warning : The last step of the phase A voltage in the unloaded simulation must be close to zero ! Note : To prepare Transient startup : In the supervisor. • • • The sudden shortcircuit will be activated on the phase 1. choose Transient Startup Note : To prepare batch computation : In the supervisor.Shortcircuit tests
FLUX 2D®9. [Prepare batch computation]
PAGE 50
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.2. The field alimentation corresponds to 0.
6.699
20.d : Current in the A phase with his dc component
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 51
.8
Fig 3. there is a current only in this phase.5
20.6
20.001 s after the short circuit Fig 3. This current is sinusoidal and contains a dc component which must cancel after a time corresponding to a time constant of exponential shape.c t =0.1.6.05 s after the short circuit
•
Currents
The short circuit being activated at armature on the phase 1.4
•
Analysis
Flux lines
The evolution of flux lines in the magnetic circuit can be displayed.
20.6.999
50
0
50
s.399
20.FLUX 2D®9.1.20
Shortcircuit tests
4.2.
7 8 5 4 3 6
5 7 6
3
10 11 1
1 2 11 10
8 9 2 4
9
Fig 3.b t =0.
Ampere
150
99.1.
Shortcircuit tests
FLUX 2D®9.999
0
50
s.
20. the torque allows displaying the imbalance of the system with a DC component on the phase in short circuit. The AC component decays with time constant identical to that DC component of armature current.5 20.6. This current consists of DC and AC components.
N.
Ampere
15
10
5
0
s.6
Fig 3.e : Torque curve with DC component and 2 order harmonic
PAGE 52
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. The DC component must decrease with two time constants corresponding to the transient and subtransient components.m
49.699 20.1. This DC component corresponds to the rotor and stator losses.399 20.399 20.8
Fig 3.5 20.1.20
The stator short circuit influences also the field current.e : Field current with DC and AC components • Torque
In this case.
20.6 20. Oscillations on the curve correspond to a 2 order harmonic because of only the A phase is flowed by a current.6.
FLUX 2D®9.3
4. Exactly.7e8 Ωm
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 53
. Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions Name of material STEEL_NLIN SC_THREE Transient_magnetic 2D Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account) Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Type B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.6
ALU_BAR ALU_BAR
1 2. 2 coeff.
4.2
Physical conditions
The short circuit will be triggered from an unloaded operating in steady state speed.20
Shortcircuit tests
4. transient and sub transient components will be then defined indirectly from the values of current computed by Flux 2D. This test allows also determining the different values of reactances and time constants.3. with a transient magnetic analysis. The sustained. the torque and the phenomena in the absorbers will be studied in particular. The different rotor and stator currents.1
Three phase short circuit
Purpose
The purpose of this simulation is to know the behavior of the generator further to a sudden three phase short circuit.) B(H) : Linear isotropic J(E) : isotropic resistivity
Isotropic Initial relative Saturation value permeability magnetization (T) 8000 1. at the last step of the simulation unloaded operating. This short circuit will be activated from an unloaded operating of the alternator at the steady state speed.3.
104 mH 8.L6.. L23. R2..89 106 Ω 109 H Resistance 5.R8.0. System ROTOR
Rotation axis Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz 
Pivot Point (0. …. ……. R3.2 mΩ
Mechanical set ROTOR STATOR
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1 B2 B3
PAGE 54
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.76 V 106 Ω 1.0136 Ω 181. L3 L4 R5. L2.Shortcircuit tests
FLUX 2D®9.8 mH 2.R23.L22. R25 L5.L7. …….2 mΩ 181.20
Mechanical Comment Set name ROTOR Rotor
Type Rotation around one axis
Coord..2 mΩ 181. R6 L1. L24 Material STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN ME_CC Values 8. …. R24.R7.0)
Imposed speed 1500 rpm
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED COMPRESSIBLE

Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR

Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Circuit Components V1 R1.
FLUX 2D®9.20
Shortcircuit tests
Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
Turn number 215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
Associated coil component B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
orientation
Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
negative positive negative positive Positive negative Positive negative Positive negative
Name of face region (solid conductor region type) AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Material
Associated solid conductor M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22
Orientation
Mechanical set
Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar
positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 55
.
3.0005s]
Warning : The last step of the phase 1 voltage in the unloaded simulation must be close to zero !
PAGE 56
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. The field alimentation corresponds to 0.
4.Shortcircuit tests
FLUX 2D®9. step [0.35 x the nominal voltage unloaded to avoid the effects of magnetic saturation.3
• •
Solving conditions
From the last step of the back emf simulation Time length : [1].20
Name of solid conductor 2 terminals M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22 Boundary condition • •
Symmetries and periodicities Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel automatically set by Flux 2D
Number of conductors in parallel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
The sudden shortcircuit will be activated on the three phases.
The time constant T’d is determined from the previous curve. flowing each phase of stator.I’’o . T’d : transient current and time constant .606 times I’ gives the half of T’d. T’’d : subtransient current and time constant • The method to define the different components is : Get back all the values of current computed by Flux 2D in a computing software Define the minimum and maximum envelopes of current for each phase Compute the periodic armature current component in carrying out the halfdifference of the ordinates of upper and lower envelopes for each phase. The transient reactance is computed from the following formula : E X 'd = ( Is + I ' )
with : E unloaded maximum voltage before the short circuit. To determine I’ and T’d from the previous curve : The curve striving towards a straight line of which the extrapolation to t = 0 s gives the value of I’.I’o .FLUX 2D®9.4
Analysis
−t −t
The current.20
Shortcircuit tests
4. The periodic component is determined as a mean value of the periodic component in three phases. Determine the transient and subtransient components. is given as a function of time:
I ac = I s + I × e
' o
Td'
+ I ×e
'' o
Td''
With – Is : sustained current .3. the value of the sustained short circuit current is subtracted from the periodic component and the remainder is plotted on paper with a semilog scale. The duration until the point on the straight line where the current is equal to 0.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 57
.
814 42. 20.6 20.976 10.999 0
s.227 17.238 Periodic component Phase 2 (Imax .775 5.233 29.426 17.425 35.3.233 12.348 6.641 12.697 12. click right and choose [Properties].5 20.745 14.379 17.593 3.2.374 8.4 s Note : To create multicurve picture : On the curve.904 29.845 12. 20.005 42.951 25.191 15.808 12. select several curve in Selection Menu.6 20.420 15.Imin) / 2 72.8
Fig 4.506 22.
Periodic component Phase 1 (Imax – Imin) / 2 76.8
150 100 49.699
s.885 21.585 33.a : Short circuit currents in the three phases on 0.550 4.838 3.20
Ampere
0 50 100
20.344 17.149 34.397 13.555 42.416 53.278 54.97 A 67.699 20.The sustained current.680 13.561 13.601 13.807 55.792 14.Is Is = 8. 20.283 29.917 19.202 Periodic component average = I
I .615 14.389 15.563 12.520 13.699 Ampere s.97 Amperes.077 19.374 15. computed by Flux 2D.5 20.946 19.318 15.313 20.602 12.308 45.216 21. strives towards 8.846 43.5 20.399 Ampere 20.399 20.845 19.448 12.399 20.817 35.650 22.579 25.847 26.712 29.232
PAGE 58
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.Imin) / 2 79.827 14.8
0 50 100
20.882 12. choose Side by side and the Range of X axis in Display Menu .273 76.Shortcircuit tests
FLUX 2D®9.094 Periodic component Phase 3 (Imax .6 20.203 21.878 35.609 54.
242 10.146 9.277 10.b : Exemple of periodic components on 0.735
Periodic component average = I 11.445 10.97 + 26) 5.3.03 Ω 0.340 11.4
0.604 11.792 9.Is
0.304 10.997 1.475 1.068 9.684 10.0
0.075 s
and
then T’d = 0.0
1.585 10.372 11.822 0.975 9.920 9.977 9.606 x I’
Ampères
10.FLUX 2D®9.098 0.866 10.272 1.Is 2.954 9.0
I’ = 26 A 0.682
I .3 Temps
I .127 9.103 9.710 11.334 1.779 11.5
0.3.2.2.715
Periodic component Phase 2 11.5 s
I .2
0.967 10.201 10.033 10.745 11.848 9.748 10.596
Periodic component Phase 3 11.002 10.1
0.712
Fig 4.6
Fig 4.740 2.704 9.719 10.Is 100.714 1.480 10.348 10.20
Shortcircuit tests
Periodic component Phase 1 11.1 0
0.5 x T’d
0.303 10.829 9. the transient components are : ′ Xd = 176 = (8.825 9.950 0.5 × Td′ = 0.508 10.c : Graphic to find the transient components With the results supplied by Flux 2D and found on the curve.15 s
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 59
.
The subtransient reactance is computed from the following formula : ′ X d′ = E ( Is + I '+ I ′′)
PAGE 60
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.20
To determine I’’ and T’’d : Compute the difference between the curve of periodic component and the straight line of I’ and plotted it on a semi–log paper. Extrapolated the straight line obtained until t = 0 in order to define I’’.Shortcircuit tests
FLUX 2D®9.
Each position is determined by a particular test even the supply voltage of armature is not identical in both case. at the position where the field voltage will be minor. the armature is supplied by a voltage source set up at 100 Hz.20
StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
5. in both case.1
5.1.1.1
Direct and quadrature axis determination
Purpose
Before launching the SSFR simulations. it is necessary to determine the positions of the rotor corresponding to the direct or quadrature axis. The diagrams of these different tests are presented below:
Voltage
100 Hz Fig 5.FLUX 2D®9.
StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
5. In both cases.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 61
. as describe in the IEEE standard.1.a Positionning of direct axis
The simulations will be carried out in AC steady state magnetic 2D application at low voltage with the rotor position as parameter. with a phase in open circuit or not. The direct and quadrature axis will correspond.
7e8Ωm
PAGE 62
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.1.b Positionning of quadrature axis
5. 2 coeff.20
Voltag
100 Hz
Fig 5.6
Type of equivalent B(H) curve Sine Wave flux density
ALU_BAR ALU_BAR
1 2.StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
FLUX 2D®9.1xVn). It corresponds to one percent of the nominal voltage in order to avoid exceed currents (V =0.1. • Direct simulation AC_SSFR_DIRECT_POS Magnetic AC 2D 100 Hz Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account) Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Problem name Problem type Frequency Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions Name of material STEEL_NLIN Type B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg. The rotor position will be used as a parameter and will change of 2.5 degrees at each step.1.) B(H) : Linear isotropic J(E) : isotropic resistivity
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Isotropic value
Initial relative permeability
8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1.2
Physical and solving conditions
The voltage of the source will be 1.5 Volts.
L3 L4 L5 L6 Material STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
Mechanical set ROTOR STATOR
MH_SSFR_POS_DIRECT Values 1.2 mΩ 8.20
StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
Mechanical Comment Set name ROTOR Rotor
Type Rotation around one axis
Coord.6mH 11.358 Ω
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1 B2 B3 B5 B6
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 63
.486 Ω 9.2 mΩ 181.5 V 1.2mH Resistance 5.104 mH 8.8 mH 15.2 mΩ 181.0136 Ω 181.FLUX 2D®9. System ROTOR
Rotation axis Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz 
Pivot Point (0. L2.0.0)
Imposed speed 1500 rpm
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED COMPRESSIBLE

Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR

Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Circuit Components V1 L1.
StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
FLUX 2D®9.20
Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
Turn number 215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
Associated coil component B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
orientation
Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
PAGE 64
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.
5°] • Quadrature simulation AC_QUADRATURE_SSFR AC magnetic 2D 100 Hz Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Problem name Problem type Frequency Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 65
.20
StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
Name of face Turn region (coil number conductor region type) AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22 Boundary condition 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74
Associated coil component B5 B5 B6 B6 B5 B5 B6 B6 B6 B6 B5 B5
orientation
Symmetries and periodicities All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
Mechanical Set ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
Positive Negative Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
automatically set by Flux 2D
Solving parameters : .Rotor positions : [5°. 85°].FLUX 2D®9. step [2.
0)
Imposed speed 1500 rpm
Rotation around one axis
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED COMPRESSIBLE

Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR

Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Material STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
Mechanical set ROTOR STATOR
PAGE 66
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. System ROTOR
Rotation axis Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz 
Pivot Point (0.0.StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
FLUX 2D®9.7e8Ωm
Mechanical Comment Set name ROTOR Rotor
Coord.20
Type of periodicity Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions Name of material STEEL_NLIN Type
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0
Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Isotropic value
Initial relative permeability
ALU_BAR ALU_BAR
B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.6
Type of equivalent B(H) curve Sine Wave flux density
1 2.) B(H) : Linear isotropic J(E) : isotropic resistivity Type
8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1. 2 coeff.
.R19.L6. …. …. L23. B3 Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M Turn number 215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
AC_SSFR_Q_AXIS Values 1.. ……. L2.104 mH 8.89 106 Ω 109 H Resistance 5. B2. R21 L5.2 mΩ orientation Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
Associated coil component B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 67
.20
StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
Circuit Components V1 R1 L1. L24 Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1.8 mH 2.L7.FLUX 2D®9. R20..0136 Ω 181.L22.5 V 104 Ω 1. …….R3.R4. L3 L4 R2.
step [2.20
Name of face region (solid conductor region type) AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Material
Associated solid conductor M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22
Orientation
Mechanical set
Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar
Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
Name of solid conductor 2 terminals M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22 Boundary condition
Symmetries and periodicities Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel automatically set by Flux 2D
Number of conductors in parallel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Solving parameters : Rotor positions : [5°. 85°].5°]
PAGE 68
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
FLUX 2D®9.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 69
. It is corresponding to B_ROTOR coil component. [Group] and click on the region concerned.20
StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
5.1.1.
Direct simulation
Fig 5. Note : To create a group : [Supports]. The voltage amplitude will be chosen equal to the one of the classical SSFR.3
• • •
Analysis
The voltage will be taken at the field terminals. The found angle is given in comparison to the initial position.FLUX 2D®9.3.a Field voltage to determine direct axis
The direct axis position is close to 10 ° degree.
1.20
Quadrature simulation
Fig 5.
PAGE 70
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.3.b Field voltage to determine quadrature axis
The quadrature axis position is close to 55 ° degree. direct or quadrature. • These two positions will be used as initial position for each SSFR test.StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
FLUX 2D®9.
2 coeff.2.6
Type of equivalent B(H) curve Sine Wave flux density
ALU_BAR ALU_BAR
1 2. From the evolution of the inductance in function of electrical pulsation.20
StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
5. the transient and subtransient time constants in open circuit or shortcircuit.) B(H) : Linear isotropic J(E) : isotropic resistivity
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Isotropic value
Initial relative permeability
8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1.2. In particular. The result will give the current and voltage values in complex.1
Classical SSFR
Purpose
This method is also used to determine the parameters of the machine. The rotor is assumed at standstill and a weak voltage with a frequency varying from 1 mHz to 400 Hz is applied to the stator.2
5. the different time constants and reactances can be evaluated.
5.2
Physical conditions
AC_QUADRATURE_SSFR AC magnetic 2D 100 Hz Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account) Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Problem name Problem type Frequency Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions Name of material STEEL_NLIN Type B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.7e8Ωm
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 71
.FLUX 2D®9. The simulation will be carried out in AC steady state magnetic 2D application at low voltage with the frequency as parameter. They will be analyzed in order to compute the reactances and time constants looked for.
L24 Material STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN AC_SSFR_Q_AXIS Values 1.StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
FLUX 2D®9.. System ROTOR
Rotation axis Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz 
Pivot Point (0.8 mH 2.0. L3 L4 R2. …….20
Mechanical Comment Set name ROTOR Rotor
Type Rotation around one axis
Coord. R21 L5.. …….R4. B2..R19.0)
Imposed speed 1500 rpm
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED COMPRESSIBLE

Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR

Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Circuit Components V1 R1 L1.2 mΩ
Mechanical set ROTOR STATOR
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1.89 106 Ω 109 H Resistance 5. L2.L6.R3. R20. L23.L22. B3
PAGE 72
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.0136 Ω 181.L7.104 mH 8.5 V 104 Ω 1. …. ….
FLUX 2D®9.20
StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
Turn number 215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
Associated coil component B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
orientation
Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
Name of face region (solid conductor region type) AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Material
Associated solid conductor M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22
Orientation
Mechanical set
Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar
Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 73
.
[Prepare batch computation]
PAGE 74
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. 0.2. 0. 0. 4. 400] Initial position of rotor : 10°
Note : To enter parameters : In the supervisor.1.08. 0.04. 0. [Computation]. 0. 0. 50.2. 10. 2. 20. choose Solve [Direct]. 5.3
• •
Solving conditions
Stator frequency : [0.005.02.8. 40. 6.20
Name of solid conductor 2 terminals M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22 Boundary condition
Symmetries and periodicities Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel automatically set by Flux 2D
Number of conductors in parallel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
5. 8. 200. 0. 100. 1.001. 80. 0.4.StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
FLUX 2D®9.01.
the poles and zeros of the inductance transfer function correspond to the different reactances and time constants.FLUX 2D®9.4
•
Analysis
Theoric
From the Bode diagram of inductance. in extending the curve until pulsation = 0 for the synchronous reactance. different parameters of generator can be determined. The inductance will be computed by:
Ld ( jω ) = with: 
Z d ( jω ) − ra jω
Z d ( jω ) =
Varm 1 x with ½ for connection between phases Iarm 2
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 75
. The expression of transfer function is:
Ld ( p ) = Ld ×
With : 
′ ′′ (1 + Tdcc p ) × (1 + Tdcc p ) ′ ′′ (1 + Tdo p ) × (1 + Tdo p )
T’dcc = transient time constant in short circuit armature T’’dcc = subtransient time constant in short circuit armature T’do = transient time constant in open circuit T’’do = transient time constant in open circuit
The corresponding curve is the following one: Ld(jw
Ld L’ L’’d
1 / T’do
1 / T’dcc
1 / T’’do
1 / T’’dcc
ω
Fig 5.a Module of Ld(jw)
This curve shows that the transient and subtransient reactances and time constants can be determined thanks to the different steps.3.2. For an example.2.20
StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
5. Indeed.
2.StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
FLUX 2D®9. 1 Ph (D ): 0 ase eg
150
Circuit / Phase Current Frequency B .20
•
Analysis
Ampere
175
Degree
5
C R E I_m UV od
4
3
C it / M n d C rren ircu ag itu e u t F u cy req en B . 1 Phase (D 0 eg):
C R E I_phase UV
125
2
1
100
hertz
100
200
300
400
100
200
300
hertz
400
Fig 5.
The following method is used to obtain the Bode diagram of inductance and the value of synchronous reactances and time constants: For each frequency : • Computation of pulsation • Computation of impedance in module and phase from the voltage and current of armature • Computation of real and imaginary parts of complex inductance from :
Lr =
•
Z × sin(φ z ) 2 ×ω
Li = (
Z × cos(φ z ) 2
− rarm ) ×
1
ω
Computation of module and phase of complex inductance from :
ATAN ( Lr ) × 180 Li
L = Lr ² + Li ²
•
φl =
π
Plotting of gain and phase diagram on semilog paper
PAGE 76
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.b Module of armature current
Fig 5.3.c Phase of armature current
The voltage of armature is constant with a phase of 0°. [module current] or [phase current] and choose the concerned component.3. The armature current is determined in module and phase for each frequency:
Note : To obtain phase and module in 2D curve manager : [Circuit].2.
12 2.12 2.070 0.52 164.021 0.45 5.70 21.12 2.73 15.72 4.75 0.008 0.75 9.53 155.37 20.060
10.070 0. [Write all in review file] then copy and paste in the board
L(p) .d : Computation of impedance and inductance for each frequencies
Note : To obtain current values : Right click on the current curves.Phase
1 10 100 1000
0.20
0.10 91.01
0.12 2.08 2.28 1.010
50.1 0.008
0.00
0.070 0.85 5.008
0.00230 0.18 104.000 0.009 0.1
1 Frequency (Hz)
10
100
1000
60.64 1.009 0.80 2.26 2.2.18 0.12 2.050 L(p) (H)
Phase (degres)
0.00 Frequency (Hz)
Fig 5.83 125.70 50.00014 0.4 0.061 0.00008 0.008 0.067 0.81 344.80 0.057 0.011 0.57 25.00 117.00
0.02 3.009 0.80 309.065 0.008 0.80 0.16 97.069 0.14 273.038 0.97 0.49 1.25 0.20
Fig 5.36 179.12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CURRENT Vs/Is
Part_R Part_I
L(p)
Module Phase
Vs (V) Ph (°) Is (A) Ph I (°) Module Phase
5.00021 0.013 0.95 302.3.008 0.42 37.37 170.00024 0.13 0.070
F2D results Equivalent transfer function
0.FLUX 2D®9.43 10.00317 0.2.00
0.66 276.6 4 400 2513.86 359.70 48.18 335.01 0.20 96.50 0.23 94.91 47.12 2.08 0.96 0.09 4.011 0.12 2.24 10.02 0.26 0.32 1256.25 2.2 7 2.03 6.020
40.12 2.20
StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
VOLTAGE
f 0.008 0.45 167.009 0.76 129.1
L(p) .00636 0.69
0.008 0.96 0.12 2.36 174.49 297.97 271.81 0.07 1.69 134.01395 0.89 345.2 0.009 0.8 1 2 4 5 6 8 10 20 40 50 80 100 200 w 0.03036 0.3.12 2.00 2.30 4.39 169.89 0.01155 0.00274 0.030
30.Module
0.008 0.71 2.75 347.3.12 2.005 0.43 0.27 62.82 23.12 2.01 0.009 0.74 0.049 0.008 0.14 8.83 122.63 277.080
0.98 0.00073 0.97 38.12 1.001 10.12 2.01234 0.070 0.61 0.26 33.070 0.51 5.12 2.001
0.33 314.54 2.26 0.66 4.12 2.e : Gain diagram
Fig 5.57 5.25 274.12 2.06
359.001 0.41 0.61 41.12 2.32 4.17 1.30 0.16 502.12 2.36 178.040
20.f Phase diagram
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 77
.12 2.31 93.51 0.73 5.82 45.008 0.016 0.74 347.13 31.00175 0.25 5.02351 0.86 0.85 5.49 165.06 0.40 167.12 2.2.85 5.30 358.070 0.03 0.00337 0.70 3.60 314.008 0.82 5.12 2.63 2.009 0.12 2.36 177.75 0.75 350.008 0. choose [Values].44 0.44 320.63 1.00033 0.95 0.00153 0.00632 0.008 0.65 628.60 0.26 354.21 17.00 F2D results Equivalent transfer function
0.43 271.02190 0.96 349.00 0.069 0.00010
0.61 357.05 91.66 251.60 5.008 0.17 284.18 11.57 140.019 0.12 2.38 19.031 0.01 0.008 0.04 0.008 0.062 0.28 12.00
0.02522 0.070 0.00
0.20
179.008 0.00141 0.00039 0.
20

The synchronous reactance is obtained in extending the gain bode diagram to ω = 0 and in using :
Xd = Ld ω =0 × ω
then.98 Ω
An approximation of the subtransient reactance X’’d can be determined with the value of inductance at high frequency.StandStill Frequency Reponse (SSFR)
FLUX 2D®9.
PAGE 78
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.005 × 2 × 314. we find: X ′′d = Ld ω →∞ × 2 × ω = 0.159
X’’d = 2. In our case.57 Ω
Warning : It is indicated only as a method but do not correspond to a standard. always with the same computation formula used previously. in our case : •
For information Xd = 21.
1
6.FLUX 2D®9. The first time step will give the initial magnetic state in the entire machine. operating unloaded.1.
6. Indeed.20
Loaded on the network
6.The network will be represented by a voltage supply.
Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity
MT_SOLV_UNLOADED Transient Magnetic 2D Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 79
. the [initialised by a static computation] option will be used. an inductance and a resistor.1.2
•
Physical conditions
These conditions correspond to the transient magnetic static simulation. must be in phase with those of the network before to link both.The generator will be adjusted for an unloaded operating at the nominal voltage. . the three phases of the generator. Phases of network and generator will be compared in amplitude and angle. .1
Unloaded on the network
Purpose
The purpose is to simulate the generator unloaded before connecting it at the network. In order to avoid the transient phenomena.
Loaded on the network
6.
L8.)
Comment Type
8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1.m Initial velocity : 1500 rpm Position at time t=0s:0° 
Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Circuit Components I_ROTOR V1 V2 V3 R1.S Drag Torque : 2. R3 Material
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR Mechanical set
STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
TM_NETWORK Values 5 A 127 V. R2. Rotation System axis ROTOR Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz
Pivot Point (0.1215kg.0)
Coupled load
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED
COMPRESS IBLE



Moment of inertia : 0.51 N.m.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9. 50 Hz.016N. 120°
ROTOR STATOR
10 Ω 10 H
9
6
L7.6
Type of equivalent B(H) curve Sine Wave flux density
Mechanical Set name ROTOR
Rotor
Rotation around one axis
Coord. 50 Hz.m² Friction coefficient : 0. 120° 127 V. 0° 127 V.0. 50 Hz.20
Name of material
Type
Isotropic value
Initial relative permeability
STEEL_NLIN
B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg. 2 coeff. L9
PAGE 80
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.
358 Ω orientation Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set
Associated coil component
215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 81
.2 mΩ 181.FLUX 2D®9.2 mΩ 8.20
Loaded on the network
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1 B2 B3 B5 B6 Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M Turn number
Resistance 5.2 mΩ 181.486 Ω 9.0136 Ω 181.
Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.
• • •
The drag torque corresponds only to torque generate by the mechanical friction The field will be supplied by a continuous current alimentation. study time limit [0. The phase 1 will be chosen as the reference phase for the network.1. that’s why the rotor is positioned in the axis of this phase. Initialized by static computation
Note : This angle corresponds to the rotor position in the axis of the phase 1 which will be taken as reference in the transient simulation.20
Name of face Turn region (coil number conductor region type)
Associated coil component
orientation
Symmetries and periodicities
Mechanical Set
AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Boundary condition
74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74
B5 B5 B6 B6 B5 B5 B6 B6 B6 B6 B5 B5
Positive Negative Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
automatically set by Flux 2D
6.3
• • •
Solving parameters
Initial position of rotor : 90° Time step [0.
Note : The supply voltage used to represent the network is a sinusoidal shape.
PAGE 82
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.0005s].2].
20
Loaded on the network
6.FLUX 2D®9.475
s.2 seconds.2
Fig 5.1.3.a : Flux lines with the rotor at 90 °
•
Transient magnetic simulation
.999E3 0.1.1.55
(E3) rpm
1.3.
0.05 99.Speed The rotor speed must little change during the 0.
Fig 5.524
1.15 0.
1.4
•
Analysis
First time step
6
9
11 1 5 3
4
2
10
8 7
Only the flux lines will be checked.5
1.b : Rotor speed curve
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 83
.
1. which is normal.999E3
0.05
99.15
0.20

Voltage
The network voltage and generator voltage will be superimposed.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.c : Network voltage and stator voltage comparison
The voltages are opposite.3.999
0.2
Fig 5. 1
V E OK _N TW R _1
99.d : Zoom between 0.999
199.
200
VS A O _ _ T T R1
C it / V ltag ircu o e T e im B.3.1. 1
100
0
C ircuit / V ltage o T e im V .15 and 0.2 seconds
PAGE 84
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.
Fig 5.
15 0.FLUX 2D®9.1.
0.
Note : To obtain the period : create two cursors with [2D curves]. 1
0
500
s. [new cursor].02 s. and check the time on the second cursor with the difference on X axis.e : Curve of current supplied by the generator
The generator is well unloaded since the current is close to zero (106).999E3 0.20
Loaded on the network
Both voltages are well identical and have a period of 0.2
Fig 5.3.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 85
.

Current
500
(E6) Ampere
I_B 1
C ircuit / C urrent T e im B .05 99.
6.1
Loaded on the network without regulation
Purpose
In this simulation.20
6. Therefore. 2 coeff.51 N. the generator will be loaded at 30 % of his nominal power.2
Physical conditions
MT_SOLV_LOADED Transient Magnetic 2D Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity
Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Name of material STEEL_NLIN Type
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Isotropic value
Initial relative permeability
B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.0.6
Mechanical Set name ROTOR
Rotor
Rotation around one axis
Coord.m.m Initial velocity : 1500 rpm Position at time t=0s : 90° 
PAGE 86
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. This test corresponds in reality to the pulling out of synchronism of the generator without regulator. Rotation System axis ROTOR Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz
Pivot Point (0.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.2
6. neither the field current nor the drag torque will be fitted to this operating point.m² Friction coefficient : 0.)
Comment Type
8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1.S Drag Torque : 2.2.2.016N.1215kg.0)
Coupled load
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED
COMPRESS IBLE



Moment of inertia : 0.
FLUX 2D®9.104e3 8. 120° 72. L9 Material
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR Mechanical set
STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
ROTOR STATOR
TM_NETWORK Values 5 A 1. L3 L4 L5 L6 V1 V2 V3 R1.20
Loaded on the network
Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Circuit Components I_ROTOR L1.2 mΩ 8.358 Ω
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1.14 Ω 0. B3 B5 B6
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 87
. 50 Hz. L8.6mH 11. 50 Hz.0136 Ω 181.2mH 254 V. B2. L2. 50 Hz. R3 L7.1717 H Resistance 5. 0° 254 V.8mH 15. 120° 254 V.486 Ω 9. R2.
Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.20
Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M
Turn number
Associated coil component
orientation
Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set
215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
PAGE 88
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.
2.42 Amperes
6. Initialized by static computation
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 89
.0005s].FLUX 2D®9.3
• • •
Solving parameters
Initial position of rotor : 90° Time step [0.3 x 2400 = 720 Watts In imposing a different phase equal to a cosinus of 0. the resulting current will be of 2.8. study time limit [0.2].20
Loaded on the network
Name of face Turn region (coil number conductor region type)
Associated coil component
orientation
Symmetries and periodicities
Mechanical Set
AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Boundary condition
74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74
B5 B5 B6 B6 B5 B5 B6 B6 B6 B6 B5 B5
Positive Negative Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
automatically set by Flux 2D
•
Load conditions at 30 %
The power will be equal to 0.
4

Analysis
speed
On the curve.2.
PAGE 90
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. It corresponds to the pulling out of synchronism of the generator. the speed falls rapidly.2.3.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9. The amplitudes of voltages are not the same too.
Fig 6.a : rotor speed curve Voltage
There is a different phase between the generator voltage and the network voltage.20
6.
The operating point is then changed but the internal generated voltage stays constant. we can see that the generator has not the necessary absorbed power in order to provide the load need by the network.3 N.3. It corresponds to the following diagram :
Constant active power
New point with adapted torque
Old point
Fig 6.3.20
Loaded on the network
6. the generator is always loaded at 30% of his nominal power but the torque setting to the rotor is adapted to the output power.m. In this simulation.a : Power diagram with modification of torque
6. The excitation current is the same.1.2
• •
Physical conditions
The torque setting to the rotor is the addition of torque corresponding to the output power and torque corresponding to the Joules losses.3. this supplementary torque corresponds approximately to 2. MT_SOLV_LOADED_T Transient Magnetic 2D Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 91
.42 Amperes. In our case.FLUX 2D®9.3
6. The Joules losses are computed with the current corresponding to 30% of the nominal power that is to say 2.1
Loaded on the network with appropriated motor torque
Purpose
With the previous result.
Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.20
Type of periodicity
Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Name of material Type
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0
Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Isotropic value
Initial relative permeability
STEEL_NLIN
B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg, 2 coeff.)
Comment Type
8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1.6
Mechanical Set name ROTOR
Rotor
Rotation around one axis
Coord. Rotation System axis ROTOR Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz
Pivot Point (0,0,0)
Coupled load
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED
COMPRESS IBLE



Moment of inertia : 0.1215kg.m² Friction coefficient : 0.016N.m.S Drag Torque : 4.85 N.m Initial velocity : 1500 rpm Position at time t=0s : 90° 
Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Material
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR Mechanical set
STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
ROTOR STATOR
PAGE 92
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
FLUX 2D®9.20
Loaded on the network
Circuit Components I_ROTOR L1, L2, L3 L4 L5 L6 V1 V2 V3 R1, R2, R3 L7, L8, L9
TM_NETWORK Values 5 A 1.104e3 8.8mH 15.6mH 11.2mH 254 V, 50 Hz, 0° 254 V, 50 Hz, 120° 254 V, 50 Hz, 120° 72.14 Ω 0.1717 H Resistance 5.0136 Ω 181.2 mΩ 8.486 Ω 9.358 Ω orientation Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1, B2, B3 B5 B6 Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M Turn number
Associated coil component
215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 93
Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.20
Name of face Turn region (coil number conductor region type)
Associated coil component
orientation
Symmetries and periodicities
Mechanical Set
AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Boundary condition
74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74
B5 B5 B6 B6 B5 B5 B6 B6 B6 B6 B5 B5
Positive Negative Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
automatically set by Flux 2D
6.3.3
• • •
Solving parameters
Initial position of rotor : 90° 3 Time step [2E ], study time limit [7], Initialized by static computation
6.3.4
Analysis
The speed of the rotor will give a picture of the stabilisation or not of generator. In our case, after two oscillation periods, the speed increases rapidly. The generator will never reach a stabilized point.
PAGE 94
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
FLUX 2D®9.20
(E3) t/mn
Loaded on the network
1,8
V sse rotor ite
Mc n u / V s ero tio e a iq e ite s ta n T ms e p
1,7
1,6
1,5
s.
1 2 3 4 5 6
Fig 6.3.3.a : Rotor speed evolution
This divergence can be explained by the equation of electromagnetic torque: p × 3× E ×V C em = × sin δ ω × Xd At noload, E is lined up with V then the angle δ is equal to zero. If the field current has not changed, the fem voltage stays equal at V then 63.5 V. C ×ω × X d δ = arcsin( em ) p × 3 × E ×V In order to stabilize the speed, the electromagnetic torque must be identical to the mechanical torque setting to the rotor. As the torque applied to the shaft is 2.3 Nm, the internal angle should be:
0,066
(E6) Deg.
65,75E3
65,5E3
65,25E3
s.
6,969 6,979 6,989 7
Fig 6.3.3.b : Evolution of rotor position on the last period
At 30% of nominal power, it would correspond to an angle of 38.8 °. The internal angle can be computed from the position of the rotor on the last period.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 95
Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.20
On this period, the rotor has turned of 210 °. As the machine has 2 pairs of poles, one electrical period should correspond to 180°, then the internal angle has moved from zero to 30°. This angle does not correspond to the nominal angle and the generator may not reach the nominal point. The supplementary torque associated to the initial speed creates an inertia too high for the electromagnetic torque which can not block the acceleration of rotor.
Note : To obtain the position : [Computation], [2D spectrum manager] and choose [mechanical], [Position] Note : To obtain the angle : Create two [New cursor] and read on the second the difference on the Y axis.
PAGE 96
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
4. both adjustment parameters are modified.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 97
.8 Ω the dephasing angle ϕ = 36 ° (cos ϕ = 0. the fem voltage found is about 167 V.5 V the armature nominal current I = 2. As there is always no regulation. the field current and the torque setting to the rotor will correspond to the nominal point.8) and in negligecting the resistance. the new current corresponding to this operate point is about 6. If we consider the same ratio for the field current as for the fem voltage. there will be however.4.
Graphically. the generator is always loaded at 30% of his nominal power but now.FLUX 2D®9. a response time enough important before reaching the equilibrate point.85 Amperes.2
Physical conditions
MT_SOLV_LOADED_F_T Transient Magnetic 2D Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation

Computation of the field current :
It is computed from the BehnEshenburg diagram :
Q<0 Supplied
Absorbed
Generator
δ
Synchronous Motor
With : • • • • • the single voltage V = 63. Even if they are right.1
In this simulation.20
Loaded on the network
6.
6.42 A the synchronous reactance X = 15.4
Loaded on the network with appropriated field current and motor torque
Purpose
6.
85 N. 2 coeff.1215kg.m.0)
Coupled load
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED
COMPRESS IBLE



Moment of inertia : 0.20
Type of periodicity
Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Name of material Type
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0
Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Isotropic value
Initial relative permeability
STEEL_NLIN
B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.6
Mechanical Set name ROTOR
Rotor
Rotation around one axis
Coord.S Drag Torque : 4.m Initial velocity : 1500 rpm Position at time t=0s : 90° 
Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Material
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR Mechanical set
STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
ROTOR STATOR
PAGE 98
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.0.016N.)
Comment Type
8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1. Rotation System axis ROTOR Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz
Pivot Point (0.m² Friction coefficient : 0.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.
358 Ω orientation Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1. R3 L7. 50 Hz. B3 B5 B6 Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M Turn number
Associated coil component
215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 99
. L9
TM_NETWORK Values 6. R2. 120° 254 V.1717 H Resistance 5.2mH 254 V.486 Ω 9. L2. 0° 254 V. 50 Hz.104e3 8.2 mΩ 8. 50 Hz. 120° 72.85 A 1.14 Ω 0. L8.0136 Ω 181. L3 L4 L5 L6 V1 V2 V3 R1.20
Loaded on the network
Circuit Components I_ROTOR L1.6mH 11.8mH 15. B2.FLUX 2D®9.
Initialized by static computation
PAGE 100
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.4.002s].3
• • •
Solving parameters
Initial position of rotor : 90° Time step [0.20
Name of face Turn region (coil number conductor region type)
Associated coil component
orientation
Symmetries and periodicities
Mechanical Set
AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Boundary condition
74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74
B5 B5 B6 B6 B5 B5 B6 B6 B6 B6 B5 B5
Positive Negative Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
automatically set by Flux 2D
6. study time limit [20].Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.
•
speed
The speed seems to stabilize close to 1500 rpm. we can conclude that 20 seconds are not sufficient to reach the steady state speed. The approximations on the computation of nominal point. the current supplied by the armature and the active power will be analyzed more particularly in order to verify if the nominal point is reached. the simplification on the BehnEshenburg diagram and the Joule losses can justify this deviation
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 101
.4. the speed of the rotor.4
Analysis
In this various results. But on the zoom.FLUX 2D®9.20
Loaded on the network
6. The value of current is not exactly identical to the nominal point. •
Current
The oscillations on the current are due to the variation of speed during the stabilization phase.
20
PAGE 102
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.
FLUX 2D®9.20
Loaded on the network
APPENDIX
Case 1: Xd Xq position Case 2: Xd and Xq Case 3: back emf computation Case 4: single phase short circuit Case 5: three phase short circuit Case 6: direct axis determination for SSFR test Case 7: quadrature position for SSFR test Case 8: SSFR test Case 9: Loaded on the network (unload) Case 10: Loaded on the network (30% load) without regulation Case 11: Loaded on the network (30% load) with appropriated motor torque Case 12: Loaded on the network (30% load) with appropriated field current and motor torque
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 103
.
0) around one axis parallel to Oz 
External characteristic Multistatic

Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT AM_1. COIL_2M. AM_33. AM_2.6
Mechanical Comment Set name ROTOR Rotor
Rotation around one axis
Coord. COIL_3M. System ROTOR
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED COMPRESSIBLE

Rotation Pivot axis Point Rotation (0.20
CASE 1: Xd Xq position
Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity
Angle_det Magneto static Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Name of material
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Type
STEEL_NLIN
Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg. AQ_11. COIL_1P. AQ_1. AQ_22.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.)
Type
Initial relative permeability 8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1. 2 coeff. AQ_2.0. COIL_1M. AM_44. COIL_3P Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Material
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR ROTOR
STATOR
Mechanical set
STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
ROTOR STATOR
PAGE 104
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. AM_4. COIL_2P. AM_11. AM_3. AM_22.
FLUX 2D®9.20
Loaded on the network
Stranded coil Name B_ROTOR Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M Turn number Associated coil component
Stranded coil with imposed current 2 orientation Symmetries and periodicities Mechanical Set
215 215 215 215
B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR
Negative Positive Negative Positive
FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
Boundary condition
automatically set by Flux 2D
Solving parameters : • Angle of rotor [10 . step [5] • Initial position of rotor: 0°
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 105
. 80].
AQ_22.0) around one axis parallel to Oz 
External characteristic Multistatic

Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT AM_1.)
Type
Initial relative permeability 8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1. AQ_2. AQ_1. System ROTOR
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED COMPRESSIBLE

Rotation Pivot axis Point Rotation (0.6
Mechanical Comment Set name ROTOR Rotor
Rotation around one axis
Coord. AM_33.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9. AM_2. AM_44. AQ_11. AM_4. 2 coeff. AM_11.
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR ROTOR
PAGE 106
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.0. AM_22. AM_3.20
CASE 2: Xd and Xq
Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity
XdXq_Is Magneto static Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Name of material
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Type
STEEL_NLIN
Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.
1000. 550.5 1
Associated coil component
orientation
Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set
215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
Boundary condition Solving parameters :
automatically set by Flux 2D
• • •
Stator current : [100. 750.20
Loaded on the network
Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Stranded coil Name B_ROTOR B1 B2 B3 Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M Turn number
Material
Mechanical set
STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
ROTOR STATOR
Stranded coil with imposed current 0 . 350. 56] Initial position of rotor : 0°
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 107
. 600. 270. 500. 150. 200. 1200] Angle of rotor : [10 .FLUX 2D®9. 400. 300. 450.0. 700. 650.5 0. 250. 800.
Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9. 2 coeff.6
1 2.) B(H) : Linear isotropic J(E) : isotropic resistivity
Isotropic Initial relative value permeability 8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1.20
CASE 3: back emf computation
Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity
bemf Transient_magnetic Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Name of material STEEL_NLIN Type
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
ALU_BAR ALU_BAR
B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.0)
1500 rpm
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR

Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Material
Mechanical set
STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
ROTOR STATOR
PAGE 108
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.0.7e8 Ωm
Coord. System Rotation axis Pivot Point Imposed speed
Mechanical Comment Set name
Type
ROTOR
Rotor
Rotation around one axis
ROTOR
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED COMPRESSIBLE

Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz 
(0.
….89 106 Ω 109 H
Resistance 5.R7..2 mΩ 181.20
Loaded on the network
Circuit Components V1 R1.R8.8 mH
2.L6. R2. R3.2 mΩ orientation Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1 B2 B3 Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M Turn number
Associated coil component
215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 109
.0136 Ω 181. L23.2 mΩ 181.R23. ……. R25 L5. ….104 mH 8. L3 L4 R5. R24.. ……. L2. R6 L1. L24
ME_CC Values 8.L7.L22..FLUX 2D®9.76 V 109 1.
001s]
•
PAGE 110
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. step [5s] Initial position of rotor : 85 ° Second resolution : Time length : [20. step [0.2].20
Name of face region (solid conductor region type) AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Material
Associated solid conductor
Orientation
Mechanical set
Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar
M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22
Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
Name of solid conductor 2 terminals M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22 Boundary condition Solving parameters :
Symmetries and periodicities
Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel automatically set by Flux 2D
Number of conductors in parallel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
•
First resolution : Time length : [20].Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.
0)
1500 rpm
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR

Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Material
Mechanical set
STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
ROTOR STATOR
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 111
.FLUX 2D®9.7e8 Ωm
Mechanical Comment Set name
Coord.) B(H) : Linear isotropic J(E) : isotropic resistivity
Type
Initial relative permeability 8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1.6
1 2. System
Rotation axis
Pivot Point
Imposed speed
ROTOR
Rotor
Rotation around one axis
ROTOR
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED COMPRESSIBLE

Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz 
(0. 2 coeff.20
Loaded on the network
Case 4: single phase short circuit
Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity
SC_mono Transient_magnetic Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Name of material
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Type
Isotropic value
STEEL_NLIN
ALU_BAR ALU_BAR
B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.0.
L23. …….20
Circuit Components V1 R1.L7. R24.R23.8 mH
2.2 mΩ 181.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.. ……..104 mH 8. L24
ME_CC Values 8. R25 L5.2 mΩ 181. R3 L1. R6 R2.L22.R7. L2.L6..R8.76 V 106 Ω 10+6 Ω 1.89 106 Ω 109 H
Resistance 5. L3 L4 R5. ….2 mΩ orientation Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1 B2 B3 Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M Turn number
Associated coil component
215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
PAGE 112
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. ….0136 Ω 181.
20
Loaded on the network
Name of face region (solid conductor region type) AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Material
Associated solid conductor
Orientation
Mechanical set
Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar
M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22
Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
Name of solid conductor 2 terminals M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22 Boundary condition
Symmetries and periodicities
Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel automatically set by Flux 2D
Number of conductors in parallel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Solving parameters :
• •
From the last step of the back emf simulation Time length : [0.FLUX 2D®9. step [0.0005s]
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 113
.5].
0. System
Rotation axis
Pivot Point
Imposed speed
ROTOR
Rotor
Rotation around one axis
ROTOR
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED COMPRESSIBLE

Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz 
(0.20
Case 5: three phase short circuit
Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity
SC_THREE Transient_magnetic Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Name of material
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Type
Isotropic value
Initial relative permeability
STEEL_NLIN
ALU_BAR ALU_BAR
B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.7e8 Ωm
Mechanical Comment Set name
Coord.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.) B(H) : Linear isotropic J(E) : isotropic resistivity
Type
8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1.0)
1500 rpm
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR

Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT
PAGE 114
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. 2 coeff.6
1 2.
104 mH 8..R7.2 mΩ orientation Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1 B2 B3 Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M Turn number
Associated coil component
215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 115
.76 V 106 Ω 1. R24.8 mH
ROTOR STATOR
2. …. R25 L5.R23.L22..FLUX 2D®9. …. R6 L1.L7. L3 L4 R5. L24
Material
Mechanical set
STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
ME_CC Values 8. L23. ……. R2.L6. L2..0136 Ω 181.89 106 Ω 109 H
Resistance 5.2 mΩ 181. …….R8.20
Loaded on the network
Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Circuit Components V1 R1.2 mΩ 181. R3.
20
Name of face region (solid conductor region type) AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Material
Associated solid conductor
Orientation
Mechanical set
Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar
M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22
positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
Name of solid conductor 2 terminals M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22 Boundary condition
Symmetries and periodicities
Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel automatically set by Flux 2D
Number of conductors in parallel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Solving parameters :
• •
From the last step of the back emf simulation Time length : [0. step [0.0005s]
PAGE 116
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.5].
6
Type of equivalent B(H) curve Sine Wave flux density
1 2.7e8Ωm
Mechanical Comment Set name
Coord. System
Rotation axis
Pivot Point
Imposed speed
ROTOR
Rotor
Rotation around one axis
ROTOR
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED COMPRESSIBLE

Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz 
(0.0.) B(H) : Linear isotropic J(E) : isotropic resistivity
Type
8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1.0)
1500 rpm


Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 117
.20
Loaded on the network
Case 6: direct axis determination for SSFR test
Problem name Problem type Frequency Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity
AC_SSFR_DIRECT_POS Magnetic AC 2D 100 Hz Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Name of material Type
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Isotropic value
Initial relative permeability
STEEL_NLIN
ALU_BAR ALU_BAR
B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.FLUX 2D®9. 2 coeff.
2 mΩ 181.8 mH 15.104 mH 8.358 Ω orientation Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1 B2 B3 B5 B6 Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M Turn number
Associated coil component
215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
PAGE 118
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.0136 Ω 181. L3 L4 L5 L6
Material
Mechanical set
STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
ROTOR STATOR
MH_SSFR_POS_DIRECT Values 1.486 Ω 9.20
Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Circuit Components V1 L1.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.2 mΩ 181.2mH Resistance 5. L2.2 mΩ 8.5 V 1.6mH 11.
5°]
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 119
. 85°].20
Loaded on the network
Name of face Turn region (coil number conductor region type)
Associated coil component
orientation
Symmetries and periodicities
Mechanical Set
AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Boundary condition
74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74
B5 B5 B6 B6 B5 B5 B6 B6 B6 B6 B5 B5
Positive Negative Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
automatically set by Flux 2D
Solving parameters :
•
Rotor positions : [5°. step [2.FLUX 2D®9.
) B(H) : Linear isotropic J(E) : isotropic resistivity
Type
8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1.7e8Ωm
Mechanical Comment Set name
Coord.20
Case 7: quadrature position for SSFR test
Problem name Problem type Frequency Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity
AC_QUADRATURE_SSFR AC magnetic 2D 100 Hz Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Name of material Type
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Isotropic value
Initial relative permeability
STEEL_NLIN
ALU_BAR ALU_BAR
B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg. 2 coeff.0)
1500 rpm
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR

Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT
PAGE 120
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. System
Rotation axis
Pivot Point
Imposed speed
ROTOR
Rotor
Rotation around one axis
ROTOR
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED COMPRESSIBLE

Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz 
(0.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.6
Type of equivalent B(H) curve Sine Wave flux density
1 2.0.
L2. L23. R21 L5.R4.8 mH
ROTOR STATOR
2..L7. ….R19.20
Loaded on the network
Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Circuit Components V1 R1 L1.. L24
Material
Mechanical set
STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
AC_SSFR_Q_AXIS Values 1. B2.0136 Ω 181. …. …….FLUX 2D®9.R3.89 106 Ω 109 H
Resistance 5.2 mΩ orientation Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1.. B3 Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M Turn number
Associated coil component
215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 121
. L3 L4 R2.L22.104 mH 8.5 V 104 Ω 1.L6. ……. R20.
step [2.20
Name of face region (solid conductor region type) AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Material
Associated solid conductor
Orientation
Mechanical set
Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar
M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22
Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
Name of solid conductor 2 terminals M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22 Boundary condition
Symmetries and periodicities
Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel automatically set by Flux 2D
Number of conductors in parallel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Solving parameters :
•
Rotor positions : [5°.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9. 85°].5°]
PAGE 122
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.
System
Rotation axis
Pivot Point
Imposed speed
ROTOR
Rotor
Rotation around one axis
ROTOR
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED COMPRESSIBLE

Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz 
(0.0.) B(H) : Linear isotropic J(E) : isotropic resistivity
Type
8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1.FLUX 2D®9.20
Loaded on the network
Case 8: SSFR test
Problem name Problem type Frequency Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity
AC_QUADRATURE_SSFR AC magnetic 2D 100 Hz Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Name of material Type
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Isotropic value
Initial relative permeability
STEEL_NLIN
ALU_BAR ALU_BAR
B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.6
Type of equivalent B(H) curve Sine Wave flux density
1 2.0)
1500 rpm
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR

Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 123
. 2 coeff.7e8Ωm
Mechanical Comment Set name
Coord.
104 mH 8.R3. L3 L4 R2. …….Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9. B2.20
Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Circuit Components V1 R1 L1.5 V 104 Ω 1.8 mH
ROTOR STATOR
2. L2.. ….L6. L24
Material
Mechanical set
STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
AC_SSFR_Q_AXIS Values 1.. R20.2 mΩ orientation Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1.89 106 Ω 109 H
Resistance 5. ….0136 Ω 181. B3 Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M Turn number
Associated coil component
215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
PAGE 124
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. …….R19..L22. L23.L7.R4. R21 L5.
50. 400] Initial position of rotor : 10°
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 125
. 0.FLUX 2D®9.02. 10. 1. 200. 20. 0. 5. 8. 4.4.005. 0. 0. 40. 0. 0.1.01. 2.20
Loaded on the network
Name of face region (solid conductor region type) AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Material
Associated solid conductor
Orientation
Mechanical set
Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar Alu_bar
M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22
Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
Name of solid conductor 2 terminals M_AM1 M_AM2 M_AM3 M_AM4 M_AM11 M_AM22 M_AM33 M_AM44 M_AQ1 M_AQ2 M_AQ11 M_AQ22 Boundary condition
Symmetries and periodicities
Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel Number of conductors in parallel automatically set by Flux 2D
Number of conductors in parallel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Solving parameters :
• •
Stator frequency : [0.04. 80. 6. 0.8. 100. 0.08. 0.2.001.
2 coeff.m.1215kg.0.0)
Coupled load
Moment of inertia : 0.016N.m Initial velocity : 1500 rpm 
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED
COMPRESS IBLE



Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR
PAGE 126
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
. Rotation System axis ROTOR Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz
Pivot Point (0.51 N.20
Case 9: Loaded on the network (unload)
Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity
MT_SOLV_UNLOADED Transient Magnetic 2D Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Name of material Type
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Isotropic value
Initial relative permeability
STEEL_NLIN
B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.S Drag Torque : 2.)
Comment Type
8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1.m² Friction coefficient : 0.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.6
Mechanical Set name ROTOR
Rotor
Rotation around one axis
Coord.
50 Hz.486 Ω 9. 120°
ROTOR STATOR
10 Ω 10 H
Resistance 5.2mH 254 V.20
Loaded on the network
Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Circuit Components I_ROTOR L1. 50 Hz.2 mΩ 8.6mH 11.2 mΩ 181.358 Ω
9
6
L7. L8. R2. 120° 254 V. 0° 254 V. 50 Hz. L3 L4 L5 L6 V1 V2 V3 R1.8mH 15.FLUX 2D®9. L2. R3
Material
Mechanical set
STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
TM_NETWORK Values 5 A 1.2 mΩ 181.104e3 8. L9
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1 B2 B3 B5 B6
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 127
.0136 Ω 181.
20
Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M
Turn number
Associated coil component
orientation
Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set
215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
PAGE 128
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.
study time limit [0.0005s]. Initialized by static computation
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 129
.2s].FLUX 2D®9.20
Loaded on the network
Name of face Turn region (coil number conductor region type)
Associated coil component
orientation
Symmetries and periodicities
Mechanical Set
AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Boundary condition
74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74
B5 B5 B6 B6 B5 B5 B6 B6 B6 B6 B5 B5
Positive Negative Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
automatically set by Flux 2D
Solving parameters :
• • •
Initial position of rotor : 90° Time step [0.
1215kg.0)
Coupled load
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED
COMPRESS IBLE



Moment of inertia : 0.6
Mechanical Set name ROTOR
Rotor
Rotation around one axis
Coord.m Initial velocity : 1500 rpm Position at time t=0s : 90° 
Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR
PAGE 130
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.)
Comment Type
8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1.20
Case 10: Loaded on the network (30% load) without regulation
Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity
MT_SOLV_LOADED Transient Magnetic 2D Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Name of material Type
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Isotropic value
Initial relative permeability
STEEL_NLIN
B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.016N. Rotation System axis ROTOR Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz
Pivot Point (0.S Drag Torque : 2.m.m² Friction coefficient : 0. 2 coeff.0.51 N.
50 Hz.FLUX 2D®9.14 Ω 0.486 Ω 9.1717 H Resistance 5. 120° 72. 50 Hz.6mH 11.0136 Ω 181.20
Loaded on the network
Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Circuit Components I_ROTOR L1. L2. L3 L4 L5 L6 V1 V2 V3 R1.104e3 8. 0° 254 V. B2. R2. 50 Hz.2 mΩ 8. B3 B5 B6 Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M Turn number
Associated coil component
orientation
Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set
215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 131
.358 Ω
Material
Mechanical set
STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
ROTOR STATOR
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1.2mH 254 V. L8. R3 L7.8mH 15. L9 TM_NETWORK Values 5 A 1. 120° 254 V.
20
Name of face Turn region (coil number conductor region type)
Associated coil component
orientation
Symmetries and periodicities
Mechanical Set
AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Boundary condition
74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74
B5 B5 B6 B6 B5 B5 B6 B6 B6 B6 B5 B5
Positive Negative Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
automatically set by Flux 2D
Solving parameters :
• • •
Initial position of rotor : 90° Time step [0. Initialized by static computation
PAGE 132
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9. study time limit [1s].0005s].
0.)
Comment Type
8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1.016N.6
Mechanical Set name ROTOR
Rotor
Rotation around one axis
Coord.m² Friction coefficient : 0.m Initial velocity : 1500 rpm Position at time t=0s : 90° 
Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 133
. Rotation System axis ROTOR Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz
Pivot Point (0.85 N.FLUX 2D®9.0)
Coupled load
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED
COMPRESS IBLE



Moment of inertia : 0. 2 coeff.S Drag Torque : 4.1215kg.20
Loaded on the network
Case 11: Loaded on the network (30% load) with appropriated motor torque
Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity
MT_SOLV_LOADED_T Transient Magnetic 2D Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Name of material Type
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Isotropic value
Initial relative permeability
STEEL_NLIN
B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg.m.
B2. 120° 72. 120° 254 V. 50 Hz. 0° 254 V.358 Ω
Material
Mechanical set
STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
ROTOR STATOR
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9. L9 TM_NETWORK Values 5 A 1. R2. L8. 50 Hz.8mH 15.6mH 11. B3 B5 B6 Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M Turn number
Associated coil component
orientation
Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set
215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
PAGE 134
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.486 Ω 9. R3 L7. L2.2mH 254 V.14 Ω 0.0136 Ω 181. L3 L4 L5 L6 V1 V2 V3 R1. 50 Hz.20
Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Circuit Components I_ROTOR L1.1717 H Resistance 5.104e3 8.2 mΩ 8.
FLUX 2D®9.20
Loaded on the network
Name of face Turn region (coil number conductor region type)
Associated coil component
orientation
Symmetries and periodicities
Mechanical Set
AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Boundary condition
74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74
B5 B5 B6 B6 B5 B5 B6 B6 B6 B6 B5 B5
Positive Negative Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
automatically set by Flux 2D
Solving parameters :
• • •
Initial position of rotor : 90° Time step [0. Initialized by static computation
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 135
. study time limit [7s].002s].
)
Comment Type
8000
Saturation magnetization (T) 1.m Initial velocity : 1500 rpm Position at time t=0s : 90° 
Name of face region (air or vacuum type) AIR_1 AIR_2 AIR_3 AIRGAP SHAFT
Mechanical set STATOR ROTOR STATOR AIRGAP ROTOR
PAGE 136
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9.0. Rotation System axis ROTOR Rotation around one axis parallel to Oz
Pivot Point (0.016N.m.1215kg.0)
Coupled load
STATOR AIRGAP
Stator Airgap
FIXED
COMPRESS IBLE



Moment of inertia : 0.20
Case 12: Loaded on the network (30% load) with appropriated field current and motor torque
Problem name Problem type Type of domain Depth Symmetry and periodicity => coefficient for coils flux computation Type of periodicity
MT_SOLV_LOADED_F_T Transient Magnetic 2D Plane 132 mm Automatic coefficient (Symmetry and periodicity taken into account)
Offset angle with respect to the X line (ZOX plane) 0 Even or odd periodicity/number of modeled poles Even (cyclic boundary conditions)
Rotation about Z axis with number of repetitions
Name of material Type
Repetition number of the periodicity about Z 2
Isotropic value
Initial relative permeability
STEEL_NLIN
B(H) : Isotropic scalar analytic saturation (arctg. 2 coeff.85 N.6
Mechanical Set name ROTOR
Rotor
Rotation around one axis
Coord.S Drag Torque : 4.m² Friction coefficient : 0.
8mH 15. 50 Hz. 120° 254 V. L2.2 mΩ 8.358 Ω
Material
Mechanical set
STEEL_NLIN STEEL_NLIN
ROTOR STATOR
Name of Stranded coil component B_ROTOR B1.FLUX 2D®9. 50 Hz.104e3 8.2mH 254 V.1717 H Resistance 5.85 A 1. R3 L7.6mH 11.20
Loaded on the network
Name of face region (magnetic non conducting region type) ROTOR_CORE STATOR_CORE Circuit Components I_ROTOR L1. L8.486 Ω 9.14 Ω 0. 0° 254 V. L9 TM_NETWORK Values 6. R2. B3 B5 B6 Name of face region (coil conductor region type) FIELD_1M Turn number
Associated coil component
orientation
Symmetries and Mechanical periodicities Set
215 215 215 215 54 54 54 54 54 54
B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B_ROTOR B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3
Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
FIELD_1P FIELD_2M FIELD_2P COIL_1P COIL_1M COIL_2P COIL_2M COIL_2P COIL_2M
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR STATOR
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PAGE 137
. 120° 72. B2. 50 Hz. L3 L4 L5 L6 V1 V2 V3 R1.0136 Ω 181.
20
Name of face Turn region (coil number conductor region type)
Associated coil component
orientation
Symmetries and periodicities
Mechanical Set
AM_1 AM_2 AM_3 AM_4 AM_11 AM_22 AM_33 AM_44 AQ_1 AQ_2 AQ_11 AQ_22
Boundary condition
74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74
B5 B5 B6 B6 B5 B5 B6 B6 B6 B6 B5 B5
Positive Negative Negative Positive Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series All conductors are in series
ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR ROTOR
automatically set by Flux 2D
Solving parameters :
• • •
Initial position of rotor : 90° Time step [0.002s]. Initialized by static computation
PAGE 138
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
.Loaded on the network
FLUX 2D®9. study time limit [20s].