# Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

Dr. Christos Drakos University of Florida

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis Need to predict & understand stress/strain distribution within the pavement structure as they (σ & ε) relate to failure (cracking & rutting) Numerical Models • Need model to compute deflections (δ) and strains (ε) • Numerous models available with different:
What would be an ideal model?

– Capabilities – Underlying assumptions – Complexity – Material information requirements IDEAL MODEL Predicts Input Parameters • Stresses • Static & dynamic loads • Strains • Material properties • Traffic • Environment

However, can obtain reasonable estimates!

No current model meets these requirements!

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 1. Available Models • • • • • Multilayer Elastic Theory Finite Element Methods Viscoelastic Theory (time and temp.-dependent behavior) Dynamic Analysis (inertial effects) Thermal Models (temperature change)

Most widely used

• Reasonable Results • Properties Relatively Simple to Obtain
How do we get E? Before & after construction

E&ν

Before: lab testing (MR) After: field testing (FWD)

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis Falling Weight Deflectometer

• • • •

Small trailer Dropping Weight Geophones Deflection Basin

Uses elastic theory to predict the deflection basin for the given load. Then iterates with different moduli configurations until the calculated deflection basin matches the measured.

Multilayer Elastic Theory (cont. ν1 E2. ν3 ∞ z1 z2 z3 Point B Same properties in all directions Properties @ A = Properties @ B Point A Assumptions (p. ν3 ∞ z1 z2 z3 Point B Point A Assumptions (cont.Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 2. ν2 E3. 60): Hooke’s Law • Each Layer 1 – Continuous ε z = (σ z − ν (σ r + σ t )) – Homogeneous E – Isotropic – Linearly Elastic – Material is weightless & infinite in areal extend – Finite thickness (except last layer) Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 2. Multilayer Elastic Theory a = radius q = pressure E1. ν1 E2.): • Surface stresses – Circular – Vertical Why do we want full – Uniformly distributed friction between layers? • Full friction between layers • Each layer continuously supported .) a = radius q = pressure E1. ν2 E3.

1 Based on Boussinesq (1885) Point load on an elastic half-space • Examine σ distribution along Z & X σz Z σz X σz r P z Half-space: infinite area & depth σz = 3 2π 1 ⎡ ⎛ r ⎞2 ⎤ ⎢1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎝z⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5 2 P z2 Where: – – – – σz = Vertical stress r = Radial distance from load z = Depth P = Point load Notice that the stress distribution is independent of E .Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis Units Guidelines • Stress: • Strain: – Reported in psi: psi = lbs in 2 in × 10 −6 in – Reported in µε: µε = microstrain = in 1000 • Deflections: – Reported in mils: mils = For homework. exams. and projects. Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3. One-layer System 3. you are expected to convert all of your answers to these units.

2 One-layer Solutions (Foster & Ahlvin) Charts follow similar outline Depth (z) and offset (r) are expressed in radial ratios .6 2a q • • Axisymmetric loading: – σz = Vertical stress – σr = Radial stress – σt = Tangential stress – τrz = Shear stress – w = Deflection Pre-solved @ radial distances σz τrz σr r z 0 a q Depth 1a 2a 3a 2a 1a 0 σt Offset Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3. σt.Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3.2 – 2. σr. τrz & w (ν=0.5) Figures 2.2 One-layer Solutions (Foster & Ahlvin) Developed charts to determine σz.

1 Vertical Stress Given: – Load.Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3.2. q = 80 psi σz r=6” a q z=6” Find: – Vertical Stress. P = 9000 lbs – Pressure. σz @ z=6” & r=6” First.2.4psi 100 .1 Vertical Stress (cont) σz z/a = 6/6 =1 × 100% ≅ 33 r/a = 6/6 =1 q σz = 33 × 80 = 26.2 (vertical stress distribution) Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3. we need to calculate the radius: q= P 9000 = A π × a2 a= 9000 ≅ 6in π × 80 z/a = 6/6 =1 r/a = 6/6 =1 Figure 2.

2.Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3.2 Deflection Flexible Plate Rubber q Deflection Profile Ground Reaction Which deflection is higher? q Rigid Plate Steel W0 = 2 1 − ν 2 qa E ( ) WRigid ≅ 79% ⋅ WFlexible W0 = π 1 − ν 2 qa 2E ( ) W0 = 1.2.18qa E Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3.5qa E W0 = 1.2 Deflection (cont.) a = 6” q = 80 psi h1= 4” h2= 8” h3= 12” How can we use one-layer theory to estimate the deflection of the system? Pavement Structure We can assume the pavement structure to be incompressible Basically: A ∞ For this case (assuming one-layer): δ surface ≡ δ A δA = q× a ×F E Get F from Fig 2.6 .

37 = 0.37 Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3.500 Dense Sand E=25.37 = 0.000 w= 80 × 6 80 × 6 0.Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3.1 mils (Low) A ∞ w=71 mils (High) Subgrade quality is very important in pavement design .2 Deflection (cont.2.) Given: z/a=24/6=4 r/a=0 Find: F=0.2 Deflection (cont.071 w = 0.2.0071 2500 25000 w=7.) a = 6” q = 80 psi h1= 4” h2= 8” h3= 12” • Examine two cases: Clay E=2.

a q ε E1 E2 E3 h1 h2 ∞ .Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 4. vertical strain caused primarily by vertical stress a q E1 E2 h1 h2 εz = 1 (σ z − ν (σ r + σ t )) ≅ σ z E E εc E3 ∞ Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 4. εt (not an actual principal strain) Horizontal ‘principal’ strain (εt) used as a design criterion. Stresses & Strains for Design • Purpose of the pavement structure: – Protect the subgrade. ε3 – Horizontal ‘principal’ strain.1 Vertical Stress • Vertical stress on top of subgrade. reduce stresses to a tolerable level to prevent excessive settlement or collapse 4. important in pvt design as it accounts for permanent deformation (rutting) • Allowable σz depends on E of the subgrade material Vertical compressive strain (εc) used as a design criterion – To combine the effect of stress (σ) and stiffness (E) – Effect of horizontal stress is relatively small.2 Tensile Strain • Tensile strain at the bottom of AC layer. used in pvt design as the fatigue cracking criterion • Two types of strain: – Overall minor principal strain.

σy.2. τxy.2.1 Overall Principal Strains • Based on all 6 components of normal and shear stresses – σx. σz.1 Horizontal ‘Principal’ Strain • Based on the horizontal normal and shear stresses only – σx.Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 4. & σ3 − Then calculate principal strains ε 3 = 1 (σ 3 − ν (σ1 + σ 2 )) E Minor principal strain (ε3) considered to be tensile strain because tension is negative a q What is the orientation of ε3? Minor principal strain (ε3) does not always act on the horizontal plane εε 3 3 AC Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 4. σ2. τxy • Horizontal ‘principal’ strain (εt) is slightly lower than the minor principal strain (ε3) – ε3 ≥ ε t • Maximum horizontal strain on the X-Y plane • Always acts on the horizontal plane • Used by the program KENLAYER to predict fatigue failure a q εt AC εt = εx + εy 2 ⎛ ε − εy ⎞ 2 − ⎜ x ⎟ + γ xy ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 . τxz. τyz − Solve cubic equation to get σ1. σy.

1 Surface Deflections • Flexible Wmax = 1.Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 5. Two-layer Theory (Burmister) Developed solutions for: • Vertical deflections (flexible & rigid) • Vertical stresses (limited # of cases) − σ & δ highly dependent on stiffness ratio E1/E2 Notice the importance of stiffness ratio in reducing stresses.1.18 F2 E2 – δsurface = δtop of the subgrade q h1 E1 E2 5. Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 5.1 Two-Layer Deflections • In one-layer theory we assumed that all layers could be represented as one a • For two-layer theory we have: – Vertical Surface Deflection – Vertical Interface Deflection qa F2 E2 qa = 1.5 • Rigid Wmax ∞ Why use E2 for surface deflection? • E2 accounts for most of the deflection (see following example) • F2 takes into account the stiffness ratio .

000 psi Given: h1/a=6/6=1 .0398" ≅ 40 ⋅ mils h1/a Offset .r/a=0 E1/E2=5 Find: F=0.6 qa 6(80) Wmax = 1.3 Interface Deflections Example • For the same example as above a=6” q=80 psi F E1=50.000 psi E2=10.83 qa 6(80) W= F= 0.1.1.0432" ≅ 43 ⋅ mils Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 5.Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 5.000 psi E2=10.5 F2 = 1.2 Surface Deflections Example a=6” q=80 psi E1=50.5 0.83 E2 10000 6” ∞ W = 0.6 E2 10000 Wmax = 0.000 psi 6” ∞ Given: h1/a=6/6=1 E1/E2=5 Find: F2=0.

2" 1.15 .1 E1/E2=100 Find: a/h1=1.1.Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 5.000 psi h1 E2=5.15 ∞ Fig 2.15 h1 = 6 = 5.000 psi Maximum allowable σc for clay = 8 psi Given: σc/q=0.2 Two-Layer Vertical Stress a=6” q=80 psi What thickness do we have to use to protect the subgrade? E1=500.4 Surface Vs Interface Deflections Compare the results from the example: • Surface deflection = 43 mils Top layer compression = 3 mils • Interface deflection = 40 mils Compression percentages: – Top Layer = 3 × 100 ≅ 7% 43 40 × 100 ≅ 93% 43 – Subgrade Layer = Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 5.

000 psi q 80 Fe = 1. Failure Criteria 6. Fe εt E1=200.1 Fatigue Cracking Model • Based on Miner’s cumulative damage concept – Amount of damage expressed as a damage ratio predicted/allowable load repetitions f1 = Laboratory to field shift −f −f Nf = f1 ε t 2 E1 3 factor f2 & f3 =Determined from fatigue −3.Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 5.854 Nf = 0.291 −0.2 Rutting Model • Allowable number of load repetitions related to εc on top of the subgrade – Does not account for failure in other layers Nd = 1.2 E 200000 in ε t = 0.21 h1/a=1 Find: Fe=1.00048 = 480µε in εt = Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 6.2 E2=10.000 psi 6” f4 & f5= Predicted performance to field observation shift factors .365 × 10 −9 ( ε c ) Nd = f4 ( ε c ) − f5 −4.477 Strain Factor.0796 ε t E1 tests on lab specimens ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 6.2 Critical Tensile Strain a=6” q=80 psi e = εt= critical ∞ tensile strain Given: E1/E2=20 Fig 2.

& E3 Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 7. Sensitivity Analysis • Sensitivity analyses illustrate the effect of various parameters on pavement responses • Variables to be considered: – Layer thicknesses h1 & h2 – Layer moduli E1.1 Effect of HMA Thickness hcr Tensile Strain (εt) • Critical thickness where εt is max • Above hcr.Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 7. increasing h1 effectively reduces εt Compressive Strain (εc) • Increasing h1 effectively reduces εc when base is thin . E2.

3 Effect of Base Modulus Tensile Strain (εt) • Increase in E2 significantly decreases εt when E1 is low • Limits bending Compressive Strain (εc) • Small decrease of εc when E1 is low .Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 7.2 Effect of Base Thickness Tensile Strain (εt) • Increase in h2 does not significantly decrease εt especially when h1 is large Compressive Strain (εc) • Significant decrease of εc when h1 is low Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 7.

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 7. E3 has great effect on εc independent of what E1 might be Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.1 System • Elastic multi-layer analysis system • Elastic theory assumptions apply – Load Circular uniformly distributed .4 Effect of Subgrade Modulus Tensile Strain (εt) • Minimal effect on εt Compressive Strain (εc) • As expected. Computer Program KENLAYER Program should be on a disk at the back of your textbook 8.

TXT t .2 Loads Circular. uniform pressure PARAMETER LOAD=0 Y LOAD=1 Yw ACTUAL LOAD Single wheel X – Longitudinal (direction of traffic) Y – Transverse Dual wheel X Y LOAD=2 Yw Dual tandem X Xw Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.3 Material Properties • Material types – – – – 1 2 3 4 = = = = Linear elastic Nonlinear elastic Linear viscoelastic Combination of 2 & 3 1 2 σ ε 3 ε 8.4 Input/Output • Program LAYERINP creates the input file • Run KENLAYER to perform the analysis • Default name for the output file is LAYER.Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.

000 psi .000 psi .000 psi . ν3=0.5 KENLAYER Example 1 (cont.EXE – LAYERINP. ν2=0.EΧΕ Output format: • Single wheel load is analyzed in axisymmetric space • Sign convention: Is there a way to find out? – Positive (+) = Compression – Negative (-) = Tension . ν1=0.5 KENLAYER Example 1 Given: • Three-layer system • Uniform circular load • Elastic material h1= 6” h2= 12” a = 4.5 ∞ Where would the critical/maximum values occur? – Maximum deflection δmax @ z=0 – Critical tensile strain εt @ bottom of AC layer – Critical compressive strain εc @ top of subgrade Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.4 E2=50.5” q = 100 psi E1=500.TXT – KENLAYER.5 Calculate: • Maximum deflection • Critical tensile strain • Critical compressive strain E3=10.) Procedure: • Create input file • Run the analysis • Retrieve the output – LAYER.

) Procedure: • Create input file • Run the analysis • Retrieve the output – LAYER.000 psi ν2 =0.5 E3=5.Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.6 KENLAYER Example 2 (cont.000 psi ν1 =0.6 KENLAYER Example 2 Given: • • • Three-layer system Dual wheel load Elastic material 14” 4” Calculate: 1. εc 4” E1=500. εt 3.000 psi ν3 =0.5 x x x x x x x x q=100 psi a=4 in 8” x Where would the critical/maximum values occur? x x x Check output ∞ Plane of Symmetry Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.TXT – KENLAYER.EΧΕ Output format: • Dual wheel load is analyzed in spatial coordinates • Sign convention remains the same: – Positive (+) = Compression – Negative (-) = Tension . δmax 2.EXE – LAYERINP.4 E2=15.

4(σ x + σ y )) E 1 (6.12.6 KENLAYER Example 2 (cont.72 psi σ2 = 2.) Output @ Location (0.Y) at each requested depth (z) • Principal stresses and strains σ1 σ2 σ3 εz ε1 ε3 δ σz εh τ τmax τmax = σ1 − σ3 2 Which strain considered critical for cracking & rutting? Principal Stresses act on planes where τ = 0 σ3 σ2 σ1 σ Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.6 KENLAYER Example 2 (cont.04 psi σ3 = 1.) Output format: • Results for each point (X.2 µε (output) εz = .04 + 1.4(2.47 )) = 993 ⋅ µε εz = 5000 = 992.Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.05) σ1 = 6.47 psi σ1 σ3 σ2 Can we use the principal stresses to calculate vertical strain? 1 (σ z − 0.7.72 − 0.

TXT) to something relevant to your problem (i.7 KENOUT Kenout is a data manipulation program geared to help you post process your data Procedure: • Rename the KENLAYER output file (LAYER.EXE • Modified file – Ex2 . Example2) • Run the Kenout. no extension needed) Output format: • Original file – Example2 • Kenout – KENOUT.exe program • The program then asks for the filename to be read (Example2 – no .e. Ex2 – again.txt extension needed) • Then it prompts you to give a new filename to store the reduced data (i.e.Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.