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What kind of advice should you listen to?

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1. Advice that helps you build something people want

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2. That ts your business model

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3. That fullls your purpose in life.

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Ill try to help you with all three, if...

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If...
- Your business depends on frequent user engagement. - You are not evil. Then, you should stay.
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Spoiler: The answer is habits.

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Habits > Viral


Leaky Bucket
K >1
Viral Coefcient (K)
Spammy apps Facebook, Paypal, Pinterest

Rocket Ship

Garbage
K<1

Commitment Business
Evernote, Pandora, Amazon

Low
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High
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Habit Potential

Me

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A bias to build rst

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How learn?

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Patterns

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OMG? businesses

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Vitamins or painkillers?

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Selling painkillers

- Obvious need - stop pain - Quantiable market - Monetizable

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Selling vitamins

- Emotional need, not efcacy - Makes me feel good knowing... - Unknown market

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Vitamins or painkillers?

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Habit when not doing causes pain.


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Habit-forming technology
Pleasure seeking Pain alleviation

Vitamin

Painkiller

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Creating pain? (more of an itch)

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Best odds of success

= founder / market t
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Access + Speed + Data Everything is becoming more addictive

Desire Engines create habits

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The Desire Engine


Trigger
External Internal

Action

Investment

Var. Reward

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Remember: A TARI
A - A Desire Engine has 4 parts: T - Trigger A - Action R - Reward I - Investment
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Trigger

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Trigger Examples
External Alarms Advertising Calls-to-action Emails Stores What to do next is in the trigger
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Internal Emotions Routines Situations Places People What to do next is in the users head
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Habits arent created, they are built upon

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External trigger

Formulate consistent calls-to-action. Each embedded answer to what is this for? supporting the internal trigger.

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Internal trigger

What is the existing behavior youre attaching to? When would user engage? Know the narrative. Every time you (verb), use ...
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Negative emotions are powerful internal triggers


Dissatised Indecisive Lost Tense Fatigued Inferior
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Fear of loss Bored Lonesome Confused Powerless Discouraged


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Habit-forming products provide a solution to an internally triggered problem.

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Depressed people check email more. (cause or effect?)

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The Instagram moment

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Instagram triggers
External - FB and Twitter - App notications Internal - Fear of lossing the moment . . . - Bored, lonesome, curious...
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Action

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when doing < thinking = action


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Fogg Behavior Model B = m.a.t.


motivation triggers

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ability

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Motivators for Behavior


Sensation Anticipation Social Cohesion Seek: Pleasure Hope Acceptance Avoid: Pain Fear Rejection

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motivation

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Factors of ability
Time Money Physical effort Brain cycles Social deviance Non-routine

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ability

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Focus on ability and triggers before motivation

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Focus on ability and triggers before motivation

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How likely is the intended action?

B = m.a.t.
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Sufcient motivation, high ability, clear triggers

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How likely is the intended action (Tawkon)?

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Behaviors to actions with cross-functional teams


motivation = marketing triggers = interface design

ability = product
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Variable Reward

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Curious by nature

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We crave predictability
Variable rewards
drive us nuts

Compulsion to make
sense of cause and effect drives the search

Dopamine system
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The search for rewards


the Tribe the Hunt
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the Self
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Search for Social Rewards


the Tribe
- Acceptance - Sex - Power

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Search for Resources


the Hunt
- Food - Money - Information

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Search for Sensation


the Self
- Mastery - Consistency - Competency - Purpose

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Tribe, Hunt, or Self?

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Tribe, Hunt, or Self?

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Tribe, Hunt, or Self?

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Dare you not to scroll


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Rewards Levers

Type (Tribe, Hunt, Self) Frequency Amplitude


Keep em guessing
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Rewards Decay
As rewards become predictable, they
become less novel
Finite Variability
- Single-player games - Consumption of media

Innite Variability
- Multi-player games - Creation - Communities

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Investment

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Investment
Where user does a bit
of work.

Pays with something

of value: time, money, social capital, effort, emotional commitment, personal data ...
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Doing work, increases commitment


- People who pick lottery numbers more likely to play. - Assign greater odds.
Langer, 1975

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Little investments, big results


Group 1: 83% refused Group 2: 76% accepted

Freedman & Fraser, 1966

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Investment is about future rewards that makes the next action more likely.
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Investing in Any.do
Investment into the
product with time, data, and social capital

Loads the next

external trigger and teaches the internal trigger - when? and what for?
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Desire Engine Canvas


Trigger Action

Investment

Var. Reward

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When Desire Engines works: High habit potential:


- Frequent behaviors - Fast cycles

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Cycles over time


Increase motivation and difculty of action

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The Desire Engine helps you create and prioritize hypotheses to test.
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1. Start with the intended ACTION

What behavior does your

business model depend on? want user to want to scroll.

Make simple and dened. We


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2. Think of what the INTERNAL TRIGGER will be.

Whats the existing behavior


youre attaching to?

When would user engage? Know the narrative. Every


time you (verb), use ...
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3. Find the EXTERNAL TRIGGER(s)

Formulate calls-to-action. Each embedded with a

consistent answer to what is this for?


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4. Add VARIABLE REWARDS


Must be authentic and meaningful
to the user.

Formulate multiple hypotheses

using various types of searches for rewards (tribe, hunt, self)


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Change frequency and amplitude


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5. Ask for INVESTMENT

Does it increase the likelihood


of the next cycle through Desire Engine? Time, money, social capital, data, emotional commitment, physical effort.
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Examples

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Email
T
Icon on phone Procrastinate, anxiety, thoughts of others.... Open unread messages

I
Write back Tribe, hunt and self

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Twitter (Consumer)
T
Facebook, friend, email ...

A
Scroll

I
Follow Information (Hunt)

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Twitter (Creator)
T
App icon, mention, message Boredom, curiosity, Lonesome

A
Re-Tweet or Tweet

I
Connect with others: @ reply, DM ...
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R
Social feedback (Tribe)

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Be a facilitator.
BUILD the change you want to see in the world.
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Please raise your phone in the air.


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