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a Group of Authorities


ROY L. HARRl NGTON Engineering Technical Pepartmelit Newport News Shipbuilding and

Published by

THE S ~ C I E OF NAVAL ARCHITECTS AND MARINE ENGINEERS ~Y One World Trade Center, Suite 1369, New York, N.Y. 10048


Since 1942 and 1944 when the two volumes of MARINE ENGINEERING published, the were basic body of knowledge constituting marine engineering has greatly increased. Recognizing was that the original MARINE ENGINEERING substantially out of date, the Society in 1964 undertook the task of compiling a reviged edition. That same year a Control Committee was ap-' pointed by the president to guide the revision, carrying on the objective of the original work, that of producing a comprehensive treatise reflecting the important technical progress of the last several decades. Also, the intent is that this text should complement the Society's two companion volumes, Principles of Naval Architecture and Ship Design and Construction, which deal similarly with the subjects of naval architecture and ship construction practices. When the task of revising the original MARINE ENGINEERING undertaken, it was quickly was found to be considerably larger in scope than anticipated. The original text had to be completely rewritten, not simply revised. At the putset, it was decided that, for ready use and reference, the text should be a single volume limited to about 850 pages. Therefore, discussion of engineering subjects.covered in other textbooks had to be greatly abbreviated. Every effort has been made, however, throughout the text to make reference to appropriate source material for the individual or self-taught reader as well as the resourceful teacher (who may in some cases prefer to use his own references). Each chapter is written by a separate author (or authors). The committee felt that this precept should be continued because of the advantages of professional specialization it affords. Some unevenness in style results, but this has been minimized by the technical editor. In May, 1968, Mr. Roy L. Harrington was selected as technical editor by the committee. Mr. Hanington received a Society scholarship in 1960 to pursue an M.S. degree in marine engineering and also has had twelve years of technical ship design experience in a major shipyard. With this background, plus his extensive literary capability, he was considered well equipped to bridge the academic and the practicing professional points of view of the Society members. This book is not intended to be either a handbook or conversely a definitive text on any specific engineering discipline which may be used in marine engineering. Its purpose is to acquaint a person already familiar with basic engineering fundamentals with the various engineering disciplines and applications which constitute marine engineering. The need for such a book becomes apparent when it is recognized that many practicing marine engineers have had little formal education in the field of marine engineering as such, but instead have come into it from other related engineering activities. The Control Committee appointed to guide the revision of MARINE ENGINEERING consisted of: Ernst G. Frankel Jens T. Holm William E. Jacobsen John R. Kane John H. Lsscaster ' Lauren S. McCready Andrew I. McKee Laskar Wechsler John B. Woodward I11 Robert E. Yohe

@ Copyright 1971 by
The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 78472362 Printed in the United States of America Second Printing 1976 TMrd Printing 1980




There have been so many technological advancements since the original MARINE ENQINEERwas published that the'content of this book bears little similarity to the original text. For example, in a manner of speaking, a nuclear power chapter has been substituted f o ~ old the reciprocating steam engine chapter, and other differences are almost as dramatic. However, the same basic philosophy was used in writing both works except that, insofar as practicable, this text covers naval practice in addition to merchant practice. In order to ensure that this book is comprehensive and factual, and accurately represents the consensus of opinion of the marine industry as a whole, the chapters were subjected to a series of reviews. After the manuscripts were prepared by the authors and reviewed within their respective organizations, they were then reviewed by the editor, Control Committee, and selected members of the marine industry who were experts in each particular area. The entire Sociehy owes a large debt of gratitude to this last group as they were largely responsible for transforming good manuscripts into excellent manuscripts. With few exceptions, it is a gross injustice to suggest that the chapters have been prepared by only the authors indicated. In several cases, the contributions of single individuals who assisted were almost as large as that of the author; and in $1 cases, the comments and discussion provided by the Control Committee and other members of the marine industry were an invaluable asset. Mr. John Markert (author of Chapter 19) accurately expressed the sentiment of the chapter authors when he stated that the generous cooperhtion and assistance received from the numerous contributors, often persons not acquainted with the author, were a revelation; it should, however, be noted that such cooperation is characteristic of the marine fraternity. An accurate listing of those who assisted in the preparation of this book would include many names. Several hundred people made direct contributions (by assisting in the preparation of manuscripts, supplying reference material, reviewing manuscripts, or supplying illustration material); and when those who made indirect contributions are added, the number of names would become even larger. It is, however, considered proper to acknowledge some of the contributions as follows: Mr. Catlin (Chapter 3) acknowledges the valuable contributions of Mr. George W. Kessler, vice resident. Babcock & Wilcox. Mr. L. E. Triggs, chief engineer, Marine Dept., Combustion ~ n ~ i h e e r i~nc., n ~ , Mr. W. I. signell, chief marine engineer, J. J. Henry Co., Inc., and Professor J. T. Holm, Webb Institute of Naval Architecture, in the development of the chapter dealing with boilers and combustion. Dr. Illies (Chapter 8) states that he received help from a large number of individuals while preparing the low-speed directrcoupled diesel engine chapter. The material that was made available by diesel engine manufacturers (MAN, Fiat, Sulzer, Burmeister and Wain, Gotaverken, Stork, and Doxford) was particularly helpful as was the valuable advice and personal assistance that ww provided by Mr. Klaus Knaack. Mr. Semar (Chapter 9) acknowledges the contributions made by Mr. W. S. Richardson, the Falk Corporation, Mr. Norman A. Smith, General Electric Company, and Mr. Frederic A. Thoma, DeLaval Turbine, Inc., in the development of the chapter on reduction gears. Mr. J. F. Sebald (Chapter 13) acknowledges the valuable contributions made by Mr. P. D. Gold of the Worthington Corporation, Mr. William J. Bow of the Foster Wheeler Corporation and Mr. J. J. Biese of the Ingersoll Rand Co. h providing illustrations and for their critical review of the manuscript. The cooperation of the Heat Exchange Institute and The American Society of Mechanical Engineers in permitting the publication of technical data and the technical support provided by Gilbert Associates, Inc. are also gratefully acknowledge4. Messrs. Smith and Nickerson (Chapter 16) gratefully acknowledge the assistance provided by Mr. A. Taplin of the Naval Ship Engineering Center, who prepared the active fn stabilizer i section of the hull machinery chapter. Mr. Stephenson (Chapter 18) gratefully notes that the machinery arrangement illustrations and many of the piping diagram illustrations in the piping systems chapter were included with the permission of Mr. W. L. Baptie of American Mail Line, Ltd. The typical chapter author is a highly competent engineer who enjoys his field of specialization and has devoted the majority of his life to it. By studying the various chapters, it will become apparent that a book such as this is published only once per generation.


Division 1 Introductory

J. R.

KANE, Director of Engineering,

Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company

1 Intrbduction .......................... . 2 Concepts and Concept Formulation.. .... . 3 Ship System Formulation.. ............. . 4. Development of Main Propulsion System Requirements.. .....................

%. ~ a i Propulsion Plent ~rade-offStudies. n 6. Preliminary Design Considerations. . . . . . 7. Specifications. ........................ 8. Final Design and Working Plans. . . . . . . . 8 9. Tests and Trials. .....................
1 2 5

11 18 31 33 35

Power Plants


Chapter I1


Jws T. HOLM, Professor, Webb Institute of Naval Architecture

J. B. WOODWARD 1 Professor, University of Michigan 1 , 1
1 Review of Fundamentals. .............. . 2 Heat Transfer in Boilers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Internal Thermodynamics of the Steam Tutbine. ...........................

Page PW~ 38 4. External Thermodynamics of the Steam Turbine ............................ 55 5. ~herniod~namics of steam Cycles. . . . . . . 61 / 49 6. Waste Heat from Diesel and Gas Turbine i Engines ............................ 73


Chapter I11


EVERETT CATLIN, a x i n Engineer, The Babcock & Wilcox Company A. ~ e

1 Classification of Marine Seam Generatom . 2 Considerations in the Selection of a Boiler .

pa@ 78 3 Boiler Pesign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 . 90 4. Boiler Operation.. ..................... 125

Chapter I V


ROBERT PENNINQMN, T. formerly Manager of Nuclear Maxine Engineering, Advanced Products

Operation, General Electric Company

Page page 1 Basic Fundamentals. .................. 130 3 . Nuclear Propulsion Applications. . . . . . . . 149 . . 2, Reactor Design Considerations. . . . . . . . . 138

unrtpucr v

STEAM TURB1,NES WILLIAM H. BUDD, I. Assistant to Manager of Engineering, Marine Systems, DeLaval Turbine, Inc. Turbine Control.. .................... Rotors and Blades. .................. Norzlea, Diaphragms, and Stationary Blading.. .......................... Casings &adPackings. ................ Lubrication and Bearings. ............ Main Propulsion Turbine Operation. . . . Auxiliary Turbines. ..................
180 185 190 193 196 199

Chapter X


W. E. JACOBBEN, Manager, Marine Systems Engineering, General Electric Company

1. Introduction.. ........................ 334 2. The Diesel Direct-Current Drive System. 339 3. The Turbine Direct-Current Drive System 347
4. The Turbine Alternating-Current Drive

Cycle. ............................. 4. Combined Steam and GaB Turbine Main Propulsion Cycles. ................. 5. Turbine Speed, Number of Stages, Dimensions. ....................... : .

1. Nonreheat Main Propulsion Turbines. .. 2. Reheat Main Propulsion Turbines. ..... 3. Main Propulsion Turbine-Nuclear

5. The Diesel Alternating-Current Drive

System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

System. ........................... 356 6. Electric Couplings.. ................... 360 Chapter XI PROPELLERS, SHAFTING, AND SHAFTrNG SYSTEM VIBRATION ANALYSIS Page Page Bearings.. ............................ Propellers. ........................... Torsional Vibration.. .................. Longitudinal Vibration.. ...............
379 384 388 393


Assistant Chief Engineer, Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company C. L. LONG,

Chapter VI GAS TURBINES A. 0. WHITE, Manager, Advanced Applications Unit, Medium Electric Company
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

~k Turbine

Operation, General

Introduction.. ........................ 362 b5. 2. Arrangement Considerations.. . . . . . . . . . . 365 e 6 . p - 3 . Shafting Loads.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 -7. ' '/4. Shafting Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 8.
b- 1.

Basic Considerations.. .................. Arrangement and Structural Details. . . . . . Accessories. ........................... Controls. ............................. Centrifugal Compressor Design. .........

206 213 218 219 222

6. 7. 8. 9.

Axial-Flow Compreseor Design. . . . . . . . . Turbine Design and Construction. ...... Combustion Systems. ................. Bearings, Seals, and Lubrication. .......

225 229 235 239

9. Whirling Vibration.. ................... 397

Division 4 Auxiliary Co~aponents

PUMPS, FORCED-DRAFT BLOWERS, COMPRE$SORS, AND EJECTORS Supervisor, Centrifugal Pump Engineering Departmen;t, DeLaval Turbine, Inc. G. W. SOETE,
1. Centrifugal Pumps.. ................... 401 4. Rotary Pumps.. ...................... 432 2. Reciprocating Steam Pumps. ........... 422 \.-5. Forced-@aft Blowers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 3. Power Pumps.. ....................... 428 L. 6, Compressors.. ......................... 440

MEDIUM AND HIGH-SPEED DIESEL ENGINES LASKAR WECHBLER, Technical Director, Machinery Systems ~ i v i s i o n ,Naval ship ~ n ~ i n e e r i n ~

1. Introdrtction. ......................... 246 2. aaracte$tics of Diesel Engines. . . . . . . . 251

L =

3. Marine Uses for Diesel Engines. . . . . . . . . 257 4. Design Considerations. ................ 261



7. Ejectors.. ............................ 444

LOWSPEED DIRECT-COUPLED DIESEL ENGINES KURTILLIES, Professor, Technische Universitat Hannover Pege
1. survey of Principal &acteri&ics. ..... 280 2. Engine Subsystems. ................... 292 3. Overall Considerations. ................ 303
! *

Chapter XI11


JOBEPH F. SEBALD, Consulting Engineer and Special Consultant to Gilbert Associates, Inc.
1. General C~aracterhtics.. ............... 450 2. Condenser Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456

3. Surface Condenser Performanm. . . . . . . . . 473 4. Performance Predictions from Design Geometry.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478


Chapter X I V


HAROLD SEE~AR, W. Manager, Technical Support, Marine Mechanical Dep&ment, westinghouse

Electric Corporation page

CHARLEB ROBE, D. Vice President, AquaXhem, Incorporated PHILIP LIU, Chief Thermal Design Consultant, Research and Development, Aqu*Chem, corporated page
1. . Introduction. ......................... 488 2. Heat Transfer i Shell-and-Tube Heat n Exchangers.. 496

3. Heat Exchanger Applications. .......... 514

1. Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 3. Gear Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 2. Tooth Design Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 v 4 . Applications.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331



Chapter XV


Page Chapter XX

C ~ I D. ROBE, W Vice President, AqueChem, Incorporqted

1. Distilling Plant Designs. ............... 530 2. Distilling Plant Design Considerations. .. 550

Division 6 Supporting Technology

BEARINGS AND LUBRICATION WATT V. SMITH, Head, Friction and Wear Branch, Materials Department, Naval Ship Research and Development Laboratory, Annapolis, Maryland J. M. GRUBER, President, Waukesha Industries Corporation Vice page Page
1. Review o Fundamentals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770 ""2. Bearings.. ............................ 778 f \--~ 3. Lubrication System. ................... 785

Chapter XVI



IRVING SMITH, W. Mechanical Engineer, Office of Ship Construction, Maritime Administration ARCHER NICKERBON, Senior Engineer, J. E. Bowker Associates, Inc. M. JR.,


1. General Design Consideratioqs. .........

ptlge 564

L -



Hull Machinery Installations.. ..........


Chapter XXI


Division 5 Sl~ip Systems board


Chief Engineer, Central Technical Division, Shipbuilding Department, Bethlehem W. 0. NICHOLS, Steel Corporation Pa%e
1. Automation System.. ................. 791

2. Applications.. ........................ 796

Chapter XXII


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Introduction.. ........................ Generating Plants. .................... Switchboards and Panels. .............. Powe~ Equipment. .................... Lighting Fixtures and Equipment. ......

605 607 614 621 635

6. Lighting and Power Distribution. ... :... 640 7. Interior Communications.. ............. 654 8. Electronic Navigation and Radio Communication..................... 659 9. Wiring Application and Methods. ....... 663

W. LEE WILLIAMB, Assistant Bead, Materiala Department, Naval Ship Research and Development Laboratory, Annapolis, Maryland M. ROBERT GROSS, Head, Materials Engineering Branch, Materials Department, Naval Ship Research and Development Laboratory, Annapolis, Maryland Page
1. 2. 3. 4.

5. Applications of Materiala.. .............. 824 6. Glossary o Metallurgical Terms Used in f Materials Engineering.. .............. 835

Prefacing Remarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corrosion of Metals.. .................. Fatigue ............................... Behavior at Elevated Temperatures. ....

810 810 817 821

Chapter XVIII

PIPING SYSTEMS Chapter XXIII PETROLEUM FUELS Manager, Technical Services, Marine Sales Department, Mobil Sales and CARLE. HABERMANN, Supply Corporation Page
1. Fuel Manufactureand Characteristics. ... 842

Manager, Piping Design '~epartment,Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry E. E. STEPHENBON, Dock Company
' ,

1. Machinery Space Arrangement.. ........ 670

'2. Piping Design Details.. ................ 676 ;'3. Piping Systema........................ 682

2. Fuel Procurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 853


JOHN MARKERT, W. Professional S u p p o r t A i r Conditioning, Office of Construction Management,

Public Buildings Service, General Services Administration
1. 2. 3. 4.

page INDEX.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858

Intraduction.. ........................ System General Requirements. ......... Design Criteria and L o 4 Components. .. Piping Systems.. ......................

710 718 726 734

5. 6. 7. 8.

Air Handling System Resign.. .......... Air Handling Equipment. .............. Beating and Cooling Equipment. ....... Refrigeration Equipment.. .............

745 756 763 766


J. R. Kane

General Considerations in Marine Engineering

Section 1 Introduction
The first efforts to apply mechanical power to the propulsion and operation of ships date back to the early oighteenth century, nearly concurrent with the start of the Industrial Revolution. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, almost a full century before the Wright brothers made their first sporadic flights in a glider at Kitty Hawk, ~ t e a m - ~ r o ~ e ships ied had become a commercial reality, and marine engineering was born. Considering such an early beginning, it mems paradoxical to have to say now, well along in the twentieth century, that it is difficult, if not impossible, to write a definitive text on the subject. Such is the case, however, since the field continues to enter new oras of activity and evolution. One of the reasons this subject is difficult to treat is that ships have never been simple products but, to the oontrary, require an exceptional number of specializations to plan, design, and build. Thus marine engineering is not as simply categorized as, for example, civil, machanical, electrical, or chemical engineering, but is an integrated engineering effort comprising parts of many ongineering disciplines directed to the development and dosign of systems of transport, warfare, exploration, and tlstural resource retrieval which have only one thing in earnmon; namely, that they operate in or upon the crurface of a body of water. The field of engineering activity designated as naval wrohitecture and marine engineering is concerned with at let~st following areas: the
Ocean engineering. The conception, design, construction, and operation of vehicles, submersibles, and fixed or floating structures and their integration into systems for the conduct of oceanographic research, exploration of ocean resources, and the utilization of ocean resources in are encom~assed this categorv.

The division of responsibilities between the naval architect and the marine engineer differs from one activity to another. However, the marine engineer is, in general, responsible for the engineering systems required to propel, work, or fight the ship. More specifically, the marine engineer may be responsible for the main propulsion plant, the powering and mechanization aspects of ship functions such as steering, anchoring, cargo handling, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, electrical power generation and distribution, interior and exterior communication, and other related requirements. The naval architect, in general, is primarily concerned with the hydrodynamic and hull form characteristics of the ship, the structural design of the hull, the control aspects of the vehicle, habitability considerations and the ability to survive and endure in the service environment. The naval architect, assisted in appropriate areas by the marine engineer, is responsible for the overall arrangement or configuration of the ship extending to both the exterior and interior arrangements. I n addition, the naval architect is generally charged with the responsibility for the overall esthetics of the design, the interior decoration, and the general suitability and pleasing Inland waterway and ocean transportation. The con- quality of the architecture. usplion, design, construction, and operation of vehicles Certain aspects of the design of marine vehicles are utilizing the waterways and oceans, especially the ocean difficult gto clearly assign as the responsibility of either murfaces, for transportation of commodities, goods, and the naval architect or the marine engineer. The design personnel, are included in this category. The integration of propellers or propulsors is one of these, being in the of tho operation of these vehicles with land transport& minds of some a hydrodynamic device in the domain of tion via harbor and terminal facilities is an extremely the naval architect, and in the minds of others to be an hportant consideration. In the case of small boats, energy conversion device similar to pumps, turboymbts, and cruise ships, transportation may be secondary machinery, and the like, thus in the sphere of the marine h lsi~ure sport as an objective. or engineer. Hull vibration, excited by the propeller or by Naval engineering. This category includes the con- the main propulsion plant, is another such area. Noise aegt,ion, design, construction, and operation of naval reduction and shock hardening, in fact dynamic response rtcrfaoo ships and submarines and their integration into of structures or machinery in general, usually must be wsrf~bre systems. Means of appraising the military the joint responsibility of both the naval architect and effrotivenessof these systems and the optimal utilization the marine engineer. Cargo handling, cargo pumping of thoir properties are major considerations. systems, environmental control, habitability , hotel .



services, and numerous other such aspects of ship design all involve joint responsibility and interfacing between the naval architect and the marine engineer. The traditional distinctiowbetween naval architecture and marine engineering in t k multifarious aspects of ship selection, design, construction, and operation are tending to disappear, to be replaced by broader concepts of systems engineering and analysis. Because of the multidisciplined nature of marine engineering and naval architecture, they have been particularly affected by the impact of the explosive growth of technology during recent years. Prevalent use of the electronic computer has been particularly influential, in that complex rnathematical analyses once considered prohibitively laborious are now routinely made. By providing the ability to rapidly conduct an increased number of computations, readily store and analyze data, and simultaneously

consider a larger number of factors, the computer makes mathematical simulation of complex problems feasible and is leading to a better optimization of designs. Furthermore, due to the period of large-scale industrial development into which we have entered, there is increasing acceptance of the principle of planned technology which affects systems of all sorts, including marine transportation, oceanography, and recovery of ocean or ocean-bottom resources. By surveying the series of inventions and innovations which have established the present state of the art of marine engineering, it becomes apparent that engineering in the ocean environment is characteristically a dynamic, continuously advancing technology. As a result, this text must be considered an interim report of the processeis that are developing in a broadening marine engineering field.

Section 2 Concepts and Concept Formulation

2.1 Early History. In about the year 1712, an enterprising blacksmith from Dartmoor, England, by the name of Thomas Newcomen, successfully developed a rudimentary steam engine for the purpose of pumping water out of mines. This engine consisted essentially of a single-acting piston working in a vertical open-topped cylinder. The piston was packed with hemp since the state of the metal-working art was very primitive and a tolerance of about one-sixteenth inch out of round or "the thickness of a thin sixpence" was about the best that could be expected. The piston was connected to one end of a rocker arm by a chain without a piston rod or guide. The differential working pressure was derived primarily from the vacuum which was created below the piston by water spray into the steam space a t the end of the upstroke. The steam and water valves were worked by hand. Some sixty years later, radical improvements were made by James Watt, whose name is more frequently associated with the early development of the steam engine. I n the course of time, numerous other.improvements followed, of which the most important was probably the double-acting inverted vertical engine which proved to have so many advantages that it has remained standard ever since. Accounts of the work of men such as Savery, Newcomen, Papin, and Watt in connection with the invention and development of steam engines are truly exciting [I, 2,3].l Despite the much earlier development of steam engines, their application to the propulsion of ships was not undertaken until about 1784. Attempts to adapt the early steam engines to ship propulsion were carried out almost simultaneously in America, Scotland,
Numbers in brackets designate References at end of chapter.

and France, and a t least seven reasonably practical steamboats were developed before 1807 when Robert Fulton inaugurated the first commercially successful use of steam marine propulsion in the small wooden paddle wheel vessel Clermont [I]. The Clermont operated up the Hudson River from New York to Albany, a distance of 150 miles, in about 32 hr. Although paddle wheel vessels were promptly adopted for river service, twelve years elapsed after the launching of the Clermont before the steamer Savannah made the first ocean voyage from America to Europe. It should be noted, however, that even in this instance the machinery was not operated continuously during the outbound leg of the trip and the inbound leg was made under sail. The era of the paddle wheel steamships reached a climax about 50 years later when the steamship Great Eastern was built. This was a steel-hulled vessel almost 700 f t long and 22,000 tons burden, which is large even today for a cargo vessel, and which had the principal fault that it was too advanced for its time. The introduction of the screw propeller in 1837, which was a revolutionary development, similarly did not immediately displace sailing vessels. As late as 1860 the speed of the best clippers still exceeded that of any steams hi^ and the greater d art of the work a t sea continued td be accomilished inder sail. B y the year 1893, the year of the founding of The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, the screw propeller.. driven by a triple-expansion steam engine had become the,predominant means of propulsion of seagoing ships although t addle wheels were still used with river-and- excursion steamers. Steam was almost universally produced by Scotch boilers and coal was the

c o w o n fuel. The steam turbine and diesel engine were yet to make their debut. The decade from 1893 to 1903 was a period rich in marine engineering development. The early reciprooating steam engine reached the point of development of the six-cylinder quadruple-expansion engines of 10,000 indicated horsepower supplied with steam by Scotch boilers a t 200 pounds pressure. The use of electric power generated by engine-driven "dynamos" a t 100 to 112 volts was increasing rapidly. Water tube boilers, which would eventually replace the Scotch boiler on the seas, had become established in England and in the United States. An important milestone in marine engineering was the development, by Sir Charles A. Parsons, of the first successful application of the steam turbine for marine propulsion; this was accomplished aboard the Turbinia, a small vessel similar to a torpedo boat. The rotative speed of the Turbinia's three series turbines was about 2000 rpm, and they were coupled directly to relatively primitive screw propellers in a triple shaft arrangement. Parsons was dismayed on his earliest trials to discover that the wheels more or less "bored a hole in the water," developing disappointingly low driving thrust. Much developmental work was necessary before this new prime mover was successfully adapted to the requirements of marine propulsion. In what must certainly be considered one of the earliest efforts at model tank testing of propellers, Parsons investigated the subject of cavitation and succeeded in redesigning his propellers (three per shaft were ultimately employed) such that in 1897 a t a naval review of the British fleet a t Spithead, England, the Turbinia astounded the British admirals by steaming past smoothly a t a speed of 34 knots, belching smoke like an angry bull tossing dust. Lord Kelvin described this development as "the greatest advance made in steam ongine practice since the time of James Watt" [4]. Prior to 1893, a number of internal-combustion engines were attempted using anything from gunpowder to gas. One of these was a radically different type of engine in which the combustion air charge was compressed to a pressure and temperature above the ignition point of the fuel; it was patented by Dr. Rudolf Diesel, a German engineer, in 1892. There were very serious Wculties to be overcome with the diesel engine, development proceeded slowly, and it was not until fifteen to sixteen years later that a successful commercial diesel enginc of 25 hp was produced. Once this had been achieved, however, rapid progress waq made, and in a few years many firms in Continental Europe were actively building diesel engines with as much as 500 hp per cylinder. Already a t that early date experimental cylinders of 2000 horsepower were under test. The challenge to the coal-fired low-pressure reciproaating steam engine came from the steam turbine and the 'dio~el engine about the same time a t the turn of the aantury. World War I retarded developments, however, etld maintained the supremacy of coal for a little while

longer. After the war, oil found preference either as diesel engine fuel or for raising steam. It also reduced crew requirements and made fuel storage an easier task. The historical developments noted in the foregoing were beginnings which, when viewed against the techniques and materials available a t the time, were magnificent conceptions. No effort has been made here to include the full roster of great names and pioneer events in marine engineering. However, some familiarity with the background of the early days in marine engineering is highly recommended for those entering this field to develop an appreciation of the hopes and disappointments, the dreams and disillusionments, and the blood and sweat which lie behind the present state of the art [I-81. 2.2 Broader Concepts-Systems Analysis. The concept which motivated the majority of the early attempts in marine engineering was quite simple; namely, to develop a superior system to overcome the vagaries of the wind and the feebleness of muscle power in the propulsion of ships. However, marine engineering today entails much broader system requirements and concepts than most developments of that time. By way of introduction, one particular historical undertaking is given special note since it contained, in a primitive way, elements of systems analysis. In 1776, a year which should strike a familiar note with most Americans, a Connecticut Yaxikee named David Bushnell built the Turtle, the first submersible craft to make an undersea attack during warfare. The Turtle of the American Revolution, so called because it could be likened to two turtle shells clamped together, was built of barrel staves and iron, contained ballast tanks which were flooded to submerge, and was moved by primitive spiral screws. Reference [8] contains an interesting description of the Turtle and its precocious concepts. The Turtle was not by any means the first successful submersible craft, but was one of the most significant, since among other things it was one of the earliest, and perhaps boldest, attempts to develop a military system involving an evolutionary marine vehicle. The operational concept of the Turtle d i e r e d somewhat from most other inventions of that era since it related in a primitive way to an entire system. It was intended that the pilot dive the vessel under the water in order to evade lookouts on an enemy vessel, attach a time-delayed explosive mine to the ehip's bottom, and make a safe escape. The initial target of the Turtle was Admiral Howe's 64-gun flagship, HMS Eagle. The story of this initial venture is fascinating; the Turtle did not in fact succeed, k .it came perilously close to doing t so. George Washington wrote to Thomas Jefferson a t the time of the Turtle, "I then thought and still think that it was an effort of genius, but that many things were necessary to be combined to expect much from the issue against an enemy who are always upon guard" [91. Although the development of the first ironclads, the Merrimac and the Monitor, almost a century later had probably a more revolutionary effect on the evolution of







- I







1 L

Fig. 1 - Functional processes in a systems analysis

. .

warships, Bushnell's submarine is of special interest because o the singularity of its operational concept and f f its primacy. Actually it contained all the elements o a modern problem in concept formulation for a planned technological development: a mission objective or primary task, an analysis of the objective to establish specific operational requirements, trade-offs concerning alternative methods of accomplishing the mission, constraints imposed by limitations of techniques, materials, manpower, money, and time, and last but not least, the necessity of obtaining the interest and support of the controlling authority for what must have seemed, in this case, to be a radical venture. In the early historical stages of the basic engineering process, the concepts formed and the decisions made, although frequently ingenious, were of sufficiently narrow scope that a single individual could become intimately familiar with all facets o the undertaking. f The stakes were high for a successful development; rugged individualism was the rule since society had not yet embraced the role of technological development, and support by the existing governing bodies was scanty or nonexistent. Success depended to a large extent upon

intuitive perception and upon chance. Today, in this age of institutionalized knowledge and electronic computers, such factors are still important, but are being largely transcended by systematized approaches and by team activity. The ship, which once was viewed as a highly subjective entity, possessed of feminine and almost human attributes, is now looked upon more objectively as a link in a transportation system, a military platform, or as a medium in a system of transferring people, commodities, national presence or authority, and the like from one point to another. From a functional point of view, a ship is a most complex vehicle which must be self-sustaining in its element for long periods of time with a high degree of confidence. A ship is perhaps the most multipurpose vehicle having more built-in functions than any other type; and, as a part of a transportation or military system, the ship envelope contains a greater variety of components than any other vehicle in the system. A ship's mechanical, electrical, and structural systems are quite complex and are further complicated by the fact that they must be environmentally oriented. Due to the complexity of ships and their interfaces in transportation networks, the design of optimum ship systems cannot practicably be undertaken in a random manner. The design of complex systems involving ships is best accomplished by utiliing the systems analysis approach [lo-141 as schematically illustrated by Fig. 1. I n this way, the design process can be organized in logical steps so as to ensure that, when completed, every facet of the design has been given proper treatment. As indicated in Fig. 1, a systems analysis is initiated by establishing a system objective. Beyond that point the systems analysis approach is a continuously iterative process with each of the functional processes possibly having an impact on those remaining. For example, referring to Fig. 1, the initial system objective could be to transport cargo between two points at a given rate and a t the lowest possible cost. Proceeding with this objective, constraints such as time and capital limitations must be established. Since the constraints may alter the original objective (e.g., preclude transporting cargo at the desired rate or make higher rates attractive), the original objective must be reevaluated. The various aspects of the design process continue until all factors in the analysis are compatible, at which time the design is complete. In more general terms, a combination of theory and facts (including a careful statement of the constraints an upon the system) is used to ~roduce abstract study or model of the actual situation. The model, in turn, is combined with a set of aims to produce a plan of action or a proposed technical approach. Working with such analyses and with checks against experience and data gives rise to a body of correlated information which feeds back to modify the designs which are acceptable, the facts which are relevant, the controls which are efficient, is and the aims which are realistic. Systems engidng

the term for such a process when limited to basic engineering processes. Systems analysis is the more general term for the process when social and economic factors in addition to basic engineering processes are included. Operations research is the name of the process when operability, that is, the optimum deployment or utilization of components, men, and machines, is the principal objective. Work study is another term of related connotation, although in this case the emphasis is placed on optimum utilization of man, and reduction in manning requirements, by taking a fresh look at work patterns and habits that have come to be taken for granted. The objectives and constraints upon which the policy for systems analyses is based have differing motivations for military systems and for merchant marine transport systems; but in both instances they ultimately reduce to the same base-cost effectiveness. I n the case of merchant systems, the proposed system must be cost effective as compared to other potential investments in order to command the necessary venture capital under the free enterprise system, or they have to be justified for governmental support by subsidy. Military planners are charged with the national defense, but there is in fact a limit to the amount of money available for such purposes as there are more military systems competing for funds than can be supported by the funds available. Consequently, the analysis of military budgets becomes a process of identifying systems, or combinations of systems, which have the maximum military cost off ectiveness. Cost effectiveness seems simple to comprehend, but usually is difficult to quantify [15]. In general, the

expression denotes a measure of the degree to which the achievement of the tasks or missions of a system (e.g., revenue earned or national protection provided) has been maximized relative to the costs associated with the system. Since the effective life of a ship is approximately twenty to twenty-five years, a period long enough for economic and political factors to undergo substantial change, the projection of life cycle costs associated with ships is inherently less accurate than life cycle cost estimates made in connection with vehicles such as automobiles or aircraft which have a much shorter life cycle. When conducting life cycle cost analyses with ships, which are relatively long lived, considerably more importance must be attached to the events which occur during the early stages of the ship's life. There is little question that the basic vehicle will perform satisfactorily for a 25-year life; however, there have been' many cases in which ships have been reequipped, modernized, jumboized, converted, etc., a number of times during their lives. As a result, the credibility of projections for the first five or ten years of a ship's life are considerably better and are often given more weight than more distant forecasts. However, despite the uncertainties associated with long-range forecasts, attempts to project them are being made and a new branch of systems analysis termed assurance engineering has been developed to give numerical expression to characteristics such as reliability, maintainability, logistic aupport, operability, safety, and similar factors which augment the standard design performance estimates traditionally made. Also, producibility analyses, requiring a combination of design and industrial engineering skills, are sometimes made to assure a design best adapted to economy in construction.

Section 3 Ship System Formulation

9.1 Mode of Utilization. Before proceeding with a mview of the marine engineering phase of a ship system formulation, which as indicated by Fig. 1 does not oornmence until the broader aspects of the system have boen tentatively formulated, it is useful to review some af the broad considerations. In particular, the modes in which ships can be utilized and the payload and speed oharacteristics of ships are of great importance in that they must be compatible with the overall system oonsiraints.. From the viewpoint of utillation, marine vehicles mny be classified in the following three categories:

in terms of deadweight and cubic requirements, must be very carefully analyzed as the latter will have a controlling effect on the vessel configuration. (b) As a mobile fighting base. Seaborne bases for force groups, weapons systems, missiles, aircraft, or other sJrstems of warfare either tactical or strategic and either offensive or defensive are included in this group. In this instance, the design of the ship is subordinated to the military system and weapon requirements except for certain inescapable essentials such as seaworthiness, habitability, etc. Payload in this case will generally be defined in military terms relating to militaw effective(a) As a link in a tramportation ~ s t e m . Inthis case, ness, and the speed requirement will be a function of the payload, mean effective speed between t e d n a l s , turn- expected speed of the hostile forces and the successful mound time, and the number of vessels are the ~rimary accomplishment of the n~ission. vmiables and must be considered in relation to their (c) As a* special-purpose vehicle or platform. This gffeot on the initial and daily operating costs as well as category includes many diversified craft which have little tho other facets of the transportation system. Payload, in common except that they all work or operate in an


GENERAL Cob A Comparison of Constraints Imposed upon Merchant and Military Ship Systems

Table 1

Tramportation market potentiak cargo and/or passengers Type of tran ort system contexnplated:?ulk, break bulk, containerl passengeFcar o combinatmliquid and buk etc. Most likely itine terminal facilities, h a r b ~ h t a t i o m , c d limitatiom, and fueling ports Linking services: shore d@ribution systems, new termma1 facilities, cranes, and so on Competing services Socio/political considerations and union relations Economic projections, financial support, government subaidii&etc. Technologid development, state of the art G c t o bodies, such as ABS and U%G

Type of war situation anticipated Tactics, strategy, mission pro-

, ,

Most like1 operational locale, support8aaes, replenishment means, etc. Force pou compatibility, potential dies Enemy threat in weapons and ship types Socio/political considerations Fiscal environment and budg e t pressures ~ Technolo 'cal development, state o&he art Military specifications

Fig. 2

Specitlc power Venus speed for various vehicles

ocean or waterway environment and that much support for the systematic design of them is derived from the body of marine engineering knowledge obtained from less specialized vessels. Oceangoing tugs, salvage vessels, oceanographic research ships, submersibles, dredging vessels, yachts, ferryboats, towboats, pushers, barges, hydrofoil craft, surface effect ships, and many others are examples of such special-purpose craft. Category (c) does not lend itself to generalization beyond the fundamentals of naval architecture and marine engineering. Neither, one might conjecture, do (a) and (b). However, the constraints to be considered in determining system requirements so as to ensure a reasonably optimum design configuration do parallel between merchant and military applications to rs surprising extent as indicated by the comparison in Table 1. 3.2 Payload and Speed Considerations. I n addition to the constraints dealing with the mode of utiliiation, payload and speed considerations have a strong influence on the selection of the type of vehicle employed. Payload and speed constraints are important in that they restrict the types of vehicles which are feasible for parti~ularapplications. Figure 2, parts of w h i ~ h were taken from references [16-201, is an informative com-

parison of alternative means of transportation in that the feasiblerange of speed for the various types of vehicles becomes evident. Although payload considerations are still a factor, size restrictions are less stringent in connection with ships than with the alternative modes of transportation. An investigation of a systematic family of ships (a parametric study in which size is the principle characteristic that is varied) will demonstrate that ships are not sizelimited and can be built as large as one may wish without encountering limitations from the laws of physics. Dimensional analysis will show that geometrically similar ships of a diierent scale will float at the same proportionate draft since both the water displaced (buoyancy) and the weight of the ship tend to increase as the cube of the scale. A corollary conclusion from such systematic investigations is that displacement ships are not particularly weight-sensitive. Vehicles such as fixed-wing aircraft, hydrofoil craft, planing boats, and surface effect devices in general are weight-sensitive and size-limited as may be seen from a simple dimensional analysis. Such craft derive their support in flight from lifting surfaces of various types; when geometrically similar but larger versions of a prototype are considered, the weight of the craft, including its payload, increases approximately as the cube of the scale ratio while the area of the lifting surface increases only as the square. As a result, the unit pressure loading on the lifting surface increases directly with the scale. The increase in size of fixed-wing aircraft over the last several decades has been achieved largely by increasing the forward speed by almost an order of magnitude and by greatly refining and improving the lifting character-

istics of wings and fuselages by means of extensive research developments. As the speed in flight is increased, the basic configuration of the aircraft must be changed appropriately also, because, as compared with diplacement-type ships, vehicles in the aircraft or surface-effectsupported category tend to be size-limited and weight-sensitive. As may be evident from Fig. 2, the displacement type of vessel has very definite limitations with regard to the speed at which it can be efficiently driven. The inherent speed limitations for ships are most appropriately expressed in terms of the so-called speed-length ratio (the ship's speed in knots divided by the square root of the ship's length in feet) in conjunction with various ratios of the ship's dimensions such as the beam-draft ratio and the prismatic and block coefficients (see reference [21] for a comprehensive treatment of this subject). The most spectacular growth in the size of ships has been in tankera. During the early 19509s,the so-called supertankers were in the cargo deadweight range of 20,000 to 30,000 tons; whereas during the latter 19609s, tankers as large as 200,000 to 300,000 tons were being built with projected giants in the 1,000,000-ton range appearing feasible. The theoretical problem of optimizing a transport system would appear to be simply that of maximizing payload times mean effective speed from point to point while a t the same time minimizing initial costs and yearly operating costs. I this were the only f consideration, ships would be in much greater favor as compared with aircraft than they are. Systems analyses of typical transport missions usually include another highly important factor which puts a great premium on higher speed; namely, flexibility, or the ability to be in the right place at the right time with the right payload. The great increase in the speed of communications and the resultant great increase in the rapidity of affairs in recent decades has resulted in a higher premium on speed and time in many instances whether justifiable or not. Aircraft, therefore, usually transport a substantial proportion of the people, special equipment, and lighter commodities in which cases speed is of great importance, while ships continue to carry the larger proportion of the heavy cargos and commodities and bulk cargos in both military and nonmilitary transoceanic routes. 3.3 Deflnition of Fundamental Requirements. The constraints imposed by the intended mode of utilization and requirements regarding payload and speed will Ittrgely define the fundamental requirements of the ship, and an analysis of the ship system can now be conducted for the purpose of establiahing a reasonably optimum aolution. All of the positive constraints upon configuration should be identified in the analysis, but as much freedom of selection retained as possible. Once the objective and the constraints have been clearly stated, tho analysis may often proceed to the development of a u~oful abstract model for the system. Parametric &dies, in which the prin~ipal independent variables are

varied systematically, using the electronic computer as appropriate, are often made. The sensitivity of the system to variation of the independent variables begins to emerge and can be identified. Because of its value in decision-making, the sensitivity of system characteristics to such systematic variation of the system parameters is often specifically explored in a formalized sensitivity analysis. Exercise of such techniques should result in sufficient background to support decisions regarding a policy and a plan of action. This plan of action will generally result in decisions which will further limit the range of variables to be considered; for example, the range of the size and the numbers of ships required may be more confined, notional ship design arrangements may be selected, approximate manning requirements determined, first approximation of costs projected, and so forth. A description of some of the procedures which may be used during the preliminary design of a ship is given detailed treatment in references [22-31.1. In the case of cargo ships, the fundamental concept of the cargo transportation system must be established at this point as the design of the entire system is predicated on this decision. General cargo transportation systems which employ intermodal containers (i.e., systems in which cargo is packed in containers that are transported by trucks, ships, barges, and trains in any combination before being delivered and unpacked) are becoming increasingly popular. The use of intermodal containers offers several advantages, the major one being the minimization of the number of times the cargo must be handled on an individual basis with a corresponding reduction in damage, pilferage, and handling costs. The iterative process of assessment/adjustment described in the foregoing results in an initial design configuration baseline which is essentially a preliminary statement of the ship system requirements. Such ship system requirements include the followingfor a merchant vessel :


Payload (cargo/passenger capacity and description) Sustained sea speed and endurance Number of containers, holds, refrigerated spaces, etc., for balanced service Limits to overall diiensions such as length, draft, Beam, etc., for operability on required service Loading-discharging methods and capacities Hotel requirements such as heating, ventilation, air conditioning, galley, public spaces, power, and lighting Crew or manning requirements Automation and mechanization objectives Reliability and logistic support objectives Special requirements for navigation and communications Maneuverability (steering, handling, stopping, and backing) Anchoring and mooring




statistical method of estimating the weight, displacement, speed, power, and other principal characteristics of a wide variety of dry cargo ships and tankers by averaging plots of a substantial number of actual designs. A number of marine engineering design activities have reduced their data on existing design series to a similar basis such that it is suitable for programming on an electronic computer; this enables approximate investigations of the parametric type to be made rapidly. As noted previously, reference 1211 contains a detailed discussion of the methods which are employed to obtain resistance estimates for ships. 4.3 Selection of the Propulsor. Once the ship speed, requirements and resistance have been tentatively established, it is necessary to select the type of propulsor. With considerations restricted to the type of propulsor for the moment, as indicated by Fig. 4, which was taken from reference [35], some types are inherently more efficient than others for particular applications. The abscissa on Fig. 4 is in terms of the Taylor power coefficient,B,, which is defined as:


Main Propulsion System Shaft horsepower Propeller rpm Specific fuel consumption and bunker capacity Space and weight objectives Adaptability to ship configuration Auxiliary Ship Systems Power and lighting Steam-galley, deck, and heating systems Heating, ventilation, afid air conditioning Firefighting, bilge, and ballasting Fresh water



Fig. 3

Propulsion machinery preliminary design spiral




Engineering Requirements.

The broad requirements of the ship system as just established must be translated into specific performance capabilities by the naval architect and the marine engineer. Since the requirements established a t this point are broad (e.g., unmanned engine room), subsequent investigations may show that some of the requirements cannot feasibly be fulfilled; in which case, all considerations must again be re-evaluated. Most of the broad requirements of the ship system cannot be analyzed independently of the others; and further refinement of each, to a degree, involves yet another iterative design process which is analogous to a slowly closing spiral that gradually approaches a point of fixation. Figure 3, which was taken from reference [23], is a diagram of, this sort of iterative spiral. The marine engineer utilizes a procedure similar to that indicated by Fig. 3 when performing the design comparisons and trade-off studies required to establish specific design requirements in the area of his cognizance. Such specific design requirements will generally be of the following classifications:

Hull Engineering Systems Anchor handling Steering engine and bridge telemetering control Cargo handling gear, such as winching systems, burtoning, and swinging boom Crane systems Bulk cargo systems, self-unloaders, etc. Container systems Palletized systems Tankering systems, such as cargo piping and pumps Electronic and Navigation System Commupication, exterior and interior Radar Loran, Decca, RDF, etc., navigational aids Military electronics, sensors, command and control systems, weapons directors, tactical data systems, and electronic countermeasures
The procedures which are used when designing the engineering aspects of a ship may best be illustrated by outlining the process of designing a ship from a marine engineering viewpoint. This is done in the following sections and is initiated by a review of the procedures used in developing the main propulsion system requirements.

Developme~~t Main Propulsion System Requireme~~ts of

4.1 Overall Considerations. The basic operating requirement for the main propulsion system is to propel the vessel a t the required sustained sea speed for the range (or endurance) required of the vessel and to provide stopping, backing, and maneuvering capabilities. I n the case of a military vessel, which rarely operates a t its maximum rating, the speed requirement may be partly stated in terms of a mqimum flank or burst speed, which need be sustained for only a short percentage of the operating life of the vessel, in conjunction with a

more efficient lower speed for long-range endurance. A further restriction is that the main propulsion system must fulfill all of the basic operating requirements at a cost within that allocated during the preliminary studies of the ship system; otherwise the preliminary studies must be re-evaluated. Many factors must be considered in selecting the main propulsion system. Reliability is of the utmost importance since the safety and security of the vessel will depend upon it. Specific fuel consumption, bunker

capacity, type of fuel required, fuel availability, space and weight requirements, and the adaptability of the propulsion system to the overall ship configuration are closely related to the type of plant selected and must be evaluated. Comparative costs, that is, first costs and operational costs, are also major considerations in tradeoff studies. Before entering into the process of selecting the main propulsion plant, it is necessary that the power required for sustained operation and endurance be tentatively determined. Since the space and weight requirements for the propulsion plant can have a significant effect on the ship configuration, and since the dimensional and form characteristics of the hull and its approximate displacement are required in order to arrive at an estimate of the propulsive power required, it is apparent that the marine engineer must coordinate his activities with the naval architect from the earliest conceptual design stage in an iterative preliminary design process such as that discussed in the previous section and illustrated in the preliminary design spiral, Fig. 3. 4.2 Determination of Ship Resistance. The general subject of ship resistance falls within the domain of naval architecture as opposed to marine engineering. For this reason, a detailed treatment of the subject is left to reference [21]; but for completeness purposes, some of the considerations involved warrant a brief review. The most reliable means of determining the resistance of a ship is to construct a scaled model of the underwater portions of the ship and conduct model resistance tests at one of the towing tank installations. .However, for several reasons such a procedure is far from feasible during the preliminary design phase: one is that sufficient time is not available; another is that the ship dimensions frequently change during the preliminary design phase; and another is that repeated testing would be prohibitively expensive. When tentative values have been established for the ship payload, sustained sea speed, and principal dimensions, an approximate assessment of the ship's resistance aan feasibly be obtained by utilizing the results obtained from a series of tests with systematically varied hull forms. There are principally two such test series: the Taylor's Standard Series [32, 331 and the Series 60 [34]. The Speed and Power of Ships [32], which was the original presentation of the Taylor's Standard Series data, is in tm exceptionally clear and concise form for preliminary design purposes and is a classic that is extensively used by practically all design activities; if not used directly, it la a t least used as a standard for evaluating the relative merits of any particular ship configuration. Although the use of series test data to estimate the resistance of ships is straightforward, the process nevertheless entails a considerable amount of tedious labor. In the event that the accuracy of an estimate is somewhat I&a important than the rapidity with which it can be made, a statistical method similar to that developed by Johnson and Rumble [28] can appropriately be used. Johnson and Rumble developed a simple approximate


N = propeller rpm P = power, hp V4 = speed of advance, knots

The efficiency of propulsiop devices, including jet propulsion, is presented in a somewhat similar manner in reference [36]. The selection of the propulsor may not be a simple process, particularly in marginal cases, because in order to establish the type of propulsor it may be necessary to a t least tacitly select the type of main propulsion machinery. For example, the gain in efficiency offered by selecting contrarotating propellers versus a Troost B Series propeller (discussed further in the following), for a cargo ship, must be assessed in light of the impact on the main propulsion machinery and shafting arrangements. Similarly, the selection of the number of propellers may be a multifaceted problem. I n general, vessels may be single, twin, triple, or quadruple screw. That is to say, the total power required to propel a vessel may be distributed (usually equally) between one, two, three, or four shafts and propellers. From the point of view of initial and operating costs, fewer numbers of propellers are preferred, but the magnitude of the ship effective horsepower requirements or restraints on the propeller diameter may force a multiple-screw arrangement because of excessive propeller loading and the attendant danger of cavitation associated with unduly small propeller diameters. I n addition, there may be other factors in a given case, such as less vulnerability, more maneuverability, or take-home capability in the case that propeller damage may be likely in service, which favor an arrangement with a larger number of propellers. )



Fig. 4


Cornparim of opfimum ettlckncy valuer

fv diiemnf Wpcn of propulm


There are several extensive systematic series of fixedpitch propellers which have been model-tested and are in a form convenient for design selection purposes. Of these, probably the most suitable for design approximation is the Troost B Series of three, four, five, six, and seven-bladed propellers although there are others which may be used [21]. I n the usual case, the maximum propeller diameter that will provide adequate propeller submergence for the operating draft of the vessel and provide ample tip clearances as well as adapt to the stern configuration of the vessel so as to minimize propeller blade frequency excitation forces may be used for propeller selection purposes. The propeller design established during the preliminary design phase is generally very close to that obtained from later, morerefined design studies. A trade-off study must be made between the propeller rpm which is required from a maximum propulsive efficiency viewpoint and propeller rpm constraints imposed by prime mover/transmission size, weight, and cost considerations. The propeller rpm which is necessary to achieve a maximum propulsive efficiency is frequently considerably lower than that which is feasible from the viewpoint of the prime mover/transmission (due to the greater torque and hence machinery size associated with lower propeller speeds). Furthermore, attainment of the maximum propulsive efficiency does not necessarily constitute the most cost-effective system. Propeller characteristics are in general such that the propeller can be designed to operate a t an rpm somewhat greater than that corresponding to the maximum propulsive efficiency without incurring a serious efficiency

penalty. Whiie no significant penalty in efficiency is incurred with propeller rpm's slightly greater than that for peak efficiency, significant savings in the first costs, size, and weight of the prime mover/transmission can be realized due to the lower torque rating (with the power remaining the same). The most cost-effective propeller rpm is selected by conducting a trade-off study which balances the propulsive efficiency against the size, weight, and cost of the prime mover/transmission.
4.4 Establishment of Propulsion Plant Shaff Horsepower Rating. Good practice dictates that a ship's

propulsion plant be rated such that the desired ship speed can be attained with reserve shaft horsepower capabilities. Factors to be considered in establishing the reserve capability include fouling and roughening of the hull, roughening of the working sections of the propeller due to cavitation or erosion, and erosion and deposits on the internal flow passages and working elements of the prime mover and power plant parts; all of which result in a significant performance degradation (approximately 5 to 15 percent) in time. It is also important that the vessel have a reasonable ability to maintain speed in moderately rough seas and adverse weather conditions. The usual practice for providing such a margin is to utiliie the parameter sustained sea speed, which is defined as that speed which is obtained a t some percentage of the installed maximum shaft horsepower, during trials, a t design load draft, under favorable weather conditions, when the vessel and engines are new, and the hull is clean. The percentage (or the so-called service factor) of the maximum shaft horsepower used to establish the sustained sea speed is ordinarily taken to

be 0.80 for cargo ships, which may be continuously loaded during the various legs of a voyage, and 0.90 for tankers, which in general are loaded on the outgoing leg of a voyage and in b a a s t during the return leg. However, depending upon the itinerary, the type of maintenance that is predicated, and mean time between dry docking and overhauls contemplated, the service factor used in a particular case may be somewhat Werent. 4.5 Selection of Main Propulsion Plant. Considerations concerning the selection of tbe main prop h i o n plant cannot be deferred until the propulsor, propulsion plant rating, etc., have been established, which may be suggested by the order of this discussion. Instead, the type of main propulsion plant is generally assumed a t the time the type of propulsor is established. Nevertheless, a final review of the main propuleion plant selected is one of the last tasks accomplished. Selection of a main propulsion plant entails the marrying of a power geeerator/prime mover, a transmission system, a propulsor, other shipboard systems, and the ship's hull. A myriad of possible propulsion plant arrangements may be considered by the marine engineer in making the selection. As indicated in Pig. 5, even when the range of considerations ia confined to the mo8t popular drives for fixed-pitch and controllable-pitch propellers, tbe number of permutations open to the marine engineer is sizable. It may be noted from Fig. 5 (which neglects infrequently used arrangements such as, for instance, directdrive steam turbines or the out-of-date reciprocating steam engine) that in modem ships only large-bore, slow-speed diesel engines are directly connected to the propeller shaft. Transmission devicea such as mechanical speed-reducing gears or electrical generator/motor transmissions are otherwise required to make compatible the relatively high rpm necessary for an economical and small prime mover and the relatively low propeller rpm nece8sary for a high propulsive efficiency. In the case of steam turbines, medium and high-speed diesel engines, and gas turbines, the high rpm inherent in a compact prime mover design and the low speed suited to the marine propeller is reconciled with speed reduction geah. Gear ratios vary from relatively low values for medium-speed diesels up to approximately 50 to 1 for a compact turbine design. An electricd transmission has attractive features, dthough its first cost tepds to be somewhat high; in this owe, the prime mover drives a generator or alkrnator










DIESEL, UEDIUI S ~ ~ E D O R U I ~ U S ~ E D ,




'OW ""O



GAS TURBINE unrw ourv on UIOU P C R ~ D R ~ A M C E - luo*nEVEnsI~@~ DIESEL .,,,,, CNGINES 8,EEoon , ,,,,, tao*




d-Fig. 5


Alternatives in the wlection of a main propulsion plant

which in turn drives a propulsion motor having a large number of poles which is either coupled directly to the propeller or drives the propeller through a low-ratio reduction gear. Electrical drives may be either a-c or d-c; an a-c transmission is somewbt favored since it is lighter and cheaper, but it involves special design considerations in order to provide satisfactory maneuvering torque characteristics and becomes more comple~ than a d-c transmission especially when the 'prime movers are diesel engines which may be stalled if J o e too abruptly. Reveming may be accomplished by stopping and reverb ing a reversible engine, rts in the case of many reciprocating engines, or by adding reversing elements in the prime mover in the case of steam turbines. It is geperdljl impracticable to provide reversing elements in gas turbines, in which case a reversing capability must be either provided in the transmiwion system or in the propulsor itself. Reversing reduction gears for mch tralismissions are available up to quite subs$antial powers, and controllable and reversible-pitch propellers also have been used with dim1 or gas turbine drives. Electrical drives provide reversing by dynamic braking and ener@zing (plugging) the electric motor in the reverse direction.

Section 5 Main Propulsion Plant Trade-Off Studies

8.1 Fundamental Concepts. The design of the maahinery plant, like many other general design projects, I@y consists of a correlation of a number of units end

elements into a functioning system which gives a desired performance. This entails selecting components, adjusting each to the constraints imposed by all others, and





arranging them so as to achieve the required system performance, a satisfactory configuration, and an equitable life cycle cost. There are a number of design decisions which must be made in formulating a main propulsion plant design. For example, the prime mover must be selected with the major alternatives being a diesel engine, oil-fired steam turbine, nuclear-fueled steam turbine, gas turbine, a combined design, or a special design such as that required for surface-effect vehicles. And once the generic type t of ~ i a nhas been established then the major characteristics of the plant must be selected. Questions which must typically be answered in selecting the major design characteristics of the propulsion plant are: Should a &&el plant be high speed, medium speed, low speed, two cycle, four cycle, and the like? Or, in connection with a fossil-fueled steam turbine plant, should the boiler have natural circulation, forced circulation, or no recirculation at all (once-through type)? With gas turbine installations, there is the choice of simple or regenerative plants. Innovations in nuclear technology continue to provide new alternatives in the design of nuclear plants. The most controversial subject in marine engineering is the relative merits of the various types of main propulsion plants and each type of plant has its own advocates, who often exhibit excessive enthusiasm for their particular type. Since a variety of types is used more or less extensively in a number of ships, it can be c~ncluded from this fact alone that all types bave their ~ l a c pand that the only way to determine the most suitable choice o main machinery plant is to consider all f of the factors involved in each particular application. The selection of a ship's main propulsion plant may be influenced by previous practice, as is the case with most complicated engineering systems. Ordinarily, pertinent plans and essential data relating to the machmery of other ships, some perhaps rather similar to the one in f question, will be available. I this information is aivailable and in a proper form, first approximations can often be made without detailed study, thereby reducing the range and number of variables that must be given detailed consideration in the preliminary stage. There are many factons which should be considered in conducting trade-off studies involving the various types of main propulsion plants; the more important factors are : 1 Reliability 2 Maintainability 3 Space and arrangement requirements 4 Weight requirements 5 Type of fuel required (including fuel treatment) 6 Fuel consumption 7 Fractional power and transient performance 8 Interrelations with auxiljaries 9 Reversing capability 10 Operating personnel 1 Rating limitations 1 12 Costs

I n addition, however, the selection of the type of main propulsion plant can be influenced by intangible personal factors reflecting the backgrofind or personal preferences of those interested in the construction or operation of the vessel, and greatly influenced by the experience of the operating personnel available to them. The aforementioned factor8 will be given a more detailed discussion in turn. 5.2 Reliability. Of all the factors which must be considered in selecting the most suitable type of machinery, reliability in service is one of the most important and should be given proper emphasis. The design effort devoted to this consideration has been receiving increasing emphasis during recent years [37-44]. This has been attributed to the increasing'complexity of the more modern equipment and the increased reliability requirements which are associated with the trend toward reduced manning. Breakdown in the propelling machinery may mean the loss of ship availability (or even the loss of the vessel), which is a very serious matter for the owners and operators. Considerations other than reliability, such as fuel economy, weight, space, and first cost, which may seem to be important in the early stages of the design, later become surprisingly insignificant when compared with irritating and costly service interruptions which can result from inadequate reliability. Accordingly, developmental features should be proven ashore where failures are of little consequence as compared with failures at sea. The method of establishing ratings of the various power plant components should be analyzed for service and design margins so as to ensure the high degree of reliability required for the safety of the vessel. Assurance should be provided that reasonably conservative horsepower ratings are used for design purposes since in some cases there is a tendency for ratings to be stated as that obtained on block tests under ideal laboratory conditions as opposed to the lets-perfect environmental conditions that are encountered in marine service. Evaluating the service and design margins is d i c u l t ; the type of fuels and the pressures, temperatures, and pressure ratios used in the design have a significant effect on the plant reliability. However, realistic trade-off studies require that either the degree of conservatism be consistent between various candidate power plants or an allowance be made for the differences. 5.3 Mai~tainability. Both preventive maintenance and correctiye'maintenance requirements must be considered in selecting the type of machinery to be used in a propulsion plant [&50]. Preventive maintenance has a direct impact on manning levels and operating costs. If the equipment installed requires frequent preventative maintenance, such as greasing, packing, cleaning, and parts replacement, crew personnel must be provided to carry out these duties. This is an important consideration as the cost associated with one crew member over the l i e of a ship is a startling sum, particularly if he must be highly skilled; additionally, the cost of the materials required for preventive maintenance adds to


operating costa and can become significant especially when special tools and equipment are required. Corrective maintenance must also be considered in light of the manning requirements (as regards both manpower and skill level), materials, and tools required. Furthermore, the various modes of equipment failure should be studied in order to identify the failure modes which would adversely affect the propulsion plant n operation (the effect could be either i terms of performance degradation, corrective maintenance requirements, downtime, or a combination of these considerations). Failure modes which have unacceptably adverse effects should be further analyzed to identify methods of reducing the likelihood or consequences of their occurrence (e.g., by means of redundancy or selecting other design alternatives). 5.4 Spare and Arrangement Requirements. Some years ago the minimum space required for the machinery plant of a merchant ship was a relatively unimportant consideration due to the tonnage laws in effect a t that time. Formerly, if the actual propelling machinery space exceeded 13,percent of the groas tonnage of the ship, then 32 percent of the gross tonnage of the ship could be deducted in computing the net tonnage, which is the basis for tax assessments, harbor and canal dues, etc. As a result, a special effort was then made to ensure that the space required for the propelling machinery was a t least 13 percent of the gross tonnage of the ship. The tonnage laws have subsequently been modified, however, and such an artificial condition no longer exists. I n most ship desigd configurations, an intensive effort is made to minimize the space required for the propulsion plant. In general, the space required for the machinery space is considered to be deducted from that which can be used for other purposes (e.g., carrying cargo); and a maximum effort is accordingly made to restrain the dimensions of the machinery space. In some ships, such as tankers, this is not as critical a factor. Minimum space requirements are almost impossible to generalize satisfactorily for different types of power plants. There is no substitute for making at least a preliminary ship arrangement layout to determine the effect of the power plant on the overall machinerv mace oonfiguration. In order to illustrate general dff%nces in this respect between principal propulsion plant types, representative machinery arrangements in typical merohant vessels are shown in Figs. 6, 7, 8, and 9 for a . . slteam turbine, diesel, nuclear, and a gas turbine plant respectively. There is a wide range of flexibility in the design of the propulsion plants illustrated; therefok, the oonfigurations shown should only be considered representative. 5.5 Weight Requirements; The importance of the weight of a main propulsion plant varies depending upon the particular application. I n the case of tankers, whose cargo capacity is limited by draft restrictions, the weight of the main propulsion machinery represents oargo foregone. Cargo vessels, on the other hand,

seldom operate at their full load draft; furthermore, they have chronic stability problems due in part to the extensive amount of cargo handling gear located high on the ship. As a result, the weight associated with the main propulsion machinery, as such, is mildly advantageous in that it improves the stability of the ship. I n general, naval vessels have chronic weight problems, particularly since the advent of the major emphasis on shock resistance; and shipboard equipment is carefully analyzed from the viewpoint of weight reduction. Representative pmpulsion plant weights (without fuel) are shown in Fig. 10, where the specific weight (the weight of the complete propulsion plant per unit of rated shaft horsepower) is plotted versus shaft horsepower rating. Representative propulsion plant weights, including fuel, versus the plant shaft horsepower rating are shown in Fig. 11. This plot permits a proper comparison to be made between petroleum-fueled plants and nuclear plants; for the latter the weight of fuel is not significant. Propulsion plant weights have been greatly reduced over the years. This trend is expected to continue, particularly as regards nuclear plants, due to the relatively large amount i5f research and development expended on this type of plant. 5.6 Type of Fuel Required. Although solid and gaseous fuels (coal, uranium, and natural gas) play important roles in worldwide energy production, by far the greatest proportion of the fuel buined aboard ships is petroleum fuels. Virtually all petroleum fuels are obtained by fractionating or cracking crude oils obtained from the world's various oil wells. There is a wide spectrum of petroleum fuels from which a choice may be made; some of the more important alternatives are given in Table 2.
Table 2

Petroleum Distillates and Their Uses

CLA~SIFICATION Intermediate naphthas Kerosene COMMON UNRESTRICTED USES Aviation gasoline Motor gasoline Tractor fuel Gas turbine fuel Heating fuel Diesel fuel Not used as fuel Boiler fuel Refinery fuel

Medium Heav

Gas oil ~ubricatin~ oils Residual fuel oils Refinery sludges


I n general, oils with higher viscosity are less expensive; however, an additional major consideration js that higher viscosity fuels have greater concentrations of impurities and harmful constituents. The fuel oil selected should be determined on the basis of the lowest overall cost, taking into consideration factors such as initial costs, handling costs, and equipment maintenance costs which can be attributed to the fuel. Factors which must be borne in mind, relative to handling and equipment costs, when selecting a petroleum fuel are fuel constituents, type of metals which will be











2. 3. 4 5. 6. 7. B.



6. 7. 8. S. 10.



12 13 14. 15. 1s 17. 18 19. 21 20 22. 23.



a. a.

6. 7.




Fig. 6 Steam turbine powor pknt

Fig. 7 Low-speed diesel power plant

I I.

h. 9

Ggs turbine power plant

Fig. 8 Nuclear power plant

degradation being dependent upon the type of prime mover and its design parameters. It ia extremely important that fuel combustion technology be properly taken into account in any realistic appraisal of propulsion machinery life cycle costs and in the selection of an optimum fuel for a given set of circumstances. Much material has been published on economic oom~arisons ~uclearversus fossil fuels for shipboard of we. These studies are clouded by the fact that the nuclear technology is subject to strong governmental Influence. The Atomic Energy Commission closely controls the manufacturing of nuclear fuels in the United Btates rigid licensing procedures; however, there several private firms which are engaged in the production of nuclear fuels.

I n the case of very large-capacity central station plants, where the cost of transporting coal is quite important, nuclear fuel has appromhed economic parity with f w i l fuels. However, ship power plants generally fall into a small-capacity category as compared to central station plants; consequently, widespread application of nuclear power in merchant ships will probably await further 'advancements in nuclear reactor practice and technology. Nuolear power for large naval ships is advantageous in that it eliminates the requirement of frequent refuelings, thereby aueenting the shipPs military effectivenew Nuclear power b p&iCularly advantageous in the case of submarines and has pmvided them with new dimensions of operability, submerged endurance, and military effectiveness.





The efficiency of gas turbine cycles is highly dependent upon factors such as the turbine inlet temperatures, the amount of regenerative heating, the pressure ratios, and methods of staging and matching the characteristics of the various compressors and turbines used. These are discussed in Chapter 6.
Fractional Power and Transient Performance.


Fig. 12

All-purpose fuel consumption

201 I I I I 14 1 8 ' 2 2 26 50 34 38 42 SHP RATING OF PROPULSION PLANT (THOUSANDS)

Fig. 1 0 Specific weight of propulsion plants


Fig. 11

Weight of cargo ship propulsion machinery plus fuel for a 10,000mile voyage

is a multifaceted process which may greatly i

As indicated in the foregoing, the selection of a fuel n e e success of the ship. An analysis of life cycle costs which fails to take the maintenance factors and other various aspects of the fuel selection into proper consideration would not be expected to be meaningful. 5.7 Fuel Consumption. Differing types of propulsion plants have inherently different thermal efficiencies and specific fuel consumption rates. A heat balance is the fundamental tool used i n determining the fuel consumption associated with a power plant, and it is given a detailed treatment in Chapter 2 for a steam turbine propulsion plant. Heat cycles related to other types of prime movers are discussed, to the extent deemed appropriate for a text of this sort, in the chapter applicable to the type of prime mover under consideration. The fuel consumption chmacteristics of various types

of propulsion plants are expressed by Fig. 12, which illustrates the relationship between fuel consumption and size for the more usual propulsion plant alternatives. The fuel consumption indicated in Fig. 12 includes that required for the main propulsion plant, auxiliaries, and normal hotel loads; no allowance has been made for extraordinary service, such as the hotel load on passenger ships, cargo heating and tank cleaning on tankers, and cargo refrigeration. Figure 12 is not intended to be uaed as a substitute for detailed fuel consumption calculations; it is intended to illustrate only the general characteristics of the propulsion plant alternatives. Once the general type of propulsion plant has been tentatively selected, there are several design characteristics which may be selected to enhance the plant fuel consumption characteristics. For example, with regard to a steam turbine propulsion plant, regenerative feedwater heating using extraction steam or reheating of the steam in the boiler after a portion of expansion work has been extracted in the turbines typifies the methods by which the thermal efficiency of a steam cycle can be improved. In general, trade-off studies are required to determine the most appropriate steam cycle. Trade-off studies could consider such parameters as boiler superheater outlet pressure and temperature, condenser vacuum, main turbine efficiency, number of stages of regenerative feed heating, and selection of extraction points. In addition to the presentation made in Chapter 2, several excellent studies have been conducted and published which deal with the effect of cycle variations on machinery plant performance [51-571. These studies are useful in that they provide a sound basis upon which preliminary decisions can be made. Trade-off studies for the purpose of improving fuel economy should similarly be conducted with gas turbine or diesel propulsion plants. Cycles employing diesel engines tend to have higher thermal effioiencies than those employing steam turbines since the cycle works between greater temperature extremes; nevertheless, the overall efficiency of the total power plant can be improved by the use of waste-heat boilers or exhaust-gas turbines.

Except for short periods when leaving or coming into port, most merchant vessels operate a t or near full power. Occasionally, the operating schedules include periods a t reduced speed that may be long enough to require special consideration, but such lowering of speed rarely goes below that corresponding to about one-half power. The case of naval vessels is entirely different. They are designed for high speeds for use on those occasions when speed is of great importance. However, most of the operating life of a naval vessel is spent a t moderate speeds, roughly about 60 percent of the maximum speed. Such cruising speeds require only about 20 percent of the normal power for which the machinery is designed. Good economy a t these low speeds is as important as at maximum speed, because it determines the cruising range of the vessel during many operations. I n high-powered naval vessels, therefore, specid provisions are made for economy at low ppwers. These usually include specially designed turbines (with cruising stages or stage arrangements which can be operated in series a t low powers and in parallel a t high powers), and auxiliary arrangements which are especially designed for economical operation at low powers. I n some instances the service requirements of a ship impose severe demands upon the propulsion plant. For oxample, special-purpose vessels may be required to operate for extended periods of time in an economical aruising mode, whereas upon command they may be mquired to reach maximum power in a matter of seconds, A special propulsion plant such as the combined-dieseland-gas-turbine arrangement described in reference [58] may be required to satisfy demands of this severity. 6.9 Interrelations with Auxiliaries. A considerable number of auxiliaries are required to serve the main tngines and for cargo support, cargo handling, ship kbndling, hotel load, and the like. Since in most instances there is a choice in selecting the type of prime mover for the auxiliary equipment, interrelations between the auxiliary equipment and the main propulsion plant must be considered in order to ensure that the dvorall ship is designed in the most effective mqnner. Auxiliaries can in general be driven by either steam or dectric power; when the main engines are driven by rteam, it may be desirable to also drive equipment such Y generators, pumps, and windlasses by steam. In the @$so of diesel and gas turbine drives, where steam is not Os readily available, electrically driven auxiliaries may be more appropriate. A supply of steam for heating purposes is required on moat vessels; the quantity depends on the type of vessel ~ n the service for which it is intended. If the vessel is d

steam driven, the supply is easily taken from the main boilers. For diesel or gas turbine driven ships, a boiler or boilers will have to be provided for that purpose. One economical method of doing this is to utilize the hot exhaust gases from the main engines by passing them through a boiler specially designed for this purpose. Such a boiler may also be provided with an oil burner to make up the deficiency, if any, and to operate in port when the main engines are shut down. I n tankers, where a large steam capacity is required for heating the cargo and rather large quantities of hot water are required for cleaning the cargo tanks, the boilers for steam-driven tankers may be significantly increased for this additional load. If the main propulsion plant is driven by a diesel or gas turbine, one or two large boilers may be required especially for this purpose. As may be seen, interrelations between the main machinery plant and the auxiliary equipment can be an essential consideration in the selection of the main propulsion plant. 5.10 Reversing Capability. The provision of means for stopping and reversing a ship is closely lrelated to the type of prime mover selected. Propulsion plants that utilize reciprocating steam engines, diesel engines, or electric motors present no problem in providing reversing capabilities because such components are intrinsically reversible. Steam turbines and gas turbines, on the other hand, cannot be directly reversed and require special provisions. The common solution with steam turbines is to provide special rows of astern blading in the exhaust end of the turbine (in the low-pressure region); in order to reverse, steam is admitted to the astern blading rather than the ahead blading. The solution with gas turbines is not as simple. It is generally not the practice to provide astern blading in gas turbines; therefore special provisions such as electric drives, reversing reduction gears, or reversible-pitch propellers must be provided. In cases where maneuverability requirements are severe (e.g., dredging vessels, tugboats, vessels which frequently pass through locks), controllable and reversible-pitch propellers may be used in conjunction with other types of prime movers [591. 5.1 1 Operating Personnel. The number and caliber of the personnel required to operate a main propulsion plant may be of major importance. Even though other considerf~tions a particular propulsion plant may be of attractive, if difficulty is anticipated in obtaining suitable operating ~ersonnel, prudence may dictate that the plant be abandoned in deference to others. In the past, the general adoption of new types of machinery has been retarded as a consequence of this practical cogsideration. Over the years, fewer men have tended toward a seafaring life and as a result the total cost to man ships has risen sharply. An adequate number of highly trained men has not been available for ship manning and, as a result, propulsion plants have become increasingly more automated as a means of reducing the number of operating personnel required (see Chapter 21 for a





years, there yet remains a limit to the size of diesel engine which is considered feasible. On the other hand, the rating of the propulsion plant, as such, does not impose a practical restraint on the size of a steam turbine The ratings of propulsion machinery tend to be disCrete rather than continuous; consequently an additional rating limitation is imposed. As an example, gas turbine designs have been developed for a limited number of discrete ratings. I a gas turbine were desired with a f rating different from those available, the cost associated with the development of such a special design would be pn>hibitive; the same situation exists, although to a ,gomewhat lesser extent due to the larger number of ratings available, with the other types of propulsion plants. 5.13 Costs. The installed cost, which is one of the most important considerations in making trade-off studies, is also the most volatile- Pro~ulsionplant price levels are strongly influenced by factors such as material and labor costs, the similarity of a plant with those previously produced, and ~ a n u f ~ t u r e rexisting 's work backlog, and therefore are subject to fiuctuations which depend on the current status of the industryof Nevertheless, the relative costs of the various plants along with the general relatiomhip of plant size and cost are illustrated in Fig- 13- The data presented in Figs. 10, 11, and 13 were largely taken from references BY reviewing the factors enumerated in the foregoing which should be considered in selecting the type of marine propulsion plant, it may be noted that in every instance the fundamental issue is economics. There are three types of costs to be considered: initial (e.g., installed costs), recurring costs (e.g.9 fuel consumption), and contingency costs (e-g-,most aspects of B~ using a technique such as the present-value concept, the C O S ~ Sto be incurred in the future can be their present value So that all of the costs associated with the various design alternatives can be totaled and compared, in light of their contingencies, in arriving at the most advantageous alternative [62].

fig. 13 Relative imtalled cork of propulsion plank

J j c u ~ i o n of automation and controls). This is an effective means of reducing operating costs and is expe&d to continue. It should however be noted that automated ships will generally require more highly skilled operati~gpersonnel. This, in part, offsets the advantage of fewer personnel. turbine It is often said that the operation of machinery requires less engineeriog or mechanical skill than that required in connection with diesel engin% exceptto the extentthat This ie not entirely board maintenance of the main engine is carried outby to a shipboard personnel on diesel turbine &ips. The shorthigher degree than on treliability of steam turbines is usually considered and the turbine to be slightly better than diesel for short periods, that is, plant can sustain more maintenancesteamturbines can be postponed for of short perioda in many instances. Diesel engines cannot be neglected without serious effects, and, flexibility of maintenance policies is not recommended for any typeof power plant, it is possibly less cmcial on the steam plant than the diesel. 5-12 Rating Lim;+dions. There are practical limits the power ranges in which the various which For example, typesof pmpu~sionplants are f-ible. which have been even though the rating of diesel has continued to increase over the installed

1% 611.

Setti011 6 Pnliminary Design Considerations

6.1 Introduction. Before the naval architect can firmly establish the dimensions, form, and charactervalues for the machinery space and istics of a weight, requirements, fuel consumption, and other engineehg quantities must be available to him. However, these quantities are dependent upon the vessel dimensions and form. I n order that the analysis may pmceed, tentative values must be selected initially and subsequently refined as the analysis progresses. Esti-

mates based on sophisticated procedures are warranted during the fomulative ~ h m e of a design s because the rapidly changing characteMcs of the supporting data are not commensurate with the accuracy of the calculation; overall methods of comparison which may involve the use of results from previous parametric studies or systematic ft3milies figuration are adequate and are more Preliminary design procedures differ so

one design organization to another that no routine pro- increase in initial pressure to increase the thermal codure can be described for this process. However, cycle efficiency 1 percent; or a 40 deg F increase in Home guides regarding specific methods of establishing temperature will have the same effect. Chapter 2 tho engineering features of a ship can be reviewed. But contains a detailed treatment of thermodynamics and it) order to proceed with s, typical example of further heat engineering considerations. dcsign selection steps, it becomes necessary to make It may be noted that the heat balance calculation is noveral presumptions. First, it is assumed that an well adapted to electronic computer calculation, permitoverall study similar to those described in Sections 2 ting parametric studies to be readily made. However, ~ m d has been used to establish the payload and s u 5 in providing component data to the computer, care must 3 tained sea speed required of the vessel or vessels. be taken that it is reliable and accurate as the results will Second, it is assumed that the shaft horsepower required be no better than the data entered. The effect of the of the main propulsion plant has been established as following design variables on the thermal cycle efficiency, outlined in section 4. Lastly, main propulsion plant tempered by practical considerations, would normally trade-off studies, as described in Section 5, are con- be investigated at this point: nidered to have been conducted and, for the purpose of Boiler superheater outlet pressure and temperature this section, that a rather conventional cross-compound Condenser vacuum eared steam turbine propulsion plant has been identified Number of stages of regenerative feed heating and ILN the most advantageous type for the particular vessel best extraction points r~tld service under consideration. Steam reheating in boiler Like other complicated engineering systems, much of a Main turbine efficiency nhip design is patterned after previous successful Turbogenerator efficiency (condensing versus practice. Ordinarily, pertinent plans of other ships, noncondensing) Nome perhaps rather similar to the one under consideraExhaust heat recovery from boiler stack gases Oio11,would be available. Also, essential data relating to Motor-driven versus steam-driven feed pumps Illlosevessels and important particulars of the machinery and auxiliaries ad auxiliaries, their characteristics, and their ratings Utilization of and balancing out of excess auxiliary would normally be available. I this information is f exhaust steam properly compiled, it is often possible to make useful Desuperheated steam service requirements Arnt approximations without detailed study and thus Distillers, steam-air heaters, etc. reduce the range and number of variables that must be &on detailed study-to optimize a ship design. Of the foregoing design variables, the largest direct some of the more salient considerations in establishing gain in efficiency will come from increasing the boiler tho design of an engineering plant for a ship, in addition superheater outlet temperature and the boiler to the main propulsion plant trade-off studies described There are, however, several factors which cannot be 111 Roction 5, are reviewed in the following paragraphs. ignored; boiler design pressure must be increased in 6.2 Propulsion Plant Steam Cycle. The propulsion proper proportion with the temperature in order to plr~uthas been established to be of the steam turbine ensure that the turbine condition line does not lead to typo; however, the precise steam conditions and cycle excessive moisture in the exhaust end of the low~rrbngementwould warrant yet another review. The pressure turbine as an erosion problem could otherwise he~t balance calculation is the basic analysis tool for result. Furthermore, inerewing the boiler delurmining the effect of various steam cycles on the outlet temperature and the boiler efficiency beyond tharmal efficiency of the plant. Standard practices certain limits both lead to costly increases in either the atrd allowances which are recommended in the prepara- boiler design or its mainhnance, or both, which must be l ~ n l rof heat balances have been promulgated by the taken into account. When burning Bunker C residual ~ l l l p '~~a c h i n e r yCommittee of the Society and are fuel oil, eutectic combinations of oxides of vanadium, available in ~ e c h n i c a l k Research Publication No. 3-1 1. sodium, and potassium can c a w slaggng and accelerated 111 tho absence of specSc component efficiencies and erosion of tubing at relatively low metal surface temurvioing allowances during preliminary design, the peratures. Thus if low-grade residual fuel is to be used, r@UXIlmendations this publication are most helpful. of it must either be treated aboard ship, or the boiler must Many excellent parametric studies have been con- be specially designed to limit the metallic wall tempersduotml by various design agencies and several have been tures of the superheater tubes and supports; additionally, ~ublinhed[51, 52, 531 which cover the effect of steam the boiler should be designed for ready acceas into the @~adltions cycle variations on machinery plant per- superheater for mechanical de-slagging, cleaning, and and f@lmalce. These may be used as a guide during initial tube replacement. *l@otion and thus minimize the amount of detailed work Another factor which should give rise a cautious ah& must be carried out later during the more refined approach in moving to higher design initial pressures @@WO the design- Fmm parametric studies of this and temperatures is the increasing cost and difficulty in Rnl'tt ollc can derive some useful yardsticks for design assuring the safety and longevity of steam piping, n@lailiOn, such as, for example, that it takes an 85-psig joints, valves, fittings, manifolds, and pressure bound-








desisns vary widely depending upon the type of cargo handled [6&75]; however, some of the more common types are as follows: Winching system, burtoning or swinging booms for dry cargo, i-e., break-bulk cargo or palletized cargo systems Cargo crane systems, either shipboard or onehore ~ u l cargo systems, such as self-unloadem k utilizing either standardized Container containers which lift On/& or standard truck trailers which roll on/off B~~~~ systems, utilizing hrges which either lift on/off or float on/off ~ i ~ ~ i tankering systems, utilizing cargo d piping, pumps, and so forth Barge raftlngsystems, ut&ing pushboats or

. .

certain limik), radar su~eillance and warning collision hazards (also within cedain limits), data monitoring and recording of principal voyage data, weather reporting, sounding, and fire detection. Some of the facets of navigation which do not appear to be readily adaptable to automation are: docking and undocking; piloting in nanow channels) harbors, Or , territorial waters where local knowledge is emntial; planning and laying-out of best course and speed, taking into account all potential factors; decisions on slowing Or proceeding with due caution in poor visibility ;maneuvering to prevent collision, determination of safe sea speed, determination of best fix from position fixes, and judgment as to when to post lookouts in foul weatherEngine room control stations appear perfectly feasible to permit the handling of even complex plants by a single licensed officer. The gas turbine and the diesel engine appear particulady well adapted to automation becsuse of the Simplicity of their control- However, even the steamship with its more complicated plant has been automated to a surprbing degree and developments (see Chapter 21). in this direction continue to be 6.18 Dynamic Effecfso Dynamic effects, principally mechanical vibration but also noise and shock resistance, must be an integral aspect of the preliminary design process as the dynamic cha~acteristics the ship and the of dynamic requirements for equipment am largely established during the preliminary design stages* The objective is to develop the design so that the desired dynamic Characteristicscan be achieved in an effective manner. Reafisticall~ conceived requirements with regard to dynamic effects require careful and adequate planning during the preliminary design stages in that they may be met without excessive dimculty or undue expense. especially important insofar as Vibration analyses the design of the pmpulsion shafting system is concerned, and particularly its relationship to the excitation forces resulting from the propeller operating in a nonuniform wake. Propeller exciting forces are diicussed in detail in reference 1761 and main propulsion shafting systems in Chapter 11 of this text. As may be noted in the latter, the main propulsion shafting can vibrate in longitudinal, torsional) and lateral modes. Each mode of vibration must be dealt with during the early stages of design. Modes of vibration of the ship's hull as a whole (i.e., as a free-free beam) are discussed in reference 1771. T h m may be vertical, horizontal, torsional, or longtudinal and may occur separately or, in rare case*, coupled. The calculation and re diction of the hull vibration modes is quite complex since the hull girder is far from a Simple homogeneous beam. Hull vibration of this type, may be excited by s~nchronirationwith periodic harmonics of the ~ r o ~ e l l forces acting either er through the shafting, by the ~mpeller force field interl acting with the hull afterbody, or both. ~ u lvibration may also be set up by unbalanced harmonic forces from the main machinery, and in some cases by impact wave encounter. excitation from slamming or ~eriodic


listof Machinery for


24,000~~h,, cargo

'r'ho(+(Lsteam condition
( !otldnnmr vacuum

Mg~lltlllm rated power

One set, cross compound, with astern element located in exh u t end of low-pressure turbine casing 24,000 at 105 rpm 850 28.5 in. H 925 F g 8t maximum rated power

ITEM Line Shaft Beanng8


Re laceable shell, ring oiled

21& In. 32% in.

Length Materid Stem Tube Bean'ng Type Length

Caet atex?] pedestal, cover and Oil lubricated 27 in. forward bearing 54 in. aft bearing Ductile iron and babbitt

The relative of the in selecting the types of cargo handlhg gear, such as the winch desip aeociated with different rigging schemes, hydrau]$ally operated hatch covers, special types of cranes, elevators, conveyors, and cargo pumping systems, should be given a rigorous analysis during the preliminary desisn shge. Close cooperation between the naval archit& and the marine engineer is essential in such and power requirements analyees. The space, be estimated very early in the design of a ship as they may have an important impact on the deck arrangement, the size of the electrical generating plant, and indeed the configuration of the vessel itself. Ca%o refrigeration, cargo hesting, ballasting requiremenh related to cargo handling, buttemorthing, etc., are all imporbnt servke load factors which may result in peak loads not only on the electrical generating plant, but also on the main machinery plant. They must then be included in the design heat balances and electric load anslyses from the emliest stage of the design selection process. For a detailed discu$sion of dry, bulk, and liquid cargo handling systems, see Chapter 16. 6.17 Autorntion rnnd Mechanization. Automation and rnechaoieation of shipboard processes are important means of improving the efficiency of ship operation. These are subjects that are particularly well suited to system engineering analyses in that the cost of developmerit, manufacture, installation, and maintenance of such mechanized or automated equipment is readily compared to the cost of hand labor. However, close sight must be kept on the degree of reliability of autornation where it involves the safety and security of the vessel; furthemore, the training and adjustment of maritime labor to new conditions of operation must be rnnsidered in addition to simple engineering feasibility. There is potential for reducing the burden of bridge duty and reducing the number of operating personnel required for the saf. navigation of the ship by the intraduction of rnonitonng and control devices in a bridge coneole. Some of the facets of navigation which are adaptable to automation and semi-automation are: course steering, dead reckoning, position-fixing (within

Vertical, walk-in, five pas4 convection with automatic superheat control by desuperheater Coil in steam drum
Superheat Control De.guper& Descr~pt~on Coil in steam drum, steam Burnera after third superheater pms Number her boiler 3 Type Wide range ateam atomking

20,000 Ib/hr from 875 p i g , 930 F t 775 psig, 575 F o

345,000lb at 24,000 shp and 105

Aft of low-speed gear cssing

2 4 f t 11Xin. Solid forged steel, ABS Gr. 2

27% in.

Air quantity, cfm Air temp in-out, deg F Stm Pr=.-temp, pslgdeg F Air press, drop, in. H ~ O


23,500 0.6


29,400 100-275





Table 3 (continued)



~ l ~ ~ t ~ - m e c h adeckdmounted ni , 50 hp, 650 rpm, 230 volt d-c

20-ton cargo hoist 1 ~ t o cargo hoist n

14,500 lb at 105 fpm 18,000 lb at 85 fpm 8,800 lb at 185 fpm 14,200 lb at 116 fpm 8,800 lti at 85 fpm 1250 ft of 76 in. wire rope 800 f t of M in. wire rope


Drum storwe

Section 7 Specifications




Section 8 Final Design and Working Plans


Lifesaving Equip-

65 . Air Conditioningand



of contracts for ordinary merchant vessels where the plans must be developed in a short time. Where oOmposite Plans are not made, the elimination of

interferences and the treatment of wstems in accordance with their relative importance must be accomplished by the cooperation of the various design groups iivolved.

Section 9
The design and construction of a ship is culminated by Sea trials are conducted as a means of demonstrating broad array of tests which demonstrate that the ship is the adequacy and perfomance of those aspects a ship of in accordance with contract requirements. At the lower which cannot be realistically tested at dockside. sea the test spectrum are those of a q ~ a l i @ - C ~ n t r ~ l trials are bmadly classified into twogroups; namely, "ature which are conducted to ensure conformance of machinery trials and maneuvering trials. ~h~ former lnaterial properties to specified requirements, soundness deals with the mechanical and economical performance of cmtings, dimensional accuracy, and the like. Tests of the boders, the proeelling machinery and their nuch these are not Peculiar to marine equipment and auxiliaries, and tests of evapowtors and distillers, Ihu standard quality-control Practices of the manu- together with the anchor and steeringgear and Iaaturer Or are generally relied upon to other equipment which cannot be tested uader actual nrluure the adequacy of equipment in this regard. conditions at the dock. The latter involves calibration Shop and installation tests include those tests which of navigating equipment, the of the n o m a l l ~conducted in the shop after assembly or in ship, and the speed-power characteristics of the ship. tho ~esselat dockside after the installation of the Tests typically conducted during sea trials are as equipment or system to be tested is substantially follows: aamplete. These tests are conducted to prove correct Calibration of navigating equipment rflnombly and proper installation and to demonstrate Speed-power-rpm standardization tests that control and safety devices are functional and properly adjusted. References [81, 821 contain general Economy power teats Full-power endurance tests guidelines which may be used in connection with shop Ahead steej n g tests ihd installation tests for merchant ships; similar, Quick reversal astern and head reach although generally more exhaustive, test requirements Astern endurance tests I0r naval ships are invoked in the specifications prepared Astern steering tests for eech particular ship. Quick reversal ahead and stern reach Anchor windlass tests
which strength is a major concern. 8.8 Electric Plant. The procedure for the final '*lo COnektion Of Detail pian'' The design of the electrical installation roughly parallels that A careful review is made of of a ship are made by a large number of for the other working simultaneously in several drafting departmentsthe probable electrical loads and the selected number The administration and practice of the dr*ting organizaand rating of ship,s service generators and emergency tion must aim at complete elimination of physical generators. Vendors, pmposals are obtained and r e interferences between various parts and at a design in viewed for correlation with the general design. which each element is treated in acc~rdancewith its The airing plans for power, lighting, and interior relativeimportance. W r e x a m ~ l e , a P o o r l e ~ o f v e n t ~ ~ ~ commu~cations mnsist of single line diapams and tion duct 4ould not be accepted merely because a deck arrangement plans. The single line diagrams in elementary form, the electrical interconnection perfect lead for a freshwater line or an electric cable is of the various parts of each system. The diagrams desired' sections of the of the cables and c o n d u c t o ~ It is Customary to make, for show the approximate machinery spaces, composite layouts showing everyalong the ship and through the decks. The deck arrangements show the wiring on each deck and the thing in those Spaces; i.e., structure, machinery, These may be to a correct location of all appliances, fixtures and fittings, Piping, ventilation, and scale larger than the ~ s u aarrangement plans; and l develop including radio and navigation equipment. possible interferences' ing these wiring plans, consideration is given to carrying "lVe to Or other large Occasionally, in the case of capacities and voltage drops, directness and simplicity of leads, protection, support, and accessibility. important vessels, such composite layouts are made cf 8.9 null Machinew. The marine engineer is usually practically all machinery spaces This procedure is, concerned with the deck machinery and other mechanical however, slow and costly and cannot be afforded in the





An Anal~si* Naval Engineers Journal, ' 64 D. M. Mack-Florist and R. H~~~~~~~ Economio dlAn February 1965. Feasibility Study of U n i w States Bulk Carriers, 49 A' J' Ruffini~ standard Navy Maintenance Marine Technology,vol. 3, no. 2, ~ ~ r i l 1966, and Management system (3-M System),JJ 65 W. j Dormm, 'dcombimtion Bulk . ,, Bureau Of ships Association of senior Engineers, March Marine Technology,vo~. no. 4, October 1966. 3, 66 A. in Feck and J. 0. and Bulk Carriers, 50 A. Goldman and T. B. Slattery, Maintainability: pumping W. M~~~~ TankemSommerhalder, 'Cargo,, A Majw o SYskm Efectiveness, John Wiley & ~ f ~ T r ~ i 4, no. July, 1967. ~~ ~ ~ ~ Sons, New York, 1964. 67 Leslie A. Harlander, "Further Developmenh of a 51 W' Giblon and Cheater W' "Effect Trans. ~ ~ Of Conditions and Cycle Arrangement on Marine container System for the West Coast-Hawaiian T 1961. Power-P1ant Performance as ~etermined the Elecby 68 James J. Henry and Henry J. Kamch, ,,Container tronic Computer," Trans. SNAME, 1961. 52 H- M. Cheng and C. E. Dart, "Cycle and Ships, " Trans. SNAME, 1966, 69 5'. G- EbelJ "An Analysis of Shipboard cargo Economic Studies for a 25,000-Maximum-S~p Steam Power Plant for Singlescrew Tanker InstsllationJ Cranes, " Trans. SNAME, 1958. Trans. SNAME, 1958. 70 E. Scott Dillon, Francis G. Ebel, and Andrew R. 53 M. L. Ireland, Jr., H. W. &marJ and N. L. Goobeck, "Ship Design for Improved Cargo Handling, Trans. SNAMEJ 1962. Mochel, "Higher Steam Conditions for ShipsJ 0hiner3'JJJ paper presented to the International Con71 John F. Meissner, "World Development and foreace of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 1951. Movement of Iron Ore, Trans. SNAME, 1962. 54 W. L. Coventry, "Fundamentah of Steam 72 -Harry Benfod, Kent C. Thorntan, and E. B. Turbine The-odynami~s,' Trans. Institute o Ma* f Williams, "Current Trends in the Design of rron-ore Bngineers, 1962. Ships, " Trans. SNAME, 1962.

Trans. SNAME, 1965.







J. B. Woodwad, III

Review of Fundamentals
1.1 Basic Equations. The applied thermodynamics problems of marine engineering depend on the conserve tion of mass and the conservation of energy. The first of these is conveniently expressed by the sional steady-flow continuity equation


+ 9+


h t i i wt1,2 - 1
Enemy equation as applied la a single-stage turbine

(11) Units are psi for p, cu ft/lb for v, and Btu/lb for h. These equations are for use only in the vicinity of normal turbine state h e s , and not for use at high superheat with low Pressure, with very wet steam, or in the reheat region. In boiler design work, the sensible heat, and specific heat of the flue gas must be known. These are presented in Figs. 2 and 3 for a standard grade 6 or residual fuel oil of the composition (by weight) tabulated below when burned in air with a 40 percent relative humidity at a temperature of 100 F. Carbon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrogen. . . . . . . . . . . sulfllr... . . . . . . . . . . . . Oxygen. . . . . . . . . . . . . Nitrogen ... . . .. . . .. . Free moisture. . . . . . . . 0.8775 0.1050 0.0120 0.0040 0.0015

p0.07v= 0.467 (h - 366) p ~ . ~= constant s


Typical applications of the general energy equation occur where the working floid is being heated without work being done (a heat exchanger), where work is being done under adihbatic conditions (turbi~le wheel), W = AC/v ('1 or +here mechanical energy is being degraded under adiabatic conditions and without work being done (flow against friction). The equations that apply in tbese situations are esaily found by eliminating the inapproA = flow area, sq ft priate terms from equation (4). An application is C = flow velocity, fps illustrated by Fig. 1. v = specific volume of the fluid, cu ft/lb Evaluation of the general energy equation usually W s flow rate, lb/sec requires assistance from other equations. The conThe second is conveniently expressed for the usual shady tinuity equation is one. Equations of state for the one-dimensional situationby the general energy equation fluid involved are also frequently needed. The simplest form is the familiar perfect gas equation

Charts PI, must be used. An alternative, particularly adaptable to turbine design work when calculations are 1.0000 made by Computer, is to use the equhons from which Other properties of flue w, such as its viacasity and these tabulations are made. thermal conductivity, are also needed, and are given in Special relations for steam that are useful in nozzle Fig. 4. values for steamand air can be found in the design are the equation of state Steam Tables [ll and Gas Tables [2], respectively. pv = 1.222 (h - 823)' 1.2 Heat Transfer. An investigation of the & * (') term in equations (2) or (4) entails a consideration of the and the equation for isentropic expansion principles of heat transfer. The transfer takes place by molecular diffusion between bodies in contact, or by pl.s = constant electromagnetic radiation between separated bodies. The following two are the corresponding relations for Diffusion between solids is c d e d men one the wet region or both of the bodies are fluids, conduction is nearly

T = absolute temperature, deg R R = a constant characteristic of a particular gsa

P = pressure, psf J = mechanical equivalent of heat = 778 ft-lb/Btu g = gravitational constant = 32.17 ft/sec2 z = height above an arbitrary datum, ft Q = heat transferred, Btu/lb W r = external work done, Btu/lb
Typical values of R are 53.34 for dry air; 53.5 for wet air (40 percent humidity, 100 F); and 50.3 for flue gm (15 percent excess wet air and standard fuel oil)For perfect gases, the following state relations also hold :

I Numbem

in brackete designate References at end of ckpter.

Re. 2 Selulbk heat of gases


where the subscripts o and i designate the outside and inside surfaces of the tube. Heat transfer problems frequently involve conduction through successive layers of distinctly different conductivity. Formulas for this type of problem are readily derived, as are formulas for the transfer of heat through cylindric composite walls. b. Convection. The convective heat transfer between a fluid at a largely constant bulk tempe~atu~eB T and a surface at temperature T is expressed by

Q = h j # ( T ~ Ts) -


property of the material conducting the heat. It is generally a function of temperature, particularly for liquids snd gases, but the effect of temperature is sufficiently weak that conductivity can be treated as a constant in most problems. Fourier's Law can be expressed for one-dimensional problem as

where hj is the film coeficient of convective heat transfer. major practical problem in applying equation (16) in the evaluation of the fdm coefficient for the several distinct mechanisms of flow and thermal behavior possible in the fluid. Single-phase convection occurs when the fluid involved uoither boils nor condenses at the solid surface. Familiar axamples abound aboard ship; for instance the water side of condenser tubes, both sides of the tubes in liquid-toliquid heat exchangers such as lube oil coolers, and the gtM side of convective heating surface in boilers are typical locations where this mechanism is prominent. Tho value of h, is generally a function of fluid properties, of the fluid' velocity, and of its degree of turbulence. Under conditions existing in a typical condenser tube, far example, the value of h is likely to be in the neighborhood of 1000 Btu/hr-sq ft-deg F, while on the gas side of r boiler tube, the value of h j can be 10 Btu/hrmsq ft-

either dropwise or film condensation. The names are quite descriptive of the processes. The rate of heat transfer is much higher for dropwise condensation, and is comparable to that for nucleate boiling, since the drops quickly fall off as they form and thereby expose the surface to more vapor. In film condensation, the condensed film tends to cling evenly to the surface, and so forms a barrier between the surface and the vapor. C. Radiation. All matter emits radiation of one or more kinds. The thermal radiation of practical concern requires only that the matter be at a temperature above absolute zero, and so is characteristic of all bodies. Thp radiation is electromagnetic, and at industrial temperatures lies within the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum; but the wavelength is a function of temperature, and at higher temperatures it falls within the range of visible light. The radiation is not, however, monochromatic. A curve of its intensity, IA, against wavelength, A, shows a considerable spread with a peak intensity at a wavelength that is a function of temperature. The total energy emitted is thus the integral of IA over all wavelengths. For a black-body radiator, i.e., one that emits at the maximum intensity at all wavelengths, the integration produces the Stefan-Boltzmann relation (17) for T in degrees Rankine and Eb in Btu/sq ft-hr. But actual bodies are not black-body radiators, and their degree of imperfection must be accounted for by equation (I7) becomes

tho situation is described aa forced convection. When

= conductivity, Btu-ft/hr-sq ft-deg F'

= conducting area, sq f t

density differencescaused by expansion or contraction of the fluid near the surface are the principal source of the driving force, the situation is described as natu~al con-

= 1730.


Bodies for which this equation holds are said to be g ~ e g


k is constant, this equation can be integrated for a slab of thickness x, having a temperature difference between faces of TI - Tal to obtain

If the conducting body is circular, as when heat is transferred through tube walls, equation (12)is modified

always -ly modified by the transport of heat by where r is the radius dimension, and fluid in motion; this phenomenon called convection. tube. Integration of equation a. Conduction. Conduction follows Fourier's Law1 which states that heat is diffused at a rate proportional to the temperature gradient; the factor of proportiond t y is known the the~malconductwity, and is a

is the length of the



-1 1-



I n, heat exchange by radiation occurs between bodies of different temperatures and different emissivities. The situation is complex because the geometrical arrangements and sizes of the bodies are significant. For an elementary case of two parallel infinite planes, and of respective temperatures and emissivities Ti, 1, T2, e2, the net energy exchange rate is




For a sphere or cylinder, enclosing a smaller sphere or cylinder, the equation is

Fig. 5 Simple counterflow and parallel-flow heat exchangers

to the heat that it receives or rejects. If the fluids on both the hot and cold sides of the heat exchanger undergo a change of state, their respective temperatures are constant, and equation (21) applies without change if S is understood to mean the 'total heat transfer area. On the other hand, if there are temperature changes, the temperature difference in equation (21) is not constant throughout the heat exchanger, and in consequence this equation must be integrated for application to the entire apparatus. The case where there is no change of state is illustrated by a simple concentric-pipe heat exchanger, Fig. 5, in which the two fluids flow either in the same direction (parallel flow) or in opposite directions (counterflow). The temperatures of the two fluids are plotted as a function of position for both exchangers. Such a temperature differenceintegrated over the length of the heat exchanger produces a mean temperature difference;because of its logarithmic term it is familiarly known as the log mean temperature difference. I n the

general case, the log mean temperature difference can be written as AT,


- ATmin A, T log. ATmin


Equation (23) is the general expression for AT, for both simple counterflow and parallel-flow exchangers. I n condensers, boilers, and feed heaters, to list several prominent examples, where a change of 'state rather than a temperature change occurs on one side of the tube wall, a derivation of the log mean temperature difference again produces equation (23). If the heat exchanger is multipass, equation (23) must be modified (see Section 2.1 of Chapter 14). I n any case, equation (21)) when applied to the heat exchanger as a whole, is written as

9 = USAT,


contributions will be additive. Thus, starting at the I n boiler tube banks where the heat transfer fluid is a radiating gas, heat transfer simultaneously Occurs by both radiation and convection. Under these conditions (n order for the two heat transfer coefficients to be i directly additive) it is often convenient to express the radiation heat transfer in the form of the artificial heat transfer coefficient

Section 2 Heat Transfer in Boilers

where hrl, hj2 = convective surface coefficients at tube out-

where the subscript G refers to the radiating gas and 8 refers to the tube surface (see Subsection 2.3 for further discussion on this subject). d. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient. The typical occurrence of heat transfer in power plant apparatus is cold fluid through an inter- Addition eliminates intermediate temperatures, do-g between a hot fluid and a vening tube wall. Convection and radiation are in- assessment of U as volved at the inner and outer surfaces, and conduction is involved within the tube metal. The rate of heat flow is summarized succinctly by $ = US(T - t) (21) BYa similar pmoess, U can be written for any number of layers. The practical pmcess of heat exchanger design is where T and t are the bulk temperatures of the two fluids, S is the surface area, and U is the ooerd heat transfer often aided by ern~irioalformulas for U which $ve coefident. U is the net effect of the conduction, con- results of suffcient accuracy for industrial purposes. vection, and radiation contributions. To illustrate the They are usually ~ r o m u l ~ a t e d man~fa~turer's by associations to standardize methods of ~ a l ~ u l a & and ~1 makeup of U, consider the transfer of heat from a hot clean tube to a second fluid inside the tube. are found in publications such as references [Bland [71. gss outside As a preliminary, note that the artificial radiation e. Log Mean Temperame Difference. The fluid coefficient ic, of the same dimensions as the convection flowing through a heat. exchanger undergoes either a coefficient hj, is used so that the radiation and convection change in temperature or a change in state in response

T,, ti = metal temperatures at tube outside and inside surfaces respectively k = conductivity of the tube wall X, = equivalent thickness for the circular tube

2.1 Types of Heat Transfer in Boilers. A boiler may be divided functionally into four parts: first, a ~~~OSCFEFA USw(T8 - Tc) chemical reaction chamber where the chemical heat of LHV q~ (to - to)CpR fuel combustion k released and the reaction controlled; = WF(R 1) 1 R second, a steam generating section where heat is transferred to the tubes by radiation, convection, and con(25) duction; th,ird, a superheater, where the steam is super- where heated to the desired degree; and fourth, a heat recovery U = convection heat transfer coefficient section, employing air heaters and/or econombers T c = furnice surface temperature where some of the remaining heat in the flue gas is exTB = furnace exit temperature T F = effective flame radiating temperature S w = convection surface area

[(&)( (&)I + + [ + + +

where an overall U is estimated and an exit temperature from each bank of tubes is calcdated. The designer must h t estimate the performance of the furnace and
2-2 Heat Tmnsfqr in Boiler Furnaces. Furnace heat transfer is principally radiation, and it is possible to b p t the basic methods of Hottel in reference [5] to evaluate a tohl emissivity in terms of furnace conditions. The problem consists of equating the heat given up by the omb bust ion gases to the heat transferred by radiaflon and convection to the f b a c e surfaces. The

Q T = ~

q F = sensible heat of fuel above to sensible heat of gas above to C, = average specific heat of combustion air R = air-fuel ratio FA= arrangement factor FE= emissivity factor

The heat given up by the gas is evduated by ordinary s t o i c ~ i o m e t ~ c means and the use of a set of sensible heat cumes (fig. 2). The shape emissivity factor, FEFA, been treated has by Hottel, and if the flame fills the furnace, it has been demonstrated that




FLAME EMISSIVITY, EF Fig. 6 Shape emiuivity factor versus Aame emiuivify fw various valuer of cooled surface to cooled surface plus refractory surface ratio (Sc/Srl

by the chemical breakdown of the fuel to basic constituents. The flame mass then consists of a cloud of flaming fuel, carbon, some ash particles, and molecules of carbon dioxide, water vapor, sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen. Of these constituents, the fuel, carbon, and ash particles and the carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sulfur dioxide molecules radiate. The gas molecules radiate only in certain wavelengths, that &, they are not l grey. The solid particles radiate in a l wavelengths. These radiations are superimposed upon each other, resulting in an overall radiation which is essentiay grey in character, and the resulting emissivity is independent of temperatufe. Combustion of oil is not instanta~eous,especially when residual oils are fired. The oil droplet first ignites, then burns and breaks down into carbon and hydrogen. The carbon appears aa minute flecks. These small particles make up most of the radiation. Their concentration is a function of burning time, and of the rate of flow of the gases through'the furnace. An expression derived for cp by applying probability theory is


0 2


1 0

1 2

1 4

1 8






Fig. 8 Wectiveneo factors f a water walls bared on m 1projected arm a

Fig. 7 Furnace concentration factor

(26) where

= emissivity of a cloud of i n f i ~ t ethickness,

assumed to be 0.95

P = furnam pressure, atmospheres L = mean radiating path length; for ordinary marine furnaces, L = 0 . 6 m
furnace volume, cu f t an empirical concentration factor, a function of a time parameter W p/PpVp qith WP representing the pounds of fuel burned per hour. Wp/P;Vp is a crude measure of article life but better data on the flame path is lacking. The concentration factor, K, is evaluated from test results on various boilers and plotted against the firing density WP/PPVF, as on Fig. 7. This plot was call culated from the test results on five different boilers, al burning residual fuels. The curve shown represents an average of the test results with 10 to 20 percent excess air. It is necessary dso to consider the question of effective cooled surface. A water wall consisting of tangent tubes may be treated as a surface having an area equal f to the projected area of the surface. I the tubes are widely spaced, exposing the refractory surface behind the tubes, the simple projected area of the tubes is not sufficient since the refractory receives some of the direct radiation from the surface and returns only a portion of this heat to the furnace; the remainder goes to the tubes. The effective radiant heat absorbing surface (RHAS) may be calculated by multiplying the projected area of the walls, including backing refractory, by an arrangement factor from Fig. 8, for each area making up the furnace envelope.

Solution of equation (25) is best accomplished by trial-and-error methods by brealdog up the equation into three simultaneous equations, as follows:

(ta t*)CpR In equation (33), the term LHV.+ q~ a t 1 is the total sensible heat released to the furnace per pound of combustion products and may be replaced by qpA, the adiabatic sensible heat. q ~ may be read , from Fig. 2 at any assumed vdue of T g . With these simplifications, equation (33) reduces to

+ -

ec = emissivity of the heat absorbing surface
e p = flame emissivity

+ U%(TB

- Tc)


S B = refractory surface area S c = cooled surface area F R C= a geometric factor, dependent on the extent of cooled surface

An ?ppmximation of FRCto a reasonable degree of accuracy is SR when 0 < -- < 0.5 (28) FRC = g Sc

The solution may then be achieved by assuming vdues of T B and plotting solutions for equations (35) and (36). The point of intersection of the two equations is the solution. T A may be evaluated by cdculating the adiabatic ~ sensible heat


where ST = S R SC Faired intermediate values may be taken between the two sets of limits quoted, as illustrated by Fig. 6. The radiating temperature T p may be approximated by T p= ( T A ' T E ) ~ ~ ~ (30) where TA' = adiabatic flame temperature with 100 percent theoretical air. Evaluation of the flame total emissivity presents a complex problem. The flame cloud consists of droplets of fuel from the burner nosde which in turn are reduced to smaller fragments by various air and gas currents and

The term U s w ( T E - T c ) in aquation (32) is Sc generally negligible except for rear waIl impingement s effects. It i convenient to drop the term at this point and correct for the effect later. For most marine boilers the temperature of the radiant heat absorbing surface (RHAs~is close to 1000 R (540 F ) , so the term Tc/1000 is approximately unity. Since the value of Tp/1000 is between 3 and 4, the relative value of ( T ~ / 1 0 0 0is ~so much higher than 1 that the term ) Tc/1000 can be taken as equal to 1 with little error. Further noting that T P = (TA.TE)112, equation (32) becomes

then Tnf may be read from Fig. 2. Usually, the convective term in equation (25) is negligible; but when a rear wall ie fitted, especially in a shallow furnace, the convection effect of the flame blasting against the rear wdl may be significant. An equation for the surface heat transfer coefficient WRW, based on the actual surface exposed to the gas, is

= Prandtl number k GD - = Reynolds number




invariably inside the tubes, with some type of extended surface outside. There is a large variety of extendedsurface types, ranging from cast iron fins shrunk on steel tubes, to stud fins, aluminum fins, and spiralwelded steel fins. Such elements are proprietary in nature and performancedata must be obtained from their

manufacturers. ExtendedeUrface perfomance data are usually acquired by tests of the particular geometric design. See Subsection 3.12 of Chapter 3 for an example calculation which illustrates the considerations involved in designing boiler heating surfaces.

Section 3 internal Thern~odyna~nics the Steam Turbine of

3.1 Nozzle Flow. A nozzle is a short flow passage of converging or converging-diverging flow area whose function is to convert thermal or pressure energy into kinetic energy. It thus forms an essential feature of both steam turbines and gas turbines. As the fluid passes through a nozzle, no external work is performed, and no heat is transferred, so that the general energy equation reduces to
Fig. 13 Temperature f ador


Table 1

Tube Bank Depth Correction Factor, FD


d = tube diameter, inches l-he e ~ s s i v i t y of flue gas is a function of its temperature, the mem radiating length L, and the pressure Pa of its rdiating constituents (pfiwatervapor and carbon dioxide). The flue gas fuel oil in 15 percent produced when burning p ~ t i a pressure of 0.114 l excess air has a water vapor atm/atmand a carbon dioxide partial pressure of 0.125 combustion air (gas air heater) or into the incoming atm/&tm, a total of 0.239 atm/atm. Values of r~ for feedwater (economiser). Combustion air heaters are generally of either the this mixture are plotted in Fig. 14 for a range of gks bulk temperatures and a range of P R Lvalues, where PRis in rotary regenerative type or are tubular, with air atm/atm' and L is in feet. The curves are usable from through tubes heated by combustion gM p a s a d mound the outside of the tubes in Cross flow- The mtar3' re10 to 20 pement excess air without appreciable error. and performance data is generative type is Plotted on the same figure is the value manufacturer. Tubdm best from the proposed air heaters can be readily evaluated by the methods reviewed in the foregoing for tube banbe ~ ~ t ~ ~ d ~e~onomizersare femployed d - ~ ~ ~ a ~ e of equation (20). TO determbe to the exclusion of bare-tube units- The feedwater which is another

sL longitudiial pitch, inches =

ST= tramverse pitch, inches

pressure of CO2 and HIO- Enter pR, total the ~ i 14~ the average gas bulk t e m p e r b e , and at the at . proper p R value, read Q on the left scale. Then ~ reenter at the gas bulk temperatme and read h?/rQ On the right scale a t the appropriate tube surface temperatme. hr is equal to the product E Q X h r / r ~ iincluded in the result is a tube surface emissivity of 0.g5. the 2.4 Heat Recovery Equipment That portion hest transfer equipment that absorbs heat at ternperatures below the saturation temperature of the generated steam is considered to be heat recovery equipmenta the Generally, such equipment absorbs the hest

A, calculate L from equation (47) and multiply L by

upstream. This degrylation is evident as a loss of stagnation pressure and, hence, of the pressure difference available to cause flow through the nozzle. ~t is indicated on the enthalpy-entropy plot of the nozzle process shown by Fig. 15. There is degradation of energy within the nozzle itself, so that the exit velocity is not as high as ideally ENTROPY, s possible. The total degree of degradation is expressed Fig. 15 The nozzle flow procer by the nozzle efficiency, which is thus the ratio of the energy actually converted to kinetic energy to that theoretically possible. In equation form, the definition of the nozzle efficiency q N is such as,the angle through which the fluid is turned, nozzle dimensions, and the ratio of approach kinetic q N = C?/(&~J) (50) energy to the total kinetic energy developed. Empirical h 0 - hl' 0 curves, such as Fig. 16, give nozzle efficienciesfor bladeThe meaning of hl' and the derivation of equation (50) type turbine nozzles for dry or superheated steam. T~ are evident in Fig. 15. determine the efficiency of a nozzle (either fixed or An alternative designation of the degree of energy moving), the basic nozzle efficiency h-2 and height tor~ ~ ~ ~ e r is i given by the velocity coefficient kN, rection factor f~ are read from Fig. 16 and the nozzle s on which is the ratio of nozzle exit velocity to that ideally efficiencyis computed as (51)

It may be seen that k~ is simply the square root of qN. The nozzle velocity coefficient is a function of factors

kN2 = fLk2 (52) For wet steam, a correction is necessary to,account for the impingement of the slower moving droplets of water on the back of the blades. l-his correction is taken by some authorities to be

1 11 1







Fig. 20

N o d e nomenclature

Fig. 19 Blade and nozzle partilion nomenclature far a typical converging

nozzle, section taken at mean diameter

' * ' ''




A C C E L E R A ~ ~ ~ TO GRAVITY- 32.2 F T , / s ~ ~ > DUE ~



C1, = tangential component of steam velocity leaving

and blades is a relative one, nozdes being considered as fked and blades (or buckets) as moving. Fok nozzles or blades below the critical pressure.ratio, the area at exit is of primary importance. From Figs. 19 nozzles d = diameter T denotes the tip of nozzle M denotes the diameter of nozzle R denotes the root of nozzle




in the plane of the turbine wheel. Let m =

- -- -C l r-T =
W 8

CIZM C z =
v l n ~ VlnR



A = L d ~ a m E al sin


yln 7 specific volume.of steam leaving nozzles

A, = axial flow area in plane a t wheel


,where A is the area at exit from the nozzle, in square inches; L is the blade height in inches, and d~ is the mean wheel diameter. al is the angle of the steam to the plane of the wheel. Usually there is a small difference between the actual steam angle, all and the geometric angle a!. This angle arl - a; = 8 is known tis the deviation angle and is a function,of both the angle through which the steam is turned and the Mach number, and approaches zero as the Mach number approaches 1.0. In equation (64), al should be used when its value is known.

W~ =< total weight of steam flow

The result of these requirements is a warped blade, with generally pure impulse at the root and with a large degree of reaction at the tip. Normally, the laat few stages of the LP turbine are based on the free vortex condition, with the other stages having reasonable approximations of this flow. Obviously, as the turbine size incremes, the blade lengths increase and the free vortex design may be extended into higher-pressure




A h


q-he rnmbined windage and friction losses may be estimated by Kerr's equation as follow:


hoO- h*'



h e , known the state h e end point (SLEP), represents the static enthalpy only, whereas the stagnation e n t h d ~ ~the exhausting steam must be known for of
e such Uses 88 condenser design. Thus the C - component 2gJ is u s u d ~ added, and the resulting stagnation enthalpy at exhaust i also plotted on the state line diagram at s exhaust Presswe. This component is that which "presents the approach-velocity h p u t to a followkg stage, in equatioq (62), but which, in the last stage, must be wasted. ~t thus forms the major part of the t u b h e leaving or loss.

d VI

hp = horsepower 10% d M = mean blade ring diameter, ind a = b k diameter to root of blades, inE = peripheral admission fnx?tion L = blade height, in. i = blade speed, fps y

bo in the design process, then a stage-by-stage I ) I ~ ~ of the conditions for each stage can be made on the (J Mllllitrr chart (h-8 plane; see Fig. 18). When completed, 11ll)t is known the state line, or condition line, for 111. bllrbine, shown by Fig. 22. It is I ' * I ~ I ~ in the andysia of extraction point conditions, "L'l"r requirement is knowledge of enthdpiea @A flitlotions of Pre8sures. However, the end of this

1 f hllo pressures P for each stage are known, a they o

Sectio~~ 4 External Thenodynanrics of the Steam Tflrbine

compounded stages
unit. The wheel horse- power and is given by equation (68). exhaustoutput, thmttle pressure and temperature, pressure are sufficientfor this task. of Wa, WL, hoop hsO,and hpj A preliminary step is to express steam in unit flow fom @@ Qmowllt. The total Power delivered into the turbine a a steam rate (or waterrate) thusly: @h@fb must be expressed zw a summation of the i h ~


IWe Line for the *@' a hrbine unnll the

who01 horsepowers by where




propulsi~n turbine state line


2544 UEtW= SRVM


UEw = heel Used energy (see Fig. 22), Btu/lb 9~ leakage efficiency

- hr4 - hpf
= total steam flow entering stage, lb/hr


enthalpies. stage efficiencyis then the ratio of ~h~ work delivered to the shaft to the available stage, or


flow, i.e., flow that byk'asses the or moving blades, lb/hr hp = power absorbed by windage The wheel work per pound, based on total flow, is

wL = leakage


or, as a close approximation



that most desigoers and turbine builders prefer to use t6e s t r ~ g h tLine. since state line is ~ m primarily the d for heat balance work, an error of 6 ~ t in estimating the u e m in enthdpy a given point resultsin a at extraction flow. T~ arriveat a satisfmtory state line for fdl power, it is then only neoeasary to comect, on a Mollier diagram, the point of idtial PreBme and enthdpy, ho, with the enthdpy a t 90 per cent of throttle point of pressme, and the state line end point (see Fig. 22). ntraction ent.alpies csn then be read a t the appropriate shell or stage pressure. The steamleaves the tmbine at a total enh, = hi

+ EL + (RL)(SHP)(2544)

be read from the intersections of the shifted pressure lines with the nonextraction state line. The approximation outlined here is not quite adequate for reduced-power conditions, or at unusually large extraction flows. Other techniques, such a discussed s next, must be used. 4.4 Lambda Ratio. For large variations in flow such as occur when reducing to 80 percent power Or less, it is necessary to account for the change in efficiency because 'peed of the change in the ratio of blade speed to in SucCeS~ivestages. This can, of murse~ done by be returning to the original design and applying the theory in Section 3 again. However, prodiscussed for a computer this is a tedious operation and normally carnot be accomplished in a timely manner, especially for preliminary work. The designer must (gq) therefore resort to other techniques based on external

since the pressure a t the condenser is very low, the

preame ratio from the point of interest to the condenser efficiency is a maximum (this is shown by Fig- 18 of is typically supercritical, and maximum flow exists Chapter 5). For example, it is 0.5 for an ideal impulse

Every turbine stage has a value of U/Cf for which its

for the pressure a t that point. Under such conditions, stage. And although a propulsion turbine Consists of a flow theory predicts that the flow parameter number of stages for each of which the ratio may be W 6 and in f m t hm a value of approxi- different, as when impulse and reaction stages are used is in the same machine,' there is always some vdue of mately 0.40 for superheated steam when To is in degrees d ~ N whi& the efficiency of the entire turbine for R, po in psi, W is in Ib/sec, and A is in squme inches( ~L ~ Z~ ~ 1 Further, for modest changes i conditions at a pointthe is a maximum (Z implies sumation Over all n compared to in the the in is his parameter is known as Lambda, and is convenchange i Po, and A is fked, SO that the relation n r pofouom. m e premure a t a point should thus tiO*lly expressed to the flow from that point to the be pediction is found to be essentially condenser, and true in practice; the flow past the that the pressure is wherein the constants, kcluding 0.5 for U/C', are it is further found point in question. pmportiond to included in the numerical mefficient- The efficiency at This additional distinction is necessary because some of function of the Lambda a point may be extracted downstream, ofi-design points is a ateam ratio X/Xo, i.e. and therefore does not reach the condenser. The principle stated in the foregoing is used to find shell pessures a t extraction points, and from them the extraction enthalpies following small changes i flown The state line does not shift significantly because of Fig. 26 is a plot of the relative efficiency ofofa impdse rsaeonable ortraction flows, 80 that the enthalpies can s g h t h/lo- This plot is






Eb ~ 0 . 8 5 2 7 (SEE FIG.23)


Fig. 34

EXHAUST ANNULUS AREA = 25 FTP A = 1481.2-907.5 = 573.7 E x s ~,Xf,xAEn0.8527x 1.0l.25 x 573.7-495.3 h,- .,, E 1481.2 495,3 = 85.9

f r ' I.O125(SEE FIG.24)


Simple steam cycle


W PbxA


= 163,600


1163 6 0 02 5 .4360 .5~~ = ~

**. E L 5 10.8 (SEE FIG.25)


[63,800 LBIHR RL X 2 5 4 4 hc. hi + EZ+ STEAM RATE = 999'0 Ag. 35 S t a h one and steam rate for cycle cafculationr

(I .04) (245i,:


~ =, 5.46 LB/SHP-HR ' ~ ~ ~

BYadn hour, divided per

t# b a d and the efficiency. Thus

the m~chanicdequivalent

divided by the net or 15,180~30,000 = O e 5 0 6 ' lb/sh~-hr. The heat rate is the quantity of *heat t o produce one horsepower per hour and 144APvfQ~ t u / h r ~ ~ ~ u l abyedividing the net heat added to the plant, t d Per hour, by the horsepower produced.



'I'llo quantity of fuel required is determined by dividing
l d I ~ ~ j heat output by the boiler efficiency of 0.88 and fr~el


IIIIII higher heating vdue of standard fuel of 18,500 llbl~/lb,to which is added 46 Btu/lb to account for the ti~rlniblo heat added by the fuel oil heaters (100 deg F rim tdt 0.46 specific heat) :

Ipuel required = 2509846,193 = 15,370 ,b/hr (0.88)(18,546) I)ividing by the 30,000 shp output, the specific fuel ~~t~ll~nrnption is found to be 0.512 lb/shp-hr. Sa2 The Regenerative Cycle. The power cycle shown 111 Itig. 36 is complete, but certain problems would arise If oh a cycle were used. The feed temperature is unkr('melylow; a result, the economizer in the boiler wclllltl condense sulfur ~roducts from the flue gas, which wnrlld cause corrosion. Further, the feedwater would IIELVI! high oxygen content (no deaeration is provided), wal,trr ~ides. cause corrosion and pitting in the boiler wlriuh would 1l)rltrainedoxygen and air can be released by bringing tlrn foodwater to a boil. By using steam, bled from the t\~rl~iaas, feedwater can be raised to the boiling the I@lll~lorature held there in a deaerating feedwater and I r e ~ b in an efficient manner as the bled steam has alr ~entlydone useful work in the high-pressure turbine befo~~o being used for feed heating. Illtrod feed heating may also be done after the dercrr~~l~ing heater and feed pump. For highest feed rflinioncy, there should be N-1 feed heaters, where N (r lllro number of turbine stages, since this leads to lncxirnum regeneration, but such an array of heaters &r&dbleed points is not justified in marine service. flbltbionary practice employs an extensive number of Iie&llrrr8, such plants are not restricted by the space but llmill~~tions a ship's engine spaces, and they develop of

generally used in cycles where the feedwater is heated to a maximum of about 285 F, so that economizers may be used for heat recovery in the boilem. Where feed temperatures are higher, gas air heaters ape used. Consider a simple single-heater cycle, using a deaerating feed heater, and otherwise identical with the cycle of Fig. 36. Steam could be bled at the crossover pipe between the H P and LP turbines at 60 psis and 1243 Btu/lb, and led through a pressure set at 46 psia, to a deaerating heater. The bled steam and the incoming feedwater could be sprayed together resulting in a saturation temperature of 276 F, 245 Btu/lb enthdpy. Bleeding steam from the crossover would reduce the horsepower developed since less passes through the unit. To compensate for this, the throttle flow must be increased. Let QI = the quantity of steam bled in lb/hr A&, be the increase in main throttle flow required. m e n , using the figures developed in Fig. 35, the reducis tion in heat available to the turbine lost heat = Qr(1243 - 996.7) and the flow needed to replace this heat is AQt(l481.2 Equating these gives
r :

200 F Q = 1050

---~ g 36 .




- 996.7)

Simple steam cycle with parasitic loads

0.5084 QI

ta&. ~ ~ ~ j + b l ~ - ~ and system leakage are bssed on reference [gl. soot, blowing requires 760 lb/hr, and system l e h g e losses are taken as 1/2 percent flow, or about 900 lb/hr. Both of of the mustbe replaced by makeup these items lost feedwater introduced to the condenser. ~h~ t h e r d enerw added to each pound of water by the feed pump is the same in the example, so that the thermal energy added to 177,920 lb/h. is 1,060,384 Btu/hr.

Uowance must be made for Pressnue and temperature drops in the main steam line. It is customm to allow up to the nearest about 2.5 percent on Pressure, 5 psi, and 5 deg I? for temperature. Thus, the heater outkt conditions are taken to be 875 psig and 955 F. NO dlowance for loss is made in the deSWerheated system, so the desuperheater outlet enthalpy is is 1250 Btu/lb- The total is 2300 lbhr' 175,620 lb/hr and the demperheated The flow of heat in the system illustrated by fig. 36 may be tabulated follows:

Then, leaving the exhaust of the LP turbine, the steam flow would be 163,550

+ AQt - QI

163,550 - 0.4916 QI.

Employing the procedure used in Section 5.1, the heat entering the gland exhaust condenser is

I b b



Leaving the main condenser 176,325 - 0.4916Ql 58.7 10,350,278 - 28.8691 Air ejector intercondenser. . 245 1250 - 93) 283,465 Air ejector after condenser. 245 1250 - 168 265,090 Gland exhaust condenser. ., 300 (1281 - 1681 333,900 Total.. .............. 176,325 - 0.4916Q1 11,232,733 - 28.8691

Fuel heating at 200 F . . 1,050 ~ b d dram a t 200 F.. .............. 300 Air ejector after condenser drain a t 200 F....... 245 ~ ~ t d leaving surge t and entering feed pump8 177,920 Feed -p ........................... 177,920 .fotd to boiler.. ......................... 177,920

The boiler output is t b n .

.................. ~ o t a l................................ .

175,620 X 1483.5 = 260,53%270 Btu/hr 2,300 x 1260 2,875,000 263,407,270 B t u b 177,920 1 b b

Ib/hr Btu/lb Leaving gland exhaust ,denser. ............. 176,325 - 0*4916&1 168 After condenser drain ..... 245 ~ h condenser drain .... d 300 168 +&I 1243 Bleed flow.. .............. F.0.hater drain. ........ 1050 168 ~ ~ t r r .............. 177,820 4- 0.50&1Q1 l.. Btu/hr


'I'I"' DPT outlet e n t h a l ~ ~ Btu/lb; therefore is 245

11,232,733 - 28.86Q1 41,160 50,400


+ lW1 11,500,693+ 1214.1+@1

(177~600 0.5095Q~)245= 11,4799561 +

Fig. 37. Figure 35 outlines the calculations for the propulsion turbine. This calculation, and those sum1214.21Q~ marked below for units,use the metho& and data

Since the DFT enthalpy is 245 Btu/lb, (177,920 + 0.5084~~)245 11,500,693 + 1214.14~1 = QI = 29451 lb/hr The total flow to the boiler is 177,920 + (0.5084)(29,451) = 192,893 1b/hr Assuming the same pump efficiency, the feed P U P per pound of wateris unchanged (iVe.,6 Btu/lb), so that the generator load should have increased somewhat, but this can be balanced by the decrease in boiler forced-draft blower power requirementsThe total enthalpy of the feedwater is 192,893(245

25 sq ft, SO 149,322/(1.5)(25) = 3982, and from Fig- 25 the exhaust loss = 9.7 B ~ and hw/ = g85*g~ ~ ~ + 9.7 = 995.6 Btu/lb, vice the 996.7 Btu/lb &own by Fig. 35. Then, the horsepower developed by the LP turbine is

41,:1!J0,787 Btu/hr.

The boiler output is


(192,537 - 230011483.5 = 282,216,590 ~ t u / h r (2300)(1250) = 2,875,000 Total output = 285,091,590 ~ t ~ / h r input = 48,326,787 Net heat from boiler 236,764,803 ~ t u / h ~

firbogenerator Throttle steam conditions.. .850 pig, 950 F Exhaust. .................

1 -(1243 - 995.6)(149,322)/2544


and the horsepower developed by the HP turbine

+ 6) = 48,416,143 B t u / b
= 282,744,716 Btuihr

to the boiler, and the boiler output is

(192,893 - 2300) (1483.5) (2300) (1250) Total boiler output less feed input Net heat input to boiler 2,875,000 = 285,619,716 48,416,143 = 237,203,573 Btu/hr

1 - (1481.2 - 1243)(149,322 29,451)/2544 = 16jog5 1.04 and the total is 30,058 shp~ hthe reduced steam flow in the LP turbine slightly ~ ~ , increases the turbine efficiency, and the calculation be repeated with a new ratio of AQr/Qz and a new nonbleed flow. Since the exhaust enthalpy has been changed, the equivaJent nonbleed water rate is :

W R = 1481.2


- 995.6

2544 = 5.448 Ib/shp-hr

Dividing the net boiler heat input by a fuel heating value of 18,546 Btu/lb and a boiler efficiency of 88 gi~a oil requirements of 14,5341b/hr. fuel Dividing by the 30,000 shp o ~ t ~ u ~ r e s u l tas specific in fuel rate of 0.4845 lb/shp-hr. Tbis is a saving of 5.4 percent over the simple cycle, and in addition the boiler is protected from corrosion. A further gain in efficiencyaccrues in this cycle. In the high-pressure turbine, more steam Passes than in the nonbleed condition, and less passes through the lowannulus is the same prerrnve tw~lI1e.Since the before, the volume flow is m-hced, and the h3aving velocity be less also. The apparent exhaust flow is l63,30 - 0.4916 x 2 ~ 5 = 149,322 lb/hr (ap1 parentflow is t h t t l e flow less any bleed but including the gland leakoff steam). The exhaust annul- is

Then, the throttle flow is 5.448 x 30,000 AQt = 163,440 + AQt and A Q ~= (247.4/485.6)&1 = 0.5095Q1

and the exhaust flow is 163,440 - 250

+ AQ, - QI



where the 250 lb/hr is the gland leakoff steam. Leaving the condeqser: Main turbine exhaust. 163,190 - 0'4905Qz Turbogenerator exhaust. Makeup feed. ................. lS6O Air ejector drain. ............... 245 lb/hr ~ ~ t ............... ,175,965 - 0.4905~1 d..


'I'll~~ preparation of a heat balance is usually the first ?*P in initiating the design of a steam propulsion plant. results of the prelimioary heat balance are the ki~llmental input to purchase inquiries, and also for lllfill Plant desifP tasks rui sizing of piping. The first !wJ balance may be done from the approximate data in ~ ~ f c m n c e but subsequently, data supplied by the [gl, @f)tllponent vendors is used to update the calculation. In the last example in 5.2 a direct solution of the heat balhaoe problem was presented. Obviously this problem Would be more difficult if several bleed points are needed nlwl rrlore heaters employed, especially if the bleed presUllt~ vary with flow. The problem becomes even more @~l~ll~lOx if ships's service steam is added to the balance. Wlliln a direct solution of the heat balance is possible by b i @ i l la series of simultaneous eq~ati008, i generally ~ it s Illor0 ~imple use an indirect trial-and-error solution to b,Y na~uminga condensate flow leaving the main con-

rated capacity.. ........ .13,600 lb/hr ........ 1135 Btu/lb Exhaust enthalpy.. consumption at 480 gpm and 1200 psig. . 12700 lb/hr Exhaust Bnthalpy at 480 gpm and 1200 psig.. . .1139 Btu/lb Main air ejector steam consumption 1st stage.. ............. .245 Ib/hr 2nd stage. ............. .245 lb/hr Intercondenser drain temperature.. .......... .I25 F After condenser drain temperature.. .......... .200 F . Steam supply at 150 psia. . .I250 Btu/Ib ~ i ~ t i plant ~ l l i Water production.. ....... .11,400 gpd steam consump~on from low-pressure bleed at

Setting up in tabular form:

After condenser.. ....... 245 G h d condenser drain. .. 300 Bleed flow. .....-...... NXo fie1 oil heater drain.. ... DFT outlet flow. ....... 177,560

Total makeup feed.


.3330 lb/br

+ O.M)gWr

consumption) ...........lo00 l b / b





L,----- ,

The f i s t step is to estimate optimum bleed points. The feed temperature leadng the deaerating feed tank has been set at 280 F to prevent the condensation of sulfur products from the flue ges in the boiler economisers. To achieve this temperature, a pressure of 49 p$a must be available from the auxiliary exhauatlintermediate pressure bleed system. This pressure is controlled by a pressure regulator installed in the bleed systems. To provide heating steam when no bleed steam is available (as for example, when going astern), makeup steam is supplied from the desuperheated system through a pressure regulator set at 45 psia. At certain times, there may be too much auxiliary exhaust regulator, set at 53 psia, will steam, so a b a ~ k - ~ r e s s ~ r e - dischmge excess steam to the main condenser. Thus the auxiliary exhaust system can fluctuate only between 53 psis and 45 psis. This limit should be sufficient to prevent the feed suction water from the DF'T from flashing during maneuvering, especially if the DFT is placed well above the pump (40 to 75 ft). Allowing a 7 percent pressure loss through the bleed/exhaust system, the bleed steam at the turbine must be at least 7 percent hi&er than the desired 49 psia, or 53 psia. operation to be It is further desirable for this able to continue bleeding to at least 65 percent flow in

the main turbine. Since the bleed pressure at any stage is dependent on the flow through that stage, it is desirable to select a bleed point at (53/0.65) = 81 psia. Note that since this is a direcbcontact heater, there is no terminal temperature difference. low-pressure stage is The optimum bleed point for the then selected so that the temperature rise in the condensate is evenly distributed between heaters. ~ e a v i n ~ the condenser a t 1.5 in. Hg abs pressure and 90.7 F, the condensate will be heated by the air ejector intercondenser and after condenser and the dand condenser to a temperature of about 100 F. The temperature rise to the DFT is 180 deg F, approximately half of which a should be achieved in the LP feed heater. ~ h u s , proper condensate temperature leaving the LP feed heater is 190 F. Since a 10 deg F' terminal difference is usually needed between the heating steam and heated water in shell-and-tube-type heaters, the steam entering the heater must have a saturation temperature of 200 F, corresponding to 11.5 psis at the heater shell. With a 10 percent pressure drop in the piping, the turbine bleed point pressure must be 12.8 ~ s i a . For the preliminary heat balance then, the LP bleed point pressure is 12.8 psia at an enthalpy of 1138 ~ t u / l b and the I P bleed point pressure is 81 psia at an enthalpy






154,865 lb/hr

Note that in this calculation, the weight of the drain is not added to the total, since the intercondenser &&n goes to the condenser and the after condenser drain to the freshwater drain collecting tank shown on the



Entering the system lb/hr Chde-te from LP htr.. .......... 154,865 Drains from drain tank. ............ 30,175 Exhaust from feed pump. .......... 12,700 Feed pump recirculation............ ~lOO0 Bleed steam from turbine. .......... Q Total. ...................... 217,740 Qa system .................. (217,740 + Qe)



158 24,468,670 180 5,431,150 14,465,300 255.3 5,106,000

1,270 Qa 49,471,470 + 1,270Qe (217,740 + Qc)249

(217,740 4- Qc)249 = 49,471,470 Q, = 4,650 lb/hr 14340 X 16.5 X 0.2445(278 1270 - 277 = 10,370 lb/hr

+ 1270Qc

- 100)

(ho h ~ = 17,030(1481.2 1138) ) 2544 2544 = 2,297 whp and the wheel horsepower of the IP bleed flow is:


= 1,247 whp Total = 31,242 whp

EnteFing the subsydm

lb/hr Condensste from mt air ejedor it after condenser.. .................. 154,865 300 G h d steam from turbines. .......... 245 M . e air ejector after condenser drain. . fistder mr ejector dram. ............ Makeup feed, taken at 75 F . ......... 3,330 Air heater drain.. ................... 10,370 Miec. heating drains.. 1,100 Low-pressure feed hater.


1281 168

9,639,130 384,300 41,160

............... ............

h v i the subs &em ~ From gain t a d at 212 F............ (15,595 QL) 180 2,807,10 From LP heater at 190 F . 154,865 158 24,468,670 27,275,770 Total. ..............................................

+ I80 QL + 180QL


1139)(12,7m) = 6.3 Btu/lb, 222,390

Equating incoming to outgoing total enthalpies gives the air heater drain in the air heater coils. It should also be noted that, in many cases, the low-pressure feed heater is drained, via a drain cooler, to the main condenser. Also, sometimes, the entire drain tank is also drained via a drain cooler to the main condenser. The steam supply to the steam air heater is bled from the 81 psia stage at 1270 Btu/lb. Allowing 7 percent pressure drop in the piping, the pressure at the air heater is 75 psia when rounded off. At 75 psia the saturation temperature of the steam is 308 F and the condensed drain enthalpy is 277 Btu/lb. There must be a temperature difference between heating steam and heated air leaving the air heater; this terminal difference should be between 25 and 35 deg below the steam temperature. Choose, for example, 30 deg F aa a terminal difference,so

+ 1138Q~= 27,275,770 + 180&~ = QL 14,580 lb/hr Then, the drain tank flow is 15,595 + 14,580 = 30,175 lb/hr at 212 Fj and the condensate flow is 154,865
13,307,070 lb/hr. The next part of the system is the deaerating feed heater (or DFT). This unit receives condensate from the LP heater and drains from the drain tank via the drain transfer pump. I t also receives heating steam from the feed pump turbine exhaust and bleed steam he bleeder from the intermediate pressure bleed. steam is controlled by a pressure regulator set to maintain 280 F. A weight flow and heat flow balance for the DF'T gives


145 045 1.5.25


is made for liquid compression. The fuel rate is now calculated from the heating value

= 27,698 whp


+ L16.5 X 0.2445 X (278-loo)]


n@ horsepower of the LP bleed flow is: wll001

19,264 Btu/lb of fuel

The heat added to the superheated steam is



1 Ill1 rl~l1t111,ted steam,


- 255.3) = 227,855,660 Btu/hr


The enthalpy of the desuperheated steam is 1250 Btu/lb, and the heat added to it is 16,870(1250 - 255.3) = 16,780,590 Btu/hr For a boiler fitted with a steam air heater, a boiler efficiency of 88.5 percent can be expected; therefore, the fuel burned per hour is determined to be 227,8555660 16,780,590 = 14,349 ib/hr (19,264)(0.885) and the fuel rate is 14,349/30,000 = 0.478 Ib/shp-hr. The results of the foregoing calculations are entered on the heat balance diagram shown in Fig. 37. Since the shp check was close and the f i s t estimates of the steam consumption by the feed pump turbine and the air heater were well confirmed, these results can be considered final. I any of the checks had failed, the f process would be repeated with revised estimates based on these results.

II I ' r

1 I' unit8 are mounted on the same shaft in the

and a low-pressure turbine. The


tlg, with their high-temperature ends back to 'I'h~sthere are only two input pinions, as with Ill0 crc,l~vc!ntional nonreheat turbine. I1rflflit:Cionsof a reheat turbine state line during E b = 0.865 lflulll1lillllJ'.Y design studies are more difficult than for llod the temperature correction may be computed aa l l ~ ~ ~ l t ~ ~ Iturbines,0 since there is a wider range of 1 ~ ~ 1 1 ~ 17l1tl 1 nt\(,crri~tics that affect the line. The marine engineer T 4100 ft = r l l l l ( tolll! burbine designer must cooperate more closely to ~ l l ~ l l l l ~ c ! e r design acceptable to both than is necessary 11 5000 (96) f t = 1.01 11 nil 11l)lor propulsion plants. Nonetheless, as a first R a l l ~ ~ ~ ~ ofl a' suitable state line, the high-pressure turbine l( ( The state line energy for the low-pressure turbine is ~ ; ~ l ~ r r ~ ~ a b can be selected at about 20 percent 1)rossure llr I 141~rottle pressure, and a state line can be conE E L= EbftAE (97) l l ~ c l t ~ f l twith an efficiency of 70 percent (excluding l E B L= 449 Btu/lb ll~fll.11lg gear losses). A 10 percent loss of pressure lblld With an astern turbine loss of 0.5 percent [see equation i l l ( 110 rfrI~oater may be assumed. The balance of the (78)1, a first estimate of the steam flow is determined to be 138,400 Ib/hr from equation (83); therefore
c l l ~ l l l ~t l ~ i c!

RU. 38

&timote of state line for propulsion turbine with reheat

Section 6 Waste Heat from Diesel and Qas Turbine Engines

from Diesel Waste Heat. A large fraction illput to an internal combustion engine is r @ a l e l ~l!ll*ible s* and latent heat in the exhaust gases. *h+rrllpr l l u 1 ~fii~llificant fractions are lost via cooling of )fi@lvl, nlLtcr1 lube oil, and inlet air (turbocharged nlllle@ "'ill1 ~bftercoolers only). For example, the f ~ ~ ~ ~ l l ~ l going' into ~ waste heat streams Ilt!atin~ut ~ ~ the l hf H k\~l'boal~larged two-stroke engine might be

#f tl!fl


0.35 to exhaust 0.15 to jacket water 0.05 to lube oil 0.05 to aftercooler it is feasible to extract part of its sensible ~lro(lllc~ usable steam. As the cooling water I E + f l l l ~ l ' i l l J l l ' ( i~ 1 ~thans200 F, there are few uses for this ! ~ *' I ' One use of practical importance, how-

*&11111 111bf1,

I I!r ~llnnt!loxlraust gas temperature is a t least 600 F

ever, is the operation of a vacuum distillb for freshwater production. Steam can be produced in a heat exchanger (waste heat boiler) in the exhaust duct. ~h~ maximum steam pressure 9 b t ~ n a b l e limited of course by the exhaust is gas temperature, but othelqrise the premure is set by considerations regarding the use of the steamand the quantity needed. If steam is to be used solely for heating purposes, a relatively low pressure, say 15 psig, may be adequate, but usually the heat available is far in excess of lowpressure heating needs. Often, the ship service electrical needs at sea can be met by waste-heat steam applied to a turbine-generator. The higher the steam pressure, the lower will be the turbine steam consumption, but also the lower will be the quantity of steam that can be produced. Figure 39 illustrates alternative steam production at 50, 100, and 150 psig, showing that with





b~ 4s

IRect of back preoure and intercooler outlet tcwnperctture on exhaurt tmpbroturq Sulser RD-type engine


0.25 0.50 0 75 FRACTIONAL LOAD

p. 40 Exhaust ROW and temperature, Sulzer RD engine a

the same inlet temperatures more steam is produced at progressively lower pressures. The minimum temperature difference, or "pinch point," as indicated, is the governing consideration in the steam quantity that can be produced. However, additional &earn is sometimes obtained at a lower pressure in a second boiler downstream of the fist. The minimum temperature to which the exhaust gas 2 cooled is also a limitation, since the temperature should not be allowed to drop below the dew point in order to avoid corrosion in the cold end of the boiler. Wade heat steam systems are designed in a variety of forms, but generally contain the components expected in a self-contained system. The designer, in making a heat balance, will apply the same techniques outlined earlier in this chapter. He must allow for the fact that

taken by the external cooling devices. The evaporator must not change the temperature of'return cooling water from its specified range under any condition of operation. 6.3 Use of Gas Turbine Waste Heat. Exhaust gas heat from gas turbines can produce steam in the same manner as for diesel engines, and for the same purposes. Since g&8turbines are generally less efficient than diesels, the heat available tends to be greater than with diesels. In fact, there is sufficient energy available to suggest use of the steam in a propulsion steam turbine geared to the propulsion shaft in parallel with the gas turbine. Perhaps 20 to 35 percent of the total power can be produced by the steam turbine, with a consequent major improvement in the fuel rate obtained with the total system. The design objective in a combined gas turbine and









THERMODYNAMICS AND H A ENGINEERING ET 1 D. Q. Kern, Process Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill Iloolc Co., Inc., New York, 1950. fi W. H. McAdams, Heat Transmission, McGrawllill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1942.



------------A BACK PRESS.V.



617.F 612.F I,NJ. 27.5 HG 260.F


(I "Standards for Steam Surface Condensers," Heat Il)xcitiungeInstitute. ' "Standards of the Tubular Exchanger ManuI farilurcrs Association," Tubular Manufacturers Associalioll.




H A. Egli, "The Leakage of Steam through Labyrinth

PIRJLIH," Tram. ASME, i935.

FUEL F W , = 10.700

LOST 9-47


(1 "Recommended Practices for Preparing Marine Htnrcm Power Plant Heat Balances," Technical and #e~tinrchPublication No. 3-11, SNAME. 10 A. Norris, "Developments in Waste Heat Systems klr Motor Tankers," Trans. Institute of Marine En&lrlnatwj, 1964. I I R. M. Marwmd and C. A. Bassilab, T h e l'lirrtnodynarnic Design of a Combined Steam and Gas

3001 20


fl7-[IT-16, 1967.




-Fig. 46

hdanannof a ,..rhed gas turKne and steamNrKne cycle at fractional power




Q =5 8 9 7 6



Fig. 45

Design-point,heat-balancediagram for a combined gas turbine and steam turbine cycle

steam turbine is fired by the exhaust gas. Observe also that the gas leaves the boiler a t 440 F, and thus still has considerable thermal energy available for the production of additional steam at a lower pressure. A second, low-pressure boiler is provided to make steam for the deaerating feed heater. The heat balance shown is for design power. It is also of interest to see how the important parameters change as the load is reduced. Figure 46, also from reference [ll], illustrates this. Actually, the effect on the system parameters is influenced by the manner in which the plant load is controlled. For the example given, the fuel flow to the gas turbine is controlled to

maintain a governed gas-generator rpm. The steam turbine is uncontrolled, with the output being determined solely by the energy available in the gas turbino exhaust.

f 1 Thermodynamic and Transport Properties o Steam, ASME, 1967. 2 Joseph H. Keenan and Joseph Kaye, Gas Tables, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1948. 3 Frank 0. Ellenwood and Charles 0. Mackey, Thermodynamic Charts, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1944.


C H A P T E R Ill

Sedion 1 Classifisation of Marine Steam Generators

tained during the record-breaking runs at about 30 ~ s i g , which was about the upper limit of pressure during the Civil War era.

Numbers in brackets designate References at end of chapter.


type of boiler. ~t is with this type that attention is focused primarily since it has been used most frequently since World War 1 . 1 while there have been many variations of the foregoing boiler types employed throughout the world, the typesdiscussed are fairly representative and provide an steam adequate backgmund for an understanding generator types and characteristics. 1 2 current lypes of Mer&."+ and Naval Boilers. . the Past100 years steam pressures and temperatures have increased fmm 30 psig saturated to 870 psig-950 F in mostmerchant vessels, and 1200 psig-lOOO F maxipostWorld war 1 naval 1 mum (950 F in most apparent large, high-power in vessels. A trend is installations where steamat 1500 psig-g50 F, and in some instances reheat to 950 F, appears desirable. ~h~~~ installations will be used in increasing numbers where economically feasible. For the mostpart, widespread use of water cooling in the furnaces is employed to reduce refractory mainheaters singly, or in tenance. ~~~~~~i~~~~and are used to obtain the desired overall steam generator efficiency. Attemperators are employed in most new construction to control the steam temper* operating range and thereby improve ture over a turbine performance. Desuperheaters are installed to provide low-temperature steam for audiary purposes throughout the ship. ~~~k~~ c residual oil is the most widely used fuel,

although in some instances diesel or other light fuel ofis are used. Steam-atomizing oil burners, first used aboard ships in the late 18001s,have returned to favor with the advent of high-capacity low-cost evaporators to supply the necessary water' This type of atomizer' while providing an extremely wide range of operation, results in a 1088 Of distfiled water which was, until recently, too big a penalty to pay for its advantages' However, improvements to reduce the consumption Of steam, coupled with abundant distil1ed water, have led to its widespread use, particularly in automated boilers. Two-drum integral-fumac0 a Two-Drum boilers, or D - ~ Y boilers ss they are Often P~ Of many and called1 are made steam drum and water drum connected by water and boiler bank tubes. Superheaters are instal1ed between the water screen and the boiler bank and may have tubes arranged either vertically Or horizontallyr depending in part on which arrangement best fits machinery arrangement- Where required, the temperature may be controlled by means of a control desuperheater or attemperator located i n either the location Of the Oil or water drum. The hing front burners is frequently dependent On the machinery (mart 'Onarrangement and may be in the Figures and indicate ventional), roof, or sidewall. some of these variations. In most i~tallations some form of air heater is used with an economizer. The type and pmportions Of these auxiliw heat exchangers depend On the 'yd0 arrangement. If two stages of feed heating are selected, a steam air heater and an economizer are Often used'





fig. 7 Two-drum, top-fired boiler with verfical superheater and ecanamizer

Ilg. 6 Tw-drum,

single-furnace bolkr with horizontal superheater

*I~lnlr would be incompatible with natural circulation. i'tco greatest disadvantage is the circulating pump
Ib~lf, which is a potential source of trouble and mainCFII~IIOO.
Fig. 5 Twdurnace, single-vptoke cantrolled superheat boiler

'rlln LaMont boiler, shown schematically in Fig. 9,

la rr typical example of the forced-circulation type. Wlllln wed abroad, it haa not found wide application in Ill@~rrrtrine field in the U. S. The LaMont boiler uses a sltrgle clrurn into which the heating surface discharges a

other furnace supplies heat to the superheater. Some designs incorporate a part of the superheater (called a primary superheater) in the reheater zone to provide additional protection for the reheater and to obtain the desired steam temperature characteristics [3]. The gas flowing from both the reheater and superheater combine in the main generating tube bank, and a single gas flow path is maintained through the auxiliary heat exchangers as in the single-furnace design. c. Forced-Circulation Boilers. Ever since the first boiler was used aboard ship, marine boiler designers have investigated and experimented with various means

to reduce the size and weight of boilers. A boiler

arranged for natural circulation of the water and steam requires low waterside pressure drops which can only be obtained by installing sufficient downcomers and risers. This adversely affects size and weight. By supplying a pump to either augment or supplant natural circulation, a smaller and lighter boiler can be designed for a givengteam output (41. The circulation in such a boiler is said to be controlled or forced. The chief advantages of this are that very small-diameter tube^ with a high resistance to flow can be used in arrangements of heating surfaces and steam drum location^

wlato~ilatr steam and water. The circulating pump of e~teklnr~ supplied by gravity from this drum and forces ia refiller lllrough the generating tube surface, which is ~ I ~ ~ I ~ ! I Jof Ia number of tube circuits arranged between U ) ~ r! hlslllbibuting header and the steam drum. The inlet HI P~I!II tube is fitted with an orifice to balance the flow ~ralrrhnnoo within the various circuits. This is necessary III 11l8bdn adequate flow of water in each tube dependun llrl ik oxpected heat input. The furnace, oil burners, sl~l~arl~nr~tor, economizer are similar to those of and $ 4I~ 111,ttl-airculation boilers.

Fig. 8

Slngle-furnoce, gas-bypass reheat boiler

MARINE ENGINEERING of 150 to 300 psig. Boilers of this type are usually built only in small sizes and supply up to 7500 lb of saturated steam per hour. Because of the difficulties in maintaining feedwater chemistry, adequate water flow through parallel tube circuits which would be required for higher capacity boilers of this type, and the control of superheated steam temperatures, the once-through boiler is not well-suited for marine propulsion purposes. e. Supercharged Boilers. The superchased boiler has the characteristic of using combustion pressures higher than one atmosphere in the furnace to take advantage of higher gas densities and higher gas velocities than are available in the usual marine boiler. Figure 11 is a typical supercharged boiler. This unit is an outgrowth of the Velox boiler which has been used in a few stationary power plants for a number of years. In


I (11or lomisers of either the bare-tube or extended-surface

t ~ v l ~ [weused to increase the temperature of the incoming cr



~ g9 .

Schematic of LaMant forced-circulafion boiler with economizer and superheater

Iwlwuter by cooling the flue gases leaving the boiler. Ail- I~oaters used to increase the temperature of the are a~)~t~l)ustionso as to promote better combustion of air Iilln fuel. In the case of gas-to-air heat exchangers, air I ~ ~ n ~alsor improve the boiler efficiency by reducing cl ~ 1,110 tomperature of the flue gases. By using low~ l r n ~ ~ u low-temperature exhaust or turbine bleed re, 3bnr1,rn to heat combustion air, as in the case of the steam dlu I~oeter, the overall cycle efficiency is improved. 'I'llcmo various types of heat exchangers may be used rrl~~yly in combination with each other. or a. Economizers. An economizer is a simple heat u~c\l~nt~ger consisting of a bank of tubes connecting an I ~ ~ l n b outlet header located in a relatively cool gas r~nd Iel11 mrature zone beyond the boiler main generating 1 I~alllt. Supplied with water at a temperature near that Iuavil~g last feedwater heater, the economizer supplies the ~rlrlihional heat to the feedwater by cooling the flue gas. Irr lrlnrly installations the economizer is the final heat cttallttnger in the exhaust gas path. I t may, however, ko followed by an air heater where a higher efficiency is

typo# me forced circulated by the main feed pump. In $~l~nt*rkl, are designed to heat the incoming feedwater they CII willliinabout 35 deg of saturation temperature. They rre r~~rranged counterflow of the water and the for

The work of compression shows up, in good measure, as an increased temperature of the combustion air. As


Fig. 10

Once-through boiler

d. Once-Through Boilers. The boiler in Fig. 1 is 0 an example of once-through boilers used for auxiliary steam. Water is passed through the heating surface in one continuous circuit by the feed pump. The boiler is basically one long spiral tube arrangement composed of a economizer and a transition zone, where evaporation is completed, which surrounds the furnace. The feed pump pressure determines the outlet steam pressure, which may be 1200 to 1800 psig, dthough for the usual marine installation the pressure is in the range

tive naval vessels. The original Velox boiler, from which supercharged boilers evolved, was a forced-circulation boiler. However, subsequent supercharged units have employed circulation to avoid the extra complication of the circulation pump. f. .Waste-Heat Boilers. In vessels powered by diesel or gas turbine engines, the exhaust gases contain considerable available heat. Boilers placed in the stack to reclaim this otherwise wasted heat are called wasteheat boilers. Usually they generate low-pressure saturated steam which can be used for purposes such as tank heating, galley, and space heatingIf desired, they may be designed to bum oil when the main unit is shut down. Basically, waste-heat boilert3 consist of a bank of generating tubes that are either bare Or or of the extended-surface ~ Y P - Either forced circulation may be used. 1.3 Auxiliar), Heat Exchangen. In addition to the steam generator, several forms of a d i a ~ heat exchangers are inwrporated in boilers to impr0ve the efficiency and the overall operation of the plant

' h o nimplest economizer arrangement is the bare-tube !,up0 ~ ~ this was the form the first economizers took. nd 8flwuvcr, it was recognized that the use of extended ~~l~'f#uo to increase the total heat-transfer surface for a PII lorlgth of tube would provide significant increases performance without penalizing weight and space rullwidorutions adversely. Figure 12(a)shows anefficient b41tn of extended surface in which flat studs are spaced rb dlimclog angles around the circumference and at %-in. IiikerfvaInalong the tube. 1h(tulldedsurface can also take the form of spiral fins #@ldpd on the hlbes or of cast iron O alu~linum rings r gill ~~~~1111~d onto steel tubes as shown by Fig. 12(b). 01 shrunk ba Air Heaters. The cooling of hot flue gases by the iilPo1rlillb! combustion air is one of the oldest of concepts Iily)r()ve boiler efficiency. In addition, heated air ~ I F U V ~ ~ ~anB additional beneficial effect by promoting O @@illd complete combustion of the fuel. This can lblld irn~ortancein the relatively small furnaces used III lr\~tl*ino boilers. Alr htraters fall into two broad classifications, the ke~~ll~~~!l'r~tive regenerative. In the recuperative and the bvlle, II(!IL~ from the products of combustion passes

1 :

through a partition which separates the products from the air. Tubular and plate-type air heaters are examples of recuperative air heaters. In the tubular heater (Fig. 13) the walls of the tubes transfer the heat from the gas to the air. The plate-type heater is not c o m m o ~ y used in the U. S. in marine service. In it the air and gas are separated by plates through which the heat flows. In the regenerative air heater, heat is first stored in the structure of the heater itself .as it passes through the hot gas stream. The heat is then givenup to the air as the structure turns through the airstream. The air preheat& shown in Fig. 14 is an example of this type [7]. I t consists of closely spaced heating elements packed into a revolving frame. The frame speed is constant and is controlled by a small electric motor. The frame speed is selected such that the elements will absorb heat from the gas with a good temperature merential and, at the same time, 'the elements will heat the incoming combustion air to the highest possible extent. The upper section of the air heater is in the cold-air zone and also "sees" the coolest gas. It is usually arranged SO that the heat-transfer surface can be conveniently removed in easily handled s e ~ t i o ~ s - ~ a l l ~ d "baskets'-since corrosion and fouling may occur there. These baskets


is removed by steam traps. The latent heat of this steam which would otherwise be rejected in a condenser is returned to the boiler via the hot air. 1.4 Boiler Terms and Definitions. The. location of some of the more important boiler elements are shown in Fig. 5. For an understanding of marine boiler technology, a review of the applicable terms and definitions of various essential boiler parts may be helpful. The following terms and definitions are based on the standmds of the American Boiler Manufacturers Association

of a superheated vapor. Boiler hand.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boiler arrangement is described by reference to the location of the uptake gas outlet with respect to the designated front of the

Fig. 13 Tubular air heahn

Heating surface. . . . . . . . . . .

close all or e portion of a steam generator unit. for treating the boiler water are introduced. Circulation ratio. . . . . . . . . . . The ratio of water entering a

may, in addition, be provided with a ceramic coating similar' to porcelain enamel for protection against the

are used as supply hbes to supply water to a drum or header. fercrad circulation. . . . . . . . . Circulation in a boiler by mechanical means external to the- boiler. Pllrnaoe screen. . . . . . . . . . . . One or more rows of tubes arranged across the furnace gas outlet. Pursl~ce volume. . . . . . . . . . . The volume contents of

may flow from the steam drum to the water drum or header. That surface which is exposed 'to the heating medium for absorption and transfer of heat to the heated medium, including any fins, gills, studs, etc. attached to the outside of the tube for the purpose of increasing 'the heating surface per unit length of tube,

steam, usually expressed as the percentage by weight.

well system through which fluid flows downward. or box inside the steam watertube boiler convection bank which is normally provided with a blowoff valve for periodic removal of sediment collecting in the bottom of the drum. Circulation of water in a boiler caused by the difference in density between. the water in the down. comers and the watersteam mixture in the gen-

atural circulation. . . . . . . .










(a) Assembly

(a) Assembly of typical section

Fig. 15

(c) Crimped spiral fln Steam air heater

(b) Replaceablebaskets
Fig. 14

Rotary regenerative air heater with replaceable cold-end baskets

. . . . . . . . . . . The plates, centrifugal sepaRadiant heat absorbing.. . . . The projected area of tubes Steam baffling.. rators, or baffles arranged and extended metallic sursurface (RHAS) to remove entrained watcr faces as viewed from the from the steam. furnace. Included are the --walls, floor, roof, and partition walls in the plane of the furnace exit screen. Steam or steam-and-. . . . . . . A pressure chamber located at, the upper extremity of II water drum Heat-transfer apparatus for Reheater. . . . . boiler circulatory system i t 1 heating steam after it has which the steam generateti given up some of its original in the boiler is separated heat in doing work. from the water and fro111 A tube through which steam Riser. . . . . . . which steam is discharged and water passes from an a t a position above a watcr upper waterwall header to level maintained therein. the steam drum.

R1111~rlv)ater... . . . . . . . . . . A group of tubes which ab.. sorbs heat from the products of combustion to raise the temperature of the vapor passing through the tubes above the saturation temperature corresponding to its pressure. 'I'rr11yr311l;-tube wall. . . . . . . . . A waterwall. , in which the tubes are substantially tangent to each other with practically no space between the tubes. I'llllr I I I I I ~ ~.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . A group of two or more rows of tubes forming part of a watertube boiler circulatory system and to which heat is transferred from the products of combustion mainly by convection.

Tube sheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The part of the drum or header which the ends of the tubes penetrate. Unheated downcomer. . . . . . A tube not exposed to the products of combustion in which water may flow from the steam drum to the water drum or header. Watertube.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A tube in a boiler having the water and steam on the inside and the products of combustion on the outside. Water-cooled furnace. . . . . . . A furnace wall containing watertubes arranged to form a waterwall. Welded, mono-wall, or. . . . . A waterwall in which the membrane wall tubes are welded together (or to filler bars between them) to form a continuous furnace wall.





Section 2 Consideratiofls in the Selection of a Boiler

2.1 General. Many factors influence the design and selection of steam generating equipment to produce the required quantities of steam at the design pressure and temperatures for a particular installation. Efficient operation when burning the various fuels available throughout the world is a requirement. The boiler also must fit easily and conveniently within a minimum of engine room space, yet be accessible for operation, inspection, and maintenance. Although light in weight, it has to be sufficiently rugged to operate dependably under adverse sea conditions. Operation over a wide load range, with a minimum of attention, and operating characteristics compatible with a high degree of automation are also required. The factors used in both the thermal and structural design must be conservative to provide assurance that continuous operation over extended periods of time will be provided with minimum maintenance. Finally, the boiler must meet the rules and regulations of the regulatory bodies. 2.2 Cycle Requirements. The design of a marine boiler is directly affected by the heat cycle selected by the ship's designer. Over the years steam pressures and temperatures for marine power plants have advanced by a series of broad jumps. After each jump there has been a pause to consolidate the gaina, review the operating results, and plan the next jump. In general, marine steam conditions have not advanced as rapidly as those in use ashore. In part this has been due to the relatively small horsepowers involved and in part ta the demands of the ocean environment. As the safety of the vessel and its personnel is dependent upon a reliable power plant, each new advance is made only after adequate experience is accumulated with the last. High steam pressures and temperatures may make reductions in the size and weight of a given propulsion plant possible, or permit a higher horsepower installation 1 in the same space. During World War 1 ,most combat naval vesgels operated at 600 psig-850 F while steam to 450 psig-750 F was widely used in merchant ships. In the postwar era the Navy advanced to 1200 psig-950 F (nominal) for its combat vessel construction. In the late 1940,s and 1950's a significant number of merchant vessels appeared using steam at 600 psig-850 F and 850 psig-850 F. By the 1960's almost all new construction used 850 psig-950 F steam; several large vessels used steam (in some cases with reheat) a t 1500 paig-950 F. Machinery plants utilizing steam st pressures of 850 to 1500 psig and temperatures from 950 F to 1000 F are characteristic of most commercial steamships built during the 1970's. The quantity of steam produced by a marine boiler can range from as little as 1500 lb/hr in small auxiliary boilers to over 400,000 1b/hr in large main propulsion boilera. Steam outputs of 750,000 lb/hr or more per boiler are practical for high-power installations.

2.3 Heat Balances. The fuel cost per shaft horsepower is one of the deciding factors in establishing the characteristics of the boiler installation and whether or not the installation is economically sound. The fuel rate can be decreased by the use of higher steam pressures and temperatures or a more sophisticated cycle can be employed by the use of reheating, economizers, and/or air heaters, more stages of feed heating, etc. The designer must analyze these factors in light of initial cost, maintenance, weight, and space requirements versus the savings resulting from increased thermal efficiency. As steam pressures increase, it is essential to use additional heat-reclaiming equipment in the boiler unit. This is because of the corresponding increase in saturated ' steam temperature which results in a higher gas temperature leaving the boiler bank and thereby reduces the boiler efficiencyat a given firing rate. Reheating the steam improves thermal efficiency but requires larger boilers and special provisions to protect the reheater during astern operation. High steam pressures and temperatures, along with reheating, are more likely to be used in installations of 30,000 shp and up, where the value of the fuel saved may well justify greater initial cost and cycle complication. In addition, the utilization factor or load factor in such vessels is apt to be much higher, giving added impetus to the establishment of more efficient designs [9]. It is from the detailed heat balances prepared by the marine engineer that the quantities of steam and feedwater flow are determined. In the usual plant from two to four stages of feedwater heating are used to supply water to the boiler at temperatures from 270 to 400 F. Boiler efficiencies of over 90 percent are possible. However, to minimize corrosion and maintenance in the cold-end heat exchangers and uptakes, it may prove advantageous to limit the boiler efficiency to 88.5-90 percent with some fuels. Fuel oils vary widely in quality and often contain significant amounts of sulfur which can form sulfuric acid if there is condensation in the exhaust gas path. Corrosion and maintenance costs should be balanced against the possible savings in fuel costs derived from a higher boiler efficiency. 2.4 Fuels and Methods of Firing. The characteristics of the fuels which will be available to the ship in its usual trade should be established early in the design process. This will permit the optimum selection of equipment for burning the fuel and cleaning the boiler. In addition, a suitable selection of uptake temperatures and materials can be made for the entire boiler plant so as to reduce corrosion and maintenance problems. Most marine boilers are oil-fired, with wood, gas, and coal-fired boilers less common. Wood firing is generally confined to riverboats operating on streams with an abundance of nearby timber and is not an important

i11nl oxcept perhaps in some remote parts of the world. ( I~r~-fired boilers are used primarily on power or drill Imrgtrs which are fixed in location and can be supplied ~ I I I I I I~hore. At sea, tankers designed to carry liquefied ~iul,~rrr~lmay use the natural boil-off from their cargo gas &#a lllulks as a supplemental fuel. This cargo gas I~~~iI-off is collected and pumped to the boilers where it is I~~rrncrtl conjunction with oil. The oil burners serve in BWpilots to provide ignition stability and also to augment tire l l t r l ~ available from the gas. The quantity of boil-off t ~vrilt~ble the liquefied natural gas is a function of from r t r ~ hiont sea and air temperatures, the ship's motion, and r It10 trnrgo loading, among other things, and may vary I r c ~ n ~ to day. duy C !old-lired boilers have persisted chiefly in older vessels trljer~~l~irlg lakes and rivers, and in ferries, colliers, on tti&dI t~nd towboats operating in coastal services. Their t n ~ ~ l l l ~ o r ~ decreased steadily year by year as labor have r114tw rino and air pollution control is expanded. M o ~ lcoal-fired marine boilers used hand or stoker n r i ~ ~ aThe use of stokers, particularly the spreader . Bylre, gormitted firing rates per square foot of grate l~~lrruo ~tpproximately to 50 percent in excess of those 40 tor ha~id firing. This resulted in boilers which were far nlura aompact and lighter than those designed for hand I/glrrp; but even they were much larger and heavier than u(i4rsd boilers designed for comparable steam outputs. !3rllv~rized coal firing, widely used ashore, has seldom Rri~ a t sea since the,furnace volume necessary for usud d@iii~m, Lmvel, low heat release rate, and satisfactory kmbuatian requires a tall boiler. The high fly ash kdllrg of the flue gas aggravates tube erosion, slagging, dtaak emission problems. Qwwore used as boiler fuels as early as the 1870's but i l f#d nos aohieve widespread use until the automobile age fgqulrecl a world-wide petroleum industry. Compared &$ ei,har fuels, oil is easily loaded aboard ship, stored, lnbroduced into the furnace; and the firing equiplVequireslittle costly maintenance. The small l$#i@unC ash and contaminants it contains does not of mdre t,ha extensive ash handling facilities required for

of severe slagging and tube metal corrosion problems. Cold-end heat exchangers designed with full recognition of the sulphur content present in the fuel will experience a minimum of corrosion and expensive maintenance. A boiler designed to take advantage of low-cost residual fuel oils can always burn lighter fuels if the situation justifies it. However, a boiler with tightly packed heating surfaces designed for light oils such as diesel or aviation turbine fuels would not perform satisfactorily on residual fuels for very long. Gas-side fouling and oil burner and combustion problems in the furnace could be anticipated.
2.5 Effect of Ship Delign and Other Machinery on Boiler Design. Factors such as space, weight, and the

m6 a

mpiew ways. The major contaminants consist of @@a of vfinadium and sodium. As a class, they are ~ l e A and their presence must be fully taken into "a~h" l@@@~irt the designer. Likewise, the sulphur content by wry over a range from almost none to as much as &f psroallt in "sour" crudes; sulphur has a decided en the cycle efficiency which can be obtained @t!t&rb tierious corrosion in the economizer, air heater,

1) ~lrelrldbe recognized that fuel oils from different WIFOPH, similar in heating value, have varying while r n ~ u n b aof contaminants which may be harmful in

@&jl flrlng,


Tkr oompounds of vanadium and sodium affect the



af the superheater. If oils to be burned in a

trtde are especially rich in these constituents, r sriperlla~tttor can be designed with tube metal temCinltricrr lower than normal to avoid the possibility

requirements of the regulatory bodies are major considerations in the design of a boiler. In addition, however, the prospective vessel owner or his naval architect may have preferences regarding the boiler design and specific design requirements. These preferences may include the number of boilers, types of boilers and their arrangement, locations of major connections, the use of economizers and/or air heaters, fining, and evaporative ratinga, and the type and method of firing. Life-cycle costs can have a bearing on the preference likewise, since the total cost and labor involved in maintaining a previous design or construction may be reflected in the owner's specifications and result in the selection of an improved design and construction. a. Space. The space provided for the machinery is held to a minimum by the naval architect because the space occupied by the machinery produces no revenue. The boiler designer is usually required to adapt the boiler design to the available space. The boiler height may be limited by deck or machinery casing locations. The fore-and-aft or depth dimension of the boilers may be controlled by bulkhead locations, access, or tube renewal space requirements as well as the location of control consoles, main engines, etc. To a large extent the aviilable space determines the economy of the design. A height restriction is particularly serious, since it usually necessitates increased boiler width or length to obtain the required heating surface. This generally results in a marked increase in boiler cost, weight, and the base area occupied. b. Weight. With drum-type boilers, the minimum ~ weight f o maximum efficiency is obtained with rninimuql furnace depth, maximum tube length, and the maximum number of tube rows. Limiting the height may restrict capacity because of reduced circulation. It may also result in tube slopes and in burner clearances less than the minimum necessary for a good design. In header-type boilers the width is changed by increasing or decreasing the number of header sections, and the height is varied by changing the number of tube clusters in a header. Because of reductions in the number of boiler sections and the length of the steam drum, it is readily evident that long, narrow, and high boilers lead to minimum weight. Further, since the maximum efficiency for a given heating surface is obtained with the

MARINE ENGINEERING veatest numb& of tube rows in height, header-type these limits may be modified in the special specifications boilers always should be arranged with the maximum issued for a particular class of vessel. m he Maritime height, rnmimum length, and minimum width which are Administration follows a somewhat similar procedure and usually establishes evaporative and furnace heat compatible with the design conditions. The minimum weight of any type of boiler will vary release rates for each design. considerably with desi@ conditions;increases in evapora- . 2.6 Boiler Design Criteria. heo ore tical and practical tive rating, burner capacity, or air pressure decrease the considerations have led to the establishment of boiler weight of a boiler design@ for a specified steam output. design criteria in a number of areas not directly associated With a fixed evaporative rate per square foot of heat- with the regulatory bodies' rules, which concern mainly absorbing surfaoe, the weight of a boiler per pound of pressure-part scantlings and construction techniques. generated will be less for boilers with greater steam The design criteria are most important in the areas of output, since certah boiler parts remain fixed in size and combustion, heat absorption rates, circulation, and pressure drops through the boiler system. They provide weight over a reasonable range in capacity. Weight is greatly dependent on space also. Generally the yardstick by which various boiler designs Can be the larger the physical dimensions of a boiler for a given compared for their suitability for specific applications. a. Combustion. At the heart of a successful boiler output, the greater its weight. The ocean environment is no place is a properly designed furnace and fuel burning systemRegulations. f to test unproven principles. This became evident in the I the fuel supplied to the furnace is not burned cleanly construction when it was and completely within the furnace throughout the range early days of recognized that some rules and regulations were necessary of operation, it will not be possible to accurately predict to protect life and property. These rules were not the performance of the evaporator-superheater comintended to inhibit the designer or innovator but rather bination. For example, the total steam generated may for comparison of be insufficient, the steam temperature may be incorrect, to provide a sound basis and or the efficiencymay be lowered by incomplete combusnew designs with older successful designs. tion O improper excess air. r Disastrous boiler explosions, common to both marine A number of criteria by which combustion in furnaces and stationary boilers, resulted in the establishment of a boiler inspection senice and strict regulations can be gaged and by which different furnaces Can be care, and operation of compared have been developed. In"general1 with the governing the steam boilers. In the design of marine boilers the exception of the furnace heat absorption rate which is applicable regulatory rules and standards must be rigor- derived from the actual heat transfer calculations ously followed. Most units built for American-flag developed for the furnace, they are empirical relationthe requirements of the United States C o ~ t ships with little theoretical value; however, they can be ships used to compare similar boiler designs provided their Guard and the American Bureau of Shipping. Boilers for naval combatant ships are built in strict limitations are recognized. The criteria most fI'equent1~ for these comparisons used accordance with Navy specifications, although for are: auiiliary naval vessels the use of the United States Coast Guard or the American Society of Mechanical rate per cubic foot of furnace volume. Heat Engineers codes often is permissible. For foreign-flag ~ i rrate per ~ i ~ square footof radiant heat absorbing ships, the rules and regulations of other midatory surface. bodies would apply. In addition, many shipyards and Heat absorption rate per square foot of radiant heat operators of large fleets have established their own absorbing surface. supplementary rules and regulations. Since the requirements of the various regulating and A brief review of these factors will sewe to indicate their inspection groups differ, specifications must be clearly importance and usefulness. The heat release rate per cubic foot of furnace volume defined to assure fabrication and installation of boilers which will be approved by the boiler inspectors. Fur- is useful in comparing geometrically similar furnaces, ther, it is important that all competitive designs be to the but while widely used because of its simplicity, it is not A design difference caused by the an important criterion. The heat released is the product same me of inapplicable specifications could be the deciding of the hourly fuel rate and its higher heating value, factor in final cost or wei&t evaluations, particularly ignoring any heat above 100 F in the combustion air. If radiant heat absorption rates, furnace gss temperaon high-pressure unito where a difference in pressurepart thickness might involve not only price and weight, tures, and furnace tube metal temperatures are satisfactory, the only limitation on the heat release rate Per but also design and fabrication changes. ~~~t rules pertain to const~ction the inspection cubic foot of furnace volume should be that imposed and of materials, and establish very few by the ability of the firing equipment to maintain good and The use of a high1 yet satisperformance limitations. ~ l t h o u g h Navy specifications combustion conditions. e rates per cubic foot of furnace factory, furnace volume heat r f ? l ~ ~late peat1y limit the heat lightweight facilitates the installation of high-capa~ib~ volume, per square foot of radiant heat absorbing surface, and per square foot of total heating surface, boilers in a minimum of space.

BOILERS AND 'I'll() temperature within a boiler furnace can be ~llilll~rolled a large extent by the effective radiant heat to r~lno~~bing surface (RHAS) present in the furnace [lo]. 1 IPIIII is radiated from the flame envelope to thee heat t~lluorhing surfaces with the uncooled refractory surfaces n i \ l ~ i as ~ r ~ an intermediary, receiving heat from the flame ru~dl111cn re-radiating most of the received heat back to 1 II* ll~une and cold surfaces. For a given heat input or ~ ~ " rate, the heat absorbed per unit area decreases IIK wlIllr ILILincrease in total RHAS. The greater the RHAS ~ I I * ~t'aater be the total amount of heat absorbed by will (Itn Fllrnace. Therefore, the temperature of the gases



boiler has more demands placed on i i than a comesponding shoreside boiler. In addition, the heat input and the steam output of the marine boiler are probably higher than for a comparable application ashore. It is customary to consider a momentary roll of 30 deg from the horizontal and a momentary pitch of f5 deg when computing static and dynamic loads. In establishing circulation, boilers are u s p d y designed for a permanent list of 15 deg and a permanent trim by the bow or stern of 5 deg. The latter, when coupled with the momentary pitch of 5 deg, means that in the fore-and-aft direction, the boiler may be as much as 10 deg from the horizontal. The arrangement of the tubes and steam-

. . .

MARINE ENGINEERING boiler must likewise be capable of prolonged periods of steady operation a t its design rating. Also, in port it may be subjected to long periods of operation at low or minimum outputs. Cleaning, with the exception of the daily use of the mot blowers or occasional attention to the atomizers in the oil burners, is normally deferred to the annual or biannual period when the vessel is in a shipyard for other maintenance. This must be fully taken into account by properly locating soot blowers so they are effective; by using the optimum burner combinations for the range of fuel-oil types anticipated to be bunkered; and by using the best possible arrangements of economizer, air heater, boiler furnace, and generating surfaces to pinimize fouling. The desim must also include margins in the scantlings ---- of tubes, supports, casings, and other parts exposed to corrosive flue gases or waterside contaminants. Simple and easily accomplished maintenance procedures can also do much to assure that the boiler will be available to meet the ship's requirements. The duty cycle may also have a pronounced effect on the number of boilers selected. A single boiler may be employed in ships of up to about 90,000 shp. Two or more boilers may be selected for higher power levels or where redundancy is desired or required. Single-boiler vessels have proven reliable in service and should continue to do so. This is in part due to the fact that a boiler kept continuously in service reaches thermal equilibrium and can have the waterside chemistry optimized. In general, from a boiler performance point of view, the least number of boilers which can deliver the required steam will prove to be the best selection for any particular vessel. e. Automation. Widespread use of automatic controls @ndmonitoring equipment has made bridge control of the power plant possible and has permitted a reduction in the number of watch-standers in the machinery space. These desirable improvements have added additional -considerations to the problem of designing a suitable .boiler. Of prime importance is a fuel burning system that can respond rapidly throughout the range of operation from standby to maximum power without a fireman's attention. It must do so to prevent excursions in steam pressure and reduce water level fluctuations (shrink and swell due to changes of the volume of steam present in the boiler), which might result in water carry-over into the superheater [12]. Burners can be designed to operate over the full boiler range with all burners in service, or other burner types with less range can be sequenced, that is, placed in or out of service on command by the control system. Suitable flame-monitoring safeguards and purge interlocks are necessary in varying degrees of complexity depending on the extent of manual supervision desired. Feedwater regulators, steam temperature controls, d a t a logging equipment for flows, pressures, temperatures, levels, etc. are all available from the simple to the ultrasophisticated. The owner and his naval architect usually select the scope of equipment and advise the boiler designer so that the boiler and burner combination can be made compatible with it. See Chapter 21 for additional discussion regarding automation and controls.


atttl in part on the space available for the installation ant l its operating requirements. 'I'ho quantity -of fuel required is determined from the ~ltwirod steam generator efficiency, the given steam prtrnHure, temperature, and flow, the feedwater temperaI,II~'o, and the heating value of the fuel. 'I'ho fuel characteristics and quantities establish the' I~lrlburning equipment to be employed. This in turn ICI~H the excess air requirements. Combustion calculalllrlrl~ are next made to determine the hourly quantities rlf llue gas flowing through the unit. The exit or stack baa tomperature to which the flue gas must be cooled b nohieve the desired efficiency is determined (Fig. 16); R I I ~ experience indicates that it is attainable or otherif w l ~ t r natisfactory, the design can proceed. If not, a~rr~t~hor selection of efficiency must be made and the ealaulations repeated. 'I'ba furnace exit gas temperature is next calculated. Ell@ value is dependent on the radiant and convection 11ewt-transfer surface installed in the waterwalls, floor, tr~nf,t~nd screen (radiant only) as well as the extent of refractory present. Next, the gas temperature drops &acl tho heat absorbed by the screen and superheater are dsbarmined. The size and spacing of tubes and the &mount of surface are assumed initially. These are lhrn modified to provide the desired steam temperature rrild cronservative tube metal temperatures as necessary. V~ually several screen and superheater combinations are Invemtigated to determine the most economical solution. r heater surfaces ke gas temperast outlined, initial aterials for tubes,





Rg. 16

Efficiency v* stack gar temperature

Section 3
General. The fundamental boiler design prob-

lem is to determine the proper proportions of the various heatrabsorbing surfaces to use the maximum heat available in the products of combustion. A proper design will accomplish this at the lowest cost on a lifecycle basis. Each component must be integrated with the other elements of the unit to provide a balanced design in which the first costs and fuel, maintenance, and operational costs will be a minimum over the useful life of the ship. In no way must safety or reliability be compromised by these cost considerations. For the steam generator system, the following must be considered :

6. Attemperator (or control) and auxiliary desuperheaters 7. Circulatory and steam separator system 8. Casing and setting 9. Cleaning equipment 10. Safety valves and other mountings 11. Feedwater and treatment 12. Foundations and supports 13. Combustion air supply system 14. Uptake gas duct system and stack These considerations require many interrelated steps. In most cases, a number of assumptions must be made in order to initiate the design. ks the design calculations proceed, the assumptions are refined to achieve the desired accuracy in the final analysis. The first step is the selection of the basic type of boiler, superheater, and economizer or air heater (or both) to be used. This selection is based in part on preference

the heating surfaces established, the draft loss all components is calculated. If the draft loss the capability of the fan desired, the heat drafts previously calculated are adjusted he tube spacing, number of rows crossed or height of the boiler components.' A ers may be necessary ce of draft requiredrops of water and steam through all comm the economizer feedwater inlet to the superuted. They, in turn, estabeconomizer design pressures tho safety valve settings. A circulation analysis @aprepared using the heat absorptions determined . From this, the bes are adjusted as for each design. er can make very ntially reduce the

secondary function is to generate steam in the furnace wall tube circuits. The theoretical aspects of combustion have been well known for many years. However, the achievement of good combustion within the furnace of a relatively small marine boiler requires practical knowledge and experience. Complete combustion can be obtained provided there is sufficient time (a function of furnace volume), turbulence (provided by the geometry of the burner assembly), and a temperature high enough to provide ignition. Combustion may be defined as the chemical combination of oxygen with the combustible elements in the fuel. The common fuels have only three elemental constituents which unite with oxygen to produce heat. The elements and their compounds, as well as their molecular weights and combustion constants, including heating values, are given in Table 1. Oxygen combines with the combustible elements and their comgounds in accordance with the laws of chemistry. Typical reactions for the combustible conatituents of fuel oil, based on the assumption that the reaction is completed with the exact amount of oxygen required, are : C 0 2 = COZ AQ 2H2 0 2 = 2Hz0 AQ 2s 302 = 2508 A Q where A Q is the heat evolved by the reaction. The heat evolved or heat of combustion is commonly called the "fuel heating value" and is the sum of the heats of reaction of the various constituents for one pound of the fuel considered. The heating value of a fuel may for Carbon (to COa) for Hydrogen (to HzO) for Sulfur (to SOa)

1. Fuel burning equipment 2. Furnace 3. Boiler generating surface 4. Superheater (and reheater if used) 5. Economizer and air heater

+ + +

++ +


Fuel Combustion. The basic function of a

ilrp frirnace is to generate the maximum amount of

rrb Imm a given quantity of a specific fuel. A useful



1113 calculated from theoretical considerations or may be clt!l,ormined, for an actual oil, by burning a sample in a I)olnb calorimeter (see Chapter 23 for additional discusi4o11 this regard). in 111 testing fuels by a bomb calorimeter to determine the l l t r ~ b tgiven up, two values may be reported: the higher ([)I' Kr088 O upper) heating value and the lower O net r r Il~~~ltling value. For the higher heating value, it is nafl''med that any water vapor by burning the I1,Vtlrogen constituent is d l condensed and cooled to the l11ll~i1~1 temperature in the calorimeter at the end of the tsrl,. The heat of vaporization, about 970 Btu/lb oil, is inoluded in the reported heating value. For the lower ~isrtl1iug value, it is assumed that none of the water vapor mnclo~~ses and that all the products of combustion vermin in a gaseous state. In the United States higher I ~ e ~ t ~ vdues are used as they are available directly ing fl'c~lll the calorimeter determinations and because of the @stnll>li~hed practice of buying fuel on a higher heating vnlue basis. The lower heating values are generally ~irrecl European practice. ia Fuel Analysis. For design and comparative IrlitlptrNos, the standard reference fuel oil is #6 fuel oil [@uelrur C) having the following characteristics [13]:

By weight By volume

%OXYGEN %NITROGEN 23.15 76.85 21.00 79.00

The rare gases are included as part of the nitrogen constituent. Air is assumed to be supplied to the forced-draft fan at a temperature of 100 F, a rklative humidity of 40 percent, and a barometric pressure of 29.92 in. Hg. Under conditions air has the following physical prope*ies: Dry-air density, lb/cu ft MoistureJ lb/lb of dry air Mixture density, lb/cu ft Specific heat 0.0709 0.0165 0.0701 See Fig. 3 of Chapter 2

Based on the foregoing fuel and air standardsJ analysis will show that the s~ic-,iometrical or theoretical quantity of dry air to burn one pound of fuel is 13-75Ib. From this, the following quantities of air for various excess percentages are determined : Excess air, percent Dry air, It, Moisture, Ib Moist air, lb Volume, cu f t (at 100 F, 29.92 in. Hg) dry air moist air (40% RH) 0 5 10 15 20 13.75 14.44 15.13 15.81 16.50 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 13.98 14.68 15.38 16.07 16.77 194 200 204 210 213 220 223 230 233 240

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (percent by weight) Carbon 87.75 Hydrogen 10.50



The ultimate analysis of the fuels actually encountered in service varies from that of the standard reference fuel. Figure 17 shows the effect of these variations on

tho following expression :




MARINE ENGINEERING Table 2 Oil Burner Clearances



wider angle is employed to shorten the flame length and produce a wide bushy flame while a narrower angle increases flame length and decreases width. The burner manufacturer should always be given the opportunity to review the projected furnace design so the best possible installation can be obtained. Generally suito' able burner clearances are shown in Table 2. When firing Bunker C oil, it is customary to use the minimum clearances established by experience. These may be Fig. 19 Change in efficiency vs. load decreased perhaps by six inches, if distillate oils are fired. Furnace depths of watertube boilers which are front-fired are usually limited to a minimum of six feet boilers the large amount of fuel and air to be introduced although there are highly rated boilers in service with into the furnace necessitates a multiple burner instal- furnace depths of only five feet. The selection of the oil burner must also include the Each size burner has a minimum rate of operation type of atomizer to be used. There is a wide variety of below which it becomes unstable and there is risk of atomizers from which a selection can be made. The losing ignition. In part this is a characteristic of the alternatives include: steam atomization (internal mix), burner, but the forced-draft, fuel, and control systems steam mechanical (external mix), straight mechanical, also have an influence. The minimum rate is of great return flow, rotary cup, and others. Of these types, the a much simpler plant results when all internal mix steam atomizer has the greatest turndown importance burners can be left in service at all times. When in and provides the smallest and most uniform particle port or during rnanuevering conditions, the minimum size over its wide range of operation. Development0 oil flow capability must be less than that required by have materially reduced the quantity of steam required the plant demand, if frequent safety valve popping or (80 to 120 lb/hr-burner depending on the maximum oil steam dumping is to be avoided. Both of these actions capacity) so that earlier objections to the loss of evaporated water have been more than offset by the other waste steam and lead to increased maintenance, Burner sequencing can be used effectively to follow advantages. The uniform and finer article size has the load demand where burners with limited range or provided more surface area for combustion of the fuel lower higher-than-desired minimum flows are used. Solid- droplets. This has permitted less excess air and necesstate, computer-controlled logic systems are often used draft losses since the high air velocity to sequence burners; hovbever, this equipment canincrease sary to provide the turbulence to burn larger droplets i~ no longer required. costs considerably [15]. The number of burners selected usually results in a Care must be taken in arranging the burners to provide for even air distribution to each burner within burner draft loss equivalent to about 35 to 50 percent of combustion with a minimum of the total draft loss of the boiler unit. The burner draft the windbox to varies with the of air through it. excess air. The clearances between the burners and the lossany given air flow,volumetric flow temperature of tho a change in the to prevent interference At furnace walls must be and impingement. The furnace volume must be large air will increase or decrease the draft loss in the ratio of enough to provide the time necessary for complete the change of absolute temperatures. In desiping a to to take place before the gases enter the super- boiler with an air heater, it is standard ~ractice limit heater screen. Satisfactory combustion has been ob- the air temperature leaving the air heater and enter in^ tained at furnace release rates of up to 1,500,000 the burners to no more than 600 F and refer ably l e s ~ to assure long life and prevent overheating of the burher Btu/cu ft in marine boilers. an parts. If the preliminary design ~ i e l d s excessive air Each burner manufacturer has his own recommended temperature, the designer must reapportion the surface*, clearances and the shape of the flame can be adjusted to some extent to modify them when necessary, This is possibly adding a small economizer, to reduce the air done by changing the spray angle of the atomizer. A heater air outlet temperature to an acceptable value.





Fig. 20

Furnace wall construction

1 02




estimates of furnace exit gas temperatures were not necessary because of conservative firing rates and the use of saturated steam. Those units which generated superheated steam usually had several rows of boiler tubes between the superheater and the furnace. Consequently, a large error in the calculated furnace exit gas temperature had very little effect upon superheater performance. In units with superheaters located dose to the furnace, however, the furnace exit gas temperature must be determined accurately to assure a satisfactory superheater design. In addition, an accurate determination of the heat absorption in the various furnace waterwall areas is necessary to provide adequate water circulation with a practical number of supply and riser tubes. When estimating the furnace gas temperature, most designers use formulas based upon the Stefan-Boltzmam law, which states that the heat absorbed by radiation is proportional to the difference between the fourth powers of the absolute temperatures of the radiating bodies and receiving surfaces (see Chapter 2). However, in a boiler furnace the exact determination of radiant heat transfer, or heat absorption, is extremely complex and depends upon: the furnace size and shape; the radiant beam (mean distance from the radiating gas mass to the absorbing and the re-radiating surfaces); the partial pressure of the products of combustion; the amount, type, and effectiveness of the heat absorbing surfaces; the ratio of the heat absorbing to the refractory surfaces; the type, quantity, and heat content of the fuel; the amount of excess air; the temperature of the combustion air; the latent heat losses; the emissivity of the various surfaces and the radiating mass of gas; and the flame luminosity. Designers usually calculate furnace exit gas temperatures and heat absorptions by rational methods and then, as a check, plot the calculated values against empirical data derived from boiler tests 121. b. Radiant Heat Absorbing Surface. In evaluating the radiant heat absorbing surface, the flat projected areas of the walls and tube banks are used. The spacing of the tubes in the boiler bank adjacent to the furnace has no effect upon the furnace temperature; but with widely pitched boiler tubes, a large percentage of the radiant heat is absorbed in the tube rows behind the furnace row. Furnace waterwalls and roofs usually consist of bare or covered tubes (Fig. 20) and, with the exception of bare tangent tubes or welded walls, the effectiveness of the absorbing surfaces is less than the black-body coefficient of 1.0 considered for the furnace rows of boiler tubes. The furnace gas temperatures usually are not accurately estimated in preliminary analyses since the general design characteristics are of primary interest, and an approximate estimate of furnace gas temperatures and heat absorption rates can be made with knowledge of the boiler and the firing conditions. Thus, with the assumed excess air, the heat content of the products of combustion and the adiabatic temperature can be determined. Further, the approximate furnace size

provides an indication of the water-cooled surface8 and estimates can be made of the surface absorption effectiveness and the expected furnace gas temperature. In approximations of this nature it is usually desirable to estimate both the furnace temperature and the heat absorbing surface on the low side when firing oil. This increases the estimated furnace heat absorption and assures a margin of reserve in the final design. However, with coal firing it is more important to estimate the furnace gas temperature on the high side to preclude the possibility of operating with furnace temperatures above the initial ash deformation temperature. In a boiler furnace, both the furnace exit gas temperature and the heat absorption can be changed appreciably, for a given firing rate, by varying the amount of radiant heat absorbing surface. The furnace gas temperature and heat absorption also can be lowered, at any firing rate, by increasing the excess air (Fig. 21), except when operating with a deficiency of air. The additional air increases the weight of the products of combustion per pound of fuel fired. This decreases the adiabatic temperature since there is less heat available per pound of products of combustion; and, as indicated by the Stefan-Boltzmann law, lowering the radiating temperature reduces the heat absorption rate. Generally, the radiating temperature is assumed equal to one third of the adiabatic temperature plus two thirds of the furnace exit gas temperature. c. Heat Absorption Rates. The furnace heat absorption rate per square foot of radiant heat absorbing surface increases with larger heat release rates. However, the percentage of the total heat released which is absorbed in the boiler by radiation decreases with an increase in firing rate, and varies from as much as 50 percent, or more, at the lower firing rates to about 15 percent at the higher firing rates; see Fig. 22. This results from the fact that the adiabatic temperature remains practically constant, except for changes due to variations in excess air and combustion air temperatures, over the entire range of boiler operation, while the temperature of the gases leaving the furnace and entering the tube bank increases with the firing rate. Even though the furnace heat absorption rates may be conservative, the furnace exit gas temperatures may be excessive with respect to ash fusion temperatures and slagging. This is true particularly in coal-fired boilers where the gas temperatures entering the tube bank should be less than the initial ash deformation temperature. Because of the lower ash fusion temperatures of oil slags, they pass out of the furnace in a gaseous or molten state and are not amenable to control by reducing the furnace exit gas temperature. They must be considered in the design of the superheater. d. Tube Metal Temperatures. In boilers, the heattransfer rate across the boiling water fdm on the inside of the tubes may be as high as 20,000 Btu/ft2-hr-F; however, when estimating tube metal temperatures, a transfer rate of only 2000 Btu/ft2-hr-F is usually assumed in order to provide a margin against the resis-



I I l k c t of excess air on odlobotic tind furnace gar temperature

Flp. 22 Relotianhip of rodlon) heat absorption ond Aring rote

ratings, including port loadings. However, at t.he same time they should not be so high as to cause high casing temperatures or excessive furnace maintenance. Because of the requirements for exceedingly lightweight and compact units for naval installations, evapntly, with a steam pressure of 600 psig orative ratings in naval boilers are 3 to 4 times greater steam temperature) and a heat input than those common to most merchant installations. Consequently, the furnace exit gas temperatures in the full-power to overload range are about 2800 to 3050 F when firing oil with approximately 15 percent excess air. Adiabatic, or theoretical, flame temperatures are about 3450 to 3500 F with oil firing, 15 percent excess air, and 100 F combustion air. With combustion air temperaappreciable and it is good design practice t o tures of 300 to 350F, the adiabatic temperatures L tolerance for variations in the quality of the increase to approximately 3650 to 3700 F. Although furnace heat release rates vary considerably, practically all oil-fired merchant boilers are designed for heat release rates of 65,000 to 125,000 Btu per cubic foot of furnace volume per hour at normal rating-approximately 15 to 20 percent of the corresponding full-power heat release rates on naval boilers. The heat release rate per square foot of radiant heat a b s o r b i surface is generally in the range of 200,000 to 250,090 Btu per horn on merchant boiler designs.


MARINE ENGINEERING the minimum longitudinal tube pitch (direction parallel to the drum and perpendicular to the gas flow) consistent with good manufacturing practice and acceptable drum design, unless the draft requirement or the type of fuel fired dictates the use of a greater pitch. Manufacturing and fabricating practices permit the use of +-in. metal ligaments between 1-in. or la-in.-OD tubes. The circumferential, or back, pitch (direction parallel to the gas flow) of the tube usually is set to maintain circumferential or diagonal ligament efficiencies2 equal to, or better than, the longitudinal ligament efficiency in the drums. Tube arrangements utilizing a minimum back pitch reduce the drum periphery required for a given number of tube rows and allow the use of smallerdiameter steam drums provided the steam drum release rates are satisfactory. With such arrangements, the size and weight of the boiler can be reduced. When designing for high steam pressures, it is often necessary to increase the tube spacing in order to improve the ligament efficiency and reduce the thickness of the f drum tube sheet [l6]. I this is not done, large thermal stresses may be set up in the tube sheet. It also i~ possible to maintain close tube spacing and yet reduce the drum tube sheet thickness by using tubes with the ends swaged to a smaller diameter. The number of tube rows installed should be limited so that an impractically large steam drum diameter i~ not required and so that heat absorption in the last tube rows is adequate to maintain good circulation. The tube length should be such that the total absorption per tube does not result in too high a proportion of steam it1 the water-steam mixture leaving the upper end of tho tubes. b. Header-Type Boilers. Single-pass header-typo boilers (Fig. 3) generally have two rows of 2-in. t u b e ~ above the furnace and if-in. or 1-in. tubes in tho remainder of the bank. In these boilers a group or cluster of fourteen 1-in. tubes can be substituted for ono of nine la-in. tubes. Thus, in boilers having the samo width, length, and number of tube clusters in height, 25 percent more heat absorbing surface can be installed by substituting 1-in. for la-in. tubes. However, tho advantages resulting from the compactness of the boiler must be balanced against the greater tolerance provided by the la-in.-tube boiler for poorer feedwatcr quality. For the new header-type boilers that arc1 installed, chiefly in motor vessels for auxiliary steam purposes and in drill barges and dredges, the feedwator quality is apt to be such that the selection of larger tubo sizes will offer more reliability. c. Boilers Delivering Superheated Steam. Practically all marine boilers built recently deliver superheated steam from convection-type superheaters. In these boilers, the generating tube bank is arranged in two

suc~(~ior~~. section between the furnace and the The +!~~l~n~~ltoater as the "waterscreen" and the other is known F~UI~~~IOII, installed beyond the superheater, is called the " l ~ ~ ~ i l rbank" or "generating bank. " ir. 'I'l~ti i z e ~ and arrangement of the waterscreen greatly r1l;fecrln the design of the superheater. A superheater I~~c~~iiCtsl to the furnace behind a few rows of widely d.oser j~ll.irl~n(l tubes in the waterscreen provides a relatively ili~l, nl,nl~m temperature characteristic over a wide range ~ r l1-abi11g since the radiant and convection heat-transfer titten tmd to .complement each other. However, a i ? ~ i l l ~ r I ~ ~ t ~ t e r farther away from the furnace located i.uiiat,inn behind a deeper waterscreen has a steam i r ~ ~ ~ l ~ n ~ characteristic which rises steeply with ature ~IIIIIQ@B~MO~ rating, due to the greater effect of convection 1 1 1LIIN reduction in radiation heat-transfer rates. 11 Navril boilers usually have waterscreens consisting of t l l i ; ~ :four rows of tubes and merchant marine boilers or


Naval boilers are designed for ratings four to five times greater than those used for merchant marine boilers. Radiant heat absorption rates vary greatly depending upon the firing rate and the amount of cold (watercooled) surface in the furnace. Generally, a radiant heat absorption of 120,000 Btu per square foot of cold surface per hour is considered satisfactory for continuous overload operation of merchant boilers with treated evaporated feedwater. This results in an absorption of about 100,000 Btu per square foot of cold surface per hour at the full-load rating. There are merchant boilers in continuous service with radiant heat absorptions of approximately 150,000 Btu per square foot of cold surface per hour; and most naval boilers have been designed for radiant heat absorption rates of 150,000 to 200,000 Btu per square foot of cold surface per hour at overload rating, but operation a t this rating is infrequent. 3.4 Boiler Tube Bank. The arrangement of the boiler tbbe banks is established after development of the preliminary furnace size. The simplest type of tube bank is that of a boiler delivering saturated steam. Usually two sizes of tubes are used in such banks. The tubes in the rows adjacent to the furnace absorb considerably more heat than those in the other rows and, therefore, should be of larger diameter to increase the water flow. The total heat input to the furnace row tubes is the sum of the radiant and convection heat transfers; in general, the convection heat transfer is approximately 5 to 20 percent of the radiant heat transfer. This relatively wide range in convection heat transfer results from variations in tube diameter, tube pitch, gas mass flow rate, and the temperature difference between the products of combustion and the tube surface. The number of tube rows installed is primarily dependent upon the circulatory system and the desired gas temperature leaving the tube bank. The gas temperature leaving the boiler tube bank varies with changes in steam pressure, firing rate, and tube size and arrangement (the tube arrangement may be either staggered or in-line). However, sufficient boiler heating surface must be installed to obtain exit gas temperatures which result in economical operating efficiencies and do not require excessive stack and breeching insulation. Generally, the exit gas temperatures should not exceed 750 F unless economizers or air heaters are used. The resistance to gas flow can be varied appreciably in drum-type boilers by changing the pitch of the tubes in a direction perpendicular to the gas flow. This change is not possible on header-type boilers because of the fixed tube pitch and, therefore, variations in resistance to gas flow must result from changes in boiler width, tube length, and the number of tube rows. a. Drum-Type Boilers. Mbderately rated drumtype boilers usually have 13-in. tubes in the furnace roes, but these are increased to 2 in. in boilers of higher rating. One-inch and I&-in. tubes are common in the 2 Ligament efficiency is the relative strength of the ligamenln There is no standard pitch for tubes between adjacent tube holes in a drum or header as compared with main tube in drum-type boilers. However, it is customary to use a drum or header having no holes.


Fig. 23

Temperature characteristics of radiant and convection superheaten

de a relatively constant steam de range of rating. Superheaters. The superheater must deliver the ed ateam temperature during the operating life t during the initial trials or test cted performance must be mainvariations in firing d excess air. The necessity of unscheduled~oqtaiges rder to maintain performance.

these two factors and the surface. Increasing the temperature differential takes advantage of the available temperature potential, while an increase of the heattransfer coefficient necessitates a larger resistance to gas flow. Full advantage should be taken of a high temperature difference, but the entering gas temperature should not be so high as to result in excessive tube metal temperatures or high-temperature fuel ash corrosion (these are primarily a matter of location). The change in steam temperature with firing rate should be a minimum in order to prevent excessive temperatures during maneuvering and, again, this depends upon location. Steam velocities should provide for good distribution of steam, minimum tube metal temperatures, and acceptable steam pressure drops; all of which require correlating the effects of size, location, and the arrangeure dictates the thickness of the super- ment of the steam passes. which in turn is an important factor in the a. Types and Characteristics. The radiant and of superheater pressure drop and tube convection-type superheaters are the two basic types. They are, as their names imply, superheaters which receive heat by radiant or convection heat transfer and they may be arranged horizontaily or vertically. In the radiant type the steam temperature decreases with increased rating since the quantity of heat absorbed by radiation does not increase proportionally with steam flow; see Fig. -23. In the convection type, the steam temperature generally increases with increased rating are designed to have a because the heat absorption, due to greater heattransfer coefficients and higher inlet gas temperatures, urface can be obtained by increases a t a faster rate than the steam output. hcnt-transfer coefficient and the CemperaMost superheaters are a combination of the two basic oducts of combustion and types in which the designer builds in a radiant combsorbed is the product of ponent to achieve a flatter temperature characteristic.

II 1




1 07

(a) Three-pass hairpin loop type

(b) Two-pass continuous loop type

~ i ~ Schematic arrangement of hairpin and continuous-loop superheaters 24 .






Experience has shown that the diligent use of sootblowing equipment (particularly mass-action retractable units) usually can keep superheater surfaces satisfactorily clean for a year, or more, of opelation and that manual cleaning and washing of the external heat absorbing surfaces are required only during scheduled overhauls. h. Reheaters. The design of reheaters involves the same procedures and considerations that are pertinent to superheater design. However, the steam distribution and tube metal temperature problems are more critical since reheaters must be designed for exceptionally low steam pressure losses if a high cycle efficiency is to be obtained. Steam or combustion gas can be used as the heating medium in reheaters. When steam heating is used, the temperature of the reheated steam usually is limited to 550 to 600 F, since it is customary to use condensing rather than superheated steam as the heating medium because of the much higher rate of heat transfer. The use of gas reheaters is necessary if high reheat steam temperatures and cycle efficiencies are required. Such reheaters may be fired separately or installed in the boiler proper. Separately fired reheaters are not common because they require an individual firing aide and renewal clearances. as well as additional piping, . controls, breechings, firing equipment, fans, etc. 3.6 Air Heaters and Economizers. Air heaters and/or economizers are necessary to obtain high boiler efficiencies. Preference alone should not arbitrarily influence the selection of either since the design of the power plant and it? performance characteristics greatly affect the choice. The temperature of saturated steam at a pressure of 850 psig is 528 F and the temperature of the products of combustion leaving the boiler tube bank would be, for a conservative boiler design, approximately 150 deg F above this value, or about 675 F. When firing oil, and operating with 14.0 percent COs in the products of combustion (approximately 15 percent excess air), this uptake gas temperature would result in an operating efficiency of only about 80 percent as can be see" from

Economizer elements (particularly the extended-surface type) are more expensive than boiler tubes. In air heaters, part of the advantage resulting from the improved temperature difference is offset by the high resistance to heat flow across the air flm [17]. Therefore, the proportions of component surfaces must be studied carefully to obtain the most economical overall arrangement. The minimum temperature of the feedwater to most merchant marine economizers vaxies between 270 and 280 F. The standard feedwater temperature for most is naval installatior~ 246 F. This lower temperature is satisfactory because a premium fuel with a low sulfur content is used. Since the gas temperature leaving the economizer cannot be less than the inlet water temperature, .it follows that high feedwater temperatures limit the obtainable efficiency. Consequently, with high feedwater temperatures, economizers are not often used unless they are installed in conjunction with air heaters. I n an air heater, the minimum uptake gas temperature is dependent on the entering air temperature. Therefore, the attractiveness of air heater installations is due to the possibility of operating with a high boiler efficiency when using feedwater temperatures in the range of 300 to 450 F. When steam turbines are bled for regenerative feed heating,'the plant efficiency is increased about 1 percent for each 100 deg F rise in feed temperature due to the reduced heat loss in the condensers. Whether this improvement in efficiency warrants the expenditure required for additional feed heating and other equipment should be carefully weighed for each application. The use of an air heater necessitates an increased air pressure to the boiler unit because of the additional resistance to air flow through the air heater. Air pressures also must be increased when using economizers because of the relatively high resistance to the gas flow across the economizer, but, for boilers of the same size operating at comparable firing rates, an air heater installation will usually require a higher total air pressure than will a unit fitted with an economizer. w:1R rlg. IU. Air heaters are not pressure vessels, so the tubes can be If the uptake gas could be cooled to a temperature fabricated from mechanical tubing (less expensive than equal to the steam's saturation temperature by the use of an infinite amount of heat absorbing surface, the pressure tubing) that is lightly expanded into the tube improved efficiency would only be 83.75 percent. There- sheets. However, economizers are part of the pressure fore, air heaters or economizers must be installed to system and must be designed to withstand the main increase full-load efficiencies to the 88-90 percent range feed pump discharge pressure, to operate without leakage, usually desired. Further, the use of high evaporative and to withstand thermal shock. a. Air Heaters. Increased efficiency and reduced ratings a t any given steam pressure increases the need boiler maintenance can be obtained by improving comfor additional heat reclaiming equipment. When air heaters or economizers are installed, the bustion. Preheated air can improve combustion, reduco proportions of the boiler, air heater, and economizer boiler sooting, and reduce the possibility of ignition loss surfaces must be balanced. Usually, the temperature particularly at the extreme low end of the firing range. Practically all of the older marine air heaters were of differential between the products of combustion and the the tubular type; the regenerative types were not often heat absorbing fluids in the economizer and air heater is greater than that in the last section of the boiler tube used. However, in recent years, particularly for highbank. This is advantageous in reducing the heat powered installations, the rotary regenerative air preheater has found wide application. A typical absorbing surface required for a given heat recovery.

nxt~rnple a regenerative air heater is shown in Fig. 14. of I l,n gastight casing forms part of the boiler forced-draft rir nnd uptake gas ducts. The heater is separately ~llourltedabove the boiler and suitable expansion joints mBoused in the ducts joining the two [7]. 'I'l~eessential component of the heater is the rotor in wllitill the heat-transfer plate elements are packed. The aila for combustion is passed axially through one side of Llln lutor while the flue gas is passed through the other aliltr in the opposite direction. As the rotor turns, heat I. nitltinuously transferred from the gas to the heating r~l~*lrbco; is also continuously given up to the air as heat the lioated plates traverse the air side. Counterflow I I tl~e ~ gas and air insures efficient heat transfer. 'I'l~n heat-transfer elements are made of corrugated and flnl alloets which are alternately packed in the main secI11111 of the heater and in the cold-end baskets. The coldel111 basket is designed to be readily removable for cleanilly or replacement when conditions warrant. For daily elon~irig,a cleaning device consisting of a mass-action ar~ol~ blower is installed. Air and gas bypass dampers fiiw ctn integral part of the preheater and are useful in rature sion at imize soot ers can be made air heaters are of the horizontal type vertical type is no%often used since it is stall considerably more surface for a eat absorption than would be needed for the e, it is customary he gas across the In the vertical type the gas usually passes the tubes and the air crosses the tubes. ontal tubular air heaters generally utilize in-line &rrangements. These facilitate cleaning of the far more r heat transfer

tube rows, and the number of gas and air passes. This facilitates determination of the heat-transfer rates and the heating surface. The preliminary assumptions are then adjusted, if necessary, so that the surface arrangement and heat transfer provide the required heat absorption. Gas and air flow patterns also must be analyzed since maldistribution could reduce heat absorption, increase fan power, reduce or elevate tube metal temperatures, or restrict the capacity of the boiler unit. Air heater designs are usually predicated upon inlet air temperatures of 100 F, and exit air temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 F at the normal full-load operating rate. Design exit gas temperatures of 290 to 320 F are common for tubular air heaters and result in boiler efficiencies of 88.5 to 88 percent. Regenerative air heaters can be designed for lower uptake gas temperatures for a given risk of corrosion since for the same air and gas temperatures the heating surface metal temperature is somewhat higher than that of the tubular heater. Gas temperatures from 240 to 260 F are common for regenerative air heaters with boiler efficiencies of 90 to 89.5 percent respectively. Both the weight of the gas produced and the specific heat of the flue gas are greater than that of combustion air. Therefore, when firing oil with about 15 percent excess air, the reduction in the temperature of the products of combustion passing through the air heater is about 13 percent less than the rise in air temperature. In air heaters the heat-transfer coefficients across the gas and air films are of about the same magnitude, and high resistance to heat flow is encountered in the gas film on both sides of the tube. b. Economizers. Marine economizers can be grouped into two general classifications, the "bare-tube" and the Uextended-surface"types. They are generally nonsteaming and are usually arranged for counterflow of the water and the products of combustion. This results in larger temperature differentials, and greater heat absorption can be obtained. The counterflow nt permits a higher boiler efficiencybecause the temperature can approach that of the inlet omizers use tubes ranging in size from to 2 in. arranged in the form of either hairpins or continuous loops. The hairpin type consists of U-bend tubes that are welded, or expanded, into headers. Single or multiple rows of loops can be used as well as two or more headers. I n the continuous-loop type, each tube element consists of a length of tubing bent back and forth to form the desired number of rows; the ends of the tube are attached to the inlet and outlet headers, usually by welding. Since only two headers a& required, the number of tube joints is greatly reduced as may be noted from Fig. 26. There are many types of extended-surface economizers. The most prominent are those having steel studs or circumferential fins of aluminum, steel, or cast iron (see Fig. 12). Features common to all extended-surface

isite tubes aximum the heatacross and y as about and, thus, ses with a s, both the tube size satisfactory, in most bes with *-in. tube de of the length of ow, the number of



cient varies as the 0.65 to 0.70 power of the gas mass flow rate. Usually, if the economizer width is increased, a reduction can be made in the height of the economizer. Most marine economizers use counterflow arrangements with up-flow gas and down-flow water. The water pressure drop at about 25 percent of the normal full-load operating rate should be equal to, or greater than, the static water head in order to prevent recirculation. This minimum pressure drop requirement is not necessary if parallel-flow, up-flow gas and water, nonsteaming economizers are used, since the water pressure in the outlet header always will be less than that in the inlet Multiple water passes are often used in hairpin-type economizers to obtain satisfactory water velocities and pressure drops. These arrangements have both counterand parallel-flow relations between the water and the products of combustion, and the calculated heat transfer should be based on the average of the flow arrangements. Most continuous-loop and extended-surface type economizers have a single water pass arranged for flow counter




bare-tube economizers the temperature drop across

I ~ I I tube wall is small and, for all practical purposes, the I~ Iltll)(j rmtal temperature can be considered the same
( J I I L ~ of

the water it carries. Tube metal temperatures

extended-surface elements also are about the same as

Idltl ldjacent water, although the tip temperatures of the @xl,trrrded surface are considerably higher. I't'udence, and often regulations, requires a check valve 11) Illlo connecting piping between the economizer and the fltflfirndrum to prevent the loss of steam pressure in the ~Vnlltof an economizer casualty. Further, the valve fanilitates filling the economizer, particularly since a wnh@rhead of several feet is required to lift the check if k l i troonomizer is located above the normal water level, ~ h bypass line around the economizer will allow rrl8arrition of the boiler with an economizer outage. Ihbwover, few economizers are fitted with bypass lines k~aarlaeof their cost and the piping r ~ o m p l i c a t in- ~ i~

Fig- 27

Drum-type desuperheater



rlrr~rr sections and there is a definite transition zone I~ebwoon heated downcomers and the riser tubes, the the 111t~alion which varies considerably with changes in of I IIH boiler firing rate. 111 the U-tube analogy, there is initially a vertical ja"mure plane a t the bottom on which the pressures ~ ~ n r l , o d the hot and cold water legs are equal. As by u(111111 pressure plane in the lower water drums, or Ir@a(lurs, pressure corresponding to the flow of water the Ilrrough the downcomers is equal to the product of the I~oatl water and its density minus the resistance to flow. of 'I'lrk pressure must balance the product of the head of wnt1trrin the risers and its density plus the resistance to






Fig. 29

Uncontrolled and controlled steam temperature

Fig. 28

External-spray desuperheater

ture to the design value. The temperature of superheated steam is a function of rating and for the usual marine boiler rises as shown by the "uncontrolled curve" in Fig. 29. To make the most effective use of the materials in the superheater and main steam piping, the final steam temperature can be controlled so as not to exceed the design value. This can be accomplished by passing a portion of the superheated steam through a desuperheater in the drum. The location of the outlet and inlet connections is usually "interpass"; a typical arrangement is illustrated in Fig. 30. The desuperheated steam is returned to the last passes of the superheater where it mixes with the main flow to deliver the design temperature [2, 3, 61. A manually operated valve or an automatically controlled valve is used to regulate the temperature at all rates above the "control point9' (that point on the uncontrolled steam temperature characteristic curve which crosses the desired controlled temperature line). 3 8 Circulation and Steam Baffler. The natural . circulation characteristics of the boiler and the type of steam drum b a a n g are determined after the arrangemerit of the heat absorbing surfaces has been established. Generally, because of the effect of the steam drum baffles upon the circulatory system, simultaneous analyses are made. circulation calculation procedures are in part empirical and in part theoretical. The purpose of the is to establish a system of downcomers, riaers,

(a) Interpass, across restricted pass

~ g 30 .

[b) External bypass, three-way valve system

Interpass control desuperheater arrangements

and generating tubes which will insure that each tub0 receives an adequate supply of water in relation to the maximum heat absorbed. a. Circulation: Boiler Tube Banks and Furnace Waterwalls. The circulation characteristics of f u r n ~ o waterwalls and boiler tube banks are determined by tho same procedure and, since the water-steam ratio decreases with increased rating, the characteristics must be established for the maximum contemplated rating. In analyzing boiler cirqulation, it can be assumed that each circulating system is, in effect, a U-tube [6, 181. The riser section of the U-tube is that portion of the tubn bank in which the flow of steam and water is upward a* heat is applied. The downcomer section consists un" of heated tubes or those ~ o r t i o n s the tube banks ill which the heat absorption is considerably lower than "l the riser section. Because of the difference in fluid densities, heated tubes can act as downcomers for thf'

minus the riser friction 1oss-a quantity as the net available circulation head [3]. 111 most circulation analyses the steam geaerated in the rlmr tubes is calculated and the water-steam flow, as well r ~ t lthe net available head, is then determined for V L P ~ O ~ water-steam ratios. In analyzing circulatory ~R @hrrl.noteristics, is customary to graphically plot both it llro downcomer friction losses and the net available sirolllntion heads for the assumed water-steam mixture %ewu, As shown by Fig. 31, the flow tit which the ~ltr~dlt~ble minus the resistance to flow through the head ~ C e ~baffles equals the resistance to downcomer flow is nl that required to balance the circulatory system. From F ~ flows at the balance point the percentages of steam by P wlnnlo at the top of the riser tubes can be calculated. Tho percentage of steam by volume a t the top of the @@el' llubes must be such as to preclude overheating of ih@tlibes. If the quantity is excessive, the circulatory 6YPb111 must be redesigned to provide additional downkmflrrr, or the size and contour of the downcomers must ) atlonged to reduce the resistance to flow. It also I CW&y ho necessary to change the location, size, and &llllt~llr of the boiler tubes to redistribute the heat ~Brrerption and reduce flow resistance. f 11 a satisfactory circulatory system, an adequate @moullCof water must be supplied for each pound of ~ C ~ a gonerated. Therefore, if the percentage of steam nl b,Y vol~lme the exit of the riser tubes is used as a design at @rlk@rlori,is necessary to vary the allowable percentage it MI @Ira pressure changes since the percentage of steam by vtllulno will increase as the pressure is reduced because @f tlla irlcreased specific volume of the steam. Naval Btrllera nro usually designed for water-steam ratios (i.e., k@l#irll water/weight of steam passing through the of #elrornLiag tubes) ranging between 5.0 and 10.0, and hlel'bll~ttlt units usually fall in the range of 15.0 to 20.0 IC blra overload rates of operation. Lower water-steam p ~ b l o ~ used on naval boilers in order to reduce the nro Crjlltlr ~ i a o and weight by minimizing downcomer

~ B @ C densities,

Fie. 31

Characteristic head venus water-steam mixture flow for circulation calculations

b. Heated Downcomers. I evaporative ratings are f conservative and the gas temperatures leaving the boiler do not exceed about 750 F, the first several rows of tubes will function as risen with the remainder serving as heated downcorners. As the firing rate increases, the high-temperature zone moves farther back into the tube bank and additional tubes become risers while a corresponding lesser number act as downcorners. If the firing rate is further increased, the number of downcomers becomes inadequate, circulation is impeded, and tube casualties may occur; when design analyses indicate such circumstances, external or unheated internal downcomers must be installed. c. External and Unheated Internal Downcorners. With conservative evaporative ratings, external downcomers 'are required for only those portions of the boiler in which the tubes cannot act as downcomers (i.e., a single tube row forming a furnace boundary, a shallow tube bank installed between two furnaces, or tube banks shielding a superheater from two furnaces). If downcomers are required for the main tube bank, they usually are located external to the tube bank even though the arrangement requires longer boiler drums. The use of unheated internal downcomers minimizes the drum length and eliminates tubes in the main boiler bank; however, unheated internal downcomers usually enter the steam drum at high water levels and they may lose water during heavy rolls or inadvertent reductions




upon the natural separation of steam and water. For higher boiler ratings a positive means of steam separation is required and compartmenbtype baffles, Fig. 32(b), are frequently used. Centrifugal steam separators are used primarily in highly rated merchant and Navy drum-type boilers; they are particularly desirable for boilers subjected to rapid maneuvering, fluctuating water levels, or high solids concentrations in the boiler water. Centrifugal steam separators may be arranged either horizontally or vertically in the steam drum as in Fig. 3 2 ( ~ ) . The resistance to flow through centrifugal separators is



llloat merchant units having 48 to 54-in. drums and most llnval boilers using 46 to 60-in. drums. As power levels Ill(:rease,60 to 72-in.-dia drums are used more frequently 101) provide the necessary room for steam baffles and to lw()videthe capability of accommodating the shrink and n w d l that occurs when maneuvering. b- Headers. Headers for water walls or economizers ~1.o usually fabricated from pipe stock. &llow forgings 1lltU' also be used especially for superheaters. They may b~round or forged to a rectangular or other cross @fl(ltion to facilitate tube installation. Tubes are lll~lulledby expanding or by welding. Htandard boiler and economizer tubes are fabricated from either electric resistance welded or seamless stock. t1:lo0tric resistance welded tubes are less expensive and lllbvo been proven to be as dependable as seamless tubes 111 boilers and economizers. Superheater tubes are made




supplied to the downcomers is greater than that of the "frothy" water-steam mixture discharged from perforated-plate and compartment-type baffles. e. Effect of Drum B d e s on the Circulatory System. The steam-water flow through the steam drum baffles is in series with all of the flow circuits in the circulatory system. Thus, if the flow through one of the circuits is increased, for example, by the installation of additional downcorners, the flow through the steam baffles also is increased. This imposes an additional resistance in the circulatory system with the result that the flow in downcomers will not increase in direct propodion the additions made.

emperature to 130 F or less. Local areas, for where superheater inlet or outlet nozl;les


ng. 32 Typlcal steam reparation equipment

st boilers are of double-casing comtruction. An

boilers, combustion gases are discharged into ry space in the event of a leak.

materials vary. to suit the application; those for a particular unit can be readily determined. ral or strength members of the casing are used art some of the loads of the pressure parts. The ing bank and screen and furnace walls are eolf-supporting; however, the casing may lend these pads during rolling and pitching of the it is not on an even keel- It is U S U ~ 00 h o s u ~ ~ o r t tsuperheater headers and the superhe ' t'lbfis (wholly or in pad) , as well as the economizer l'lrlbtcr Or tubular), on the casing structLlre.

Fig. 33

Typical sections of boiler casings


Suitable access and inspection doors are required and their location is an important practical aspect of casing design. Provisions must also be made for differential ~ expansion between the pressure parts and the casing and between the casing and the boiler foundation and surrounding decks, platforms, piping, etc. In large boilers where welded walls are used, another






.*.t .
\ *









give the operator a direct view of a light source which shines through the boiler uptake and the combustion gases. Another type employs a photoelectric cell and provides a readout on a meter scale calibrated in smoke density units; it may also be fitted to sound an alarm when a certain smoke density is reached. d. Instrumentation and Controls. The need for operating instruments and manual and/or automatic controls varies with the size and type of equipment, the method of firing, the proficiency of the operating personnel, and the desired degree of automation. Chapter 21 covers the application of control equipment to ship's propulsion plants. For safe operation and efficient performance, information is required relative to the water level in the boiler drum; burner performance; pressures of the steam and the feedwater; temperature of the superheated (md reheated) steam; pressures of the gas and air entering and the leaving principal components; feedwater and boiler water chemical conditions and particle carry-over; operation of feed pumps, fans, fuel burning, equipment; relationship of the and fuel actual combustion air passing through the furnace to that theoretically required for the fuel fired; temperatures of the water, gas, fuel, and air entering and leaving the principal component parts of the unit; and feedwater, steam, fuel, and air flows. Icor many years, marine boilers have been equipped with control equipment permitting steady operation at sea with little operator participation except while maneuvering. However, the trend is toward complete automation of the boilers so that, with the exception of starting up, they can be operated throughout the full range from standby to full load without manual adjustTo attain fully automatic operation, the development of adequate control components and system designs is essential. The operating characteristics of the principal and auxiliary items of steam-generating equipment must be fully known since these characteristics affect the degree of controllability, the scope of the controls required, and the response obtained. These in turn affect the safety of the installation and establish its economic justification. As an example, where the burners have a range of oper~tion turndown capability or equal to or greater than that required by the boiler, the necessity to sequence burners (or take them out of service) is eliminated. This, in turn, eliminates many decisions and functions that would otherwise be required of an automatic burner management system, and a simpler system may be selected. The degrees of control which can be achieved, in ascending order of sophistication, are manual, local supervised manual, remote supervised manual, automatic (nonrecycling), and automatic (recycling). These various types of control can best be delineated by relating their functions to burner operation. With the manual type of control, Fig. 40, a burner is manually purged and ignited. I t may be automatically

modulated but it is stopped manually. Although no operator function is ~erformed automatically, widerange burners can be used with automatic comb us ti or^ controls to facilitate dock-to-dock operation without manual participation. However, without boiler and burner monitoring devices, the operator must remain in close proximity to the boiler to provide the necessary surveillance. In the local supervised manual system, Fig. 41, a burner is purged and manually ignited, but certain ~ r o c e d u r e ~ and conditions are supervised by safety interlocks. ~ l l manual functions are performed and checked by tho operator a t the burner station during normal operation, and if the demand for steam is within the capability of the burners, unattended boiler operation is attained. Monitoring and safety interlocks are ~rovidedto alter the operation if an unsafe condition develops, and to trip the burner and/or the boiler, if necessary. After 11 trip-out, the operator must take the necessary correctivn action to clear the interlocks and recycle the burner and/or the boiler. The remote supervised manual system, Fig. 42, allow^ or a burner to be purged and ignited by a ~ushbutton selector switch, modulated automatically, and securcd by a remote manually actuated pushbutton or selector switch. I t also provides supervision of procedures by safety interlocks. The burner is mechanized and all operating functioris are ~erformed mechanical device^ by initiated from a remote control station which indicaton whether or not each function has been performed correctly. This system of control does not relieve thtr operator of burner manipulation. He must devote hin undivided attention to the step-by-step procedures folstarting and securing burners, which is a time-consuminlr, process. This control system can only be justified i l l installations where the turndown capabilities of tho burners do not match the turndown requirements of tho boiler, and, the burners must be manipulated to covclr. the operating range. Its application will not meet thtr USCG requirements for an automatic boiler. The automatic (nonrecycling) control system, Fig. 43, involves a burner which, when actuated manually by 11 pushbutton, is purged, ignited, and modulated automatically; and although secured either automatically or remote-manually, the burner does not recycle automatically. When start and stop sequences are manually initiated from a remote control station, each function i l l the start-up and stop sequence is performed and checltatl automatically and all ~roceduresand conditions arc' supervised by safety interlocks. Since the operator may be required to initiate the start-up and securing of n burner to meet load requirements, this control systenl does not meet the USCG definition of an automatic! boiler. With an automatic (recycling) type of control systenr, a burner is purged, ignited, modulated, and stopp(-tl automatically, and the burner recycles within a prescribnd load range. 3.12 Sample Design Problem. The steps followcxl

Fig. 40

Burner operation-local

manual control

Hlltrthm pressure, drum, approx.. . . . . . Hll(rfbm pressure, superheater outlet. . .

nuperheated 185,520 Ib/hr (losuperheated 16,870 lb/hr Pntdwater temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . 41:Hiciency (based on 13% radiation auld unaccounted for losses and 15% flxcess air) . . . . . . . . .'. . . . . . . . . . . . . P'ud total heating value (standard h n k e r C 4- added heat in air). . . . 19,264 ~ t u / l b Pll(!l required. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14,349 lb/hr Alr temperature, leaving steam air houter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 811' (16.07 Ib/lb oil at 15% excess flow
245,000 lb/hr

Fig. 41

Burner operatiolr-local rupewhed manual conko]

nir) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . . . . . Ylue gas flow = 244,937, say. . . . . . . .

fpol' the example, only one rate of operation will be lalsul~btedalthough for an actual boiler design it is not ilfitl@llfil to calculate three or more rates to establish @l*kl'fi()~Ori~ti~ of performance. Rated power will Curves orl(lulated since this establishes the design meeting khr~ np(>eifiedefficiency and steam temperature. The h m l - ~ ~ s fdata are derived from the cumes and proer Chapter 2. of Boiler Layout. Two oil burners will be used to @MPP~,Y total oil flow of 14,349 lb/hr at rated power the Mia ahout 8000 lb/hr each at overload. The necessary @!@#r~lces burners of this capacity are obtained from for the ~(rlocted burner manufacturer. Based on this !ltfl1rllll~tion experience, an approximate furnace and and bll@l' o u is prepared (see Fig. 44) from which the lh~ t hlfllfitf(f volume and heating surfaces can be estimated. k~. Furnace Calculations. The furnace volume, cold

@ul.f#fltr, and

radiant heat abs~rbing surface @HAS) are




To determine the shape emissivity factor, FBFA, the following data are required: VF = 2655 fta ST = 1200 fta S, = 1175 ft' PF = 1 atmosphere Thotefore the firing density is [see equation (31) of

X. = tube equivalent thickness


1 = - Dolog, O-D 2 Di

2 2 - log. - = 0.182 2 1.67

= tube conductivity = 310 Btu/hr-ft-F

Next, by estimating the corrected furnace exit ternperature, T E ~ , be 2200 F the tube film temperature can to be approlrimated as

Fig. 7 of Chapter 2 the concentration factor K la 0,086. The mean radiating length is L = 0.6q2655 = ft. Equation (31) of Chapter 2 can now be evaluated &o dotermine the flame emissivity
RII~ from
EF =

= 1653 F

The temperature coefficientf~ [equation (40) of Chapter 21 then becomes

0.95(1 - e- (o.o6a)(i)(s.a) ) = 0.353

f~ = 0.00003875T,r

+ 0.1035 = 0.1675

Ag. 45

~ furnace exit temperature~ and furnace t of ~ ~ i ~ abrorpriar i

ture and heat absorption can be calculated (See Sectio"

2 of Chapter 2)) based on the following furnace surfacO

for an &/ST value of 0.98, FEFA determined to be is bSd4 from Fig. 6 of Chapter 2. In order for the calculation to proceed, it necessary w u m e several values of the furnace exit temperature. bibking this assumption

With a flue gas flow W n 245,000 lb/hr and two burners of having 2-ft thmat diameters, the flue gas weight flow rate

G is 39,000 1b/ft2-hr. Since the furnace depth D is 14 ft, the surface heat-transfer coefficient hRw can be computed from equation (39) of Chapter as

2,200 2,660

2,300 2,760

2,400 2,860

haw =

f r = 13.2 ~tu/hr-ft2-F

,/&)a; equation (36) of Ohapter 2; Btu/ft2-hr



81,300 T B ~ 2239 F =


The adiabatic sensible heat in the combustion can be computed from equation (37) of chapter a fuel lower heating value of 17,500 Btu/lb and a fuOl Ensible heat of 46 Btu/lb (100 deg F rise at 0.46 heat), for pedect combustion the sensible heat bemmo* determined by the methods of Section 2 of Chapter T & R Bulletin 3-14 [lo] to be: Furnace volume = 2655 fta Projected surface = 1200 fta RHAS = 1175fta


+ q~ 4- (ta - ~o)CPR
+ 46 + (278 - 80) (0.2445) (13.98)
13.98 4- 1




3.5 2.5

With a fuel higher rating value of 18,500 B t u m the furnace ratings at rated power are: Release rate =

mture in the furnace is From Fig. 2 of chapter 2 the adiabatic flame tempertLture, TAt,is found to be 3990 F or 4450 RWith 15 percent excess air 641 F at drum saturation pressure of 975 psia

The screen, superheater, and generating bank performance calculations may be conducted as follows:




I I I * ~ I I l~lr~ny factors, and a feedwater specialist should be p~tlrwtll~crtl establish specific procedures. However, to iltr* I.P@(II~R obtained will depend upon the diligence and ttrtygrl(~y the routine sampling and the control measures of B + # I I l11trl~od ~ by the operating personnel.


This practice is expected to becO1'lr' used after proper treatment (19, 201. In essence, this from corrosion. common, particularly at higher steam Pressures an(( entails: the removal from the raw water of those con1 stituents which are known to be harmful; supplementary single-boiler installations. Filming amines introdl~(~~sl treatment (within the boiler or connected system) of into the feedwater or steam lines also provide ~rotec1,l~)ll impurities to convert them into harmless forms; against corrosion, but by forming a coating on the mrlftll and systematic removal, by blowdown of boiler water surfaces rather than by changing the PH of the watts. of 4.3 Boiler Water. Boiler water is treated within I ~ I I I . concentrates, to prevent excessive boiler to prevent corrosion, the fouling of heat-absorblll# solids within the unit. ThiSreq~i~"~~ The ultimate purpose of feedwater and boiler water surfaces, and the mntamination of steam. the injection of chemicals into the steam drum W I I ( ~ I ~ treatment is to keep the internal surfaces free from deposits of scale or sludge and to prevent the corrosion they react with the residual impurities in the feedwi~ln-I of these surfaces. Hard-scale formations, formed by Properly controlled, internal treatment can mai111.nlll certain constituents in zones of high heat input, retard boiler water conditions within satisfactory limits [6, 1x1 an Corrosion is minimized by maintaini~l~ al1c:~li111~ the flow of heat rnd raise the metal to higher-thanboiler water and this condition is usually expressed 111 temperatures. This can cause overheating and The PH of w;lt1'l '<pH" or "total the failure of pressure parts, Sludge, or solid particles terms of upon the relativealkalinity." depends concentrations of the hydrorlbll normally carried in suspension, may settle locally and restrict the flow of cooling water or, in some cases, may (H+) and h~droxyl(OH-) ions. A PH of 7.0 corrl' to deposit in the form of insulating layers with an effect sponds to pure water and values from 7.0 d ~ w n n b n l are increasingly acidic while values from 7.0 UP to I.1.(1 similar to that of hard scale. Oil and grease prevent adequate wetting of the internal surfaces and, in areas are increasingly alkaline. The pH of a water sample ~':III of high input, cause overheating; they also may carbonize be determined accurately by the measurement of its I ' I I ~ ~ ' or and form a tightly adberent insulating coating. Corro- trical ~otential approximated by chemical indicals'~~ sion due to acidic conditions, or to dissolved gases, can which change color in certain pH ranges by reactil'l~n weaken the boiler by the removal of metal. This with the solution. The pH of boiler water usually 1s usually occurs in localized areas in the form of cavities maintained within the range of 10.2 to 11.5. Total alkalinity (expressed in parts per million) I* I' may result in complete and pits which if measure of all reactives that have the ability to neutr:~l~m penetration and leakage. Certain chemical reactions produce an intereranular attack on the metal, leading to acids and is determined by titrating a water sample W I ~ J I standard acid. I t is frequently expressed as "equiv:~I1~111 embrittlement and fracture. 4.2 Feedwater. Virtually all oceangoing vessels use calcium carbonate," which has a molecular weight of 101) feedwater evaporated from seawater for the boilers, and When determined in this manner, total alkalinity is 11111 thus, feedwater treatment is minimized. Some con- exactly comparable to the pH measurement of alkalil~ll.~. tamination may be encountered in the distillate due to due to the buffering action which occurs in conll)lltr the carry-over of water particles with the vapor and the solutions, but it is often used as a reference. The removal of dissolved oxygen is desirable in 1111 reabsorption of nonoondensable gases but additional units. 11 ~ f l However, dissolved boilers but it is mandatory for high-~ressure ~olidsremoval is not required. customary in removing oxygen to supplement feedw:ll1c*r gases must be removed to prevent corrosion. Dissolved oxygen is usually the greatest factor in the deaeration by internal chemical treatment of the w:~lr~v. wl1l('ll corrosion of boiler surfaces in contact with water. I t using a scavenging agent such as sodium sul~hite combines with the oxygen to form a stable s0dil1111 may be in the makeup water or in the feedwater, as a result of previous contacts with atmospheric air, or it sulphate. Hydradne also may be used for the purl*~N~ may be added to the water by leakage into the system yielding end products of water and inert nitrogen. 'l'llllap through low-pressure ppmp seals, storage tanks, etc. chemicals prevent the entrance or the retention of ( l m ih Fortunately, most of the oxygen can be readily removed solved oxygen and are maintained in the boiler water rl from the water by the use of deaerating-type feedwater a small marginal excess. The elimination of hardness in the boiler watcr 10 heaters. Corrosion may be experienced in the condensate piping necessary to prevent scale and it can be removctl and the preboiler system due to diswlved gases, such as injecting one of the combinations of sodium or potassi~llll carbon dioxide, sulphw dioxide, or hydrogen sulphide,, phosphate and thoroughly mixing the compound I V I ~ ~ I I f in the water. These gases originate from the atmos- the boiler water. I the alkalinity is maintained at :I I ) ~ I They of 10 or higher, the residual calcium ions entering wit111110 phere or from constituents in the boiler water. are released in the steam generators, intimately mixed feedwater are precipitated as an insoluble phospll~ll. d with the outgoiog steam, and finally exhausted to the sludge and the magnesium is ~ r e c i ~ i t a t eas a 11011 adherent magnesium hydroxide. Routine control rr condenser. Although it is not common marine practice to treat quires the adjustment of the pH by the additioll 111 water in the preboiler system, a few installations have sodium hydroxide, or its equivalent, and the mainter~;ll~~'@ IISP~ cvclohexvlamine or other volatile amines to increase of a moderate excess of phosphate ions in the boiler ~:11'1~1

rmal wn; tiny operation; inspection and maintenance; and rlb8o. In all phases the handling of the equipment or, but the overall tions and operation

govern the time required for start-up and also, to some extent, for cooling after shutdown. c. Boiler Cleaning. For mtisfactory and efficient operation, a boiler must be kept clean on both the waterside and fieside. With adequate attention to the and by maintaining the boiler prescribed limits, there the waterside. The fireside, on the other hand, requires daily attention if the steam temperature and boiler efficiency are to be maintained a t their optimum values. Only distilled and deaerated water should be used for feeding the boiler and for feed makeup. Total solids in the boiler water should not exceed a of 500 Suspended solids should five percent of the total lower than 2 ppm and range of 10 to 25 ppm. The o d d be in range of 10.2 to 11.5. r (sodium sulfite) should range maintained within these limits, will not form scale or


a steaming boiler should be given a good surface blow each to maintain about 50 percent of the normal day. A test for total dissolved solids made before and ~bhrg pressure. This procedure facilitates the desired after the blow will indicate if additional attention is g. required. The water drum bottom blowoff connection

ing suspended or total solids in the allowed to deteriorate to the point bakedqn sludges are found during waterside inspections, chemical analysis of the deposits will indicate the cleaning method best suited for their s and scale cutters through each tube, and a high-pressure water hose. The entire eaned as a unit more quickly and efficiently ng. A specialist should be consulted to procedure, which entails the use of acid rinsing agents. The acid strength, the temperature at which they are used . are of vital importance if the cleaning process is to be kept within safe limits. Excessive acid strength or unneutralizpd acid remaining after cleaning will pit and attack the metal possibly to the point that replacement to facilitate the cleaning surfaces of the superheater well as the economizer and air anged in in-line patterns which rough which inspection and cleaning hed. Staggered patterns are slightly more efficient from a heat-transfer standpoint but are more difficult to inspect and clean. In extreme conditions, hand lancing or watermu.ashing

ce to reduce

shutdown, nspect the of normal

eheater) flow.



boiler and its cleaning equipment have all but eliminated the need for hand cleaning. Soot blowers are used to clean the fireside at regular intervals. The frequency depends on the fuel ash characteristics, combustion efficiency, and the rates of operation. Air or steam can be used as the blowing medium; however, oil-fired boilers almost universally use steam. Steam is available in large quantities and at a low cost. Air, often used in coal-fired units, is "puffed" intermittently to permit repressurization of the air receivers by the air compressor. Superheated or desuperheated steam can be used with good effect. The steam should be supplied in a dry state, and the supply system must have adequate traps or be fitted with orificed drains to remove condensate so as to prevent it from reaching the blower elements. Three basic types of steam soot blowers are used. The long retracting mass-action type used in superheaters; the rotary valve-in head line blower used in boiler banks, economizers, and tubular air heaters; and the stctionary-type unit which is used in hoppers and where fixed directions of blowing are desired to remove localized deposits, such as those forming on top of the water drum. The soot blowing system can be manually operated or sequential pushbutton controls can be employed to automatically program the cleaning process. Once initiated, the automatic sequencing control opens the steam supply valve, warms the lines, blows the soot blowers in sequence, and then shuts dourn the steam supply.
Boiler Storage

a. Dry Storage. When a boiler will be idle for a considerable length of time and there will be ample time available to prepare for its return to sewice, the drystorage method is recommended. To accomplish this, the unit is emptied, thoroughly cleaned internally and externally, dried, and then closed tightly to exclude both moisture and air. Trays of lime, silica gel, or other moisture absorbents, are placed in the drums to collect the moisture trapped in the air when closing the boiler. To insure against a possible overflow of corrosive liquid after the moisture has been absorbed, not more than 75 percent of the tray capacity should be filled with the dry absorbent. Care must be taken to prevent water, steam or air leakage into the unit, and periodic inspections should be made to make sure that there is no corrosive action' The absorbent should be replenished as required. b. Wet Storage. I boilers are to be placed in f standby service but must be available for immediate operation, before shutting d ~ w n they should be steamed to stabilize the boiler water conditions and to remove oxygen bubbles from the internal surfaces. The boiler firing rate should then be decreased slowly and the steam drum water level should be raised as high in the gage glass as is consistent with safe operation while still passing steam to the line. The hydrate alkalinity in the

boiler water should be increased to a minimum of 400 ppm, and, with the addition of sodium sulfite in thv amount of 100 ppm, oxygen corrosion can be prevented. During storage, boiler connections should be checkctl for leakage and frequent samples of boiler water shoultl be taken and analyzed. If analyses indicate that t h hydrate alkalinity is less than 250 ppm, the water in thth steam drum should be lowered to the normal operatirig level and chemicals should be injected to bring tlic~ hydrate alkalinity back to 400 ppm. The boiler shoultl then be steamed sufficiently to circulate the addctl chemicals, following which the process of wet storago should be completed in the usual manner. c. Steam Blanket. The steam blanket method provides excelle~lt protection for short-time idle storagct, but requires a continuous source of low-pressure steal11 (in order of 150 psig) and connections for maintainirr~ this steam pressure in the stored boiler. All vents arrtl drains should normally be closed to allow the boiler arrtl superheater to fill with condensate but the boiler can ht, drained periodically if desired. d. Nitrogen Blanket. The oxygen-free nitrogc!~~ storage method is one in which nitrogen gas at a presstlro of 10 to 15 psig is maintained in the unit at all tirntbn during its idle status. It can be used with very satinfactory results if the boiler, terminal valves, and fittirlga are tight under normal hydrostatic pressure. The boiler can either be emptied or a normal wahr level maintained in the steam drum. The nitroger1 i# admitted when the boiler pressure has dropped below the gas pressure which will be maintained in the u~ril,, Satisfactory protection against corrosion depends uport system checks and the renewal of nitrogen, as necessary. To ready a boiler for sewice after storage, the nitrogtl~~ supply is secured and the water level in the steam dr~llri is raised to that required for lighting-off. Any nitrogt~ll in the steam drum and superheater will be displaced I)y the steam generated during the customary venting 01' the steam drum and the superheater as steam pressure is increased.

H "Lexicon-Steam Generating Equipment, " AmerIjoiler Manufacturers Association, Newark, N. J. i t "Marine Steam Power Plant State of the Art riec~~it~ar," General Electric and Babcock & Wilcox, 1969. 10 "Boiler Furnace Performance Criteria," SNAME 'I'd It Bulletin No. 3-14, December 1963. 1 I Code o Federal Regulations, Title 46-Shippiw, f p~~ldinhed the Office of the Federal Register. by IS W. 0, Nichols, M. L. Rubin, and R. V. Danielson. "Homo Aspects of Large Tanker Design," Trans. IYNA ME, vol. 68, 1960. 13 "Recommended Practices for Preparing Marine WI~rrrn Power Plant Heat Balances," SNAME T&R ll\lllotin No. 3-11. 14 R. P. Giblon, K. M. Shauer, and I. H. kolih, "L jnnign Considerations for Boiler Forced-Draft Systems, "

Marine Technology, vol. 6, no. 4, October 1969, p. 406. 15 J. J. Banker and M. G. O'Harra, "Some Considerations for Automation in Marine Boiler Desim, Combustion Equipment, Boiler Control and Burner Control, " SNAME, Great Lakes Section, January 1966. 16 "Section I ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code-Power Boilers," the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 17 William H. McAdarns, Heat Transmission, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1954. 18 G. R. Fryling, Combustion Engineering, Combustion Engineering Inc., New York. 19 Eskel Nordell, Water Treatment for Industrial and Other Uses, Reinhold, 1961. 20 "Betz Handbook of Industrial Water Conditioning, " Befi Laboratories, Philadelphia, 1962.

1 George W. Melville, "Development of the MnririiBoiler in the Last Quarter Century," The Engineer, 1!)1 I 2 G. W. Kessler, "Procedures and Influeriairtg Factors in the Design of Marine Boilers," Z ' T ( L ~ I ~ SNAME, vol. 56, 1948. 3 W. I. Signell, "Marine Boiler Design Tod:~y," Trans. SNAME, vol. 76, 1968. 4 Carl D. Shields, "Boilers, Types, Characterisbieo and Functions," F. W. Dodge Corp., 1961. 5 W. A. Fritz, Jr., and L. Cohen, "Development r u ~ t l Evaluation of a Supercharged Steam Generafi,irl~ System," ASME Paper 62-WA-279, November 196%. 6 Steam, Its Generation and Use, The Babcock r ~ i i t l Wilcox Co. 7 F. P. Bergonzi, G. Cooper, and J . F. Moorny, "Heat Recovery Equipment for Modern Marine Cyeltm," SNAME Southern California Section, November lNitl.




~liitrl(1 adds considerably to the size and weight of the

minimum energy required to dissociate it into its component

Sectio~~ 1 Basic Fur~damentals

The objective of this chapter is to present a survey of the subject of nuclear marine propulsion that is directed towards persons having engineering backgrounds but no experience regarding nuclear reactors. For more detailed treatments on the subject of reactor engineering, including such highly specialized considerations as fuel dwign, reactor design, coolant chemistry, nuclear instrumentation, and reactor safety, reference is made to the comprehensive textbooks available on the subject [I-71.' I n order to avoid security classification problems and problems with 15 CFR Part 385, U. S. Export Regulations, p.rimary emphasis is placed on projected nuclear propuls~onapplications for commercial merchant marine ships as contrasted to naval propulsion applications. A discussion of the differences in these requirements is included in a paper prebented to the Society by ADM H. G . Rickover, et al. [81. 1.2 Introduction. The idea of utilizing the atom as a possible source of energy was first introduced around 1900 when i t was discovered that certain atoms could spontaneously discharge charged ions capable of effecting emulsion. This discovery of radioactivity was discussed in 1902 by Pierre and Marie Curie. Later, Einstein provided an explanation of the energy of radioactivity and of atomic energy in terms of the equivalence of mass and energy. I n 1939, the real possibility of converting mass into energy was demonst~atedfirst by the discovery of nuclear fission and later, in March 1939, by consideration of the possibility of a chain reaction. I n a chain-reaction process, sufficient neutrons are produced to provide for all system losses plus sufficient neutrons to maintain the reaction rate of second-generation fissions, each of which produces sufficient neutrons to continue to maintain the reaction rate. By 1941, sufficient knowledge had been accumulated to permit preliminary experiments on subcritical assemblies, and on December 2, 1942, the historical Chicago Stagg Field chain-reacting pile went critical. The most significant characteristic of nuclear power for maritime application is the compact nature of the energy source which has obvious advantages for many types of

1~1111~ricethe provision of a sufficiently high level of and mlinbility to ensure a long service life must be considered rial only in the formulation of the basic concept of the I J but~ ~ in ~t h e ~ ~ ~ procurement of equipment and ci~~rtryjonents.Strict adherence to codes and standards a~rtaompliance with rigorous quality assurance programs 1 rluri~kg construction are the means used to ensure plants

Biological Dose. The radiation dose absorbed in biological it is measuRd in rems, Biologiul The time required for a biological system such as man or an anim$ to eliminate, by natural processes, half the amount of a substance (such as radioactive materid) that has entered it. Biological Shield. A mass of absorbing material placed around a reactor or radioactive source to reduce the radiation to a level that is safe for humans.

'Numbers in brackets designate References at end of chapter.

he power ~roduced fission of by mobile power plants. one gram of uranium per day is equivalent to about olw megawatt. I n other terms, the fission of one pound uranium is equivalent to the combustion of about 900 tons of 18,500 Btu/lb fuel oil. here fore, nuclcss power permits the utilization of very large power pla1ll1~ on board ship without the necessity for very lar~ll studicr bunker storage or frequent refueling. ~ c o n o m i c indicate that the cost ~enalties associated with nuclct~s power are sufficiently high that further innovations wil l be required before nuclear power for ship propulsioll will be able to economically compete with fossil-fueled power systems; therefore nuclear power is attractive only where the advantages of high power and enduranc;tl override purely economic considerations, as is often th" case for military purposes. With technological changrn in methods of shipping which would emphasize significantly improved efficiency through total system integrrhtion, it is expected that higher utilization and largola propulsion power requirements and revenue generatio~l would tend to make nuclear propulsion more attractivtr. for I n general, the primary engineering ~ m b l e m nuclolu reactors is to provide under all circumstances for t l l ~ removal of heat from the nuclear fuel. The energy stored in nuclear fuel is in an extremely compact forni, and it has the theoretical potential to release its totnl contained energy in a short time. The high pow(:l. density potential results in the necessity to provitltq efficient, highly reliable, and sometimes unusual hen.1.transfer systems not only for the steady-state p o w ~ ~ operation and normal heat removal after shutdown, blr~ also for all emergency and accident conditions. A major difference between nuclear propulsion a~ltl foaril-fueled propulsion systems is the safety aspect 01 the nuclear reactor system; safety is a major considenltion with nuclear reactors due to the emission of radi~rtion, consisting primarily of neutrons and beta and gamma radiations, from the fission products. Further more, the fission product radiation must be considerotl for a long time after the reactor is shut down or the spcnl~ fuel elements are discharged. Operating personnel mu~l, be protected from the radiation by suitable shielding; the shielding may consist of lead, water, steel, concrettr, and other radiation-absorbing materials which in totll~l are equivalent to six or more feet of concrete. ~ h i n

~aa~otors.Concrete and steel absorb gamma rays and 111?11trons reactor shields. A sheet of paper will absorb in rls lhttenuate alpha particles and a thin sheet of metal will u b o all except the most energetic beta particles. ~ Absorption. The process by which the number of particles or photons entering a body of matter is reduced by interatrllion of the particles or radiation with the matter; ui~nilarl~, reduction of the energy of a particle while the bsr~versinga body of matter. This term is sometimes ~~~roneously for capture. used h~tlvation. The process of making a material radioactive by Immbardment with neutrons, protons, or other nuclear

is the breeding ratio minus one. Burnable Poison. A neutron absorber (or poison), such as boron, which when purposely incorporated in the fuel or fuel cladding of a nuclear reactor "burns up" (is changed into nonabsorbing materid) gradudly under neutron irradiation. This process compensates for the loss of reactivity that occurs as fuel is consumed and fissionproduct poisons accumulate, and keeps the overdl characteristics of the reactor nearly constant during its use. C a p e . A process ih which an atomic or nuclear system acquires an additional particle; for example, the capture of electrons by positive ions, or capture of electrons or neutrons

&ha Particle. A positively charged particle emitted by crarlain radioactive materials. I t is made up of two rla~ltrons an&woprotons bound together,hence it is identical wihh the nucleus of a helium atom. I t is the least penetrat11lg of the three common types of radiation (alpha, beta, gemma) emitted by radioactive material. I t is not tlnrr~erousto plants, animals, or man unless the alphaemitting substance has entered the body. baekgromd Radiation. The radiation in man's natural

absorbs a neutron and fissions, releasing additional neutrons. These ih turn can be absorbed by other fissionable nuclei, releasing still more neutrons. A fission chain reaction is self-sustaining when the number of neutrons released in a given time equals or exceeds the number of neutrons lost by absorption in nonfissioning material or by escape from the system. Cheinical Shim. Chemicals, such as boric acid, which are placed in a reactor coolant to control the reactor by absorbing neutrons.




prevents the neutrons from causing neutrons, a control further fission. of a nuclar reactor containing the core. The centn] but not the fuel elements and usually the

Cdtid ~ ~h~ ~ . mass of fissionable material M ~ that will supporta self-sustaining chain reaction under
stated conditions. Cross Section. A measure of the probability that a nuclear reaction will occur. usually measured in barns, it is the area presented by a target nucleus apparent (or (or to an or other nuclear radiation, such as a photon of gamma radiation. Cluie. ~h~ basic unit to describe the intensity of radioactivity in a sample of material. The curie is equal to 37 billion disintegrations per second, which is approximately the rate of decay of 1 gram of radium. A curie is also a quantity of any nuclide having 1 curie of radioactivity. Named for Marie and Pierre Curie, who discovered radium

D e w Heat The heat produced by the decay of radioactive ~ ~~ h ~ ~Neutrons emittedt by radioactive fission ~~ d ~ ~ products in a reactor over a period of seconds or minutes after a fission takes place. Fewer than 1 percent of the neutrons delayed, the majority being prompt neutrons. are Delayed neutrons are important considerations in reactor design and control. Depleted U r ~ u m . Uranium having a smaller percentage of uranium-235 than the 0.7 percent found in natural uranium. ~t is obtained from the spent (used) fuel elements or as by-product tails, or residues, of uranium isotope separation. ~ ~ ~ ~ isotope of hydrogen whose nucleus contains ~ f i ~ . is therefore about twice as one neutron and one proton heavy as the nucleus of normal hydrogen, which is only a Deuterium is often referred to as heavy single hydrogen; it occurs in nature as 1 atom to 6500 atoms of ndrmal hydrogen. I t is nonradioactive. D h t - c Y d e ~~~~t~~ Syptem- A nuclear power plant system which the coolant or heat-transfer fluid circulates in first through the reactor and then directly to a turbine. Doppler Effect. The shift with temperature of the interaction rate between neutrons and reactor materials, such fertile materials. as fuel rods, structural materials, The shift can appreciably affect the neutron density and hence the reactivity of reactors. D~~~ Rate. The radiation dose delivered per unit time and measured, for instance, in rems per hour. xleCtmn volt, ~h~ amount Lioetic energy gained by an of through an electrical potenelectron when it is tial difference of 1 volt. ~t is equivalent to 1.603 x 10-11 erg. ~t is a unit of energy, or work, not of voltage. Enriched Material. Material in which the percentage of a givell isotope present has been artificially increased so that it is higher than the percentage of that isotope naturally foulld in the material. Enriched uranium contains more of the fissionable isotope uranium-235 than the naturally occurring percentage (0.7 percent). E~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ t More treactivity than that needed to i ~ y . is built into a achieve criticality. Excess reactor (by using extra fuel) in order to compensate for fuel burnup and the accumulation of fission-pro4uct poisons during operation.

Exclusion Area. An area immediately Surrounding a reactor where human habitation is prohibited to assure safety in the event of an accident. Excursion. A sudden, very rapid rise in the power level of a reactor caused by supercriticality. Excursions are usually quickly suppressed by the negative temperature coefficient of the reactor and/or by automatic Control Fast Neutron. A neutron with energy greater than approximat el^ 100,000 electron Fast Reactor. A reactor which the fission chain reaction is sustained primarily by fast neutrons rather than by thermal or intermediate neutrons. Fast reactors little or no moderator to slow down the neutrons from the speeds at which they are ejected from fi~siOning Fissile Material. While sometimes used as a synonym for fissionable material, this term has also acquired a by restricted meaning; namely, any material fiss~onable neutrons of all energies, including (and especially) thermal (slow) neutrons as well as fast neutrons; for examplci uranium-235 and plutonium-239. Fission. The splitting of a heavy nucleus into two approxirnately equal parts (which are nuclei of lighter elements), large amount of accompanied by the release of a ~ . energy and generally one or more neutrons. Fission occur spontaneously, but usually is caused by particles' absorption of gamma rays, neutrons, Or The nuclei (fission fragments) formed by Fission Roducts. the fission of heavy elements, plus the nuclides formed by the fission fragments' radioactive decay. Flux (Neutron). A measure of the intensity radiation. I t is the number of neutrons passing through I square centimeter of a given target in 1 second. Ex~res'ncl as nu, where n = the number of neutrons per cubic centimeter and V = their velocity in centimeters per second. fuc'l Fuel Cycle. The series of steps involved in refini1114~ It includes for nuclear power reactors. the original fabrication of fuel elements1 their use in reactor, chemical processing to recover the fissionah' material remaining in the spent fuel, re-enrichment of th'' fuel material, and refabrication into new fuel elements. Fuel Ellment. A rod, tube, plate, or other mechanica1 sh'~)" or form into which nuclear fuel is fabricated for use in lb reactor. Fusion. The formation of a heavier nucleus from two lightul' with the attendant relenfln ones (such as hydrogen isoto~es), of energy (as in a hydrogen bomb). Gamma Rays. High-energy, short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation. Gamma radiation acconlpanics alpha and beta emissions and always accompa11icrm fission. Gamma rays are very penetrating and are bc'flIa stopped or shielded against by dense materials, such t~ lor'' or depleted uranium. Gamma rays are essentially sirnil&' to X-rays, but are usually more energetic and are ~uclolll
in Half-Life. The time in which half the atoms of a particullw radioactive substance disintegrate to another nuc1ear a seconc' "' Measured half-lives vary from millionths billions of Years. Heavy water. Water containing significantly more thl~ll heavy hydro~"l' the natural proportion (one in 6500) (deuterium) atoms to ordinary hydrogen atoms. Hcnvy water is used as a moderator in some reactors becau'o I' slows down neutrons effectively and also has a low crO" section for absorption of neutrons.

(e~ithermal) Neutron. A neutron having Neutron Economy. The degree to which neutronsin a "IergY greater than that of a thermal neutron but less than reactor are used for desired ends instead of being lost by a fast neutron. The range is generally considered leakage or nonproductive absorption. The desired ends may b~ between about 0.5 and 100,000 electron volts. include propagation of the chain reaction, converting Ion* An Or molecule that has lost or gained one or fertile to fissionable material, or producing isotopes. r ~ ~electrons. BY this ionization it becomes electrically Nudem Reactor, A device in which a fission chab reaction ~ r o Examples: an alpha Particle, which is a helium can be initiated, maintained, and controlled. lts essential minus two electrons; a Proton, which is a hydrogen component is a core with fissionable fuel. ~tusually has a lttom minus its electron. moderator, a reflector, shielding, coolant, and control t"nlzatlon Chamber. An instrument that detects and mechanisms. Sometimes called an atomic ~ f ~ it ~ llloaBures ionizing radiation by measuring the electrical is the basic machine of nuclear energy. OIlrrent that flows when radiation ionizes gas in a chamber, Plutonium. A heavy, radioactive, man-made, metallic making the gas a conductor of electricity. element with atomic number 94. Its most important Irotope* One or two or more atoms with the same atomic isotope is fissionable plutonium-239, produced by neutron llllmber (the same chemical element) but with different irradiation of ~rani~rn-238.~tis used for reactor and fuel hlomic weights. Isotopes usually have very nearly the in weapons. y nllme chemical Properties, but somewhat diierent physical Poison. ~ n material of high absorption cross section that absorbs neutrons unproductively and hence removes them t@akage. In nuclear engineering, the escape of neutrons from the fission chain reaction in a reactor, decreasing its from a reactor core. Leakage lowers a reactor's reactivity. reactivity. Credible Accident. The most serious reactor Power Density. The mte of heat generated per unit volume llucident that can reasonably be imagined from any adverse of a, reactor core. c'ombination of equipment malfunction, operating errors, Pressure Vessel. A strong-walled container housing the ~ l other foreseeable causes, The term is used to analyze d core of most types of power reactors; it usually also contains '"la characteristics of a reactor. Reactors are the moderator, reflector, thermal shield, and control rods. rlesigned to be safe even if a maximum credible accident Ressurized-Water Reactor. A power reactor which heat in nhould occur. is transferred from the core to a heat exchanger by water Moderator. Material used in a nuclear reactor to moderate, kept under high pressure to achieve a high temperature I-Q-i slow down, neutrons from the high energies a t which without boiling in the primary system. steam generated is t'iray are Neutrons lose energy by scattering in a secondary circuit. Many reactors producing electric fi'llisions with nuclei of the moderator. A good moderator power are pressurized-water reactors. 111~s high scattering cross section and low atomic weight. Production Reactor. A reactor designed primarily for a 'I1 each there is a chance of absorption. +TO large-scale production of plutonium-239 by neutron irradirt~ d u c ethis loss of neutrons during the slowing-down tion of uranium-238. ~l~~ a reactor used primarily for the I)roceSs, the moderator atoms also should have a low production of radioactive isotopes. ~l@utron-absorPtion cross section. A high-scattering cross Prompt Criticality. ~h~ state of a reactor when the fission roction implies frequent collisions; these give the neutron a chain reaction is sustained solely by prompt neutrons; that [latter chance of being slowed down before it is captured is, without the help of delayed neutrons. lt1ld also reduce the average net distance traveled in slowing Rad. The basic unit of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. clown so that leakage is reduced. Small mass results in a A dose of one rad means the absorption of 100 ergs of average energy loss Per collision (requiring few radiation energy per gram of absorbing material. c'ollisionfJ) and 80 reduces both opportunities for capture Radioisotope. A radioactive isotope. unstable isotope ll'ld distance t~aveled. fhme practical materials are' of an element that decays or disintegrates spontaneous~y, (used in the form of graphite), beryllium and its emitting radiation. More than 1300 natural and artificial ciompoundg, and water. radioisotopes have been identified. Yolecde. A p u p of a t o m held tosether by chemical Reactivity. A measure of the departure of a nuclear reactor foroes. A molecule i the smallest unit of matter which s from critic$ity. ~t is about equal to the effective multiofin exist by itself and retain all its chemical properties. ~licationfactor minus one and is thus precisely zero a t NaturalCirculationReactor. A reactor in which the coolant criticality. If there is excess reactivity (positive reac('lsua1ly water) is made to circulate without pumping, that tivity), the reactor is supercritical and its power will rise. IR, by natural convection. Negative reactivity (s~bcriticalit~) result in a decreaswill Natural Uranium. Uranium as found in nature contains 0.7 ing power level. IIercent U-235, 99.3 percent of U-238, and a trace of Reflector. A layer or structure of material the U-234. It is also called normal uranium. core of a reactor to reduce the escape of neutrons. I t is '@utron. An uncharged elementary particle that has a mass located between the core and the shield. Neutrons enterfllightl~.greater than that of the proton and is found in the ing the reflector are scattered randomly, some of them l'ucleus Of every heavier than hydrogen. A free many times; and a large fraction of them may lleutron is unstable and decays with half-life of about 13 return to the core; it is possible to design a reflector by lainutes into an electron, Proton, and neutrino. Neutrons which more than 90 percent of neutrons that would be lost wstain the fission chain reaction in a nuclear reactor. may be returned. The returned neutrons can then cause Nautmn Caphue. The process in which an atomic nucleus more fissions and improve the neutmneconomy of the Or captures a, neutron. The probability that a reactor. Common reflector materials are graphite, berylgiven material will capture neutrons is measured by its lium, and natural uranium. l l ~ u ~ r capture cross section, which depends on the energy Rem. The unit of dose of any ionizing radiation which on of the neutrons and on the nature of the material. produces the same biologic$ effect as one roentgen of






power excursions. h~ ~ ~ Neutrons ~n thermal equilibrium with ~ ~ i t l ~ ~ the substance in which they exist; most commonly, neutrons with a kinetic energy less than 0.5 electron volts. Thermal Reactor. A reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained primarily by thermal neutrons. Most reactors are thermal reactors. Thorium. 80 and, as found in nature,element with atomic number A naturally radioactive an atomic weiCt of approximately 232. ~h~ fertile thorium-232 isotope is and can be transmuted to fissionable uranium-233 by neutron irradiation. uranium.A metal, symbol U, ninety-second element of the atomic series. Natural urallium is a mixture principally of the isotopes U-235 and U-238, the former being about 1/140 of the total. The nucleus of TJ-235 is capable of absorbing a neutron of thermal energy and thereupon undergoing fission into two fragments, which fly apart with great energy. The fragments are highly radioactive. neutrons are released almost immediately in each fission (the prompt neutronsf. A small fraction (delayed neutrons) is released later in the radioactive decay of some of the fission products. The fact that fission is induced by

bo a state of excitation Such that their position ~ ~ . P exactly determined. Atomic nuclei are built U of two kinds of primary particles; namely, protons and neutronuThe proton carries a single-unit positive charge, equal ill to the electron charge. The neutron is electrically neutral particle carrying no charge. For Ib
given element, the umber of protons present in th(' which is the same as the number ahmic positive charges it carries, is called the atomic numb('r of the element. It is identical with the ordinal numberof the element in the familiar periodic table of the Thus, the atomic number of hydrogen is one, of helium21 of lithium 3, and so on up to 92 for uranium, the elemelr'l of highest atomic weight existing in nature to arY appreciable extent. A number of elements heavier thull 92 have been made artificially. The total number of pmtow and neutrons in an atomi(' nucleus is called the mms number of the element. the of both and are ''(' and the mas.l electrO1'r unity on the atomic maSs

and is thereby slowed down.



3 37

significantly increased.

A nuclear reactor ~ ~ b l ~ consists of fuel containing fissionable material, a moderto slow down neutrons (except in the case of f m t reactom), a coolant to remove the heat generated by fission, a neutron absorber or neutron leakage control Although device, and the necessary the fuel form is different for vmious reactor types and is of the reactor closely with the coolant, the choice of the fuel material subject to fission is limited to three possibilities; these are uranium-235, produced in a uranium-233 (an artificial reactor by irradiation of the fertile material thorium), and resulting from plutonium-23g, or (an artificial conversion of the essentially nonfisionable U-238 by neutron absorbtion). -7 bnvenion and Breeding. Uranium-235 is the in nature to any only fissionable material extent, but in plutonium production reactors (such as those operated by the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission) excess h i o n neutrons are captured by fertile uranium238 which is thereby converted into fissionable plutoonly 0.7 nium-239. since natural uranium percent of uranium-235, it is expected that, with largescale use of nuclear reactors for power production the available uranium-235 will be consumed at some point. since nearly 1 0 times more nonfissionable uranium-238 4 is available than is the fissionable uranium-235, it is of ways in which uranium-238 major significance to could be utilized for power production. Although not of immediate interest for marine propulsion, one promising would be to use plutonium-239 to maintain the fission ,,hain and at the same time regenerate more plutonium by utilizing the available ura,nium-23s. If a reactor were to regenerate the same amount of plutonium-239 as it loss by fission, i.e., if the conversion
-6 lypeS i ~ of ~ i ~ ~ Material,

plies in nature are to be utilized as a source of Powor, in then eventually reactors must be uranium-233 serves to maintain a fission chain and at same time supplies neutrons for its regeneration from thorium-232. 1.8 Isoto~es and Rate of Decay. In a nuclc'r reactor the fission process results in liberation of and also in emission of nuclew radiation of differcllll kinds. In general, the remarkably large amount per fis4i011 energy released in fission (about 200 nucleus) manifests itself in the form of heat result ill^ from the kinetic energy of fission fragments. Th'' radioactive decay, neutmnic reactions, and radiativr emissions are not pmductive in a primarily pow('rproducing reactor and must be provided for in the of shielding, reactor operating characteristics, alltl otherwise in reactor design. The majority Of tlv' naturally occurring elements are stable except for a of the high atomic weight elements such radium. "l unstable element undergoes spontaneous radioactin' disintegration at a definite rate with the emission the nucleus of an electrically charged particle (either ''I1 alpha particle, i.e., a helium nucleus or a beta particlr1 i.e., an electron). Often, the products Of decay ' themselves radioactive, expelling either an alpha Or I' beta particle. After a number of stages of disintegrati0l1l an atomic species with a stable nucleusisformedIn addition to naturally occurring radioactive slll) stances, there have been pmduced artificial radioisotop(* of all the known elements. These have been obtai'l("l either by bombardment of stable elements with particles in cyclotrons, etc., by the capture of neutro"n~ or as a result Of n ~ ~ l e fission. A few Of them exl'"l ar alpha particles, but a large number, including most Of t'llr fission products, are beta emitters. For a given radioactive species, every nucleus h&rI'
w( l'

(Icfinite probability of decaying in a given time; this charge collected on the is equal to that carried docay probability has a constant value characteristic of by the primary ion-pairs. ~ l t h there are marked ~ ~ ~ h Lhe particular I t remains the same differences even among the instruments in each category, imspective of the chemical or physical state of the i o n i z a t i ~ n - ~ hinstruments fall into two types; ~~b~~ ('lement at accessible temperatures and namely, integrating and nonintegrating. with the integrating instrument, the total.quantity of charge due In a given the rate of decay at any instant to a number of ionizing particles is collected over a ~ m ~ o r t i o ntol the number of parent period of time. I n the nonintegrating (or counting) a rrldioactive atoms of the isotope under consideration devices, on the other hand, each capable of present at that instant. causing ionization is recorded separately. The decay constant of the radioactive species is a Integrating devices also can be divided into two Ineasure Of its decay probability. Radioactive decay is classes, which may be referred to as electrostatic and nn pmcessi the actual decay rate being electrodynamic. Those the type are by the decay constant and by the number of often called electroscopes, since they operate on the the particular nuclei present. same principle as the familiar gold-leaf electroscope, The most used method for representing the I n one form of this instrument, two thin sheets of rate Of radioactive decay is by means of the half-life (the me given an electric charge. long as no ions are time required for the number of radioactive nuclei of a present, the leaves will retain their charge and will given kind to decay to half its initial value). Because remain in the same position. ~ f however, ions are , the nature of the decay, this time is formed, those of the appropriate charge will be attracted illdependent Of the amount of the radioisotope present. to the gold leaves, causing a reduction in the charge and Other Types of Radioactive Particles. Gamma a decrease in the actual repulsion of the leaves. rliys are theelectromagnetic radiation released when the For the detection of beta (or alpha) the radianucleus emits its excess energy. These rays are tions are allowed to enter the chamber through a limilar in character to X-rays; they are highly penetrat- "window" of thin aluminum or other light material. itkg and have short wavelengths. Although the term With the window "open" the instrument measures both "gamma ray1' was originally used to describe the electro- beta and gamma radiations; but if it is gamma lnagnetic radiation which frequently accompanies radio- rays only will be detected. llctive decay, the definition has now been extended to Simple forms of integrating ionization chambers of the irwlude such radiations of nuclear origin. The rays electrostatic type, not larger in size than a fountain ltre emitted when a nucleus undergoes transition from a pen, are used extensively in health physics work to higher-energy to a lower-energy state. determine the total amount of radiation (or dosage) to Gamma radiation is described in terms of its photon which an individual has been exposed over a period of UnergY; for exampie, "1-Mev gamma rays." Apart time. fmm the fact that X-rays frequently have lower energies, I n an electrodynamic type of integrating ionization the difference gamma rays and X-rays chamber, a constant potential is maintained between the lw the latter are produced outside the atomic nucleus. electmdes by means of a battery. ~f ionizing radiation that The X-rays which, as their name implies, enters the chamber at a suficiently high rate, the ions have definite energies (and wavelengths) characteristic produced are swept continuouely to the respective elecof the particular element concerned result from transi- trodes and a steady current flows. The strength of this tion8 between electron energy levels of the atoms. ion current is a direct measure of the rate of entry of the Radiation Detection Equipment. The introionizing particles and hence of the radiation duction of nuclear Power devices introduced a stringent ~h~ ion current may be measured directly, or it may be tiomand for a ~ u r a t eand reliable instruments for the determined by means of a high-impedance voltmeter connected across a mistance through which the current


Ionization chambers with current-measuring devices

container (e.g., a cylindrical vessel, which serves as the a. Ionization Chambers. A number of different other electrode). The electrode to which the measuring J1lstruments for the measurement of nuclear radiations instrument is attached is called the collecting electrode. 'perate On the ionization chamber principle, where the This is frequently maintained at ground potential while





Properties of Gases Suitable for Reactor H2 2

0.125 0.199

CO 28

IUolocnlar weight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 'I'tlormal conductivity, ~ t u / h r - f t e ~ / f t . 300 F.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 700 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1330 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vinoosit centipoises at: ......................... 200 700 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1330 F.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hl)o(?lfic heat, Btu/lb-F, at: 200 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 700 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (330 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ' O I I H ~ ~ Y STP,lb/fta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a> Volumetric speclfic heat at STp, I#1u/fta-F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lltrl~~tive transfer coefficient heat ('ompared to He for same gas (,ur?peratureand same power output 1tt31atlve pumping power compared to 110 for same gas temperature and mne power output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbflhtivepumping power compared I,o He.. .......................... lfdlbtlve cost of gas per IOOO fta at STP Italative total activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . llflll~tive gamma activity. . . . . . . . . . . . .

He 4
0.097 0.135 0.172 0.023 0.033 0.044 1.24 1.24 1.24 0.0104 0.0129 1 .OO 1 .oo

N a
28 0.018 0.028 0.037

Air 29
0.018 0.028 0.039 0.021 0.032 0.042 0.241 0.254 0.272 0.0748 0.0179 0.73 2.2 4 0 0 7225 1284

COr 44

A 40
0.012 0.025 0.018 0.027 0.054 0.041 0.124 0.124 0.124 0.104 0.0129 0.68 10



0.017 0.027


0.013 0.042 0.028 0.017 0.041 0.028 0.217 0.262 0.295 0.114 0.0238 0.79 0.88 1.8 5 1 .O 1 .O

0.010 0.015 0.020 3.47 3.51 3.60 0.0052 0 0178 1.19 0.17

0.020 0.031 0.041 0.249 0.259 0.279 0.0727 0.0180 0.73 2.2 4.0 10 9294 0.0456

0.020 0.031 0.044 0.250 0.262 0.283 0.0727 0.0180 0.72 2.2 4.0 60 0.51 0.5

0.17 1 .O 6 22.7 4.53 X 10-4 18.5 0 0

40 1392 137,065


are sealed to prsvent a loss of fuel or The fuel fission products to the reactorcoolant under all normal *he fuel elements are rnsembled in fuel bundles that mnsist of from 36 to 1~ fuel m h some assembled in a square array. zirmnium steel for to economic advantages as the same fuel bumup bemuse of its lower neutron capture characteristics. The selection of clad materiall pellet diameter, and other details of the fuel assembly depends upon the design optimization for the particular application. There is a significant amount experience with of metallic fuel typesfrom the naval remtor program. by a high enrichment of These fuels are uraium-235 and are usually fabricated in the form of a msembled into a single fuel multitude of fiat a so-called ~~~h fuel plate is composed assembly. picture frame construction where the uranium metal is a sandwich with ,,ladding material on each edge and on both front and back surfaees. The uranium metal is usually metallurgcally bonded to the fuel cladding to improve heat transfer. ciharacteristiCs generally attributed to metal fuels are: (1) high heavymatomdemity; (2) a significant and reliable thermal-expansion coe~cient; amenability to poten(3) tially inexpensive fabrication rnetho&j; and (4) high thermal conductivity. ~~~~~~ldisadvantages of metal () low melting temperatures; (2) high rates of ! fuels radiation-induced swelling; and (3) poor high-temperature compatibility with austenitio stainless steels. A high thermal conductivity and low melting temperature tend to ofisat each other in terms of the specific power attainable, but metal fuels have the potential for somewhat higher specific powers than oxides. may be considered. ~h~~~are other typesof fuels

conventional plant where the maximum temperatuE in limited by the chemical reaction of fuel oxidation and rate of energy release is a direct function Of the rate of fuel injection, a nuclear reactor has no such limitation A nuclear reactor hm a large quantity of in the fuel contained within the Emtor) and the maximum temperature of the reaction is limited only by th'! ability to remove heat or, more properly) by the by spondence between the heat removed fmm the as a functio'l the coolant and the Power level of the ,f the excess reactivity or neutl'0niCs Of the systemThis should be recognized as being true only On a interest for retical basis, since for Power reactors marine pr0pUlSion the neutr0nics Of the system are 'I' power that operation at Power levels above removal of the moderator, which has a negative Or "shutdown" effect on the mactor, and all major 'ystemH are designed to fail safe or shut the reactor dew''' Nevertheless, the point is still valid that generally 'I1'' removl'l most important aspect of l'HiCtor design is Of heat and the most important single the coolant selection. A number Of possible gas molants for reactor systen'* have been considered. However, most Of the pOn*iOr bilities can be eliminated, either by 'Ir lurgical evaluations (air, hydrogen, carbon by heat-transfer considerations (neon! argon). n''' ties of gases which are suitable for reactor shown in Table [lo]. I n addition to relatively Poor heat transfer,am)1' and neon also has problems of neutrofl very expensive. N i t w e n has a high n'utrOn-absorptiO1' cross section and might cause nitriding at high tures. Thus, the list of gaseous Coolants of interest fol marine pmpulsion can be reduced to carbon dioxi(it"


A water coolant provides the capability of direct steam generation in a boiling-water reactor. Water technologY is well known and system cornponents are available, reliable, and relatively inexpensive.

(excess N?aCtiVityto overcome the poison effect Of shortlived radioisotopes immediately after shutdown) Since the excess fuel a t start-up provides reactivity in an excess of that required to maintain essential aspect of reactor control is to provide margin There are, however, a number of disadvantages of for shutdown at all conditions. In addition, since the water as a reactor coolant. As more advanced tech- power output of a given reactor is directly pmportional nology is developed, it is probable that water will be to the neutron density or the number of neutrons Per replaced by a reactor coolant that will permit more unit volume fuel, the control system must sense and reactors. The general limitations associated limit any excessive rise of neutron flux during power level with the use of water as a reactor Coolant are:

hecame, although the fast neutrons are slowed down to herma1 energy, there is excessive neutron absorption in tho water as compared to fissile capture of neutrons in

ABSORPTION Several important control characteristics of lightI N MODERATOR water reactors Can be observed from Fig. 3. The most l'nportant is that light-water reactors are nonauto(jlltal~tic that, if the reactor power is increased (even in transiently) above the ability of the cooling system to IVmove heat, the moderator-to-fuel ratio is reduced, a I ~'roviding a negative reactivity or shutdown effect. Itemoval of moderator from the fuel region may be llccom~lishedby either steam void formation or by njoction of water. I n the case of boiling-water reactors which are normally designed to operate slightly underWATER-TO-FUEL RATIO and be provided Fig. 3 Variation in reactiGv as a function of wo+er-to~fuelratio for an '10 take care of reactivity lost due to steam voids. From idealized, homogeneous, thermally critical lightmwater Ipig. 3 it can be seen that for undermoderated systems a #hamvoid would displace some of the moderator, ""'ulting in a 'light reduction of reactivity. I n addition, good moderators, they the energies of very fast in temperature (mide from spectral effects) and neutmns ss a result of inelasticacattering collisions~ i'mssure a moderator (and therefore Elements such as lead, barium, or imn readily decrease a)o1ant) can be expectedtoresult in changes in reactivity. the neutron energy down to about 0.05 M~~ where the r'ight-water are designed to have a negative hydmgen (elmtic) scattering cross is relatively moderator temperature coefficient. Themfore, a Cold large. Hence a combination of a moderately heavy or r"ctor that is but has not reached operating heavy element with hydrogen will slow down lamperature will be subcritical a t operating temperature. even neutmns of very high energies. this provides good operating characteristics, Essentially, every neutron that undergoes an inelastic da~ending 'POn the magnitude of reactivity swing collision is because of tfie high between hot and it does require sufficient excess probability subsequent slowing down and capture. rwctivity to shut down in the cold condition. Further, even in an elastic collision, in which case the 2'5 Shielding' For such as marine decrease in energy may not be large, the acmmpanying m"ctors, "IMiderable design attention must be given to change in the direction of motion of the leads to the attenuation of emitted nuclear radiations by an i n c m e d length of path through the shield such that lome Of Not only is such shielding the probability of slowing down and capture ia thereby n@oessaq for the protection of Personnel, but a high increased. Consequently, as a first approximation the r"diation backmund will interfere with the operation effectivenWsof a particular material for the attenuation of used in various aspects of reactor Opera- of fast neutrons is determined by the total fast-neutron cross section, which includes both inelastic and elastic the radiation a reactor System includes scattering as well as direct capture. 'Ipha and beta particles, gamma rays, and neutrons O f For maximum efficiency,a shield should attenuate fast 'brious energies, Only gamma rays and neutrons need be neutrons and gamma rays at such a rate that their fluxes since these are far the most penetrating. will be reduced to the maximum permissible values at Any which attenuates these radiations to a the exterior of the shield. hi^ requirement be "lfiCient reduce all the others met if a of high mavl number and hydrogen (or b negligible value. hydrogen pompound) were uniformly distributed in the the reactor three aspects; namely, proper proportions throughout the shield; hbwever, 'lowing down the fast neutrons, capturing the slowed- this is generally not a possibility for shipboard shielding down and forms of gamma both because of ship arrangements and also because of ruliution. since of low mass numbers are the structural requirements for the heavy used. bat moderators, hydrogen in the form of water can In marine propulsion maohm, weight of the shield @'Itably be used ss the shield constituent for slowing is of major importance; if the shielding is too heavy, the fast neutrons' However, at high neutron energies reactor may not be suitable for its intended purpose. 'Iis acattenng cross Of h ~ d m g e n Very small; is this instance, the cost of the shield may be considerable thicknm of hydrogeneous secondary in significance. In addition, shielding that lluterial be required to down the fission results in a relatively concentrated loading distribution '@'limns Of highest energy. The situation can be must be carefully considered since such load distributions impmved by an element of fairly may lead to problems with the ship,s structure. 'lKll mass such substances are not Wherever possible, advantage is taken in shield design




of the attenuating effect of distance, according to the categories according to their functions: (1) heavy elements to absorb the gamma radiation and slow down inverse-square law, on the radiation intensity or flux. very fast neutrons to about 0.05 Mev by inelastic colliIf the operating personnel can be kept a t an appreciable sions; (2) hydrogenous substances to moderate neutrons distance while the reactor is in operation, a significant saving in thickness of the shielding may be feasible. For having energies in the range below about 0.05 Mev; and example, a shield may be made thinner at the top and (3) materials, notably those containing boron, which capture neutrons without producing high-energy gamma bottom if access is restricted to the sides. To protect the heavy structural components surround- rays. Heavy elements which have been employed in metallic ing the core from possible damage from the heat form for ship shielding are iron and lead. Iron turnings liberated upon absorption of radiation, a so-called thermal shield is frequently introduced close to the or punchings, as well as iron oxides, have been incorreactor. It consists of a substantial thickness of a porated in concrete for shielding purposes. Because of its high density and ease of fabrication, dense metal of fairly high melting point (e.g., iron) lead is a good shield component. For gamma rays with placed between the reactor core and the main shield, or biological shield (see Fig. 1). The thermal shield energies in the region of 2 Mev, roughly the same mass absorb specified fraction consists of a material which effectively absorbs gamma of lead as of iron is required to a t both ahigher and lower radiation and inelastically scatters fast neutrons. Since of the radiation. However, these two types of radiation carry most of the energy energies, the mass absorption efficiency of lead ill leaking from the reactor, a large amount of the heat appreciably greater than that of iron. The disadvantages reactor shields are its ~roducedin the shield will be released in the thermal relatively low melting of lead in its softness. It cannot point and shield. If the circumstances are such that passengers or other carry any appreciable portion of the reactor system ship's personnel can be kept at a good distance from a load and, because of relatively low temperature limits, it may require cooling. reactor when it is in operation, it is usually desirable to Masonite, with a density of about 1.3 g/cu cm, wun do so. This may be accomplished by designating used as the hydrogenous material in some of the early exclusion areas of several maximum permissible radiation reactors. The number of hydrogen atoms per cubio levels for passengers, ship's crew, and reactor operators centimeter is not much less than that for water. Is on watch. The reflector makes an important contribution to fast- addition it contains both carbon and oxygen, which can neutron shielding. The reflector, especially for a thermal act as moderators. As a general shield material, there is much to recomreactor, is invariably a good moderator (e.g., water, mend concrete since it is strong, inexpensive, tllltl heavy water, beryllium, beryllium oxide, or graphite) of tollso that it will slow down an appreciable portion of the adaptable to both block and monolithic types density struction. Ordinary concrete of 2.3 g/cu cm moderately fast neutrons escaping from the core. contains somewhat weight of Because of scattering, many of these slowed-down water when cured. less than 10 percent by concentrrbAlthough the hydrogen neutrons are returned to the core, thereby easing the tion in concrete is considerably less than the concenh~lshielding problem. tion in water, the larger proportion of oxygen (whioh ---- imoortant function of reactor shielding is to An capture the neutrons after they have been slowed down. acts as an additional moderator) and the calcium ntlrl great extent, for This is done by inelastic scattering and subsequent silicon in concrete compensate, to a concrete alone is thcr difference. Nevertheless, ordinary nol capture by materials in the shield that have a large very efficient a s a reactor shield material since it normtd ly neutron capture probability. This is accomplished if a good moderating element such as hydrogen is present in contains no element of high mass number. Various special ("heavy ") concretes incorporati IIK addition to materials of medium or high mass number. heavy elements have been developed for reactor shieldi~~y. I n addition, an effective shield provides for the absorption of the various primary and secondary gamma rays. In barytes concrete, for example, the mineral b a r y h ~ ~ , mainly of barium sulfate, largely replaces t h ~ The penetration of gamma rays is a function of their consisting gravel aggregate in ordinary concrete. 'I'l~n sand and energy but they are effectively absorbed by a material of high density. The shield material, such as iron or density of barytes concrete is about 3.5 g/cu cm. Thw ti lead, which serves as the inelastic scatterer of neutrons shield of barytes concrete would have to be no thiokrr than an iron-water shield of the same effectivcncn~ will also function as the absorber of gamma radiation. Within the energy range of interest, gamma absorption although the total weight of the barytes concrete shioltl is determined essentially by the mass of the shielding would be greater. 2.6 Safety [14]. Nuclear ships must comply wiC11 material. The thickness of shield required to produce a the rules and regulations of the cognizant agencierr, specified absorption of gamma rays is inversely proportional to the density of the shielding material. Thus a inc1uding:athe United States Atomic Energy Comrni~~iol~ smaller volume of lead than of iron would be required, [15-191; United States Coast Guard [20-231; Uniloll States Department of Commerce; National Bureau o f but the masses would be approximately the same. Standards [24]; International Convention for the Snfnbr Shield materials may be divided into three broad
- --A

life at Sea [25]; the classification societies [26]; and I411t: rules and regulations of agencies having cognizance over the ports of call [27]. Attention is called to indusi8t+ir~l safety codes, which may be applicable in part. ( lodes of this type include the American Society of Mtwhanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code JYNJ, and the applicable ANSI and IEEE codes )2!),301. A riuclear ship should also provide a degree of safety foruthe non-nuclear portions sufficiently high to ensure rrdo operation of the entire ship. I n this respect proviriolls such as watertight subdivision, stability, fire protection, bilge pumping, fire extinguishing, electrical I~intullations,steering gear, astern power, and navigal,iotlul aids should be evaluated in order to provide for tjl~o maximum practicable safety for the ship. a. Containment. Containment constitutes the outer rrl~c:losureor other systems or arrangements which are provided to prevent the uncontrolled release of hazardous atnounts of radioactivity to normallv accessible snaceu --or t,he ship's environment in the of an accident or ,tl,\lfunction of the nuclear system. I t is tlInt any one of several containment methods may be ,no& suitable for a particular application. Separate prossure-tight containment vessels or containments ~~bilifiing integral portions of the ship's structure are rrtttnples of containment systems that may be utilized. 111 the design of a containment system, the effects of pul-ification of radioactive loops, pressure relief or luppression systems,and systemswhich effectively pmvont core meltdown or its consequences, should be

should, therefore, be designed to contain, control, and possibly suppress the release of radioactive material which could result from any credible accident. Consideration should be given to (1) the pressure and temperature of the coolant, (2) the energy released as a result of any chemical reaction within the system, (3) the nuclear heat generation, including afterheat, and (4) the energy stored in the structure. The processes involved in the release of this energy are heavily dependent upon the type and specific design of the nuclear power plant. Each system should be evaluated on an individual basis to determine the pressure buildup in relation to the containment d-esign. Missiles resulting from a malfunction of the system components should not result in the release'of hazardous amounts of radioactive or toxic materials to occupied spaces or the ship's environment. The following components are typical of those which may be considered as potential sources of missiles: High-speed rotating equipment. The installation such within the should be kept to a minimum, but, if installed within the containment~ be to reduce the probability of rupture of the containment wall due to a failure of any "tating Rods. Positive means be provided to prevent rods from being ejected. ' within the pressurized system. These should be located or protected so as to minimize the p"bability damage to the containment walls in case of failure.


r -

'he containment system should be designed to ensure The primary objective under these circumstances the basic integrity of the containment will be should be to maintain the integrity of the containment tained for any credible operating or twcident and, insofar as practicable, to prevent impairment of the The following factors are typical of those secondary shielding when materials particularly sushiah should be considered: ceptible to fire damage are used (e.g., lead, polyethylene, Or r Maximum credible pressure buildup within the The containment should be designed to remain intact b~tninment to an accident to the nuclear system. due if the ship sinks in shallow water, and consideration r Maximum credible internal missile. should be given to provisions for decay heat removal. 0 Location as regards collision or grounding damage. r Itupture of piping, ducts, or similar components Containment integrity should be maintained for a ~ i d e the containment, and such components con- period of several years following such an incident in order of to provide sufficient time for salvage operations. tod to and passing t h r o ~ g h ~ t h e containment. b. Shielding and Radiological Safety. Shipboard r External fires and explosions on board. shielding and radiological safety are intended to provide Fires within the containment. standardd for protection against nuclear radiation for 0 Binking of the ship. personnel on board ship and for persons in the vicinity Forces due to ship motion. of such ships in conformance with the cognizant regular Itemoval of reactor decay heat in the event of loss 81 aeolant circulation and provisions for preventing the tory agencies. Inasmuch as all regulatory agencies normally follow the recommendations of the Federal !@&ator core from melting through the containment. Radiation Council [16, 171, the recommendations of the e Leakage and measurement of leakage rate. Federal Radiation Council should be considered to All nuclear systems producing useful power contain anticipate changes to the criteria specified by the regula@ ~ O T Oenergy indicated by pressure and temperature. ~ tory agencies. It is the intent to provide standards for l ~ d d r nuncontrolled release of this energy and any protection by means of shielding and control of personnel &idltiunal energy that might be generated in a nuclear access so that passengers and shore personnel will not be ~ ~ l d ( !provides a potential mechanism for the diaper- exposed to radiation exceeding recommendations for the nt ~lo11 radioactive material. The containment system general population, and so that operating, maintenance, of

MARINE ENGINEERING Limits for Table Liquid waste Disporal Discharge to h e Sea as Specified for the NS Savannah Table 3 Radioactive GasWane Specified for the NS Savannah LIMITS ON
limb as


a~aseous waste discharges are to be made while the underway.

from shoreline at


"'cl'datiom are subject to regular review a. increasing ""owledge is g ~ n e Of the effects of nuclear radiation on d '"lf'''lrthuman body' Dosages are set at such low levels ' Over many years is unlikely to cause injury. On the Other hand, the levels cannot be so low as to make operation of a plant impossible. 011 board One of the Primary r~pomibilities of I'O"lthphysicsisto monitor radiation. This involves the 'l('tcrmination and recording of radiation dosages and (lt)~c rates at nUmerOUS locations. Radiation dosage is rrloasured in terms of the energy absorbed from the radiaIli(l11~ and the dose rate is the time rate at which such f'Jlorg~ absorbed. I n general, the total dose (or dosage) is ~*nouived the product of the dose rate and the exposure is

curve observed on large central-station nuclear plants has not been apparent in unitsof lower power levels. I n fact, in 1969 the product lines for several manufacturer's of central-station units did not include power ratings as low as 300 megawatts electric lmw(e)l. ThereforeJ the Capital costs of around $2@)-$220/kw(e) forgrestermw(e) units must be to capital costs of than In addition, it may kw(e) for units of 50 to on be expected that, based mw(e). parisom of fossil-fired marine and stationary units, mobile Power Plants will cost about 35 percent more than land-based units of the same rating. Studies 133-351 have indicated that fol large marine reactors of 70,000 to 50,000 shp, fuel costs will be as low as 2.2-2.0 mill/shp-

depths greater than 200 fathomsd

be used to pmtect against missiles and to provide con[311' The prime function "I d- Health tainment case of an accident to reactor co~pOneIltS. in individu'd' waste DiSposal. Radioactive wastes health physics is to safeguard the to nucl"lL' c. resulting the hSion whose work is likely to are defined rn thecontain radioisotopes from significant radiations by taking all steps that are 'Onsidered end which in ncc(u liquids, sary to minimize such exPosure. In addition there "11' quantities. Radioactive wastes include and grnes. Some examples of solid wastes are con- responsibility of making sure that nothing escaping fr''ttl p ~ i C l ~ , and spent the nuclear plant, even in the event Of an accid('l'l" taminated dirt, ,,hips, or other ~ ~ ~which has become e Would represent a i ~ ~ ~ t ion exchange the ma*mum ranit'' The regulatory bodies contaminated or radioactive may also have to be treated tion exposure limits for personnel, maximum Permis~il''' in The same manner radiosetive waste the purpose of a a waste. disposal system is concentrations of certain radioisotopes in air and wd''l' and dispose of waste material to mlleot, audit, of any area in a manner that limits the and maximum permissible amounts Of such Such may accumulate in the human body.
"lN' rcc('lll



Table 4 Summary of Fuel Cost Data P L A N A T CORE

Basis-year Natural U $/lb UIO~ Conversion $/kgU Separative work $/unit Tmls com osition % (U-235g f t after . separation processing) Pu credit $/gm fissile Fabrication $ / I t @ Spent fuel shlpplng Reprocessing, $/kgU Reconversion, $/kgU Capacity factor

MARINE 1 2 1977 1974 8.55 8.10 2.29 2.29 26.00 20.00 0.20 0.20



Table 5 Nuclear Fuel Costs, mills shp-hr PROPOSED A PLANT CORE

1 1974



3 1981 8.80 2.29 20.00 0.20

1 1968 8.00 2.50 30.00 2.53

8.55 7.89 8.00 114.00 100.50 87.50 6.00 6.00 6.00 29.10 31.80 31.80 3.00 3.00 3.00 70% 70% 70%

10.00 88.75 6.00 52.35 5.60

Resis 1968 - -Direct costs 1.107 0.957 0.934 1.777 net uranium -0.246 -0.200 -0.194 -0.450 plutonium credit 0.611 0.426 0.335 1.667 fabrication shipping, repro., recon. 0.204 0.173 0.156 1.201 subtotal direct costs 1.676 1.356 1.231 4.195 Working capital

2 1977

3 1981

.. .

on uramum on fab, Pu,shipping and reurocessmg Imre ' on uranium on fab, Pu, shipping and reprocessing Total cost, mills/shp-hr


round in the USAEC purchase agreement with United Ntatesproducers. Through 1968, theAECcontinuedto 1 1 t h ~the W/lb for later years however, the price puid was equal to 85 percent of allowable costs plus $1.6O/lb. Among the allowable coats was a fixed M.64/lb for royalty and exploration costa. Based on iistorical data, an allowable overhead of about $0.3O/lb cjould be included among allowable costs. Tables 4 and 5 are the results of a fuel cost analysis (jonducted by the U. 8. Maritime Administration (351. 'I'he purpose of these comparisons is to project fuel cost latimatea for advanced marine nuclear propubion plants

in the 75,OOU-shp range for three reactor cores and compare them with NS Savanruzh data. For the advanced marine propulsion systems, core 1 is designed for 20,500 megawatt days per metric ton of uranium (mwd/mtu) for 2.72 full-power years; core 2 is designed for 25,900 mwd/mtu for 3.45 full-power years; and core 3 is designed for 28,700 mwd/mtu for 3.82 full-power years.


An analysis of Table 5 indicateshave athe first advanced marine propulsion system would that fuel cost incentive
of 3.5 mills/shp-hr over the NS Savannah with potential for an additional 0.5 mill/shp-hr fuel cost incentive with improved fuel performance.

0.132 0.107 0.096 0.025 0.017 0.014

0.528 0.030 0.912 0.061 5.726

0.317 0.323 0.320 0.072 0.064 0.058 2.222 1 .867 1.719

to UOz, and the cost of fabricating the U02 into fuel rod
assemblies. Uranium occurs in nature in ores which grade from 2 to 5 lb/ton of ore. Yellow-cake can have several chemical forms, including U308or Na2U207, of which of U-235 is fissioned per mwd, and about 0.6 gm of plutoa11 are yellow, hence the name. It is conventional to express nium is produced per mwd (i.e., the conversion ratio i H costs in the units of $/lb UaOs. Historically, U30a 0.50). Later in life, due to fissioning of some of tho prices were over $10/lb in the late 1 9 5 0 ' ~ ~ in 1968, plutonium, only about 0.6 gm of U-235 is consumed pclr $8/lb and $6/lb in 1969, all under AEC contract. Free- mwd, and no net gm/mwd of plutonium is producctl; market prices have historically been comparable. The that is, plutonium is fissioned at the same rate it irr U-235 content of natural uranium is 0.711 weight produced. Lifetime averages are about 0.9 gm/mwd 01 percent, and it takes 14.3 lb of U&a to make 1 kg of 3.0 U-235 consumption and 0.3 gm/mwd of net fisuilo plutonium production. Therefore, the net consumptiolr weight percent (w/o) enriched uranium typically required of fissile material (U-235 consumption less net fisnilu as fuel for a marine nuclear plant. The process of enriching the U-235 isotope from 0.711 plutonium production) is only weakly dependent olr w/o to the 2 to 5 w/o required by light-water reactors burnup, its primary dependence being on conversiot~ ratio. As a general rule, what burnup dependor~tn requires that the uranium be in the form of UFs. The process of enriching makes use of the mass there is tends to decrease the net fissile material depletiotr difference between U-235 and U-238 isotopes. The cost as burnup increases. When fuel is discharged from the reactor, it is cool(d greater speed of the U-235 F6 molecules enhances diffusion through membranes more easily. The gaseous for about 6 months and then is shipped to the reproccrlpsing plant for recovery of residual fuel values. A enriched UFs which comes out of the diffusion plant is delivered in standard cylindrical gas bottles. The UFO shipping cask can be rented and will make several tl*il)r is then converted to U02,the fuel form in wKich it is used. back and forth between the reactor and the procexsirrg Direct fabrication costs include the cost of making plant. The shipping cost, therefore, is made up of C I L U ~ ~ UOz pellets, the cost of cladding and end fittings, the rental costs and transportation charges in about ~ ( ~ I I I L ~ cost of assembling pellets into fuel rods and assembling proportions. Spent nuclear fuel has substantial residual value i n ilr fuel rods into fuel assemblies, and the costs of inspection, uranium and plutonium, and ~ossiblyin other f i ~ ~ i o l ~ losses, and scrap recovery. Quoted fabrication costs products or transuranic elements. The spent futd ir can be specified to include all post-enriching processes mechanically chopped and dissolved in acid, and the S ~ B O I ~ ~ and services up to delivery a t the plant. fuel solution then proceeds through several chomicrkl The net cost of fissile material consumed in the reactor is based on the reduction in U-235 enrichment associated process steps to purify the uranium and plutor~i~lrll Provision spent-l'\~~l with hsioning of the U-235, less the credit obtained due - - - -. can also be made to recover desiredproduot 11f by-products. The uranium and plutonium to the production of fissile plutonium, the latter being The uraniur~r, ~ t i produced from neutron absorptions in U-238. In a the plant is in the form of a nitrate. practical reaction system, fission of about 1.3 gm of order to be marketable, must be converted to UFO. Mining and milling costs and ore grade provide 1411c U-235 will produce 1 megawatt-day (mwd) of energy. I n an actual reactor, however, about 8 percent of the minimum cost of production, allowing nothing for I1rs energy is produced by fissions induced in U-238 by high- exploration, depletion of reserve, plant write-off or prolil energy neutrons, and some of the plutonium production A significant assessment of what represents reasorl~~lllu I~ is fissioned. Therefore, a t the start of life about 1.2 gm prices (as distinguished from operating costs) C E ~ LIIY

Section 3 luclear Propulsion Applications

3.1 N Sawnnah-Pressurized-Water Reactor [ 3 6 S 9 I n naval circles, the intereat in using nuclear finorgy a t sea led to the launching of the nuclear submarine Nautilus in 1954 and subsequently to today's r~~rolear Navy. The potential of nuclear energy for rrommercial shipping influenced President Eisenhower to moommend construction of a nuclear-powered merchant rhlp: I n 1956 the Department of Commerce and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) were authorized to develop and construct such a vessel. On National Maritime Day, May 22, 1958, the ship's ksol was laid, and a little more than a year later the NS duvcmnah was launched as a successor to the earlier ~uvannah. The NS Savannah has a length of 595 ft, beam of 78 ft, &id draws 29.5 f t of water. She carries a crew of 110 L I I 9300 tons of dry cargo. Fully loaded, she displaces ~ 90,000 tons. Like many modem cargo ships, she has bkc, capability of carrying passengers and has cabins for W. Her turbines develop 22,000 shp and her cruising %peed about 21 knots. is The Savannah's nuclear power plant is simple in principle. Uranium, artificially enriched to ensure nadily fissionable atoms, is contained in fuel elements within the core. When the rods are withdrawn (see Ng. 4) a chain reaction starts in the fuel. Fissioning Unnium quickly heats the surrounding water to a high bmperatlire; however, a pressurizer keeps the water ~ ~ l d,enough pressure to prevent boiling (hence the er tlrrtne pressurized-water reactor). The hot water is @lmulated through the boilers, as illustrated by Figs. 5, 8, and 7, where it gives up part of its heat to generate obaem. Steam from the boilers drives the main turbines a d the turbogenerators. After passing through the turbines, the steam is condensed and fed back to the kllara. At full power the Savannah's reactor core gives (IIheat energy equivalent to 80 megawatts. Fuel for the Savannah is uranium enriched to an bverltge value of 4.4 percent. This means it has more Unaium-235 than the 0.7 percent in natural urtmniull..

This slight enrichment simplified the design of the fuel elements and the reador by permitting the use of structural materials that are resistant to corrosion and radiation. The uranium, in the form of uranium dioxide, is compreased into pellets. These are slipped into tubes of stainless steel called. fuel pins. Uranium dioxide was chosen because it does not react chemically with water, has a high melting point, and can hold its shape a t the high-temperature and high-radiation levels within a reactor. The fuel pins are assembled into 32 fuel elements, each containing 164 pins, for a total of 5248. These fuel elements are designed to the standards




F i Cutowoy of NS Awnnah'r complete reactor. Note cross-shopad : .

control rods (hat fit between fuel elernenh






7-CHKK ~ A L ~ E a-pu~p -ATE VALVE

Fig. 7 NS Savannah steam generating equipment

~ig. 5

Shematic diagram of NS Savannah reactor circuit

set for land-besed nuclear power plants and in addition the shock and vibration from are made to motion of the ship. ~h~ ~ a v a n first core contahed 17,000 lb of ~ ~ s uranium-~35. ~ u r i n g its ,anium, of which 668 lb useful life, about 130 lb of uranium-23S could be fissioned cruise within the core. with one loading she 300,000 nautical miles at a speed of 21 knots, increasing to 23 knots when necesssry. This is equivalent to 12 the e&h at the quator. On such a journey, trips in whhh any conventional ship of the same size would four to five times it. Own weight in fuel, the saVannd use a quantity of nuclear fuel would less than one of her passengem! ~~~~~~~d among the fuel elements within the core rods (see ~ i 4 and 5). These contain ~ ~ . 21 neut.nsbsorbing boron. Depending on the position within the core, a nuclear chain reaction can of the or shut down. Neutron detecbe Cirmib that govern the drive tom can mechanism for the mntml These maintain the ,,hain resction automatically at a d&d level, be it full power for top speed, or just enough power to run the ship's generating system. reactor vessel contains the Savannd's A massive nuClem core. ~t is 27 ft high and hm an inner diameter are 6.5 in. thick, with the of more than g ft. ~ t s to prevent clad ~ t h

CO~~OS~O~. The

jH upper head Of the reactor the core. removable to permit loading and ~ o water from the reactor (hot-water) loop is t circulated through a boiler wheresome of its heat is giver' up to make steam in a separate (steam) loop. This design isolates the turbine and engine room from any radioactive materials in the reactor, for there is no 'per' loop. Two path from the hot-water loop to the heat exchangers with independent pumps Were to ensure reliable cooling of the reactor core. per hour boilers generate U to 265,850 lb Of P PRSSUW varying from TI5 to 445 psi. The Savannah's reactor and other system that may contain radioactive materials are enclosed in containment vessel. I n it are the reactor core in it' the stem' pressure vessel, the water Pumps, the d r u m , and the p m u r k e r . F*re shows how 'Omp ~ t l t h a e parts tWe fitted into the containment y , It a 1e s t r ~ t u r e50.5 ft long and 35 f t in and its walls are carbon steel U to 28 in. thick that P designed to contain an intemd pressure Of 18' psi' a completO This is more p m s w than would result system' rupture of the reactor's When in operation, a nuclear Core gives off neutron# unlavl properLy and gamma rays that could cause confined. Gamma radiation also i given Off by thn s Th" radioactive materials that result function of shielding to confioe these radiations

permit routine operation of the ship and to protect the passengers and crew- The Savannah has two distinct rats Of shields. The first is built around the reactor vassel. It reduces the escape of neutrons and gamma *diation s a c i e n t l y to permit the crew to enter the Wntainment v ~ s e for short times after the reactor is l #hut down. The secondary shielding is outside the sontainment vmsel. It would serve to reduce personnel exposure to radiation should a reactor accident release radioactive materials within the containment vessel. The primary shidd consists of a layer of water 33 in. Chiok, by a layer of lead. The secondary lhielding is a combination of lead and polyethylene lPreund the upper pa* of the containment vessel and oanorete around the lower portion. Any power plant creata radioactive wa~tes. "a 'l and 'lothing, used m i n s from water purifiers, wiping and other items may become contaminated with rradiwtivit~. The standard practice is to collect most such wastea for disposal, usually by burial on land. liquid. and gases are also created during BlMtor 'peration. Some wastes are so slightly radio&Otive that can be mixed with air or water and be di'ohW& to the air or sea- The Savannah is equipped OO1lect and store wastes, or to release them in diluted

BY virtue of its history of application in U. S. naval vessels and the NS Savannah, the pressurized-water reactor is a prime candidate for merchant &ips. ~h~ PWR offers the attractive characteristics of having a light-water moderator and coolant, high power density, and ability to follow the load. ~t is also by high capital cost, high stored energy in the coolant, and production of low-pressure saturated steam. Considerable study work has been performed to improve the design of marine prmurized-water reactors. The primary innovation hae been the inclusion of a once-through type heat emhanger in the reactor pressure veasel. The operation of such a system was tested by the German ship 0th Hahn in late 1967. hi^ change should significantly reduce the capital costand size of a marine PWR.
3.2 The Babcock 8 Wileox CNSG pressurized-water Reactor [40, 41, 421. The Consolidated Nuclear Steam

Because there was no practical experience with marine Of Power, the Savannah was equipped with WJXiliary electric "take home" power to bring her back port there be difficulty with her ~eactor. An @isotric motor was coupled to the reduction gear by means a so that the electric motor could drive the m ~ l l e a t a modest speed in the event of a failure in r mode of operation. Two diesel generators WeM provided furnish electrical needs and operate a meling pump for the reactor.

Generator (CNSG) is a compact gressurized-water reactor that is designed for merchant marine appliestions. The CNSG incorporates a once-through steam generator which produces superheated steam at a constant pressure over the entire operating load range. with The complete CNSG system consists of the reactor its integrhl steam generator, pressurizer, reactor coolant pumps, control and safety systems, amiliaw systems, and instrumentation. The reactor can be shopassembled to impmve the quality control and minimize the erection time. The compact vapor suppression system provides both neutron attenuation and enew containment at greatly reduced post-accident The CNSG uses low-enriched fuel fuel costs approximately 40 percent below conventional fuel costs. The reactor for the Geman nuclear ship 0th ~~h~ is of the CNSG type. The CNSG discussed herein was designed to power a




dance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Elimination of field assembly and welding of the Hootion 1 1 Nuclear Vessels. The vessel is fabricated primary system with the attendant problems of quality 1, Prom carbon steel and is clad on the inside with stainless control for the reactor coolant boundary. Elimination of any significant source of cold reactor The pressure vessel consists of a 162-in. I D cylindrical coolantkater that might cause a reactivity excursion. nl~ellapproximately 69 in. thick, having an ellipsoidal Limiting of the physical "target" size of the reactor bottom head and an ellipsoidal top section. coolant system as a consideration in ship collision The suppression chamber of the containment is formed accidenb. by the dry-well vessel and an outer concentric cylindrical 1 addition to the foregoing feat-, , the preesure vesael- Venting from the dry well pmw-suppremion mangement for the CNSG proto the s u ~ ~ m i chamber consist of pipea attached to on for m e r e containment at greatly reduced (~~enings the d r ~ e lVW8el wall and extending into incident p-ures in l and thus decreasae the the suppression water. lK-pressure rupture disks the driving force for h i o n product leakage magnitude of and of resultt l o m d l ~seal these vent penetrations for humidity ing fission dispersion. ~h~ decreased size of the nontrol in the dry and prevent bakeow of the containment structure also enhances the ability of the fluppreasionwater at extreme ship roll attitudes. surrounding ship's structure to provide collision protecThe shielding design of the CNSG includes the use of tion. I(jd, water, concrete, and steel. Operational shield 3 3 . The c~~~~~~~~~ . E~~~~~~~~~~ U D r"quinmsnts at elevation a= met by the Con- surized-Water Reartor 1431, with the N I M ~ pres- ~ ~ ~ liderable quantity Of in the equipment, Engineering UNIMOD preasurized-water reactor, plant "le s"pp-ion water in the mntainment, and the compaction is achieved by employing a self-pre88ul-ized noncmte The suppression water e f f ~ t i v e l y reactor with the heat exchanger located within the *ttenuatea the flux, and the shell is reactor vessel. The elimination of external primary-loop "lsd to gamma rayS and opera ti^ components reduces the radioactive volume requiring (fimw) gamma rays to levels- The lead shielding and, hence, the shield size and weight. The clllield furnished is for post-accident shielding. reactor vessel with surrounding shielding is completely The 270-mw(t) CNSG core is composed of 32 fuel encapsulated by the containment vessel. Water within uaaembly and 32 Cluster The core has an the containment vessel provides a rwemoir for vapor nlluivalent diameter of about 70 in. and an active length suppreeaion as well as providing part of the shielding. of 84 in. The total contained uranium is 12,583 kg at The reactor fuel is uranium dioxide in stainaverage enrichment of about 4.1 percent. Radial lem steel tubing. ~h~ active fuel region is 42 in. in Power flattening is accomplished by zone loading with diameter and 60 in. hi&. ~h~ twepasscore contains 61 fuel assemblies of which 36 are in the first pass.

the turbine at a 'Onstant pressure OVUr power level videe steam 105,m-shp containership. The the entire load range, the steam system is permitted "(' for thh Shp requirement is 270 mw(t)pressure that is lower than of the CNSG. The unique feature of have a desi%n the steam design p"ssmes the more the CNSG isthat the major components i~~~ vessel as shown on (which are ~ h a r a c t e rby increasing pressures at system are located within the reactor on powers). he steam generaor is made up drives Fig. 8. Primsry and reactor fuel is low- coils of tubes connected to feedwater andsection mlLy the top of the vessel. The ~ ~ contml is~ sheets in four separate cimits' Each ~ i ~ Reactivity l ~ . emiched UOr with movablec~uster control rods and f&d operate independently Operation with One' two' "I accomplished by three sections is feasible if one unit must be isolated lumped burnable poisons. of the oncethrough, forced- any reason. The tubes are made Of Incone'' whi(ll' better heat transfer' and lig""a The generator is in the aonular space permits thinner walls, circulation type and is v than 'Ore and cOntr"l betweeo the core and pressm ~ e l .The once- weightreactor Vessel contains the The superspace' and ''I thmugh desip enables the to turbine rods, steam generator, prmsurizer heated which apermits margin for load changes internal suPPo*s for the 'Ore, an improved generahr'' ' ' ' I provides greater eECiency and is desiwd in *rithout moisture carry-over. since the generator pro- control rod drive line. The





most desirable, consistent with available


S t e m flow to the propulsion turbine is regulated at the turbine throttle. The steam pressure is maintained within a relatively narrow central band by regulating the feedwater flow through a vanabledelivery feed pump' h. crm ueim c#nbus+im E&me,-ing UNIMOD r e d o r With a decrease in steam demand, for example, the steam pressure will tend to increase, which provides the signal to the feed pump for decreased flow. As a result, 10s~ along the total length of the exchanger, heat is removed from the stem generator and tho an three downcomers located between each pair of primary water leaving the steam generator and into heaterchanger out through the three pumps, the 'Ore in temperature' The is a decresae in 'Ore power to match demand' back into the r e ~ t o vessel and down to the core idet. r The resotor vessel is inside the h i c With reduced load on the steam generator, the extends mund the vess%l, pumps, md the cold shut- inlet temperature rism, the reactor power d e c r e a s ~and ) The average 'On' ~h~ space between the canned the core outlet temperature falls. down mechanisms. compensate for the reactivity vessel assembly and the containment wall is filled with temperature rism slightly gain due to the Doppler broadening effect and the berated water a level above the reactor vessel h d . to by iron and remains critical a t the reduced Power level. With ~h~ principal radiation shielding is water with lead added in local m a s for additional m a self-pressurized rmctor, the reactor prmsure is detarattenuation. The reactor vessel, heat exchanger, and mined by the core outlet temperature. Hence, the vessel intemals a measurable contribution to the reactor pressure d r o p a t decre&aed power. Tho shielding. Steel slabs rn employed in the annular primary loop, consisting only of the leactor, pumps, allll region between the pressure vessel and Containment once-through steam generator, forms a self-contairld vessel for the additional attenuation. The containment power regulating system with the negative feedbaok by the inherent characteristics of the syst~nl vessel is 16 ft in diameter and 34 ft high. I n UNIMOD a major step h~ been made toward components. NO separate pressurizer is required and 1 1 ~ sidplifying principal components to permit maximum functions need be imposed on this system. utilization of factory preassembly. The total assembled tion on for the much slower changes in nuclaw weight of the plant is only 325 long tons and offers the characteristics due to fuel burnup is similarly ~rovidotl This would choice of could be prassnted aa a complete uoit mean by self-regulating changes in moderator density. Fix*' UNIMOD one-piece installation. prior burnable poison in the core minimizes the total the to shipboard installation. adapt naturally to assembly change due to fuel burnup. The excess reactivity For most plant has been designed by modules requiring minimum interoonneotion. F~~ meawed relative to the end of the Core lifetime. vessel assembly, shielding, and cold-to-hot reactivity control is provided by the poiw'l'example, the four rnodulm, surmounted movable fuel clusters and represents tt'r containment vessel can be installed each weighing less than 10 long tons. The optimum only mechanical rod motion required for leactor number of modules for a p&iculm application will The rods are fully withdrawn in coming up to the '''I' depend upon the deof concumnt fabrication and condition and remain So during operation.


MARINE ENGINEERING of the effects ~ l t h there is ~ good ~ ~ a h that ship motion have on reactor operational characteristia, it is anticipated that substantial work in this area will be required in a marine BWR program. d. p o n e d - ~ f i C ~ ~ system. me capital costs On for the additional hardW- necessw for forced circulation on amdl land-based plants [less than 250 mw(t)] being too large in generally have been c o m p ~ s o n the total capital investment to wammt to using them. l-his generalization is probably not true in the case of a marine BWR, for a number of r e ~ O ~ One . originates from the of the more important problem of oontainment size. The P m s ~ ~ for a is fixed by the requiment ,turd-circulation that freesurface separation be used, and therefore an increased power density doee not decrease the vessel height. diameter and has only slight effects on in the p.essure vessel l-he amount water of for the natural-circulation plant could be much as three timee that contained in a. high-power-density system. l-his amount additional water can have comiderable of on the containment cost. Marine water reactors usually have high containment pmsures (about 144 psig) because of the limited space available for containment volume. separaA high-power-density BWR, using tion and foxed cimulation, can improve the situation considerably, since the amount of pressurized water can be reduced. ~t also has more flexibility in the pressure drop in its recimulation loop. For the latter reason, several methods are available to stabilize the reactor as well as to reduce the of ship motion. A comiderable reduction in the effect of ship motion on power has been obtained through use of forced circulabecause Of the phase larger pressure vessel would in th(' change and the requirement to condense the internal once-through stetirn generator. ~ l t h considerable experience with central-statio~l ~ ~ ~ h direct-cycle plants has been obtained, there remains reserve with regard to their application aboard ship. The fact that the engine room would be a area and thus require more planning of mutine inspectioll is contrary to the usual ship policy. There also exist'' doubt whether isolation valves can be provided whici'~ tb'! in the event of a nuclear accident, could reactor compartment from the mmhinery mom. Rul" NO. 501 of the "Provisional Rules for the C1assificatiO'l of Nuclear Ships" of Lloyd's Register of ShippiT'~ whiol' essentially states that plant components the primary coolaht flows must be placed in the ment vessel. Under this ruling, one would conclude that only moto~generahrdrives could be considered for direct-cycle marine BWR. It is anticipated that thca' restrictions and reservations with regard to diroctl nuclear marine cycles Can be removed with engineerilly and development work, but the cost Of such cannot be estimated. A BW1' f. Direct-Cycle BWR Radiation reactor can be designed to operate within the allowable dose rates set by the AEC and can be operated board ship. However, the indirect-cycle PWRsystoTr'~ with suppression of disassociation gases by the use hydrogen, stores small volumes of noncOndensibl'!*l " including radioactive gases, prior to I'c%u~~, gaseous waste discharge to the atmosphere il' " negligible- Nevertheless, tl'i' PWR system is low level is far beyond the requirements for safety. ' I ' t~l!a the case of the BWR system, fission gas leakage fuel is unavoidably diluted with disassociated hydroW is I' me effectthat forced circulation produces on the and oxygen.r e WithOfnormal air inleakage, the w'''' measurable k a ~ e gaseous Waste which, reectormpome is dependent on the pump characterand whether primary-driven jet pumps or within allowable limits, is significantly higher than It istic It may be expected t"ntl feedwater-driven jet pumps are used. Feedwater-driven comparable P w R system. jet pumps have the large advantage of eliminating difficulty will be encountered with licensing and i'*ifil recimulation lines. The volume savings and reliability port entry without the benefit of a pmtotype react"r which result from using feedwater-driven jet pumps are demonstration. Concept'r 3 5 Appraisal of other Marine . more significant in a marine reactor than the capital C O S ~ reduction which may result from the removal of the All reactor Concepts other than the PwR, BW1'l 'Ir gas-cooled thermal reactor have the disadvantage of ~ ' ( l b recirculation lines. lL irr additional advantage of forced circulation is the having land-based predecessom (46, 479 481. flow, his means highly unlikely that such systems would be abl(' '*I of contmlling that the plant can be instrumented to make a load change obtain acceptance without first being operated as cer"ml movement. Reduced md move- station plants, unless they possessed extremely attractive without requiring merit makes the system safer and more reliable while characteristics. However, since consideration has b'n'h given to these plants by othen, some remarks concerrli~k~ reducing wear on the control rod drives. either natural- or forced- other possibilities are ifi order. There are two s~st('sla e. ~ f i cycle. t ~ ~ circulation systems, the direct cycle must be used to be which have been considered in some detail, marinc gIs economically competitive with the PWR. The savings cooled reactors and organic moderated marine The marine gas-cooled reactor (MGCR) Program w"' of recirculation would mult from the undertaken to develop a high-temperature, gas-cOOll"l~ lines and pump in the naturd-ciroulation indirect system would not overcome the disadvantages i n d u c e d . closed-cycle gas turbine Power Plant [49]- The pndn"' I" l-hese disdvantages are in the form of a variable- was initiated in 1958, and in late 1960 was The the status of reactor development. The reactor wua demity moderator and a. larger prmure vessel.

NUCLEAR MARINE PROPULSION 14 '*SafetyConsiderations for ~~~l~~~power Plants on Merchant ships, 9, SNAME T&R ~ ~ N ~l3-18. ~ i l . ~ 15 U. 8. Atomic E~~~~~ ~ Title ~ ~ i ~ of Federal Regulations; pa* 20, U. S. G~~~~~~~ Printing Office,Washington, D. C. 16 "Background Material for the Development of Radiation protection Standar&, 19 ~ ~N ~ 1, ~ .~ ~ e r d Radiation Council, U. S. ~~~~~~~~~t printing Ofie, Washington, D. c., 1960. 17 '*Bsokground ~ ~ tfor ~ ~ i ~ l of the D~~~~~~~~~~ Radiation protection standar&, * R~~~~ N ~ 5, Federal . Radiation Council, U. 8. ~~~~~~~~t printing office? Washington, D. c., 1964. 18 "Report of Committee 1 on Permissible Dose for 1 Internal Radiation, 1959," publication 2, ~ ~ commission on ~ a d i ~ l protection, ~ Pergamon ~ ~ i ~ l Press, New york, 1960. 19 "General ~~i~~ criteria for ~~~l~~~Power Plant Construction Permits," ~ e d ~~~i~~~~32FR10213, ~ ~ ~ l july 1967. 20 upart 5 & ~ pmUre vessels,j, ~ ~ ~ ~ l ~ Title Code of Federal ~ ~ ~ ~ l ~ t i ~ ~ . 21 "Part 37-Tank Vessels," Title 46, Code of Federal Regulations. 22 ''Part 79-Pm~enger ~&sels," Title 46, Code of Glasstone and A. Sesonske, Nuclear Re&r Federal Regulations. Dngineering, Van Nostrand, 1963, 23 "Part 99-Cargo Vessels," Title 46, Code of J. M. Harrer, Nuclear Reactor Control Bngineering, Federal Regulations. Van Nostrand, 1963. 24 "Maximum Permissible Body Burdens and MaxiA. Schultz, of Nudear Reactors and mum Permissible Concentratione of Radio-nuclides in l'ower Plants, McGraw Hill, 1961. Air and in Water for Occupational Exposure," NBS GLwtone and Edlund? Elements o Nuclear Handbook, 69, U. 8. Department of Cornmeroe, U. 8. f lieactor Theorti, Van Nostrand, 1952. Government Printing Office, 1959. A. W. Kramer, Boiling Water Readma, Addison 25 'eInternational conference on safety if^ at of Wesley Publishing Co., 1958. Sea, 1960," Chapter 8 and Annex C. Bureau of Shipping. 'Ieo moderated and was a 10.5-~exentenriched UO. l'olium-cOoledplant. The reactor exit temperature was be 1500 F~witha thermal efficiencyof 36.2 percent. ('onsiderable development work in both the lmoactor turbomachinery was necessary. and The EBoRE project wa. an gas-cooled Program- Although the reactor "ld plant were attractive from a weight and volume 'handpoint, the BeO moderator and 10.5-percent "llriched fuel entail a fuel cycle cost and capital cost which are not Competitive with other nuclear systems. disadvantage is that the plant was designed for :r2,000 S ~ and would require considerable development P be scaled UP to the 70,000 to 100,000-shp range. organic-moderated, p~ssure-tubereact~malso have hen con~idemd~ owing t the limited information but o nvsilable very little can be concluded regarding them 511. The mostattractive feature of this system is the possibility Of having low stored energy in a high power level system. This advantage must be weighed l'uainst the disadvantages of providing a moderator "loanup and makeup System, and the C O S ~ making-up of lor the moderator decomposed.

printing Office, 1958. l1 of High Temperature Gas Resotom," WASH 1085, U. S. Atomic Energy commission, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969. la 'Maritime Gas Cooled Reactor Project ED-118'ummary, ' EC-l S~AUS Report, Westinghouse B10ctric Co., November 1961. "LMFBR Pmgram WASH 1101-WAsH 1110, U. s. Atomic EnermCommission, Clearing House lor Federal scientific and Technical Information, flpringfleld, Va., 1968.

32 E. K. Sullivan and R. P. Goodwin, "The Nuclem Merchant Ship Prograq" to mi^ Industrial F ~ ~ Washington, D. C., November 1959. 33 N. B. McLeod, "The Economics of Nuclear Fuel in Maritime Application," summary ~N U S~ ~ ~ ~ A , r ~ ~ Contract No. PI-MA6384 PB 16g-935. 34 "Nuclear Capital Costs and Co8ts Trends In Maritime Applications," 2784 Contrsct No. PI-MA66492, PB 173 348, Nuclear Utility Services, October 1966. 35 "Economics of Nuclear ~~~l in ~ a r i t~ i ~ ~ ~ l i ~ tiom, " 2658, Nuclear Utility Services.




36 "Power Plant Description-NMSR Project," BAW-1122, AEC Contract No. AT (30-3)-274, September, 1958. 37 G. E. Kulynych, "Description of the NS Savannah NMSR," BAW-1164, Final Safeguards Report, AEC, Vol. I, I11 through VIII, Contract No. AT(30-3)-274, June 1960. 38 "Technical Safety Evaluation of the NS Savannah," 4th Supp., Brussels, European Atomic Energy Community Euatom, 1966. 39 "The Power Plant for the First Nuclear Merchant Ship (NS Savannah)," Nuclear Merchant Ship Symposium, Contract No. AT(30-3)-274, August 1958. 40 "The Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator 11-A Conceptual Merchant Ship Nuclear Reactor Design." BAW-1280, Contract No. AT(30-1)-3206, sep&ber 1963. 41 "The Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator I11 A Conceptual Merchant Ship Nuclear Reactor Design -Revision. " BAW-1289, (Rev. I), Contract NO. ~~(30-11-3206, December 1963. 42 Proceedings of Conference on Nuclear Marine Propulsion, C0NF.-640810, August 1964, p. 55. 43 Proceedings of Conference on Nuclear Marine Propul&on, C0NF.-640810, August, 1964, p. 107. 44 V. A. Mize, B. G. Voorhees, and F. Weinzimmer, "Marine Boiling Water Reactor Nuclear Propulsion

System for 60,000 DWT Tanker," paper presented to the Philadelphia Section of SNAME, February 1960. 45 '22,000 SHP Marine Boiling Water Reactor Power Plant for Commercial Tanker, " Preliminary Plant Descri~tion, Contract No. AT(04-3)-196, General ~ l e c t k CO:, August 1958. c 46 "Nuclear Powered Tanker-Design and Economic Analysis-Pressurized Water Reactor,' George G. Sharp, Inc., Contract No. AT(30-1)-2379, NYO-2860, Combustion Engineering Co., January 1960. 47 Frederic de Hoffman, "Gas-Cooled Reactor Concepts, * General Atomics Division, Nuclear-Powered Merchant Ships Symposium, Washington, D. C., July 1957. 48 "Evaluation of Coolants and Moderators for the Maritime Gas-Cooled Reactor," GA-570, Contract No. AT(04-3)-187, General Atomics, December 1958. 49 K. A. Trickett, "A Review of the Maritime GasCooled Reactor Program," Maritime Gas-Cooled Reactor Program, General Atomic Division, GA-2603, Contract No. AT(04-3)-187, December 1961. 50 R. J. Gimera and R. E. Stanbridge, "Reference Design for an OMR-Powered 38,000 DWT Tanker," NAA-SR-1851, Atomics International Division, Contract No. AT(11-1)-GEN 8, March 1957. 51 "Maritime Organic Moderated and Cooled Reactor," NAA-SR-3859, Contract No. AT(l1-1)-GEN-8, Atomics International, May 1959.



Steam Turbines

Section 1 Nonreheat Main Propulsion Turbines

1.1 Introduction. Although the early development of steam power utilized the reciprocating steam engine as s prime mover, the inherent advantages of the steam turbine soon became apparent and have made it the ohoice for all large modern steam propulsion plants. Turbines are not size limited and can be provided for any power rating up to the maximum likely to be encountered i marine service. High steam pressures and temperan tures can be accommodated safely and are limited only by boiler problems. Rotary motion is simpler than reciprocating motion and the unbalanced forces (that produce vibration) which are present in many reciprooating machines can be eliminated in the turbine. I n sddition, the turbine can efficiently utilize a low exhaust pressure, and is characterized by light weight, minimum apace, and low maintenance. ~h~ -fine turbine operates in with the same basic fundamentals as its land-based counterparts in central station and industrial applications but differs in many important respects. This chapter emphasizes those features and characteristics peculiar to marine applications which are derived from the special requirements of marine propulsion or auxiliary drives. The science, and often art, of turbine design is a highly rpecialized field and a number of textbooks have been devoted almost entirely to this subject [I-81.l Space IImitations prohibit a complete, detailed treatment of turbine design and, therefore, the scope of this chapter is limited to information useful to marine engineers, owners, and operators in connection with the application and operation of marine steam turbines. Turbines are umd to propel many types of vessels having widely varying requirements with respect to power, economy, weight, and arrangement. In the dection and development of a turbine design for a 8geciiic application, the following factors must be oonsidered:

(3) The turbine throttle steam pressure and temperature. (4) The steam cycle arrangement, together with the number and location of extraction points and corresponding steam flows. (5) The turbine exhaust vacuum for design purposes. (6) The type of power transmission to the propeller. (7) The astern operating requirements. (8) Spacelimitations of the engineroom arrangement. (9) The importance of machinery weight and size. This chapter deals with the effects of these and other factors upon the design of turbines. 1.2 Steam Conditions. Ever since the early days of the steam turbine, efforts have been made fo improve the steam conditions in order to increase the economy of the power plant. Steam conditions of marine steam power plants have tended to advance about every ten years, with each advance followed by a period during which experience has been obtained and the knowledge gathered for another forward step. Increasing the steam Pressure will reduce the heat rate and steam rate until a pressure of about 2500 psig is reached. A rough rule states that "Doubling the pressure will reduce the heat rate by 4-6 percent." More accurately, a 100-psi increase in initial pressure will reduce the steam rate by the percentages given in Fig. 1. The gains decrease as the pressure increases because the turbine efficiency suffers a t higher pressures. As steam pressures increase, the specific volume of the steam decreases; therefore, the nozzles and blades become smaller a6d less efficient. A limiting pressure is reached for every capacity of turbine a t which the gain due to the improvement in Pressure is offset by the decrease in internal efficiency. For this reason, higher initial pressures may be used more effectively on large turbines. The initial pressures given in Table 1are recommended as practical upper limits for various sizes of propulsion (1) The maximum ahead power needed to provide units. It should be noted, however, that somewhat the desired ship's speed. lower pressures are determined to be optimum when all (2) The relative amounts of time spent a t maximum of the economic factors are considered. The pressures power and reduced cruising powers. given in the table have been chosen because thev ~ e r m i t reasonable utilization of the pipe flange andAvalve 1 Numbere in brackets deaignate References at end of chapter. dimensional standards of the American National









R ~ u in *am & ~

rot. far i n u a d inHial prasure or -Proturn




Table 1

Recommended Initial Steam Pressures



in Fig. 2. The r e d a t o n , 8tandsrds Institute as bodies require adherence to these standards for merchant marine propulsion units. Increashg the initial temperature will a h reduce the hest rate and steam rate. As an approximation, a 15 deg F increase in temperatwe at full power or a 25 deg F d l result in a 1-pnent d e increase at lower M~~ accurately, a 100 deg F crease in rate reduce the increase in initial temperature by the percentages given in Fig. 1. unlike a change in initial pressure, a change ternafiects the specifio volume only a relativdy amount. a rssult, the physical dimensions of the parts ,,hanged only slightly, and an increase in both initial temperature d l improve the economy large and small turbines about equally. Part of the from an increase in reduction in heat rate is i,,itial temperature constant initial (at from caud increase in turbine by an present in the lower pressure a reduction in the stages. ~h~ rem~nderis due to the increase in the available energy.

For a given initial pressure, t h m is a minimum initial temperature below which the moisture content in the low-pree8ure of the turbine is sufficient to 12aw r n d e a b l e erosion of turbine blades and lo= of &age efficiency. A moisture content of 12 pement in the exhaust is often accepted as limiting, and the c o r n spnding minimum initial temperature. m Y be noted from .Fig. 2. Certain combinstions Of P m u r e and temperature have become widely accepted; these s b &fied conditions are indicated in Fig. 2. Although 'perate at marine s t a m turbines can be designed Or higher) practical pmblems in tempemtms of of marine boilers tend to impose an the upper limit Of g") F. Concern has been expresad reg*ding the sudden imposition of high tempersture upon a astern turbine and exhaust casing; however, it i pomible s to accommodate the thermal shock and rapid e*ansion without either distress or distortion1.5 Exhaust Vacuum. A moderate vacuum of Hg become pneraly accepted a deaiy' basis for merchant ProPuLaion turbines. This selectiol' mmprOmLa 'Onis considered a reasonable sidering the worldwide varbtionin seawater tempemtwo of h d h * and mndensin13 and the she, weight, and equipment. LOW seawater t e m ~ e m t m Perfit Uhvacuum conversely, high seawater t e m p e ~ l ~ ~ ~ limit attainable Vacuum. It is often mcdt the 'Onat remsin On ~trU~ti0n to assure that the specific trade route t h u g h o u t its useful life; therefom) it is generally conaidered drsLable to design for 1'



Standard 'team carditim in relatiail t0 preUUrshmperatura service ratings for ANSI s*dard valw, a d fltlings


good vacuum- In special cases where SOrviceis limited areas of low seawater temperature, the increased and weight of turbines designed for higher than vacuum should be subjected to an oconomic evaluation. The spec5c Of steam increases rapidly as the vacuum is impr0vd. For example, an ~ncrease from of 28 in' meM:W' to a 30-in- barometer) practically doubles the sPec5c volume. TOhandle this at full load, it necessary to increase pr0porti0nallY the flow areas of the turbine atages at the exhaust end. A more detailed discussion of exhaust losses is given in Section 1.7. It is customry for high-speed, lightweight naval to I'nake some sacrifice ih economy by accepting a hi@er exhaust Pressure (generally 2-5 P&) at hi& power in Order to reduce the weight and size of turbines condensers. At cruising Powers where economy is more important, the vacuum approaches merchant levels due to the reduced condenser loading. vacuum is for reasons other than Oconomy. When the element is developing power, the ahead blading is being driven backward in at essentiallJ' exhaust Premure. If the vacuum is poor, the wiodage losses of the ahead &ages d l cause

more rapid heating and may limit the allowable qeed or period of operstion. 1.4 Nonextmdon Steam ~ ~ when ~the . rated t full power, the initial steam conditions, and the exhaud vacuum have been selected, it is possible to establish the steam rate which may be from well-designed equipment. Figure 3 gives typical nondraction rates for merchant type, geared-turbine units designed for optimum pefiormnoe at full power with a balance between efficiency,size, weight, and cost. ~h~ reduction in steam rate with improved steam conditions rate which is easily seen as well as the decrease in steam is po&ble with higher powered units. A method for estimating s h m rates at other conditions is given in reference [g] and chapkr 2. Merchant vessels generally operate at or near full power most of their service life; therefore, pefiormence at partial loah tends to be leas important. A typical variation in steam mte at fractional that representative of turbine designs which incorporate no special features to enhance pefiormnce nozzle contml is shown by the other than fiwdage curve marked ~strsigh~thmugh,, Fig. 4. When in partbl-power performanCeis impofimt, as in the case of naval combatant vessels, Evemi means my be






TurEne ,barn raw, nwxtrocting, for merchaWPe



fig. 6 Turbine condition cum-reheat cycle

steam plant cycle as discussed in Chapter 2. Connections for this purpose are provided at turbine stages where the pressure is appropriate to the intended use. Often, it will be found that the number of stages and the corresponding stage pressures selected by the turbine designer to give optimum turbine performance will result Rg. 5 Typical extraction stage pressure c u m in the desired extraction pressure falling between two stages. Ip this case, it is usually best to select either the higher or lower stage pressure rather than disturb the amployed to move the point of optimum steam rate to a turbine design. partial power and to reduce the low-power steam rates. In general, stage pressures vary almost linearly with Possibilities include an excess in total wheel speed at the apparent flow beyond the extraction point, and a full power, the interstage bypass, the series-parallel curve such as Fig. 5 may be obtained from the turbine turbine, and the two-row/onerow control stage. Dis- deaigner. In choosing the proper turbine stage for each


, R

ram v -

power fra-

d various Wpes d tu&mn


hi = hw - E.L.

A straight line joining the "top point" and the "state

point" gives a reasonable approximation to the c~ondition curve. The nature of the deviation from an ~UJ~urate is indicated by the dashed line in Fig. 6 Curve ltlld is caused by the inability t obtain an average stage o nlliciency in the first and last stages of the turbine. Il'ig~re6 also indicates the trend of the condition ~ u r v e partial powers. Note that a t very low powers, at if the initial temperature remains constant, the exhaust Irluby be superheated. 1.7 Exhaust Loss. Among the factors which deter1lliflethe efficiencyand size of a turbine, the exhaust loss ifi one of the more important. Machines designed to uporate economically at high vacuums are inherently Ifir~l;er, more efficient. For this reason the designer but Illuat strike a balance between the required economy and llllo weight and size of the unit. In general, units (Ifl~iWed operate during a large portion of their life at to lli~her powers should have ample exhaust areas, whereas rlllits which generally operate a t reduced power may be tlo~igned with smaller exhausts, because the exhaust loss reduces rapidly as the load decreases. An understanding of the effects of high volumetric lollding per unit of exhaust amulus area is useful. To Illustrate, assume that the exhaust pressure of a typical hrbine is reduced in a series of steps. Three conditions B1.u encountered, as illustrated in Fig. 7. In condition I, the back pressure decreases, the steam velocity (D2) bh the throat of the last row increases until it equals the b(R)ustic velocity corresponding to the steam conditions Lb this point. The steam jet leaves a t the blade exit Bll~le(7). With a further decrease in back pressure, r~~resented condition 11, the throat pressure and by vO1ocit~remain constant, but expansion now takes pluce beyond the throat causing an increase in the efflux Vcrlocity(02") and a deflectionof the jet to angle r 8". Qsudition 1 1is reached with a further decrease in back 1 ProSSure, when the axial component of the efflux velocity peaches the acoustic velocity. Any further decrease in bnak pressure will result in expansion in the exhaust Or at the condenser inlet, but there d l be no ol''mge in the conditions a t the exhaust annulus; and, UlOmfore~ the steam rate d l not be affected. Thk ee~ldition sometimes referred to as "choking. is Turbine last-stage annulus areas ordinarily are sized lo 6000 to 8000 lb/hr of s b m per square fa* annulus area at 1.5 in. Hg abs; for other back t)mssures, this range vary inversely as the bbnolutepressure. The lower of these values ~epreeents mohines which have a very low exhaust loss and are dfJni@ed normal operation a t full load. The higher for Vrlue represents machines that, for economy in weight and size, are designed with relatively small exhaust hoods ,nd are expected to operate at reduced load for the major portion of their life. Equivalent Nonextraction Sleam Rate. WhenIvm is extracted from a turbine, there is a
lilk~ end


initial pressure ( P 3 and initial temperature (TI). A state line "top point" is then plotted at initial enthalpy and 90 percent of the initial pressure. The "used energy" per pound of steam may be found steam rate X external efficiency





The external efficiency accounts for turbine bearing losses as well as mechanical losses in reduction gears, and for electric drive installations includes the motor and generator losses. If these external losses are not known, the following assumptions may be made: TYPE OF DRIVE EXTERNAL EFFICIENCY Gear drive, single reduction Gear drive, double reduction Electric drive External efficiency at ~ s r t i a powera may be approxil by varying the external loss (one minus external efficiency) at full power as the 1.7 power of the propellor speed. ~ h ,thalpy of steam exhausted to the main Con, denser is h, = h, - used energy The exhaust loss is caused by the velocity energy in steam leaving the last row of blades which cannot b" is converted to recovered as useful work but friction. Exhaust loss by dissipation in eddies and includes any preasure-d~oplosses between the last who(r1 exit and the exhaust flange- The magnitude of the Ovor= all loss depends upon the particular turbine desi~"l steam flow, and exhawt vacuum. a typical memhant propulsion turbine total exhaust loss (E.L.) at full power with rated ~ x h a u ~ ( ~ vacuum is about 12 Btu/lb and at partia1 powers vari"* flow I*' approximately ae the Square of the ratio of the absolute exhaust PressureThe enthalpy of s t a m at the "state line end point "


valve and piping arrangement to shift each system from one turbine stage to another as the power varies. The converse of extraction, called induction, wherein excess steam i the plant is introduced to the turbine, * n generally discouraged. While this may improve the heat balance, it (1) tends to congest the last stages of the turbine, (2) may introduce large slugs of water from syshms and thereby cause bid damage, and (3) requires an automatic control valve to prevent induction when at standstill, operating astern, or in the event of turbine overspeed. 1.6 Condition Cuwe. The Mollier chart * a representation of pressures, temperatures, of s t , . ~t & consuperheat, and heat point" of steam venient to plot on this ,,hart the at any stagein the turbine; when th& & done for d l stages of the turbine, a line drawn through the= points is called the "condition curve" O "state line. " r cwesn for rated full power and for The powem are urnally obtain& fmm the turbine desiper. They are in defining the characteristics of throughout the turbine, at, extrtwtion points and at the turbine exhaust. In the event that a rnndition curve i not available, an s approximation of the fdl-power condition ce may be made for preliminary pwp"as indic&hd in Fi. 6. The initw point is esbbli&ed at the intersection of the

8 Turbine br4ue-ve~n-rpmrekatio&pr


reduction in the exhaust flow as compared with nonextraction operation at the same power; therefore, there is a corresponding decrease in exhaust loss. hi^ improvement in p&omance is reflected in the so-called * ~ u i v a l e n nonextrmtion steam rate, which may be t 1-2 percent less than the unonextractionsteam rate,, at the same power. The equivalent nonextraction steam rate, therefore, is based upon specific extraction steam quantitim required by the pafiioular steamcycle and power for each application and should be used in heatbalance ca!culations when extraction is involved. 1.9 Toyue and Speed Characteristics. ~h~ inherent ability of steam turbines to maneuver rapidly is due to their speed-brque chmacteristics. Curves of turbine output torque for typical ahead and astern turbines are plotted against speed in Pig. 8 at rated ahead steam flow, The curves for the astern turbine show that the torque o available t decelerate the unit while it is still rotating in the ahead direction increases as the ahead speed from which the maneuver stads is increased. A similar relationship for the ahead turbine torque assists in decelerating the unit from astern rotation. 1.10 Machinery Arrangements. The steam turbine is essentially a -speed machine, whereas the propeller



is most efficient a t low rprns. In the early part of this century, before the development of speed-reducing devices, a direct drive was necessary. This inefficient compromise produced large, heavy turbines operating far below their most efficient speeds, while propellers of small diameter turning at turbine speeds gave a poor propulsive efficiency. Hydraulic reduction was considered in the early days but has had only limited application, chiefly because of the low efficiency when compared to other forms of speed reduction. Electric drive has enjoyed much wider application than hydraulic drive, usually for special annlications, but reduction gearing is the common choice -r r for higher-powered installations. Steam turbines, reduction gears, shafting, and propellers form a closely related system; and if an optimum overall system design is to be achieved, it is important that the total system requirements be considered in the development of each component. This relates not only to physical arrangement and choice of speeds, but also to such things as the vibratory characteristics of the overall system. The most common geared steam turbine arrangement is the compound unit consisting of a high-pressure turbine and a low-pressure turbine driving a single fixed-pitch propeller through reduction gears and shafting. A complete astern turbine generally is provided in the l~w-~ressure turbine casing. I n lieu of the compound arr'angement, all of the ahead and astern blading may be provided in a single casing at a small sacrifice of 1-2 percent in efficiency. This arrangement is suitable for rated outputs up to about 20,000-22,000 shp and offers a number of advantages

including decreases in space, weight, and cost, reductions in oil and steam piping, and simpler foundations. At least three arrangements of the low-pressure turbine and condenser are in use. I n one, the low-pressure turbine is supported by longitudinal girders forming an integral part of its lower casing; the girders are supported by foundation structure at the forward end and by the gear casing at the aft end. This arrangement permits the condenser to be hung from and located below the turbine and has the advantage that thermal expansion of the condenser does not affect the turbinegear alignment. As an alternative, the turbine may be supported by the condenser. I n this case, thermal expansion of the condenser will raise the turbine centerline with respect to the pinion, and this must be considered in the design of the flexible couplings between the turbine and pinion. I n a third arrangement, the condenser is located forward of the low-pressure turbine such that the turbine exhausts axially into the condenser. This arrangement has the advantage of reduced overall height but the disadvantage of increased machinery length. The detail design of foundations for machinery is tho responsibility of the ship designer; however, it is in order for the machinery supplier to review and comment upon the machinery foundation drawings to ensure that proper support is afforded the equipment and that no undesirable restraints are imposed. Emphasis must be given to the provision of adequate foundation rigidity to avoid vibration conditions. This is particularly important with respect to periodic variations in propeller thrust which may excite longitudinal vibrations in tho propulsion system. Reference [lo] gives a more complete discussion of foundation principles and problema.

In the case of nonreheat marine power plants, turbine piwformance is specified in terms of the nonextraction sbnnm rate. This criterion adequately meets the require~rlonts of plant designers and purchasing activities; IIII-thermore, is easily demonstrated on ship trials, and it i tln variations are reflected correctly in that portion of the I,otal fuel burned for main-propulsion purposes. When l,lio reheat principle is used, nonextraction steam rate is no longer a proper criterion of turbine performance, since ii, does not recognix the addition of heat in the reheater. 'I'he steam rate varies with the reheat pressure that is mlscted, decreasing as the prewre is dropped; and nvon if, in addition to defined steam conditions and vaouum, a specific reheat pressure is associated with each alstlm rate, the result could not be used for comparison of competitive turbine designs. This may be seen by c~onaideration the reheat turbine condition curve, Fig. of 1). Ipor example, two turbine designs could be developed rrwh that each has the same initial and reheat ateam cr)nditions, the same condenser vacuum, and the same rlosm rate, but the corresponding plant efficiencies and f ~ rates could differ. The turbine having a higher d afliciency in the stages prior to the reheater and a lower nlficiency following this point would require a greater amount of heat to be added in the reheater at the expense of increased fuel to the boiler. It becomes necessary, therefore, to use some form of b a t rate as the criterion of reheat turbine performance. Ileat rate may be defined in several ways, but a stantlnrdized method for marine units has been suggested ( I I]. I n general, the turbine heat rate in Btu/shp-hr 1~ expressed as
Turbine heat rate Heat added to turbine cycle by boiler (Btu/hr) Power Output (shp) The heat added is defined as

Section 2 Reheat Main Propulsion Turbines

Reheat Principles. Marine steam propulsion


plants generally are restricted to steam temperatures of approximately 950 F because of boiler slagging and corrosion problems arising from fuel impurities, and this imposes a constraint upon the turbine efficiency. Steam temperatures higher than 950 F can be permitted with the use of cIeaner, but more expensive, fuels or by providing special fuel treatment systems. However, it is difficult to justify economically either of these two methods; consequently, if the efficiency of a steam turbine is to be improved, other approaches must be considered. The reheat cycle is the best means available to achieve higher turbine efficiencies and better fuel rates. I n the reheat cycle, steam is withdrawn from the turbine after partial expansion and is passed through a h e exchanger (reheater) where its temperature is raised; it is then readmitted to the turbine for expansion to condenser pressure. The increase in cycle efficiency is due, primarily, to an increase in the mean effective

temperature at which the heat is added since the reheal. part of the cycle increases the quantity of heat added nl higher temperatures. A secondary but important effeoi is the reduced formation of moisture in the last stages of the turbine which improves the efficiency of these stago#. Referring to a typical condition curve for a reheat cyclcr, Fig. 9, it can be seen that reheat allows the use of high(w pressures without the problems of higher temperatur~. I the same moisture content were to be realized in r f straight-through cycle, the initial temperature wouLl have to be increased from T Ito TI'. 2.2 Turbine Performance. The considerations entoring into the selection of initial steam conditions a ~ a l vacuum for reheat plants follow those for nonrehnab units. Marine reheat plants probably will continue to have more modest steam conditions than land-ba~c~tl applications because of lower power ratings and tlln fact that the safety of a ship is dependent upon tl10 reliability of its power plant.


i Where

- ~ R W ) Q R ~ H H- HCR) R


= throttle flow, lb/hr

Fig. 9 Turbine condition c u n a e h e a t cycle

Q R A ~=

reheater flow, lb/hr H T = throttle enthalpy, Btu/lb h g = final feedwater enthalpy, Btu/lb ~ HER = enthalpy leaving reheater. BtuAb -, - -,-HCA= enthalpy entering reheater, Btu/lb

Turbine 1 bnis whichheat rate may be defined on a nonextraction is relatively simple in that other components


Of the cycle are not involved. The demonstration of Ao~lextraction heat rate requires a special test with blaoders closed. Alternatively, an extracting turbine heat rate may be defined in a manner similar to land pracblue Ill] wherein the feed heating arrangement must be mmpletely specified. This type of heat rate can be demonstrated during shipboard trials in the course of regular economy runs but requires additional measuremants, more complex calculations, and more involved

corrective procedures. Typical extracting turbine heat rates are given in Fig. 10 for a five-feed-heater cycle. 2.3 G a s Reheat. Reheat may be accomplished by returning the steam to a special section of the boiler, called the reheater, where its temperature is increased by flue gases. With a gas reheater, the steam can be reheated to thelinitial temperature and maximum cycle efficiency can be realized within the temperature limitation. The improvement in plant performance offered by the gas reheat cycle is equivalent to an increase of about 125 deg F in the initial steam temperature of a nonreheat plant. I n other words, a reheat plant with an initial



--850 426 1050 1450 18M) 446 419 502 950 850 1.5

- 5 -




Section 3 Main P ~ p ~ l s i oTnrbines-N~~clear Cycle n






Fig. 13 Moisture baffles

Experience has shown that it is desirable to use a corrosion-resistant material for all surfaces subject to moisture impingement. Rotors and casings may be machined from stainless steel, or carbon steel casings may be faced in critical areas with a welded inlay of stainless steel. Although proper choice of materials alleviates the corrosion-erosion problem it does nothing for the loss in efficiency, and therefore steps must be taken to remove as much moi&,ure as possible from the steam path. In general, two approaches are possible: (1) internal separation, which is used for both nuclear and nonnuclear cycles and is described in section 7.4; and (2) external separation, which is treated in the following. 3.5 External Moisture Separution. Moisture may be extracted by removing the steam from the turbine and treating it in an external separator. This method is applicable to the cro~compound type of unit where the pressure in the high-pressure turbine exhaust is about 45 psia and the moisture may reach 12 percent at full power as illustrated by Fig. 12. If this moisture were not removed, it would increase still further in expanding through the low-pressure turbine and cause serious erosion problems and a loss in turbine efficiency. The ideal separator should be designed for maximum moisture removal coupled with minimum pressure drop and minimum space requirements. The power loss to the overall plant is about 1 percent for every 1-psi pressure dmp, compared with a power loss of 0.6 percent for every 1percent of moisture entering the low-pressure turbine. Thus, if a net gain in efficiencyis to be realized, the sum of moisture and pressure-drop losses with a separator must be less than the moisture loss with no separator. Many types and arrangements have been developed, but in general external separators consist of a pressure vessel having inlet and outlet connections to the crossover piping, internals arranged to remove moisture, and a drainage system. The separator may be located forward of the high-pressure turbine and supported on the same

longitudinal girders, or arranged at the side of the 11111t and supported by ship's structure. The separator internals may include centrifug~~ I, baffle, or wire-mesh devices. Centrifugal devices rotrllc* the steam flow, which tends to drive the heavier wnl,c&~ droplets to the outer diameter where they are drained olI The baffle t v ~ e function by collecting moisture on tllcQlt s surfaces a n i then allowingVit drain off. Baffles vrwv to from simple chevron styles to more elaborate arranKc! ments having hooks and partially sheltered passages f o l drainage as shown in Fig. 13. Wire-mesh types ~ I I I I ( * tion similarly by collecting moisture through surfric.13 contact. The design of moisture separators is not an ex!ic:l science but rather the result of a great deal of testing r i t ~ ~ l experience. It has been found that the steam ve1oc;il.u configuration in the crossover pipe is complex ILII(I includes secondary ROWS induced by the exhaust e l l ~ ~ w and by the turbine-exhaust hood. This uneven veloc:iI(v distribution may overload some sections of the separd,or A large portion of the moisture in the high-pressl~w turbine exhaust, up to 80 percent, has been found i n 1 consist of water running along the surface of the ~ ) i ~ n wall. This suggests the use of a skimmer at the inl(l1. the separator to avoid overloading the inlet portionr of the separator. Reentrainment of separated moisture may occur W I I ~ ~ I L water on an internal surface is swept back into the V I L ~ M I I stream before it can be drained, and must be avoitltttl because droplets may be produced which are too sn1111l to respond to subsequent separating efforts, or they sair be formed in a late stage and thus escape. Large droplets may split into smaller ones, a procB(!aa called "droplet fracture" that makes separation moln difficult. Such fracture occurs when there is a ltug* relative difference in velocity between the vapor and i.ho droplet, such as may occur when large drops are awol~l' from a trailing edge. In addition, mechanical fraclliw, or split-up, may occur by collision of a large drop wit11Ill1 obstacle. Testing and performance verification of m~isl~ltrr separators involve practical problems. The perforts ance of separators is highly sensitive to the moislr~re particle size. Since both the measurement of drop rim and the artificial creation of moisture truly represent,rl.iv~ of that found in actual turbine exhausts are difficall., I[ not impossible, it has been found necessary to sr~lq~lv o saturated steam to a high-pressure turbine coupled l r ~ power absorption device, then lead the exhaust conl,~ri~r ing the required moisture to the separator on t80nl After passing through the separator, the steam is tlac~l. tled through a valve to a low back pressure at which l.Ile steam becomes superheated, and its temperature mtly 11. used to calculate thqresidual moisture at the sepnn~lnlr outlet.

Section 4 Camhined Steam and Gas h r l ~ i n e Propulsion Cycles Main

4.1 COSAG Cycle. In some shipboard applications tliesel engines, gas turbines, and steam turbines can be omployed effectively in various combinations. The prime movers may be combined either mechanically or thermodynamically, or both. The brief discussion which follows is concerned chiefly with the steam turbine ss an element of a combined cycle and is limited to ciombined cycles that significantlyaffect the size or other trharacteristics of the steam turbines. For additional iliscussions regarding combined cycles, see Chapters 1 and 6. Insofar as steam turbine applications are concerned, two combined cycles are commonly considered; these are Ithe combined steam turbine and gas turbine (COSAG) oycle and the combined gas turbine and steam turbine (CdGAS) cycle. In the COSAG cycle the steam and gas turbines are connected to a common reduction gear but u* thermodynamically independent. The chief application of the COSAG principle has been in high-speed 11ava1 vessels of the destroyer type. Such vessels ~~orrnally a service profile which requires operation have J speeds above one-half power for only a very small percentage of their operating life, generally less than one . Accordingly, if this boost power were furnished simple-cycle, aircraft-type gas turbines having a relatively limited life, while the basic ahead md astern power is supplied by a conventional long-life but relatively heavier steam plant, there would be a dgnificant reduction in machinery weight. The weight lrsvad may be used in a number of ways; if it is used to w r y additional fuel, an increase in cruising range of Db-40 percent is possible as compared with a convenMona1 steam plant. Rteam conditions suitable for a conventional steam plant of the same power may be used for the COSAG $yule and, therefore, there are no significant differences (w the design of the steam turbines. Boveral classes of naval vessels, including some British h~troyers, have been built with COSAG machinery 1181, bnd a shore-based prototype plant has been tested by the V~li@d States Navy [19]. 4.2 COGAS Cycle. In the combined gas turbine and ~ C h mturbine (COGAS) cycle, both mechanical and kenn no dynamic interconnections exist between the cyales. The principle advantage gained by a thermodynamic interconnection lies in the potential for Improved overall efficiency and for savings in space and Wight. This is the result of the ability of the gas turbine cycle to accept heat at a relatively higher


temperature level and the steam cycle's ability M reject heat a t a lower temperature level. The disadvantage of the high-temperature heat rejection in the gas turbine exhaust is minimized by the partial transfer of this heat to the steam cycle. If the exhaust of a simple (nonregenerative) cycle gas turbine is supplied to an unfired wasteheat boiler, the available steam pressure and temperature is low when compared with a conventional steam plant. For example, a gas turbine having an inlet temperature of 1500 F may be expected to have an exhaust temperature of 700-750 F. Heat recovery is dependent upon the boiler design and the amount of heat-transfer surface, but in practical cases the turbine inlet steam conditions are limited to 200-300 psig and 600-625 F. The efficiency of the unfired COGAS cycle increases with an increase in the gas turbine inlet temperature but is relatively insensitive to the gas turbine pressure ratio and to the steam pressure. The steam portion of the plant is relatively simple and there are no high-temperature problems. The reduced heat drop associated with the steam conditions permits a corresponding reduction in the total turbine blade speed that is required and, therefore, fewer stages are needed; this being the case, it is easily possible to use a single-casing steam turbine. Both the steam and gas turbine outputs are supplied to a common reduction gear. Overall propulsion fuel rates of 0.40 lb/shp-hr, which are comparable to the fuel rates of modern steam reheat cycles, are possible but consideration must be given to the cost of the more expensive fuels required by the gas turbine. The waste-heat boiler may also be fired, since 75 percent of the available oxygen is left in the exhaust gases. In a sense, the exhaust-fired combined cycle, therefore, takes the conventional steam cycle, relocates some of its heat-exchange surface, and replaces the forced-draft fans with a gas turbine. Due to the high initial gas temperature, the power derived from the gas ' turbine, and the heat recovery in the boiler (which reduces the hot exhaust gas loss), a net overall reduction in fuel rate of 4-5 percent when compared with a reheat steam cycle can be attained. High-pressure, high-temperature steam conditions, comparable to the normal nonreheat or reheat steam cycles, may be selected for the steam turbines. Consequently, the design and arrangement of the steam turbines suitable for fired COGAS cycles may be generally s i e l a r to units normally supplied for nonreheat and reheat steam cycles.




Section 5 Tllrbine Speed, Number of Sbges, nimensions

'I'heOretically there are by which steam may be expanded in two basic methods by impulse dges, the entire a turbine, namely where stationary nozzle, or by pressure drop occurs in the drop is usually maction stages, where the moving blades, In divided equally thh sharpfixed and generally does not between distinction actual eficiency of pure impulse stages can be exist since the improved by the use of pressure h o p in the moving blades (the pressure hop varies from about 5-10 percent in the high-pressure stages 3&40 Permnt in the lowto pressure stages). impulse stages more efficientthan are reaction stages at pressures above 4-00 psig, but equal eEciencies may be realbd in the intermediate and low-pressure r e ~ o n s . Indeed, there is little differenoe ih the blade profiles, heights, and angles between the exhauseend blading of mmparable impulse and reaction turbines. E~~~ so-called reaction turbines generally the use an impulse desip for their first or contml stage.
and fieaction.

in the There are Pmnounwd difIemnws, Of number of Stages and the constructional impulse and reaction turbines, as may be noted Figs. 14-17'. The impu15e type is charactehd by 'learanoes individual wheels and dhphrag-1 large between the blades and the caaasing, and a between the diaphragm Packings and the diameter at the high-pressure psking of relatively first stage (see Figs. l4 and 15). AS shown by Figs. 16 and 171 reaction turbines usual1y in employ a d n m - t y ~ e rotor) Stationary blade-tip and the casing, close radial or which acts sa a large-diameter h i g h - ~ r e s ~ e packing Of dummy piston to balanw theaial the moving in the pressure drops such as shown in Fig. 17)which double-flow turbines, are inherently balanoed). turbines 5.2 Variable S~.d* Marine operate through a wide speed range) and the


















E 0



E 0





0 0







Fig. 18

Velodty ratio versus blade dflciency

called a Curtis stage) has a lower peak diagram efficiency, as may be noted from Fig. 18. Frequently, a two-row impulse wheel is used for the first or "control" stage. Theoretically it has the energyabsorbing capacity of four single-row wheels and requires less space. In addition, it is useful for control because it permits the use of a lower first-stage exhaust pressure and temperature which reduces leakage and rotation losses. Because of this reduction in losses, there is very little difference in the overall stage efficiency of a Curtis control stage and the equivalent Rateau stages at the design point. The overall efficiency of a Curtis control stage at part load exceeds that of an equivalent Rateau stage. In some astern turbines, three-row velocity-compounded wheels are used. For this type, the maximum efficiency is reached theoretically when the velocity ratio equals approximately 0.16, as may be seen from Fig. 18. The peak dciency ie less than that for a two-row wheel, but it has the energy-absorbing capacity of nine singlerow wheels. Experience indicates that two- and threerow wheels reach their peak efficiencies when the velocity ratios are somewhat higher than the theoretical values. 5.5 Single-Cylinder Turbine. It is possible to contain all of the ahead and astern turbine stages within a single casing. While such an arrangement could be built for any power output, single-cylinder turbines generally are not considered for powers above 20,000-

25,000 shp. At powers below this range, the singlecylinder turbine has some definite advantages, such as reduced initial, installation, and maintenance costs and more simple gland sealing, gland exhaust, lubricating oil supply and drain systems, overspeed protection system, and machinery foundations. The cross section of a typical single-cylinder turbine is shown in Fig. 19. T h i n impulse stages are provided in the ahead turbine; these consist of a two-row wheel followed by twelve single-row wheels. The asten1 turbine consists of two impulse stages, a two-row wheel, followed by a single-row wheel. The steam rate for a single-casing turbine is approximately one percent higher than a comparable two-casing or cross-compound turbine. This higher steam rate is due to several factors; namely (1) the total blade speed i~ limited by the number of stages which can be accommodated on a single rotor of practical length and also by the maximum rotor speed for which the ahead exhaust stages can be designed, (2) the increased rotor length requires a larger-diameter shaft and consequently interstage leakage losses are greater, and (3) some compromise is necessary with respect to the blade height to diameter ratio selection. 5.6 Cross-Compound Turbine. Historically, marine turbines have been built with as many as four casinm, but these units were directly connected to'the main shafts and operated at propeller speeds. The moder~i

I 80

MARINE ENGINEERING reduced diameter, this construction permits the lowpressure turbine to operate a t higher rpm for the samtb stress, which in turn makes possible a reduction in weigh I,. It is customary to provide an astern turbine a t each end of a double-flow rotor. The astern steam flow iti controlled by a single throttle and the flow is dividctl equally between the two turbines. The symmetricr~l arrangement and equal division of flow results in tho same pressure a t each ahead exhaust and therefore 11o pressure differential across the ahead blading. 5.8 Design Selection. In trying to arrive a t the bo~l, overall turbine design for a given set of conditions, tlrtr designer is faced with the selection of proper values for rr s e a t manv variables, including, but not limited to, t,htl -. number of casings, revolutions per minute for etrcll rotor, number of stages, and the nozzle and blade heigl~b for each stage. An optimum design could be arrived rrl, by an interative process consisting of a comparison of rr series of turbine designs in which each of the principr~l variables, one a t a time, is tested through an approprith(rr range. In the evaluation of the results, proper considoration should be given to weight, size, and cost as well n M efficiency. However, a complex study of this typc in seldom necessary because experience and comparirrorl with similar designs aided by the judgement of thn turbine designer make short-cut procedures possible.



marine turbine, freed from the speed limitations of the propeller by mechanical or electric transmission, normally does not require more than two cylinders. A crosscompound turbine consists of a high-pressure and a lowpressure cylinder arranged so that the ahead steam flow passes through both cylinders in series. The complete astern turbine is incorporated in the exhaust end of the low-pressure turbine. The improved efficiency of a cross-compound unit, when compared to a single-cylinder unit, is due to the ability to provide suflicient stages to achieve an optimum total blade speed. In addition, the high-pressure portion of the turbine can be made smaller, lighter, and more efficient by running it a t higher speed than the lowpressure turbine. 5.7 Double-Flow Turbines. As the rated power and steam flow of a cross-compound turbine are increased, the required diameter a t the exhaust increases correspondingly; and a point is reached where the size becomes objectionable from both an arrangement and a manufacturing viewpoint. To provide additional exhaust area, the low-pressure turbines of high-powered cross-com~ound sets may be designed to have a doubleflow exha\& as &own in Fig. 15. With this arrangemerit, the steam flow is divided and flows through two equal-capacity low-pressure elements to the condenser. Since the same total exhaust area can be provided a t a

y : '





Fig. 21 Efiect of thrMe governing

Section 6 T~~rbine Control

6.1 Power and Speed. Means must be provided to vary the flow of steam through the turbine so that its power output and speed can be controlled. Steam flow may be varied by: A throttle valve w A throttle valve plus hand control valves Bar-lift valves and cam-lift valves Bypass valves Variable boiler pressure 6.2 Throttle Valve Control. The most simple method of regulating steam flow is by a throttle valve in the steam supply to the turbine, as illustrated by Fig. 20. If properly sized, the valve will have little pressure drop when wide open; therefore, a t maximum power, practically full boiler pressure will exist a t the inlet to the first-stage nozzles. As the valve is closed to reduce the rate of steam flow, its pressure drop increases; consequently, a throttling or constant enthalpy process occurs a t the valve and causes a thermodynamic loss since there is a decrease in the available energy per pound of steam. Figure 21 illustrates the reduction in available energy as a result of throttling. Because of throttling losses a t . lower powers, as illustrated by curve A A of Fig. 22, throttle valve control

One nozzle group normally has about one half of the total nozzle area and is controlled only by the throttle valve, while each of the remaining groups is controlled by the throttle valve and a hand control valve. Thus, if the throttle is wide open, the nozzle area and therefore the steam flow may be varied in a series of steps by opening each hand control valve in proper sequence. When the throttle valve and all hand control valves in nervice a t a particular point are wide open, throttling losses will be a t a minimum. The smooth curve AC in Pig. 22 would result if it were possible to have an infinite lumber of hand control valves.

Fig. 23

Throttb valve plus hand control~valves

With the limited number of valves that it is practical to use, there are powers which cannot be obtained by having combbtions of valves wide open or shut. Two modes of operation are possible for these intermediate powers. One procedure is to fully open as many control valves as can be utilized and then partially open one additional control valve to get the exact power desired. The throttling loss of the partially opened valve produces the scalloped effect (or valve loops, as they are

alone is not satisfactory for ahead turbines, but it i~ generally used for astern turbines where high efficiciltiy a t part load is not necessary. 6.3 'ThroWle Valve Plus Hand Control Valvmr. Throttling losses a t reduced powers can be minimizetl if the first stage is of the impulse type and its total noesla area is divided into groups as illustrated by Fig. 21.

Fig. 22

Typical efficiency nnver


fw various types of control

70 25 Fig. 2 0 Throttle valve control








Rlre in the



Alternatively a centrifugal pump may be which case the discharge pressure t3Cts against a Piston and an adjustable spring. The overspeed setti% is obtained by an extrapolation of speed Versus spring sett~ for within the operating range- A centr3ugal pump tends to act as a centrifuge, and small air bubbles present in the lubricating oil tend to collect at the center of the impeller. Unless this air i8 vent,,d, the pressurespeed relationship will be affected. ~t has generally not been considered necessary to (D) BALANCED VALVE provide overspeed protection while operating asten'; however, when the astern throttle is power operated for Fig. 29 Vario- typer of valver remote-control purposes, it is a relatively simple matter to include astern overspeed protection. A continuous supply of lubricating oil is essential for Without the resulting complications in subeystem controls and the safe operation of a turbine of lubricating oil, turbine besings may adequate operating procedures do not justify its use. 6.7 Ovenpeed and Low oil Pnssun on. fail in a matter of minutes. If the lubricatix-oil a safe a springOverspeed protection is desirable for every turbine that System Pressure can reach a dangerous speed upon a loss of load. lnthe loaded piston will actuate the Pilot will of gesRd propulsion turbines this can occur if a to the servomotor, and the ahead Operating is broken, and periodic racing c l o ~ . Oil failure may Occur with the propeller is lost or a can occur in heavy weather when the propeller inter- a high ahead speed, and it is important that the vePml pit,&- be available to stop rotation of the shaft rnittently emerges from the water due to the ing. speed-limiting governor is best suited for this is dead in the water. If this is not done, the coastilly " purpose since it will prevent an excessive speed while still period of most large vessels is so long that the governor emergency lubricating oil Willbe used up as the propellnr allowins continuous operation the at setting (usually to 15 percent above the is dragged through the and the rotati''' continuous rating). ~ rdevices, which shut off team may damage the gem and turbine bearin6s' i ~ 6.8 governor^ A governor generally is prOvidn'l for the primary flow completely, aR not of propulsion machinery. overspeed pmh- the control of a turbineelectric prnPulsion unit. Tl'' for 'perate througl' tion is Standard for merchant turbines but is not fitted governor is adjustable 80 that it surface ship propu~s~on where wide range Of speed and is designed so that it units to naval simplification and reduced wek,t are important and approximately constant turbine 'pm irrespective Of 'Irn where experience has indicated that, with but few load requirements a t the selected speed setting 'I' exceptions over many years, the risk of dawerous principle, Such a governor is similar to the 'peed contn)lr seater overspeeding is relatively slkhtht. Overspeed protection of turbine-generator sets, but it has a sre furnid"'d is an ereential requirement when an electric drive is used, of speed adjustment. Governors except possib~y that the generator for geared propulsion turbine since there is the overspeed-limiting protection. m y lose its electrical load. A typical overspeed system is shown in 6.9 Valve Des*n. Three types Of flow to a turbil'n F ~z8. . .The speed eemors me small pOsitive-displa~ commody used to control the ~ 29(a) is siml"n' pumps each driven by its corresponding turbine The single-seated Valve shown in because Of ''l' rotor and supplied from the -in lubriOatingngOil system. but it requira a large lifting The pump discharge pressures at any dven sped may be unbalanced presswe across the valve when in the clOM"' varied by adjustment of the variable Orifices. The position. ail'yl* To reduce the force required to open the disohsrge pRwures operate a pilot valve by acting pilot vniv@ agsiost a spring-loaded piston. ~h~ pilot valve in turn seated, balanced valves hafing an in are w d . F i u r e m(b) shows this deskn diafTanl power oil to the proper side of a hyhadic

form. the Pilot valve B closed, the pree dotted area equals the inlet presswe, and the pilot and main are held tkhtly down upon their mats' men the stem is lzted, the Pilot Valve Opens firat,and the premure within the dotted area drops. It is t mntml the pressure in the balance o by limiting the lift of the Pilot valve SO that a sufficient force is exerted downward on the disk to prevent chattering, which can be caused by instability Of the flow as the main valve starb to open This of valve is widely used with marine turbines. It is possible to substitute an extmwd h a n d - o ~ a t e d

bypass valve for the internal pilot, as in ~ i29(,,1. . ~ Although it can be more nearly balanced because the main valve disk is bed to the valve stem, and is not susceptible to chattering, a hand-operated bypass requires a @parah control, and it is pomible that the operator may foget to it. The dOuble-eabd balanced valve can be used to minimbe the force required to open the valve, butit is seldom used with high-temperature, high-pressure marine turbines a t locations where both must tight under be all conditions . f operation. A valve of this design is O shown in diagrammatic form in ~ i29(d). , ~

Rotors and Blades

The lexth of each row of turbine is governed by the volume flow, the mean diameter Of the flow path, the velocity Of the steam, and the active arc through which flow takes Plwe. Blade lengths gnerauy increase the high-pressure to the low-pressure end the turbine, and the length of the Lasestage is determined by the selected level of exhaust lea* loss- Toward the exhaust end of the as the Of increases, it is necessary to the Outlet angles in order to obtain sufficient flow however, this results in a decrease in efficiency if too far. sinceea~hbladeextends radially from the the pitch is geater a t the tip than a t the To keep this 'preading from causing great a lorn in efficiency due to shape of the flow p s p the length Of having a uniform Cross section their len@h is generally limited to 20 percent Of the diameter Of the flow Path. This limitation can be circumvented by the use of tapered and t*kd having vmY from the root to the tip ae tosuit the steam and blade velocities at each 'long the length. It is usually possible to reduce the cross section from the mot to the tip, which decreases the at the and permits a longer for the same limiting stress. The length of tapered and may 25 Percent to as much as 33 prcentthe mean diameter of the flow Of
7'1 'lade Design'


When the angles and crowsectional shape of a blade are established, a blade width is such that the calculated bending stresees are weeptable. Bending stresses are caused by axial and tangential forces exerted by the steam and by blade vibration. when the centers of gavity of =tionsst radii do not fall on a radial line, bending stre69es will be introduced ala, by ppnWUgal forces. The centrifugal fore due to the mass of the blade and its rotation causes a tensile stresein the blade that with 10% blades is significant at the blade This varies with the blade len@h, the of the blade speed, and for blades of uniform section it is independent of the section shape or width. T~ minimi% the centaugal foroes in the long blades at the lowpressure end of a tub'me, the blsdes are often &ntrzugal forces and stresses relatively steady in are nature and do not cause vibration or fatigue failures; however, stresm due to centrifugal forces me limited to one half of the yield strength of the Blading must be d e s b d to kthand bendiw stresses under the worstconditiom of lo&%. In the caee of the control or first the highest loadings are experienced at reduced powers due to inCrebsed hest dmps and velocities. F~~ turbines having bypaas valves, the stages preceding the pointwhere the bypass steam is ,readmitted their maximum load just




1 87



Typical Campbell diagram


traced to its source. by operation of the purifier. At regular intervals oil should be followed when securing a turbine: sam~lesshould be analyzed to check Ph, viscosity, (1) Close all turbine control valves and valves in the -main steam line to the turbine. additives, water ccontent,and other properties. (2) Open all turbine drains. In the event that the lubricating-oil pressure is lost (3) Engage and start the turning gear. This allows for any reason, the low oil pressure trip will shut off the ahead steam. If the vessel is underway ahead, it will the turbine rotors to cool uniformly while the oil circulacontinue to coast for some time. Due to the hydro- tion enables the heat transmitted through the shafts to dynamic action o the water on the propeller, the be carried away from the bearings and thus avoid possible f propeller will continue to turn in the ahead direction and damage to the babbitt lining. will rotate the engine. To avoid bearing failures, it is (4) Secure the gland sealing and exhaust systems. (5) Keep the condenser circulating and condensate extremely important that shaft rotation be stopped by the use of astern steam until the vessel stops or oil pumps in operation at minimum speeds until the turbines are drained, then secure. pressure is restored. The inlet steam conditions should be periodically (6) Secure the first-stage air ejector jets but leave f monitored. I an abnormally high inlet steam temper* the second-stage jets in service for a few hours to draw ture is permitted over an extended period, damage may air through the turbines. This should be repeated every result. If the inlet temperature is too low, then two or three days to keep the turbines dry. (7) When the turbines have cooled sufficiently to moisture erosion will increase in the last stages of the avoid bowing, secure all associated equipment. low-pressure turbine. (8) Circulate oil and operate the turning gear every The operator should be constantly alert for any abnormal change in noise level, for unusual sounds, and two or three days in port, covering all applicable parts tor indication. of increased vibration, particularly with lubricant to prevent rusting. during maneuvering. If such are noted, slow down 11.7 Emergency Operation. If either turbine of a until the noise or vibration disappears Operate for 10 cross-compound unit is damaged to the extent that it to 15 minutes at this reduced speed, then slowly increase cannot be operated, the other turbine can be run on speed, taking a t least another 15 minutes to reach high-pressure steam by rearranging the steam and operating power. exhaust connections as necessary (see also Chapter 18 If the rotor becomes temporarily bent due to thermal for additional discussion on this subject). The damaged conditions and rubs on the packing strips, heat will be turbine is disconnected from the reduction gear and generated at the shaft surface on a small segment of its remains idle. circumference. This will increase the shaft distortion When operating with the high-pressure turbine alone, and cause a harder rub, which will generate additional a special pipe is provided to exhaust directly to the heat such that the rub becomes progressively worse, condenser. If the astern turbine is confined to the lowpossibly resulting in a severe casualty. Hence, it is pressure turbine, and this is usually the case, no astern necessary to slow down, allow time for temperatures in operation is possible and the astern throttle should be the shaft to equalize, and thus permit the shaft to wired shut to prevent its being opened by mistake. straighten. When the high-pressure turbine is out o service, highf 11.5 Prolonged Astern Operation. Main propulsion pressure steam may be admitted directly to the inlet of steam turbines designed for merchant ships generally are the low-pressure turbine and controlled by a valve in tho capable of continuous astern operation at 70 percent of supply line which serves temporarily as a throttle. An the ahead speed for one hour without danger of rotation orifice is generally fitted after the valve to limit the steam losses causing overheating of the idle ahead blading. flow to an allowable value. This performance is contingent upon the exhaust vacuum The power output is reduced not only by the decreased being at or near the design value. In addition, the& turbine efficiency but also by consideration of the gear must be no steam leakage into the ahead turbine through loadings when operating with a single turbine. Gear8 the ahead throttle or extraction valves. If temperatures driven by a single turbine are loaded to design torquo in the crossover pipe and high-pressure turbine exceed values when the propeller speed is about 70 percent and allowable values, the speed should be reduced. It should be noted that if the inlet steam temperature the corresponding power about 35 percent of the normal ahead rating. It is generally recommended that tho is constant, the astern exhaust temperature will rise with emergency speed should not exceed 70-75 percent of tho a drop in speed since the exhaust is superheated and the normal ahead rating. turbine efflciency decreases.

MARINE ENGINEERING 11.6 Securing fhe Turbine. The following procedure Traces of water should be removed


20 1

Section 12 A~~xiliary Turbines

12.1 Introduction. For ateam power plants, steam shown in Fig. 43. The performance that may be h~~rbines also commonly selected as prime movers for expected from properly designed multistage turbines is are wxiliaries such as electric generators, feed pumps, and indicated in Fig. 44. tho cargo oil pumps of tankers. Many of the basic Accurate control of speed is essential to maintain 1)rinoiples of steam turbine design and const~ction constant and correct frequency in an a-c electrical system. cwtlined in previous sections apply generally to the Speed control is accomplished by regulating steam flow mmnaller units, but the design criteria may be modified to the unit as directed by a control system utilizing the h a u s e of the reduced power output and because of input from a speed sensor. Although there are several ooanomic considerations. Some of the more important types of sensors and systems, in each case the flow aunsiderations in this regard are discussed in the follow- regulation is achieved by the operation of nozzle control leg sections. valves supplying steam to the first stage of the turbine. 12.2 Ship Service Turbine Generators. The ship A simple mechanical system is shown in Fig. 45(a) in arvice turbine generator (SSTG) provides electric power which a flyweight assembly senses shaft speed. Two for the operation of motors, lighting, communications, flyweights are mounted on a plate which turns about a urcl hotel services. The electrical generating capacity vertical axis driven by the turbine shaft through a worm mquired for a particular veml depends upon its type, and gear. Centrifugal force throws weights outward it,* dze, and its propulsion power, but in most cases the and then compresses the stationary spring, thus lifting elnotric power requirements can be met by the selection the vertical rod and moving the linkage and control valve of a unit from a series o standard ratings which range until an equilibrium position is reached that corresponds f !rum 500 to 2500 kw as follows: 500,600,750,1000,1250, to the speed. The speed setting may be changed by 1600, 2000, and 2500 kw. These ratings have been adjustment of the speed changer. This simple form of shown for standrtrdization purposes, as it minimizes the governor is used for small mechanical-drive turbines but srlmber of frame &s required to be offered by rnanu- does not have sufficient force to operate large steamfwturers and thus reduces development costs. I t is control valves. To overcome this difficulty, a pilot valve pmible, of course, to design and build nonstandard and servomotor may be added as shown in Fig. 45(b) to ul~its any size that may be required, both above and form a mechanical-hydraulic system. The vertical rod of blow this standard range. now operates the pilot valve to admit (or drain) highA typical SSTG consists of a high-speed, multistage pressure oil to (or from) the spring-loaded servomotor gundensing turbine driving a generator through a single- cylinder. As the servomotor piston respqnds, it tends to nduotion gear. These components are mounted on a restore the pilot valve to the neutral position. In some bdplate together with the turbine drain, lubricating oil, cases the pilot valve is double ported and high-pressure 8lrrrhd seal, and gland exhaust systems to form an oil is directed to either the top or bottom of the servoIntegral unit. The turbine may exhaust to the main motor piston as required. wndenser or to an auxiliary condenser. When the An analysis will show that, with any of the preceding wuxiliary condenser is supported by the bedplate, the arrangements, speed will vary slightly with load. The turbine-gear-generator-condenser assembly is called a difference in speed between rated load and no load "paokaged unit. " divided by the rated speed is called the "regulation" or Rteam and vacuum conditions for the SSTG normally "speed droop" and is usually about 3-4 percent. The &rethe same as for the propulsion plant. However, to amount of friction in the mechanism is important, and mrluoe the initial cost of the auxiliary turbine when steam the speed change above and below a mean required to btrlnperatures are 950 F or above, it has been proposed produce corrective action is termed the "dead band" and Miat, while at sea, steam be extracted from an early stage ia a measure of the "sensitivity. " When a sudden change of illc main propulsion turbine a t a reduced pressure and in load occurs and the governor overcorrects followed by blnperature, with an automatic shitover to a source of undercorrection, perhaps continuing for several oscilwprheated steam when at low powers and while in port. lations, the action is called "hunting. " A certain Iaviqs in initial coats also may be realized by the amount of regulation is essential to minimize hunting. Inmidlation of a multistage turbine for normal senice As both regulation and friction are reduced, the sensiw ~ B single-stage, back-pressure-type turbine for tivity is increased; however, the stability is decreased, md atn~rdby service in lieu of two multistage unifs. thus a compromise is usually necessary, with the regulaA single-cylinder, multistage condensing turbine tion being kept as small as stability or freedom-fromplmrator has a lower efficiency than the main unit hunting considerations will allow. When a-c generator ~wilnarily because its rated output is much smsller. An sets are operated in parallel, it is necessary that each k l turbine generally consiste of five to eight impulse speed governor be adjusted for the same speed regulation wa nlayos and operates at 8000 to 12000 rpm. A cross if each set is to take an equal share of the load regardless lion of a typical multistsge condensing turbine is of the load variation.


Fig. 44

- KW

Turbine-generatw steam rate

I n addition to the flyweight or mechanical type of peed sensor, an hydraulic pump driven from the turbine shaft may be used in a n hydraulic system. This pump may be either a positive-displacement type or a centrifugal type and the system may be similar to the speedlimiting governor for main propulsion units described in Section 6.7. A third basic type of governor is available wherein npeed or frequency control may be accomplished by a combination of electric and hydraulic components (see Fig. 46). The speed signal is obtained from the frequency of a small permanent-magnet alternator driven by the turbine rotor; its LGC voltage impulses are oonverted into a d-c voltage which is proportional to ~peed. A reference d-c voltage of opposite polarity, which is representative of the desired operating speed, is a~tablishedby manual adjustment of a speed-setting potentiometer. These two voltages are connected to the f input of an electronic amplifier. I the two voltages are equal and opposite; as occurs during steady-state operation, they cancel and there is no voltage input to the amplifier and therefore no change in its output voltage.' The amplifier output voltage drives an electrohydraulic transducer, which directs the flow of oil to a norvomotor that adjusts the governor steam valves to maintain the turbines a t the speed corresponding to the position of the speed-setting potentiometer. I the f Ourbine speed changes, the speed signal frequency and Cherefore the voltage supplied to the amplifier change.

The difference between this voltage and the reference voltage is supplied to the amplifier. The amplifier then supplies an output voltage to the electro-hydraulic transducer which causes the steam valves to increase or decrease the steam flow to return the turbine speed to the set value. Stability is achieved by a time delay in the negative feedback around the amplifier. Since there is only one speed a t which the speed signal and reference voltages are equal and opposite, this type of control is "isochronous"; that is, i t maintains the same turbine speed regardless of load variation. A load sensor measuring current in each lead of the generator is utilized to anticipate speed changes and thus improve the dynamic response of the control system. The load sensors of several similar units operating in parallel may be interconnected to ensure equal load sharing with isochronous operation. Operation in parallel with an infinite bus or dissimilar governors is possible by the use of electronic components which introduce droop characteristics as required. 12.3 Single-Stage Auxiliary Turbines. Single-stage turbines, sometimes called mechanical-drive or generalpurpose turbines, may be used to drive pumps, fans, blowers, and standby generating sets. The need for small turbines has resulted in standardized sizes up to 1500 hp with wheel diameters from 12 to 36 in. Rotational speeds vary from 600 to 7200 rpm; the lower speeds apply to the larger wheel sizes used with directconnected turbines and the higher speeds to smaller


tion is generally 5-6 percent. Mechanical-drive turbines

$$ ?


are designed as complete units arranged for coupling to

the driven unit. The close-coupled, integral type of turbine-driven pump, consisting of a single-stage steam turbine and a single- or two-stage centrifugal pump mounted on the same shaft, has achieved wide application for boiler feed, fire, and tank cleaning services. Packaged units of this type are supplied with a forced-feed lubricating system, speed controls for either constant or differential pressure regulation, speed limiting governor, and back' pressure trip.





(a) Mechanical



1 John F. Lee, Theory and Design of Steam and Gas Turbines, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1954. 2 Terrell Croft, Steam-Turbine Principles and k Practice, McGraw-Hill B o ~ Company, Inc., New York, 1940. 3 C. B. Biezeno and R. Grammel, Engineerin(/ Dvnamics, Steam Turbines, Vol. 111, Blackie & So11 ~ f m i k d London and Glasgow, 1954. , 4 E. F. Church, Jr., Steam Turbines, McGraw-Hill ~ o o Company, Inc., New York, 1950. k 5 L. E. Newman, Modem Turbines, John Wiley Sons, Inc., New York, 1944. 6 J. K. Salisbury, Steam Turbines and Their Cycl~9, John Wiley & Sons, I ~ c . , York, 1950. New 7 B. G. A. Skrotzki and W. A. Vopat, Steam anfd Gas Turbines, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inca, New York, 1950. 8 A. Stodola, Steam and Gas Turbines, Peter Smith, New York, 1945. g "Recommended Practices for Preparing Marinn Steam Power Plant Heat Balances," Technical all(l Research Bulletin NO. 3-11? SNAME. 10 R. M. Cashman, "Design of Marine Machincry Foundations, " Trans. S N m E , 196211 C. W. Stott, "Marine Reheat Cycles and S~stemfl Evaluation," Man'ne Technology, ~ 0 1 .71 no. 31 ~ J ~ I Y Marine Installation," Trans. SNAME, 1941. C- K 13 R. p. Giblon, W. I. Signell, N. A. Smith, Spears, and C. W. Stott, "A Modern Steam Reh(illb Power Plant, " New York Section, SNAME, Octoh'r 1965. 14 R. H. "&gey, "High Pressure Steam for Marill0 Propulsion," Trans- SNAME1 1943Worthen, "The Or' 15 H. F. Robinson and ECarrier 8.5- b w e , " Trans. SNAME, 16 A. W. Davis, ''The Application of the ltnB"l"' Cycle to Marine P r o ~ u l i o n with special Referenm Id' the C.P.R. Beaver Class TurbeElectric Cargo Lir~!r'l" Trans. North East Coast Institution of Engineera l ~ ' " Shipbuilders, 1946-47. and R' . Mn'''t'' ' 17 C. H. Grow Jr-, J. T. "A Modern 26,500 SHP stearn Tanker Power l'bu't



Ro. 46 Electdc gwe-

the Reheat Cycle and a C ~ ~ t ~ ~ l l ~ b l ~ Pitch l'rO~ller, The Society of Marhe Port EMneers, N~~ " York, September 1965.


Fig. 45


wheels associahd with geared units. The efficiency generally improves with incmadng blade speed, as shown in ~ i 47.~ There is usually a large energy drop which . can be best handled in a twerowstage udng nozzles of i d ~ ~ the expanding type. ~ ~ d i ~hand valvesl may be and claing of nos&s to provided to p e r ~ the t acoommodak major c,aoges in load. The speed on the turbine shaft and acts governor is often directly through levers to a c t ~ t the inlet valve, usually e balancsd a ~ e - s e a t e d throttle valve. Speed ngula-

24 R. 711. Nolan, "Vibration of Marbe-Turbine Blading," Trans. SNAME, 1949. 25 'war Juok gwedieh Marine Tubine and (-jear Jje~elo~ment, " SNAME, Spring M e e t h , 196b. 26 R* Coats, "Pametrada standard TwbineS, present and Future Outloak, " Trans. IME, 196.5.


47 Turbhr.

r a f~ single-stag. (2.row) auriliarl ,,h ,,






A- 0. white

Gas Turbines






Section 1 Basic Considerations

1.1 Introduction. The gas turbine has developed since World War I1 to join the steam turbine and the diesel engine as alternative prime movers for various shipboard applications. Each year its development leads to improved performance and more attractive costs of installation and operation to the point that it gains on the other two prime movers as the economic selection for main propulsion and certain auxiliary drive machinery. This is caused by the fact that the gas turbine inherently profits more than the other two from component improvements and cycle improvements allowed by aerodynamic, heat-transfer, and metallurgical advances. Also, the gas turbine is attractive in that it is inherently subject to ' "package" construction and installation and to automatic control. Therefore, its very numerous variations should be given serious consideration in the selection of a prime mover for the main propulsion plant and the larger auxiliiry machinery. All gas turbine cycles are outgrowths of the Brayton thermodynamic cycle. The Brayton cycle is an ideal cycle in which the working fluid is a perfect gas (atmospheric air in most cases) which is compressed isentropically by a compressor, heated a t a constant elevated pressure in a combustion chamber, then allowed to flow through a turbine expanding isentropically back to.the compressor suction pressure. The power produced by s the turbine i greater than the power required by the compressor. The excess power is used to drive the ship's propeller or some other a d i r y . In gas turbines the efficiency of the components is extremely important since the compressor power is very high compared to its counterpart in competitive thermodynamic cycles. For example, a typical marine propulsion gas turbine rated a t 20,000 shp might require a 30,000-shp compressor and, therefore, 50,000 shp in turbine power to balance the cycle. Thus, with 80,000 shp of machinery involved, a 1-percent improvement in the component efficiencies would improve the cycle by 800 hp, which is 4 percent of the overall performance of the 20,000-shp cycle. The corresponding steam turbine cycle would have been improved by only about 1.05 percent if the counterpart component efficiencies were improved by 1 percent. This example illustrates why year-+year developments result in such marked improvements in the performance of gas turbines as compared with alternative prime movers.

At moderate turbine inlet pressures and temperatures and with the component efficiencies attainable when gas turbines were first developed, the simple open-cycle gas turbine operating with atmospheric air as the working fluid and burning light distillate fuel was limited in output and specific fuel consumption (cycle efficiency). However during the subsequent stages of progressive development, the cycle efficiency has been greatly improved by the following changes : Higher compressor pressure ratios. Higher turbine inlet temperatures which were permitted by metallurgical and cooling developments. Improved compressor and turbine stage efficiencies. Increased compressor pressure loading per stage. Improved combustion efficiency. The introduction of intercooling in the process of compression. The introduction of reheating (a second comb us ti or^ chamber between the compressor turbine and power turbine). The introduction of regeneration (recovery of wasto heat from the turbine exhaust and subsequent addition to the compressor discharge air flow before it enters the combustion chamber). Further waste-heat recovery.

~ OUT 3








Rg. 1 Cyde arrangomonh

Different designs have used various combinations of the foregoing to provide vast improvements in the cycb efficiency and specific air consumption. These combinations modify but do not change the basic concept^ of the Brayton cycle. At the same time they introducu complications into the arrangements. Particular consideration must be given to the gaH turbine cycle selected (i.e., the simplest Brayton cyclo or the more complicated variations). The basic advantages of the gas turbine for marine applications are ita simplicity and light weight. As an internal combustiorl engine, it is a self-contained power plant in one packa~a with a minimum number of large supporting auxiliarien. The advantages this confers in space, weight, and reducorl maintenance are very significant. A reduction in fuol consumption is always desirable; but machinery cod,rr must also be considered, and this too will vary with tlrtr cycle and the arrangement. 1.2 Cycle Performance. The considerations ia-

temperatures and the various components in the cycle combustion chamber (burner), from which it expands
nre best illustrated by a n example. For discussion purposes, consider a gas turbine cycle in which the turbine tjxpansion takes place in a "two-shaft " turbine, one shaft baing the free turbine shaft which drives the propeller lhrough a set of double-reduction gears. huther, unsume a plant rating of 20,000 shp using a fuel with a lower heating value of 18,400 Btu/lb. Ambient condillions are taken as 14.7 psia and 75 F. The common r~llowancesmade for duct losses are 4-in. H 2 0 in the irilet duct and 6-in. H 2 0 in the exhaust duct. The gear IOM, about 2 1 percent, is allowed for in the performance hut no allowance is made for miscellaneous hotel services and small non-engine-driven auxiliary power rnquirements. Figure l(a) shows the basic components of the simple ~rycle. Atmospheric air is drawn into the mmpremr, where it is compressed, then heated under pressure in the back to atmospheric pressure through a high-pressure turbine (to drive the compressor), and free power turbine (to drive the geared propeller). Figure 2 shows the performance attainable with this simple cycle within the limitations just discussed. It should be noted that the values shown are not to be taken as absolute eince the compressor, combustion, turbine, and other efficiencies vary with particular designs and their state of development. Note that a t a turbine inlet temperature of 1600 F, a fuel rate of 0.45 Ib/shp-hr is attainable a t a high optimum compression ratio of 15 to 1and that even lower values a n be attained a t higher temperatures and pressure ratios. The performance indicated by Fig. 2 is very good considering such a simple thermodynamic cycle. It is nearly attainable with engines derived from aircraft jet engines in which the jet's exhaust nozzle is replaced by a specially designed power turbine. The jet engine's

volved in the selection of the design pressures and




fig. 2

4 PdOnnance 0f a regenerative cyck wifh reheat

Smple cyde pdormance


21 1


Fig. 7 Typical effect of ambient temperature on rpecitlc fuel rate, shaft horsepower, and air fkw

gas turbine's overall performance. A change of only 10 deg F in ambient temperature will change the power capacity of the unit by approximately 5 percent and there are also significant changes in specific fuel consumption and air flow. Figure 7 shows a typical ambient te'mperature correction curve for variations in these three variables. Note that if a unit designed for a 75 F atnbient is operated on a 10 F day, the engine output can be increased 28 percent, the air flow can be increased 14 percent, and the specific fuel consumption is reduced about 8 percent, provided the engine is designed to hold up structurally and nozzled to pass the fuel flow a t the increased power. This variation with ambient conditions can vary in a small way between designs and types of cycles. However, Fig. 7 is generally valid for simple cycles and regenerative cycles of any design to a reasonable degree of accuracy provided the machine is not limited mechanically. Both output and efficiency are very sensitive to pressure drops anywhere in the cycle, but those in the inlet and exhaust system are the only ones which the marine engineer can control. The inlet pressure drop is the more critical one since it not only introduces an efficiency loss into the cycle, but it also reduces the weight flow of air. A pressure drop of 1 percent (4 in. water) in the inlet reduces the net output by 2 to 23 percent and increases the specific fuel consumption by 1 to la percent while a pressure drop of 1 percent (4 in. water) a t the exhaust reduces the output by 1 to 13 percent and increases the specific fuel consumption by 1 to 1 i percent. The increase in fuel rate corresponds, of course, to the increase in heat rate and reduction in thermal efficiency. Marine units frequently are rated on the basis of 4-in. H 2 0 inlet duct pressure loss and 6-in. Hz0 exhaust duct pressure loss.

Typical variations in the weight of gas turbine machinery and "all purpose" fuel consumption are given by Figs. 10 and 12 of Chapter 1; these data are only typical, and actual values for any specific application vary not only with the type of unit considered but also with the manufacturer and with progress in the state of the art. Reductions in weight and improvements in fuel consumption may be confidently expected in the future. 1.4 Combined Cycles. The gas turbine is a very flexible power plant and can be applied not only alone but also in combination with other prime movers. Various combinations have been proposed and some of them have been applied successfully. Some possible combinations include: combined diesel and gas turbine plants, abbreviated CODAG; combined steam and gas turbine plants, COSAG; and combined gas turbine and gas turbine plants, COGAG. In these cycles gas turbines and other engines or gas turbines of two different sizes or types are combined in one plant to give optimum performance over a very wide range of power and speed. In addition, combined diesel or gas turbine plants, CODOG, or even combined gas turbine or gas turbine plants, COGOG, (where one plant is a diesel or a small gas turbine, respectively, for use a t low or cruising powers, and the other a large gas turbine which operates alone a t high ~owers)are also possibilities 11-31.' - he gas turbine can also be combined with a steam turbine plant in various ways. The designation COSAG normally implies a cycle in which the steam plant and the gas turbine are essentially independent, but they may be geared to the mme propeller shaft [ P 5 ] . However,

'Numbera in bracketa designate References at end of chapter.




1.9 Operation and Maintenance. A further feature of the gas turbine is its low manning requirements and ready adaptability to automation. As indicated in the wction on controls, the gas turbine inherently requires builtrin automatic control systems to protect it during ~tartingand operation, since manual operation cannot respond fast enough to meet the requirements. The extension of the control system to provide fully automatic control of all systems, including auxiliaries, is therefore quite simple and is commonly provided on gas turbine installations of all sizes and types. The relative simplicity of the gas turbine has enabled it to attain outstanding records of reliability and maintainability when used for aircraft propulsion and in industrial service. The same level of reliability and maintainability can be expected in marine service if the unit is properly applied and installed.

Marine units derived from aircraft engines usually have the gas generator section, comprising the compressor and its turbine, arranged to be removed and replaced as a unit. Maintenance on the power turbine, which usually has the smallest part of the total maintenance requirements, is performed aboard ship. Because of their light weight, small gas turbines used for auxiliary power, or the propulsion of small boats, can also be readily removed for maintenance. Units designed specifically for marine use and those derived from industrial gas turbines are usually designed for maintenance and overhaul in place. Since they are somewhat larger and heavier than the aviation-type units, removal and replacement are not as readily accomplished. For this reason, they usually have split casings and other provisions for easy access and maintenance. The work ca.n be performed by the usual ship repair forces.

Section 2 An'angernent and Structural Details

Genemi Amngemeni* In addition to the classificatiOn dependfig upon the choice of cycle, gas turbines can be acmrdhg to the mechanical arrangement. speaking, f 3 S turbines are either "single-shaft" units in which the compressor and turbine are attached to a single shaft, which in turn is connected to the load; or multishaft units in which the twbine~and sometimes the compressor, is divided into sections, eachwith its own shaft which can run at different and Weeds. Each comPreSmr must be driven by a section of the turbine, and the load can be driven by One of thesections or by its own independent turbine. Where the Compressor is divided into two successive and sections with similar coaxial turbines in series, it is a "twin-s~ool" machine. When a flingle ComPreSsor is used and the turbine is divided into t~~ One which drives the compressor and the other the load at speeds, it is known as a "two-shaft " machine. Both single-shaft and two-shaft machines can be used in service- The single-shaft units are most oOmmonly used for generator drives, either a-c or d-C. the a-c generator units are used only as auxiliary power units where they run a t constant fn3q~ency and 'peed. ~ropulsion units, where the propeller must Operate Over a very wide speed range, a controllable and reversible-~it~hpropeller or some eq~ivalent varisble-s~eed transmiasion, such aS an electric drive, be used with a single-shaft machine because of its limited range and poor acceleration characteristics. For main ~ ~ o ~ u l s units, a multishaft machine is ion 'lormally used) the arrangement bekg a two-shaft unit with an variable-speed power turbine.


With this arrangement the power turbine and propeller can be stopped if neceymry, and the gas producer kept in operation for rapid load pickup. The use of variablearea nozzles on the power turbine increases fledbility by enabling the compressor to be &tained at or nw full speed and air flow, down to low-power turbine speeh. This makes nearly full power available by adding fuel without the necessity of waiting for the to accelerate and increase the air flow. where low-load economy is of importance, the controls be arranged to reduce the compressor speed a t low loah the maximum turbine inlet and/or exhaust temperature for best efficiency. Since a gas turbine inherently has a poor part-load fuel rate performance, this variablearea nozzle feature can be very advantageous. ~i~~~~ 8 illustrates a typical comparative of part-loa,j performance curves for regenerative and simplecycle units. The dotted curve indicates the min possible a t reduced load by the use of a variablearea nozzle control for a regenerative cycle. The phisiml a m g e m e n t of the various components (i.e., compressors, combustion systems, and turbines) that make up the gas turbine is influencedby the thermQ dynamic factors (i.e., the turbine connected to a cornpressor must develop enough power to drive it), by mechanical considemtions (i.e., shafts must have adequate bearings, seals, etc.), and also by the neoessity to conduct the very high ah and gas flows to and from the various components with minimum pressure lossas. 2.2 Air Inlet Armngemenk. ~h~ provisionsfor handling the large inlet and exhaust volume flows are particularly important. Not only must the ductwork to and from the unit be accommodated within the con-

2 14







Fig. 8

Gas turbine part-load performance characteristics

fines of the ship structure, but the total system pressure drop must be held to a minimum. I n addition, the actual configuration of the air inlet to the compressor is important. Unequal air flow into the inlet annulus or flow into the annulus a t varying -- . angles around the circumference (velocity and pressure distortion) can reduce the efficiency by the effect on the firstrrow entrance angles. Also they can cause blade vibrations that can lead to early blade failure. Ideally the compressor inlet should pull from an infinite plenum, as with an aircraft jet engine in flight. Practically, the engine must pull the air through a duct system; therefore, some form of air inlet housing or hood must be used. If

a large plenum can be used, the compressor inlet can be . inserted in one wall of the plenum so that the air flows axially into the compressor annulus. Model tests of the inlet configuration are often conducted to identify undesirable flow distortions and resonant conditions. If tests are not conducted, a good rule of thumb is that the engine inlet should be a t least two engine diameters away from the bullhead or far side of the plenum. An arrangement which is very satisfactory, both aerodynamically and structurally, is show11 in Fig. 9. Air enters the passage radially from the inlet hood, which is large enough-that is, has low enough velocities-to insure equal distribution and essentially uniform radial velocities around the circumference. The air is then turned in a n axial direction, and accelerated by the reduction in passage area, to the plane of the inlet guide vanes. The squeeze and resulting acceleration suppresg vortices and smooth the flow a t the inlet guide vanes. Struts tie the two sides of the casing together. 2.3 Exhaust Collectors or Hoods. Due to the higher tmnneratures. the exhaust volume flow is larger than that ----- Iof the inlet. Maintaining velocities that provido reasonable pressure drops is, therefore, somewhat morc! difficult. The high temperature also introduces expansion problems since the movement of the ducting due to thermal growth must be accommodated without introducing high forces into the turbine structure. Tlai allowable forces and moments depend somewhat up011 the size of the unit and must be specified for the partiaular gas turbine used. The exhaust collector, or exhaust hood, is that part ol' the turbine casing that collects the gases leaving the! last-stage turbine wheel and conducts them to tllo connection with the heat-recovery equipment or exhaunC duct. It' usually, however, serves as more than n collector. Due to the limited annulus area that can bo provided a t the normal gas turbine exhaust temperaturcn,




Fig. 10 Axial-Row tompressor and turbine, simple-cycle, two-haft design

the axial velocity and the corresponding absolute velocity leaving the last-stage turbine blading is usually high, 400 fps or more. The energy represented by this velocity, known as the leaving loss, is a rather high percentage of the turbine energy, and so for good shaft efficiency a s much of it must be recovered as possible. To recover this velocity energy, some form of diffuser is employed. Since a good diffuser takes up considerable space, a judicious compromise usually must be made between the space used and the energy that can be recovered by the pressure rise in the diffuser. A typical straight diffuser is shown in Fig. 9, while a curved diffuser is shown in Fig. 10. Most authorities agree that good diffusion cannot be obtained in a turn, so that the diffuser efficiency of curved diffusers like Fig. 10 is probably low. However, they obviously take considerably less axial length, which usually is an important advantage. I n addition*to its aerodynamic function as a diffuser and collector, the exhaust hood must frequently act a s a structural member and carry loads and bending moments through the gas path. This is the case of the arrangement shown in Fig. 9 where the power turbine bearing

Fig. 9

Large axial-flow compressor and turbine, regenerative-cycle,two-shaft industrial design

housing is supported by struts through the gas path. I n some cases, particularly with single-shaft machines, the rotor bearings may not require support through the exhaust hood; but the inner wall of the diffuser usually must be supported by struts through the gas path. Such struts should be located as far down the diffuser as possible, as any obstruction in a diffuser, even when streamlined, markedly reduces its recovery efficiency ; therefore, the lower the velocity region a t which this occurs, the better. I n addition, provision must be made for the thermal expansion (particularly during starting) of the struts, which are completely immersed in the hot gas stream. I n small units, distortion of the casings a t the attachment points may be sufficient; but in large units some radial flexibility is generally allowed. Tangential struts or a radii1 strut with a tangential spring member a t the outer end are possible arrangements. Air-cooled struts attached to cylindrical inner and outer members that can distort sufficiently to allow for some expansion can also be used. The exhaust hood, or collector, is usually fabricated from relatively thin material with suitable stiffening ribs formed in the material or welded on externally. This





serves to stiffen the structure to prevent drumming or resonances and also enables the structure to withstand the internal pressure due t o the back pressure imposed on the unit when heat-recovery equipment is used. Large flat surfaces should be designed to withstand a t least 20 in. of water without bulging. Materials for exhaust hoods are frequently stainless steels, particularly for units with high exhaust temperatures. For large units, where thicker stock is required to give adequate stiffness, carbon or low-alloy steels can be used. In any case the exhaust system is usually covered with some form of insulation (blanket, block, plastic, etc.) to reduce the temperature of the exposed surface. 2.4 Structural Arrangements. Structurally, the stationary gas turbine parts, compressor casings, comburc tion casings, turbine casings or shells, and the related structural supports for the mtor bearings must withstand not only the internal pressure forces but also the external forces imposed on the unit from its own weight and the reactions from engine torque and external connections. The casings must be designed for the internal pressure forces and must also be checked as a beam, under the reactions due to the weight of the components, plus whatever "g" loading may be imposed. Rotor and stator weights must be considered, and the supports are frequently located so as to mini& the bending moments in the structure. The calculation of the bearing housings and supports cannot be based upon the weights of the rotors alone. To insure the integrity of the unit in the event of a blade or bucket failure, they should be able to carry the centrifugal loads imposed by the loss of some credible combination of bucket or blades within the tensile strength of the members. The loss of two adjacent vane sections or one complete bucket and dovetail is considered a reasonable assumption. Supports for gas turbines can take many forms. They must support the unit and maintain it in line with the driven equipment, while allowing for the axial and radial thermal growth of the unit from cold to normal operating temperatures. Several methods of support are shown in the various illustrations, and it will be seen that small units frequently use three points of support with one centering key or gib, while larger units usually use a t least four supports; more are used if the whole unit is divided into several casings, as in compound cycle units. 2.5 Mounting in the Hull. In marine applications, the gas turbine usually cannot be mounted rigidly to the ship's structure. Normal movement and distortions of the hull when underway would cause distortions and misalignment in the turbine. This could cause internal . rubs or even bearing or structural failure. The turbine components can be mounted on a subbase, as shown in Fig. 9, which is built up of structural sections of sufficient rigidity to maintain the gas turbine alignment when properly supported by the ship's hull. I n cases where aircraft gas turbines have been adapted to marine use, some form of tubular structure may be used, but the

purpose is the same. A rigid structural subbase also provides a convenient mounting for many of the gas turbine auxiliaries, particularly the lube oil tank and other components of the lubrication system. When properly applied, a three-point support of such a s u b base will prevent ships' structural distortions from rnisaliiing the various components. 2.6 Regenerators and Recuperators. The recovery of heat from the gas turbine exhaust and its return to the cycle to improve the overall efficiency are accomplished with a regenerator or recuperator. Both terms are used more or less interchangeably although the term "regenerator" is sometimes considered to be limited to rotary heat exchangers in which a heat storage matrix is alternately exposed to the hot exhaust gases, and then to the compressor discharge air stream, transferring heat from the former to the latter. The term recuperator is then reserved for fixed-surface heat exhangers in which the hot exhaust is on one side of a wall and the air on the other, the heat being transferred through the wall by conduction. Both types have been used successfully with gas turbines although the fixed-surface type is far more common. Considerable effort, however, has gone into the development of various forms of rotary regenerators for small engines because of their advantages of small size, light weight, and high effectiveness. On the other hand, work on fixed-surface types has also resulted in reduced weight and space, so that both types arc competitive. Rotary regenerators have been built with the heatexchange element (or matrix) either in the form of a flat disk or as a hollow cylinder. The choice of one or the other is determined primarily by the geometry of tho installation as related to the gas turbine components, although considerations of the seal design between the cold high-pressure chamber and the hot low-pressure chamber can affect the choice. Seal leakage and the "letdown" which occurs when a section of the rotary matrix passes from the high-pressuru h region to the exhaust or low-pressure region offset t o high effectiveness that can be realized in the matrix, a, that the overall cycle efficiency is comparable to fixedsurface types. The matrix itself can be metal or ceramic, in the form of wire, strip, plates, pebbles, etc. The influence of seal leakage, let down, and pressure drop* and their relations to the geometry of the regenerator arc! given in references [13] and [12]. Fixed-surface recuperators were originally of convontional shell and tube construction, in some cases wit11 in. dia when used for mobilo tubes as small as applications where weight and space were important. More common constructions with tubes M to 1 in. diu were large and bulky, and considerable trouble wan experienced in some cases with cracking of the tubn sheets due to thermal stresses set up between the cold shell and the hot tubes across the outer periphery of thla tube sheet. Present designs are usually of the "plate-fin" can-

struction as illustrated in Fig. 11. Here the compressor discharge air is between adjacent plates with the turbine exhaust gas in the finned passages. The pressure load is then carried by the fins acting as columns and transmitted to the outer casing where it is restricted by "strongbacks" and ~iamied into the end structure. Details of course vary between different manufacturers; a typical arrangement and its development are described in references [13, 141. The materials used in fixed-surface heat exchangers depend upon the temperature range in which they must work. Where the maximum turbine exhaust tempera-



used, but the metal thicknems chosen should provide an adequate allowance for minor corrosion. For turbine exhaust temperatures over 1000 F. or where the design . has been optimized for minimum weight with resulting the thin-gage materials, corrosion-resistant materials such 10-s astern rotor blade sections to reduce the rotatioh -----. as stainless steel or one of the Inconels are necessary. Lacking an internal reversing method, marine gas 247 Reduction Gearing and Reversing Consideraturbine installations must be reversed by an external tions. The gas turbine is a high-speed qachine with output shaft speeds ranging from about 3600 rpm for means. Electric drives offer ready reversing but are large machines up to 100,000rpmfor very small machines. usually ruled out on the basis of weight, cost, and to some extent efficiency, except for special applications Approximately 25,000 rpm is an upper limit for units (Chapter 10). From a practical standpoint there are suitable for the propulsion of small boats. With these two alternatives, a reversing gear or a controllable and output speeds, a reduction gear is necessary to reduce the reversible pitch (CRP) propeller. Both have been used speed to the range suitable for a propeller. Smaller successfully in gas-turbine-driven ships. Reversing units suitable for boats or driving auxiliary unit&, such as gears haye been commonly applied to diesel-propelled generators in larger vessels, frequently have a reduction ships up $ several thousand horsepower and have also 0 gear built integral with the unit. Larger units n~rmally been used in some gas turbine applications [I, 16, 17, 181. require a separate reduction gear, usually of the double- CRP propellers likewise are quite common in smaller or triple-reduction type. sizes, and are finding increasing applications in higherThe gearing itself can be of any arrangement. S q l l e r horsepower qliesel and gas turbbe ships [19, 20, 211. units with built-in gears frequently use a or One important consideration in choosing a reversing star gear arrangement. Larger units use double-helical means for a gas turbine is whether it is a aingleshaft or gears. Any of the gear types and arrangements d e scribed in Chapter 9 can be used with a gas turbine to two-shaft machine. The singleshaft gas turbine has a very limited speed range, in some cases only from 75 to suit the rating, speed ratio required, and arrangement of 100 percent speed, while the load turbine of a two-shaft the machinery in the vessel. machine can be stopped by the application of sufficient A gas turbine, in common with all turbine machinery, while run. is not inherently reversible. Steam turbines can provide torque that a the gas generator continues to turbineThis means direct-geared, single-shaft gas can separate reversing elements built into the LP casing, but only be applied in conjunction with a CRP propeller, in this is not practical in a gas turbine as the rotation loss order to be able to properly maneuver the ship, unless it is of the astern elements rotating in the ahead direction a t applied only as a boost engine where its limited speed atmospheric pressure would be very high. The resulting range matches the requirements. A two-shaft -chinc temperatures and losses would be unacceptable. can be applied equally well with a reversing gear or a Design studies have been made of a unique arrangement in which the astern bucket's vane section takes the CRP propeller. A reversing gear also provides a means place of the shank of a long-shank bucket and which of disconnecting the shafting from the turbine. Such a means should be provided if a single-shaft machine i s has its own variable-angle nozzle that can be closed used so that it can be started and checked out without off when going ahead [15]. This arrangement shields rotating the propeller and shafting.

21 8



Sectiun 3 Accessories
~ ~

turbine, pumps and Drbes,~ The gas ~ ~ i l i ~

,kle bsially a complete, self-contained power plant, for its operation. Fuel requires cerbin pumps (on liquid-fueled units) and lube-oil pumps are always needed. A positive fuel pressure must be supplied to the engine during all operating conditions, including sta+up, These pumps can be independently driven by electric motorsl are ususlly driven through but a reduction gar from the m i n turbine shaft. The takes many forms; spur, bevel, worm, a,essorr or spiral gearing has been depending upon the configuration of the turbine and, in some cases, installation requirements the form of length or space limitain The Bimplest gearing amrngement that will drive tions. (these include governors, the required tachometer generators, speed switches, etc., as well as the fuel and lube oil pumps) is usually best. In any case, the garing must be designed for the duty and l i e ,quired of the min unit. They are usually provided by the gas turbine manufacturer as standard engine
3.2 Statiing ~ ~ , , igas turbine,. like other A ~ ~ ~ inter,l com~ustionengines, is not self-starting, and

external means must utilized to bring it up to the selfbe is sustainingspeed. ~ h i a the speed from which the rotors can be accelerated by the ad&tion of fuel alone, asdstance, and it is usually about 30 to lvithout 50 percent the gas-producer's full speed. On units of sbftaonly one starting aith two or more device can be used, although in certain industrial-type gas turbines each shaft utilizes its own s*ting device. Starting devices in common US include electric motors, stearn turbines, air motors operating on stored comprewd air, and small diesel engines, which must, in turn, have their own starting systems. Other starting systems include hydraulic motors fed from x%h-pressure pumps or accumulator systems, and special r 0 t a r y - t ~ ~ ~ starting motors fed from high-pressure air supplies, sorne EXHAUST of which include the combustion of fuel to furnish independent energy. For large units a ~lnall gas turbine m y be used to furnish the starting power. In any case, it is important that the starting device have adequate power to bring the Unit to the selfsustaining speed without requiring the addition of energy from the main fuel supply sufficient to cause excessive temperatures at the turbine inlet. That is, the fuel/air ratio during the shrting cycle should be held close to normal limits. This requires a relatively large energy input from the starting device. Since the operating time is of relatively short duration, the starting device a n be highly overloaded or peak-load rated, particularly if it is an electric motor. Starting times range from seconds on a very small gas turbine to 1 to 2 minutes On large aircraft-type engines and 15 to 20 minutes on the ~ i12~ Gas turbine installation on P G boats showing air inlet and exhaul) . arrangements largest industrial-type units.

Since the starting device is normally required Only to about 50 percent speed, it is usually connected to the turbine through some form of special clutch which be disconnected during normal Operation. The it simplest, and probably most satisfactory, form Of is a Simple jaw clutch, magnetically Or ~~~~~~~~~~~~y be engaged and Spring disengaged. Provisions made for rotating the starter slowly during engagement to make sure the jaws are fully engaged before is applied; otherwise, severe damage Alternatively, Some form of overrunning can be used, but Unless the clutch is of some slf-s~nchmnizing form such as illustrated in Chapter 9 it is susceptible to 1 damage or failure if the starting device is energized load the gas turbine is still decelerating. The under such conditions can be very severe, and few Overto running Clutch de&ns have the torque disengage stand such Shock. The clutch should Operating completely a t Some speed below the speed of the turbine shaft to avoid excessive wear On mechanism. 3.3 Inlet Air Filters. Additional items and considered as accessories are inlet air filters and exhaust SilenCerS. Pressure drops are Of -jar imporand exhaust tance in gas turbine operation; therefore1 equipment mist be designed with for the economic balance of size and Pressure Gas turbines require clean air, as compressor will eventually become coated with a layer

dirt, which reduces its capacity and efficiency and sound power level of a given design of gas turbine is a results in a degadation of the entire engine or may even function of its size or power and is approximately b u s a ComPressor blade failure due to stall. TO insure proportional to its rating. ~~~tof the noise is generated air, most, n ~ n m r i n e turbine installations are aerodynamicallyand is related to blade passing frequency gas equipped with an air filter or clmer. In marine and, therefore, is in the high-frequency range (221. a~~limtionsi however, the nI0st important requirement The m&jor sources of the noise radiated to the suris to keep particles and water, n'hether in drops or as roundings are the inlet openings, exhaust openings, and wsterl from entering the compre%~Or. For this gears. However, the entire machine radiates noise; the reanon air should be placed as high above the water sound intensity is related to the easing thickness or, more as possible and must be equipped with effectivebaffles or exactly, to the casing mss. Noise radiated from the eliminators to Prevent the entry of solid water. Behind casings is usually confined to the engine room, and its the eliminators a demister should be installed to intercept effect h n be reduced and controlled by appropriate water droplets. The demister can consist of an inertial sound treatment. ~ p a * ~ r alternatively, of pads (similar to filter or, The airborne noise, in both the inlet and exhaust, can pads) of metal or synthetic fibers of controlled size and be attenuated to almost any required level by the use 'pacing to the size of droplets passed. of suitable silencers. I n general, the greater the decibel If the demister pads are lvet, even with Sea~~ater, reduction in noise level required, the more expensive the are also effective in stopping the ingestion of salt silencer and the greater its pressure drop, so a noise and. other foreign particles and thereby serve as a filter reduction greater than n e c e w v should notbe used. medium' A typieal arrangement having an Specifying silencer performance, it is important that the inertial-t~~e separator is shown in Fig. 12. The type of sound-pressurelevel a t the turbine be given in each of the under consideration and its above-water profile and octave bands and that the reduction to give the required height above the waterline will dictate in large part the decibels at a predetermined radius be also specified for tYpe of mist eliminator to be used. the same octave bands. If the engine room is used as a plenum, oil Vapors from Since the sound attenuation in the surroundings Other can also adversely affect engine per- be ,yomewhat directional, the configuration of the inlet formance. and exhaust openings and their orientation should be 3A Inletand Exhaust The gas turbine, carefully chosen. Of course the sound levels required being a -chine, generates a relatively large also depend upon the service (e.g., eargo, amount of noise of a w*de frequency spectrum. The passenger, or naval).

Section 4 C0ntr0ls
The control system of a gas turbine perform several functions that are vital to its It must control the speed of the shafts that make up the *m~lete unit, schedule the fuel flow during starting and qther transient mnditions, prevent Overtemperatures in the combustion and turbine system, and prevent a dsngerous overspeed under any conditions. The system to perform these functions is made up Of a number separate devices corn'bed into various Systems; but the trend is for all the to be inteerated into a single system, usually Of the type, that controls all the operations of the unit. 4*2 'peed Measunhent and Control. A nonintegrated system will mnsid of a speed governor, Usuall~ the or flyweight type, which through a relay system 6-e., a pilot valve and piston) Operates the main fuel valve to regulate the fuel flow to the Power output and the speed Of the unit- For a single-shaft mchkre, this is that is neces~rY1 a governor unit, and such as shown in l?k. 13, will meet all The governor characteristics may be of the isochronous or droop type as required. For machines nith two or more shafts, additional control usually must be provided with a twolhaft turbine having fixed nozzle areas, the speed of the gas producer section is normally controlled by one speed governor and the output is a function primarily of that speed. The power turbine speed, however, is independent and is a function of the power turbine and its loading characteristics (i,e,, horsepower or torque vs. rpm relationship of the propeller). T~ prevent overspeeding on loss of load, a supplemental speed governor, wmetimes called a "topping governor,?, mustbe driven by the power turbine which will override the min governor and reduce the fuel supply should the power turbine speed exceed the topping governor ~ ~ ~ t n- ~ ~ i ~ When a t ~ o - ~ h gas t turbine is equipped wit. ~f variable-area power turbine nozzles, an additional control element is introduced which gives additional flexibility in the control and charactefistics of the unit.



Not Only is the poser turbine speed independent of the gas producer speed, but the speed can be contfolled over A a wide range of load and load the hydraulic relay system is normally used to load turbine nozzle and thus setthe energy distribution betNreen power turbine and the gas producer turbine. the The control function an be set up in several ways; normally however, the gas producer speed, through its the nozzle position to maintain the set speed and corresponding air flow. The power turbine speed, through a separate governing system, sets the adjusts the outputto match the speed fuel ,flow and This, provides the maximum laad response, the ah flow constant, the load can be changed since ,pidly by merely varying the .fuel flow without risk of overtemperature or compressor instability. Alternais desired and tively, maximum parbload slower load pickup be accepted, the controls a n be


arranged to vary the air flow with load by varying the gas producer speed. This makes it possible to maintail' the maximum turbine inlet temperature Over a wid' range of load within limits set by the exhaust temperature control. liar m u l t i ~ l ~ units~the~same princi-~ a ~ by the need ples apply, but the problem is to control more shafts and1in some a s e s l more than On' combustion system (each having independent temperatures). A description of such 'ystems 's given references [231 241. the Instead of a governor Nith Or signal can be taken from a tachometer converted to a magnetic speed Pickup, and the and modulated Signal which an corresponding speed and output. Such systems an' particularly advantageous for generating sets where load signal can be fed into the electronic 'ystem to givs regu1ation as '* load anticipation and thereby





difficult to meet, particularly when pumping low lubricity fuels such as JP-4 and especially JP-5. Only pumps specially designed for the service will satisfactorily and reliably meet the requirements. One additional requirement of a fuel control system is to divide the fuel evenly when there is more than one fuel nozzle or combustion chamber. This is particularly important with multiple combustion chambers, since even individual nozzle arcs can only reliably meter the air flow to within 3 to 4-percent accuracy, so that a 5-percent difference in the fuel nozzle flow can result in an 8 to 9-percent variation in temperature rise. On a 1000 deg F rise this variation is 80 to 90 deg P, an amount large enough to affect the life of the hot-gas-path One way of assuring essentially equal flows is to use a piston-type pump with one cylinder delivering flow to each fuel nozzle. This gives a pulsating flow to each nozzle, but provides an equal distribution between them. An alternative method is to meter the flow to each nozzle through a small gear pump element with all elements being moupted on a common shaft and thus running a t the same speed. The speed-control governor then varies the fuel flow from the shaft-driven fuel Pump- The speed of the gear elements is pmportional to the fuel flow1 and each element passes the same fuel flow regardless of pressure variations due to differences in the individual

The control of the fuel flow during the startiIrg cycle is an important function of the fuel control system to temperatures at prevent the development of low speeds. ~~~~l~~ controls with means of metering the fuel during the lighboff and starting cycle are usually required. These controls can incorporate a bias from the compressor discharge pressure, which is a

convenient measure of air flow, to set the fuel schedule during acceleration, and in some applications a temperature override from the temperature control system. The latter, if the system has adequate response times, approaches an ideal way to set the fuel flow, since it responds to the most important condition-temperature. Maximum fuel flow and minimum fuel flow stops are also normally incorporated in the control to prevent overloading the unit under low ambient conditions and flameout due to cutback of the fuel flow on sudden reductions in load. 4.6 Overspeed Protection. The governor and speed control normally control the shaft speeds within prescribed limits. However, as with most turbine machinery, a backup to prevent dangerous overspeeding must be ~rovided the form of an overspeed shutdown. in Such a device should be applied to every shaft. Upon reaching a speed of about 110 percent of rated rpm, the overspeed trip mechanism shuts off all fuel to the unit. In the case of two-shaft units, this is in addition to a pre-emergency or topping governor driven from the load turbine, \vhich acts to limit fuel flow to that corresponding to about 10a-percent speed. ~ h overspeed trip can be mechanical in the form of a , centrifugal mechanism which, upon reaching the trip speed, dumps oil from the fuel control valves or opens a set of electrical contacts that similarly shuts off all fuel flow. Alter~latively tachometer geneator or magnetic a speed pi~liups be used to generate an electrical signal can which interrupts the control circuits and shuts off the fuel as the shaft reaches the set overspeed. Electrical devices must be arranged to "fail safe" so that Once Opens the started, a Zero speed signal or lack of signal control circuits and shuts off

373 ---

imparts kinetic energy to the fluid, the diffuser and scroll, which are the major stationary parts, must convert the kinetic energy into potential energy in the form of a static pressure rise. Therefore, the higher the pressure ratio required, the more important is the design and corresponding performance of the diffuser. The forward section of the impeller, usually called the inducer, may be separate from or integral with the rest of the impeller. I n any case, however, the aerodynamic shape of the inducer is very ifiportant insofar as the overall efficiency, capacity, pressure rise, and surge performance of the machine are concerned. 5.2 Centrifugal Impeller Design. To achieve good performance and high efficiency, the detailed aerodynamic design of the imfieller (rotor) and diiuser is necessarily based on experience and usually a long development period. Many approaches have been taken in designing centrifugal compressor impellers. The usual method employs a combination of velocity

Section 5 Centrifugal Compressor Design

Various detail factors are of importance in the final design. Shrouded impellers are sometimes used where Fig. 14 Centrifugal compreswr and radial-flow turbine, simple-cycle, maximum efficiency is important, and stress conditions single-shaft unit with single combustor and gearbox will allow them, although quoted gains of 3 to 5 points in efficiencyare debatable. Axial thrust generated by the rotor can be minimized by balance holes to the back face of the impeller or abscissa may be expressed as radial vanes or blades on the back face to create an opposing pressure gradient. The thrust of double flow, i.e., double entry, impellers is inherently balanced. The use of pre-whirl, with rotation, will reduce the inlet relative Mach number, but also reduce the work input for a given tip speed. However, higher tip speeds W = weight flow, lb/sec are then permissible, and so higher pressure ratios can be P = inlet pressure, psia obtained in this manner. I Ti = inlet temperature, deg R 5.3 Diffuser Design. As stated earlier, the diffuser A plot using a similar flow parameter is shown in Fig. 15. used with a centrifugal compresmr plays an important A commonly used is &/ND31which is essentially part in the determination of the overall performance and and therefore applies to all geometrically efficiencyof the compressor. However, the design of the diffusing section of the machine is usually dictated by One important characteristic of all C O ~ ~ ~ ~ U O U Sspacew - f l o and configuration limitations as well as by aerocomPressors is the surge line. This is the line represent- dynamic considerations. ing the between Pressure rise and volume flow Diffusers can be classified as annular, vaned above which is unstable. Under these con- annular, or scroll. These fundamental types, in additions the air flow surges or pulsates, often with dition to being used separately, may be used also in destructive effects on the unit. This limit usually must combination; that is, an annular diffuser may have a be determined test and is nearly always shown on the considerable vaneless section preceding or following a plot of the unit's characteristic performance curve. vaned section, and a scroll may be used as a secondary the is simple in mn- diffuser after either of the annular types, or the cornstructionl usually comprising only a single rotor in a bination. casing, the achievement of high Pressure ratios and good Scroll diffusers are used, either alone or in efficiencies is Since the rotor O impeller with radial diffusers, where the air leaving the r


Ua P, Pa







IS Perfonnonce mop f a centrifugal canprerur

Fig. 16 Turbine wheel rtresaes

The oentrifugal force of the Vanes is introduced a t Shrouded impellers a n also be oalcuhted by an exten'pecific of the disk, which is divided into sion of the method. In this case the shroud is cctlcula&d ringa and strips. Thermal stresses due to a radial as an unsupported ring and then influencecoefficienbare tem~erat&e gradient are computed by assigning a calculated for the interaction between the blades and each ring, based on tests or calculations. the shroud and disk to arrive at the final stress distribuA typiml plot of wheel stresses is shown in Fig. 16. tion.

Section 6

A -





(a) Dovetail root

(b) Cylindrical raot


Fig. 18

Compressw rotor blade attachments

F ; ~ .17

performance map for axial-flow WPr-

cascade performance of the individual blade rows. That dkgram a specific blade row (rotor or for is, the stator) gives the entrance condition to the row; and the leaving velocities and data give the ,gles, which combined with the e& velocity diagram give the absolute leaving conditions for the row. An important consideation in the design of axial blading is that of blade loading. %rly data on low-speed caaades [291were extended by later NACA progams, including information on blade at higher ~~~h numbers and higher blade,tting angles [3*34. From the early data, Lieblein and others developed a digusion parameter that is as a blade loading limit [331. frequently

6 3 Blading Design. The . both and a common stator, are always of C-4 Or C-7' Thu being NACA-65 section or the at that length is set to give the deskn lof3ltion. For manufacturing reasons blades (rotor) a e often of constant tip diameter, which permits a simple casing design and 'lso maintains a high tip speed and minimum number of stages' The 'Oat a minimum at diameter comes~ondingly varies with inlet to a xim mum at the disehargel with seveml constant taper, as in Fig- lo,and of the high-pressure stages having a constant rOO'' diameter, as in Fig. 9. The latter tends to reduce the leaving velocity a t the discharge, and the accom-

panying leaving loss. Com~ressor~ also designed are with a constant root diameter and varying tip dlmeter, and in other cases both diameters are varied. The thiclcness of the airfoil sections is chosen to meet vibration criteria while maintaining good aerodynamic performance. he blade chord must then be sufficient to maintain the blade bending stresses at an acceptable level to insure freedom from fatigue failures. Sample are commonly made up and their natural frequencies checked for all the lower modes and, if necessary, t ~ ~ n e d changing the thickness to avoid resonances a t by running speeds as shown by a Campbell diagram (see Fig. 30 of Chapter 5 for a typical Campbell dimgram). Even this cannot give positive assurance that all resonances are avoided, particularly in variable speed units. Even constant-speed units must pass through resonant speeds when starting up and shutting down. he allowable bending stress chosen depends upon the Inaterial and the designer's experience; but a good rule for deel is 10,000 psi in the outermost fiber based on the root section modulus, or 25 Percent of the fatigue limit at lo8 cycles- The first- and last-shge design stresses are frequently reduced to a b u t one half of these values to allow for the increased loading that occurs a t off-design conditions. Much higher stresses are used in aircrafttype units. Titanium blades are frequently used in gas turbines of the aircraft type. The blade must be attached to the rotor by some means; this is accomplished by an enlarged section, or root, in the form of a dovetail, as in liig. 18(a) cylindrical roots as in Fig. 18(b)*and bolted attachments have been used. The dovetail section must be made and is usually a good fit in the slot in the rotor; axial slots are commonly broached but circumferential grooves are machined in a lathe.

The stresses in the dovetail are shearing stresses (across section A-A in li'ig. 18) and crushing or compressive stresses (on surf ces B and B). The total load on the dovetail is determined by adding the centrifugal force due to the vane and that of the dovetail itself. The shear and crushing stresses are then calculated from this total load and the geometrimlly determined areas. Wheel dovetail neck shear stresses a t maximum speed should be less than 30 percent of the minimum yield stress and the tensile stresses less than 20 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength. In the layout of the vane sections, the sections a t each radius are usually stacked so that the line through the centroids of the sections is a straight line, either radial or with a slight inclination to compensate for the aerodynamic bending moments. 6.4 Rotor Design. Most axial compressors have the rotor made up of a series of individual disks, each usually carrying one row of rotor blades. The individual disks are held together by a central bolt as in Fig. 10 or a row of bolts a t an intermediate radius as in li'ig. g. In either case, the Golts are prestressed a t assembly so that the total bolt load is sufficient to keep the disks from separating under the highest bending moment that is likely to be imposed on the rotor. The individual disks are usually to give an approximately constant radial stress in the wheel. Various methods may be used for the calculation of the wheel stresses, including the centrifugal loading of the blades, but the one most commonly used is the "Manson method" [27, 281. The average tangential stress is of particular significance, since, for the ductile materials usually chosen, it is generally considered that the *heel bursting speed is reached wrhen this stress exceeds a value in the range of 85 to 100 percent of the ultimate




of freedom from distortion of the casing, due to its symmetry,'so that closer tip clearances over the blading can be maintained in operation. I t is also somewhat lighter. Larger units commonly have the compressor casing split on the horizontal centerline, each half containing half the stator blades. The two halves are bolted together with a horizontal flange as shown in Fig. 9. The horizontal flanges must be designed to transmit the circumferential hoop stress, due to the internal pressure, across the joint without leaking. The joint itself is always made with a metal-to-metal contact, the joint

being carefully finished to avoid leakage. The best proportions for the flange and bolting are usually based on experiment as well as a stress analysis [34].
Other Compressor Types and Combinations.

Other types of compressors have, from time to time, been proposed for application to a gas turbine cycle. Of the several possible types, only a variation of the centrifugal type (the so-called "mixed-flow" compressor) and a combination of one or more axial stages followed by a single centrifugal stage (for small volume flow, high pressure ratio machines) have had practical application.

Section 7 Turbine Design and Construction

of the msterbl. Typiml stress distribution separate blade rings by T-slot attachments, Or brazed The rings are made in two Or more curves for compressor wheel are given in Fig. 19. into the rings. are then slid into paves machined segments which hi^ is a wheel ,with a central hole, and the tangential stress a t the bore is quite high, approaching twice the the casingsThe inner ends of the stator blades can be either center stress in a solid disk. unc~~~~~~~~ built with drum rotors, similar shrouded, as in the forward are riveted Or lo, Or into have been stages of shrouded. If shmuded, they to some steam turbine rotors, and solid rotors have been applications are rare. S t r e r ~ s the shroud .ring, which carries a labyrinth packing to designed, although in drum rotors are usually based on unsupported ring minimize the L arehfinished to an accurate unsh*udedl the blade ends e a 3 along the rotor. If diameter to theory, and are appreciably higher than for individual at disks for the same peripheral speeds. Consequently they give the minimum allowable running are used only in compressors with low blade speeds and a blade tipsSome compreaior designs U S variableangle large number of stages for a given overall pressure ratio. blades in one or more rows so that the blade angles call Such designs can be classed as very conservative. 6.5 ibtor ~ ~ Statori blades are not subject be adjusted to match the operating conditions, partic~ ~ . that rotor blades experience; ularly during starting. In such eases, the blades havn to the centrifu&al thrOug" therefore, theb mechanical design and aerodynamic cylindrical shanks that extend radially outward to the design are not as limited. Nevertheless, bending holes in the casing. Levers are attached in On'' loadings must be calculated ends, which are linked together, so that stresses to due or more rows can be adjusted simultaneously by a" and kept, to consenrative values to allow for unknown stresses. Blade vibration modes and fre- external control mechanism. tho The compressor easing must be designed to for a preliminary design, and quencies must, be stator blades or stator blade rings and contain tho checked for sample blades, so as to avoid lower-order various stages. Small0r rewasnoes within the running speed range. pressures developed in the a casil'g, due to centrifugal machines are frequently made ~h~~~is, of course, no the rotor and stator blade rings being assembled externs1 forces as there is for rotor blades. ~h~ method of attachment is usually similar to that to the easing and then assembled endwise into the casil* The casing is then for mbr blades, although a simple T-slot mot attach- as a unit, as in Fig. 10. merit is frequently used. Blades may be mounted an air inlet easing and a discharge diffuserthat locate a'"1 This has the advantag(' -hined i the fasing, mounted in restrain the blade rings endwise. n d.,.tlY b


= n -fl





23 1








fig. 20 Typical turbine dtldender vs. speciflc spwd

Rg. 22

Axial-flw turbine stage impad dikimcy

specific speed, although the exact level of efficiency for each type is dependent upon the detail designs and geometry as well. 7.2 Aerodynamic Design. Since radial-outflow turbines are rarely used, discussion will be limited to radialc2 inflow designs. While the radial-flow turbine is basically similar to a centrifugal compressor operating in reverse, there are differences, as can be seen from Fig. 14. ( B ) 'OX REACT'0N 'IAGRAM Principally, a simple scroll inlet is usually used, and the considerable radial depth of the diffuser is replaced by a pig. 21 AX~~I-now turbine velocity diagrams series of short guide vanes or nozzles, which direct the incoming stream into the wheel. Also, the design is somewhat less critical from an aerodynamic point of view since the flow through the passages is accelerating A typical diagram for the so-called impulse stage (i.e., i n s u d of diffusing. This results in easier control and no pressure drop or corresponding conversion to velocity . less build-up of the boundary layer, so that passage energy in the bucket passage) is shown in ~ i g21(a). A shapes are not as critical. similar diagram for a reaction stage, in which p r t of the The best specific speed 9 of a radial-flow turbine lies pressure drop and conversion to velocity energy does in the range 2.5 to 4, as shown in Fig. 20. It should be occur in the bucket, is shown in Fig. 21(b). A stage will noted that different turbines are not only affected by vary in the amount of reaction with the velocity ratio, changes in specific speeds, but also by influences of over- U/C1, i.e., the ratio of the bucket circumferential all she (i.e., Reynolds number, manufacturing con- velocity to the theoretical spouting velocity for the total available energy to the stage.

pressure ratio as shown by the typical curves of Fig. 22. Impact efficiency as used in Fig. 22 is defined as the ratio of the work developed by the turbine to the thearetical work available when expanding from the initial impact pressure to the final impact pressure. The impact pressure equals the static pressure plus the impact head corresponding to the absolute gas

The following possible 'sources of loss probably cannot be evaluated directly. 1. N o n s b d y state effects which may produce a nozzle bucket "interferencen loss. 2. Nonuniformity of nozzle exit stream within the noz&lepit,&. 3. &nificant flow separation from nozzle or bucket profiles due to either a poor profile design or an exces-

1. Friction losses on all gss path surfaces. This may be assessed by use of an "effectiven drag or surface friction coefficient. 2- Flow mprtration and mixing losses as occasioned by excessive edge thickness, diffusing interstage passages, and divergence of sidemlls in nozzles and buckets. 3. Leabage losses such as nozzle seal leakages, wheelspace flows, and bucket tip clearance. 4. Shock and attendant high Mach number losses such as may occur from the nozzle throat up to the bucket entrance. 5.' h s a due to nonuniformity of available energy, which is a loss more or less unique to a directly fired gas turbine caused by the large initial temperature non-

turbines with radial entry, the nozzles must turn the stream from the radial direction to the proper angle, and thus look more like a conventional cascade. Nozzles are constructed frequently of two side. plates of appropriate inner and outer diameters with the nozzle vanes fastened between. The vanes can be pinned or riveted in place, or the side plates can be punched with openings the shape of the vanes which are then brazed or welded in place. For smaller units, precision cast nozzles with vanes and sidewalls intern1 are used with advantage. The material of the nozzles can be any of the commonly used high-temperature alloys, depending upon the design inlet temperature and, to some extent, on the fuel used. For fabricated construction M-252, S-816, A-286, or the





Fig. 23

Crou section of large axial-flow gar turbine with drum-type rator, rotors welded up from several forgings

Fig. 24 Variable-angle load turbine nozzle arrangement, fadory assembly of one half the nozzle showing partitions, levers, and operating linkage in turbine shell

various Inconels such as 713 are suitable, while for cast construction X-40 or similar alloys are commonly used. In an axial-flow turbine, the nozzles are formed into an annular ring and serve to turn the flow from an essentially axial direction to that required by the bucket entrance conditions. The actual mechanical arrangement varies. wheels Turbines using rotors built up from i~idividual bolted together use different nozzle arrangements (particularly for the stages following the first) than those units using a drum type of rotor construction. The former arrangement is illustrated by Figs. 9 and 10 while the latter is shown in Fig. 23. The nozzle must be centered in the turbine casing and held against the pressure forces due to the pressure drop across the nozzle; a t the same time it must be free to expand with temperature changes. In large units operating at high inlet temperatures, the nozzle assembly may expand over an inch on the diameter between cold conditions and full load. To allow for this expansion and still keep the

carries some form of multitooth packing running against the drums or wheel rims to restrict the leakage flow to a controlled amount. A typical example of this type of construction is shown in Fig. 23. In the case of two-shaft machines, which are usually constructed with the gas producer turbine and the power turbine separate but with a common axis of rotation and in the same turbine casing, the nozzle for the power turbine can be of either fixed or variable area. The fixed-area nozzle is constructed the same as other intermediate nozzles, except that the diaphragm portion is usually solid as it normally does not encircle a shaft. For greater operating flexibility, the load turbine, if single stage, can be built with variable-angle partitions to give a variable area; in this way the energy distribution and hence the relative speeds between the gas producer turbine and the power turbine can be varied by tho control system. The advantages of this arrangement are discussed in Section 4. A variable nozzle area arrangement is shown in Fig. 24. Nozzle ,haterials selected depend upon the operating temperature, and consideration must be given to thcr fuel used, since some elements in the fuel can cause rapid corrosion or intergranular attack of otherwise suitablo

materials. The Nimonic materials have been frequently used but more recently other materials such as 5816 and M-252 have been used in forged and machined partitions. At lower temperature levels, A-286 or Type 310 stainless steel are suitable. Suitable materials for precision cast parts are Haynes Stellite's casting alloys X-40 (HS-31), or X-45 and FSX-414, which were developed from X-40 for improved characteristics. FSX-414 material has good strength, resistance to thermal fatigue, resistance to oxidation, and resistance to sulfurous corrosion; it has been used for turbine nozzles a t firing temperatures up to 1700 F. For long-term operation a t high inlet temperatures (i.e., 1500 to 2000 F or more) some form of nozzle cooling is required to keep metal temperatures below the peak gas temperatures so as to attain lives of 50,000 hr or more. The simplest and most commonly used method is air cooling by means of internal passages cast into the partitions. A typical arrangement is one in which the compressor air passes between a fabricated core and the cast shell forming the partitions, and is bled into the gas stream through holes near the trailing edge to keep the thin edge cool. 7.4 Rotor Design. The design of the radial turbine rotor is basically the same as that of a centrifugal compressor rotor, except that to lower the hub stresses the disk is generally walloped between vanes. Also, the rotor is frequently made in two parts, held together by the center bolt. The outlet portion or exducer corresponds to the inducer of a centrifugal compressor. This is advantageous since the vanes in the larger diameter, highly stressed portion of the rotor can be straight and radial, while the portion curved to give the required exit angle is in the smaller-diameter, lower-stressed exducer mtion. This also enables a composite construction with a forged and machined wheel and cast exducer to be used. Stresses in the rotor can be calculated by use of the Manson method, or modifications o it, as described for f aompressor rotors. However, due to the high temperature levels, and the high temperature gradients from the outer diameter to the hub, the temperature distribution must be accurately assessed and the thermal stresses taken into consideration. The gas loading on the blades is negligible (although difficulty is sometimes encountered due to blade vibrations) and stress variation in an axial direction is neglected. Stresses can be calculated for various operating oonditions; but two combinations that have been used

1. At a speed corresponding to the overspeed trip setting (usually 110 percent) and temperatures correnponding to full power. 2. At temperatures corresponding to the overtemperature trip and lwpercent ~peed.
The calculated stresses for a typical radial turbine wheel of A-286 material are shown in Fig. 16. The mmponding values of 10,000-hr rupture stress a t the

estimated wheel temperature at the location are also shown. For marine service where continuous operation a t rated load is expected, the material stresa and corresponding factors of safety would be based on long-time rupture, probably 100,000 hr. It can be seen that overstressing occurs a t the bore of the disk in both cases. This is typical of many rotors with a central hole. Because of this, and as a test of disk quality, rotors are usually overspeeded to a speed that will cause plastic yielding in the bore a t room temperature. This prestresses the bore, so that the disk is then stable and experiences little or no further plastic deformation a t normal running speeds. With the profile of the rotor disk determined to give the desired factors of safety, the major mechanical design of the rotor is complete. It is usual to build a sample rotpr and excite it with a vibrator to determine the vibration modes of the vanes. The modes determined are tuned by minor changes in thickness or profile to avoid resonance with possible exciting forces, such as nozzle passing frequency a t normal running speeds. One point that must be borne in mind, is that the rotor will expand due to centrifugal stresses. An allowance must be made for the corresponding strains and the thermal growth due to the operating temperature when establish'ing the cold clearance between the rotor qnd the nozzle and the vanes and the casing in order to provide adequate running clearance under operating conditions. For good efficiency, these clearances must be as small as possible; therefore, careful assessment of the various growths is necessary. I n an axial-flow turbine, the buckets or blades are usually attached to the wheel or rotor mechanically by what is commonly known as a "fir tree" attachment (or dovetail). But sometimes on smaller units the buckets are attached to the rotor by welding, or even cast integrally with the wheel. Good bucket design is a difficult and complex process. Not only must the aerodynamic conditions be satisfied as to entrance and exit angles and passage shapes, but equally important the vane section must have centrifugal and bending stresses below the allowable limits for the material and service involved. There must also be no vibration modes, of any significance, that are resonant to stimuli in the operating speed range. The bucket design is by necelqsity a process of trial and error. The final design of the bucket and its attachment entails plotting the calculated and/or measured vibration frequencies on a Campbell diagram to determine possible resonances [35]. It is generally considered advisable to keep the three fundamental frequencies from coinciding with passing frequencies of combustion chambers, nozzles, struts, etc. above 50-percent speed. First- to third-order frequencies are also to be avoided a t running speed. Even a t best all stimuli cannot be avoided and so some manufacturers have found it advisable to build in dampening in the form of tie wires in long buckets or special root dampening devices in short ones. Interlocking, integral covers, which are practical with




precision cast buckets, can also be used to control vibration. With the vane sections determined, their properties a t various radii can be calculated (i.e., section areas, section moduli, and centers of gravity). The areas can then be used to calculate the centrifugal stresses along the vahe section, and the section moduli in combination with the gas bending forces are used to determine the bending stresses. Usually the sections are "stacked" with respect to their centers of gravity so that the centrifugal forces create a moment which offsets the gas bending moment and reduces the stresses in the leading and trailing edges. The combined stress is then compared with the allowable stress a t that radius. The allowable stress is determiged by the long-time stress rupture properties of the material, since in marine service long and continuous operation a t or near full load is required. The criteria vary of course with the manufacturer and the expected service requirements, and the allowable stress criteria used range from 50 percent of the 100,000-hr value to perhaps 75 percent of the 50,000-. hr value. For large units intended for the main propulsion of large seagoing vessels, the minimum calculated rupture life should be not less than 70,000 hr. The root attachment, frequently called the dovetail, must carry the centrifugal loading of the vane section plus that of the platform and the dovetail itself into the wheel. This must be accomplished without exceeding the allowable stresses in the dovetail or the adjacent wheel rim sections. Frequently, the bucket material and the wheel material are not the same, so that the allowable stresses in the two parts differ even though the temperatures are generally assumed the same. Stresses in both parts must therefore be checked. An extended or "long-shank" bucket design may be used to reduce the temperature a t the dovetail, by the temperature dmp in the shank. A device used to attain the required aerodynamic shape within allowable stress limits and vibration characteristics is the hollow bucket. The whole vane section may be hollow, but usually just the tip section is hollowed for pahaps ysthe length of the vane. Inforged and machined buckets, the hollow can be formed by spark-discharge machining, while with precision cast buckets the avity is cast. In either w, the effective tapar ratio of the vane is increased, which reduces the root stresses for a given length and pitch line velocity. There is a wide range of bucket materials available, the choice again depending upon the temperature level and consideration of the effect of the fuel used. Both nickel-based and cobalt-based alloys are used for both cast and forged buckets. Diffused aluminum coatings are often used to increase the hot corrosion life of nickelbased alloys. At lower temperatures, as in last stages, A-286 is suitable, while 422 material has been very s u c ~ ~ w fwithin its temperature limitations. ul It should also be pointed out that most gas turbine buckets are unshrouded; i.e., they have no shrouds or covers as are frequently used in steam turbine practice.

Leakage past the tip of the bucket is limited by running closely controlled clearances between the tip of the bucket and a stationary member in the turbine casing. There is evidence that unshrouded buckets have tip losses equal to, or in some cases, less than shrouded .buckets in which only the axial clearance is controlled. The addition of several radial seals on the cover of a shrouded bucket will improve the efficiency. Smaller rotors are usually held together by a single i. central bolt, as in F g 10, with the angular location of the individual wheels maintained by dowels or "curvic" couplings. With large rotors, a single central bolt becomes a rather formidable proposition, and so a multiplicity of smaller bolts a t an intermediate radius is usually used. I n either case, the bolt or bolts are stressed to a point where the resulting preload will positively prevent the wheels from separating under all normal operating conditions. Dynamically, the rotor then acts as a solid or one-piece rotor, and calculations such as that for critical speed can be made on the basis of the eection inertia of the rotor a t the contacting points, or lands, between the wheels. The tensile load in the bolts is usually checked a t assembly by measuring the actual stretch or elongation of the bolts as the nuts are torqued up. For very large rotors, the bolts may be stretched hydraulically, the nuts seated, and the elongation checked after the hydraulic load is released. The centrifugal load of the complete bucket (vane, platform, ahank, and dovetail), plus the interrupted portion of the wheel rim between the dovetail slots, is carried by the wheel disk. This loading can be represented as a distributed load around the wheel circumference. The stresses in the wheel disk are usually calculated by the Manson method, the same as for the compressor disks. However, in turbine wheels the thermal stresses are of considerably greater magnitude and must be assessed as accurately as possible. Methods of calculating heat transfer from a rotating disk are given by Kreith and Taylor in reference [36] and a method for calculating stress in disks subjected to creep is given by Wahl in reference IJI]. It should be ~ o i n t e d that out for turbines used in marine service, stress levels should be based on long-time opention and creep may need to be considered as a factor. The large thermal ~ o w t of the nozzles due to their h and elaatic growth of h k h temperature and the the wheels make it difticult to ensure the desired overlap of the nozzle and bucket a t the root of the gas path under all oonditions. A uniform overlap around the circumference isparticularly ditfcult to maintain. of the rotors must be critical calculated to avoid resomnce with normal rullning speeds. ~h~~~ calculations are -lly based on the traditional byleigh method, taking bearing flexibilities into account. While exact bearing flexibility is rarely known, a range of values usually cttn be estimated from past experience so that meaningful values of actual running critical speeds can be determined. Critical speeds calculated on the assumption of rigid bearings are of little value.

Section 8 Combustion Systems

8.1 Combustion Chamber Conlgurations. The term A variation of the basic arrangement of individual 'gas turbine" is a contraction of the more explicit term chambers is one in which the chambers are arranged for "combustion gas turbine," and the process of combustion "reverse flowU; that is, the air from the compressor is an important part of the gas turbine system. The gas enters the downstream end of the casing and flows turbine is basically an internal combustion engine as the between the casing and the liner toward the h a d end. combustion, which releases the energy in the cycle, takes The air enters the liner alow its length and reverses place inside the machine. In gas turbines, the com- direction to flow back to the turbine nozzle as a product bustion is also a continuous process, as contrasted to the of combustion, i.e., hot gas. intermittent or cyclic process that takes place in a A modificati~n of the individosl chamber concept, reciprocating engine, whether the Otto or diesel cycle. called the "cannular" arrangement, is one in which a The combustion also takes place in a very confined space, multiplicity of individual liners (up to 16) is lorated in an as contrasted to most other continuous-process com- annular space between an inner and outer combustor bustion systems, such as the furnace of a conventional casing. Two variations of this firrangement are possible. boiler. The resulti~g continuous high rates of heat I n one the air is introduced a t the head or dome end of release make good combustion and cooling of the combustion chamber major problems-problems which have, however, been successfully solved in a number of ways. Combustion chamber design is as much an art as science and, perhaps for this reason, a wide variety of configurations is used for the combustion systems of gas turbines. In some cases the design is dictated more by the experience and practice of the manufacturer than the inherent ad vantages of a particular design. Combustion systems may be divided into two broad classes : 1. Those separate from the compressor and turbine that are mounted adjacent to, but not on, the unit. 2. Those built as an integral part of the unit and combined structurally with the compressor and turbine. European manufacturers more frequently use type 1, which is illustrated by Fig. 25, while American manufacturers commonly use type 2, which is illustrated by Figs. 9 and 10. Combustion chambers separate from the compressor and turbine generally take the form of a single large chamber or pressure housing with an internal liner or liners that contain the combustion products and protect the vessel from the high gas temperatures. Such systems can also be designed with separate smaller combustion chambers grouped within the pressure vessel and manifolded together a t the chamber exits t o provide only one or two gas ducts to the turbine. Some single combustion chambers are separate from, but mounted directly on, the unit while sml1 machines may have a single combustion chamber built into the compressor and turbine structure as in Fig. 14. Larger gas turbines with integral combustion systems LEGEND employ a variety of arrangements. A number of individual chambers may be mounted around the axis of A - COMBUSTION AIR NOZZLE the machine and be fed from a common compressor B- DISCHARGE TO TURBINE C SIGHT PORT AND QlLUTlON HOLES discharge; the chambers then feed into individual arcs D- LINER SUPPORT POINTS of the turbine first-stage nozzle. This design can also be E-FUEL NOZZLE adapted to a regenerative cycle by arranging the indiF COMBUSTION AIR REGISTER G-IGNITOR vidual chambers to be fed with air returning from the regenerator by one or more headers as in Fig. 9. Fig. 25 Large single canbultor f a mounting separate from gas turbk.

- .


Smokefree combustion is generally in conflict with leanlimit stability. Similarly, low pressure loss and short flame length are difficult to attain simultaneously. The aerodynamic processes in a combustion system design present a most difficult set of problems. The provisions for the interaction of fuel and air by culation in the primary zone to provide the correct spatial arrangement of the reactants, the necessary flame stability, the necessary mixing and dilution downstream to give the required temperature distribution a t the combustor exit, the maintenance of metal parts at Proper operating temperatures, and the low Pressure drop requirements combine to present a complex design challenge. 8-4 Mechanical Details and Construction. Structurally, the gas turbine combustion system is rather ~imple, the design is complicated by the varied and but rather severe conditions it must meet. The design must
1. Flame temperatures of 2900 to 3300 F or more. 2. Cyclic temperature variations. 3. Metal temperatures during operation of 900 t o 1300 F with peaks to 1700 F. 4. Metal temperature gradients of 540 deg F/in. 5. Exciting frequencies, mechanical or aerodymmic,

over a wide frequency range and with varying amplitudes. 6. Collapsing pressure differentials across the liner of as atmospheres to the 1.8 power, i.e. I = Btu/hr-cu ft-atm1.8

on suspension pins or fittings should normally be limited to 250-500 psi. Sometimes surface treatment of the

I' = Btu/hr-sq ft-atm1.8 Values per cubic foot per atmosphere will range from 1 to efficiency apprecisbly. 10 X 10' while, if the pressure is taken as atm1.8, 8.3 Design Objectives. The physical configuration values will range from 0.5 or less to 5 X 108. Typical of representative combustion systems and the mo* values per squale foot of flow area inside the liner will important parameters used in their design have been run 4 X 106 Btu/hr per atmosphere. described, but specific design objectives have not been In small chambers, the radiant heat flux will be of discussed. I n addition to the obviaus primary objective the order of 80,000 Btu/hr-sq ft, which increases with of burning the required amount of fuel, the objectives in the size of the chamber due to the greater thickness combustion chamber design, not necessarily in order of of the body of radiating flame. It also increases with the importance, may be liste'd as: luminosity of the flame. Liquid fuels, in general, give a 1. Effective release of chemical energy by the cornmore luminous flame than gaseous fuels; the heavy oils1 bustion of fuel within highly confined spaces. particularly the residuals known as Bunker C1 are very 2. Stable operation over a wide range of fuel/air bad in this respect. The result is that large single ratios. combustors intended to burn heavy oils are designed for 3. ~ ipressure drop compatible with the other ~ i ~ ~ rather low rates of heat release compared to the small requirements. individual chambers used in some designs. 4. A controlled temperature distribution a t the Most combustion chambers are designed so that a turbine inlet. small amount of primary air is admitted, U S U ~ ~with ~Y 5, short flame length to prevent discharging flames some swirl velocity, a t the upstream end of the ~ b m b e r into the turbine. in what is usually called the dome. In the dome the air 6 , clean burning, i.e., negligible smoke and no is mixed with the fuel, which then burns nearly carbon formation under all operating conditions. chiometrically witl; temperatures of 3000 to 3500 F. The easy b b l ~ , 7. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ignition to give reliable starting. quantity of air admitted in the primary zone may give 8. Durable components with low maintenance. up to 20-30 percent excess air a t that point. Of the Some of these requirements are mutually conflicting. remaining air, part is used for cooling the liner (perhaps

Combustion system components can fail in one or more of the following ways:
3. Structural failure due to pressure forces. Di8tortion and due to temperature
5. Overheating, resulting in local metal failure. 6. High-temperature corrosion.

Pressure loads, tending to collapse the liner and axid forms due to the PrefjSure dzerence over the dome arm1 are important, particularly in the case of annular designs- The critical pressure difference that the liner depends upon the pmportions (length/hmeter and thickness/diameter), the degree of and stiffening, manufacturing eccentricities, discontinuities, and Young's modulus a t the operating bm~eratures- Collapse is usually due to yielding a t locd eccentricities rather than elastic instability. In the days of gas turbines, very thick liner rnaterial was sometimes used in an attempt to obtain longer life and reliability, but experience has shown that the thinner the liner) the better, and except in large nirigle chambers, thicknesses of more than 0.050 in. to 0.060 in. are rarely required. The liner must be s u ~ ~ o r indthe combustor casing h being allowed to expand freely. Bearing pressures

Liner materials can be any one of a number of hightemper&ture, c~rrosion-re,gisting alloys. ~h~ ~ ~ i ~ i ~ commonly use Nimonic 75 below 1300 F and Nimonic go, which is less ductile and more difficult to fabricate, for higher temperatures and larger diameters. In the U.S., stainless steels 18-8 or 25-20 and Inconel are the usual materials, and they give satisfactory results where cooling is carefully controlled. Occasionally, combustor parts are attacked by corrosion*duet constituents of the fuel. Attack by H*S o is particularly virulent, but is likely only in the zone, or overrich pockets. ~t is below temperatures of 1100 l . ~ t t a ~ k also occur from i vanadium pentoxide, which may be formed from the vanadium that is frequently present in residual fuels. 8.5 Fuel Nozzles. The fuel nozzles, or fuel injectors, must introduce the fuel into the combustion chamber over the entire range from lightoff to maximum load in a way that is compatible with the basic objectives listed in the foregoing. Fuel noazles can have a marked effect the on performance of the combustion chamber, and must be considered as a n integral part of combu&ion systems. Gas turbines are well suited for the propu~sion of





liquefied petroleum gas carriers as they can readily burn the gas boil-off [38]; however, aside from this application, gakous fuels are not available for most marine applications. Liquid fuels commonly used in marine installations are JP-4, JP-5, distillate fuels, and residual fuels. The problems with each one vary, and few noz~l&or fuel, systems will provide satisfactory operation over the whole range of fuels. The nozzle must atomize the liquid fuel into droplets sinall enough to insure completk combustion of the fuel ih the residence time avawble, and provide a spray pattern that will insure intimate mixing of the fuel with the available oxygen under the full- and part-load aerodynamic conditions existing in the primary zone. The spray must not strike the walls of the chamber, and must not cause excessive temperature variations. Five types of liquid-fuel nozzles have been applied in gas turbine combustors. Each has advantages and disadvantages as follows: 1. Pmaure-Atomiaing Nozzles (a) Simplex (or single orifice) Nozzles. The simplest type but not suitable for the wide flow fange usually required. (b) Duplex (or dual orifice) Noszles. With either intern1 or external flow dividers, these give a much wider operating range and are usually satisfactory for the lower viscosity fuels. 2. Ai Blast (Air Atomizing) Nozzles. These nozzles u t h e the combustion-chamber pressure drop to create an air s t r a m that is used to assist in ato&lng the fuel. The air flow around the nozzle body breaks up the fuel spray, so the fuel distribution is determined mainly by

the air flow pattern. Combustion is characterized by a blue flame of low luminosity, cool walls, and minimum smoke. I t has, however, poor "lean blowout" and poor atomization at starting. 3. Air Assist (Air Atomizing) Nozzles. These are single-orifice nozeles, with small quantities of air introduced internally via separate passages from a separate external compressor. At low fuel flows and pressures, the air atomizes the fuel, while at high flows the air can be cut off and fuel pressure relied upon for atomization. For h a v y residual fuels, air assist nozzles can be designed with a separate air compressor taking air from the main compressor discharge, and providing a pressure ratio of about 2: 1 over the entire operating range; this gives efficient atomization (a Sauter Mean Diameter of the fuel droplets of 60-80 microns) over the whole firing range. The complication and weight of the extra atomizing a r compressor i penalize this arrangement, but it is the only one suitable for burning Bunker C in high-intensity combustion systems. They may also be used in distillate burning machines to assure smokeless combustion throughout the load range. 4. Vaporizing Fuel Nozzles. In vaporizing nozzles the fuel is introduced in a tube or passage and vaporized by heat from the combustion chamber. The advantages are: (a) the vaporizing tubes contain both fuel and air and very rich mixtures are avoided, (b) a blue flame is produced and problems of smoke and radiation are diminished, and (c) dispersal of the fuel is dictated by the airflow pattern and is sensibly independent of fuel flow. The outlet temperature traverse is, therefore, not sensitive to fuel flow. The system has the dissdvantages that it will not operate at weak mixture ratios and a

given design will only operate sstisfactorily with minimal variation in fuel properties. 5. Centrifugal Atomiaers. These employ the centrifugal force of a rotating cup to atomize the fuel. This arrangement gives very uniform temperature distribution (f deg F in a radial direction and f 7 5 deg F circum25 ferentially). I t is adaptable to a wide range of fuels, from liquid propane to SAE 30 oil, with no apparent trouble from combustion chamber deposits. It is, however, only suitable for annular combustors with a rather restricted configuration. All of these systemshave been used in gm turbines, and the choice depends upon the fuel to be used, the arrangement of the combustion system chosen, the range df fuel flows over which satisfactory operation must be obtained, and the ambient conditions (particularly the temperature at which reliable light-off must be obtained). 8.6 Ignition System. Normally the combustion in the system is self-sustaining and continuous, but it must be initiated by an external means. This is the function performed by the ignition system. Electric ignition is almost universally used, the system consisting of a spark plug or plugs in the cornbustion chamber and a source of high voltage to create the spark a t the plug electrodes. The voltage used ranges from 3500 volts for a low-voltage system to 18,000 volts in a high-voltage system. The energy required

varies from 0.2 to 4.0 joules per spark and up to 12 joules can be released in about 100 microseconds, i.e., 100 kw at peak spark discharge in a high-energy system. However, only about 7 percent of the total heat energy appears at the plug face. The energy can be furnished by a high-voltage trans former, sdmetimes with a capacitor to store the energy, or in some cases a magneto driven by the engine or starting device is used. The electrical circuit for a high-energy system is shown in Fig. 27. The spark plug can be of several types. A plug with a central electrode in an insulator, discharging to another electrode on the body (similar to an automobile sparkplug), can be used. Far large chambers, where it is difficult to insure the presence of a combustible mixture a t the gap of a plug mounted in the combustor case, a retractable plug is used. The plug can be spring-injected and retracted by compressor discharge pressure acting on the piston, or it can be pressure-injected and springreturned. In either case, the electro&s can be inserted far enough into the chamber to insure ignition without danger of burning them during operation. For high-energy systems a aurface-discharge plug can be used. This type is less susceptible to fouling or burning. I t furnishes a high-energy murce to ignite the fuel but can be used only with a high-energy, capacitordischarge electrical system.

Section 9 Bearings, Seals, and lubrication

9.1 Bearing Types. Gas turbine bearings fall into two classes, (i) antifriction or rolling-contact bearings and (ii) sleeve or journal bearings and the corresponding oil-film thrust bearings. Gas turbines adapted from aircraft designs generally use antifriction bearings because of their high capacity, low space requirement, and lighter overall engine weight, although in small ongines this difference is negligible. Gas turbines adapted from industrial practice or designed specifically for marine service generally use sleeve or oil-film bearings, particularly in the larger sizes. 9.2 Antifriction Bearings. Antifriction bearings, whether ball or roller, can and do provide bng, reliable ~ r v i c ebut by their very nature they have a definitely ; limited life. For a given load and speed the bearing manufacturers specify a B-TO life, which 90 percent of bearings operating with proper lubrication and temperatures will meet or exceed. For antifriction baring applications, each rotor is trupported by two or more bearings. One bearing is frequently a cylindrical roller bearing to provide for axial movement of the rotor, and the other bearing, which locates the rotor and takes the axial thrust, is nome form of ball bearing. I n the arrangement shown



110-120 VOLTS-50-60




Fig. 27 "Higlen&

ignition s y s h l circuit

by Fig. 10, the third bearing, which supports the turbine, is also a cylindrical roller bearing that permits axial expansion between the compressor and turbine. Roller bearings are frequently used adjacent to the turbine wheels, since they are usually considered better able to withstand high operating temperatures and higher soakback temperatures after shutting down. In addition, they have somewhat greater overload capacity, which may prevent complete bearing failure in the event of damage and loss of balance in the rotor. While antifriction bearings require only small amounts of oil for lubrication, means must be provided to keep them cool, particularly in locations where heat from the turbine can flow into them through the shaft or housing. A carefully controlled amount of cooling oil is required to maintain their internal clearances and, at the same time, avoid an excess that can be trapped between the rolling elements (particularly rollers) and the raceways with resulting hydrauiic lock and noise. The oil jets should be directed a t the shaft adjacent to the inner race and around the housing, to keep the bearing cool without excess oil being forced into the bearing. 9.3 Sleeve Bearings. Properly designed oil-film bearings, appropriately applied and supplied with an




24 1

* '
Fig. 28

Labyrinth bearing sealing arrangment

adequate quantity of clean oil of suitable viscosity, will run almost forever. Gas turbine sleeve bearings usually follow normal bearing practice. I n large machines, the journal bearings consist of babbitted shells (frequently with spherical, self-aligning seats) held in bearing housings of cast or fabricated construction. Bearing loadings are usually below 200 psi of projected bearing area. The bearing bore is frequently elliptical, and where very lightly loaded it may incorporate special pressure pockets or other means to ensure stability. Since the rotor weight goes down as the cube of the scale while bearing area reduces only as the square, bearing loadings are very low in small units even though L/d ratios less than 0.4 are frequently adopted. Lightly loaded bearings are subject to oil whip and other instabilities, so special measures must sometimes be taken to provide stable, satisfactory operation. Three-lobed bearings, floating bushes, and even pivoted-shoe journal bearings have been employed in various units. 9.4 Thrust Bearings. With antifriction bearings, one of the ball-bearing assemblies is generally arranged to take the net thrust. The net thrust is the difference between the com~ressorthrust and the 'turbine thrust --. in the case of &s producers, or the turbine thrust plus or minus any gear or coupling thrust in the case of power turbines. With oil-film bearings, a separate thrust e i n g is usually provided for each rotor. This bearing normally comprises a thrust collar firmly attached to the shaft with thrust washers or thrust plates on either side. For lightly loaded thrust bearings, these can be simple babbitted flat plates with radial grooves for oil distribution and flow. However, it is preferred practice to use tapered-land thrust shoes in which each land has a slight circumferential taper. While tapered-land thrust bearings can carry very

high loadings (above 750 psi), they are not inherently self-aligning and require careful manufacture as the taper required is very slight. Consequently, for highly loaded thrust bearings, a multiple, pivoted-shoe thrust bearing is often adopted. Since the thrust is usually greater in one direction than the other, the more lightly loaded side is sometimes made with fewer pads or shoes than the loaded side. Sleeve bearings and thrust bearings require an ample supply of clean cool oil for both lubrication and cooling. These bearings operate with a hydrodynamic film; and various factors, such as an interruption in the oil supply, high oil temperatures or low oil viscosity, can result in bearing wear and damage or even failure (by unduly reducing the oil film thickness). Small gas turbines frequently run with light oils (SAE 10 or even lighter) and rather high temperatures. The aircraftcderivative gas turbine is designed to operate with a synthetic oil, while the heavy industrial type of turbine is usually designed for heavier oils (at least turbine oil, medium). The oil temperature to the bearings of industrial-derivative turbines is about 130 F with a 30 to 40 deg F rise through the journal and thrust bearings. 9.5 Shaft Seals. Shaft seals serve the purpose of preventing or controlling fluid leakage along a shaft where it passes through a wall or diaphragm that separates regions a t two different pressure levels or contains two different fluids. Shaft seals are used whero shafts enter a bearing housing, where they enter e compressor or turbine casing, and between individual stages of a compressor or turbine. Shaft seals can be divided into two general classss: contact seals and labyrinth seals. Contact seals usually consist of a carbon or graphite ring with a flat face that L

held by a spring in contact with a face or sealing ring on the shaft, which has been lapped almost absolutely flat. Contact is maintained between the two faces to prevent leakage; hence the name. The metal face is hardened, and the carbon ring material selected to give minimum friction and wear. These seals, which are used in a variety of other applications besides gas turbines, will operate with essentially no lubrication, although they are most frequently applied where a liquid is present on a t least one aide of the seal. They are usually proprietary items. A labyrinth seal works on the principle of a series of throttlings, produced by a series of teeth on the stationary member, the shaft, or sometimes both. The teeth break down the total pressure difference between the fluid on the two sides of the seal into a series of steps to control the Bow through the clearance space between the tip of the tooth and the mating member. The velocity created in the clearance by the pressure drop is a t least partially dissipated in turbulence in the volume between adjacent teeth, thereby minimizing the flow. See Chapter 2 for a discussion regarding labyrinth seals. The clearance that can be maintained between the shaft and the stationary member depends upon the apecific machine configurationused, particularly the location of the seal with respect to the bearings and the clearance in the bearings. For small machines with small shafts and the seals located immediately adjacent to the bearings, a total clearance of 1.3 to 1.5 mils per inch of shaft diameter is usually eatisfactory. For large machines with a considerable distance between a bearing and the seal, a radial clearance of 2 mils per foot of shaft span may be necessary. A variety of materials can be used for labyrinth seals. Simple bearing housing seals, as shown in Fig. 28, that are intended primarily to prevent leakage of oil out of the bearing housing, can have the stationary member solid and be made of brass or aluminum. For seals located remote from bearings, such as in turbine diaphragms, the stationary member is frequently segmented and spring-supported so as to limit the contact pressure in the event of contact with the shaft. At low temperatures, these can also be made of brass, leaded bronze, or even plastic. At high temperatures, however, ferritic or even austenitic materials with a chrome-moly steel shaft are used; such a seal construction is shown in Fig. 29. It is also common practice to put the teeth on the shaft, as shown in Fig. 30, to minimize the heating and resulting bowing of the shaft in the event of contact. A third type, which involves a combination of the two principles, is the carbon ring seal. In this case a carbon or graphite ring, which can be either solid or segmented and held together by a garter spring, is bored to have a close clearance to the shaft, so as to control the leakage by laminar flow through the clearance space. The ring h a t s on the shaft and is free to turn in a groove in the housing, but the pressure difference holds it against one aide of the groove and seals off leakage by that path. This type of seal is shown in Fig. 10. It is quite a

compact seal and is sometimes used in smaller machines where length is important. This type of seal has also frequently been used in steam turbine practice. 9.6 Lubrication Systems. Proper lubrication is vital to the operation of gas turbines, whether equipped with rolling-contact or fluid-film bearings. The continuous supply of the proper grade of lubricant a t the proper pressure and temperature is so important that most gas turbines are equipped with their own integral lubrication system. Where aircraft jet engines have been adapted to industrial or marine use, the jet engine used as a gas generator frequently has different lubrication requirements from the power turbine and power transmission system and, therefore, usually retains its own independent lubrication system. Engines equipped with rolling-contact bearings require less oil, and usually a different grade, than those with fluid-film bearings. Many antifriction-bearing engines are designed to operate with synthetic lubricants. It is important that synthetic lubricants be used only in engines equipped with suitable gaskets, O-rings, seals, etc., as synthetic lubricants will attack and cause rapid deterioration and failure of many common gasket and O-ring materirtls. Basically, the lubrication system consists of an oil reservoir, a pump or pumps (for pumping oil from the reservoirs to the bearings, gears, and control systems), pressure regulators (to control the supply pressure to the various components), an oil cooler or coolers (to control the oil temperature), and a filter or filters (to assure clean oil). A typical lube oil system suitable for large units is shown in Fig. 31. The lube oil flow is determined by the quantity required to absorb the losses of the bearings, plus heat pickup from the surroundings, within the allowable temperature rises in the bearings. The oil required by all control devices such as governors, hydraulic actuating cylinders, etc., must also be provided. With large units, the pump size may be determined by the oil flow requirements of hydraulic cylinders used to actuate variable-angle nozzles and similar devices. The oil pump is always sized to deliver more than the calculated requirements, the excess being returned to the oil tank (reservoir) by a pressure-regulating valve. The main lube oil pumps are generally of the gear type and a t lejtst one is almost always driven directly by the main gas turbine shaft to ensure that the pump is driven as long as the turbine shaft rotates. Shaft-driven centrifugal pumps have also been used for the main lube oil pump, and,,centrifugal pumps, usually driven by electric motors, are frequently used for auxiliary pumps where the capacity required warrants it. I n the smaller sizes, motor-driven gear or vane-type pumps are used for the auxiliary or emergency supply. Sleeve bearing units should always have a supply of oil to the bearings before the unit is started, and some designs also require control oil pressure before starting. This is the purpose of the auxiliary pump, which is usually under control of a pressure switch so that it runs






is owrated for a period of time to circulate oil to the bearings in order 6 remove the heat that flows into them

Fig. 29

Typical high-IW labyrinlh seal with atathary to&

whenever the control system is energized and no main pump pressure is available. The auxiliary pump will also start on loss of oil pressure while the unit is operating and thereby furnish lubrication until the unit can be shut down. Large units are also usually equipped with an additional emergency pump that is supplied from a reliable, separate power source. This will supply sufficientlubrication for the bearings to bring the unit to rest in the event of failure of the main and auxiliary lube oil supply. The unit is shut down on loss of bearing header pressure, and the emergency pump is started to protect the unit from damage. Sometimes the auxiliary oil pump, or a supplementary small "cool down" pump,

from the hot parts, particularly the wheels below turbine. This keeps the babbitt in the bearingsof the 250 F and prevents the damage that would otherwise result from -exposure to higher temperatures while the machine cools down. Antifriction bearing machines generally .do not require pre- or post-lubrication for the protection of the bearings, since rolling-contact bearings adjacent to hot parts of the machine are usually stabilized a t temperatures of 350 F to 450 F. However, lube oil deteriorates at the temperatures which are frequently reached after shutdown. Therefore, in some cases, posblubrication after shutdown is used to remove the heat and keep the bearing area cool to prevent varnishing and carbonizing of the oil. The heat generated in the bearings and gear meshes, plus the heat flowing in from the hot parts of the machine and absorbed by the oil, must be removed by the oil cooler. The latter source can amount to f i of the total heat absorption. For certain installations oil coolers are direct oil-to-air radiators, but for marine installations water-cooled heat exchangers are the logical choice. The heat exchanger must be capable of rejecting all the heat absorbed by the oil and provide a proper oil-cooler discharge temperature (usually 130 F). These heat exchangers are generally of the shell-and-tube type with the tubes readily accessible for cleaning. Frequently, the oil coolers are in duplicate, with quick change-over valves, so that the machine can operate with either cooler whiie the other is being cleaned.

r - - - - - - -)------







0 0



fig. 31
Typical lube-oil system for gas turbine propulsion unit

Oil filters are almost always installed, since it is generally considered good practice to do so. The filter must have adequate capacity for the full oil flow within the manufacturer's pressure drop limitations. Frequently dual filters are installed with quick transfer (four-way) valves so that one filter can be cleaned while the other is in service. The filtration system should be chosen with consideration for the minimum clearances in the machine. On large machines which may not require very fine (below 10 micron) filtration for the bearing oil, an additional finer filter (down to 2 microns) may be added in the circuit to the governor and other hydraulic devices to protect their very close clearances and fine finishes. Filter by-passes, particularly internal by-passes, are not recommended even on full-flow filters. When the filter is plugged with dirt and the by-pass opens, large quantities of contaminants may go through the by-pass and into the bearing system. I t is preferable to monitor the pressure drop across the filter and provide dual filters if it is necessary to assure continuous operation under all conditions. Pressure regulators are usually simple spring-loaded relief valves as close regulation of the pressure level is not important. Some systems use two pressure levels, one for the control functions and the other a t a lower

pressure for lubrication. The control circuit is usually arranged to have top priority on the oil supply, since operation of the controls is vital to the operation of the unit, and the lubrication supply can be reduced or even cut off for the fraction of a second it takes the controls to operate. The oil reservoir, or lube oil tank, is usually located below the unit although with positively scavenged (drained) systems it can be located anywhere. With jet engines it is frequently fastened to the side of the compressor casing. With gravity drain systems, it must be located a sufficient distance below the bearings to allow apsitive slope of a t least in. per foot to the drain lines under all conditions of pitch and roll. On small, compact units this is not difficult to achieve; but on large multishaft, multicasing units more than one tank may be required to provide adequate drainage without exceeding a reasonable suction lift on the shaft-driven oil pumps, which are generally mounted on or close to the unit. The capacity of the tank is usually basedon the main lube oil pump flow. Where possible, a capacity of four hi times the oil pump capacity in gpm should be used. T i gives what is known as a four-minute supply; i.e., in the event of failure of the drain system, the tank will provide a four-minute supply of lubricant. Smaller





units, particularly those mounted in a package, such as shipboard generating sets, may have smaller tanks. Due to space limitations, these may be as small as a two-minute supply or less. Adequate deaeration of the oil is diacult in tanks this small, although the carry-over of mist out the vent can be minimized by properly locatr ing baffling, by locating the oil drains and the tank vent connection as far apart as possible, and by providing a deaeration tray. Pressurized outer shaft seals, in which compressor bleed air is introduced between two seal sections and flows through one side into the bearing housing (to prevent oil leakage along the shaft), introduce extra air into the oil and make satisfactory deaeration more difficult. The tank should be provided with a bottom that slopes both ways to a drain connection. The tank should have a removable cover or access door of sufficient size to enable every part of the tank to be reached for cleaning. An oil level gage and/or sight glass should also be provided aloqg with a low-level and sometimes a high-level alarm. Supply and drain piping is preferably made of seamless tubing. Stainless steel tubing is frequently used in the smaller sizes. AN-type flexible hose connections are also suitable in the smaller sizes (below about 1.5 in.). In large units, it is good practice to run the pressure feed lines inside the drain lines as far as possible. The drain line then acts as a guard line in the event of a leak or failure of the feed line, which otherwise could spray oil onto hot parts of the machine and cause a fire. In order to avoid fire hazards, the number of pipe joints should also be minimized. Where joints are necessary, welded fianged connections are preferred, with an SAE four-bolt split fiange connection being the second choice. Compression-type fittings are satisfactory with the smaller stainless steel lines. Flexible lines usually are provided with standard AN-type fittings. Threaded pipe joints, and particularly pipe nipples, should be used only where unavoidable; and then extraheavy or double extraheavy-schedule pipe should be used to ensure adequate wall thickness under the threads to avoid fatigue failures from originating in the threads. Pipe sizes, both feed and drain, should be sized for low velocities a t full flow. A velocity of not more than 6 fps in feed lines and 2 fps in drain lines will keep system pressure drops to reasonable values and provide free and complete drainage from bearings and gear housings. Poor drainage can give trouble with oil leakage along shafts and extra losses and heating in gear systems.

1 W. A. Brockett, G. L. Graves, Jr., M. R. Hauschildt, and J. W. Sawyer, "U. S. Navy's Marine Gas Turbines, " ASME Paper 66-GT/M-28. 2 R. C. Case, "Marine Gas Turbine Growth in the U. S. Coast Guard, * ASME Paper 66GT/M-36. 3 E. B. Good, "Gas Turbine Installation Design for Naval Ships," ASME Paper 66-GT/M-34. 4 G. M. Boatwright and E. P. Winert, "Combined

Power Plants, " SNAME Philadelphia Section, March 1964. 5 R. G. Mills, "The Combined Steam Turbine-Gas Turbine Plant for Marine Use," ASME Paper 55-A-154. 6 G. C. Swensson and E. P. Winert, "Laboratory Test Experience with a Combined Steam Turbine and Gas Turbine Unit," SNAME New England Section, March 1963. 7 J. L. Mangan and R. C. Petitt, "A Highly Efficient Steam Turbine-Gas Turbine Cycle," Presented a t the ASME Aviation and Space, Hydraulic and Gas Turbine Conference and Products Show, March 1963. 8 A. 0. White, "The Combined Gas Turbine-Steam Turbine Cycle with Supercharged Boiler and Its Fuels," ASME Paper 57-A-264. 9 W. P. Gorzegns and R. J. Zoschak, "The Supercharged Steam Generator. Some Aspects of Design and Pressure Level Selection,"ASME Paper 66-GT/CMC-68. 10 "Installation Design Criteria for Gas Turbine Applications in Naval Vessels," Navships Technical Manual 0941-038-7010. 11 D. B. Harper and W. H. Rohsenow, "Effect of Rotary Regenerator Performance on Gas Turbine Plant Performance," ASME Paper 62-A-149. 12 A. T. Bowden and H. Hryniszak, "The Rotary Regenerative Air Preheater for Gas Turbines," ASME Paper 52-A-74. 13 I. Howitt and R. P. Thurner, "Gas Turbine, Extended Surface, Heat Exchanger; Modern Design and Performance," ASME Paper 64-GTP-18. 14 R. F. Caughill, "Design Considerations and Operating Experience of Regenerators for Industrial Gas Turbines, ASME Paper 61-GTP-12. 15 R. P. Allen and E. A. Butler, "An Axial Flow Reversing Gas Turbine for Marine Propulsion," ASME Paper 66 GT/M-21. 16 D. L. Caldera, C. E. Hoch, and G. C. Swensson, "Gas Turbine Propulsion Machinery for the MSTS Roll-On/Roll-Off Ship," SNAME New York Metropolitan Section, April 1967. 17 C. Zeien, H. F. Smith, and F. W. Hirst, "The Gas Turbine Ship Callaghan's First Two Years of Operation, " Trans. SNAME, V O ~ .77, 1969. 18 W. S. Richardson, "The Friction Clutch ReverseReduction Gears In the GTS," ASME Paper No. 69-GT-5. 19 P. K. Wennburg, "The Design of the Main Propulsion Machinery Plant Installed in the USCGC Hamilton (WPG-715)," Trans. SNAME, vol. 74, 1966. 20 K. H. Kurzak and H. Reuhr, "Propulsion Machinery of the Koeln Class Escort Frigates with Special Consideration of Gas Turbine Propulsion," ASME Paper 65-GTP-11. 21 L. A. Gunsteren, "Hydrodynamics of Controllable Pitch Propellers," SNAME New York Metropolitan Section, March 1970. 22 M. J. T. Smith and M. E. House, "Internally Generated Noise from Gas Turbine Engines," ASME Paper 66 GT/N43.

23 B. Wichstrom and H. Ohauist, "Startine and Control of a Large Gas ~urbihe,"'ASME Paper 64-GTP-7. 24 A. I?. McLean, "Control Design and Development for the Ford 704-705 Series Gas Turbine Engines," ASME Paper 64 WA/GTP-5. 25 D. A. O'Neil, "Governing Gas Turbine Engines for Marine Propulsion-Power vs Speed Governing," ASME Paper No. 69-GT-54. 26 W. B. Brown and G. R. Bradshaw, "Design and Performance of a Family of Diffusing Scrolls with Mixed Flow Impeller and Vaneless Diffuser," NACA Report

27 S. 5. Manson, "The Determination of Elastic Stresses in Gas Turbine Disks," NACA TN 1279, 1947. 28 M. B. Millenson and S. S. Manson, "Determination of Stresses in Gas Turbine Disks Subject to Plastic Flow and Creep, " NACA TN 1636, 1948. 29 L. J. Herric, J. C. Emery, and J. R. Erwin, "Systematic Two-Dimensional Cascade Test of NACA &Series Compressor Blades a t Lol!~ Speeds," NACA TN 3916, 1957. 30 J. C. Emery, "Low Cascade Investigation of Thin Low Camber NACA 65-Series Blade Sections At High Inlet Angles," NACA RM L57E03, 1957.

31 J. C. Dunavant, J. C. Emery, H. C. Walch, and W. R. Westphal, "High Speed Cascade Tests of the NACA 65-(12Alo) 10 and NACA 65-(12AsIs) 10 Compressor Blade Sections," NACA RM L55108, 1955. 32 J. C. Emery and J. C. Dunavant, "Two Dimen10 ) sional Cascade Tests of NACA ~ ~ : ( C I O A ~ O Blade Sections a t Typical Compressor Hub Conditions for Speeds up to Choking," NACA RM L57H05, 1957. 33 S. Lieblein, F. C. Schwenk, and R. L. Broderick, "Diffusion Factor for Estimating Losses and Limiting Blade Loadings in Axial-Flow Compressor Blade Elements," NACA RM E53D01, June 1953. 34 P. N. Bright, "Structml Design Problems in Gas Turbine Engines, " ASME Paper 54-A-152. 35 R. W. Nolan, 'Tibration of Marine Turbine Blading," Trans. SNAME, vol. 57, 1949. 36 F. Kreith and J. H. Taylor, Jr., "Heat Transfer from a Rotating Disk in Turbulent Flow," ASME Paper 65-A-146. 37 A. M. Wahl, "Stress Distributions in Rotating Disks Subjected to Creep Including Effects of Variable Thickness and Temperature," ASME Paper 56-A-162. 38 H. F. Smith, "Gas Turbine Propulsion of LNG Tankers,'' ASME Paper No. 69-GT-47.



bhp = brake horsepower, hp N = revolutions per minute, rpm

Laskar Wechsler

Medium and .High-Speed Diesel

The "torque" of the output shaft in units of lb-ft can be computed from the expression


bhp = 5252 -

N -.


For a given engine, torque and BMEP are directly proportional; i.e.,


Section 1 lntrod~~ction
marine engineer with information relative to the application of medium and high-speed diesels to ships; a similar coverrlge of low-speed diesels is presented in Chapter VIII. Only those design details which affect the selection, installation, operation and maintenance of a diesel in a ship discussed. Information will be preaented which will enable a ship designer to select the to plan the installation proper engine and its with due consideiration for operation and maintenance, and to prepare specifications to adequately describe the equipment desired. The largebore slow-speed diesel engine employed in many merchant ships is given a comprehensivetreatment in Chapter VIII and, therefore, is not discussed here. 1.2 Descriptioh of the Diesel Engine. The term diesel engine is used to designate any engine in which air is in a cylinder sufficiently to produce spontaneous ignition of the fuel, followed by injection and burning of a measured amount of fuel, the fuel in common use being oil. Although more properly d e s k nated as comptession ignition engines, they are manufactured and sold as diesel engines. The diesel engine is generally a reciprocating engine in which the gas pressure in a cylinder acts on a piston to drive a crankshaft through connecting rods. The power is taken from the crankshaft. The pistons move in the cylinder between the top (or inner) dead center and bottom (or outer) dead center positions. The distance between these dead center positions is known as the "stroke"f the engine, and is numerically equal to twice the radius of the crankthrow of the crankshaft. The diameter of the cylinder is known as the "bore." The bore and stroke are usually expressed in inches. Air is introduced into the engine cylinder through intake valves or ports and then compressed, raising the pressure and temperature of the air. . The "compression ratio" of an engine is the ratio of the volume of the cyliader when the piston is at bottom dead center to that when at top dead center. The term "compression ratio" can be misleading in that it is a volume ratio and not a pressure ratio. The compression ratio of an engine must be sufficiently high so that the air temperature at the end

37.7 C



Scope. This chapter is intended to provide the

of compression will ignite the fuel when it is sprayed into the cylinder. Injection of fuel into the cylinder starts somewhat before top dead center and continues for a period of time, which varies with the engine power output. Combustion in the cylinder lags the start of known as the "ignition delay." fuel injection by a ~ e r i o d Combustion raises the temperature and pressure of the gas in the cylinder, which then forces the ist ton to the bottom dead center position, doing the useful work of the cycle. The burned gases are then expelled from the cylinder through e~haustvalves or ports aad a fresh. scavenge the charge of air is admitted to ~ 0 m ~ l e t e l y cylinder of spent gases ~ r i o to the start of a new cycle. r Some additional terms which are frequently used in dexribing diesel engines are defined as follows: The "displacement" of an engine is the swept volume . of all the engine ~ ~ l i n d e r sIt is expressed in cubic inches as:

The '"piston speed" is the average speed of the piston during its stroke. It is usually expressed in feet per minute and determined from the expression: V, = ~ ~ 7 Piston speed is a useful yardstick for comparing the inertia loading and cylinder component wear characteristics of generally similar engines, 1.3 Types of Diesel Engines. Diesel engines are divided into various types for descriptive purposes. These descriptions are used to specify exactly the kind of engine wanted for a given application. The descriptive divisions include cycle (two-stroke or four-stroke),

overlap period and is usually expressed in degrees of crankshaft rotation. The intalre strolre is followed by the compression stroke to repeat the complete cycle. It can be seen that four strokes of the piston were required for the cycle. The two-stroke cycle is dominant for large bore engines; in fact, there are no four-stroke engines on the market with a bore exceeding 21 inches. elo ow this bore size, each cycle has its advocates. The two-stroke engine, by virtue of the greater number of power strokes per revolution, can develop equal output to a four-stroke-cycle engine a t lower mean cylinder pressures. On the other hand, it is necessary for piston rings to traverse ports in a two-stroke-cycle engine cylinder, which generally requires this type of engine to run at lower mean viston s ~ e e dthan a four-strokecycle 6 . engine. The net effect -of these factors has been that over the years the two types of engines have been quite competitive in weight, size and performance, with one or the other sometimes ahead for brief periods due to a new invention or breakthrough. Engines are either liquid- or air-cooled. A comiderable amount of heat is generated in the cylinders and the temperature of the cylinder boundaries must be controlled to prevent them from exceeding safe limits.

where n = number of cylinders in engine B = bore, in. s = stroke, in.

The physical size of an engine is approximately proportional to its displbcement. The "brake mean effective ~ressure" (abbreviated BMEP) stems from the days when it was common to take indicator cards of the presrures in an endne cylinder, and to relate the severity of engine loading to the average or mean pressure in the cylinder during one cycle. The BMEP is still used as an indicator of engine loading and is expressed in psi as:


= number of strokes per cycle (two for %stroke;

four for 4-stroke)

depending on the number of piston strokes to complete one full cycle of operation, Fig. 1. In the two-stroke cycle, air is compressed in the cylinder during the compression stroke, fuel is injected, and burning takes place during the power (or expansion) stroke. Before the piston reachw its bottom dead center position, the gases are exhausted through ports or valves. Scavenging of the spent gases takes place during the period around bottom dead center, and then the fresh charge is compressed to start the new cycle. It can be seen that the entire cycle is completed in two strokes, one compression and one expansion; hence the name two-stroke cycle. In the four-stroke-cycle engine, the cycle also begins with a compression stroke, followed by fuel injection near top dead center, then by the power stroke. It is here that the cycles differ. Just before bottom dead center, the exhaust valves open and the gases start to discharge from the cylinder, the exhaust process continuing during the next stroke of the piston. At top dead center, the clearance volume between the piston and the cylinder head would be filled with exhaust gas; however, the intake valves open slightly before top dead center and the remaining exhaust gases are swept out of the cylinder by fresh air. The exhaust valves close slightly after top dead center, and the continued outward movement of the piston draws in a fresh charge of air. The period at top dead center, when both the intake and exhaust valves are open simultaneously, is known as the

atmosphere by means of a water-to-air heat exchanger such as an automotive-type radiator. I n small sizes, air-cooled engines may be used; in fact, they can be very attractive in those applications where it is easy to get air to the engine and where the operating locale is such that sea chest clogging is a problem. Engines may be arranged with their crankhafts horizontal or vertical, although the greater number by far are installed horizontally. Cylinders may be arranged in a line or with banks of cylinders in the form of a V, W, or X. In-line and V-type engines are the most commonly used (see Fig. 2). W and X cylinder arrangements permit more compact designs which take less space than the other types; however, access is more difficult, paintenance work is harder to accomplish, and a casualty is more likely to result in extensive damage. Opposed piston engines are two-stroke-cycle engines with two pistons working in a common cylinder. Cornpression takes place between the pistons at their inner dead center position, air intake is through ports at one end i f the cylinder, and exhaust gases flow out through ports at the other end. These engines are usually provided with two crankshafts, one at each end of the cylinder, although one crankshaft is sometimes used together with a rocker arm at one or both ends of the cylinder. Opposed piston engines are commonly of the in-line type; however, they may be arranged in other forms. One of these engines is built with three crank-









Fig. 2

Common engine cylinder arrangements

, ::' .



E l I






Fig. 1

Two- and four-rtrdte-cycle diesels, cycle evenh

shafts and has cylinders arranged along the sides of an equilateral triangle. It should be recognized that the diesel engine need not be of the reciprocating type. Various attempts have been made, and are continuing, to develop a rotary type of diesel engine; however, none have reached the stage of commercial production. I n these machines, a rotor is substituted for the piston, and the cylinder becomes a chamber of other than cylindrical shape. One such type of engine is described in reference [I.].' The description and definitions given in the foregoing must of necessity be modified to make them applicable to engines
Numbers in brackets deaignste Referehces at end of chapter.

of the rotary type. Many examples of the various types of engine forms may be found in the literature [2, 3, 41. Another feature of diesel engine design which serves to differentiate between engines is the means of supplying combustion air to the cylinders. The alternatives are naturally aspirated, scavenged,and supercharged engines. With naturally aspirated engines, air is drawn into the cylinder as the piston moves from top to bottom dead center. The pressure in the cylinder at the start of the compression stroke is below atmospheric, due to the pressure drop through the intake passages and valves. A scavenged engine is the two-stroke counterpart of the naturally aspirated four-stroke-cycle engine although the cylinder pressure at the start of compression may be somewhat greater in this type of two-stroke engine.

The air for combustion is supplied at the relatively low exhaust conditions is insured. Two-stroke cycle engines pressure of from two to five psig by a scavenging blower benefit from charge air cooling in the same manner as of the positivedisplacement or centrifugal type. The four-stroke cycle engines. A marine engine lends itself scavenging air pressure required is a function of the particularly well to the use of air cooling becciuse of the arrangement and size of the air and exhaust ports (or availability of an ample supply of cooling water. valves) and passages and the speed of the engine. Diesel engines can also be classified according to the With supercharged engines, the combustion air is manner in which they are started. To start a diesel supplied by a compressor of the positive-displacement or engine, it is necessary to rotate it using an external centrifugal type driven from the crankshaft by gears or source of energy so as to bring the engine speed up to a driven directly by an exhaust gas turbine connected to point where the compression temperature of the air in the compressor shaft. The latter arrangement is called the cylinders is high enough to ignite the fuel when it is a turbo-supercharger or, more commonly, a turbo- injected into the cylinder. Once the engine is started, charger. Four-stroke-cycle engines which @re super- the external energy source can be secured and the engine charged by a gear-driven compressor are rare; practically will continue to run. Starting systems are classified by all supercharged four-stroke engines employ turbo- the energy source and the method of applying it. chargers. Some engines use two-stage superchargers Energy sources are high-pressure air, high-pressure with a charge air cooler between the two stages. T&ir hydraulic fluids, or electric power. Methods of applic* cooler serves two functions: it- increases the densitx- of tion are by starting motors or using the engine cylinders ---.- ., "-. the air charge in t6e qrliyder, ,e@iG&ng- thg .engine tta themselves. Air-started engines can use either a b u m z o r e fuel; and it lowers the temperature of the 3ir rotary-type air motor geared to the engine crankshaft --- ~ s through a disengaging type of drive similar to the in t h e 2 n a e r at the beginning-"of< c o s m ~ r en d ~ ~ throuiout-%i;eerEimainderof the gycle. It is more common automobile engine starter drive, or by admitting -common to use a single-stage supercharger with an air the air dirytly into some or all of the engine cylinders cooler (called an aftercooler) between the compressor through a specially provided air starting valve. These discharge and the engine intake manifold. The two- valves are controlled by a distributing valve which times stroke-cycle engine has a lower exhaust gas temperature their opening to occur just after top dead center on the and less energy in the exhaust gas entering the super- power stroke, and they are designed to close automaticharger turbine. At part load, there may not be cally when the engine fires. Direct cylinder starting is enough energy in the gases to drive the supercharger at rarely applied to engines with a bore less than six inches, the speed required to furnish the engine with sufficient and many engines up to nine-inch bore are started by the air for proper combustion of the fuel. In such a case, it use of starting motors. Hydraulically started engines is necessary to either provide a first-stage blower all use starting motors. Electrically started engines use geared to the engine [5] or to gear-drive the turbo- starting motors, although starting windings may be charger from the engine crankshaft through an over- incorporated in the directly driven power generators running clutch [6]. These arrangements are also for this purpose. beneficial in that rapid acceleration under smokeless Engines may be either unidirectional in rotation or

__L vmI-

r / -

-* II .

- _ I - _/




25 1

direct reversing. A unidirectional engine, as its title implies, can turn in only one direction; and if it drives an output shaft which must be capable of rotation in either direction, the engine must be connected to the shaft through a reversing device. Direct reversing engines can rui in either direction and most of them can deliver full power in either diction. I it is necessary that full f power be available in either direction of rotation, pro&uement specifications must so state to insure that the engine selected does have this capability. To change the direction of rotation, it is necessary to bring the engine to a complete stop and then &art it in the opposite direction. The details of the reversing process will vary from one engine to another; however, the process is automatic and basically consists of cutting off the fuel to the cylinders by moving the throttle lever to the stop position, changing the timing of the fuel injection pumps if necessary, changing the timing of the exhaust and intake valves if used, repositioning the blower reversing - valve on two-stroke-cycle engines having geared, ' positive-displacement, rotary-type scavenging blowers, and reversing the rotation of the starting device. When the starter is energized, the engine should then start and run in the opposite direction. Engines are referred to as being high, medium, or low apeed. There is no clear line of demarkation between the classifications, but in general, "theycan be categorized aa shown in Table 1. There is no unanimity among
Table 1 Engine Speed Classifications
Piston apeed, fpm
1000-1M)O 1200-1800 18003000

Low apeed.. ....... . Medium speed. . . . .. . High speed.. . . ..... .

Shaft speed, rprn

100414 700-1200 1800-4000

engine people as to the significance of engine speed. A welldesigned high-speed engine which is not overloaded can give equally good service as a slow-speed engine. Slow-speed engines are of larger size than high-speed engines, but wear rates are comparable; hence it takes longer for a slow-speed engine to wear parts to the same percentage of their original dimension. A balance must be struck between the use of a smaller, lighter, and generally leas expensive high-speed engine and a larger, heavier, slow-speed engine which usually costs more initially but has lower fuel, operating, and maintenance costs.
Special Requirements of Marine Diesel Engines.

The number of medium and high-speed diesel engines used in marine applications is relatively small compared to the total number of such engines produced, and for this reason it is economically unattractive to produce these engines for the marine industry alone. The medium and high-speed marine engine of today is, therefore, almost universally an adaptation of engines which are built in quantities for service in automotive applications such as trucks, buses, off-highway earthmoving equipment and locomotives, and stationary

applications such as municipal power plants, mobile emergency power sources, gas line compressor stations, and pumping units. The truck and bus field contributes the high-speed engines in the range of 300-400 hp. For intermittent use, maximum speed of these engines will approximate 3000 rpm; for continuous service, speeds of 1800' rprn are common. The off-highway equipment engines are in the power range from 500 to upwards of 1200 hp.and speeds in the 1200-1800 rprn range. Diesel locomotive engines are available in units from 6 to 20 cylinders and ratings up to 4000 hp at speeds from 850 to 1100 rpm. Another group of engines coming from the stationary field includes units in the speed range from 300 to 514 rprn and powers up to 7500 hp. A comprehensive description of a 400-rpm engine rated at 1000 hp per cylinder with a range of cylinders from 6 to 18 is given in reference [7]. Some of the engines just mentioned were designed with marine applications in mind, others require some degree of modification for installation aboard ship. These rnodications are usually in the external hardware of the engine and do not involve changes to the internal working parts, which have undergone extensive development. The changes, where necessary, are those needed to suit the engine to the marine environment, meaning salt-laden air, high humidity, use of corrosive seawater for cooling, and operating from a nonhorizontal platform which is in constant motion (i.e., pitching or rolling at all times). I n many cases, it also means an installation made in confined spaces. I n order to adapt to this environment, the prime requisite of the marine diesel engine is the ability to resist corrosion. Nonferrous alloys are used in many places in a marine engine for corrosion protection where ferrous metals are used in nonmarine installations. To this end, aluminum parts which are exposed to the atmosphere and are not normally coated with lubricating oil should be given an anodic treatment and then painted. All exposed ferrous metal parts should be painted. Care must be taken to insure that only compatible metals are used in the water system. I two metals which are far apart in the f electromotive series, such as aluminum and steel, must be used contiguously, they must be insulated from each other. The velocity of seawater through the piping system must be lower than that used in freshwater systems to prevent excessive erosion. Marine engines may be installed with their crankshafts at an angle to the horizontal. For this reason, and because they are subjected to more motion than in many other applications, changes are necessary in the lubricating oil system. Where there is room under the engine, the simplest solution is to use a deep oil pan. This has two beneficial effects: first the oil sump capacity can be increased, permitting longer oil change periods; and secondly, the oil level can be maintained low enough such that the connecting rods will not dip into the oil, thus preventing oil from leaking past the crankshaft end seals. Where there is insufficient space for a deep oil pan, it is necessary to use a shallow pan and a dry sump

system. Details of lubricating oil systems are covered in a later section. While it might seem that the air intake to a marine engine would be dustfree and dirtfree, this may not be the case when operating in harbors, inland waters, or close offshore. In these cases, it can be just as important to provide a good air cleaner as in any automotive or stationary installation.

The ciose confines of many marine engine rooms gake it especially important to protect personnel from injury due to contact with hot or moving parts. Partic. ular attenti~n should be paid to adequate shielding for these hazards. It is also extremely important to prevent fires in machinery spaces; to that end, care must be taken to insure that fuel and lubricating oil cannot be sprayed against hot engine surfaces.

Section 2 tharacteris?ics of Diesel ~ n ~ i n e s

2.1 Performance Characteristics. The engine performance characteristics which are of interest when selecting an engine for a particular application are torque, horsepower, fuel consumption, and q eed. The torque output of a particular engine is control ed by the quantity of fuel injected into the cylinder each cycle; in fact, the torque varies almost directly with the quantity of fuel injected per cycle. The maximum torque that an engine can develop at any speed is usually limited by the exhaust smoke condition comidered acceptable, high stress, or high temperature rather than by the engine's ability to pull more load. The maximum power that the engine can develop a t any speed is simply the product of the maximum torque, the speed, and a constant. It is important to know the engine's characteristics and how they are related to the conditions under which the engine is to be used in order to insure a successful application. The diegel is generally referred to as a constant-torque machine, ltnd it certainly is when compared to steam or gas turbines which have stall torque ratios in the order of 3: 1. The stall torque ratio is the ratio of the torque at stall speed (i.k., zero for steam turbines) to that a t rated speed. The torque of a diesel running a t a constant throttle setting will normally rise to about 110 percent of full-load torque in the range of 55 to 70 percent of full-speed rprn and then drop aa the speed is further reduced, as shown by Fig. 3. I the throttle setting is f reduced such that the'quantity of fuel injected per cycle is reduced, the engine torque is correspondingly reduced. Typical curves illustrating this trend are also shown on Fig. 3. It is possible to modify the torque characteristics of a diesel by changitlg the fuel injection versus speed chaxactei.istics so as to increase the quantity of fuel injected per cycle as the speed is reduced, whiie at the same time using a turbochaxger which has been matched to the engine for optimum efficiency at the speed for which the high torque is desired [8,9]. I n this manner, a peak torque as high as 140 percent of full-load torque of the normal engine can be obtained at speeds as low as 60 percent of full speed as indicated by Fig. 3. For normal marine drives such as propulsion, generator sets, or centrifugaJ pumps, there is no need for an engine with

specid torque characteristics. However, when a diesel is used to drive $winch or a positive-displacement pump, there may be an advantage in having an engine which is designed to develop high torques at low speeds. Such an engine is referred to as one with "lugging capacity." At a constant throttle (or fuel rack) setting, the engine power is, for all practical purposes, a linear function of engine spqed. As indicated previously, the power at any speed is usually limited by factors other than the amount of fuel which can be injected or burned in the cylinder. The manner in which the engine power is limited by the variods parameters is shown in Fig. 4.


---- -



40 60 RPM, % RATED'



Flg. 3 bigin. twque ckarackrMio






' "


Fig. 4

Engine power limitations

0 20





I 100


The curves in each case are drawn against a background of constant torque (or BMEP) lines. Data for each curve are developed by regulating the amount of fuel injected per cycle to maintain the parameter constant. Not all engines are designed to withstand the same cylinder pressures, exhaust temperatures, or maximum speeds, and not a11 are smokefree to the same degree. The maximum horsepower is shown by the solid line, and each curve segment is labelled to show the factor which limits the power. The shape of the maximum horsepower curve is generally applicable to all engines; however, the limiting factor in each portion of the speed range may vary from one engine to another [lo-131. Additional factors which could limit the power output over parts of the speed range include the temperature of parts (i.e., pistons, cylinders, heads, or valves), bearing loads, deterioration of lubricating oil, or turbocharger rpm. The fuel consumption of a diesel engine may be illustrated in several ways; the most useful depends upon the intended application and the preference of the user. At a constant speed, the total fuel consumption

varies almost linearlv with e h ~ h load. but this relatione ship becomes nonlinear a t hig%er lo&' as shown by Fig. 5. The variation of specific fuel consumption with speed and load is more commonljr presented in the forms of Figs. 6 cr 7. The curves shown in Fig. 6 are commonly called fishhook curves and show the variation of specific fuel consumption with horsepower for various constant engine speeds. This type of ,curve is of interest for constant-speed applications, such as driving ships service generator sets. The presentation in Fig. 5 is of value in estimating fuel consumption of an engine over a range of conditions when actual data are available for a few points. Figure 5 is also useful during trials for estimating engine horsepower from measured values of fuel consumption and engine rpm. The method of presentation shown in Fig. 7 is particularly useful in the analysis of engines for propulsioh use, as it is possible to superimpose the required power versus speed curves on these fuel consumption curves to determine if the engine size and characteristics are properly matched to the load. The curves of Fig. 7 are typical of normal engine design; however, it is possible for the performanae

map to look as different as Fig. 8 when variable fuel and valve timing features are incorporated in the engine design [14]. Engine manufacturers will generally publish some of these curves in their sales literature. Specific information must be obtained for each specific applic* tion; however, Fig. 9 may be used for estimating the part-load specific fuel consumption corresponding to a propeller load curve if specific engine data are lacking. The specific fuel consumption a t full power will vary from 0.34 lb/hp-hr for we/l-designed medium-speed engines to 0.42 lb/hp-hr for high-speed engines operated near their maximum ratings. Knowing the intended application and the type of engine to be used, an approximate full-power fuel consumption can be selected from this range. A diesel engine has a definite limitation regarding the lowest speed at which it can be operated. This limit* tion can be influenced to some degree by an appropriate design of the engine or its installation. In general, the idling speed of a diesel engine is about 30 percent of rated speed. High-speed, low-horsepower engines may idle a t speeds up to 50 percent, while larger, heavier engines may idle below 25 percent of rated speed. Limitations on the idling speed are associated with the fuel injection equipment, combustion, and the inertia characteristics of the engine and driven machinery. Low-power, highspeed engines require small quantities of fuel to be injected each cycle a t full load; therefore, a t part load it becomes extremely difficult to accurately meter the smaller quantities of fuel required. I n addition, the temperature of the compressed air in the cylinder is less at low speed than it is a t high speed; consequently, combustion can become erratic. I n larger engines, the problem of injecting small quantities of fuel is not as severe, and it can be further reducd by the use of multiple pumps or multiple injection nozzles for each cylinder, or fuel pumps incorporating two plungers of different sizes. Excessively large variations in idling speed may be eliminated by increasing the she of the flywheel. Most medium and high-speed diesels are provided with attached lubricating oil and cooling water pumps driven from the engine crankshaft by gears or belts. These pumps are normally sized to provide the quantities and pressures of the work* fluid to meet full-speed and load requirements as well' as those a t low speed. If unusually low operating speeds are necessary for a given application, the normal pumps may not provide adequate lubrication or cooling. In these cases, the engine manufacturer must be alerted so that either larger pumps, special gear ratios in the pump drive, booster pumps, or separately driven pumps can be provided. I n addition to the problem of idling speed, some consideration must be given to the question of prolonged operation a t light load. As shown in Fig. 4, there is a minimum load below which combustion becomes unsatisfactory. I n this region, unburned or partially burned fuel will remain in the cylinder and wash lubricrating oil from the cylinder wall and find its way into the crankcw, diluting the lubricating oil. Both of these


Fig. 5 Fuel consumption versus horsepower


Fig. 6

"Fishhook" curves, specific fuel consumption versus broke horsepower



40 60 80 ENGINE RPM. % RATED



60.7 'Typlcol apeciflc fuel conrumption mop






2 I00




Fig. 8 Spedal rpecitlc fud awaunptim map ENGlNE RPM.X RATED

Fig. 9 Eltimafa ot part-load fuel ansumption on propeller load cune

30 40




10 1


actions tend to increase the wear of engine parts. The partially burned fuel results in increased quantities of carbon and lubricating oil in the engine exhaust passages, particularly so in two-stroke-cycle engines. Operation at elevated loads e l l remove the exhaust system deposits by burning and cause visible smoke in the exhaust for a short period of time after the load is increased. Here again, the engine 'manufacturer is in a position to minimize the adverse effects of light-load operation if he is forewarned that the condition may exist. A diesel engine is normally extremely easy to start. Engine controls are arranged to properly sequence all operations so that starting is simple, reliable, rapid, and automatic. Full load can be accepted immediately; however, if there is no urgency, it is preferable to allow the engine to reach operating temperatures before subjecting it to full load. At ambient temperatures normally encountered in enclosed engine rooms, engines can usually be started without startiqg aids. However, if it is necessary to start the engine in an unheated engine room in the winter, provision should be made for the installation of a starting aid such as the injection of ether into the intake air. Small high-speed engines of the automotive type are usually built with higher compres-

sion ratios than other engines and, in spite of the greater loss of heat during the compression stroke, they will start, at lower temperatures than their larger slowerspeed counterparts, without the use of starting aids. The ability of engines to start when cold varies widely; some are able to start a t temperatures as low as zero F, f while otbers may have difficulty at 50 P. I cold starting may be required in service, procurement specifications should make this fact known to the manufacturer. The acceleration characteristics of a diesel are determined by the difference between the torque available and the torque load on the engine at any speed. If the engine is operating near its maximum torque at a given speed, it will accelerate very slowly should an increase in speed be demanded. Or, in the case of a generator set, if the operating load is n e p the maximum, an increase in load may cause a drop in speed and a sluggish return to the desired speed notwithstanding attempts of the governor to effect an early correction. Turbocharged engines may be sluggish in response to load changes if the turbocharger rotor inertia is excessive. I fast f acceleration is a requirement of the application, again the engine manufacturer should be so advised. He may be able to supply engines with multiple low-inertia-turbo-

chargers or special controls to provide the desired characteristics. 2.2 Engine Ratings. The rated horsepower of an engine is the power output capability of the engine a t rated speed under specified ambient conditions, duty cycle, and life expectancy as proven by performance, endurance, and environmental testing. To facilitate in the selection of the correct engine for a given application, engine manufacturers publish rating curves for each of their engine models. For most high-speed engines, these curves are of the form illustrated by Fig. 10 and show the recommended rated horsepower for three different operating conditions; namely, maximum, intermittent, and continuous [15]. The limiting horsepower lines from Fig. 4 are included in Fig. 10 for comparative purposes. The maximum horsepower is useable only for special applications where high power is required far short durations. This maximum horsepower serves as a baseline for selecting a rating suitable for a particular application and is determined by tests on a dynamometer in the manufacturer's plant under rather ideal conditions. I n actual service, less ideal conditions prevail; operators may be unskilled, loads may be unexpectedly high or suddenly applied, or extreme operating temperatures may be encountered, any of which can shorten engine overhaul periods, increase wear and cause unexpected failures. To insure satisfactory service performance, the engine is usually rated a t a performance level less than the maximum. For intermittent duty, such as may be expected in a pleasure boat gr for stand-by service, the engine is usually rated at approximately 85 to 90 percent of the maximum horsepower with the speed rated at the maximum value. For continuous duty where the engine will operate for long periods with little downtime or where the load on the engine is a high percentage of the rated load at all times (such as for ships' service generators or workboat propulsion), more conservatism is exercised in

ENGINE RPMSX RATED Rg. 10 Typlcal diesel mcmvfadurwk rating curves

rating the engine. The continuous-duty rating curve is usually 70 to 75 percent of the maximum horsepower, and the rated speed is limited to approximately 90 percent of the maximum. The precise reduction from the maximum rating varies from one application and manufacturer to another; however, the figures stated are representative. The manufacturer's rating curves present the engine performance at standard conditions of atmospheric presaure and temperature, with a simple exhaust system, and with a minimum of accessories. Manufacturers of medium and slow-speed engines generally do not furnish three curves as in Fig. 10,and it is necessary to determine the operating conditions applicable to the quoted rating or rating curve. I n applying these curves or ratinge in the process of selection of an engine, it is necessary to make corrections for atmospheric conditions if the intended installation will impose conditions on the engine which differ from the manufacturer's standard. It is also necessary to reduce the rating by the power required to drive contemplated accessories which were not included during the standard dynamometer tests. These

MARINE ENGINEERING Table 2 Standard Conditions and Correction Factors for Engine Tests


Ambient temperature de F Barometric p r e s m (dvf in. Hg Ekhaut back pressure, m. Hg Correction formula Correction factor, C where bhp, = corrected brake horsepower bh = observed brake horsepower = observed barometric pressure (dry), in. Hg To = observed ambient temperature, deg F fhp = friction horsepower

Specification for arine Diesels 100 29.0 1.0 bhpc = C(bhp.)

SAE Test Code J816 [la] 85 29.0. not specified bhp, = C(bhp0 fhp) 29 To 480

Secl:ion 3 Marine Uses for Diesel Engines



- fhp

accessories may include such items aa reverse and reduction gears, battery charging generators, air cornpressors, hydraulic system pumps, or bilge Pumps. Performance redu~tion must also be made if a complex exhaust system imposes an unusually high back Pressure, or if intake air silencers or cleaners restrict the flow of air to the engine. This is particularly i ~ p o r t a nin the case t of turbocharged engines. Expected service loads and installation conditions must be carefully investigated and specified during the early design stages. It is also necessary to consider the rating and the service history of the selected engine in other applications. A diesel engine is usually capable of operating at a load in excess of its rating, and overloading may not be immediately apparent; however, it eventually can become evident in the form of shorter overhaul intervals, unexpected failures, and higher maintenance costs. There is no standard method of rating a diesel engine; even the baseline conditions of atmospheric temperature and barometric pressure are not standardized, although there are standard conditions set by military specifications and the Power Test Codes of the engineering societies such as the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) or the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). When the anticipated operating environmental conditions differ from the manufacturer's test conditiom, it is necessary to correct engine performance from the operating conditions to standard conditions in order to properly select an engine. If acceptance tests are conducted with conditions other than standard, the test results must be corrected to insure that contractual requirements are met. Unfortunately, no generally accepted correction factors exist. The SAE test code has a correction factor for naturally aspirated engines, but not for turbocharged engines. The military specification for marine engines has a different correction factor which is used for all diesel engines. To avoid misunderstandings, it is necessary that ship specifications and engine procurement documents specify both the standard conditions under which the engine is to be rated and the method by which test data are to be

corrected to verify performance. Two examples of standard conditions and correction factors are shown in Table 2. Corrections to fuel consumption to compensate for differing atmospheric conditions are more complex t h a ~ for horsepower and are not generally used for thm reason. The increasing use of computers to analyze automatically recorded test data may produce relationships which will lead to the publication of generally accepted correction factors for the performance of all types of engines. 2.3 Engine Physical Characteristics. For estimating purposes, an engine weight of 4 lb per cu in. of total displacement is a reasonable approximation. If there are special reasons to require an engine of lighter weight, there are engines in production weighing about 3 lb per cu in. in most sizes; however, the number of available suppliers would be reduced considerably. To estimate the total engine weight of an engine of given horsepower, calculate its approximate displacement, assuming the type of cycle, and values of BMEP and rotative speed appropriate to the intended service, and substitute these in the equation (see Section 1.2 for a definition of

3.1 Types of Ships Employing Diesels. Diesel engines have been utilized in all types of ships, both in the merchant marine and in the navies of the world. The power range in which diesel engines have been used in American-built ships has increased directly with the availability of higher-power engines. The line of demarkation in horsepower between what is normally assigned to diesel and to steam has continually moved upward; however, so has the power installed in ships of a given type. For example, Navy oceangoing tugboats of 25 years ago were powered by four diesel locomotive type engines, each of 900 bhp, for a total of 3600 bhp. But after 25 of improvements, four engines of the same basic type now power a commercial tug with a total of 9600 bhp. This same type of engine and others like i t are available up to 4000 bhp and, no doubt, will be used in tugs of tomorrow if 16,000 bhp can be usefully


as a baseline. The lower-power engines were sized by scaling from the 5000-bhp size, keeping the BMEP and piston speed constant; they are hypothetical engines, but engines are available of approximately the ratings and sizes shown. When more than one engille is geared to the propeller shaft, it can be seen that the gear serves as both a speed reducer and combining gear. The same series of engines could be used in an electric drive propulsion system, with even greater flexibility. Each engine drives its own generator and may be located independently of other engines and the propeller shaft. The enerators provide the power to drive a propulsion motor or motors as the case may be. A single motor may be used directly connected to the propeller shaft, or it may be geared to the shaft. On the other hand, it may be preferable for several smaller motors to be geared to a single propeller shaft. It was previously noted that diesel engines could be


The displacement is then multiplied by the appropriate ratio of engine weight to displacement (generally 4) to determine the engine weight. The space requirements of a diesel power plant are rather flexible in that it is possible to assemble a plant from one or more units and to select the type of unit to be used. If head room is a ~roblem,small high-speed f engines can be used. I width is a ~roblem,in-line engines can be used. If it is necessary to minimize are can the length, vee-type engi~les available. ~ n g i n e s be furnished completely assembled with all the necessary accessories mounted on the engine and its subbase, or with these accessories loose for mounting where space is available. It is extremely important that adequate around each engine to ~ e r m i access t space be ~rovided for maintenance. Fortunately, the space required for maintenance usually coincides with the envelope of the engine. Parts of high-speed engines are relatively small and light in weight; this facilitates handling and minimizes the need for extensive rigging for art removal.

3.2 Shipboard Applications of Diesels. Diesel engines are used either singly or in multiple to drive propeller shafts. For all but high-speed boats, the modern American diesel turns too fast to drive the propeller directly with good efficiency and some means of speed reduction, either mechanical or electrical, is necessary. If a single engine of the power required for a given application is available, then a decision must be made as to whether it or several smaller engines should be used. This decision may be dictated by the available space. Using a mechanical transmission system as an example, Fig. 11 illustrates the flexibility of the diesel power plant in adapting to specific space requirements. I n this figure, an engine with a rating of 5000 bhp irs used

In applications where it is necessary to provide rapid maneuvering characteristics with reverse gears or direct reversing bngines, brakes may be installed either on the propeller shaft or on the high-speed pinion shafts of the reduction gear to stop the propeller shaft in minimum time. Many direct reversing engines can be specially adapted to use starting air in the cylinders for braking purposes, and this possibility should be weighed against other means of shaft stopping. Diesel engines are used to drive shipsJ and emergency generators. Emergency generator sets are arranged to start automatically upon failure of the normal power supply, and after a builtrin time delay, assume the electrical load on the emergency bus. For many years, Navy specifications have required that





I V-16 ENGINE ( 5 0 0 0 BHP AT 514 RPM) HEIGHT 10'


2 V - 8 ENGINES (EACH 2 5 0 0 BHP AT 514 RPM) HEIGHT 9.5'

IT (0)
(EACH 2500,BHP HEIGHT 7.7 20 30




10 0

10 1

Fig. 12 Matching engine to l i p characteristicswing power cunes


2 V-16 ENGINES (EACH 2 5 0 0 B H P AT 7 3 0 RPM) H E I G H T 7.7'

4 V-16 ENGINES (EACH 1250 BHPAT 1 0 3 0 RPM) HEIGHT 5'

Fig. 1 1

24 5 6 .' -

Compar'wn of various engine arrangements for 5000-bhp plant

emergency generator sets be capable of starting and assuming full load in no more than ten seconds, and it has been demonstrated that this is a reasonable require ment. It is possible to parallel a diesel generator set electrically with generators driven by other diesels or other prime movers such as steam or gas turbines; however, the equipment supplier should be made aware of this requirement if it is needed. Diesels are used as prime movers to power many different types of auxiliaries such as fire pumps, dewatering pumps, cargo oil pumps, compressors, and winches. For engines installed high in the ship, conideration should be given to the use of radiator-cooled or air-cooled engines to avoid cooling water pumps which would be subjected to high suction l i t requirements. 3.3 Selection of Engines. The selection of engines for shipboard use cannot be b-d on any single factor.

There are many possible engine deaigns which are capable of meeting most performance requirements, and numerous factors must be considered such as weight, fuel consumption, cost, availability of competitive engines, manning requirements in terms of skill level and number, and maintenance considerations such as availability of repair parts, necessity for special tools, and the number, type, and frequency of the maintenance required. References [17-221 discuss this subject in detail. The first and possibly the most important consideration leading to the selection of a diesel engine is the definition of what it must do. I n the case of a propulsion engine, this entails obtaining the speed-power curves for d l important modes of operation such as fully and lightly loaded, clean and fouled bottom, towing and running free, and with and without power takeoff loads. Additional information should be aster-

tained regarding the time duration of operations a t each condition. An assessment should also be made of anticipated special operating requirements. For exi l ample: W l it be necessary to spend long periods of time with engines idling? Will long periods of slow-speed maneuvering be required? Will the operation be primarily point to point with the engines a t full load and speed most of the time? Each of these questions and many more can influence the design of the diesel power plant. When the speed-power curve has been established, an engine can be selected which will develop the required horsepower a t its appropriate rating. Assuming that is the ship under considerati~n one which is expected to operate the majority of its time a t less than full load, the intermittent duty rating would be the appropriate one. A particular engine, or engines, is then selected whose intermittent rating is consistent with the full-power requirements for the ship. The intermittent horse power curve for the engine, similar to Fig. 10, and the light-load lines from Fig. 4 are then superimposed on the speed-power curve. Preferred, acceptable, and lightload operating regions are then added and the resultant plot is illustrated by Fig. 12. Operation in the light-load region should be avoided. The propeller load, curve A in Fig. 12, has been drawn with the power varying as the cube of the s p e d . It can b e seen that operation down to about 70 percent speed is within the preferred zone, and from 70 to 55 percent speed is in the acceptable zone. If ap appreciable amount of time is to be spent in operation below 55 percent speed, where the engine load as dictated by the speed-power curve faIls into the undesired rarige, consideration should be given to the use of two or more engines instead of one. Curve A represents the power to drive the ship with a clean bottom whether that power is produced by one engine or multiple engines. I f

the performance of one of two installed engines operating alone is to be evaluated, it is necessary to redraw either the engine performance curves or the speed-power curve. Either the engine performance curves would have to be drawn with ordinates one half their original magnitude or the speed-power curve would have to be drawn with ordinates twice its original magnitude. It is simpler to redraw the speed-power curve, and this is shown as curve B. Now it can be seen t h ~ one engine can be t declutched from the propeller shaft whenever the ship speed is reduced to 62 percent of full speed (the intersection of curve B and the continuous-duty line). Under these conditions, the single engine would operate in the recommended zone, whereas two-engine operation would be in the acceptable zone. At speeds down to about 38 percent, the single engine would be acceptable, whereas two engines would be too lightly loaded below 55If low-speed operation is required for substantial percent speed. periods of time, consideration should be given to a larger number of engines. Using the same procedure as previously, curve C has been drawn to represent the speed-power curve when operating on one fourth of the installed engines. I n this case, one engine could be used for operations up to about 40 percent speed, two engines from about 40 to 62 percent speed, three engines from 62 to 75 percent speed and all four engines above that. I n addition to the improved loading condition of the engines during part-load operations, benefits are derived from the fact that only some of the engines accumulate operating hours, and the total fuel consump tion is less. I n c w s where the speed-power curve can vary with conditions of operation (e.g., different displacements, water depth, hu\l fouling, towing), the extremes of loading should be considered when selecting the engine-




26 1

have a power rating less than 10 percent of that of the main engine and be disengaged when the main engine is used. The quick starting capability of the diesel obviates the necessity of keeping engines running at idle just so that they will be ready when needed. The characteristics of diesel engines and the principles

governing their proper selection and application have deliberately been expressed in general terms. By following the methods described, unusual applications such as the engine requirements of planing hull boats or hydrofoils can be handled as well as the more conventional ships and boats.

Section 4 Design C n i mi n os t s d o
4.1 Types of Fuel Used. One of the prime objectives in the development of the diesel engine has been to provide a prime mover which would be capable of burning a wide variety of fuels. It has, however, been necessary to compromise on this goal in order to achieve others such as reduced weight and space, increased reliability, lower wear of parts, good cold starting ability, and increased safety in fuel handling and storage. Over the years, a number of specifications for fuel oil have been developed to insure that the customer would be able to buy fuels meeting the requirements of various engine designs and t o give new engine designers a range of standard fuels from which to select. Operators who maintain a fleet of ships are particularly desirous of supplying one grade of fuel for all of their engines. The most significant characteristics of diesel engine fuels are listed in Table 3. The generally accepted uses for these fuels are: ASTM ID. A volatile distillate fuel oil for engines in service requiring frequent speed and load changes. The flash point of this fuel should be specified as a minimum of 140 F for marine applications. ASTM 2D. A distillate fuel oil of lower volatility for engines in industrial and heavy mobile service. Again a minimum flash point of 140 F is recommended for marine service. ASTM 4D. A fuel oil for low and medium-speed engines; however, it should not be assumed that all low and medium-speed engines will run successfully on this grade of fuel. The advice of the engine manufacturer ,should be solicited before using grade ASTM 4D fuel to insure that the particular engine model can tolerate the wider range of fuel properties permitted by this specification. MIL-F-16884, Marine Diesel Fuel. This Navy specification fuel is generally similar to ASTM 2D fuel except that a higher cetane number and flash point are specified and particular attention is paid to insure that fuels from different sources and lots will be miscible and that good st0rake stability is provided. MIL-T-5624, Turbine Fuel, Aviation Grade JP-5. This fuel is similar to ASTM 1D fuel except for its lower end point and high flash point. It has many require ments which are not tabulated in Table 3 inasmuch as they are needed primarily to meet aviation engine







Fig. 13 Matching engine to ship characterlrtiu uaing torque CUNW

propeller-reduction gear combination. Curves A' and A" which represent these extremes have been added to f Fig. 12 to show the effect on performance. I the ship were designed to absorb full power under the conditions of curve A and then were required to tow a load such that the total resistance corresponded to curve A', the maximum speed permissible would be 85 percent of rated (the intersection of curve A' and the intermittent rating curve); the limiting factor would be engine torque. If, on the other hand, the resistance were reduced to that shown by curve A", no speed increase would be possible without overspeeding the engine, and full engine power could not be utilized. Under these conditions, the choice is dictated by the condition under which it is most important that full power be developed. I full f power is required under both conditions, a controllablepitch propeller or a two-speed reduction gear must be used. Figure 13 shows the same conditions plotted with torque and rpm as coordinates to illustrate an alternative method which could be advantageous when most data are available in that form. The engine torque curves

shown-in Fig. 13 are not consistent with the horsepower curves in Fig. 12, which were drawn as straight lines for simplicity. In addition, specific fuel consumption curves have been added. The reduction in fuel consumption at low speeds which is obtained by operation with reduced numbers of engines may be verified from this plot. Figure 13 can also be used to verify that the minimum specific fuel consumption of the selected engine occurs at the ship speed and load most frequently expected. It is not necessary that all engines in a multi-engine drive be identical, although logistics problems are simplified if they are. There are cases where a considerable amount of low-speed maneuvering is required, and, if the required speed is below that corresponding to engine idling speed, the low speed can be obtained by the use of CRP propellers, two-speed transmissions, slipping clutches, or the use of a small engine which is geared to the propeller shaft such that it develops full power at a ship speed slightly above that corresponding to the idling speed of the main engine. The small engine may

reguirements, and they are not relevant for marine ap$ications. JP-5 fuel must be provided for turbinepowered aircraft o'perated from ships at sea; therefore, this fuel is used by the Navy in all diesels which are refueled at sea in order to simplify logistics problems. JP-5 can be used successfully in diesels while MIL-F16884 fuel cannot be used in turbines for aircraft use. The increased cost of the JP-5 fuel is offset by the advantage of having to carry only one grade of distillate fuel in tankers. The relationship between engine performance and some of the fuel characteristics specified in Table 3 is as follows: Cetane Number. Cetane number is a measure of the ignition quality of the fuel. Engine performance factors influenced in part by ignition quality are: (a) cold starting, (b) warmup, (c) combustion roughness, (d) deposits under idle and light-load operation, and (e) exhaust smoke density. Each of these performance factors is also affected by other fuel characteristics and engine design parameters. The cetane number requirements of an engine depend on design, size, mechanical condition, operating conditions, atmospheric temperature, and altitude. An increase in cetane number o?er values actually required does not materially improve engine performance. Heating Value. This important property of a diesel fuel is a measure of the energy available from it. The heating value of fuels may be expressed in either of two ways: high or gross heating value and low or net heating value, the difference being the latent heat of the water in the exhaust gas. Heating values may be expressed in terms of Btu/lb or Btu/gal. Since diesel engine fuel consumption is normally quoted in terms of lb/hp-hr and fuel is purchased on the basis of cost per gallon, Btu values on both a weight and volume basis are of interest. It is now customary to use the lower heating value for calculating thermal efficiency of diesels, although in the past the higher heating value was used. In either case, thermal efficiency is of academic interest only. For a comparison of the performance of different engines on different fuels, fuel consumption in terms of Btu/hp-hr is most useful, although care must be taken to insure that the heating values of the fuels are reported on the same basis. The heating value is specified in only one of the specifications listed in Table 3; this is because distillate


Table 3


Diesel Fuels
ASTMD 976-64T 1D 2D 4D -40(d 40(a) 3' 0" Marine Diesel MIGF


JP 5 MILT 56246:


.. 1 1 1

Ignition quality-*tam no.. ............... Appearance. .............................

clear and brinht






Diatiition, 10% point F .................. Distillation, 90% p o w (mu). ............ 550 W i t i p n ; end point F (max) ............. Flash pomt, F (mip). ...................... 100 or eP Pour oint, F (mu). ...................... l ( ) .. ..................... ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i n t , F 1.4 Viecoslty @ 100 F: centistokesmin. ......... m u . ........ 2.5 SSU min ............... gax .............. 34.4 0.15 Carbon residue on 10% bctttom, % m a . . ... 0.50 Sulpbur, % ( m u by we1 ht.. ............. Corrodon (mu) )at 212 F .;............... No. 3 y Color (ma). ............................. Ash, . (m) weight. ............. : ... % by 0.01 Gmwty, API mm/max. ................... Acid number (max). ...................... Nel,ltrrtlity.. .............................. M m e pomt F. ........ !................. Accelerated stability%otal.................. insolubles, mg/100 ml (max). ............ Water and sediment b volume %. ......... TRACE Lower h e ~ t e "sale, itu/lb (min). ......... g Aniliue gramty product (min) ..............




125 or legal



2.0 6.8 32.6 45 0.35 1.0 No. 3

5.8 26.4 125

2.0 0.10

2.1 6.0 33


0.2 1.0 No. 1

0.4 No. 1
Fig. 14 Dlagram of a typical fuel system

0.005 Record 0.50 NEUT Record 2.5


NOGS: (a) Lower tem rature or high-altitude operation may require higher cetane number. B below the minimum expected ambient. b S ecify at R r comparison not a apeyification d u e . d) For test methods, see specification referenced.


diesel fuel properties such as volatility, viscosity, gravity, ignition quality, and heating value exhibit interrelationships. It has been established that certain characteristics of fuel can be estimated with reasonable accuracy from two or more measured characteristics such as volatility and API gravity. Charts ahowing these relationships may be found in the SAE Handbook [16] in the section on diesel fuels. For estimation purposes in ship design, a fuel with a representative higher heating value of 19,350 Btu/lb can be used. The corresponding lower heating value is 18,190 Btu/lb. Engine performance on the test stand is corrected to reflect the diierence in the heating value of the actual fuel and the standard value used in design. Viscosity. For some engines, it is advantageous to specify a minimum fuel viscosity because of the power loss due to injection pump and injector leakage. Maximum viscosity, on the other hand, is limited by considerations involving the engine design and size and the characteristics of the injection system. Sulphur. The effect of sulphur content on engine wear and deposits appears to vary considerably in importance and depends largely on operating conditions. It is important to maintain an engine jacket water temperature of at least 140 F to minimize the effects of sulphur in the fuel.

Flash Point. The flash point as specified is not directly related to engine performance. It is, however, of importance in connection with legal requirements and safety precautions involved in fuel handling and storage and is normally specified to meet insurance and fire regulations. For marine use, a minimum flash point of 140 F is recommended. Pour Point. Pour point is important in connection with the lowest temperature which the fuel may reach and still be sufficiently fluid to be pumped or transferred. The pour point is generally interrelated with cetane number and volatility. Frequently, low pour pointa may be obtained only at the expense of lowering the cetane rating or increasing volatility. The pour point should not be specifled lower than required. For a more comprehensive dkussion of petroleum fuels, see Chapter 23. I n the design of a new ship, the selection of the fuel ts be used has an important bearing on the selection of engines and the detail design of the fuel handling and storage system. The fuel selection may be specified by the owner or left to the ship designer to provide greater flexibility in optimizing the total design. The selection of fuel for a given engine requires consideration of the following factors: (a) fuel price and availability, (b) maintenance considerations, (c) engine sire and design,

(d) speed and load ranges, (e) frequency of speed and load changes, and Cf) ambient conditions. 4.2 Fuel Oil System Design. The fuel injection system of a diesel engine is, in many respects, the heart of the engine. It must meter extremely small quantities of fuel, deliver the metered fuel at high pressure to the engine cylinder at exactly the correct time, in a precise spray pattern, and a t a specified time stop delivery abruptly and completely. The instantaneous pressure in the fuel nozzles can be as high as 40,000 psi a t full load in unit injectors (the fuel pump and nozzle are combined into one unit with no lengthy fuel line between). In the conventional system, the fuel pressure at full load may be as high as 15,000 psi for some engines. The duration of injection in a high-speed engine can be as short as 0.001 sec. With the high pressures involved and the precise timing requirements, it is necessary to build the injection equipment with close clearances and small tolerances. Nozzle hole sises vary upward from 0.005 in. dia, while the plunger-to-barrel diametral clearances, may be as small as 1.5 microns (0.00006 in.). I n view of these small clearances and high pressures, the most important consideration in the design and layout of the fuel oil handling and supply system for a diesel engine is to insure that clean, waterfree fuel is delivered to the engine. It is particularly important in 11mrine installations to insure that there is no salt water in the fuel at the time it gets to the injection pumps and nozzles. Saltwater-contaminated fuel has been known to erode the small holes in the fuel nozzles and cause pintle corrosion and sticking in a relatively short time, resulting in loss of power, burned pistons, high fuel consumption, and a smoky exhaust. In the typical fuel system illustrated in Fig. 14, diesel oil is transferred to a diesel oil service tank, sometimes called a day tank, after passing it through a water separating device which may be either a centrifugal purifier or a coalescing-type filter. Fuel flows from the

service tank through a strainer to a fuel supply pump which is normally attached to and driven from the engine. The fuel is discharged from the pump and flows through a filter and sometimes also through a final-stage filter before going to the fuel injection pump. It is customary for the fuel supply pump to have a capacity from three to four times that actually required by the engine. The excess fuel flows through the injection pump housing, cooling the plunger and barrel and insuring that the pump cylinder is completely filled at each stroke. The high-pressure fuel is discharged from the injection pump to the fuel nozzles in each cylinder of the engine through high-pressure tubing. Excess fuel flows through leak-off lines from the injection pump and from each fuel nozzle. The leak-off lines are manifolded to return excess fuel to the service tank, d i e charging above the fuel level and preferably against a f horizontal b d e . I unit injectors are used, the pump and nodsle are combined in one assembly and there is only one leak-off point from each unit. It is preferable to have a separate return line from each engine to the service tank or tanks, with no valves in the lines. I it is necessary to install shutoff valves in the f return line, a pressure relief valve should be installed to by-pass the valve and discharge to one of the service tanks in case the valve is inadvertently closed while the f engine is running. I cocks can be installed to divert the flow to the proper tank with no chance of a line ever being completely blocked, the relief valve can be omitted. It is possible for the pressure to build up in a closed return line to the point of rupturing the pipe, spraying fuel into the engine room, and possibly starting a fire. Care should be taken to insure that leak-off lines have a minimum number of joints and that these joints are located so that leakage will not contaminate the engine lubricating oil. The choice between a centrifugal purifier and a c o s lescer-type water separator must be made for each




installation. The purifier can be of the self-cleaning type where the dirt and water removed from the fuel is discharged to a separate collecting tank, which requires infrequent cleaning. Purifiers are available in a variety of sizes, and one unit may be able to serve the needs of all the installed engines. The initial cost of a purifier is higher than that of a coalescer type; however, maintenance costs are lower and logistic problems are simplified. Care must be taken to follow instructions carefully and select the proper ring dams or discharge rings to suit the specific gravity of each fuel being centrifuged. The centrifuge can be equipped with its own heater and transfer pump to make it capable of handling heavier fuels. A coalescer has the advantage of being a static device with no moving parts to wear out, but it does have cartridges which require replacement. It cannot be used, however, with residual fuels or distillates contaminated with residuals. I n a coalescer, a combination filter and water separator unit is used. The oil with entrained water first passes through a phenol-impregnated paper filter element where solid contaminants are rempved, and the finely dispersed water droplets are induced to conglomerate a t an accelerated rate by intimate contact through the capillary openings in the filter paper. Some of these larger water droplets fall by gravity into the water collection sump along with dirt particles. The filtered and coalesced fluid then passes on to the separator unit. Its vertically pleated element of controlled porosity is impregnated with a hydrophobic material, such as molybdenum sulphide or paraffin for preferential wetting by the oily fluid, so that the oil and not the water globules passes through the capillaries. Water is collected in the sump of the separator unit and clean, waterfree fuel is taken off from a connection &,the top of the unit. I care is not taken to change elements f when the pressure drop across them exceeds the recommended limit, there is the danger of rupturing the elements and contaminating the fuel in the service tank. The strainer has a metallic element of woven wire, stacked metallic disks, or sintered metal. Woven wire elements can remove particles down to about 40 microns, and if the joints in the wire are welded they can remove particles 2 microns in size. Stacked disks are capable of removing 40-micron particles and have the advantage that they may be made self-cleaning by rotating alternate disks. Sintered metal elements can remove particles in the range of 3 to 25 microns, depending on their density. Sintered metal elements &re difficult to clean and may disintegrate if subjected to'large pressure surges. The fuel supply pump draws fuel from the diesel oil service tank through the filter, and for that reason it must have the capability of operating with a suction lift of from 4 to 6 ft. If the suction lift is too great due to the elevation of the pump or the length of the supply line or the pressure drop in the filter, a separate motor-driven fuel booster pump may be required. The fuel supply pump is of the positive displacement type with pumping elements using either gears, vanes, plungers, or dia-

phragms. These pumps \\-ill have a discharge pressure of 6 to 20 psi for small engines and 25 to 40 psi for large engines. A pressure relief valve should be provided on the discharge side of the pump, either built illto the pump housing or installed separately in the discharge pipe. The fuel from the relief valve should return to the pump suction or to the service tank. The diesel oil service tank is normally located a t a level above that of the supply pump so that fuel can be supplied to the pump by gravity. In some engines, the fuel system is so designed that the fuel service tank must be located below the supply pump to prevent the flow of fuel by gravity into the cylinders of a shutdown engine. Air leakage into the fuel inlet lines can be very troublesome; therefore a minimum number of fittings should be used and all joints must be completely airtight. This is particularly important when the fuel tank is lower than the supply pump. Diesel oil tanks should not be made of galvanized steel because of the danger of forming corrosive zinc compounds in the fuel. Copper or silicon bronze should not be used for fuel tanks either, as their reaction with the mercaptan sulphur compounds in the fuel can result in the formation of damaging copper deposits in the engine combustion chambers. Aluminum bronze and manganese bronze are satisfactory for fuel tanks, as their use does not lead to these problems. Filtration is accomplished upon discharge from the supply pump in filters containing one or more elements made of either treated paper, felt, or woven yarn. The paper elements can be expected to filter particles in the range of 3 to 5 microns, with an initial pressure drop of from 0.5 to 2.0 psi and a pressure drop of between 15 and 30 psi a t the time of replacement. Woven yarn filter elements have a greater capacity to handle dirt, higher flow capacity, and somewhat coarser particle removal capacity. It should be noted that the characteristics of filter elements of any type can vary considerably depending on the filter design. Considerations with paper filters are the porosity of the paper and the material with which it is impregnated, and in the case of woven yarn filters, the tightness of the weave and the depth of the flow path. The particle removal characteristics of a filter should be expressed in terms of particle size and the probability that that size particle will be removed; for example, 2 microns 92 percent, 5 microns 95 percent, greater than 5 microns 99.5 percent. For most diesel engines, a progressive filtering system is used consisting of filters of increasingly fine filtering ability. First there is a strainer to take out large particles, then a yarn type filter to take out particles in the 25-micron range, and lastly, a final-stage filter of the impregnated paper type to remove the finest particles. The yarn-type filter is sometimes eliminated where a clean fuel supply can be assured. In engines with unit injectors, the first-stage filters are of the paper type, and final-stage filters of a metallic type are installed in the body of each injector, one a t the inlet and one a t the outlet connections. Filters may be of simplex or duplex construction, with the latter being used when it is

not possible to shut down the engine to change filters. Again, it must be emphasized that the major objectives of the fuel system are to deliver clean fuel, free of air and water, to the injection pumps. To this end, filter cases should be installed in locations where they can be easily serviced and the elements can be replaced without introducing dirt and with a minimum of maintenance effort. Jobs that are difficult to accomplish tend to be accomplished less frequently. Steps should be taken to ensure that there is a minimum possibility of air entering the system through joints in the piping on the suction side of pumps. Adequate and easily accessible drain connections should be provided a t the lowest part of the fuel service tanks for stripping water or foreign matter which may accumulate. Systems suitable for handling heavy distillate or residual fuels are described in Chapter VIII. 4.3 Types of Lubricating Oils Used. The engine manufacturer furnishes information regarding the design as well as installation of the lubricating oil system. The manufacturer will furnish all necessary accessories and components and recommend the kind of lubricating oil to be used. Nevertheless, marine engineers should be knowledgeable of lubricating oil systems so that preliminary designs can be prepared prior to the selection of a particular engine, and to alert the engine manufacturer to unusual conditions in specific applications to insure that optimum solutions are obtained when compromises are necessary. Lubricating oils are classified into two broad categories; first by viscosity and second by the severity of the operating conditions which they can tolerate. The most common viscosity designation is by SAE numbers as shown in Table 4.
Table 4
SAE Viscosity no.

Viscosity Values of Crankcase Oils

5 W 1W O
20W 20

Viscosity Range Saybolt Seconds Universal at 210 F at 0 F min max min max 6,000 6,000a less than


12,000 48,000

58 70 85

40 60


less than 58 70



a Minimum viscosity at 0 F may be waived provided the viscosity at 210 F is not below 40 STTS. . . - - - - -. . Minim& &scosity at 0 F may be waived provided the viscosity at 210 F is not below 45 SUS.

Medium and high-speed diesel engines normally use SAE 30 or 40 lubricating oils. For small boat applications where engines are stored outdoors in cold weather, it will be necessary to use winter grades such as 5W or 10W,oils. I n addition to the viscosity, oils are classified by'the viscosity index (VI), which is representative of the slope of the viscosity-temperature curve for each oil. A high VI oil is one in which its viscosity varies little with

the temperature, whereas in lower VI oils the viscosity variation with temperature is greater. For engines operating in heated engine rooms, the VI is of lesser importance than in the case of exposed engines which must operate in winter a t low temperatures and, in addition, are subjected to varying loads and infrequent starts. The lubricant in an engine serves to cool rubbing surfaces and provides a hydrodynamic film to prevent metallic contacts. In addition, it carries away products of combustion from combustion chambers and removes metallic and abrasive products. In order to insure satisfactory performance in a variety of engine designs under widely diierent operating conditions, natural petroleum products are specially compounded with oxidation and corrosion inhibitors, antifoaming agents, detergents, dispersants and other additives to produce the desired lubricating oil properties. Oils are qualified by running laboratory tests, both in and out of operating engines. A good brief discussion of these tests can be found in SAE Information Report J304a [16]. Based on tests such as these, oils have been classified by the American Petroleum Institute as to their suitability for use in engines under operating conditions of differing severity. For gasoline engine use, oils are classified in order of their ability to cope with increasingly severe operations as ML, MM, and MS and for diesels as DG, DM, and DS. I n addition, there are numerous military specifications and commonly used descriptors which cover the same basic oil properties [23]. In general, the severity of engine operating conditions and the design of the particular engine will determine the proper lubricating oil to be used. Sustained operation a t high load is not the only condition which may be called "severe." In fact, other conditions such as high sulphur or carbon content of the fuel, widely fluctuating loads or ambient conditions, frequent starts and stops, or atmospheric contamination may impose more severe oil requirements than high loads alone. Approximate military specification equivalents to commercial lubricating oils DG, DM, and DS oils are MILL-21044, MIL-G2104B, and MIL-L-45199 respectively. MIL-L-9000 is a Navy specification oil with increased resistance to the deteriorating effects of water contamination. It is below MIL-L-45199 in detergency level. The best judge of the proper oil to be used in an engine is the engine itself. Where past experience with a particular engine or with special operating conditions is unavailable, the judgment of the engine manufacturer and oil supplier must be relied upon. 4.4 Lubricating Oil System Design. The components of the lubricating oil system are usually furnished by the engine manufacturer and, in many cases, are completely assembled to the engine for installation in the ship as a unit. An oil sump is usually located under the engine and a positive-displacement pump takes suction from the sump and &scharges t h e oil to the engine through a flter, cooler, and strainer, in that order. The








Dlesel engine lubricating oil consumption will vary depending on engine speed, size, and design details. Typical values of oil consumption are:



Medium-speed engines. . .3000-6000 bhp-hr/gal High-speed engines. . . . . .2000-3000 bhp-hr/gal Oil change periods will vary with the severity of engine operation, quality of the lubricating oil, and size of the sump tank. With a dry sump, it is necessary to provide an additional pump to move the oil from the oil pan to the sump tank. This scavenging pump should have a capacity a t least 25 percent greater than the pressure pump to insure that the dry sump will, in fact, be dry. The oil flow requirements of engines will vary considerably, depending on such things as the use of oilcooling for pistons, whether the engine is naturally aspirated, supercharged, or after-cooled, and whether it is a two- or four-stroke cycle. The oil pressure pump capacity can be estimated a t about 0.2 gpm per horsepower for preliminary sizing of the system, though it might be half as much for some engines. Pump discharge pressures up to 100 psi can be expected in some engines. Since marine engines may run a t low speed for pr+ longed periods, engive-driven lubricating oil pumps should have adequate capacity to provide pressure under these conditions. Normal practice is to provide fullspeed pressure a t one-third speed. Many engines designed for constant-speed generator drive are found to be inadequate in this regard. ABS rules [24] require that the lubricating oil piping be entirely separate from other piping systems. For other than automotive-type engines, it is good practice to include a motor-driven lubricating oil pump in the system to be used to prime the engine before starting. The motor-driven pump is sometimes installed so that it can circulate oil from the sump tank through a heater and filter and then back to the sump in order to purify the oil f while the engine is not runtiing. I this is done, care must be taken to insure that the normal oil supply to the engine can never be blocked off by negligence in realigning the valvivg prior to an engine start. It is possible to overprime opposed-piston engines, and the manufacturer's recommendations regarding means to prevent damage from this cause should be followed. Normally, the ABS rules require that an independently driven lubricating oil pump be furnished. However, for vessels in river or harbor service or vessels below 300 tons, this requirement is waived. I n those applications where the size and design of the engine is such that lubrication before starting is not necessary and an attached pump is normally used, an independently driven spare pump is not required if a complete duplicate of the attached pump is carried as a spare. Lubricating oil must be kept clean and free of abrasives. The best way to control abrasives is to prevent their entrance into the lubricating oil system. The designer should insure that filler caps are provided and located so


- - - - - LUBE OIL - - - - - --,COOLER






I ------,







that foreign matter cannot get into the system n-hen it is being filled. Provision must be made to prevent dead pockets where deposits can accumulate and subsequelltly break loose in large quantities and cause damaging wear. Clean-out openings must be provided a t all locations where sludge is likely to accumulate. The diesel engine lubricating oil must be kept free of abrasive and corrosive q-mterials if it is to function properly. Additives are used to control corrosion, and filters are used to control abrasives. There are three commonly used filtering arrangements: (a) full flow, (b) by-pass, and (c) shunt. Full-flow filtration has become predominant in recent years, and, as its name implies, all of the oil supplied to the engine goes through the filter. This arrangement is shown in Fig. 15(a). Inasmuch as all of the oil going to the engine passes through the filter, it is necessary to prevent oil starvation of the engine in cases of filter plugging. An external by-pass line around the filter, together with a pressure relief valve, provides this protection. The duplex pressure gage shows the inlet and outlet pressures and gives advance warning of impending filter clogging. Normally, this takes place slowly so as to enable filter element changes to be scheduled during nonoperating periods. With the arrangement shown, the pressure relief valve setting can also be checked by means of the duplex gage. The lubricating oil cooler is installed after the filter because it is more effectiveto filter hot oil, as the pressure drop through the filter is less and filteeng is more complete. The simplex metal edge strainer is installed as close to the engine oil manifold inlet as possible to prevent the entrance of foreign matter into the engine. A by-pass filtering system is arranged as shown in Fig. 15(c). In this case, the oil discharged from the pressure pump is divided into two streams; one goes to the oil cooler and thence to the engine, and the other goes through a flow controlling orifice to the filter and thence to the sump. The quantity of oil by-passed through the filter to the sump must be in excess of engine lubricating requirements. The full pump discharge pressure is available for the pressure drop across the filter and orifice. By-pass filtration flow is approximately 5 percent of the pump capacity. A shunt filtering system is shown in Fig. 15(d). In it, the full flow to the engine is made up of oil which flows through the shunt filter and oil which flows in a by-pass around the filter, the quantity of by-passed oil being controlled by an ~rifice. There are three types of filter elements: those made of fine-mesh wire screen or metal edge (such as stacked disks); absorption types which are made of wool or cotton yarn, cellulose, or impregnated paper; and adsorbent types which, by adhesion, hold molecular layers of the contaminants to the filter element. The adsorbent elements contain fullers or diatomaceous earth, chemically treated papers, charcoal, or active clay. These filters are capable of removing additives from oil and should not be used with detergent lubricating oils except as part of an oil reclaiming system which is run separately

ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM WlTH A SHUNT FILTER Fig. 15 Diagram of various lubricating oil systems

pump is equipped with a pressure relief, or in some instances, a pressure regulating valve. This system is shown diagrarnaticdly in Fig. 15(a). The sump tank should be sdiiciently large so that the oil does not splash up to the level of the crankshaft seals and so that the connecting rods will not dip into the oil under pitching an4 rolling conditions. I n addition, the sump should contain a quantity of oil in gallons equal

to about twice the rated capacity of the presswe oil pump in gallons per minute. If space is not available, the sump capacity may be less but not below a one-half minute pump supply. However, under these circumstances, oil change periods will be shortened appreciably. A much preferred solution to the problem of lack of space under the engine is to use a dry sump installation as shown in Fig. 15(b).



from the engine oil system. Additives should be restored to the oil after reclaiming and prior to reuse.' To provide an indication of the size of full-flow oil filters, the dimensions and flow rates of elements covered by specification MILF-20707 are given in Table 5.
Table 5 Characteristicsof Full-flow Oil Filters
Max Dia (in.) 3 Maximum Instatled Length (in.)

percent is rejected to the cooling water and lubricating oil. While these percentage figures are of historical and general interest, figures in terms of Btu per horsepower per minute gre more useful in design work for estimating sizes of coolers, ventilation heat loads, and piping sizes. Average values for these heat losses are: To cylinder jackets. ....... .20-30 To oil coolers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20 To air coolers. ............. 5-10 To exhaust ................ 25-40 Btu/hp-min Btu/hp-min Btu/hp-min Btu/hp-min



G L t N G





A prox. Flow
h t e (gpm) 2



Filter elements may be contained in individual containers, though it is more common to install several elements in one filter case. The elements may be stacked two or more high and arranged in any desired pattern in order to shape the case to suit available space; however, a cylindrical case is most common. It is essential that relief valves not be installed at the bottom of the filter case, where foreignmatter accumulates only to be washed into the engine whenever the relief valve lifts. Lubricating oil coalers are generally of the shell and tube type. For compact units, tubes may be fabricated in other than cylindrical form and include extended surfaces to increase heat-transfer rates. It is recommended that the pressure drop on the oil side not exceed 10 psi a t operating temperatures and that on the waterside be limited to 5 psi. The lubricating oil should be cooled with fresh water, even though it results in a larger cooler. The benefits in terms of faster oil warmup, reduced waterside fpuling, and better temperature control will more than offset this size increase. 4.5 Cooling Systems. As is true in all heat engines, the diesel engine must reject heat to the environment. Quantitatively, this heat is equal to the difference between the heat released by the injected fuel and the work output. The rejected heat is in the form of heat in the exhaust gas, heat transferred to the cooling system and lubricating oil, and the loss to the atmosphere due to radiation and convection from the engine exterior surface. It was previously stated that diesel engine efficiency is now being calculated and reported on the basis of the lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel in order to be consistent with presentations for other heat engines. However, much of the heat balance data in the literature, when reported on a percentage basis, will be found to be based on the higher heating value (HHV) of the fuel. For many years, the standard rule of thumb for estimating diesel heat losses has been, "One third of the heat in the fuel is converted to work, one third is lost in the exhaust gases and radiation, and one third to the cooling system. " The modern medium and high-speed, highoutput engines are more efficient than older engines and rather than one third of the input heat being converted to work, it can be expected to range'between 35 and 38 percent HHV (38 to 41 percent LHV), while about 28

These values will vary with engine design, load, speed, temperature of the coolant and oil, and degree of supercharging and aftercooling. For preliminary design purposes, the higher values may be used and about ten percent should be added when sizing coolers. After a specific engine is selected, exact values will be furnished by the engine manufacturer. In order to properly size the cooling system for an engine, the manufacturer must be provided with information relative t o the expected ambient conditions under which the engine will operate. For naval ships which must operate in widely varying locations, as an example, it is specified that coolers should be sized on the basis of an 85 F seawater temperatuye. I it is known that the f ship being designed will operate in colder water, the cooler size can be reduced; or, on the other hand, if due to peculiar conditions ambient cooling water temperatures are exceptionally high, larger coolers will be needed. The discharge temperature of the seawater from the coolers should be kept well under 130 F to prevent scaling of the surfaces. Engine manufacturers design their equipment so that the water temperature rise of the fresh water across the engine will be between 10 and 20 deg F. This is done to minimize thermal stress and distortion in the engine. The capacity of freshwater pumps is usually in the range of 0.3 to 0.5 gpm/hp. The capacity of seawater pumps should be the same in order to simplify manufacturing and repair parts stocking, provide a margin to accommodate additional equipment such as aftercoolers on turbocharged engines, and prolong seawater cooler cleaning intervals by minimizing the seawater discharge temperature. A typical cooling water system for a medium-speed marine diesel is shown in Fig. 16. Automotive-type marine diesels usually are supplied with all piping, coolers, thermostatic valves, and expansion tanks assem-' bled to the engine. In this case, the only water connection the shipbuilder is required to make is from the sea to the seawater pump suction. The seawater pumps are likely to be subjected to reduced pressure a t the inlet, so to prevent loss of suction it is recommended that pump seals be of a type which will prevent air leaking into the pump under a suction head of 15 f t of water. The expansion tank should be located a t the highest point in the system and all pockets should be vented to the expansion tank. Water piping should be shed to match the pump suction and discharge flanges, or at least








Diagram of typical cooling water system

to provide smooth transitions if the piping must be

smallei-. It may be possible or desirable to replace the seawaterto-freshwater heat exchanger with a hull cooler in cases where the seawater is contaminated or weed-infested. The hull cooler may consist of pipes with gxtended heattransfer surfaces 'hlounted outside'the hull, or simply tanka inside the hull wherein the heat is transferred directly to the sea through the hull plating. Kort nozzle shells have been used in the same manner. Thermostatic valves should be used to automatically regulate the outlet temperature of the jacket water. The outlet temperature should be kept in the range of 160 to '185 F to minimize the size of coolers and to prevent corrosive cylinder wear [25,26,27]. It is recognized that operating personnel prefer to operate cooler engines, as less time is required for cooling down if repairs are

necessary, surface temperatures are not uncomfortable to the touch, and machinery spaces are cooler. It is important, therefore, that the system be designed in such a t a y that the desired operating temperatures cannot be altered easily by the operating crew. Thermostatic controls should be such that adjustment out bf the proper range is impossible and orifice plates should be installed in piping systems once the proper balance is established. The jacket water of diesel engines must be treated to prevent corrosion and to minimize the effectsof cavitation on cylinder liners and jackets. A number of cooling water treatments, including alkaline chromates, soluble oil, sodium boron nitrate, and sodium nitrate-nitrite, are used. The engine manufacturer should recommend the coolant best suited for his engine. It may be desirable, however, for large fleet operators to standardize the



coolant treatment used in their fleets, in which case the engine manufacturer should be informed of the preferred treatment. No water treatmeht will last indefinitely; the water must be tested regularly and chemicals occasionaily added. To insure that this is done, provision should be made for drawing of samples from convenient locations and to provide easy access to chemical addition points. A filling funnel located against the overhead in a hot engine room is almost certain to result in neglect of water treatment. For boat engines or other engines which may be exposed to freezingtemperatures, conventional inhibited ethylene glycol antifreeze solutions should be used. Where engines are installed high above the waterline, or where a source of raw water is either not available or unsuitable, air-cooled engines should be considered. It is important to insure that the cooling air is a t a sufficiently low temperature and that the air supply is not restricted by inadequate grill or duct openings to the *weather. The wind direction and velocity should be investigated to ensure that they will not oppose the cooling fan and impede airflow. Direct air-cooled engines are somewhat noisier than the liquid-cooled engines itlasmuch as they have no water jackets around the cylinders to attenuate vibration and noise. This fact should be considered when locating the engine in the ship. Direct air-cooled engines are delivered complete with cooling fan and the necessary cowling. The ship designer must insure that the air gets to the cooling fan and that the hot air from the engine is discharged from the compartment and is not allowed to recirculate back to the fan suction. About 50 cfm/hp of free air is required for air cooling. Air cooling can also be applied to liquid-cooled engines by the use of radiators to transfer the heat from the jacket water to the air. There is somewhat greater flexibility in installing an indirectly air-cooled engine than there is with one cooled directly with air. It is possible to place the radiator remotely from the engine to optimize installation arrangements. The radiators may be installed horizontally or vertically. Care must be taken to insurge that the engine-attached water pump characteristics match the cooling system requirements and provide an adequate flow of water. As with the directly cooled engine, particular attention must be paid to avoiding restrictions in the airflow path and to prevent recirculation of the cooling air. Thermostatic control can be applied either to the waterside, in which case the thermostatic valve directs the water flow through or around the radiator core, or to the air side, in which case the thermostat may operate a valve to divert air around the core, vary the speed of the fan drive, or change the pitch of the fan blades. The last two are more efficient as fan power is minimized at light load or when the air is cold. 4.6 Waste-Heat Utilization System. It is possible to utilize the waste heat from an engine by schemes which range from the simplest of using radiated heat to keep the engine room warm to complex schemes for generating

steam and power from the steam. The two most common uses for waste heat are: (a) heating water which can be used to heat spaces, heat fuel, cargo, or to distill fresh water; and (b) generating steam for use in absorption refrigerntion plants, space heaters, distillers, heat exchangers and low-pressure steam turbines. Almost 100 percent of the heat rejected to the jacket water and lubricating oil and about 60 percent of the exhaust heat are economically recoverable 1281. The amount of heat recoverable depends on the system used and the extent of the recovery equipment employed. The quantity of heat available depends on the design of the particular engine and operating conditions. Average values for heat losses were previously listed; these values can vary considerably, even for the same engine design. For example, in the case of a Fairbanks Morse 38D 8 diesel [29], the heat rejection rate to oil and water has been found to vary: (a) From a minimum of 35 Btu/hp-min a t 720 rpm to 41 Btu/hp-min at 900 rpm. (b) From 36 Btu/hp-min with an oil outlet temperature of 170 and water outlet temperature of 165 to and water at 230 32 Btu/hpmin with the oil at 185 (c) From 36 Btu/hp-min a t full load to 159 Btu/hp-min at 25 percent load. (d) From 36 Btu/hp;min a t full load without turbocharging to 22 Btu/hp-min with turbocharging. The question of whether to use waste heat and how extensive a waste-heat recovery system to design is largely one of economics. A detailed study must be made to develop load-time cycle data so as to determine how much heat is available. At the same time, the demand for waste heat must be analyzed as well, to make sure that there is sufficient heat available to meet the demand a t the time it is needed and that the heat generated can be used. This section briefly covers the basic systems used to recover waste heat, giving the basic engine input data required by the designer to size the equipment to utilize the heat and to devise special arrangements to suit each ship design. The major heat recovery systems are: (a) Engine radiator to air. The air temperature leaving the radiator is between 100 and 150 P and can be used for preheating boiler combustion air or space heating. (b) Normal-temperature, hot-water systems. These use a normally closed system with a thermostat to control the water outlet temperature and a heat exchanger to transfer unused heat to the seawater coolant loop. Hot water to the waste-heat utilization loads would be taken from the system at point F in Fig. 16 and returned a t point E. Additional heat can be added to the water by an exhaust gas exchanger. I n this system, the maximum jacket water temperature is that which can be obtained without pressurizing the expansion tank and will range from 180 to 220 F. A variation of this system is to use a secondary circuit to transfer the waste heat to the utiliring equipment. A heat exchanger is used to transfer the jacket water heat to the secondary circuit, and the


exhaust gaa heat recovery unit, if used, is installed in the secondary circuit. (c) High-temperature; hot-water systems. This system uses jacket water engine outlet temperatures in the range from 220 to 250 P and functions essentially the same as the normal-temperature, hot-water system except that a higher pressure is required in the circulating systems, especially in the engine coolant circuit. I n this system, a pressure control must be provided in the engine coolant circuit which will assure a pressure a t all points in the system sufficiently high to prevent the formation of steam. The source of this pressure may be a static head imposed by an elevated expansion tank or controlled air pressure in the expansion tank. For 250 F water, a pressure of about 20 psig is required a t the engine. In this system, all circulating pumps must be suitable for the higher pressures and temperatures. Engine and piping system gaskets and seals must also be suitable for the imposed conditions. With this high-temperature cooling system, it will not be possible to cool the lubricating oil with jacket water. The heat from the oil cooler must be disposed of in a separate system if it is not possible to use it for preheat in some part of the wasteheat utilization circuit. It may mean that more heat can be abstracted from a normal-temperature system using the heat from the oil rather than from a hightemperature system which does not use this heat. Thermostatic controls must be provided to prevent exceeding the maximum permissible temperature and pressure controls to prevent boiling. Exhaust gas heat may- be recovered in the high-temperature system as well as in the normal-temperature system. (d) Hot-water and steam sgstem with a $ash boiler. This system is quite similar to the high-temperature, hot-water system with the expansion tank replaced by a flash boiler. The pressure in the boiler is lower than that in the hot-water system expansion tank so that the hot water can flash into steam. This type of system is usually designed to operate with a steam pressure of from 2 to 8 psig. The operating pressure is dependent upon the maximum design engine coolant temperature and is set so that the total pressure a t the engine outlet due to the steam pressure and the static head will prevent boiling in the engine jackets. As in the high-temperature, hot-water system operating a t 250 F outlet temperature, a pressure of 20 psig a t the engine is required. If the jacket water leaves the engine a t 250 F and 24 psig and the static head is reduced to 8 psig, an equilibrium condition will be established in the flash boiler with about 0.985 lb of water a t about 235 F being the engine and about 0.015 lb of saturated steam going to the waste-heat utilization system for each pound of water entering the flash boiler. The 0.015 lb of condensate returned from the waste-heat system is mixed with the water in the flash boiler prior to recirculating through the engine. Using a water pump capacity of 0.3 gpm/hp, the 0.015 lb of steam per pound of circulating water equates to about 2.25 lb of steam per hour per horsepower. I n this system, it is necessary

to provide a water level control in the flash boiler and to supply make-up from the condensate return system. Boiler pressure control must be provided to prevent the pressure falling to the point where boiling will occur in the engine jackets. All piping from the engine to the boiler must pitch upward. (e) Ebullient system. An ebullient system may appear attractive where steam is required a t pressures of 12 to 15 psig for use in absorption refrigeration or airconditioning systems or other applications [30, 311. I n the ebullient system, boiling occurs in the engine water jackets. The engine circulating water pump is removed and the flow is maintained due to the diqerence in density of the steam-water mixture a t the outlet and the solid water at the inlet to the engine. System performance is sensitive to restrictions in the cooling water system and to the slope of the cooling water line. Pitch and roll can disturb the flow of cooling water t o the engine. A temperature difference across the engine of about 2 to 3 deg F will be maintained. The steam-water mixture from the engine flows to a steam separator above the engines. The steam pressure must be regulated a t the separator to insure that the pressure does not become too low, causing excessive boiling in the engine jackets, or too high, resulting in an excessive outlet temperature from the engine water jackets. Exhaust gas boilers can be provided with the ebullient system either built into the steam separator or operating in parallel with it. With an engine outlet temperature of 250 F, steam is generated at the saturation pressure of about 15 psig rather than a t 8 psig as in the previous example using a flash boiler. An estimate of the steam production capability of the ebullient system is given in Table 6 301. Based on the data given in reference [4], the steam production capability of exhaust gas boilers is approximately as given in Table 7.
Table 6 Steam Production Capability of an Ebullient System

Type of Diesel Engine %cycle nonturbocharged 4gde I naturally aspirated &cycle turbocharged

Fuel Heat ~ ~ Btu/hphr


Lb Steam/bhp-hr at Water Jackets with RBted Load ~ Exhaust Manifolds ~ t , ~ ~ Air-cooled Waterc Recovery cooled Unit
1.65 1.95 2.35 1.35 1.10 1.25 1.20

8500 7300

1.90 1.10

N ~ EThe above data are based on 0-psig steam and 100 F : ambient. System piping is considered to be insulated with 1 in.85y0 magnesia or equal.

Table 7 Steam Production Capability of Exhaust Gas Boilers

Diese Engine %cycleengine 4cycle engine

nT" "'

Steam Production Caqabilities, Ib/hg-hr 5 P@ 10 pslg 15 ps~g

0.75 0.78 0.70 0.75 0.68 0.74




In all waste heat utilization schemes, provisions must to duct the engine air from the outside directly to each be made to cool the engine when the waste heat cannot be engine and provide a three-way valve to permit the utilized. Where steam is generated, it is necessary to engine to take air from the engine room or the weather. Each engine should be provided with its own exhaust provide condensers and feed pumps and to insure proper system. If space does not permit such an arrangement treatment of the make-up water. Fortunately, the water treatments required for boilers and engine water jackets and it is necessary to combine the exhaust ducts from are compatible [4]. This treatment would include a several engines, it is necessary that valves be provided water softener to give zero hardness and a pH value in the branch from each engine to prevent backflow into between 9 and 11. Exhaust gas boilers may be combined an idle engine. The size of intake and exhaust ducts may be estimated with mufaers and may also be provided with supplementary oil firing to insure a steam supply under all using a figure-d 3.5 cfm/hp for'the intake air and 8.5 engine load conditions. The engine exhaust tempera- cfrn/hp for exhaust gas. $hese values may be high for ture conditions must be acceptable to the boiler supplier. most naturally aspirated engines and some turbocharged 4.7 Intake and Exhaust Systems. The intake and engines; however, it is desirable to provide some margin. exhaust system consists of the piping, filters, and silencers Duct velocities of 100 fps for the inlet and 150 fps for the necessary to conduct the outside air to the engine and to exhaust are suggested for preliminary design purposes. lead the exhaust gas from the engine to the atmosphere. When a particular engine has been selected and its To perform effectively, the depression in inlet air actual air and exhaust requirements are known, duct pressure and the elevation of the pressure a t the exhaust sizes can be calculated to meet the allowable pressure outlet must be minimized. The correction factors of drops. If it is necessary to reduce the duct sizes, higher Table 1 indicate the effect on engine power output as the gas velocities may be used [32]. Contrary to what may be believed, a marine engine is pressure st the engine inlet is reduced and as the temperature a t the inlet is raised. Turbocharged engines not always 'provided with clean air, particularly in river are particularly sensitive to intake air pressure and and harbor operations and sometimes in offshore exhaust back pressure. It is recommended that the operations in the vicinity of a desert. In these cases, it exhaust back pressure a t the engine outlet be limited to is necessary to provide air filters or cleaners to remove about 12 in. of water for turbocharged engines and twice abrasive or oily particles from the air. There are that for other engines. The inlet pressure drop in the basically three types of air filters or cleaners: ducting should not exceed 6 in. of water. Excessive 1 Dry inertial. The air direction is changed in the pressure drops in the intake or exhaust systems or a high filter, causing the heavier foreign particles to be separated inlet temperature can cause a loss of power, poor fuel from the air stream. These filters may be of the cyclone economy, high temperatures of engine parts, jacket or impingement type. water overheating, and excessive engine deposits. 2 Dry paper. The air is passed through porous The inlet to the induction air system should be located treated paper which retains foreign matter. so that it is not possible to draw in engine exhaust gases, 3 Oil bath. The air stream is directed a t the surface hot air from ventilation system exhausts, spray from of lubricating oil in the sump of the cleaner. The air seawater, or flammable vapors from tank vents or other reverses direction at the oil surface, and picks up and sources. Flammable vapors are particularly dangerous carries "washing" oil to the filter media. Foreign matter as they can cause an engine to overspeed, and the normal is captured at the media and washed to the oil sump overspeed trip and fuel governor will be unable to shut where it can be drained. it down. Actual filters usually employ combinations of these Piping should be properly supported and provided with expansion joints to avoid strains on the engine manifolds three methods. I n addition, self-cleaning designs are or turbocharger flanges. The velocity through the cor- available. It is possible to obtain filters of reasonable rugated metallic hose type of expansion joints should be si3e with moderate pressure losses from a variety of specified to insure that the type furnished will be suitable. -sources [2, 33, 341. The installation should provide Condensate traps and drains a t the low points of the gages to measure the pressure drop across the filter to engine manifolds should be provided. Provisions should give warning of impending clogging. The filter must be be made for rain covers to prevent the entry of water into installed in a location where is can be removed easily for cleaning. This would appear to be obvious, but for idle engines. Engine air may be drawn from the engine room or some reason it is frequently overlooked when the details ducted directly from the atmosphere. It is simpler from of an installation are developed. Air intake silencers are necessary to prevent blower an installation standpoint to take the engine air directly from the engine room; however, this arrangement has the noise from creating uncomfortable conditions in the disadvantage that the space may be excessively cooled engine room or spaces adjacent to the air inlet ducts. in winter. I n addition, in summer or in hot climates, Positive-displacement blowers generate a low-frequency the air may be heated by other equipment in the space pulsation, whereas the noise from turboblowers is very and reach the engine inlet a t an even more elevated high in pitch and is more likely to be objectionable. temperature, resulting in a loss in power. It is preferable Engines are normally fu+shed complete with an air


silencer for use when the engine draws air directly from the machinery space. If the air is to be supplied to the engine via a duct, this should be so specified in order to insure that the intake silencer will be suitable. Exhaust mufaers are provided to reduce the pulsations in exhaust line pressure due to the cyclic release of slugs of exhaust gas into the engine manifold as the exhaust valves in each cylinder open in turn. The m d e r also serves to reduce atmospheric noise a t the outlet of the exhaust system. M d e r s may be of the wet or drv type. wet mufflers are infrequently used except & small boats, as they are limited to horizontal installations where the exhaust is through the hull of the ship above the waterline. Seawater is injected into the m d e r and cools the exhaust gas as the water is vaporized. The steam exhaust gas mixture is discharged overboard. With a wet m d e r , care must be taken to insure that the exhaust does not blow across the deck or against the side of adjacent ships. They should be fabricated of AISI 316L stainless steel for a reasonable life expectancy. Dry-type mufflers may be installed horizontally or vertically in the engine room or in the exhaust stack. These mufflers should be provided with spark-arresting features to prevent hot carbon particles from impinging on topside surfaces. I n general, mufflers should be capable of reducing the overall noise of exhaust gases to a maximum of 92 db a t a radius of 10 f t from the end and 2 ft above the muffler tailpipe with the engine operating a t rated load and speed. The noise level permitted may be more or less than this, depending on the particular installation. Figure 17, which was talcen from reference [35], gives an indication of the weight and size of naval dry mufflers with spark arresters. The muffler inlet flange size is the same as the exhaust pipe size. The pressure drop through these mufflersshould not exceed 18 in. of water a t engine rated speed for nonturbocharged engines and 6 in. of water for turbochafked engines. The pressure undulations in the exhaust from a turbocharged diesel are considerably reduced in flowing through the turbine to the extent that a much smaller muffler is generally permitted. However, spark-arresting features are still required. The muffler is generally installed in the exhaust pipe about one third of the distance from the engine to the end of the pipe. This distance will vary with the type of engine, the type of muffler, and the piping arrangement. The precise location of the m d e r should not be fixed until the engine selection has been made. ' 4.8 Starting Systems. To start an engine, it is necessary to rotate it, such that its speed and, consequently, its compression temperature are sufficiently high to insure ignition of the fuel when it is injected into the engine cylinder. The starting system is the means of supplying the energy for rotating the engine. The starting system can be operated with air, electricity, or hydraulic fluid. Air can be applied directly into the engine cylinders or used to drive an air motor geared to the engine crankshaft through an overrunning clutch.





Fig. 17 Navy muffler dzer

Electric starting can be applied to a small geared motor arranged in a similar manner to the air motor or in the form of special windings in the driven power generator. Hydraulic starting is by a geared motor only. Engines and starting motors are usually designed so that the customer is free to select the medium best suited to a particular ship. The first decision which must be made with reference to the starting system is whether the engine is to be direct-reversing or unidirectional. If a unidirectional engine is to be used, starting can be by means of direct cylinder injection, starting motors, or generator windings. If a direct-reversing engine is selected, there is no problem or choice remaining, for the starting system must be air with direct cylinder injection. Examples of other considerations are: ( a ) a salvage ship may have requirements fgr large quantities of compressed air, which would then be available for starting and would rule out other means; (b) a ship may have no air requirements and it could be more economical to start electrically; (c) hydraulic systems have been used in Navy applications where their nonmagnetic materials and freedom from stray electric currents are the attractive features. A hydraulic starting system has the capability of being charged with a hand pump to make an initial start, after which the hydraulic accumulator can be charged by an engine driven pump. In some instances, it is desirable to take advantage of this characteristic by using a hydraulically started engine to drive a compr&sor which then furnishes air to air starters on other engines





in the plant. It may be seen that the selection of the starting system is tied very closely to the type of engine selected and the nature and duty cycle of the ship and the owner's preference. Some of the general characteristics and requirements of these starting systems may also have an impact on the type selected. The air pressure required with a direct cylinder injection system is usually about 250 psig with a minimum pressure of about 100 psig. The pressure required for an air motor varies from 75 to 150 psig. ABS requires that the starting air storage be in at least two containers with a capacity capable of starting directreversing engines 12 times and unidirectional engines 6 times corlsecutively without recharging. The air can be stored at pressures above that required by the engine and pressure-reducing valves used to lower the pressure to the proper value at the engine. I n this manner, the size of the air storage vessel can be reduced and the air requirements consolidated 'for the engine and other services aboard ship. ABS requires that the electric storage batteries provided be capable of 6 consecutive starts without recharging. Starting system voltage is usually 12, 24, or 36, with cells arranged in series and parallel to obtain the required voltage and storage capacity. Battery charging generators are usually engine driven for automotive-si~eengines and from a separate power source for larger engines. Battery charging requirements can be supplied by the ships' service system with the necessary conversion equipment. Hydraulic starting systems operate at pressures ranging from 1000 to 3000 psig, with the complete system usually supplied by the starter manufacturer. I n general, more than one starting motor can be installed on an engine so that it is possible to start many medium and high-speed engines by means of motors. There are some applications where engines are required to start in low ambient temperatures. Electric storage batteries lose capacity a t low temperatures and provision should be made either to heat the battery compartment, insure that there are sufficient cells to crank the engine even with the reduced capacity, or to use air or hydraulic starting systems. Water and oil heaters and ether starting aids may also be required at temperatures below 35 F. In any case, the minimum temperature at which engine starting is required should be made a part of the procurement specifications. So many options exist in the selection of starting equipment that it is good practice to develop a list of requirements and enlist the aid of the engine manufacturer in selecting final equipment and arrangements. 4.9 Controls. The control of a diesel engine is effected primarily by regulating the fuel injected; this is accomplished by means of a throttle lever which moves the racks of the fuel injection pumps. This control can be applied manually or through various types of governing devices sensitive to engine speed, load, discharge pressure, or flow rate of driven equipment. Rather than going into details of the equipment required, this section

will indicate the control functions which can be obtained and how they can be applied. There are a number of types of governors which may be considered for a particular application. The major alternatives are: (a) Manual. The operator moves a throttle lever which controls the engine speed remotely or directly. This is similar to the gas pedal on an automobile. (b) Limiting-speed governors. This type of governor controls the engine speed at idle and at rated speed. I n the range between idle and rated speed, control is manual. (c) Variable speed. The input lever acts to compress the speeder spring on the governor flyweights and controls the speed automatically to a fixed value for each position of the lever. (d) Isochronous. A governor which ,holds engine speed constant at a set value regardless of load variation. The desired constant speed is set by positioning an external lever or dial. (e) Speed-droop governor. This governor controls the speed at a given value under full-load conditions, but allows the speed to rise as load is decreased. The amount of droop is expressed in percent as 100 times the difference between no-load and full-load speed divided by full-load speed. The percent droop is adjustable in some governors from a stated value down to zero (isochronous); in others, it is adjustable between two values above zero droop. Droop adjustment is internal on some governors and external on others. (j)Load, torque, or BMEP-limiting governors are those with devices to limit the fuel injected as a function of speed to permit governing the speed of the engine with the load limit just above given values (such as a propeller curve). A variation of this type of governor limits fuel input as a function of engine air manifold pressure. This device is used primarily with turbocharged engines to prevent smoking during severe load transients. (g) Lodspeed governing. This governor controls the speed of the load to the desired value when the load speed and prime mover speed are not the same as when a torque converter or hydraulic coupling is used. (h) Electric governors. There are two basic types of electric governors: one which is used on generator sets receives its power supply and speed signal from the alternator; the other, used for propulsion, is powered by a separate a-c line. The speed signal from the second type comes from the electric impulses generated by a magnetic pickup in the vicinity of a rotating gear. This unit permits control over a speed range as wide as 20: 1. The electric unit for generating services senses and responds to the electric load and rate of change in electric load, as well as to frequency (speed). Significant reductions are made in the transient off-speeds as compared with those usually experienced with mechanical speed-sensing governors. The electric unit also senses and responds to the difference in load between paralleled units and permits each engine to assume equal percentages of load under isochronous conditions.

(23 Ovei-speed governors. These are of either the selfresetting or the trip type. The ovcrspeed governor is usually an independent governor whose sole function is to prevent engine overspeed in case the load is lost as when a propeller comes out of the water or a generator is dropped off the line. The self-resetting type will shut off fuel or sir to the engine until the engine speed drops to a preselected value; then it will permit control in the normal mode. Engine speed will cycle between the lower set point and the overspeed limit until the cause for the overspeed is removed or the engine is shut down. The trip type will shut down the engine if overspeed occurs ahd requires manual reset prior to restarting the engine. The overspeed governors may be connected to something other than the normal fuel linkage to insure control in the event of mechanical difliculty with the fuel system. It can actuate a valve in the fuel supply to the engine or in the air induction system. Governors are built which combine several of the features described in the foregoing in one unit; i.e., speed droop and load control. For a more comprehensive discussion of governors and definitions of governing terms, see references [4, 36, 371. The control of a propulsion engine can be remote, from the bridge or other location, or local at the engine. Remote control can be by means of either direct mechanical linkages from the remote-control lever to the fuel linkage on the engine or by means of hydraulic, pneumatic, or electric systems. The choice of control system depends on the number of engines to be controlled, the number of remote-control stations involved, the distance between the remote station and the engine, and the flexibility desired in the system. Governors for variable-speed propulsion engines are generally capable of controlling engines so that a t all speeds and loads up to rated, the periodic or aperiodic oscillations of speed are no more than f1.0 percent of operating speed. The maximum deviation from normal speed when full or partial load is removed or applied suddenly should not exceed 10 percent of operating speed. The speed should return to f 1percent of operating speed in 15 sec or less following the load change. For single engines driving a fixed-pitch propeller, the simplest and cheapest control, and a satisfactory one for small boats, is a manual system. For higher-powered ships, the limiting-speed or variable-speed governor should be used, together with a resetting type of overspeed governor. I n fact, an overspeed governor should be used with all engines except in small boat applications. The resetting type gives the pilot continued control of the engine even though the engine speed fluctuates, whereas the trip type can shut the engine down at a time when the ship's safety may be endangered. Multiple engines geared to drive a single propeller through solid couplings should be equipped with load limiting and reset overspeed governors. Multiple engines driving through sliptype couplings should use speed-droop governors with load-limiting features for protection again& overloading when leaa than the full

number of installed engines are used. A single eugiiie driving multiple loads should be protected against overload if the sum of the loads can exceed the erigiiie rating. Engines driving controllable and reversible-pitch (CRP) propellers can be controlled with a single lever to operate at a preset speed-load relationship by integrating the action of two governors, one controlling engine fuel and the other propeller pitch [38,39]. This type of control can also be used when two different types of propulsion plants are used, such as diesels and gas turbinea [40, 411. A two-governor type of control for CRP propellers is particularly useful when a shipoperates under varying load conditions such as towing and free route, or light and heavy displacement. I loadink is f constant or varies slowly with time, a simpler singlelever control may be used whereby engine throttle position and propeller pitch are controlled together by means of cams whose relationship to each other is adjustable over a moderate range by a vernier. Generator sets which will not be operated in parallel can use isochronous governors if the frequency must be controlled accurately. For sets which must operate in parallel, a speed-droop governor should be used for d-c units or for a-c units where the frequency may vary with load. Where a constant frequency is required, isochronous governors with load-limiting features or electric governors should be used. Hydraulic governors are generally capable of controlling diesel generator sets so that the steady-state speed regulation is between 0 and 1 percent, the steady-state governing speed level is within f0.25 percent of rated speed, the momentary underspeed is within 7.0 percent of rated speed, and the recovery time following overspeed or underspeed is less thaa 5.0 sec with a prescribed speed band of f0.5 perkent of rated speed. Electric governors are mandatory when close regulation of frequency is required. All generator set engines should be equipped with an overspeed trip as well as a regulating governor. Governors are available which will regulate the engine power in response to various sensors in order to control the output of the driven equipment. As an example, pumps may be driven to deliver a prescribed flow or pressure or to maintain a constant level in a tank. 4.10 Instrumentation. The following instrumentation should be installed on an instrument panel attached to the dngine, .adjacent to the engine, or located at the engine control stand in direct view of the engine operator (asterisks indicate the only instruments normally furnished with automotive-type engines) :
(a) Pressure gages 1 Freshwater pump discharge

2 *3 4 5 6

Seawater pump discharge Lubricating oil pump discharge Lubricating oil pressure at engine inlet Piston cooling oil pump discharge (if used) Fuel oil pump discharge 7 Fuel oil pressure at injection pump inlet




8 Scavenging air or supercharging air pressure 9 Starting air pressure a t engine 10 Lubricating oil at turbocharger or blower 11 Crankcase pressure or vacuum (b) The~momete~s *1 Lubricating oil from engine *2 Freshwater from engine 3 Fuel temperature to engine when heated heavy fuels are used *(c) Tachometer (d) Ezhaust gas pi~ometer indicator
I n addition, pressure gages and thermometers should be installed in the piping a t each heat exchanger, filter, and strainer as required for troubleshooting purposes. Engine manufacturers are not in agreement regarding the value of exhaust gas thermocouples and pyrometers. The exhaust gas temperature a t each cylinder discharge into the exhaust manifold is not the same under normal conditions. This is due to variations and pulsations in the airflow to each cylinder and manufacturing variations which affect factors such as the compression ratio, combustion chamber shape, and the fuel nozzle spray pattern. Pyrometers should not be used to set engine fud racks to obtain equal exhaust temperature from each cylinder in the hope that this will equalize the load between cylinders. The proper way to insure equal load between cylinders is to set the fuel racks such that equal quantities of fuel are injected into each cylinder. However, thermocouples and pyrometers are useful for detecting a change in the exhaust temperature of any one cylinder with time as an indication of abnormal cylinder performance. Pyrometry equipment is available in a variety of forms such as: ( a ) each cylinder's thermocouple connected to a pyrometer through a selector switch which is manually operated; (b) each cylinder's thermocouple connected to its own pyrometer; (c) thermocouples indicating the combined exhaust from all cylinders in a bank; (d) thermocouples a t the inlet and exit from the turbocharger; (e) cylinder thermocouples connected t o a pyrometer through a motorized switch together with circuitry in the pyrometer to average the cylinder exhaust temperatures, compare each cylinder to the mean, alarm wheri any cylinder exhaust exceeds the mean by a set amount, and identify the offending cylinder. Sensors are available to measure vibrations,(in terms of amplitude, velocity, or acceleration), bearing temper* tures, bearing weardown, hour meters, power meters, pressures, pressure differences, rates of pressure rise, and rates of change of pressure differences and the same for temperatures. The extent to which this advanced instrumentation of an engine installation is considered is related to the degree to which the plant is automated, the skill of the operators, and the nature of operations, as well as the desired initial cash outlay. 4.1 1 Automalion. There are two justifiable reasons for automating a diesel plant, and both are related t o

saving money. The first reason is to reduce manning and save labor costs; the second is to reduce casualties by . providing better diagnostic data and by eliminating o*rator errors. The difficulty is deciding, for each installation, how far to go. The diesel engine is inherently self-regulating and easy to automate. Most medium and high-speed engines are equipped with enginedriven pumps and governors. Oil pressure regulating valves and thermostatic control of water and oil tempers tures have been commonplace for years. Starting is a simple operation involving no more than several sequencing devices t o control a minimal number of switches or-valves. Turbochargers are self-regulating. Starting from a cold plant, for example, with all sea valves closed involves a sequence which would open the sea valves using remotely controlled actuators, heat jacket water electrically to a given temperature, start an electric motor-driven lubricating oil priming pump, shut down the pump, and energize the starter. When the engine reaches idling speed, the starting equipment is secured. If i start is not achieved in a preset time, the starter is disengaged and the cycle is repeated. This type of operation can be done electricilly, hydraulically, or pneumatically. It is possible to program propulsion controls for multiple engine drives to add or remove engines a t a predetermined speed. The engines removed from the line can be shut down inasmuch as the starting cycle for a warm engine is extremely short and simple, taking less than 10 sec. Electric generating plants can be completely automated to operate unattended, automatically adding and removing engines as dictated by the load. Synchroniaing equipment is available as part of the engine governing system to parallel alternators automatically. Sequene ing equipment can be set up so that generators are used in a specified order to equalize the number of hours on each unit if desired. Automatic shutdown of an engine due to the loss of oil pressure, high water temperature or any other malfunction, will initiate the starting cycle for a designated stand-by, so that operations will not be interrupted as long as stand-by equipment is available. Distilling plants and other engine room accessories can be automated as well so that it is technically possible to remove all operators from the machinery spaces and to control the ship from the bridge or any other desired station. I n addition to automating the plant operation, there are many devices for automating data logging and analysis. Logging may be done in digital form and recorded on typewritten sheets or in analog form as curves of various parameters versus time. Logging may be required for all data or only for readings which are approaching preset limits. An alarm usually sounds when these type of data are recorded. Graphical presentations are very useful as scales can be compressed to require less paper and clearly show trends. For example, a curve of differential pressure across a filter element versus time can be extrapolated to show when


the filter will require changing, giving the maintenance crew advanced notice to plan the best time for the change. A plot of crankcase pressure versus time may show a change which would be indicative of increasing blowby and tde necessity to renew piston rings. In this manner, engine overhauls can be accomplished only as needed with resultant savings in expenses as opposed to conducting overhauls a t fixed time periods. Another form of automation is the use of computers to compare recorded data with standards, for the particular load and speed, which are stored in memory. Deviations from the norm are recorded and alarmed. The more sophisticated automated plants are controlled by electronic equipment, much of which is in the form of printed-circuit cards with self fault-finding features to minimize the skill levels required to maintain the automatic equipment. In addition to the electronic brains, muscles are required to open and close valves and move the throttle lever. These elements a l add to the l complexity of a completely automated plant. For a more comprehensive discussion of automation considerations, see Chapter 21. 4.12 Installation Items. Foundations for engines and driven equipment must be sufficiently rigid to maintain alignment when the ship's hull is working in heavy seas. Automotive and railroad-type engines are frequently designed to be mounted on foundations with three or four points of support. This has the advantage of making the engine relatively insensitive to minor working of foundations. Consideration should be given to the use of flexible couplings in cases when alignment cannot be assured. I the engine is mounted on rubber f or other types of flexible mounts, flexible couplings are easenti&l. Diesels should be bolted to their foundations with fitted bolts at the drive end only. Clearance bolts should be used in all other locations to permit the engine to expand away from the driven equipment as it heats. Diesel engines are usually provided with a thrust bearing on the crankshaft to keep the shaft in place during shipment. Propeller thrust is taken in a separate thrust bearing housing or in a bearing built into the reduction gear housing. It is essential that the engine thrust bearing clearance be greater than that in the propeller thrust bearing or that the coupling between the engine and the gear provide for longitudinal movement a t least equal to the thrust bearing clearance, and that the engineto-driven-gear alignment be such that the crankshaft is centered in its clearance to prevent the thrust bearings from bucking each other. The same situation must be guarded against in generator sets where the generator and engine each has its own thrust bearing. Medium and high-speed engines have relatively small parts which are easily handled, provided they are accessible to the mechanic while he keeps both feet on the deck. Ctire should be taken to insure that ducts and wireways do not interfere with access to regular maintenance for filters, cylinder-head covers, air cleaners and so forth. Gages and sight glasses should be placed such that the

operator can see them without leaving the control station. For medium-speed engines, chain falls and pad eyes are required to pull cylinder heads, pistons, and liners. High-speed engines generally do not have handhole covers in the cylinder block for access to bearings; in these engines, it is necessary to drop the oil pan to renew bearings. Provision should be made, at the time the ship is designed, for bearing renewal, either by providing space under the engine to drop the oil pan and move it out of the way, or to lift the engine off its foundation and roll it over. There are many excellent texts today on the subject of torsional vibration and balancing of engines [42-451. The problem of balancing engines to minimize unbalanced forces and moments has been solved to a great degree by the engine manufacturer's use of computer programs to select optimal firing orders, crankthrow arrangements, and locations for balance weights. Should problems arise due to resonance of engine unbalance forces and foundations or hull structure, they are usually found after ship trials are run and correction consists of local stiffening of hull structure. The type of vibration encountered depends t o a large degree upon the type of hull; for example, the most common vibration in a towboat is vertical [46,47]. Noonan and Zaloumis [48] point out the importance of endeavoring to select machinery which has vibration characteristics m i s matched to hull natural frequencies. I possible, f engines should be located a t the nodes of hull vibrations. Torsional vibration, a t one time, was a major problem with diesel engines. Today it is a well-understood phenomenon and engine manufacturers have computer programs for their engines so that they can readily assess the effects of torsional vibrations in various applications. With the use of pendulum or viscous dampers on the free end of the crankshaft and torsionally flexible couplings or fluid drives between the engine and gear, it should be possible to avoid problems due to torsional vibrations. In any case, the engine manufacturer should conduct torsional vibration analyses to ascertain freedom from dangerous critic& in the operating range of the engine. Each new installation should be torsiographed to insure that it is safe. 4.13 Safely Features. Alarms and automatic shutdowns sbould be used to prevent catastrophic failures of engines. On propulsion engines, it is general practice to not shut t h e engine down but to give the captain or pilot the option, in case of an alarm, to either shut the engine down if in a safe situation or to risk wrecking the engine if the ship would be endangered if left without power. In the case of a generator set, automatic shutdown is the general practice. The items which trigger alarms or shutdowns usually are: (a) low lubricating oil pressure with the sensor installed a t the end of the oil manifold remote from the oil pump; (b) high jacket water temperature; and (c) high rpm, i.e., an rpm exceeding 115 percent of rated rpm for ABS vessels. Crankcase explosions are not common in diesels, but when they occur they can be dangerous. An explosion





can occur when the mixture of air and oil vapor in the crankcase is ignited by a spark or hot spot resulting from a part failure. The first explosion is generally weak, due to the rich fuel-air mixture in the crankcase, and the peak pressure does not exceed 25 psig. Should the explosion blow off a cover or should someone open a cover imrriediately after the first explosion, fresh air will rush in and a second, much more violent explosion will occur. There are two ways to pi-event explosive d a m a e: 1 Design the crankcase strong enough so that the first explosion cannot lift a cover or otherwise let air in. 2 Provide spring-loaded covers to permit the first explosion to relieve and have the cover close rapidly, air out and preventing a ex~losion. Navy specifications and ABS rules require relief valves; the Navy requires them on engines over 6-in. bore and ABS requires them over 8-in. bore. Navy specifications require 1.5 sq in. of relief valve area per cubic foot of crankcase volume, the ABS requires 0.5 sq in. per cubic foot of crankcase volume. Both require warning notices to be posted on the engine cautioning against opening a hot crankcase after an explosion. Engines burn fuel oil which is volatile and combustible and must be contained a t all times. Highpressure fuel lines should be shielded from hot engine parts by the use of a flexible tube around each pipe or a shield over the manifold or the use of water-cooled manifolds. . Fires have occurred when a high-pressure fuel line cracked and sprayed fuel over a hot exhaust elbow. Crankcase vents should be directed to the engine air inlet or overboard. Fumes should not be ducted to the ventilation system where oil will condense and present a major hazard in case of a fire. Engines should be equipped with an emergency shutdown device operated by a pull cable which will trip the fuel racks or shut 08 the air and stop the engine within 60 sec. The pull cable should be installed so as to be operable from a location adjacent to the engine room access so that in case a fire forces abandonment of the engine room, the engine can be stopped. Shields should be provided to protect personnel from hot parts and moving parts in case they are accidently thrown against the engine. Direct-reversing engines should be provided with an interlock to prevent injection of fuel during a reversal until the engine comes to a complete stop.

1 C. Jones, "New Rotating Combustion Power Plant Development," Trans. SAE, 1966. 2 B. W. Wadman, Diesel and Gas Turbine Catalog, Diesel and Gas Turbine Progress, Milwaukee, Wisc., vol. 33, (Published annually). 3 British Diesel Engine Catalogue, issued by The British Internal Combustion Engine Manufacturers Assn., London.

4 K. W. Stinson, Diesel Engineering Handbook, Diesel Publications, Inc., Stamford, Connecticut, 1963. 5 A. K. Antonsen, "The Development of a Supercharged Medium Speed Two-Cycle Opposed Piston Engine, " Proceedings, ASME, OGP, 1956. 6 James R. Ware, "Development of a Turbocharged Two Stroke Twenty Cylinder Diesel Engine for Marine Application, " SAE paper 670949, 1967. 7 J. M. .Moriarty and C. H. Schowalter, "Application of MediumS~eedDiesels to Marine Pro~ulsion." SNAME Spring Mketing, May 1966. 8 Bob Schulz, ,,Mack,s New Maxidyne Constant Power Vehicle Package, " Diesel and Gas Turbine Progress, December 1966. . Bruce W. wadman, ,,Trends in Tailored Truck, Diesel Torque and Homepower Characteristics, Diesel and Gas Turbine Progress, May 1967. 10 H. L. Wittek, "Development of Two New Allis Chalmers Diesel Engines, " Trans. SAE, 1960. 11 W. J. McCulla, "How a Diesel Engine Rates Itself," Tram. SAE, 1959. 12 P. H. Schweitzer and C. G. A. Rosen, "Whither the European Automotive Diesel?" Trans. SAE, 1964. 13 M. V. Kienlen and G. W. Maybach, "High Speed High Output Diesel Engines-35 Years of Development of Railroad and Marine Applications, " Trans. SAE, 1962. 14 L. Wechsler and H. Holler, "Development of a Lightweight High Output Diesel Engine for Naval Service," ASME, Paper no. 58-OGP-2, May 1958. 15 "Engine Rating/Why and How," Diesel Equipment Superintendent, April 1964. 16 SAE Handbook, published by Society of Automotive Engineers, (New issue each year). 17 W. A. Kilchenmann, "Slow Speed Versus High Speed Diesel Engines for Ship Propulsions," Naval Engineers Journal, June 1964. 18 K. Zinner, "A Comparison of High Powered Single Engine and Multi-Engine Plants for the Propulsion of Merchant Ships," ASME, Paper no. 67-DGP-2, April 1967. 19 J. Neumann and J. Carr, he Use of Medium Speed Geared Diesel Engines For Ocean-Going Merchant Ship Propulsion, " Journal, Institub of Marine Engineers, 1966. 20 R. Fredrikson, "The Medium Speed Diesel-An Engine of Increasing Interest to the Shipowner and Shipbuilder, " SNAME, 1968 Diamond Jubilee International Meeting. 21 W. Hempel, "Why has the Medium Speed Diesel Become Competitive in Marine Propulsion," SAE, Paper no. 670950, November 1967. 22 E. A. Butler, R. Kaufman, and T. V. Pedersen, "Advanced-Design Motor-Ship Machinery Plant-20000 SBP," Marine Technology, vol. 4, no. 4, October 1967. 23 F. A. Christiansen and P. I. Brown, "Military and Manufacturer Specification Oils, Their Evaluation and Significance," Trans. SAE, 1963. 24 Rules for Building and Classing Sbel Vessels, American Bureau of Shipping, New York.

25 C. C. Moore and W. L. Kent, "Effect of Nitrogen Governing of Electric Generating Sets," MIL-STD-178, and Sulphur Content of Fuels on Diesel Wear," Trans. Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government PrintSAE, 1947. ing Office. 38 W. H. Krogstad, "Control System Programs 26 H. V. Nutt, E. W. Landen, and J. A. Edgar, "Effect of Surface Temperature on Wear of Diesel Power for Ships with Controllable Pitch Propellers," Engine, Cylinder and Piston Rings," Trans. SAE, 1955. SAE Journal, December 1962. 27 B. A. Robbins, P. L. Pinotti, and D. R. Jones, 39 F. Schanz, "The Controllable Pitch Propeller as "The Use of Radioactive Tracer Techniques to Deter- an Integral Part of the Ship's Propulsion System, " Trans. mine Effect of Operatirig Variables on Wear," Trans. SNAME, vol. 75, 1967. 40 P. K. Wennberg, "The Design of the Main SAE, 1960. 28 Total Energy Handbook, Caterpillar Tractor Co., Propulsion Machinery Plant in the USCGC Hamilton (WPG-715)," Trans. SNAICIE, vol. 74, 1966. Peoria, Ill:, Form M E 0 26690.01, 1967. 41 R- lihuschildt and C- Miller, "U- S- Navy 29 Manual of Heat Recovery, Fairbanks Morse and PG 84 Class CODOG Propulsion Plant," SAE Paper no. Co., Beloit, Wis., Form P 295, 1960. 196730 Vapor P b e Engineering Manual, Engineering 670952, 42 W. I<er Wilson, Practical Solution o Torsiml f Controls Inc., St. Louis, Mo. 31 J. C. ~ ~ ~"Engine i ~ H~~~utilhation Vibration Problems, vols. 1 and 2, John Wiley and Sons, g wmte ~ , in a High Speed, Geared Steam Turbine," ASME, Paper New York, 1956. 43 J. P. DenHartog, Mechanical Vibrations, McGrawno. 59-OGP-7, February 1959. Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1956. 32 W' T. W' J. Kelnhofer, and R' A' Imith, 4 E v a h of the of Tor&onal Vibration, "Design Considerations for Marine Gas Turbine Ducb SAE, 1945. ing, " ASME, Paper no. 66-GT/M-27, March 1966. 45 A Handbook on Torsional Vz%ration, British 33 Gas Twbine Handbook,J. W. Internal Combustion Engine Research Assn., Cambridge ed., Gas Turbine Publications, Inc., New York, 1966, University Press, 1958. chapter 13. 46 P. J. Louzecky, "Vibration in River Towboats," 34 T. Hagar, "Selecting the Correct Air Cleaner," SAE paperno. 699 A, M~~ 1963. Diesel Equipment Superintendent, July 1967. 47 W. W. Hamilton, Jr., "A Shipbuilder's Views on 35 Military S ~ e c z c a t i o 3 M d e r s , Exhaust, Inter- River Towboat Vibration," SAE Paper no. 699 B, May " nal Combustion Engine," MILM-15337 (SHIPS). 1962 -..--. 36 B. A. Boggs, "Choosing a Speed Governor, " 48 E. F. Noonan and A. Zaloumis, "Shipboard VibraProduct Engineering, March 18, 1963. tion and Noise Considerations in the Design of River 37 Military Standard DefinitionsApplicable t o Speed Towboats," Trans. SAE, 1964.

i ?


in. (mm)

Table 1

Typical Engine Design Data


Kuri Illies

Low-Speed Direct-Coupled Diesel Engines

in. (mm)


PISTON SPEED, SPEED, rpm fpm (m/s)

BMEP, Psi (kp/cmS)



Section 1 Survey of Principal Characteristics

1.1 Scope. The possible alternatives when selecting the type of propulsion plant were briefly discussed in Chapter 1. It was noted that of the more usual prime mover selections, only low-speed diesel engines are directly coupled to the propeller shaft. This is due to the low rpm required for efficient propeller operation and the high rpm inherent with other types of prime movers. Overall technical considerations with regard to diesel engines were covered in Chapter 7, which dealt with medium- and high-speed diesels, and therefore will not be repeated here. Instead, only those characteristics which differentiate low-speed engines from medium- and highspeed engines are discussed. Medium- and high-speed engines generally are not designed specifically for marine applications; therefore, the design details of these engines were not emphasized in Chapter 7. The situation is different with low-speed engines, which are designed and manufactured specifically for marine applicatione. For this reason, more emphasis is placed on the design details of low-speed engines. Additional discussion regarding low-speed diesels may be found in works such as references [I] through [7].' 1.2 Engine Data, The continuous rpm &ing of direct-coupled diesel engines is generally in the range of 100 to 225 rpm. Lower speeds are seldom selected due to the strong sensitivity of engine weight to speed as indicated by Fig. 1. The low engine q m in conjunction with piston speed limitations (about 1300 fpm) -require long piston strokes. This means that the engine must be high, wide, and consequently heavy. Higherpiston speeds impose higher inertia loads, bearing reactions, and the l i e , which can have an overriding impact on the design of an engine. As an indication of the effect of piston speed limitations, for two-stroke crosshead engines the piston speed has increased only 20 percent during the past 20 years. Further increases in piston speeds are expected to be minor because they must be made at the expense of either higher engine speeds or larger engine dimensions, both of which are undesired. Nominal design data for an array of low-speed engines,




40 30;






t 1150


44 22




100 500


Fig. 1 Weights of low-speed engines

(a) loop ravenging

Numbers in brackets designate Referencesat end of chapter.

representative of those manufactured, are shown in Table 1 ; the weights shown in Table 1 are without water and oil. Low-speed diesel en&es are two-stroke, single-acting, and designed with ~rossheads. Due to weight and dimension considerations, they are used only in merchant ships and not in naval vessels. The ratio of stroke to bore also must be considered it has an impact on s venging efficiency- To a great extent, the method 0 scavenging employed determines the stroke/bore ratio permitted. The various methods of scavenging are illustrated by Fig. 2. With the loop and cross-scavenging methods, the strokebore ratio usually falls in the range of 1.8 to 2; higher values of 2 to 2.1 are used with single pistons employing the uniflow method; and in opposed-piston engines, the combined stroke is about 2.9 times the bore. Large cylinder dimensions and supercharging permit high cylinder horsepower ratings. Engines with a rating of 3700 bhp/cylinder have been installed aboard ship, and the tendency is for this value to increase. Outputs of 5200 bhp/cylinder have been obtained on the teat stand. It should be noted that under normal operating conditions a t sea, the engine is loaded to only about 9095 percent of the maximum continuous rating. Typical design data for cylinders of two different ratings are shown in Table 2. Operational data for a spe-

(b) (c) (dl Fig. 2

cross scavenging uniflow ravenging with exhaust valves uniflow ravenging opposed pistam Scavenging methods of low-sped engines

Ov3' 0 0.31


Fig. 3


Characteristic data for a low-speed engine

cific engine design are shown in Fig. 3. The fuel consumptions indicated in Table 2 and Fig. 3 do not include lubrication and cooling pumps; additionally, they are Table 2 Typical Cylinder Design Data based on a fuel lower heating value of 18,000 Btu/lb. CYLINDER DESIGN B Disregarding electrically driven auxiliaries, a heat Output/cylinder, bhp. ............ 610 A 4000 balance for low-speed engines is approximately as follows Engine speed, rpm.. .............. 225 103 Piston diameter, in. (mm). ........ 20.5 (520) 41.7 (1060) (based on the lower heating value of the fuel) : Piston stroke, in. (mm). ........... 31.5 (800) 78.7 (2000) Piston speed fpm (m/s). .......... 1024 (5) 1360 (7) Heat to power. .................... - 3 9 4 2 % BMEP, psi (kp/cma).............. 103 (7.3) 143 (10.1) Heat to exhaust gases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25-35% 996 (70) Compression pressure, psi (k /cma). 498 (35) Heat to cooling water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-30% Max. ~ l i n d e r ressure, psi (ep/cml) 711 (50) 1280 (90) ~ i ratio-com~ustion.. r ........... 1.6 2.2 Remainder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 % Air ratio-total. ................. 2.5 5.0 temperature after cyl. It is common practice to reduce the heat losses by Exhaustand cross-scavenging, deg F Loo employing heat recovery schemes. For example, an . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 (330) 700 (370) Uniflow scavenging, deg F (C). . . 635 (335) 800 (425) exhaust gas auxiliary boiler may be used to produce temperature before turbine steam or hot water for preheating heavy fuel, and the Exhaustand crossscavenging, deg F Loo engine cooling water may be used to produce fresh water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665 (350) 755 (400) Uniflow scavenging, deg F (C). . . 665 (350) 860 (460) in a seawater evaporator. Mechanical efficiency, percent.. .... 85 93 1.3 Principal Structure. Sections through a typical Cylinder oil consumption, lb/bhp-hr ( /PSh). ...................... 0.0015 (0.7) 0.0007 (0.3) cross-scavenging engine are shown in Pig. 4, and Fig. 5 is consumption, ib/bhp-hr rt section through a typical loop-scavenging engine. (g/PSh)....................... 0.32 (146) 0.34 (155)




~ u 3








Fig. 4 Typical uou-scavenging engine [9]

Fig. 6

Frame without cylinder block [S]




Fig. 5

Typical loop-scavenging engine [El

The engine frame basically consists of the bedplate, columns, and cylinder block; but in some cases a top deck is provided between the columns and cylinder block. The frame of an engine is shown more clearly by Fig. 6, which is a detailed view of the engine shown in Fig. 5. The bedplate consists of longitudinal'girders of high structural rigidity which provide substantial support for the main bearings. It may be seen that the basic engine frame is held together by prestressed tie rods which extend from the top of the cylinder block to the lower part of the bedplate. The firing forces are taken by these tie rods, and the other structural components are subjected to compreseive loads only. Crankcase doors fitted with explosion plates (see Fig. 5) are arranged between the columns. The opposed-piston engine shown in Fig. 7 has some interesting characteristics. The stroke of the upper piston is shortened so as to equalize the inertia of the mass associated with the side and center cranks. The forces from the combustion loads on the upper and lower pistons are carried entirely by the running gear connected to the crankshaft; thus, there are no combustion loads on the main bearings or the engine structure. Reference [13], which discusses the design of low-speed diesels in

general, describes some of the characteristics of opposed- and 9 illustrate techniques which have been used with piston engines. engines employing the loop-scavenging method. In each In cases where the engine is not equipped with tie case, the lower sides of the pistons as well as the turborods, the columns and cylinder blocks are welded to- charger act as scavenge air pumps. gether and the columns are bolted to the bedplate by With the schemes shown in Fig. 8 when operating in means of heavy bolts. The firing forces are then trans- the higher load ranges, the lower sides of selected pistons mitted from the oylinder head through the columns to deliver scavenge air through the cooler directly irito the the bedplate. charge air line in parallel with the turbocharger. DurFormerly, extensive use was made of cast iron in ing part-load operation, the air supply provided by the engineTrames, but more recently the bedplate, columns, turbocharger operating in parallel with the lower side and top deck have been made of welded steel fabrications of the pistons is not sufficient. In this case, an injector as a means of reducing weight. For rigidity purposes, system [as shown by Fig. 8(a).] or a compressor-drive however, the main bearing supports are usually heavy system [as shown by Fig. 8(b)] may be used to increase steel castings. the air qhantity delivered by the turbocharger a t low Engine cylinders are always arranged in line. I n order speeds. With the injector system, in the lower load to obtain a uniform torque output, the minimum number range the air supplied by the lower sides of the pistons of cylinders is limited to four. Additionally, design com- flows a t a high velocity through injector nozzles, which plications with regard to the crankshaft and engine bed- are arranged immediately following the turbocharger, plate and engine length considerations limit the maxi- and then into the air receiver. This action induces air to mum number of cylinders to about twelve. Within these flow through the turbocharger and stabilizes its operating limits, there is considerable freedom in selecting the condition. With the compressor-drive system, in the cylinder desim and number of cylinders to produce the lower load range the air supplied by the lower sides of the desired output. pistons is admitted to the compressor wheel of the turbo1'.4 Scavenging Systems. As discussed previously charger so as to produce additional torque to drive the and illustrated in Fig. 2, engines may employ either the turbocharger when relatively little exhaust energy is loop, cross, or uniflow method of scavenging. Figures8 available.



(a) Infector system cylinder air receiver exhaust receiver 4 exhaust turbine 5 air blower 6 silencer 7 underside pump Fig. 8

(b) Compresmr drive system

8 9 oil separator load) damper (high 9a damper (part load) cooler coder infector pipe compreuor drive Loop-ravengins air supply system [8] I

1 2 3

10 11 12 13

pression is accomplished by the exhaust gas turbocharger, and the second takes place in the double-acting piston scavenge pump; both steps are aligned in a series arrangement. Each cylinder has its own double-acting reciprocating pump that is directly driven by the crosshead. The intake and exhaust valves of these pumps, as well aa the scavenge air intake valves of the power cylinder, are designed as automatic nonreturn valves. Some engine designs include a small electrically driven blower which is used up t o quarter load and when maneuvering. Such an engine is illustrated by Fig. ll. The electric blower considerably improves engine acceleration and gives a clear exhaust. The blower is switched on and off automatically a t a certain position of the fuel lever and requires only about 0.2 percent of the engine output. Many of the turbocharged engines using the uniflow Fig. 9 Sen'er-parallel air supply system [8] method of scavenging are capable of meeting scavenge air requirements a t all engine speeds with no assistance. Some designs, however, include scavenging pumps, such Another air supply method is the series-parallel sys- as shown in Fig. 10, and some designs use small electrically tem as illustrated by Fig. 9. The lower sides of all driven blowers for assistance a t low power levels and for pistons are designed as scavenge air pumps with this cold starting. arrangement. Some act in parallel with the turboWith the uniflow scavenging arrangement shown by charger; however, others may shift between series and Fig. 12, the scavenge ports around the lower part of the parallel operation. During part-load operating condi- cylinder liner are controlled by the piston; the exhaust tions, the piston lower sides arranged in series pump air valve in the cylinder head is actuated by means of a cam from the turbocharger to the air receiver. At higher on the camshaft, and the movement is transmitted to loads all piston lower sides operate in parallel with the the valve through a rocker an opposed-piston engine is Uniflow scavenging for arm. turbocharger. An automatic valve arrangement is provided to ensure a proper alignment. shown by Figs. 7 and 13. Figure 12 displays the uniAn air supply system which has been used with engines flow scavenging system for a single-acting engine. In empl'oying the cross-scavenging method is shown by Fig. these designs the turbochargers are capable of supplying 10. It may be seen that the scavenge air is compressed in scavenging and combustion air under all circumstances, two steps and cooled after each step. The first com- including starting, without a supplementary pump.



rT ?l







Air supply system with blower assist


2 3

air compressor 5 scavenge air receiver air cooler 6 combustion space ravenqe pump 7 exhaust receiver air cooler 8 exhaust turbine I Fig. 10 Cms-scavenging air supply system [


The scavenge ports a t the bottom of the cylinder are controlled by the lower piston, and the exhaust ports a t the top of the cylinder are controlled by the upper piston. Both scavenge and exhaust ports extend completely around the cylinder periphery. For additional discussion regarding the scavenging of slow-speed diesels, see references [14-161. 1.5 Cylinder Design, The cylinder head, cylinder liner, and piston form the combustjon chamber. These parts are bighly stressed from both a mechanical and thermal point of view. Higher su~ercharging larger and cylinder dimensions incur correspondingly higher stress levels. Simply increasing the thickness of the parts forming the combustion chamber as a means of reducing because mechanical stresses is not a satisfactory ~olution an increased wall thickness would cause increased temperature gradients and higher thermal stresses. As a result many engines employ a "backing system." That is, the wall thickness of the components forming the combustion chamber is minimized by supporting the back

side of the walls with a reinforcing structure. A cooling medium is circulated through the reinforcing structure; therefore, satisfactory solutions are obtained to both the mechanical and thermal stress problems. A typical cylinder "backing system" is illustrated by Fig. 14 for a loop-scavengingengine. The cylinder jacket is made of cast iron, and passages for scavenging air, exhaust gases, and cooling water are cast in place. An opening opposite the ports a t their level permits an inspection of the ports in the liner and a region of the piston without disassembly. The cylinder liner shown consists of two parts; the upper liner, which is made of wear-resistant cast iron, contains the scavenge and exhaust ports, which extend for a large arc of the liner circumference. The lower liner serves the primary function of guiding the piston while in the vicinity of the lower dead-center position. The top of the liner is supported by a steel backing ring which is part of the backing system. The liner and port lands are water cooled. The cylinder design of various engines differs in detail, a major distinction being the method of scavenging employed. For example, engines which operate with a uniflow scavenging system do not require water-cooled air ports, as cooling by air is sufficient. Figure 15 shows the combustion chamber of a uniflow-scavenging engine (the figure is a magnification of the combustion chamber shown in Fig. 12). The liner flange is reinforced by a steel band that is shrunk on; holes are drilled into the liner to facilitate cooling with water.


12 Uniflow-scavenging air supply system with exhaust valve [ 2 I1

1 2

lower cylinder liner 7 upper cylinder head inspection port 8 inleetion valve 3 upper cylinder liner 9 cooling water 4 cylinder lacket 10 exhaust porn 5 steel backing ring 1 1 air inlet porn 6 lower cylinder head of a loop-scavenging engine [8] Fig. 14 Cylinder






13 Uniflow ;cavenging for an opposed-piston design [ 0 I1


15 Combustion chamber of a uniflow-scavenging engine [12]
















Fig. 17 Piston and piston md of a loop-scavenging engine housing 11 securing ring 12 guide rod steel seat 13 guide bracket valve spindle 14 guard Aame guard 15 lower outer spring spindle lower guide 16 lower inner spring spindle upper guide 17 intermediate spring plate bottom guide bushing 18 bottom spring plate top guide bushing 19 lower guide bushing spring keeper 20 sealing ring split collar Fig. 16 Exhaust valve for a uniflow-scavenging engine [I 21


Fig. 19 Oil-cooled piston with swinging pipes



[I 1]

Cylinder heads (or covers) are reinforced thin-walled (see Fig. 12) and are closed by two sets of concentric castings that are water cooled. With many engine de- helical springs. . signs, the cylinder heads are carried rather far down such Some uniflow exhaust valve arrangements employ a that they enclose the pistons when the pistons are in the number of exhaust valves, as opposed to the single valve top dead-center position. This confines the region sub- shown in Fig. 16, but their principle of operation is the jected to the very hot gases to the cylinder head and pro- same. tects the cylinder liner. The firing pressure is t r a m 1.6 Piston and Piston Rod. The pistons of a loop- or mitted from the cylinder head to the cylinder jacket by cross-scavenging engine must be long because the lower the cylinder head studs. part has to cover the scavenge ports when the piston is The exhaust valves in uniflow-scavenging engines are in the top dead-center position. The piston is constructed highly stressed thermally; therefore, heat-resistant steels in three parts; see Fig. 17. The top part, the crown, is must be used in their construction. The cylinder head a steel casting in which the piston ring grooves are mashown in Fig. 15 is provided with a central large orifice chined. The casting is flame hardened in way of the for the exhaust valve, and bores are provided at the piston ring grooves to minimize wear in service. The sides for the fuel valves, starting valves, safety valves, lower part is a grey casting which is grooved to accomindicator cock, and the cooling water connection to the modate a scuffing band made of leaded bronze. The exhaust valve. A detailed illustration of the exhaust center part is a cast iron guide band which also contains valve which fits into the cylinder head in Fig. 15 is leaded bronze scuffing rings. The piston shown in Fig. shown by Fig. 16. The lower part of the spindle guide 17 is water cooled. Cooling water admission and disis water cooled. The valves are opened by cam action charge passages are within the piston rqd, as can be seen

water and also guards against fouling of the cooling water by splash oil. Oil is used to cool the pistons of some engines. A major distinction between the water-cooled and oilcooled pistons is that minor leakage of the cooling medium is not of consequence with the latter. This addition91 degree of freedom permits an arrangement such as indicated by Fig. 19. As with the water-cooled piston, the coolant is introduced at the crosshead; but in this case a swing-pipe scheme, which is characterized by minor leakage at the connecting joints, can be used since absolute containment of the coolant is not essential. For additional discussion regarding piston cooling and lubrication se3 Sections 2.2 and 2.3. The pistons in engines with a uniflow-scavenging system ar? short. Figure 20 (see also Fig. 12) is a section through an oil-cooled piston for a uniflow-scavenging engine. The molybdenum steel piston head is clamped to the piston rod by a cast iron guide skirt and an annular spring of the Belleville type. Piston cooling oil enters the outer annular cooling space with a high tangential I velocity and from there enters the central cooling space Fig. 18 Teleuopic pipes for piston cooling [8] with a high swirling velocity. 1.7 Diaphragm and Stuffing Box. The diaphragm from Fig. 17. The means provided to deliver the cooling and stuffing box for the piston rod form a barrier between water to and from the piston rod are illustrated by Fig. the combustion chamber and the crankcase. The pur18. Telescopic pipes, with their stuffing boxes, are pose of the barrier is to prevent harmful combustion located outside the crankcase; this arrangement ensures residues from entering the running gear and thus conthat there will be no contamination of the lube oil by taminating the lube oil and creating a corrosion hazard.




29 1


Fig. 21 Diaphragm with stuffing box [I 11



Fig. 2 0

Oidwoled pisbn for a unitlow-rcovenging engine


Fig. 2 2



D e A d o n of crossheods under load [9]


Fig. 2 4

1 bracket for telescopic pipes 2 lubrication oil pump Crorrhead and connecting md with guides on only one side


Additionally, the stuffing box w i ~ e s oil that adheres off to the rod and thereby controls the leakage of oil from the crankcase. A stuffing box that has been designed for an engine with the space beneath the piston open to the engine room is shown in Fig. 21. There is one upper sealing ring and two lower rings. Each ring is in three pieces held together by garter springs. For designs in which the lower sides of the pistons are used to pump scavenging air, the sealing arrangement shown by Fig. 21 is not suitable as an additional sealed barrier is required. In this case, a design similar to that in Fig. 11 may be used. Two sealed barriers are provided. One is a seal between the scavenge air and the ambient engine room air, and the other is a seal between the crankcase and the ambient air (similar to that in Fig. 21). This arrangement precludes the leakage of scavenging air into the crankcase. 1.8 Crosshead and Connecting Rod. To minimize the forces imposed upon the cylinder liner by the piston rod, low-speed diesel engines are designed with crossheads. The crosshead pin bearing is a particularly highly stressed element. The reasons for this are that the motion i s oscillatory and not continuous and that the pressure on the crosshead pin is always in the same direction during both the expansion and compression strokes. Under such adverse conditions, a load-carrying hydrodynamic oil film is hardly able to form. An additional complicating factor is that the crosshead pin is of relatively small diameter and deflects under the load such that there tends to be a concentration of pressure at the inner edge of the bearing near the piston rod, as illustrated by Fig. 22(a). With proper attention to design details, however, the pressure on the cro~shead can be made pin
cn.b cn. 7


cn. n





Fig. 23

Crouhead and connecting rod with guider on two sides [9]

Fig. 25

Built-up cranluhoft [I 21




Fig. 26

Crankshaft bearing [8]

nearly uniform. This can be accomplished, as shown in Fig. 22(b), by supporting the crosshead pin with a flanged element which is flexible near the piston rod, which would otherwise be the region of hardest contact. The crosshead in Fig. 23 is symrnetrical with four guides. The four crosshead guides are anchored to the columns on opposite sides. The lower end of the piston rod penetrates and is secured to the cylindrical crosshead pin. Each end of the crosshead pin has a babbitt-lined slipper in way of the bearing area. Because of the danger of a crankcase explosion, sparks in the crankcase must be avoided. For this reason, all crosshead bearings, crosshead slides, crankpin bearings, and crankshaft bearings are always of the babbitt-lined type. An oil passage is drilled into the connecting rod to lubricate the crankpin bearing (see Fig. 23). Provisions are made for inserting shims between the connecting rod and the bottom-end bearing attachment. This permits adjustments to be made to the compression ratio. An alternative crosshead design, in which crosshead guides are on only one side of the crosshead, is shown in Fig. 24. 'A bracket carrying the telescopic tubes of the piston cooling system is attached to the crosshead (see also Fig. 18).

1.9 Crankshaft and Crankshaft Bearings. Crankshafts are usually of the built-up type, with the cranks made of steel castings and the shaft elements made of forged steel. The cranks are shrunk onto the shaft elements as illustrated by Fig. 25. Engines which have a high number of cylinders frequently have their crankshafts made in two sections, as shown in Fig. 25. To reduce the unbalanced centrifugal forces, metal is removed from the crank webs where possible and added to the opposite side so as to produce a counterweight effect. The crankshaft bearings are cast steel shells lined with babbitt. Oil is admitted at the top of the bearing and runs through oil grooves in the top half of the bearing shell to the horizontal split. Figure 26 shows the oil supply passage to the crankshaft bearings. The manner in which the bearing ~ h e l h secured to the bedplate is are also clearly shown in the figure, as are the tie bolts which hold the engine together and resist the firing forces. In some engine designs lubricating oil is supplied through the crankshaft; however, the bearing lubrication arrangement in Fig. 26 is the one employed with most engines because it does not require oil passages to be bored in the crankshaft.

1 air silencer 4 bearing 7 guide blade 2 blower casing 5 shaft 8 turbine wheel 3 blower wheel 6 turbine casing 9 insulation ' Fig. 27 Turbocharger assembly [8]









z m


Section 2 Engine Subsystems

2.1 Supercharging. Until about 1940 high cylinder outputs were obtained with double-acting engine designs. This type of cycle permitted short engine lengths and low weights. However, the double-acting engines

Fig. 28

Constant-prarsure and puke turbodarging [9]

were too complicated and were not suitable for operation with heavy fuels. The cylinder output of a diesel engine can be increased effectively by supercharging. The cylinder mean effec-

tive pressure is directly related to the quantity of fuel bulped which, in turn, is related to the quantity of combustion air (oxygen) in the combustion chamber. With the development of gas-turbine-driven air compressors (turbochargers) which operate with the diesel engine exhaust gases, in conjunction with large cylinder dimen-

sions, high cylinder outputs were obtained also with single-acting engines. Compared with two-stroke diesel engines equipped with scavenging pumps, supercharging has permitted the mean effective pressure of low-speed diesels to be almost doubled. Supercharging also enables the specific fuel consumption and specific weight to be reduced. A single-acting design means a simple engine, good reliability, a long service life, minimum supervision and maintenance, and simplified operation. Besides this, a single-acting engine is capable of burning heavy fuel oils. All of these points contribute to economy; therefore, low-speed diesel engines are usually twostroke, single-acting, and supercharged. Figure 27 is a turbocharger assembly that is typical of those employed with low-speed diesels. In addition to the scavenging air which is compressed in the turbocharger, other sources of scavenging air are often provided. Examples are piston scavenging pumps which are mechanically driven by the engine itself, the lower sides of the main pistons (which may be designed as scavenging pumps), and small electric blowers (see Section 1.3). These additional sources of scavenging air ensure that the engine will be operable even in the event of a turbocharger casualty, and during starting, maneuvering, and low outputs. The exhaust gas turbine can be applied to operate on either the constant-pressure principle or the pulse principle. As can be seen from Fig. 28, in a constant-pressure arrangement the exhaust gases from all cylinders are conducted to a receiver and from there to the gas turbine. Since the pressure in the receiver tends to be the average of the cylinder outputs, the gas turbine is provided with a gas supply of nearly constant pressure. With this ar-






Fig. 29

Cylinder lacket and liner of a cross-scavenging engine

[I 1 1

rangement a supplementary source of scavenging air is required for starting and part loads; such an arrangement is illustrated by Fig. 9. With a pulse arrangement, the exhaust gases from each cylinder or group of cylinders are admitted directly to the gas turbine through a short exhaust pipe. As a result, the flow of exhaust gases to the turbine pulsates; the turbjne is designed such that it utilizes both the velocity and pressure energy in the exhaust gases. Additional sources of scavenging air are sometimes not required with a pulse design, but it is not unusual for mechanically driven air pumps to be installed as a precautionary measure recognizing the possibility of a blower casualty and, on occasions, to meet part-load air requirements. The degree of supercharging, in percent, can be assessed by the expression



mep. = mean effective pressure of the engine when supercharged mep. = mean effective pressure of the engine with normal scavenging With the original supercharged engines, the degree of supercharging, A, was appro~irnately percent. But 25 the degree of supercharging has subsequently risen such

that it lies in the general vicinity of 100 percent. This corresponds to a mep. of about 150 psi and a mep, of about 75 psi. The pressure of the scavenging air itself is approximately 15 psig. With air pressures this low, it is essential that resistailces to flow in the air passages be minimized in order to charge the cylinder with the largest possible quantity of air. The air pressure drop going into the cylinders is minimized & malung the ports as large as practicable and by extending them around a large arc of the liner circumference as illustrated by Fig. 14. In the case of uniflow-scavenging engines, the largest practicable exhaust valve area (see Fig. 16) is provided m a means of improving scavenging and supercharging efficiency. Turbochargers, mechanically driven air pumps, piston lower sides, and electric fans are used in various combinations and arrangements to provide the air required at full load and a t load. As discussed in Section 1.3 they may be aligned in series or in parallel and their alignment may shift depending upon engine load. The supercharging air is always cooled, with an air temperature leaving the cooler of 100 F being common. As shown by Fig. 10, air is often cooled in two stages to attain high scavenging efficiencies; additionally, thermal stresses in the combustion chamber are reduced bv cooling the superchawing air. "In some loop and croG-scavenging engines the exhaust ports, which are opened by the piston as it goes down during the power stroke, are opened before the scavenging ports (see Fig. 2); therefore, there is no problem with combustion gases tending to enter the scavenging air system. With supercharging, however, it is advantageous for the exhaust ports to be closed somewhat prior to the scavenging ports. For this purpose some engine designs are provided with a special exhaust valve of either the rotating or reciprocating type. This permits the pressure in the cylinder to reach approximately the stagnation pressure before the scavenge ports close. A disadvantage of this arrangement is that during the power stroke the scavenging ports can open before the exhaust ports and the combustion gases tend to backup into the scavenging air supply. However, this disadvantage can be resolved satisfactorily with nonreturn valves in the air supply, as shown in Fig. 29 (a detailed view of Fig. 10). 2.2 Cooling. The cooling of low-speed highly supercharged engines is a consideration of overriding importance. The cooling system must remove 20-30 percent of the fuel heat of combustion, which is a large quantity of heat with a large diesel engine. Engine cooling is important for several reasons. The strength of engine materials decreases with higher temperatures; therefore, cooling is necessary to regulate the material temperatures to a level that will ensure the material strength required. Additionally, the viscosity of lubricating oils is sensitive to temperature, and a t elevated temperatures the lubrication oil will break down with a resulting loss of lubricating properties; this re-



Fig. 30 Temperature distributions in a cylinder liner and a water-cooled piaton [9]

quires that the lubricating oil temperature be carefully controlled. Not only temperatures but also their gradients are important, as nonuniform temperatures cause thermal distortion and stresses. As discussed in Section 3.1, efficient engine cooling is also important in inhibiting high-temperature corrosion and slagging which can occur during the combustion of heavy fuels. At the other end of the scale, excessively low temperatures can cause the formation of sulfuric acid. When the combustion gases are reduced below their dew point, the oxidized sulfur in the combustion gases can be hydrolyzed t o form sulfuric acid, which can be extremely corrosive As noted in Section 2.1, cooling of the scavenging air is necessary for several reasons. One is that air of a tigh density is required for higher degrees of superchargng, . Fig. 3 Thermal expansion of water-cooled piaton rings [a] 1 and another is that relatively cool scavenging air reduces the thermal stresses in the combustion chamber. The cooling medium used to control the temperatures flow, a higher coolant velocity, more heat transfer area, of the mechanical elements of low-speed diesel engines or a combination thereof. An additional factor in favor may be either water or lubricating oil, and arguments of water is that oil can carbonize a t high temperatures. can be made in favor of each in the regions of high temThe cooling of pistons is particularly critical. Due to perature. From a heabtransfer point of view, water is the elevated temperatures at which they operate, there is preferred. At the conditions which exist within diesel a hazard of high-temperature corrosion. The temperaengines, the maximum heabtransfer coefficient with ture distributions in a typical water-cooled cylinder liner water is approximately 500 Btu/hr-ftz-deg F, whereas and piston are shown in Fig. 30. (Due to the inherent that with oil is in the range of 300-370 Btu/hr-ftbdeg F ; heat-transfer advantages of water, water cooling can and'the specific heat of water is about 1.0 Btu/lb-deg F as provide piston crown temperatures that are 200 to 300 compared with oil of 0.45 Btu/lb-deg F. Therefore, to deg F lower than oil-cooled pistons.) High-temperature transfer the same quantity of heat a t the same tempera- catalytic oxidation, primarily caused by vanadium ture differences, an oil system must have more coolant pentoxide and sodium pyrosulfate in the fuel ashes, has





I 2 3 4 5

air cooler turbocharger vent expansion tank freshwater pump Fig. 3 2

seawater-freshwater heat exchanger

7 seawater inlet (sea chest) 8 lubrication oil cooler

9 seawater fllter 10 seawater pump Engine cooling diagram

I lube oil valve 5 6 2 electrically driven pump 3 lube oil fllter 7 4 heat exchanger (see Fig. 32) Fig. 33 Lubricating oil

running gear lube oil tank cylinder lube oil distributor cylinder lube oil tank diagram

i t


formation of sulfuric acid. The engine cooling water outlet is maintained at 140-160 F; higher temperatures burned as nluch as a half-inch of metal from piston crowns are unsuitable because of excessive combustion chamber [5]. The high operating temperature of the piston re- (and combustion gas) temperatures and because of the sults in considerable thermal expansion, as may be see11 reduction in lubricating oil viscosity at high temperafrom Fig. 31; this can create adverse conditions for the tures. piston rings. It is necessary that the difference between the cooling Tending to offset the inherently poorer heat-transfer water inlet and outlet temperatures be small and that the properties of oil is the advantage that absolute contain- temperatures be uniform so as to minimize thermal ment of the cooling medium is not essential with oil. stresses. Before starting large engines, they are usually Minor coolant leakage within the engine is not of conse- preheated with the warm cooling water from auxiliary quence with oil, whereas leakage of water within the diesels. Automatic control and monitoring of the coolingengine, or oil into the water system, must be avoided. medium temperature is desirable; see Section 3.3 for Therefore, with oil as the cooling medium, there is con- additional discussion on this subject. siderably more freedom in designing the piston coolant When a heavy fuel is used, the injection valve is circuit; see Section 1.5 for additional discussion along cooled with fresh water or diesel oil and the cooling system is maintained in a separate circuit. A separate these lines. The various engine bearings and the crosshead guides circuit is essential with a freshwater coolant to avoid are cooled by the lubricating oil. contaminating the entire engine freshwater circuit in the At the higher temperature levels, seawater has un- event of a leaking injection valve. 2.3 Lubrication. Different oils are used for lubricating satisfactory corrosive and hardness properties; consequently, it is only usable at the lower temperature levels the crankcase mechanisms than are used for lubricating (e.g., lube oil coolers, air coolers). Fresh water, with a the cylinder linen. Since a barrier is provided which low hardness and with a corrosion-preventive additive, isolates the cylinder from the crankcase (see Section 1.7) is used at the higher temperature levels. Cylinder liners, the use of two different lubricating oils is feasible. cylinder heads, and exhaust valves are always cooled with Lubrication of the crankcase mechanisms is relatively fresh water. The fresh-water coolant is cooled by means simple. Conventional lubricating oils of SAE-30 visof a seawater-freshwater heat exchanger as illustrated by cosity are normally employed. Fig. 32. The figure shows that the scavenging air and An engine lubricating oil diagram is shown in Fig. 33. lubrication oil are cooled directly by seawater (as a re- Electrically driven pumps circulate the oil from the sult of their low temperature levels). crankcase oil sump (Fig. 26) to the separator, where Typically, fresh water enters the engine at 120-130 F; foreign particles, water, and water-soluble acids are lower temperatures are not used due to the increased oil removed. It is then filtered and cooled, as indicated viscosity at lower temperatures and the hazard of reach- in Fig. 32, and from there goes to the bearings. Adi g the combustion gas dew point with a consequent mission to the bearings is through the bearing shell (Fig. n

26) or through holes in the crankshaft, connecting rods (Fig. 23), and similar elements. The lubricating oil pressure at the engine inlet is about 25 psi. The conditions under which the crosshead bearings operate are particularly adverse from a lubrication standpoint. The motion at crosshead bearings is oscillatory instead of continuous and, unless special provisions are made, crosshead bearings tend to operate without an oil film. In order to operate satisfactorily, some engine designs require a very high oil pressure at the crosshead bearing. To supply the required pressure, these engines employ special high-pressure lubricating pumps attached to the crosshead, such as illustrated in Fig. 24. The arrangement shown in Fig. 24 is designed such that the pdmp forces oil into the grooved contact area of the crosshead bearing at the instant the load is a minimum (at bottom dead center). When the load increases, the bearing is supported hydrostatically, and an oil film is maintained during the remainder of the cycle. The consumption of bearing lubricating oil is usually small, resulting from leakage losses and pumping through stuffing boxes. The quantity of oil circulated lies in the range of 2 4 lb/bhp and is circulated 7-14 times per hour. The lubrication of engine liners is a special problem due to the combustion residues and the deleterious components in heavy fuels. Special lubricating oils are required for this purpose [18]. The oils used generally are of SAE-50 viscosity. Cylinder lubrication oil is usually injected into the liner by special pumps driven by the engine itself; however, the pumps can be separately driven. Figure 34 illustrates an oil distribution scheme for cylinder liners. Good oil distribution is especially important in the upper part of the liner to avoid abrasion of the liner and piston rings. The oil delivered by the pump must be injected

Fig. 3 4

Lubrication of a cylinder liner

when the piston is going up so that the piston rings will sweep the oil up into the highly stressed region of the liner. To prevent the cylinder pressure from forcing the lubricating oil back through the pump, small nonreturn valves, often simple ball check valves, are provided. Consumption of the liner lubricating oil is in the range of 0.0005-0.0017 lb/bhp-hr; therefore, the cost of liner lubricating oil is a significant operating expense. Combustion residues (see Section 3.1), together with the lubricating oil residues, collect on the diaphragm and are piped from there to the mud oil tank. 2.4 Fuel Injection. The fuel is injected directly into













CRANK A N G L E . DEGREES Fig. 3 5 Fuel inlection diagram




Fig. 37

Combustion chamber 191

I Fig. 36 Fuel iniection valve

the combustion chambers of low-speed diesel engines. Precombustion or turbulence chambers are not used; therefore, the fuel must be finely atomized. For the fuel to mix properly with the combustion air, there must also be a turbulent flow of air in the combustion chamber. The fuel injection pressure depends upon the viscosity of the fuel but lies in the range of 5,000-10,000 psi. The velocity of the fuel leaving the injection nozzle may reach 1100 fps. The viscosity of the fuel when injected is approximately 35-125 Redw. sec; fuels with higher viscosities must be preheated, as discussed in Section 3.1. The injection period depends upon the combustion qualities of the fuel and the speed of the engine. With low-speed engines, the injection period extends over 1530 dee of crank ande. The injection process begins aboutlo. deg before tip dead center; the iijection is 8;ch that combustion begins 5-0 deg of crank angle before top dead center. A typical fuel injection pressure d i e gram is shown in Fig. 35. The fuel valves are usually spring-loaded, as in Kg. 36; the needle opens when the fuel pressure is about one third of its maximum value, as indicated by Fig. 35. The nozzle generally has several holes of 0.01-0.04 in. diameter.

The configuration of the combustion chamber and the arrangement of the injection valves, as regards the position of the nozzles in the cylinder, must allow the longest possible distance for the injected fuel droplets to travel and also ensure sdIieient air turbulence to obtain a homogeneous fuel-air mixture. Figure 37 shows a fuel nozzle arrangement. The fuel pumps have spring-loaded plungers that are usuallv driven by the camshaft; Fig. 38 illustrates a typical arrangement. In exceptional cases one fuel pump may serve several cylinders by using a receiver, but more often each cylinder has its own fuel pump. Exact metering of the fuel and an equal distribution to all cylinders throughout the operating range is a complex problem. This problem is further aggravated by the use of higher mean effective pressures because the difference between the fuel flows at idle and full load becomes larger. One solution to this problem has been the use of doubleplunger fuel pumps; only one plunger operates at low powers and both operate at higher powers, so that fine regulation is obtained throughout the operating range. The plunger stroke of the fuel pumps generally is maintained constant, and the quantity of fuel injected into the combustion chamber is regulated in either of three ways: (1) By opening the inlet valve, thus changing the beginning of injection. (2) By providing a bypass valve between the outlet and inlet of the fuel pump, thus changing the end of injection. (3) By a helical land on the fuel pump plunger which can be rotated in the barrel, thereby changing the length of the injection period.

I fuel pump cam 5 fuel pump casing 2 cam follower 6 wction pipe 3 fuel leakage 7 pmsure pipe 4 spting 8 plunger Fig. 38 Cam-operated fuel pump [a]


Fig. 39

Fuel iniection regulating mechanism



Since marine diesel engines operate over a wide range of speeds, the time available for fuel combustion is variable; it is desirable to be able to change the time at which injection begins and/or ends. The plunger of a fuel injection pump often has a spiral control groove (or helix) and a control sleeve, as shown by Fig. 39 (a detailed view of the plunger in Fig. 38). By rotating the coxltrol sleeve in Fig. 39, the position of the control groove rel* tive to the fuel inlet port is changed thus altering the time at which the injection process ends, and therefore the quantity of fuel injected. For the type of pump shown, the beginning of the injection process can be altered by rotating the cam on the camshaft. The very high fuel injection pressures unavoidably result in some expansion of the pressurized fuel piping and compression of the fuel oil. This can cause a time delay in the pressure rise at the injection nozzle. To regulate the fuel flow satisfactorily and equalize the flow and timing between cylinders, it is desirable that all highpressure fuel pipe lengths be equal, as short as possible, and of heavy-wall construction. Regardless of the type of fuel used, the injection valve must be cooled. When only diesel fuel is used, the cooling medium is the fuel itself, but for heavy-fuel operation, a separate freshwater or diesel-oil cooling circuit is used. Further discussion along these lines is contained in Sections 2.2 and 3.1.
Starting, Reversing, and Control Arrangement.

Low-speed engines are started by means of compressed air which flows through the starting air valve to the engine cylinders. The starting speed must be high enough

to produce a temperature at the end of the compression stroke sufficientlyhigh to ensure ignition of the injected fuel. The starting speed is 30 percent or more of the rated speed. The starting torque must be high enough to overcome the frictional losses in the engine and propeller shafting. Frictional losses are high when the engine is cold due to the increased viscosity of the lubricating oil, but the engine frictional losses can be reduced by preheating the main engine and its lubricating oil with warm water from an external source. Reversing the engine when the ship is ip motion is a particularly stringent design criterion in that sufficient starting power must be provided to overcome the hydrodynamic torque produced by the propeller. The st'arting air is compressed and stored in air bottles at a pressure of 400-600 psi. The starting air pressure delivered to the starting valve is at a pressure of about 400 psi. The air bank capacity is specified by the classification societies in the form of a requirement that a reversible engine be capable of at least twelve consecutive starts without recharging the air bank. The required air capacity consequently is dependent upon the number of cylinders, cylinder diameter, ' piston stroke, mep, service air pressure, and the like. If a hot engine is reversed or started after a brief shutdown, the cold starting air can subject the engine to considerable thermal stresses. A starting mechanism for a low-speed diesel is illus-





ASTERN Fig. 43



1 cam 2 reno pbton 3 starting air valve Fig. 4 0

4 5 Stating air mechanism

vent starting air Fig. 41 Several distributing valves actuated by one cam

Admission of starting air






2 camshaft

! fuel valve open

2 fuel valve shut
3 hg. 4 4 crank angle shift for reversing Fuel Inleetion cam shift for revening

8 sllding blbck 9 fuel regulating wheel 3 starting slide valve 10 slotted plate 4 fuel pump cam follower (ahd. & ast.) 11 stating air valve 5 stating lever 12 cylinder 6 slotted plate 13 air bottle 7 sen0 piston 14 air compressor Fig. 45 Starting and revening mechanbm scheme
1 reversing lever

PISTON 2 3 4


1 starting air only, first revolution

starting air only, s m d revolution ignition of fuel and starting air normal wmbulon without stating air 5 opening of the start1n.g air valve Fig. 42 Cylinder pressure when starting

trated in Fig. 40. When the engine piston is just beyond the top dead-center position, the distributor valve cam, driven by the engine itself, opens the distributing valve, thus opening the starting air valve pneumatically by means of a servo piston. The starting air valve can be opened only when the starting air pressure is higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber, otherwise there would be a backflow from the combustion chamber into the starting air pipe. In such an event fuel or lubricating oil residues could result in an explosion. It is not necessary that each cylinder have a starting air valve, but it is necessary that the engine be able to start from any crank angle. In the case of two-stroke engines, this means that at least three cylinders must be equipped with starting air valves. The distributing valves

of the various cylinders are actuated by means of a common cam as shown in Fig. 41. The pressure in the cylinder when starting the engine is shown in Fig. 42. During the first two revolutions shown, the engine rotates by means of compressed a r i only to the required starting speed. During the third revolution a limited quantity of fuel is injected into the combustion chamber and burned; the fuel quantity limitation is necessary to avoid excessively high pressures in the combustion chamber. During the fourth cycle shown, the starting air is switched off and the quantity of fuel injected is aa required for the running condition desired, and the starting process is completed. To reverse an engine, the distributor cam is turned through such an angle that starting air is admitted when

the piston is on the proper side of the top dead-center (2) The starting air system must be interlocked to position to give the desired direction of shaft rotation. preclude manipulation of the starting mechanism Figure 43 illustrates the air adplission position for ahead when the engine is in the normal operating mode. and astern operation. Likewise, all cams which control (3) The quantity of fuel injected into the combusprocesses in the cylinder that have unsymmetrical angles tion chamber during the starting period must be of opening and closing with respect to the dead-center limited to prevent excessively high combustion positions are turned throukh a aimilar angle. The shift pressures (see Fig. 42); the fuel-regulating mecharequired of the fuel injection valve cam is illustrated by nism should have an override which permits the Fig. 44. quantity of injected fuel to be increased to faciliFor two-stroke engines in which the pistons control the tate starting under unfavorable conditions. scavenging and exhaust air ports (loop and cross Faveng(4) The starting mechanism and turning gear must ing) only the cams of the starting air and fuel pumps be interlocked to preclude starting the engine must be turned. In the case of uniflow two-stroke when the turning gear is engaged. engines, the cams actuating the exhaust valves must There are several practical manners in which the cams also be turned. can be shifted from the ahead to the astern positions. To avoid errors during starting and reversing that m y result in engine damage, the following requirements One possibility is an arrangement with a two-position are imposed upon the starting and reversing mechanism: coupling between the driving gear of the engine and the camshaft; the coupling would have end positions in the (1) The starting air system must be interlocked such ahead and astern directions. Another possibility is to prothat starting air can be admitted only when all vide two cams on the camshaft, one for ahead operation cams are in their end positions for ahead or astern and the other for astern operation; by moving the camoperation; admission of starting air must be pre- shaft axially, either the ahead or astern cams can be cluded when cams are in intermediate positions. placed in contact with the cam followers.





Fig. 4 6

Axid-movement camshaft with cams for ahead and astern operation [8J

A simple starting and reversing mechanism is shown in Fig. 45. For starting, the reversing lever 1 is placed in either the ahead or astern position, thus moving the camshaft in the axial direction. This places the rollers of the starting slide valves 3 and of the fuel pumps 4 in contact

with the proper cams. The starting lever 6, which was previously blocked in the stop position by the plate 6 , now can be moved through the slots in the plate to the starting position; this opens the starting air servo piston 7 by means of rods 8. The engine rotates, and upon reaching the starting speed a limited quantity of fuel is injected by turning the fuel regulating wheel 9; the quantity of fuel injected is limited by the plate 10 in contact with the rods 8. After completing the starting procedure, the starting lever 5 is moved to the operating position, thus blocking the reversing lever 1 and a t the same time freeing the fuel regulating wheel 9. Fuel now can be injected as required to attain the desired engine output. Both hydraulic and pneumatic servomotors have been used for moving the camshaft axially. A mechanism for shifting the camshaft is illustrated by Fig. 46; the camshaft is gear driven from the crankshaft as shown in Fig. 47. Another possibility for reversing the fuel injection process is shown by Fig. 48. The camshaft has different cams for ahead and astern operation. The fuel injection pump has a roller for each cam, and by turning the reversing shaft the desired roller is placed in contact with its corresponding cam. I t is also possible to change the distance between the roller and cam by turning the




48 Fixed-position camahaft with cams for ahead and astern operation

shaft; this means that the piston stroke of the fuel injection pumps and consequently the quantity of injected fuel can be adjusted. A mechanism in which the same cam is used for both ahead and astern operation is shown in Fig. 49. The camshaft is directly driven by the crankshaft through a two-position hydraulic coupling. The coupling permits an angle of displacement asrequired for ahead and astern operation. The cam shown in Fig. 49 serves two fuel injection pumps. The reversing performance of a 65,000-dwt tanker is shown by Fig. 50. The first step when reversing is to internipt the flow of fuel to the engine. The ship begins a gradual decrease in speed, but the engine rpm abruptly drops until the propeller takes charge of the engine and causes it to continue rotating in the ahead direction at about 10-15 percent of the initial rpm. As the ship speed decreases, the hydrodynamic torque developed by er the ~ r o ~ e l ldecreases until the reversing speed is reached. r The reversing speed is the speed a t which the torque that can be developed by admitting starting air to the engine in the reverse direction is sufficient to stop the engine (and propeller) and reverse it. Once initiated, the actual reversing process is accomplished rapidly, as can be seen from Fig. 50. When accomplished as illustrated by Fig. 50, the reversing maneuver is conservative. In the event of an emergency, starting air can be admitted to the

Fig. 49 One cam for ahead and ostem operation 1 1 1 ]

Fig. 5 0

65,000-dwt tanker engine reversing and ship stopping performance

engine in the reverse direction sooner, before the engine can actually take charge of the propeller, as a meam of braking %he ship and decreasing the time required to reach the reversing speed.

Section 3 Overall Considerations

3.1 Heavy Fuel Operation. Low-speed marine diesel engines, in general, burn heavy petroleum fuels that are not only extremely viscous but also contain large quantities of impurities. The constituents, properties at injection, combustion, and combustion residues formed are

Fig. 47

Camshaft drive gear

[] 8

considerably different with heavy fuels as compared with standard diesel fuels. As a result, when heavy fuel is used, special arrangements for re paring the fuel before injection as well as special design features of the engine itself are required. In addition, special lubricating oils



are required for the combustion chamber when heavy fuels are used. Major differences between heavy fuels and diesel fuels are as follows: (1) The specsc gravity of heavy fuels is higher, in the range of 0.9404.995 as compared with diesel fuels at 0.824.86. Due to the higher specific gravity, the separation of water from heavy fuels is considerably more difficult. For this reason the filling of fuel tanks with ballast water is often discouraged because upon refilling with fuel, the residual water mixes with the fuel. (2) Due to their higher viscosity (200-4000 Redw. sec at 100 F), heavy fuels must be heated to 210-250 F to reach the low viscosity (35-125. Redw. sec) required at the injection valve. (3) Heating of heavy fuels is also necessary to maintain the fuel at the proper viscosity at the injector. Heavy fuels can be used when maneuvering, but the fuel lines to the injection valve also must be heated. For this reason, and also in recognition of the desirability of baving diesel fuel in the lines upon shutdown, sometimes diesel fuels are used when maneuvering and the use of heavy fuels is confined to continuous operation at sea. (4) Due to the longer time required for the combustion of heavy fuels, the injection times for heavy fuel and diesel fuel are different. Heavy fuels must be injected earlier than diesel fuels. (5) Heavy fuels contain large quantities of tarry substances which must be separated and removed from the fuel because the tarry substances together with the lubricating oil residues form gummy deposits which have a deleterious effect on piston rings, inlet and exhaust ports, and other parts. These materials can be separated from the fuel by centrifuging, but it must be done when the fuel is at a moderate temperature. When the fuel is heated above approximately~210F, the tarry materials dissolve and cannot be separated. Therefore, the heavy fuel is heated to a maximum of 185-210 F before centrifuging. As an example, during a 24-hr period up to 880 lb of tarry materials and matter insoluble in normal pentane, 615 lb of sulfur, and 13 lb of incombustible matter may be removed from the fuel to a cylinder developing 2100 hp [19]. (6) Heavy fuels have an ash content (0.03-0.5 percent mineral ashes) which must be removed insofar as practicable due to its erosive effect in the cylinder. The fuel ash content is removed during the centrifuging process. (7) Heavy fuels may contain up to 5 percent sulfur. Due to the high sulfur content, a significant quantity of acid combustion residues passes down between the piston and liner. These acid residues must be prevented from entering the crankcase, otherwise the lubricating oil would be contaminated and consequently there would be a corrosion hazard. Therefore a diaphragm, with a stuffingbox for the piston rod (see Section 1.6), is required between the combustion chamber and crankcase. (8) Due to the higher sulfur content in the fuel, there

is an increased hazard of corrosion by sulfuric acid in the low-gas-temperature regions. The engine cooling s y 5 tem must be designed such that the temperatures of materials which are contiguous with the combustion gases are maintained above the dewpoint of the combustion gases so that sulfuric acid will not form. (9) Heavy fuels contain a number of impurities which can have a vitiating effect on the life of operating parts. Oxides and sulfates of vanadium, sodium, potassium, and zinc are among the most harmful in this respect, and all have melting points (slagging temperatures) in the range of 1100 F to 1600 F. Unfortunately, several of these combine with each other and with the ingredients of the structural metals to form eutectic mixtures with lower melting points, generally in the range of 1050 F, but in several cases, as low as 930 F. The latter temperature is associated with eutectic mixtures of sodium sulfate and vanadium pentoxide which are particularly to be avoided. Contamination (slagging) and corrosion often accompany each other but are not necessarily present at the same time. Generally, the two mechanisms are interrelated in that accelerated corrosion results from the contaminant combining with and removing the film of oxidation which normally protects the metal. Therefore, in the high-temperature region (piston crown, upper part of the liner, and cylinder head) an effective cooling system is especially important with heavy fuels. (10) Due to the combustion residues formed when using a heavy fuel, special abrasion-resistant materials must be selected for the cylinder liner, piston rings, and other moving parts. (11) The specific fuel consumption when burning a heavy fuel is somewhat greater than when a diesel fuel is used for the following reasons:
(a), The lower heating value of heavy fuels is in the








0 @=

Fig. 52

Gas Inleetion for a dual-fuel engine 1 1 9

range of 17,100-17,500 Btu/lb, while that for diesel fuel is 18,100-18,400 Btu/lb. For this reason, the specific fuel consumption with heavy fuels is increased 2-5 percent. (b) The weight of fuel lost during the separation process depends, of course, on the quality of the fuel. In the extreme case cited previously, by weight about 7 percent of the fuel would be lost during separation. However, a nominal value of 1 percent is considered more representative of the heavy fuels normally burned in slow-speed diesels. (12) Most heavy fuels contain highly volatile components and tend to form gases when heated; therefore, heaters must be placed on the upstream pressure side of the fuel line to prevent the formation of gas in the fuel pump suction and heaters. Additionally, electric heaters should not be used since cracking invariably takes place due to the high localized temperatures which form gas and coke in the heaters. A process for heavy-fuel preparation is shown in Fig. 51. After the heavy fuel is heated in the main fuel tank

3.2 Gaseous Fuel Operation. In the case of liquefied petroleum gas tankers that are driven by diesels, the cargo boil-off can be burned in the diesel engines in concert with fuel oil. Since the gaseous boil-off would be lost to the atmosphere if not reliquefied or burned, the gaseous fuel burned represents a direct savings. ThereFig. 51 Heavy fuel oil treatment schematic fore, low-speed diesel engines in liquefied petroleum gas tankers are sometimes adapted for "dual-fuel" operation, that is, the combustion of both liquid and gaseous fuels. sufficiently to enable it to be pumped, it is pumped Slow-speed diesels can be adapted to burn gaseous through filters to two settling tanks, connected in fuels by mounting a gas injection valve in the cylinder parallel, each having a capacity for 24-hr operation. In head as illustrated by Fig. 52. The gaseous fuel is under these tanks the fuel is heated again to precipitate some a pressure of approximately 55 psi and is admitted by a residues. After being allowed to settle, the fuel is re- hydraulically actuated gas valve during the later phase heated and pumped to the separators. The reheat tem- of the scavenging process. The gas is directed towards perature must be maintained sufficiently low so that the the rising flow of scavenging air, thus ensbring a good tarry constituents will remain in solid form and be re- mixture between the gas and air. moved from the fuel by the separator. In the first The major difficulty involved in the combustion of separator stage (purifier) a small quantity of fresh water gaseous fuels is the problem of knocking. A mean effecis added to remove the ash content and water-soluble tive pressure of about 115 psi can be developed with a acids. No water is introduced in the second stage gaseous fuel containing not more than 10 percent methane (clarifier). The fuel is often reheated between the two or 5 pwcent propane. A higher concentration of separator stages. methane or propane requires a derating of the engine. Two separators are sometimes installed; this provides If, however, more than 10-percent carbon dioxide or for continuous availability of a clean separator, as one nitrogen is mixed with the fuel, uprating is possible. can be operated while the other is cleaned. Additionally, Cooling of the gaseous fuel charge also can be accomtwo separators are advantageous in that both may be plished to advantage. used simultaneously when one is heavily loaded and not Ignition of the gaseous fuel is accomplished by a spray performing to the desired standard. of pilot fuel which accounts for about 5 percent of the After leaving the separator, the fuel is put in either of total heat input. If larger quantities of pilot fuel are two day tanks that are connected in parallel. The fuel used, higher mean effective pressures are attainable. oil ,service pump delivers the oil from the day tanks An automatic switch-over gear is usually provided through a preheater, filter, and viscosimeter to the fuel which enables the engine to be changed from a gaseous injection pump. The line from the last heater to the to a liquid fuel without interrupting the operation of the injection valve is heated by steam. engine. Any proportion of gaseous to liquid fuels can





. be used. At .the full-load ~ o i n tthe total fuel consumr>tion is approximately the same with either gaseous or diesel fuels. 3.3 Accessories. A great deal of pressure, temperature, and speed data must be talcell in order to ascertain that the various processes within an engine are being performed properly. Audible and visual warning devices also are used to identify measured data that are not within prescribed acceptable limits. Depending upon the number of cylinders, between 60 and 100 bits of data aM recorded. Data which are typically monitored at the control station are as follows: Direction of engine rotation (ahead or astern) Engine rpm.(ahead or astern) Turbocharger rpm Pressures: Starting air Scavenging pressure to cylinder Lubricating oil to and from cooler Fresh water to and from cooler Fresh water for piston cooling Fresh water for cylinder cooling Fresh water for injection valve cooling Temperatures : ~ x h a u s gases from each cylinder t Exhaust gases to and from turbocharger Exhaust gas from exhaust gas boiler Lubrication oil t o and from cooler Fresh water to and from cooler Seawater Heavy fuel (also the viscosity)




Fig. 54

Hydraulic removal of main bearing lower shell


Fig. 53

Hydraulic tool for prelooding a stud '[a]

tion of fuel if the lubrication oil or cooling water pressures should fall below acceptable limits. Occasionally dampers are provided to minimize the torsional vibration in the shafting system; torsional vibration dampers are often mounted a t the forward end These same parameters and others also can be monitored of the crankshaft. Engines are equipped with a turning gear which endirectly at the engine. Mercury thermometers and ables the crankshaft to be rotated slowly. The turning thermocouples are provided for taking temperature me* surements, and a recording tachometer is provided which part operates through the flywheel. A large complement of onboard repair parts are repermits an exact measurement of the engine revolutions. The fuel consumption is measured by means of a fuel-oil quired for diesel engines. Some of the large repair meter and can be checked by gage glasses on the day parts required are as follows : tanks. Each cylinder is equipped with an indicating inpistons and piston rings strument to determine the indicated p-u diagram for the cylinder liners cylinder. cylinder heads Speed regulation of the more recently built slow-speed stuffing boxes for piston rods diesels is accomplished by a hydraulic governor. Regfuel injection valves ulation of the engine speed is accomplished by altering starting valves the output of the fuel injection pumps. The accuracy safety valves of regulation is within limits of about a 1 percent of the exhaust valves for uniflow engines ordered speed. In addition to a speed regulator, an overspeed trip is provided which interrupts the fuel injection process in the event that the normal speed This list 'of large and heavy parts is only representative; regulator is not capable of maintaining the engine rpm furthermore, there are numerous smaller items. The large dimensions and heavy weights of many of within tlie prescribed limits. Circumstances which the low-speed engine parts require special tools. These could cause the overspeed trip to actuate would be very bad weather during which the engine rpm would tools make it possible for the small number of people surge periodically due to the propeIIer partially coming aboard ship to properly execute with ease many mainteout of the water, the loas of a propeller which would nance tasks that otherwise would be onerous. Special cause the engine to suddenly race, and analogous situ* tools effectively increase the availability of the engine. Special tools typically provided include hydraulic stud tions. Provisions are also made to interrupt the injec-

preloaders which permit studs to be tightened accurately without imposing torsional loads on the studs; this is a desirable capability in connection with cylinder head studs, frame tie rods, and studs in crossheads, main bearings, and the like. The principle upon which the hydraulic wrench for tightening nuts operates is illustrated in Fig. 53. Oil pressure is applied simultaneously to several of the devices that are fitted over permanent nuts to preload the studs; the permanent nuts then can be tightened by hand by inserting a rod into the holes bored in the bases of the nuts. ~ ~application oft a special tool ~ shown in ~ i ~ h is ~ 54. Removal of the lower half of a main bearing shell is facilitated by creating a hydrostatic oil film between the bearing shell and the supporting structure. Upon turning the crankshaft, the higher frictional force between the shell and the crankshaft causes the shell to turn with the shaft to the point that it can be easily removed. Special tools are also advantageous in the removal of cylinder liners and in a number of other applications. 3.4 Remote Control and Automation. Remote contrO1 of a propulsion plant either the bridge Or from a special control room and the automation of propubion plant were first in mation of engine operations are advantageous from several points of view. First, but not necessarily the most important, a reduction in routine supervisory labor is permittted; particularly the night-service labor. Engine operation is supervised at the bridge in a convenient manner the monitoring The engine need be manned a t night weather or close waters for safety reasons onlythat bad (so in the engine can be switched to manual operation if need be) and when maneuvering (this includes preparing the engine for operation and shutting the engine down). An additional advantage is that engine maloperation is automatically sensed and alarmed. Furthermore, in some cases remedial measures are taken automatically;

r------,-,- - -



~ Fig. .


Cantrol system rchqmatic diagrom for a direct-revehing d l h l engine

as an example, in the event of failure of an auxiliary such as a lubricating pump, the pump is started and put on the automatically. Thus, automatic provides an additional degree of engine safety in that prolonged engine msloperation is avoided, The remote control and automation principles in the case those of low-speed engines are generally the same as with other typesof propulsion plants. But the automation of low-speed engines * important as these engines are of larger power with corremeans tha% the engine's temperatures and temperature gradients are high. with thermal stressw being a matter of grave concern, it is advantageous to be able to automatically monitor the temperatures throughout the engine. A schemstic diagram of a systemfor a directreversing diesel engine is shown bythe following se~ . operating an engine automstically, ~ i 55. When quence is followed: Starting the engine "ahead" or " a s h " (1) Check that the fuel admission is set to zero. (2) Move the starting air lever to "ahead" or "astern"; this positions the camshaft so that




Fig. 56

Low-speed dieael installation

The following alarms are usually provided starting air is admitted to the "ahead" or mated control system: "astern" ~ o r t of the distributor. s (3) Check that ingine rotation is"aheadJ' or "astern." Main engine cooling 8 8tC.m (4) Wait for the engine to reach the adjustable firing , Pump suction and dehery pressures speed. Cooler inlet and outlet temperatures Cooling water tank level gage Raise the fuel admission linkage to the starting (5) Reserve cooling water tank level gage position. Outlet temperature of each component cooled (6) After a time delay, cut off the starting air. Main engine h W i n g oil Pump suction and delivery pressures (7) Check to determine that the engine speed is above Cooler inlet and outlet temperatures or below the firing speed. Sump tank level gauge Pressures to and from filters (8) If the rpm is above the firing speed, raise the fuel Pressure at turbochargers admission linkage to correspond with the conTemperature at each main bearing troller setting. Pressure at main bearing inlet mainfold f Cylinder lubricating oil pressure (9) I the engine rpm is below the firing speed, repeat Temperature of propeller shaft bearings actions (1)-(7). When the engine has failed to Pressure of oil to reduction g e m fire three times, the starting sequence is disTemperature of reduction gear bearings Temperature of thrust bearing continued and the control system gives an alarm. Main engine exhauat goe Temperature of gas leaving cylinder Changing engine revolutions Temperature of ges to and from blowers (10) Move the fuel admission linkage to correspond Main engine pre8eure charging 8y8tem with the new telegraph setting. Temperature of air at inlet Air pressure leaving filters Reversing the engine Temperature of air leaving blowers (11) Move the fuel admission lever to zero. Temperature of air leaving coolers (12) Wait until the revolutions have fallen to the Turbocharger speed Temperature inside scavenge belt firing speed. Main engine fuel oil Perform normal starting actions (1)-(9). (13) Oil pressure to and from high-pressure fuel I the engine has a barred speed range (i.e., a vibratory f 0ii;:f::ure to and from heaters resonant frequency within the operating range), the fuel Main engine starti9 air lever setting is slowly increased until the engine speed is Pressure in each an bottle Pressure in starting manifold on engine above the ba&?l _speedrange.

in an autoAhwn Low High Low Low High

Low High

High Low Low High Low High High High High High Low High High Low High High, Low High, Low Low Low


For additional discussion regarding the automation of diesel propulsion plants, see Section 2.4 of Chapter 21. 3.5 Installation Aboard Ship. Low-speed diesel engines are not rigid either in bending or in torsion; for this reason, it is not possible to place vibration isolation material between the engine and the hull foundation. A rigid hull foundation, with a high resistance to vertical, athwartship, and fore-and-aft deflections, is required. The engine is bolted to the hull foundation with fitted bolts used a t one end of the engine (near the thrust bearing) and clearance-fit bolts towards the other end. Chocks are accurately machined and fitted between the engine base and the hull foundation so as to uniformly support the engine and avoid imposing stresses on the .engine frame. The design of hull foundations does not lend itself to an exact analysis; instead, it is influenced ' greatly by previous successful experience. The engine room must be designed such that there is sufficient overhaul space above the engine for the removal of cylinder heads, pistons with piston rods, and cylinder liners. Furthermore, these and other replacement parts which are both large and heavy must be lifted by cranes. Consequently, the engine room must be designed to permit the replacement parts to be lifted from their storage area, transported, and lowered to the engine by crane. An engine room skylight, or similar opening, also should be provided to transport replacement parts to and from the ship. Due to the low-frequency noise generated by lowspeed engines, the operating platform can be located a t the engine itself. But special control rooms are often preferred as the noise level in the control room can be made to be approximately 30 db less than the 100 db in the engine room. The auxiliary equipment is arranged in groups to facilitate their control and surveillance. For example, the lubricating oil equipment, including pumps, filters, coolers, separators, and their fittings, are grouped together. Similarly the cooling water, heavy fuel preparation, and electric plant equipment are arranged in groups. A low-speed diesel engine with a rating of 18,000 shp a t 118 rpm as installed in a container ship is shown in Fig. 56. Electric power is produced by the generator mounted directly on the line shafting. Operation of the entire plant is automatic, and it is remotely controlled from the bridge. The engine room is completely unattended for 16 hours of the day.


1 K. Illies, Schiffsbetriebstechnik, yieweg-Verlag Braunschweig, 1969. 2 K. Illies, "Neueste Entwicldungen im Schiffsmaschinenbau," Jahrbuch des Schflahrtswesens, 1968. 3 S. Bock and G. Mau, Die Dieselmaschine im Landund Schiffsbetrieb, Friedrich Vieweg u. Sohn, Braunschweig, 1968. 4 W. Henschke; Schijj'bautechnisches Handbuch, VEB Verlag Technik, Berlin, 1958. 5 F. Mayr, Ortsfeste und Schiffsdieselmotoren, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1948. 6 F. Sass, Bau und Betrieb von Dieselmaschinen, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1948. 7 F. A. F. Schmidt, Verbrennungskraftmaschinen, Verlag R: Oldenbourg, Munchen, 1951. 8 Illustrations through the courtesy of MAN. 9 Illustrations through the courtesy of Sulzer. 10 ~llustrations through the courtesy of Doxford. 11 Illustrations through the courtesy of Fiat. 12 Illustrations through the courtesy of Burmeister and Wain. 13 T. W. D. Abell and J. F. Butler, "The Future of the Large Direct-Coupled Diesel Engine," SNAME Spring Meeting, 1966. 14 J. A. Smit, "The Future of Diesel Propulsion," SNAME Spring Meeting, 1966. 15 H. Andresen, "Slow-Running Marine Diesel Plants," SNAME Spring Meeting, 1966. 16 E. A. van der Molen and Ir. H. van der Wal, "Air Consumption Data and Practical Performance Data of the Stork Uniflow-Scavenged Two-Stroke Marine Engine," Trans. IME, 1966. 17 K. Knaack, "Taupunktverhalten von Verbrennungsgasen mit hoheren Luftuberschusszahlen," Schiff und Hafen, 1968. 18 M. J. van der Zijden and A. A. Kelly, "Combating Cylinder Wear and Fouling in Large Low-Speed Engines," Trans. IME, 1956. 19 Hugo H. Scobel and Jochen Richter, "A New A p proach to Maintenance and Operation of Large-Bore, Two-Stroke Diesel Engines, and Experience in Operation of Periodically Unattended Engine Rooms," SNAME Diamond Jubilee (Spring) Meeting, 1968. 20 D. Gray, Centralized and Automatic Controls in Ships, Pergamon Press, 1966.

- ,



31 1



I Reduction Gears
IZede-France had a propulsion plant of 52,000 shp divided arriong four screws. The turbines were designed by Parsons and were of the reaction type. The main turbines contained a total of more than 800,000 blades and weighed 1065 tons. With the further development of the steam turbine, still higher turbine speeds could be used to advantage and the single-reduction gear no longer met the need. Engineers began development of the double-reduction gear, where practically no limits were imposed on the speed ratio that could be obtained. This permitted both the turbines and propellers to be operated a t speeds suitable for their individual maximum efficiencies. Double-reduction gearing was first used about 1917. For a few years during and after the first world war, many ships were equipped with this type of gearing. Due to many unknown factors entering into the design and use of this new type of reduction gear and also due to the unusual operating conditions during the first years of use, considerable difficulties were experienced and many casualties of reduction gears occurred, which more or less slowed the general adoption of doublereduction gearing. However, by adhering to sound design principles, it was possible to eliminate early mistakes and develop satisfactory double-reduction gears and to greatly increase the application of this type of power transmission. This is not to suggest that the development of double-reduction gears immediately made single-reduction gears obsolete. For higherpowered naval ships with propeller speeds above about 200 rpm, single-reduction gears remained in general use until the early 1930's. Then, the higher rotational speeds of the more modern steam turbines brought about the demise of single-reduction gearing for turbine drives in all categories. Single-reduction drives still remain the standard, however, , for high- and intermediate-speed diesel engine service. The development of propulsion gearing has been one of a continuous improvement and refinement in materials and in manufacturing techniques and equipment to provide greater reliability and longer life. The horsepower ratings of gears have increased to keep pace with the requirements for larger and faster ships. There are only a few step-advances that can be identified, the step from single to double reduction, the introduction of welding to the construction of gear wheels and casings,

Section 1 Introduction
1.1 Early History. It is generally acknowledged that Dr. DeLaval was the first to apply a reduction gear for ship propulsion with a 15-hp experimental unit in 1892. This was followed by Sir Charles Parsons with .his 10-hp experimental geared-turbine unit in 1897. However, these were experimental units and functional marine reduction gears did not make their debut until some years later. Just after the turn of the century, the steam turbine was being championed for ship propulsion by Sir Charles Parsons and others. I n a study in 1904 of the prob* bility of the steam turbine becoming a successor to the reciprocating engine, Admiral George W. Melville and Mr. John H. MacAlpine, consulting engineers, reported: "If one could devise a means of reconciling, in a practical manner, the necessary high speed of revolution of the turbine with the comparatively low rate of revolution required by an efficient propeller, the problem would be solved, and the turbine would practically wipe out the reciprocating engine for the propulsion of ships. The solution of this problem would be a stroke of great genius." Parsons in 1909 said, "The solution may be found in reverting to some description of gearing. . . and if a satisfactory solution can be found, then the field of the turbine at sea will be further extended." Parsons carried on further research and experimental work in applying the helical gear to large-scale marine installations, and in 190!9-1910 he equipped the Vespaaian with a geared-turbine plant. The gear was rated a t 1095 hp and reduced the turbine speed of 1450 rpm to a propeller speed of 73 rpm. George Westinghouse, in 1909, demonstrated in a shop test a 6000-hp gear which reduced the speed from a 1500-rpm turbine to a 300-rpm hydraulic dynamometer. This gear was the forerunner of the 6500-hp gears installed in the collier Neptune a short time later. The adoption of high-speed helical reduction gears in connection with marine propulsion was rapidly accepted by engineers all over the world, and this type of equipment had a very rapid development. At the end of 1910 the total power of geared marine turbines was about 15,000 shp, whereas 30 years later marine propulsion of this type in service totaled over 100,000,000 shp. It is interesting to note that the last large ship built with direct-connected turbines was the passenger liner Ile-&-France, which went into service in 1927. The

and the introduction of higher hardness pinion and gear materials with the attendant higher gear *toothloadings. The reliability, high efficiency, and long life of the modern reduction gear is well known and its low noise level makes it completely acceptable in the engine room. These factors have been in large part responsible for the continuing popularity of the geared-turbine drive for ships. 1.2 Articulation and Gear Arrangement. The early reduction gear designs incorporated many devices to minimize the effects of bending and torsion of the pinion and of inaccuracies in machining and alignment. However, experience has demonstrated that such devices are unnecessary, and gear elements are so proportioned and machined that uniform tooth pressures are obtained without the use of mechanical devices to compensate for pinion deflections. Figure l(a) represents the simplest arrangement of a marine reduction gear, i.e., one pinion meshing with a gear as used, for instance, for connecting a propeller to a diesel engine or to an electric motor. It is not used for propelling equipment with a turbine drive but, on the other hand, it has found a wide application for turbine driven auxiliary equipment on board ship such as generators and circulating pumps. Figure l(b) is a drive with two pinions as used frequently with diesel engines of comparatively large power. It is not used for direct connection to high-speed turbines, but is often used in the second reduction gear unit of a turbine drive using doublereduction gears. Figure l(c) represents the early type of single-reduction gear for a turbine drive, the principal difference between this reduction gear and the one shown in Fig. l(b) being in the number of pinion bearings. The third bearing located between the two helices is necessary because of the wide tooth face in relation to the diameter of the pinion. While many ships with reduction gears built according to Fig. l(c) are still in successful oper* tion, this design must a t the present time be considered obsolete. It was used for speed ratios up to or slightly above 20 to 1. Figure l(d) is the usual arrangement of a double reduction gear for turbinedriven ships. The two input pinions are driven by the two elements (high-pressure and low-pressure turbines) of a cross-compound turbine. Power is divided between the two input pinions by the turbine characteristics and is normally split approximately equally between the two turbines. Note that the second reduction gear is common to both highpressure! and low-pressure trains but that, although it transmits the power from both turbines to the gear shaft, the tooth portion is designed to transmit the power from one turbine. The terms "tandem" and "articulated" are also applied to this arrangement; tandem because of the disposition of the first and second reductions, and articulated because a flexible coupling is generally provided between the first reduction or primary gear wheel and the second reduction or secondary pinion.

Figure l(e) represents the "nested type" doublereduction gear, which has also been used with crosscompound turbines. The configuration shown has the second reduction helices divided to provide space for the first reduction and is additionally referred to as a "split secondary." The nested type may also be arranged as a "split primary. " Figure 1 illustrates the type of gear referred to as a 0 locked-train double-reduction gear. In it the power of the single input pinion is equally divided between the two intermediate-speed elements. Its advantage is that the gear elements are proportioned for one half of the input horsepower and are therefore smaller than would be the case with a single intermediate element. The overall size and weight are reduced, but offsetting this advantage is the added number of parts, the need to provide torsionally flexible shafts between the first and second reductions, and the need to "time" the assembly to equaliie the power split between the two trains. The term "dual tandem" is also applied to this type of gear. Figure l(g) is a locked-train type of double-reduction gear for a cross-compound turbine. This arrangement has become standard for high-powered naval ships and is coming into use for higher-powered merchant ships because it minimiaes the total weight and the size of the assembly. Figure l(h) is a planetary gear. It has a single input "sun pinion" which drives three or more "planet gears." These planet gears are mounted on a planet carrier which is solidly connected to the output coupling. The outer "ring gear" is held stationary in the gear housing. This type of gear has been applied to turbine-generator drive gears and to main turbine drive first reductions. It has also been considered for the second reduction of main reduction gears. Many other reduction gear arrangements are possible and have been used. These can be very special as in cases where more than one type prime mover is coupled to the propeller. 1.3 Methods of Manufacture. Nearly all gears produced in the U. S. have their teeth cut by the hobbing process. In this process the cutting tool is a hob, a rotary cutter having one or more leads, whose teeth are accurately formed to the "basic rack" tooth form selected. I n the hobbing process the teeth are cut and the true involute form of the tooth flanh is generated by the continuous rotation of the hob and the gear blank. The hob determines the dimensions of the teeth in the plane normal to the teeth. The other factors determining the tooth geometry, number of teeth, and helix angle are obtained by selecting change gear ratios for the hobbing machine; the selection of the change gear ratio provides a choice of these variables without a change of tooling. By adjusting the helix angle (which affects the tooth profile in the plane of rotation), it is possible to use a given hob (which dictates the tooth profile in the plane normal to the teeth) and produce a favorable number of teeth within rather broad limits.




(a) Single reduction, single input

(f) Double reduction, single input, locked train

For this reason, manufacturers standardize with a small number of hobs. The other cutting process which has been used in the U. 5.. and is still used abroad for large gears is shaping. I n this process the shaping cutter is either in the form of a basic rack section or a small gear, stroking in timed relation to the rotation of the blank to generate the tooth form. Post-cutting processes are generally applied to further refine the accuracy and surface finish of the gear teeth. I n the shaving process, which is the most popular in the U. S., a multitooth cutter in the form of a small gear is pressed tight in mesh with the gear being shaved. As the gear is rotated rapidly and the shaving cutter fed slowly across the gear face, a very light cut is taken from the tooth flanks. This results in a finer tooth surface and a more precise involute form than can be produced by hobbing. The shaving process also makes possible the correction of slight mismatch in the helix angle of the gear and pinion by selectively shaving that portion

of the face width which indicates the heaviest tooth contact. In the lapping process, the gear is rotated in mesh with its own pinion or pinions, or with a cast iron lap having the same face width. An abrasive is placed between the mating teeth and lapping is continued until proper surface h i s h , involute, and face contact are obtained. In the grinding process, as applied to gears of large diameter, the flanks of the gear teeth are formed by the tip of a grinding wheel (which passes over the flanks to generate an involute form) and by the action of the @;rindkgmachine to generate the correct tooth form and helix angle. Although not within the scope of this chapter, the inspection, installation, and alignment procedures used in connection with reduction gears can have a major impact on their successful operation. These subjects are comprehensively covered by reference [I],' which was prepared by the Society's Panel M-12, and reference 121, which describes methods used with naval ships.

(dl Double reduction, double input, articulated

Section 2 Tooth Design hctors

2.1 Tooth Contact Pressure. The most important factor in the design of a reduction gear is the tooth contact pressure; that is, the pressure which exists between the mating tooth surfaces when force is transmitted from one to the other. This factor determines the durability of the working surfaces of the teeth. The tangential force transmitted per unit of gear face width is determined from the expression:
(9) Double reduction, double input, locked train

(b) Single reduction, double input


W t = total tangential tooth load, lb F , = effective face width (at pitch diameter), in. R P M , = pinion revolutions per minute H P = horsepower transmitted (per mesh) d = pitch diameter of pinion, in.
(el Dwble reduction, double input, nested

neither of these expressions was an accurate measure of the actual load-carrying capacity of a reduction gear because they did not take into account the contact pressure between mating teeth. The contact pressure is the proper design criterion because it is the factor that determines the satisfactory operation and durability of gears. For many years, in the U. S., the allowable gear tooth pressure for turbine drives was related directly to the pinion diameter so that the loading was specified as "pounds per inch of face per inch of pitch diameter." This was logical since the curvature of the pinion tooth as it affects contact pressure, or more precisely the compressive stress a t the contact surface, is directly proportional to the pinion diameter. Then,


(allowable) = J . d


Single reduction, double Input, three-bearing pinions

(h) Single reduction, planetary

The allowable tooth load per unit of face width where J is an experimentally determined constant, increases with the diameter of the pinion because of the pounds per inch of face per inch of diameter. When gear dimensions are known, the J factor can be decreasing curvature of the contacting surfaces. I n early gear designs, particularly in Britain, the allowable calculated as follows: tooth pressure per unit of face width was taken as proporJ='- W 126,050 HP tional to the square root of the pinion diameter; that is F. d - R P M , . dz . Fa W6 - (allowable) = C& Fe (2) The foregoing relationship, although an improvement, is not precise because it ignores the effect of the curvature where of the mating tooth. A further refinement which takes C = experimentally determined,constant this into account is Yet another expression related the allowable pressure to the two-thirds power of the pinion diameter. However, 1 Numbers in brackets designate References at end of chapter.

Rg. 1

Gear arrangements




W, = where

COB 4,

.cos # = cos 4, . cos # . RPM,

126,050 H P


8 = maximum compressivestress between surfaces,

W, = total load normal to contact lines, lb 4. = pressure angle (plane normal to teeth) # = helix angle The average total length of all the lines of contact is
n n

- = loading per inch of length, Ib/in. L E = modulus of elasticity, psi rl, rs = radii of cylinders, in.
substituting equations (5) to (10) in this Hertz equation, the compressive stress between the pinion and gear teeth becomes : (11) & = (4580 Z sin 2$ d~ The first term includes the modulus of elmticiti and geometric factors which are chosen by the gear designer. However, within practical limits, for steel gears with wellproportioned tooth geometry, this term cannot be varied significantly. term is the square root of the K-factor and The second shows that gears of equal K-factor will have nearly equd compressive stress. With the compressive stresspropor tional to the square root of the K-factor, it would follow that if the allowable stress is considered to be directly proportional to the material hardness, then the allowable K-factor should be proportional to the square of the material hardness. Despite the apparent mathematical exactness of these formulas, many effects on tooth durability are not evaluated by them. Some of these effects, such aa the bending and torsion of the pinion, can be analyzed; but others can be evaluated only by service experience. Among the, latter are the prec&ion-with which the tooth surfaces are formed and the tolerance to small misalignments, vibratory forces, and the inevitable foreign particles which find their way into the teeth mesh. Satisfactory values for the K-factor have been established by experience for the materials in common use, and the commonly specified values are discussed in Section 3.8. I t may be noted that the K-factor controls the size of the reduction gear unit. For a given set of horsepower and rpm conditions, the volume and weight of the gear will vary in nearly inverse proportion to the K-factor. I t is alm significant that the K-factor and the pitch, or coarseness, of the teeth are independent. that Under the as~umption the tooth pressure is uniformly distributed over the contact lines, that is, uniformly distributed from the tip to the root of each contacting tooth, the contact compressive stress is affected to only a slight degree by a change in pitch. However, the practical requirements for greater tip relief with coaxser teeth make the tooth extremities of coarser teeth less effective in carrying their share of the load. In other words, the assumption of uniformity of tooth pressure from tip to root, which leads to a minimal calculated value of surface stress, is less valid for coarser teeth. Unfortunately, there is no precise procedure for evaluating this effect. 2.2 Tooth Bending Strength. I n addition to providing the surface necessary to sustain the contact loading

n r





length of



Z = length of line of action, in.

P, = normal base pitch, in. Dividing equation (6) by equation (7) the loading per unit of contact line length is equal to

where Wnl = tooth load per inch of contact line, lb/in. The radius of curvature bf the pinion tooth at the pitch diameter is d sin 4
PP =


where p, 4
= =


radius of curvature, in. pressure angle in plane of rotation = tan 4, tan-' cos # base helix angle (helix angle at base circle diameter) = sin-' sin # cos 4,

and of the gear tooth is


Fig. 2 Imoluh geometry

G& G

D sin 4


F .

(allowable) = K


K---= Wt R + l F. .d R

JR+l R

126,050-HP ( R + l ) RPM, .dp.F . R

where D = pitch diameter of gear, in. R = gear ratio The relationships of helical involute geometry involving pressure angles, lineg of contact, lines of action, etc. are described in numerous places in the gear literature, e.g., reference [3]. The tooth elements in contact may be considered to be elements of two tangent cylinders in contact under an applied force. The compressive stress between two cylinders is given by the Hertz equation:

R = gear ratio K = experimentally determined constant This factor K representing the allowable tooth surface stress is the familiar "K-factor" by which gear loadings are now generally specified. Note that the K-factor is simply the loading per inch face per inch diameter, J in l)/R. Where gear equation (3), multiplied by (R design detsils are known the K-factor oan be determined by the failowing relationahips:

It can be shown that the K-factor is a good measure of tooth surface stress, i.e., the maximum compressive stress to which the tooth materials in contact are subjected. Referring to Fig. 2 it can be seen that the total tooth loading in a helical involute gear is carried by a series of straight contact lines extending diagonally from the tip to the root of each meshing pair of teeth. The total force normal to the surfaces in contact is


31 6



3 17

Equation (15) contains the important variables affecting bending stress. Further refinement, or a more precise assessment of the stress as it determines the bending fatigue strength of the teeth, can be made by including two additional factors. One is the compressive stress across the tooth root cross section due to the rfdial component of the tooth load which acts to reduce the For a spur gear tooth the highest bending stress occurs bending stress on the tension side; the other is the stress when the load is acting a t the extreme tip of the tooth. concentration created by the root radius adjacent to the The tooth form factor Y which relates the tooth loading critical bending cross section. Both of these additional factors are included in the bending strength derivation to bending stress a t the root is in the military specification for reduction gears [4]. .e Referring to equation (15) it can be seen that the bending stress Sa is directly proportional to the tangential tooth load per inch of face and inversely proportional to where the first power of the tooth dimensions. Other variables t = tooth th