P. 1
A Treatise on the Theory of Invariants

# A Treatise on the Theory of Invariants

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04/24/2013

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Theorem. If e = am

x ,f = bn

x,g = cp

x,h = dq

x are four binary forms of orders

greater than unity, then

(e,f)(g,h) = −1

2(e,g)2

fh+ 1

2)e,h)2

fg + 1

2(f,g)2

eh− 1

2(f,g)2

eg. (135)

We ﬁrst prove two new symbolical identities. By an elementary rule for
expanding determinants

a2

1 a1a2 a2
2

b2

1 b1b2 b2
2

c2

1 c1c2 c2
2

= −(ab)(bc)(ca).

4.5. THE SQUARE OF A JACOBIAN.

97

Hence

a2

1 a1a2 a2
2

b2

1 b1b2 b2
2

c2

1 c1c2 c2
2

d2

2 −2d2d2 d2
1

e2

2 −2e2e1 e2
1

f2

2 −2f2f1 f2
1

= 2(ab)(bc)(ca)(de)(ef)(fd)

=

(ae)2

(af)2

(bd)2

(be)2

(bf)2

(cd)2

(ce)2

(cf)2

.

(136)

In this identity set c1 = −x2,c2 = x1,f1 = −x2,f2 = x1.
Then (136) gives the identity.

2(ab)(de)axbxdxex =

(ae)2

a2

x

(bd)2

(be)2

b2

x

d2

x

e2

x 0

.

(137)

We now have

(e,f)(g,h) = (a,b)(c,d)am−1

x bn−1

x cp−1

x dq−1
x

= 1

2am−2

x bn−2

x cp−2

x dq−2
x

(ac)2

a2

x

(bc)2

(bd)2

b2

x

c2

x

d2

x 0

by (137). Expanding the right-hand side we have formula (135) immediately.

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