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Inorganic Phosphors

Inorganic Phosphors

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INORGANIC PHOSPHORS

COMPOSITIONS, PREPARATION AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

The CRC Press Laser and Optical Science and Technology Series
Editor-in-Chief: Marvin J. Weber
A.V. Dotsenko, L.B. Glebov, and V.A. Tsekhomsky

Physics and Chemistry of Photochromic Glasses
Andrei M. Efimov

Optical Constants of Inorganic Glasses
Alexander A. Kaminskii

Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes
Valentina F. Kokorina

Glasses for Infrared Optics
Sergei V. Nemilov

Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects of the Vitreous State
Piotr A. Rodnyi

Physical Processes in Inorganic Scintillators
Michael C. Roggemann and Byron M. Welsh

Imaging Through Turbulence
Shigeo Shionoya and William M. Yen

Phosphor Handbook
Hiroyuki Yokoyama and Kikuo Ujihara

Spontaneous Emission and Laser Oscillation in Microcavities
Marvin J. Weber, Editor

Handbook of Laser Science and Technology
Volume I: Lasers and Masers Volume II: Gas Lasers Volume III: Optical Materials, Part 1 Volume IV: Optical Materials, Part 2 Volume V: Optical Materials, Part 3 Supplement I: Lasers Supplement II: Optical Materials Marvin J. Weber

Handbook of Laser Wavelengths Handbook of Lasers
Marvin J. Weber

Handbook of Optical Materials

The CRC Press Laser and Optical Science and Technology Series

INORGANIC PHOSPHORS
COMPOSITIONS, PREPARATION AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

Wi l l i a m M . Ye n a n d M a r v i n J . We b e r

CRC PR E S S
Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Inorganic phosphors : compositions, preparation, and optical properties / editors, William M. Yen, Marvin J. Weber. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-1949-8 (alk. paper) 1. Phosphors. 2. Phosphors—Optical properties. I. Yen, W. M. (William M.) II. Weber, Marvin J., 1932QC476.7.I55 2004 620.1'1295—dc22

2004047813

This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.

Visit the CRC Press Web site at www.crcpress.com
© 2004 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-1949-8 Library of Congress Card Number 2004047813 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper

Willi and Renate Lehmann (circa 1970).

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD PREFACE PART 1: LEHMANN’S PHOSPHOR COOKBOOK AND PHOSPHOR TABLES SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION SECTION 2: PHOSPHOR PREPARATION 2.1 Starting Materials 2.2 Amounts 2.3 Mixing 2.4 Containers 2.5 Furnace 2.6 Firing Atmospheres 2.7 Treatments after Firing SECTION 3: PURIFICATION OF SOME STARTING MATERIALS 3.1 Carbonates 3.2 Sulfates 3.3 Oxalates 3.4 Sulfur SECTION 4: PHOSPHOR DATA 4.1 Description of Data 4.2 Simple Oxides 4.3 Silicates 4.4 Halosilicates 4.5 Phosphates 4.6 Halophosphates 4.7 Borates 4.8 Aluminates and Gallates 4.9 Molybdates and Tungstates 4.10 Miscellaneous Oxides 4.11 Halides and Oxyhalides 4.12 Sulfates 4.13 ZnS-Type Sulfides 4.14 CaS-Type Sulfides 4.15 Double Sulfides 4.16 Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides SECTION 5: PREPARATION OF PHOSPHOR SCREENS 5.1 Phosphor Screens by Brushing 5.2 Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution

5.3 Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition 5.4 Filming of Phosphor Screens

PART 2: ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENTS SECTION 6: PHOSPHOR SYNTHESIS 6.1 Alternative Preparation Methods 6.2 Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors 6.3 Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques SECTION 7: OTHER PHOSPHOR DATA 7.1 Oxides 7.2 Silicates 7.3 Phosphates, Halophosphates, and Borates 7.4 Aluminates 7.5 Halides and Oxyhalides 7.6 CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides 7.7 Other Compounds SECTION 8: COMMERCIAL PHOSPHORS AND SCINTILLATORS APPENDICES Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III

Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography

MATERIALS INDEX

Foreword
Willi Lehmann
It is a truism that all individuals are unique. However, in the case of the late Willi Lehmann this is true in the strongest sense possible. One often hears of a person with a “one-track” mind. That concept describes Willi perfectly. He was indeed one of a kind. As far as I know, he lived for and only thought about phosphors. He was a very oriented, strong willed and, yes, stubborn individual. It is my pleasure to have known him and have been his manager (in truth, no one “managed” Willi) for several interesting and productive years. I knew very little about Willi’s life in Germany. Fortunately, I was able to obtain a copy of an autobiography Willi wrote for his family and was able to learn something about his history. Bill Yen and I present a brief summary of Willi’s life and times in Appendix III. I knew that he served in the German army during World War II, first on the Russian front and then on the Western front. It is difficult for me to conceive of him as a member of a military unit. He always had a very un-Germanic disregard for authority. This undoubtedly explains why, after working his way up to grade sergeant, he was “busted” back to private. I believe he objected to officers riding in comfortable first-class carriages while enlisted men rode in overcrowded second-class carriages. Another un-Germanic trait was that he disliked beer; he called it “seifewasser” (soapy water). Willi was always resourceful (surely a good trait for a scientist). At the end of the war, after being captured by the French, he managed to escape and be recaptured by the Americans because he knew they treated their German captives better. While he was in POW camp a request came asking whether any prisoner could repair typewriters. Willi, who actually had no prior experience in this line, promptly volunteered and became a successful “typewriter mechanic” overnight. Also during his time as a prisoner he spent his spare time recalling and writing down the essentials of his previously studied elementary physics textbook. I suppose he “borrowed” the necessary paper and pencils from the offices where he repaired typewriters. After the war Willi studied physics (I am not sure at what university) under Prof. Erich Krautz, who had an interest in luminescence. Later, Krautz became Director of Research at a branch of the Osram Lamp Co., located in Augsburg, near Munich. At that time, the Lamp Division of the Westinghouse Electric Corp., located in Bloomfield, New Jersey, had a patent and technical interchange agreement with Osram. On a visit to Augsburg, E.G.F. Arnott, Director of Research in Bloomfield, asked Prof. Krautz to recommend two of his former students who were interested in luminescence and would like to immigrate to the United States. Krautz recommended Willi Lehmann and Claus Haake, and both accepted the offer. This was probably in 1955, as Willi published his first American papers (Phys. Rev., 101, 489; J. Electrochem. Soc., 103, 667 and Illum. Eng., 51, 684) in 1956. Willi remained with Westinghouse, first in Bloomfield and then in Pittsburg for many years, while Claus left after about 2 years to move to Arizona for reasons of his wife’s health. In 1956 I was Manager of the Phosphor Research Section of the Westinghouse Lamp Division and thus suddenly found myself responsible for two foreigners about whom I knew nothing. The situation was conceivably complicated by the fact that I was Jewish; I didn’t know how they would react to me and vice versa. Fortunately, this never presented a

problem. Both Willi and Claus turned out to be very diligent and skilled workers (Prof. Krautz would not have recommended dummies). Their knowledge of the English language was good, although Willi always spoke with a pronounced Germanic accent, probably because he spoke only German at home. (I must admit that while Willi worked for me I always edited his scientific papers before publication, but endeavored to leave them sounding like Willi.) During those years in Bloomfield the attention of the Phosphor Section was directed primarily to electroluminescence, then in its infancy. I can truthfully say the best (brightest and longest lived) electroluminescent phosphors made anywhere in that era were made by Willi Lehmann. This activity, and that elsewhere, is summarized in my book, Electroluminescence and Related Effects (Academic Press, 1963). I was later made a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and an Honorary Member of the Electrochemical Society for “leadership in the advancement of the science of luminescence.” However, the work which resulted in these honors was primarily due to three outstanding members of the section: Willi Lehmann, William A. Thornton, and Anselm Wachtel. My effort was mainly that of support, coordination, and interpretation. My approach to “management” of scientific activity was essentially minimalist, consisting of four steps: (1) hire the most capable and self-motivated people, (2) provide them with the necessary equipment and facilities, (3) point them in the directions of interest to the company, and (4) don’t bother them, except for occasional encouragement and suggestions as to questions for which no one had an answer at the moment. This minimalist approach certainly worked well with Willi, who was never a “team player.” I also learned that minor infractions of company rules could be overlooked unless they were officially brought to my attention: sometimes ignorance of events can be good. Although trained as a physicist, Willi actually performed best as a self-taught chemist; he was more interested in making better phosphors than in explaining how or why they worked. He was always an enthusiastic worker. I remember one day Claus Haake stuck his head in my door and said, “Willi just made a three-gott-damn phosphor!” I said, “What does that mean?” Claus replied, “Well, when Willi has made a new sample and finds that it tests good, he says ‘Gott damn!’ Today he tested his latest sample and said, ‘Gott damn! Gott damn! GOTT DAMN!’” About 1963 both Willi and I transferred to the central Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh, but to different departments. I joined the Optical Physics Department, which was primarily concerned with lasers, and in 1969 became manager of the department. Willi went to the Solid State Physics Department, where he continued to work on phosphors, mainly for applications to fluorescent lamps and cathode-ray tubes. Nevertheless, we kept in frequent contact and he always put me on the distribution list for his research reports. It was during this period of his career that he organized the material for his Phosphor Cookbook. Willi always maintained his independence and disregard for rules which seemed pointless to him. There were four types of scientific documents at Westinghouse: patent disclosures, papers to be published, summary research reports for internal use, and short research “memos.” For some strange (probably historical) reason, memos had to be addressed to a particular individual, although they could have an extended distribution list. Once Willi (in Pittsburgh) apparently had trouble deciding to whom a certain memo should be addressed so in the proper place he wrote, “The Queen of England.” Some unwitting secretary typed it up that way and sent it to his department manager for signature. Considerable consternation ensued, but Willi survived unscathed and hardly ruffled. For Willi, rules were usually meant for lesser beings; he had more important things (phosphors) to think about.

in Connecticut. “My Phosphor Tables are completed and I don’t like the idea of them going to waste. However. When Willi Lehmann was alive and active he was one hell of a great phosphor maker. All appear to be prospering and the family has given its approval to the belated publication of Willi’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables he so carefully compiled nearly two decades ago. an extended collection of the main properties of about 300 of the best-known inorganic phosphors. Henry Ivey Coconut Creek. I am sorry to say that I lost contact with him after 1988. 2003 . with reference to the original publications. which combines his Phosphor Cookbook and his Phosphor Tables.” The present volume by Bill Yen and Marv Weber. In 1988 he wrote to inform me that he had been invited to contribute to a book entitled Phosphors. North Carolina. Florida April 1.Willi retired from Westinghouse in about 1985 (the reason for my vagueness about dates is that Westinghouse is now defunct and I have no way of accessing company files). this book was never published. and Mary. He enclosed a copy of his contribution. It was his obsession and sole occupation. finally solves that waste problem. George. Caren. and apparently did consultation on electroluminescence for the Rogers Corp. He said then. He went to live in Hendersonville. I have learned since that Willi passed away in January 1993 and that he is survived by his wife Renate and four children. He left many important published papers. Hans. It will serve as a fitting and belated recognition of the valuable work this unusual individual contributed to the science of luminescence.

However. a volume in the CRC Lasers and Optical Sciences and Technology Series. Henry Ivey. of past methodologies. no composition or preparation information was included in the Phosphor Tables. Thus. one of us (WMY). at the time) first presented us with a copy of Willi Lehmann’s opus (Phosphor Cookbook) on methods for synthesis and properties of over 200 phosphors. This volume is divided into two parts. In the absence of any systematic database on phosphors. Though for various reasons this effort ultimately turned futile. these methodologies are often abandoned and forgotten but often need to be rediscovered and revived when circumstances warrant it. the two unpublished manuscripts represent a reasonably complete summary of the state of knowledge on phosphors up to the late 1980’s. Though it might be argued that the art of phosphors synthesis and characterization has advanced considerably since Lehmann’s time. initiated an effort to establish a baseline for the state of knowledge concerning the methodology for synthesis and the optical properties of a variety of phosphors used for display and other technical applications. The scholarship contained in the Phosphor Cookbook and the Phosphor Tables is quite remarkable and comprises a great deal of meticulous and careful work characterizing Willi Lehmann’s career as a phosphor synthesizer. we believe that these contributions need to be preserved as part of the phosphor art. of course. In the second part of the volume we have attempted to supplement Lehmann’s work with additional . in response to a federal broad agency announcement. which was prepared for a publication that never appeared. in our becoming aware of the existence of the Phosphor Handbook published in Japanese under the auspices of the Japan Phosphor Society and led to its eventual translation and publication as the Phosphor Handbook. Ronald Petersen (of Motorola. it appeared to us that the content of these two unpublished manuscripts fully deserved publication as a record. several members of the phosphor/luminescence community called my attention to an existing backlog of published and unpublished literature addressed to this subject. A copy of these tables. The list of materials presented in the compilations is large and the manuscripts preserve and summarize synthesis and optical data on most of the commonly used phosphors (as well as some less common ones). He later updated and extended this work in 1988 in his Phosphor Tables in which the phosphor properties of over 300 luminescent materials were summarized in tabular form. This resulted. In connection with efforts to establish a phosphor database. if nothing else. Updated versions of these techniques are presented in this volume along with other techniques such as sol–gel and combustion that have been developed in the past few decades. thus such information is absent for many compounds. Almost all modern phosphors are synthesized by solid-state reactions at high temperatures. Most of the contents of Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables are preserved in the first part with either no or only slight changes in style and format.Preface About a decade ago. was preserved and given to us by Dr. Henry had a close working relationship with Willi at Westinghouse as the Foreword to this volume attests. Lehmann. Dr. was a principal in the development of many of the phosphors included in his cookbook. This report dates from the late 1970’s and covered the majority of phosphors then in use. for example. The phosphor data presented in Section 4 combine the results of both manuscripts.

the listing is not exhaustive but rather representative of some of the more significant phosphors developed in recent years.developments including recent synthesis methods and new phosphors. Indeed. Weber Berkeley. The third gives a brief summary of Willi Lehmann’s life. Georgia Marvin J. As such. We are aware that. I–VI) and the sequel Phase Equilibrium Diagrams (Vols. We are also very thankful to the Lehmann family for giving their permission to use this material. would be with the procedures that are presented here. this volume should be considered a tribute to this unusual individual and his contributions to the phosphor art. California April 2004 . We note with special appreciation the excellent work of Sergei Basun in preparing the many figures and the final manuscript. Other considerations (such as ion sizes) will enter. Sarah Dunning for typing the manuscript. these volumes contain a great deal of material which is extremely useful in developing an understanding as to what can and cannot be synthesized. William M. Much additional information on the synthesis and characterization of a phosphor or luminescent material information can be found in the aforementioned Phosphor Handbook. so that the synthesis of any new compounds remains an area of experimentation. The American Ceramic Society in collaboration with the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) has continued to publish and revise Phase Diagrams for Ceramists (Vols. We have restricted consideration to materials that are accessible in the open literature and have not included any recipes or description of phosphors that are proprietary. however. VII–XII). It follows that recipes for compounds doped with a certain ion of a series very likely will also be effective for other members of that series. we emphasize that all normal safety precautions (fume hoods. Section 8 presents a list of many commercial phosphor and scintillator materials and the peak wavelength of their emission. and contributions from our Editorial Board. Willi Lehmann was anxious to have the material that he had prepared with such care published in some form. and the valuable interactions with CRC Project Editor James McGovern and Development Manager Helena Redshaw. etc. in the second a table of phosphors is arranged in order of emission wavelength as a guide in selecting phosphors for particular applications. Mike Caplinger and Jeff Deroshia for their computing assistance. Only a relatively few phosphors have achieved commercial success. Because of the plethora of phosphor compositions reported in recent decades. eye protection. suggestions. Yen Athens.) should be observed in the preparation and synthesis of the phosphors described in the volume. as noted in the Foreword. We hope that the publication of Inorganic Phosphors serves to fulfill his wish. three appendices have been added. It may be noted that the elements belonging to series such as the lanthanides (4f) have chemical behaviors that are nearly identical to each other. We are very appreciative of their help and that of Ron Petersen and Henry Ivey for having preserved the original manuscripts. a good beginning point. In this effort we have benefitted from numerous comments. Finally. The preparation methods described in this volume generally entail the use of laboratory procedures which are normally encountered in solid-state chemistry and which expose the experimenter to the usual perils. The first presents an historical perspective on phosphors.

C. Boca Raton. CRC Press.. Pennsylvania University Press. Shur. Henderson and G. New York. Amsterdam. 1994. Materials and Devices. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors: Technology and Theory.Further Readings Introduction to Solid-State Lighting. Ed.A. K. Ropp. New York.F. SPIE Milestone Series. SPIE Press. Bellingham. . Ed. 1993. G. 1989. Goldberg. 1966. B. 1998. 1993. Optical Spectroscopy of Inorganic Solids.. Phosphor Handbook. M. Shionoya and W. A. Eds. Clarendon Press. Luminescent Materials. R. Ed. 1980.H. and Radioluminescence. 1991. 2002. Boca Raton. Rodnyi. WA. Kitai. 151. Blasse and B. Academic Press. Ropp.M.J. Gaska. R. Luminescence and the Solid State. Berlin. Elsevier.H. Oxford. The Chemistry of Artificial Lighting Devices. Zukauskas. Solid State Luminescence: Theory. P. M. Springer. Butler.. Physical Processes in Inorganic Scintillators.C. Selected papers on Phosphors. Chapman & Hall. Vol. London.C. FL. University Park.. Yen. John Wiley & Sons. A. Electroluminescence. S. Weber. Grabmaier. Amsterdam. FL. Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. 1998. Elsevier. and Scintillators: Applications of Photoluminescence. Light Emitting Diodes. CRC Press. 1997. P. Cathodoluminescence. and R. Imbusch.

In 1966 to 1967 Dr. Schawlow and accepted a faculty position at the University of Wisconsin—Madison in 1965. and the University of California—Santa Barbara (1982. Weber is Editor-in-Chief of the multi-volume CRC Handbook Series of Laser Science and Technology and a Fellow of the American Physical Society..S. He has been appointed to Visiting Professorships at the University of Tokyo (1972). in Physics from Washington University (St. He is presently a scientist in the Department of Nuclear Medicine and Functional Imaging of the Life Sciences Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Weber received the A. Jaynes Visiting Professor for the Fall of 2004. George W.S. In 1973 Dr. 1985).L. he retired from the Wisconsin system in 1990.D. Louis) in 1962. Weber was a Visiting Research Associate in the Department of Physics. he was responsible for the physics and characterization of optical materials for high-power laser used in inertial confinement fusion research. California in 1956 and his Ph. the American Association for the Advancement of Science.B. the University of Paris—South (1976). and the Electrochemical Society. Louis) as the first Edwin T. Yen has been the recipient of a J. Dr. Dr. von Humboldt Senior U. of a A. Berkeley. Yen is the co-editor of the Phosphor Handbook published by CRC Press. the Federal University of Pernambuco—Recife (1980). the Optical Society of America. DC.A. Scientist Award (1985). After graduation. Weber joined the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where. He served a term of 3 years (1962–1965) as a Research Associate at Stanford University under the tutelage of Professor A. as Head of Basic Materials Research and Assistant Program Leader. Weber returned to the Chemistry and Materials Science Department at LLNL in 1986 and served as Associate Division Leader for condensed matter research and as spokesperson for the University of California/National Laboratories research facilities at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Marvin J. Stanford University. the Australian National University (1980. Weber joined the Research Division of the Raytheon Co. and an Industrial Research IR-100 Award for research and development of fluorophosphate laser glass. Yen has been elected to fellowship in the American Physical Society.S. he is the recipient of the International Conference on Luminescence Prize. Redlands. In 1987 he was appointed to the Graham Perdue Professorship at the University of Georgia—Athens where he has established a research program in the properties of phosphors and other light-emitting materials. Yen obtained his B. degrees in physics at the University of California. 1995). and Ph. Department of Energy in Washington. the Optical Society of America. Dr. Dr. and of a Senior Fulbright to Australia (1995). From 1983 to 1985 he accepted a transfer assignment with the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U. He has been a member of the technical staff at the AT&T Bell Telephone Laboratories (1966) and of the Laser Fusion Project at Lawrence Livermore Labs (1974–1975). (Physics) degree from the University of Redlands. M. where he was a Principal Scientist working in the areas of spectroscopy and quantum electronics. and the American Ceramics Society. He was also named by Washington University (St.. He was granted tenure at Wisconsin in 1968 and promoted to a full professorship in 1972. Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship (1979–1980). Dr. Among several honors. .The Editors William M. Dr.S. Morey Award of the American Ceramics Society.D.

New Jersey Dr. Massachusetts Dr. Ropp 138 Mountain Avenue Warren. Petersburg. F. Hill 31 Abbey Street Faversham United Kingdom Dr. Richard. Florida Dr. Weiyi Jia Department of Physics University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez Mayaguez. Guy A. Sergei Basun A.Editorial Board Dr. Japan . Alok M. Lauren Shea Sandia National Labs Albuquerque. Cees Ronda Philips Research Laboratory Aachen D-52085 Aachen. New Mexico Dr. Germany Dr. Srivastava GE Corporate R&D Center Schenectady. C. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences St. C. Henry Ivey 3392 NW 47th Avenue Coconut Creek. Russia Dr. New York Dr. Puerto Rico Dr. Hajime Yamamoto Department of Electrical Engineering Tokyo University of Technology Tokyo 192-0982. Madis Raukas Osram Sylvania Beverly.

Part 1: Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables .

Section 1: Introduction .

there has been no phosphor cookbook before. which appear to have some potential to become commercially useful. a survey of materials for which properties are available to the occasional user of phosphors. for each phosphor. 3. In fact. of the same materials. etc. during about 25 years of practical experience.3) are predominantly taken verbatim from Lehmann's report. The following tables give. at least). It will never be. References to open publications or internal reports.” Peculiarly.Section 1 INTRODUCTION The following is Willi Lehmann's introduction to his Phosphor Cookbook: The writer of this report has. . a start for the experienced phosphor chemist in the improvement of known materials or in the development of new ones. a guide to help anyone new in the field in the successful preparation of phosphors. It may anyway serve as a convenient guide for all occasional or professional users of phosphorus showing essentially what is available. and despite of the fact that so many different phosphors are now available. only half jokingly. been referred to as “phosphor cook. This report describes some 200 phosphors which are commercially in use already.2 and 2. The phosphor collection covered by this “cookbook” is not complete. but it does not mean that a variation of the recipe does not work. of course. Most of the following two sections (with the exceptions of Sections 2. It may remain to the individual phosphor chemist to work out such improvements. What remains are relatively few. In the abstract to the report Lehmann expected that the cookbook would be useful as: 1. Many others were just repetitions during optimizations. where available. but some are new and have never been mentioned anywhere else. prepared and tested roughly 2 104 individual samples of inorganic phosphors of various kinds. a brief description of how to prepare it and an equally brief description of its main properties. It has been tried in this laboratory and it works. The professional phosphor chemist has often. are added to help anyone wishing to know more about a particular material than these tables can give. the writer believes that most of the recipes still permit substantial improvements. or which are otherwise somehow “interesting” (to the writer. Most of them are well known (more or less). It is unavoidable in such work that many samples perform too poorly to be worth mentioning. 2. Each one of the recipes is only a suggestion. To fill out this gap is the purpose of this report.

4 2.3 2.1 2.2 2.6 2.Section 2: Phosphor Preparation 2.7 Starting Materials Amounts Mixing Containers Furnace Firing Atmospheres Treatments After Firing .5 2.

luminescent grade) are adequate to prepare most of the phosphors. Lehmann) to make the phosphors described in this report. If that is impractical because of excessively high-melting temperatures of the host material. Ca(NO3)2. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook. For instance.Section 2 PHOSPHOR PREPARATION* The following methods are essentially the preparation procedures used by the writer (W. Mn(C2H3O2)2. the chemicals needed to prepare CaS-type phosphors are not normally available in the required purity.” Even the final host material frequently is formed only during the firing by solid-state reactions between several starting materials.1 Starting Materials Commercially available high-purity grade chemicals (e.. The activators are primarily responsible for the luminescence. The firing temperature often is little below the melting temperature of the host material. participate in the luminescence process. the “firing.” are necessary in some (not in all) cases to dissolve the activator impurities into the host crystal. Many points probably are trivial to the professional phosphor chemist but they are certainly not so to the novice or to anyone preparing phosphors only once in a while. Other impurities. MnCO3 can be replaced by MnO2. . sometimes down to the parts per million range. Only sulfide-type phosphors are exceptions because they are sensitive to undesired impurities. Almost all good inorganic phosphors consist of a crystalline “host material” in which small amounts of certain impurities. the “co-activators. and that the used compounds decompose readily during the firing of the phosphor to provide the necessary building blocks to the final material. * This section is from W. Both activators and (if necessary) co-activators are diffused into the host crystal at elevated temperatures. They can frequently be exchanged with others. Co-activators do not. MnSO4. analytical reagent grade. CaO2. What counts are only the necessary amounts of the particular chemical elements measured in moles.g. Sufficiently pure ZnS and CdS are available not to require additional purification for the preparation of ZnS-type phosphors. Section 3 of this report describes some techniques that can be used to purify commercial compounds to prepare CaS-type phosphors. MnS. However. or Ca(OH)2. or only to a very minor degree. Similarly. The chemicals mentioned in the individual recipes are those that usually are the most readily available. MnO. the crystallization is facilitated at lower temperatures by addition of a “flux” (frequently a halide) to the raw mix before firing. and so on. 2. CaCO3 can frequently be replaced by CaO. the “activators” are dissolved.

firing not only once but also several times and mortaring every time in between can usually eliminate them. This method avoids the time-consuming drying of the slurry but it works only for powders. Corresponding non-uniformities of the final phosphor may be the result. or any other inert and volatile liquid to a uniform slurry. in particular. etc.3 Mixing Very thorough mixing of the starting materials before firing is extremely important for the successful preparation of a good phosphor. Dry Ball-Milling The dry powder mix is ball-milled with porcelain pebbles for 1–2 hours. a breakup of all possible lumps in the slurry. Water-soluble activator chemicals. However. it is impractical to reduce the amounts to less than about 1 or 2 g of the final phosphor. The slurry is then dried in air and the dry material is mechanically powderized. Several firing steps are appropriate in many cases for other chemical reasons.4 Containers The best container material for the preparation of most phosphors is clear quartz glass (silica). is powderized in a mortar as well as possible. alcohol. 2. Phosphor properties vary relatively little only with a variation of the starting material ratios. This method has been used for most of the recipes of this report. The materials become poorly reproducible with such very small amounts. Mortaring The dry powders are simply mixed by mortaring together to make the mix as uniform as possible.2. otherwise it is the most ideal. Whenever such non-uniformities occur. sometimes even within still wider tolerances. Variations of ±10% of the mentioned activator concentrations normally have little effect on the performance of the final phosphor. which sometimes is a more or less hard crust. This method is least time-consuming and most practical for small samples but the mixes are less uniform down to the microscopic scale than any one prepared by the other methods..g. in particular) react too badly with quartz . Some materials (e. The weightings of the starting materials are not very critical. 2. Only some materials (the alkali elements. Roughly. ZnO) are not free flowing and cannot be mixed this way. This method is a bit cumbersome and it is impractical for small samples (a few grams). Whenever such large amounts of phosphors are not needed or wanted. Some of the best methods are: Slurrying The finely powdered starting materials are mixed into water. which stay free flowing all the time. can be added dissolved in water. The smaller amounts of the activating chemicals involved are even less critical. the amounts of the chemicals involved in the formation of the host materials need to be weighed only within ±1% of the mentioned proportions.2 Amounts The recipes in this report are given in whole molar units to make them as clear as possible. all amounts can be reduced by constant factors as long as the molar ratios between the individual components in the recipe are maintained. Wet Ball-Milling The slurry prepared above is ball-milled with porcelain pebbles for a time (about 1–2 hours) to ensure a moist thorough mix and. The slurry is dried and the dried material.

or reducing atmospheres (CO. . better up to about 1400ºC.g. A reliable temperature control clearly is one of the weak points of phosphor preparation. Only these ends of the firing tubes are in the furnaces during firing. Any desired temperature should be maintained during firing by means of an automatic temperature controller to within ±20ºC or better. halides) are better fired in loosely covered containers permitting some contact with the surrounding atmosphere but still keeping at least some of the volatile part in the container. NH3). 2. they consist of two tubes each closed at one end and both loosely fitting into each other. inert (N2. A simple on–off control is acceptable. Some typical arrangements are shown in Figure 1. Loosely covered crucibles are appropriate wherever alumina is the container material. Capped silica tubes are widely used in our laboratory. Oxygen-dominated phosphors (oxides. Some arrangements used to handle the various gases in the firing tubes are shown in Figure 2 assuming the phosphor containers are both open boats. Raw mixes which do contain volatile constituents (e. It makes no difference. The only way to eliminate this problem is frequent recalibration of furnace and controller by means of a good thermocouple and a millivolt comparator. 2. All these containers are placed near the closed ends of bigger firing tubes made of silica.5 Furnace Phosphor firing requires an electric furnace permitting temperatures between about 500ºC and at least 1200ºC. Many of these gases are interchangeable. forming gas. silicates. H2.6 Firing Atmospheres The various phosphors are fired in different atmospheres depending on the materials and the desired reactions. phosphates. Phosphor raw mixes not containing volatile (at firing conditions) constituents are best fired in open boats so that the charge is fully exposed to the desired atmosphere surrounding the material. for instance. Ar).. The writer has yet to see a furnace whose temperature does not occasionally deviate from that indicated by the controller. etc.glass at firing temperatures and are better fired in other container materials.) may be fired in oxidizing (air. O2). Sulfurization of sulfide phosphors may be achieved by firing either in H2S or in an inert gas loaded with CS2. whether a phosphor is fired in N2 or in Ar. Pure alumina serves fairly well in these cases. Figure 1 Schemata of different containers during phosphor firing.

closed by a bit of loose glass wool to prevent dust particles from drifting in during firing. some of the carbon black burns to CO in situ. .Figure 2 Schemata of different containers during phosphor firing.) bubbles through a flask containing some water in front of the firing tube. The vapor pressure of the water is too low at room temperature to have much effect.g. so it is necessary to heat the flask to gentle boiling. otherwise condensing liquid water might block the gas flow. Gases from tanks (or other supplies) These can be piped into the firing tubes via long and thin gas inlet tubes (silica) reaching as far into the firing tubes as possible. Some carbon black is placed in a separate open container next to the phosphor container in the firing tube. A carrier gas (air. N2. N2) bubbles though a flask containing some liquid CS2 in front of the firing tube. The open ends of the latter are closed by ordinary rubber stoppers with two holes for gas inlet and outlet.. Do not heat the flask. etc. Air Firing a phosphor in air requires nothing but the container in the firing tube whose open end is left open or. otherwise the effect (explosion) will be spectacular when the firing tube enters the furnace. Be extremely cautious! CO This gas is about the most convenient for firing an oxygen-dominated phosphor in a reducing atmosphere. As in cases of H2 and H2S. When the charge enters the furnace. The air is flushed out by plain O2 and the gas inlet tube is then closed (but leave the inlet open). at most. The stopper is protected against radiant heat by a bit of loose glass wool in front of it. If the phosphor is fired in H2 or in H2S. Escaping unused CS2 gas can be burned at the end of an outlet tube. it is extremely important first to flush all air out the firing tube with an inert gas (e. CS2 An inert carrier gas (e.g. Steam This arrangement resembles that used for CS2.. The tube connection between flask and firing tube should be as short and straight as possible. N2) before admitting the final gas. the vapor pressure of the CS2 is high enough at room temperature. be very careful to flush all the air out the firing tube before admitting the CS2-loaded gas.

Unfortunately there is no general rule to pick the best additive. However.7 Treatments after Firing Fired phosphors often (not always) are slightly sintered cakes that have to be powderized to obtain the desired fine powder. Phosphors that stubbornly refuse to become free flowing with any additive can still be wet screened in a suspension in water.g. to find one remains up to the ingenuity of the experimenter. etc. Phosphors of recipes that do not mention a washing do not need it. Such cases are noted in the recipes of this report. Some phosphors require special washings after firing. Al2O3. Sb2O3. halides). All phosphors that are not immediately used up for some application should be stored in closed and labeled containers. A 200-mesh stainless steel sieve is adequate for most general purposes but some special applications may require finer screens. this still requires subsequent drying.. . Avoid all hard milling because it is likely to damage the phosphor. Others tend to lump and are not screenable with any reasonable effort. Closed containers obviously are necessary for any phosphor that is not completely stable in room air (e. most likely the firing temperature was too high. CaO) but they are a good practice also for all others. usually to remove one or the other undesired residues (e.. of course.2. Such materials can easily be made free flowing by addition of small amounts (roughly 1/10% by weight) of some additives like very fine SiO2. Phosphors coming out the furnace as badly sintered lumps indicate that something is wrong. All phosphors should finally be screened to remove undesired big particles. This powderizing usually is possible by gentle grinding or milling. Remember that good phosphors are precious materials.g. Some phosphors are free flowing and easily screened. etc. methanol.

3 3.1 3.4 Carbonates Sulfates Oxalates Sulfur .Section 3: Purification of Some Starting Materials 3.2 3.

) of commercially available starting materials are good enough to prepare almost every phosphor mentioned in this cookbook. Do not filter this solution. Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4-sulfide solution. luminescent grade. Both are better prepared via the oxalates.g. Consequently. Solution B: Dissolve about 1. decant). Properties Mg carbonate prepared in this way is of somewhat uncertain composition. CaCO3 precipitates and settles readily. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0.45 µm pore size). White CaCO3 precipitates and some CO2 develops. SrCO3 and BaCO3 both precipitate in too fine particles which almost behave like a gel in the water and do not readily settle. let settle. Dry with methanol in filter funnel and then completely in open air.1 Carbonates (described using the example of CaCO3) Prepare two separate solutions. air ~500–1000ºC. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook.1 g-mole of the (NH4)2CO3 (= 105 g) in 1 liter water at room temperature. * This section is from W. Decant the excess liquid. stir. Fe.Section 3 PURIFICATION OF SOME STARTING MATERIALS* The normal purities (analytical reagent grade. Let stand overnight. Slowly add solution A to B (or vice versa) while stirring. air. It can be converted to CaO by firing in an open quartz boat. etc. for ~½ hour. Mn) show up in the CaS-type phosphors in concentrations as low as 1 ppm. 3. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole of Ca(NO3)·4H2O (= 236 g) in about 1 liter water at room temperature. Wash the carbonate in de-ionized water several times (stir. . The carbonate usually comes in big chunks which take considerable time to dissolve. Some impurities (e. harmful impurities (mainly metals like Mn. It helps to crush the chunks but do not try to speed up the dissolution by heating. Only some CaS-type phosphors are exceptions. Let settle. for ~½ hour. ~1000–1200ºC.. It is best converted to MgO by heating in an open boat.) in the starting materials are better kept below this level. etc.

Add NH4OH to make the solution slightly alkalinic. in 1 liter water at room temperature. Sr and Ba sulfates precipitate immediately as anhydrous sulfates. decant). stir. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. Let stand overnight. decant). Let settle. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole (= 273 g) of Ba-acetate.45 µm pore size). Let stand overnight. for about ½ hour. Wash in de-ionized water several times (stir. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air. White BaC2O4 will precipitate out and readily settles down. SrSO4 is still manageable but BaSO4 tends to be of too fine particles which behave almost like a gel in the water and do not readily settle. stir. let settle. Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4 sulfide solution. . CaSO4 precipitates as gypsum. Filter through a milli-pore filter (0. air ~500–1000ºC. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole (= 212 g) of Sr(NO3)2 in about 1 liter water.1 g-mole of the (NH4)2SO4 in 1 liter water. stir. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. Let settle.1 g-mole (= 138 g) of oxalic acid. Solution B: Dissolve about 1. It can be converted to the more stable anhydrite by heating in open boats. Solution B: Dissolve about 1. Ba(C2H3O2)·H2O in about 1 liter water at room temperature.45 µm pore size). CaSO4·2H2O. Slowly pour solution A into B (or vice versa) while stirring. Decant the excess liquid. Slowly pour solution A into B (or vice versa) while stirring. Dry with methanol in filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air. let settle. Properties Mg sulfate cannot be prepared in this way (MgSO4 = epsom salt).45 µm pore size). Decant the excess liquid.45 µm pore size).3.2 Sulfates (described using the example of SrSO4) Prepare two separate solutions. 3. Add a few cubic centimeters of NH4OH. White sulfate will precipitate. Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4 sulfide solution. Wash in de-ionized water several times (stir.3 Oxalates (described using the example of BaC2O4) Prepare two separate solutions. H2C2O4·2H2O.

BaCO3 is not as easily converted into the oxide by firing in H2. Properties This is a coarse yellow powder. Black impurities (metal sulfides. ~1100ºC. Pour the filtered solution into a clean flask. etc. decant).Properties Mg oxalate precipitates as MgC2O4·2H2O. Ca oxalate precipitates as CaC2O4·H2O. air. Dry in filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air. Filter the solution though a dense paper filter. ~500–1000°C. sufficiently pure for all preparation work of sulfidetype phosphors. It converts completely to MgO by heating in an open boat. ~1 hour. ~ ½ hour. stir or shake vigorously. Further conversion to SrO is not practically possible by firing in an open boat. air. ~500ºC.) will remain on the paper. H2. It converts to SrCO3 by firing in an open boat. H2. Sr oxalate precipitates as SrC2O4·H2O. ~1100°C. In contrast to SrCO3. . ~1 hour. let settle. ~500–1000°C. 3. add the same amount (by volume) of pure acetone. ~½ hour. Ba-oxalate precipitates as BaC2O4 which can be converted to BaCO3 by firing in an open boat.4 Sulfur Dissolve ordinary precipitated (not sublimed) sulfur in as little CS2 as possible. air. Yellow sulfur will precipitate. ~½ hour. It converts to CaCO3 by heating in an open boat. Wash the sulfur several times in acetone (stir.

7 4.6 4.15 4.8 4.11 4.9 4.5 4.10 4.Section 4: Phosphor Data 4.1 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.12 4.16 Description of Data Simple Oxides Silicates Halosilicates Phosphates Halophosphates Borates Aluminates and Gallates Molybdates and Tungstates Miscellaneous Oxides Halides and Oxyhalides Sulfates ZnS-Type Sulfides CaS-Type Sulfides Double Sulfides Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides .13 4.14 4.

Optical properties summarize the emissions of the phosphors. by either 365. + = efficiencies in the 10–50% range.) Efficiencies under optical excitation. Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook. *This subsection is adapted from W. – = efficiencies below 1%. The symbols mean: ++ = efficiencies in the 50–100% range. perhaps by using modified preparation conditions.Section 4 PHOSPHOR DATA 4.e.2 eV. Many emission spectra consist of diffuse bands extending over a certain range. The emission peak corresponds to the spectral position where the diffuse band has a maximum.1 Description of Data* This section presents information about inorganic phosphors. The efficiencies by electron beam excitation in vacuum are described by the energy ratio (i.e. Because efficiencies obtained on poor phosphor samples are of limited usefulness. The chemical formula corresponding to the host crystal generally is well established but the crystal structure may not be available. The activation includes only the activator and its ionic state as far as it is known. or to one or two strongest lines in case of line emission. Additional impurities (co-activators. the ratio of emitted light quanta over irradiated UV quanta). The emission color is that as it appears to the human eye.1 to 0. others are complex in shape or consist of discrete (although sometimes somewhat diffuse) lines. (Lehmann notes that one should keep in mind that an efficiency improvement of a phosphor. The phosphor composition and a brief description of the preparation conditions used by Lehmann are given in his Phosphor Cookbook but not in the Phosphor Tables.or 254-nm ultraviolet (UV) — both the main emissions of a Hg discharge lamp — are given in Lehmann's Phosphor Tables in terms of quanta (i. either from Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook or from Lehmann's Phosphor Tables. + = efficiencies in the 1–10% range. is always a possibility that cannot be ruled out. – = efficiencies below 10%. only observed efficiencies of the best samples known to Lehmann are shown. Both the peak and bandwidth frequently depend on preparation conditions and are reproducible only within about ±0. .) are specified only in some cases where they have a strong effect on the final luminescence of the phosphor.. Almost all inorganic phosphors consist of a host material into which small amounts of an activator impurity have been dissolved. etc.. the ratio of emitted light energy over irradiated electron beam energy). to the spectral range of the main part of a complex emission. The width corresponds only to band emission and indicates the width of the band at half of its peak intensity (full width at half maximum—FWHM). In this instance the symbols mean: ++ = efficiencies of 10% or more.

The emission and absorption spectra measured by Lehmann are all for room temperature and for the activator concentrations shown. nm) and quantum energy (in eV) is (nm) = 1240/(eV) Using this conversion. Too few excitation spectra were available to be included. It is also easier to compare the widths of approximately Gaussian-shaped emission bands plotted in eV than it is to compare the widths of very nonGaussian-shaped bands plotted in wavelength units. that is. the two optical wavelengths used for excitation correspond to: 365 nm — 3. Absence of a reference means that none is known. The simple conversion between wavelength (in nanometers. but not necessarily at the optimum in every case. All spectra are plotted on a quantum basis. the abscissa is calibrated in electron volts (eV) rather than wavelength units because luminescence processes are quantum processes.40 eV 254 nm — 4. The absorption spectra indicate where the materials may be excited (no absorption—no emission).88 eV Only the main references to original publications are given.The luminescence decay time is the time for the emission either to decay to 1/10 or to 1/e of its initial value. These concentrations are close to. .

1 hour.4.Ga3+ ZnO:Ga3+ ZnO:S ZnO:Se ThO2:Eu3+ ThO2:Pr3+ ThO2:Tb3+ Y2O3:Bi3+ Y2O3:Er3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE) Y2O3:Ho3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ La2O3:Bi3+ La2O3:Eu3+ La2O3:Pb2+ CaO:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Bi2O3 Mole % 100 0. Dry in air.2 Simple Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaO:Bi3+ CaO:Cd2+ CaO:Cu+ CaO:Eu3+ CaO:Eu3+. Store in well-closed container.5 0. Powderize.390 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Keep dry. Powderize when dry. 1200ºC. stagnant air.01 (of Bi) By weight (g) 100 0.023 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. . Na+ CaO:Mn2+ CaO:Pb2+ CaO:Sb3+ CaO:Sm3+ CaO:Tb3+ CaO:Tl+ CaO:Zn2+ ZnO:Al3+.

Soc.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Calcium oxide phosphors. Fire in capped quartz tubes. may vary between about 3. J.Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3. 1 hour.E. Phys. Powderize.. 455 (1973). 144 (1976). and Pells..P. Lumin. J. Luminescence spectra of Bi3+ ions in MgO and CaO. 707 (1975). stagnant air.90 and 4. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Cd2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CdO Mole % 100 0. Status Solidi B. Use only purest CaCO3. Phys.385 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.. Powderize when dry.. ++ (3. Yamashita. 1200ºC. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S. N. 2. and Asano. Dry in air.4 eV). A. G. 3.3 By weight (g) 100 0. 40.. Jpn. References 1. W. Store in well-closed container.00 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 71.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor is very sensitive to traces of Mn. Hughes. Keep dry.Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Somewhat uncertain. 6. A. Lehmann..

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 6–7% Decay to 10% : Exponential.18 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. add solution to the CaCO3 + CaF2 mix.88 eV). 10. Slurry in water. 87 (1969). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Cu+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl)l Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 CuSO4·5H2O Mole % 100 0. about 230 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1.88 eV).. Lumin. Wise. Powderize. Dry in air.01 By weight (g) 100 0.5 0. ~2. Lange.025 Preparation Dissolve the copper sulfate in a little water. Calcium oxide phosphors. W. Store in well-closed container. CO.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Emission width (FWHM): 0. 6.63 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 455 (1973). Abh. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish + UV Emission peak: Two overlapping bands. J. 1 hour. Powderize when dry... Tech.77 and ~3. – (3. OSRAM Ges.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2.380 0.. Keep dry. – (3. H. 1200ºC. Lehmann.

Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. 2.2 2. W.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1200ºC.2 (of Eu) By weight (g) 100 1.015 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. ~20 min. – (3. 455 (1973). Fire in open quartz boats. quench again to room temperature as quickly as possible. Calcium oxide phosphors. Store in well-closed container.1 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. quench again to room temperature as quickly as possible. 1200ºC. CaO:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 1.. slightly deeper red than that of YOE Emission peak: Main line at 2. 1 hour. 1.40 eV). N2 loaded with H2O. Keep dry. After this firing. Powderize. Powderize.40 eV by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1200ºC. After this firing. stagnant air.88 eV).5 1. Powderize.. 2 hours. Lumin. 3. Dry in air. 6. Fire in open quartz boats. can be sensitized for excitation at 3. Lehmann. Optical Properties Emission color: Red.

Z. 6. 12. 6. A. The fluorine in the above recipe can be replaced by chlorine or bromine but a phosphor so prepared is badly hygroscopic probably because of leftover CaCl2 or CaBr2. or K (perhaps for charge compensation. W. Lumin. 2. J. 233 (1957).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. It performs very poorly. A. Na+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. Naturforsch. Naturforsch. The red Eu3+ emission shown in the preceding figure appears only if no alkali is present. Addition of Li. Top efficiency requires that the phosphor passes through this range as rapidly as possible after second and third firings. Lehmann. Li+ + Eu3+ = 2Ca2+) causes the red line at 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Calcium oxide phosphors.015 eV to appear. The phosphor reacts to a “bad” temperature range (~800–1100ºC) by greatly reduced efficiency. Z. 455 (1973). P. This CaO:Eu3+ phosphor has been tested in fluorescent lamps.88 eV)..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Eu3+. References 1. 3. 4. 561 (1951). Na. 2... and Uber eu-ionen in erdalkalioxyden und erdalkali-sulfiden. Pt. Pt. Brauer.

CO.115 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.07 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV). 1 hour. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. References 1. N.40 eV by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Decay to 10%: Exponential. The phosphor must be fired in a reducing atmosphere. The Mn concentration is not critical. Store in well-closed container.88 eV by addition of Pb (see CaO:Pb2+).390 0.. 1.CaO:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 100 0. Strong Mn2+ emission appears from about 1 ppm to 10% of Mn or Ca. Ewles.1 By weight (g) 100 0.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. can be sensitized to respond to 3. 100. J. 1200ºC. 2. Soc. otherwise the Mn stays separate as MnO2. 392 (1953). Powderize. – (3. J. Studies on the concept of large activator centers in crystal phosphors. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Keep dry.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . can be sensitized to respond to 4. about 22 msec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Powderize when dry.5 0. Dependence of luminescent efficiency on concentration of activator size of luminescent centers.88 eV). and Lee. Electrochem..

W. Lumin. H. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. 854 (1962). W.. 6.. 6.. Store in well-closed container.88 eV). 41 (1963). Wise. M.. Dry in air. 455 (1973). Calcium oxide phosphors. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 4. 1. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 10% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. Phys.. Lehmann.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1 hour. W. stagnant air.. 455 (1973). Keep dry. Chem. Techn. Lumin. Luminescence of solids excited by surface recombination of atoms. Abh. Wise. 1200ºC.. 3. Lehmann.. Calcium oxide phosphors. Sancier.. OSRAM Ges.M. and Fredericks.2.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Luminescence spectra. Powderize.022 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. and Ruffler. Powderize when dry. Hühninger.J.390 0. A.01 By weight (g) 100 0. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3..5 0.42 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 37. K. J.. CaO:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 PbO Mole % 100 0. 37. J.

56 (1964). Phys. and Kunstler. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.. Powderize when dry. 1200ºC. (Leipzig).88 and 3. Keep dry. W. can be sensitized for excitation by 4.145 0.40 eV UV by addition Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . G. Fire in capped quartz tubes.CaO:Sb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sb2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0.. (3. 227. Lehmann. Z. Zur lumineszenz antimonaktivierter erdalkalioxide insonderheit des systems CaO-Sb. Witzmann. 2. Chem. Store in well-closed container.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV). K. J..51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. 1 hour. Calcium oxide phosphors.1 (of Sb) 1 By weight (g) 100 0. Herzog.88 eV). Dry in air. Lumin. CO. 455 (1973). H. 6..840 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water..

6. Chem... 4. Powderize. Chem. J. Suppl. H. – (3. Phys.. (Leipzig). Phys.16. Dry in air. Fiquet. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Lumin. 332 (1964). 125 (1953). Herzog. Z. (Leipzig). 2. and Abel. W. 5.. Keep dry. Herzog.380 0. and Janin..3 (of Sm) By weight (g) 100 0. and Raths. G.40 eV excitation by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. R. 455 (1973). Atomic configurations in luminescent centres. W. K. Br. Phys.. Powderize when dry. Witzmann. 243. Chem. 14. G. G. 2.5 0. Lehmann.520 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 6. J. Rad. 3. Store in well-closed container. Herzog. Z.. Beitrag zur thermolumineszenz des samariumaktivierten calciumoxids. 1200ºC.CaO:Sm3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Sm2O3 Mole % 100 0.88 eV by addition of Pb (see CaO:Pb2+).40 eV).. Calcium oxide phosphors. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. 225. can be sensitized for 4. .. 228. S78.Thermoluminescence of phosphors CaO-Sm and CaO-Bi (calcium oxide-samarium and-bismuth).88 eV). Appl. Z. Runciman. J. Crozet.. 1 hour. Phys. J. Phys.. and Wuntke. 13 (1965).. stagnant air.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. and 2. 33 (1970).88 and 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 4 (1955). J.. (Leipzig). can be sensitized to respond to 4.A. A..00. W.

6. Lumin. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Many lines. CO. Dry in air. 455 (1973). Keep dry.5 (of Tb) By weight (g) 100 0. Lehmann. low because of dark body color Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1 hour. Calcium oxide phosphors. 1200ºC.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. W.. CaO:Tl+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaO TlOH NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.26–2. strongest near 2.8 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.5 1. Store in well-closed container.380 2.03 1 By weight (g) 56 0. Powderize.40 eV). J.88 eV).540 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .CaO:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Tb4O7 Mole % 100 0.. Fire in capped quartz tubes.066 0. – (3. Powderize when dry.

48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.5 0. Calcium oxide phosphors. CaO:Zn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 ZnO Mole % 100 0. 130 (1964). N2. Z. stagnant air. Lehmann. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow + IR Emission peaks: 2. Lumin. Powderize when dry. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize Store in well-closed container.3 By weight (g) 100 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% (Including both bands) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Powderize. Phys. Chem. 1200ºC. W. – (3. 1 hour. J. Dry in air. Anderson.. 227. 2. 1 hour.5 eV (IR) Emission width (FWHM): 0. 455 (1973). Fire in capped quartz tubes.Preparation First mix only the CaO and NH4Cl by dry grinding.88 eV). Now admit the TlOH by dry grinding.390 0. 1. 1200ºC.11 and 1. stagnant air.240 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. H. 6... (Leipzig). Keep dry. Zur photoelektrischen messung geringer lumineszenzintensitaten. 1200ºC.

Nucl. Methods.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 9.88 eV). Correction. Methods. Store in well-closed container. Nucl. + (3. Keep dry. about 300 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1.Powderize. D. Calcium oxide phosphors. Lumin. (3. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS..88 eV). Luckey.. D. Lehmann. A fast inorganic scintillator. 455 (1973).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 10% Decay to 10%: Exponential. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Instrum.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. Lehmann.. 6. Instrum. Solid State Electron. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnO:Al3+. Luckey. 63.. 358 (1968). Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Somewhat uncertain. 2. W.. W.Ga3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. J. 119 (1968). varying between about 3. 1107 (1966).65 and 3. 62.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + References 1.80 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.

This material is sensitive to traces of sulfur during preparation. W.. Fire in capped quartz tubes.ZnO:Ga3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 Mole % 100 0. A fast inorganic scintillator. D. inspect under UV lamp. Solid State Electron.280 1. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Methods. inspect again under UV lamp. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep violet + UV Emission peak: 3. Methods. It is thermally in a semi-stable state. 1100ºC. Correction. Instrum. 1107 (1966). Nucl. When cool. 2..88 eV). Screen through 200 mesh (stainless steel sieve OK). Luckey. except in H2.. 119 (1968). Fire in open quartz boats. Material should be almost or completely dead. Avoid all sulfur like the plague. slowly flowing H2. 1. 1 hour. Do not heat to greater than 300ºC. Nucl. 63. D. 62. Dry in air. Lehmann. 9. 2.195 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Instrum. 358 (1968). References 1. Phosphor has gray (not white) body color.3 1 By weight (g) 81 0. Material should show deep violet luminescence. Remove all portions which look different. 3. 2. Powderize. + (3. When cool. Remove any suspicious parts. nothing else.2% Decay to 10%: Less than 1 nsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1–1. Fire when dry. 1 hour. Luckey. stagnant air.. 800ºC.

Sulfide in zinc-oxide luminophors.M.45 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Chem. 115. J. References 1. 1 hour. 2.064 Preparation Fire in capped tubes. and towards yellow by replacing 10% of the Zn by Cd.. This common bluish-green emission of ZnO is greatly enhanced by the addition of sulfur during firing. Electrochem. Soc. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Smith. 538 (1968). Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors. A.2 By weight (g) 81 ~0.. W. 3. Phys. 900ºC. 155 (1952). CO..ZnO:S Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO S Mole % 100 ~0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .. The emission can be shifted towards blue by replacing 20% of the Zn by Mg.. 770 (1950). Lehmann. 18. Electrochem.. 2. J. 99. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 10%: In the 1–10 sec range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 60% 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. + (3. J.88 eV).40 eV).L.41 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Thomsen. Zinc-magnesium oxide and zinc-magnesium sulfide phosphors. Soc. S.

51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. N.ZnO:Se Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Se Mole % 100 ~0.160 Preparation Fire in capped quartz tubes..e. + (3.S.. Electrochem. Soc. Markovski. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors. L. W. 900ºC. CO.. Optics and Spectr.Y. 538 (1968)..98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. . Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1. 115.. oxidizing) of ZnSe in air but the efficiency of this ZnO:Se is lower. 9.88 eV).40 eV). 50–60% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Afterglow tail observed into the millisecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material can be obtained also by “burning” (i. J. 2. Lehmann. 1 hour. and Oshanskaya. References 1. 40 (1960).2 By weight (g) 81 0..

ThO2:Eu3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Eu2O3 NH4F Mole % 100 1. H. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish orange-red Emission peak: Three strongest lines. Optika I Spektrosk.97. U. 1. Fok.88 eV). and 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral. 2..V. 127 (1957). N2.J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been proposed for X-ray excitation because of the high stopping power of ThO2 for x-rays. Powderize when dry. Powderize. 1 hour. 2. References 1.04. 3 408 303 (1968).S.3 3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .095 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..5 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 232 2. 1300ºC.7 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Borchard. Dry in air.. Pat.. Dry. M. – (3.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2.375 3.2 (of Tb) 10 By weight (g) 232 0.88 eV). Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral.89. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish white Emission peak: Strongest lines: at 1. Powderize.48. 1 hour. Dry.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ThO2:Tb3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Tb4O7 NH4F Mole % 100 0. 1300ºC.2 (of Pr) 10 By weight (g) 232 0.52 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. N2. Powderize when dry. Dry in air. and 2.7 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3.ThO2:Pr3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Pr2O3 NH4F Mole % 100 0.330 3.7 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been proposed for X-ray excitation (high stopping power of ThO2 for Xrays). Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-greenish Emission peak: Strongest at 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. H. Powderize. Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral. 1300ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air.230 1. stagnant air.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water...J. Borchard. CO. Dry. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 3 408 303 (1968).88 eV). 1300ºC. Pat. Reference 1.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.1 (of Bi) 2. Dry in air.S. Powderize when dry. U. Powderize when dry.5 By weight (g) 108 0. 1 hour. 1 hour. Y2O3:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. – (3.285 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.

Investigations on BI3+-activated phosphors. 530 (1972). References 1. Phys. Electrochem. Blasse. 3. 217 (1968).230 1.35 and 3. J.. Electrochem. 1. 1 hour... G.T. Y2O3:Er3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. 4. + (3. Conf. Boulon.83 eV (for 2. Powderize when dry.. Dry in air. Sometimes it is difficult to recognize the bands in the very diffuse emission spectrum. Leningrad. and Bril.. Lumin. Chem. Soc. 1137 (1967). Proc.5 By weight (g) 108 0.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-greenish white Emission peak: 2..1 (of Bi) 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes..Z. 116. Datta. D.. 274 (1969). and Palumbo. Intern. Soc. 114. 48. J. 2.88 eV). p. J. S.K.. Toma. G. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. stagnant air.00 eV. frequently only the 2..35 eV peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. A.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Low in either case Decay to 10%: 1 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Bi3+ emission in Y2O3 is very poorly expressed. Luminescence of some bismuth-activated oxides. R.35 eV band showing up Emission width (FWHM): 0. et al. 1300ºC. .

Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV). 1 hour. stagnant air.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Efficiency not tested.230 1. 1 hour. Powderize. Powderize.206 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes.1 (of Bi) 2. Dry in air. 1300ºC. (3.5 By weight (g) 108 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 2. stagnant air. 1300ºC. Powderize when dry. – (3. 1300ºC.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. see below) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour.2.88 eV). is low for the visible part because of strong competition by IR emission Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE) Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. air. Fire in open quartz boats. 80% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7–8% (if Eu conc: = 3%. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest line at 2.

Fluorescence and stimulated emission from trivalent europium in yttrium oxide. 3500 (1963). Soc. Phys. Electrochem.5 By weight (g) 108 0. 1300ºC. 34. 111... Fire in capped quartz tubes. 112.C. stagnant air...95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. J.C. Ropp. To obtain a phosphor optimized for e-beam excitation use only ½ of the above Eu concentration. 4.A. Y2O3:Ho3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. J. Dry in air. 3. Powderize. Luminescent behavior of the rare earths in yttrium oxide and related hosts. Electrochem.. 2. J.230 1. stagnant air. Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3..K.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.C. 1137 (1967).. Soc.1 (of Bi) 2. Electrochem. R. J. The above recipe gives a phosphor optimized for excitation by 4. 1 hour. J. 181 (1965).. 2. Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors. 114. Appl.. Chang. R. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Electrochem. Powderize when dry. Datta. and Lefever. 1300ºC..88 eV. 5. References 1.A.40 eV UV but reduces the efficiency for excitation by 4. 47 (1964). Soc. K.. Wickersheim. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV UV. N. R. Sensitization by Bi causes excitability by 3. 311 (1964). Soc. 1. R. Ropp. 2. 1 hour. 111.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Efficiency not tested.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2–3% (if Tb conc.5 By weight (g) 108 0. plus many lines in the IR Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 1 hour. = 1%. (3. is low for the visible part because of the strong competition by IR emission Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y2O3:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. 1300ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: Two lines in the visible at 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.286 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.1 (of Bi) 2. Powderize.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest lines at 2.230 1.266 and 2.88 eV).95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Dry in air.30 eV. 1. CO. 1300ºC. see below) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. 2. 1 hour.253 and 2. CO. Powderize when dry.

R. – (3. 1 hour.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.27 µsec Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Reference 1. Dry in air. Ropp. 311 (1964).40 eV) Decay to 1/e: 0.5%) of Tb.88 eV).. otherwise Tb3+ oxidizes to Tb4+. Store in well-closed container. The above recipe gives a phosphor optimized for excitation by 4. 1200 C.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. This phosphor must be fired in reducing atmosphere. La2O3:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2.C. Re-fire. stagnant air. Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors. Optical Properties Color: Bluish Emission peak: 2.1 (of Bi) 2. same conditions as above.. Electrochem.5 By weight (g) 163 0. Soc.88 eV. J. Powderize when dry.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 111.230 1. Powderize. To obtain a phosphor optimized for e-beam excitation use only 1% (instead of 2.

Store in well-closed container. Soc.. Powderize. 124 (1965). R. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. A. Datta.230 1.. 1 hour. Bril. 111 (1965). W.L. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. stagnant air. 112. 1300ºC.985 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. – (3. 2. La2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. 1300ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Soc.40 eV) ..1 (of Bi) 2.. 1 hour. stagnant air. R. Powderize when dry. 112.88 eV). 114. J.5 By weight (g) 163 0. 1.. Wanmaker.C.. 2. Powderize. Electrochem. Fluorescent properties of red-emitting europium-activated phosphors with cathode ray excitation.. J. Electrochem. J.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 1137 (1967). 3. Ropp. and deLaat.K. Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3. Dry in air. C. Soc. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 1. Electrochem..

47 (1964). J. Fluorescence and stimulated emission from trivalent europium in yttrium oxide. 4. 111.H. 112. Soc. 2. J. R.. J.51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. 114. 112. Ropp..40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and Lefever. Soc.5 By weight (g) 163 0. G. + (3. Fluorescence decay of rare-earth ions in crystals. Electrochem. C.C.. Wickersheim. Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors. 7.. 3500 (1963). R. Luminescent behavior of the rare earths in yttrium oxide and related hosts.95 Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.C. N. 43.1 (of Bi) 2.. and Dieke. A. Electrochem. Electrochem. 3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 La2O3:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0.A... Soc. R.. Electrochem.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 References 1. Chang.. R..88 eV). Barasch.27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.A. Ropp. Wanmaker. J.. 1137 (1967).. J. Bril. K. Soc. Electrochem. 111 (1965).E. G. Datta.. Phys... and deLaat. 5. Appl. Phys. J.. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides.230 1. Fluorescent properties of red-emitting europium-activated phosphors with cathode ray excitation. 181 (1965).L. Chem.C. Soc.. 6. 34. W. Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3. 988 (1965).K.. 111.. 311 (1964).

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

P Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.3 Silicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaSiO3:Ce3+ CaSiO 3:Eu2+ CaSiO 3:Pb2+ CaSiO3:Ti4+ CaSiO3:Pb2+.Mn2+ BaSi2O5:Eu2+ BaSi2O5:Pb2+ Y2SiO5:Ce3+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+.4.Mn2+ Be2SiO4:Mn2+ Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Mn2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ca2MgSi2O7 Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.As5+ Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Ce3+.Mn2+ MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+ MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+.Mn2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ .Mn2+ Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+.Li+.

CaSiO3:Ce3+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 TiO2 CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 100 0. Dry in air.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1. 3. Kröger. Some Aspects of the Luminescence of Solids.176 1.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. F. 1100ºC. Powderize when dry. 1 hour..A.56 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .00 eV. Elsevier. Amsterdam (1948). CO. Fire in capped quartz tubes.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 98 60 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Eu2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 CaF2 Mole % 98 100 0.80 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.

1100ºC. N2. + (3.87 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. Dry in air.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.88 eV).88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 1100º C. 1 hour. – (3.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 1 hour.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize when dry. Powderize when dry. CO.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in capped quartz tubes.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Pb2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 PbO CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 60 2. Dry in air.23 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

air.. 139.J. C. Soc. Calcium zinc silicate phosphor. Optical properties of tin-activated and lead-activated calcium metasilicate phosphors. R. H. CaSiO3:Ti4+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 TiO2 CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 100 0. 8. R. and Hoekstra. 9. Rep. M. Mooney. W. R. Philips Res. 97. J.. Dry in air... W.. A study of the mechanism of sensitized luminescence of solids. Schulman. 106. 43. Philips Res. Schulman. Wei. R. 4. 800 (1959). 2.V.. 6.. OSRAM Ges. Butler. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Opt... 5.W. 318 (1953).. and Claffy. and Hoffman. J. Abh. and Ruffler..H. Bril. K. R. C. Pennsylvania University Press. 137 (1952). Lange. and Klick.. 10. Rep. Note on the properties of calcium silicate phosphors. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and Hoekstra.. 1100ºC... The calcium silicate Mn + Pb phosphor phase relationships and preparation.C. J. Electrochem.W. 99. Tech.. 16.. Electrochem. A.W. Harrison.H. Powderize when dry... Soc. J. E. 269 (1964). J.E. Electrochem. 8. Phys.. Electrochem. M. 19.. Die manganbanden und ihre trennung im lumineszenzspektrum von calciumsilikat (Mn. 123 (1950). University Park (1980). Ginther.. Bril.. 3. 955 (1959). D.H.. 346 (1954). 41 (1963). A. Soc. Soc.80 1. Z. H. J. J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Soc. Wiss..L. 7.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.J. and Wollentin... 356 (1961). Ginther. Am.Pb). Hüniger.K... Nagy. 106. 1 hour.

1000ºC. Wash in water several times.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Mn2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 PbO MnCO3 CaF2 Mole % 97.88 eV).5 100 0. N2.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1150ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. Dry. CO.5 2 2 By weight (g) 97.5 60 1. 1 hour. Powderize.Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. 1 hour. Powderize when dry. Powderize. – (3.12 2. 2. 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 60% (estimated) Decay to 10% : Slightly non exponential ( 35 msec) followed by a long but weaker afterglow tail extending into seconds Absorption (%) 100 Emission .92 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Pb2+.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.3 1. Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

9 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Some new complex silicate phosphors containing calcium. Electrochem. J. Smith. 287 (1949).88 eV).88 eV).97 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. magnesium. and beryllium. A. 96.. – (3..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO SiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 194 110 6 By weight (g) 158 66 6.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (forsterite) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.88 eV Emission width (FWHM): eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Be2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (phenakite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1. – (3.L. Soc.

Lett.. A. 7. 117. 443. and Brown.. 371 (1951). 5. Emission peak moves slightly to longer wavelength with increasing Mn concentration. Fire in open quartz containers.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Efficiency enhancement in manganese-doped zinc silicate phosphor with AIPO4 substitution. Bauer. M. and Holland. G. Kinetics of X-ray irradiation-caused degradation of photoluminescence of some phosphors. Dry in air. I. depend on the Mn concentration used. J.W. Parts or all of the Si can be replaced by Ge (but not by Sn). 4. Lumin. and decay after excitation by e-beam pulse. The thermoluminescence characteristics of silicate phosphors activated by manganese and arsenic. Palumbo. Segnit. Leverenz.. 80–90% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7%/+ Decay: Near exponential with time constant ~10 msec (22–25 msec to 1/10) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 48. Ceram. Very thorough mixing of the ingredients is essential. 6. Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. 1 hour. J.J. – (3. J. Soc. G. H. System MgO-ZnO-SiO2... 409 (1965).. Bull.. 3... Powderize when dry. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1184 (1970). and Vink. 3. Am. 1200ºC. forming gas. J.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.F. 1.. Soc. D. Chang. (1974). Stevels.. Electrochem. C. and Garlick. Soc.L.. Electrochem. E. 1200ºC.W. Powderize by dry milling. 98. 2. 1 hour. J. 229 (1979). Up to ~20% of the Zn can be replaced by Mg without visible effect of the Mg on the emission. Efficiency for excitation by UV and by e-beam. 2. Electrochem. and Chapman & Hall.R.T.. and Shafer. 79 (1976).T. 123. Green-emitting phosphors. 5.F. A.. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.E.. References 1. 2. London (1950).88 eV).. John Wiley & Sons..Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water about 2 hours.N. 35.. J. A. 4. Phys. Soc. 8.40 eV). Fire in open quartz containers. 1.T. New York. Appl. air.

On the luminescence of divalent manganese in solids.P Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Green. Am. air. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.” “Cab-O-Sil.C.88 eV). J. Klick.2 102 0. 1200ºC.As5+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 SiO2* As2O3 Mole % 200 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.230 62.” etc. commercially available as “Silanox.. J. C. Opt.02 (* This requires extremely fine SiO2. and Schulman. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. Dry in air..35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.H. Powderize when dry.04 and 2. 42. 1 hour.8. 910 (1952). orange Emission peak: 2..02 (of As) By weight (g) 163 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Soc. – (3.1 0.18 eV .) Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water about 2 hours.

88 eV). 371 (1951).. 2.. and Garlick.. Bull. H. Phys. The thermoluminescence characteristics of silicate phosphors activated by manganese and arsenic. J. later part non-exponential and extending to several seconds or longer Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 878 (1942). Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3.R. C..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Froelich. G. 2. The afterglow due to As5+ appears only when the phosphor has been fired in oxidizing atmosphere.. – (3. Electrochem. Chem.02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.F. 46. J.Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3–4% Decay: Decay consisting of two subsequent branches. G. Ordinary silicic acid cannot be used for this phosphor (too coarse). 3. Very thorough mixing of the ingredients is important. Soc. and Fonda. References 1.C.. 98. first branch near-exponential with time constant (to 1/e) 12 msec.

35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. University Park (1980). Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors. Pennsylvania University Press.23 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. p.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. 2.H. Kröger.04 eV. Amsterdam (1948). p..60 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). Some Aspects of the Luminescence of Solids.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Green. – (3. F.Reference 1. orange Emission peak: 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Butler.88 eV). Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Green-yellow Emission peak: 2.A. K. 244. Elsevier.168. – (3.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . Powderize by dry milling..32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Philips Res. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Blasse. 1 hour.88 eV) . 2..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Dry. Rev. 1. Soc. T. 1100ºC.. A.. 1 hour. CO.5 5.4 g NH4Cl. Fire in capped quartz tubes.36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. et al. Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates.. Powderize. G. Then ball-mill in water.L. 3 Blasse. Rep. Powderize when dry. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. 304 (1970). CO. + (3. J. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 115. Dry in air. G. Electrochem.. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Barry. Wash in water several times (pH goes to ~10–12). mix by dry milling. 23. and Bril. SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 BaCO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 100 105 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 145 197 63 3. Sr3MgSi2O8. and Ca3MgSi2O8.. Add another 5. Characteristic luminescence. 733 (1968). Philips Tech. 1. 2. 189 (1968).4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 1100ºC. 31.

T. Barry. 1. + (3. Soc. Dry in air.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 2. Powderize by hard milling or grinding.. J. unstable) which are miscible in any ratio. 1000ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes.L. stable in water) and Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ (green. The stability of SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ may not be good enough for use in lamps.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor is an intermediate between Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ (yellow. Store in a well-closed container.4 g NH4Cl. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Eu2O3 SiO2 NH4Cl Mole % 198 2 (of Eu) 105 10 By weight (g) 390 3. T. Barry.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Sr3MgSi2O8. 1 hour. 1100ºC. Wash in water (to remove leftover halide).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 733 (1968).. 2. Powderize. Soc. 115. 1181 (1968). Electrochem. mix well.L. CO. Electrochem.. 115.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.5 63 5. Add another ~5.4 Preparation Mix by milling or grinding. J. and Ca3MgSi2O8. References 1. CO. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. 1 hour.. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems.

2. Blasse.L. 189 (1968). Electrochem. 3. SiO2.. 2. 2. et al.. 900ºC. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba2SiO4:Ce3+.4 5. Material is unstable in water. Powderize. and Li2CO3. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 115. Soc.Li+. G. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize when dry. 1181 (1968). N2. 1 hour. J. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. Part or all of the Ba can be replaced by Sr causing increasing stability against water and shift of the emission towards yellow. and Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems. Now admit MnCO3 and NH4Br by slurrying in methanol. 1 hour. T. Rep. Philips Res. 1 hour. CeO2. 733 (1968).Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaCO3 SiO2 CeO2 Li2CO3 MnCO3 NH4Br Mole % 75 50 10 20 (of Li) 5 10 By weight (g) 148 30 17 7. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Sr3MgSi2O8. Barry. References 1.8 10 Preparation First mix by dry ball-milling or grinding only in the BaCO3. and Ca3MgSi2O8. CO. Electrochem. 115. 900ºC. 1.. 23. 900ºC. Fire in open quartz boats.. Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates. Powderize. Soc. H2.

The luminescent properties and crystal structure of some new phosphor systems.. Br. and 5% Mn.H. Electrochem.. A. 2.C.H.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaSi2O5:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.015 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. McKeag. 4.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. A. 2.Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. References 1. Such phosphor has been known as “triple silicate” in England. 26 (1955). Appl.46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 10% Li. Partial replacement of Ba by Sr shifts the emission into somewhat deeper red. 105. ++ (3. Temperature characteristics of barium strontium lithium silicate phosphors. E. 3. McKeag. and improves chemical stability of the material. Emission changes color from orange-red at room temperature to yellow at 150ºC and whitish at 300ºC. Phosphor is believed to be a modification of Ba2SiO4 (in which Mn2+ is nonluminescent) with 25% of Ba replaced by 10% Ce. improves temperature stability of the emission. 78 (1958). Soc.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + BaSi2O5:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J..88 eV).24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. and Steward. J. Phys..

J. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Butler. Y2SiO5:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.54 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. K. + (3. 531 (1968). 169.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic (diopside) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 118 100 210 2 (of Eu) 40 By weight (g) 66 40 126 3.5 21. Soc.Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. . 1 hour.39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3. 2.. Phosphors based on rare earth phosphates fast decay phosphors. p.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. N2. Powderize when dry.88 eV). 1. Electrochem..H.. University Park (1980).99 eV Emission width (FWHM): eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ropp. Pennsylvania University Press. 115. 1000ºC.. Dry in air.88 eV). R.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water.C.

Powderize. 287 (1949).L. Powderize. 1150ºC. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. A. 1..5 4. Electrochem.6 21. 1 hour.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. magnesium. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. CO.40 eV). Powderize when dry. 1150ºC. CO. 1 hour. Soc.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.2. ++ (3.Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic (diopside) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 114 100 210 2 (of Eu) 4 40 By weight (g) 64 40 126 3. J. Dry. 1000ºC. 2. Dry in air. 1 hour. 96. Smith. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Some new complex silicate phosphors containing calcium. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 60% (estimated) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1.. Powderize. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and beryllium. Wash in water several times. Powderize.88 eV). Dry. Wash in water several times.

40 eV). 1 hour.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. 1 hour.29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1. 1000ºC. N2. 1150ºC.37 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.80 eV.Optical Properties Emission color: Reddish-purple.77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize. Dry in air. CO. ++ (3. Emission peak: 1. Powderize when dry. Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 60% (estimated) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 200 100 210 2 (of Eu) 40 By weight (g) 112 40 126 3. ++ (3. 25% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .5 21. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.40 eV). 2. 2.12 eV.88 eV).88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2MgSi2O7 Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 1000ºC.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. N2.5 9. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour.29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. 2.2 5. 1 hour.17 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.80 eV. 1150ºC.Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 205 100 210 2 (of Eu) 8 10 By weight (g) 115 40 126 3. CO. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red plus weaker yellow-green Emission peak: 1. Powderize when dry. Dry in air. Powderize.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by all UV plus visible blue Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

2. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient SrCO2 SrF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 276 12. J. Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes.3 126 5.68 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and terVrugt. N2.L. Rep. 189 (1968). J. 2. 673 (1968). 1150ºC. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors. Soc.6 40. Wanmaker. 1000ºC.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 23. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Electrochem.. Blasse. Blasse.W.. G.. 115. G.. 1 hour. CO. Philips Res. et al. 1 hour.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. W.3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. Powderize..

. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (melinite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 369 17. 23. Dry in air. Blasse.42 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 189.. et al.3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. Philips Res.3 126 5. 2. 1000ºC. G. Rep.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. (1968).5 40. CO. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. + (3.41 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize. 1 hour. 1. Powderize when dry.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1100ºC.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.. J.5 40.3 126 5.L.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.W.. Soc. J. 115.. 1. G. Philips Tech. + (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . 31. 2.. Blasse... 304 (1970). G. Electrochem. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (melinite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 369 17.. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors. Characteristic luminescence. 673 (1968). and Bril.88 eV).10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.3 Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3. W. Wanmaker. and terVrugt. Rev. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. A. Blasse.

Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Dry in air.Reference 1. and terVrugt. University Park.. Butler. Blasse. J. 2. 3. G. 1 hour.L. 117. J. K. 189 (1968).82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..J. Powderize. T. et al. Wanmaker. Soc.. 115..88 eV). Philips Res. 1100ºC. N2. 673 (1968). Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors. CO. Electrochem. Barry. Rep. Soc..H. G. 2. Blasse.W.. ++ (3.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates. W.6 143. Pennsylvania University Press.. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors.5 40. Luminescent properties of Eu2+ and Eu2+ + Mn2+ activated BaMg2Si2O7. 1000ºC. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Fire in capped quartz tubes. 23..3 126 5. J.. BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Composition Ingredient BaCO3 SrCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 90 97 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 177. (1980). Fire in capped quartz tubes.3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. Powderize when dry. Electrochem.2 17. 381 (1970).

N2. 850ºC. Gradual replacement of Ba by Sr causes rapid decrease of efficiency without visible change of color. 1 hour. 3. Dry in air. Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates in moist air. Fire in open quartz boats. Now admit the NH4Br by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. + (3. Store in a well-closed container. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry. 16 hours (overnight). Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 850ºC. 1.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.3 49 Preparation First mix all ingredients but the NH4Br by dry grinding or milling .Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Br Mole % 97 110 (of Li) 110 3 (of Eu) 50 By weight (g) 191 41 66 5. 850ºC. 2.40 eV). excited by all UV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. CO.88 eV).30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize. 2. H2.

Fire in open boats. Part or all of the Ba can be replaced by Sr. Powderize. 1 hour. The Sn2+ emission sensitizes Mn2+ (see: Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+.88 eV). 2. Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates even in moist air. 850ºC. Dry in air. 1.40 eV). 3.Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 SnO NH4Br Mole % 95 110 (of Li) 110 5 50 By weight (g) 187 41 66 6. Powderize when dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. Make slurry in methanol and stir to uniformity. Now admit the SnO + NH4Br. ++ (3. 1 hour.Mn2+). Fire in open quartz boats. H2. Store in a well-closed container. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . causing a shift of the emission towards bluegreen. 3. CO. 850ºC. N2. QE fairly high Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.8 49 Preparation First mix by dry grinding or milling the BaCO3 + Li2CO3 + SiO2 .89 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. ~16 hours (overnight). 850ºC.

Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. Fire in capped quartz tubes.7 49 Preparation First mix by dry grinding or milling the BaCO3 + Li2CO3 + SiO2.5 110 (of Li) 110 5 1. Store in a well-closed container. H2.88 eV). Fire in open boats. ~16 hours (overnight). Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates even in moist air. 2.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 SnO MnCO3 NH4Br Mole % 93. 2. and decreasing efficiency. 1 hour.40 eV). Now admit the SnO + MnCO3 + NH4Br. CO. Make a slurry in methanol and stir to uniformity. Powderize. N2. Dry in air.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. ++ (3. 850ºC. broadening and slight deformation of the emission band. Powderize.5 50 By weight (g) 185 41 66 6. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Increasing replacement of Ba by Sr causes gradual shift of the emission towards red. 850ºC. 850ºC. QE (estimated) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 60–70% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.32 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 3. 1. Powderize.8 1. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour.

Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates. .... 115.82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 23.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. 1181 (1968). Electrochem. Electrochem.L. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. T. Blasse.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 733 (1968) and Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems.82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). Soc. Rep. 115.. J. J.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Barry. Philips Res.. Sr3MgSi2O8. Soc. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 2. and Ca3MgSi2O8. ++ (3. G. et al.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.MgSrBaSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. 189 (1968).

G. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. et al.40 eV). Philips Tech. G. CO. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. A. 304 (1970). N2. Blasse. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Rep. Blasse. Characteristic luminescence. Powderize 2.. 2.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..2 sec to 1/e Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 45% 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and Bril. 1 hour. 1000ºC.MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Decay: 0.. 23. 1. 1100ºC. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .8 16 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol about 1 hour.. ++ (3.88 eV) Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 295 100 206 5 (of Eu) 30 By weight (g) 435 40 124 8. 1. Rev. Dry in air..Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. 1 hour. 189 (1968). Philips Res. 31.88 eV).

1.47 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by all UV but low QE ( 20%) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor.88 eV). 1100ºC. Powderize by milling. 2.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in open quartz boats. 0. Fire in open quartz boats. – (3. Powderize. air. 1300ºC.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour.40 eV). 1200ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.2 8. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats.8 Preparation Mix by dry milling or grinding. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 50–60% 400 300 50 2 3 Remark The chemical stability of this material is somewhat better than that of CaO:Eu3+. 3.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 H3BO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 50 22 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 100 31 13. air. 1 hour. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish-green Emission peak: 2. air.

02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: orange–red Emission peak: ~2. ++ (3.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .

500 C. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Wash in water several times.4. 2. 1 hour. Powderize. Powderize. Powderize when dry. 1200 C. 1200 C.56 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).35 and 3. Powderize. CO. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. 3.Tb3+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 SiO2 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 100 (of La) 160 20 120 By weight (g) 163 96 34 64 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water (NH3 develops). Dry in air. N2. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 90% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry in air.4 Halosilicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. 1 hour. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. Fire in open quartz boats.

Wash in water several times. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and Isaaks.88 eV). QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 80–90% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . ~500 C. W. 2. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. Reference 1. Soc. 1 hour. Lehmann. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV).Tb3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 SiO2 CeO2 Tb4O7 NH4Cl Mole % 100 (of La) 180 20 14 (of Tb) 130 By weight (g) 163 108 34 26 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water (NH3 develops).. 1 hour. T. Dry in air. 445 (1978). 125. J. Replacement of La by Y is possible but gives somewhat poorer phosphors. CO.Remarks 1.. Powderize.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes.J. 1200 C. Electrochem. Dry in air. ~1 hour. Lanthanum and yttrium halo-silicate phosphors.H. N2. Powderize when dry. but Cl seems to perform best. Powderize. 3. F or Br can replace the Cl in the above recipe. + (3. 1. Powderize. 2.. 1200 C. N2.

Soc. Electrochem.39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). Luminescence of phosphors with Ca3SiO4Cl. Philips Res. Lehmann.31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 80 (1973).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. 2.88 eV). ++ (3..H. and Isaaks. J. 28. – (3.L.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. Rep. W. and Verriet. J. Replacement of La by Y is possible but gives somewhat poorer phosphors.. Lanthanum and yttrium halo-silicate phosphors.. 445 (1978). Reference 1. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2..Remarks 1. 125.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. W.J. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. The Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F or Br but Cl seems to perform best. T..40 eV) . 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Wanmaker.G.

28.88 eV). C. J. Soc. Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Garcia.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. 1734 (1979).L. Latourette. ++ (3.G... Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: blue Emission peak: 2.. W. Philips Res. A.52 eV . and Fouassier. a new blue-emitting photoluminescent material with high quenching temperature. 80 (1973). 126..82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. Luminescence of phosphors with Ca3SiO4Cl. B. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Wanmaker.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Electrochem.. Rep. and Verriet. J.

P. 467 (1971).. ..88 eV). ++ (3.. H.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. H. J. and Rooksby.Emission width (FWHM): 0.P. K. Nicholson.. 3. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated alkaline earth halosilicates.L. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Burrus. Lumin.

4.Tb3+ YPO4:Eu3+ YPO4:Mn2+.Mn2+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Mn2+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+ Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ MgBa2(PO4)2:U Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ .Mn2+ MgCaP2O7:Mn2+ BaTiP2O7 MgSrP2O7:Eu2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+.Mn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ CaB2P2O9:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Mn2+ ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+ Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2 (Zn.Mn2+(Al) -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+ -(Ca.Th4+ YPO4:V5+ LaPO4:Ce3+ LaPO4:Eu3+ CaP2O6:Mn2+ Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ Ca2P2O7:Ce3+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+.5 Phosphates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: YPO4:Ce3+ YPO4:Ce3+.

.. Chem.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2–3% Decay: Near exponential decay. 4. N2. Soc. Philips Tech. ~2 hours. G.71 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 31. A.. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in capped quartz tubes.R. Lett.R.P. Blasse.. D. J. Rev. Electrochem. 3. ~1300ºC. 4. 5. Dry in air. 85% Mole % 97 (of Y) 3 (of Eu) 105 (of P) By weight (g) 110 5. D. J. 1300ºC. Wright.88 eV). mix by dry grinding. Add ~5 g of NH4Cl. Powderize. and Banks. Phys. ~80 nsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. CO.. – (3..P. CeP5O14. N2. Phys.YPO4:Ce3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O2 H3PO4 solution.. Hoffman. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. Bauman. E. Effect of thorium on Ce+3 phosphors. and Bril. 1.. Solid State Chem. G. Bimburg. J. 52 (1972). ~1 hour. R. Electronic transitions of rare earth ions in the infrared region. ~500–600ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. and Jeser. Powderize when dry.2 64 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of Y2O3 and Eu2O3 in methanol. 192 (1960). Fire in open quartz boats. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. J. 3.. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. Mandel.. a new ultrafast scintillator. 2.. M. Robbins.. 67 (1975). Powderize.. 33. 304 (1970). 118..49 and 3.V. Blasse. D. 1508 (1971). G. ~1 hour. 27. Appl. Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..

Electrochem.C. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. Spectral properties of some rare earth phosphates.YPO4:Ce3+.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).88 eV). 115. Soc. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ropp. 841 (1968). 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YPO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. Phosphors based on rare earth phosphates. R. J..Tb3+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.. – (3.

4 64 ccm Preparation Make a slurry of La2O3. – (3.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Th4+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.88 eV) Structure: Monoclinic (monazite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl H3PO4 solution.44 5. CeO2 .23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YPO4:V5+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. and NH4Cl in methanol.56 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. .YPO4:Mn2+.88 eV). Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. 85% LaPO4:Ce3+ Mole % 98 (of La) 2 10 105 (of P) By weight (g) 160 3. Dry in air.59 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize when dry.

Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: Strongest lines are at 1. G. – (3.4 64 ccm Preparation Make a slurry of La2O3. CO. Bauman. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. 1250ºC.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. Electronic transitions of rare earth ions in the infrared region.8 5.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Powderize when dry. N2. Fire in open quartz boats. 1250ºC. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. Structure: Monoclinic (monazite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl H3PO4 solution. Eu2O3. R. 33. 1250ºC. 1250ºC.784. and NH4Cl in methanol.67 and 3. Mandel..94 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 85% LaPO4:Eu3+ Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 10 105 (of P) By weight (g) 155 8. Fire in open quartz boats. Dry in air. N2.. and 2. Chem.097. 2 hours.P.. 1 hour. and Banks. 1. 2 hours.88 eV). 2. 192 (1970).117 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Phys.815. Powderize. 1.1 2 Fire in open quartz boats. E. J.. air.88eV). – (3.

W. et al..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.88 eV). Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4. – (3. Rev.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Philips Tech. 270 (1966).. Wanmaker.L. CaP2O6:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 21.

Sr2P2O7:Sn2+
Spectra
800 700 600 500
2+

400

Wavelength (nm)

300
2+

100

Emission

-Sr2P2O7:Sn

-Sr2P2O7:Sn

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Ropp., R.C., and Mooney, R.W., Tin-activated alkaline-earth pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 107, 15 (1960).

Ca2P2O7:Ce3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 CeO2 NaHCO3 H3PO4-solution, 85% Mole % 96 2 2 6 (of P) By weight (g) 130 3.4 1.7 4.1 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4, CeO2 , and NaHCO3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1/2 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish (most of the emission in the UV) Emission peaks: 3.60 and 3.83 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., Suppl. 4, 18 (1955).

Ca2P2O7:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 93 2 (of Eu) 5 9 (of P) By weight (g) 126 3.5 5.75 6.1 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4, Eu2O3 , and MnCO3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pink-orange Emission peak: Orange Mn2+ band at ~2.06 eV; Violet Eu2+ band at ~2.98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.28 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Kröger, F.A. et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 96, 132 (1949). 2. Kinney, D.E., Modified calcium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 676 (1955). 3. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., S18, Suppl. 4 (1955). 4. Ropp, R.C., Manganese-activated cadmium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 109, 569 (1962).

Ca2P2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 Eu2O3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 4 (of P) By weight (g) 133 3.5 2.7 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4 + Eu2O3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.96 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Kröger, F.A. et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 96, 132 (1949). 2. Kinney, D.E., Modified calcium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 676 (1955). 3. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., S18, Suppl. 4 (1955). 4. Ropp, R.C., Manganese-activated cadmium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 109, 569 (1962).

Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+,Mn2+
Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 CaHPO4 CeO2 MnCO3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 205 (of Li) 89 3 5 115 (of P) By weight (g) 75.7 121 5.2 5.75 70 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of Li2CO3 + CaHPO4 + CeO2 + MnCO3 in methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring (CO2 develops). Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 700ºC, 16 hours (overnight). Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish-yellow Emission peak: 2.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

MgCaP2O7:Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.20 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaTiP2O7
Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Henderson, S.T., and Ranby, P.W., Barium titanium phosphate – a new phosphor, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 479 (1951).

MgSrP2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. 2.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Hoffman, M.V., Eu+2 activation in some alkaline earth strontium phosphate compounds, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 560 (1968). Blasse, G., and Bril, A., The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators, Philips Tech. Rev., 31, 304 (1970).

MgBaP2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in BaO-MgO-P2O5 system, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1271 (1968).

MgBaP2O7:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Mg2P2O7 Ba2P2O7 Eu2O3 MnCO3 H3PO4-solution, 85% Mole % 90 (of Mg) 96 (of Ba) 4 (of Eu) 10 19 (of P) By weight (g) 100 215 7 11.5 12.9 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of Mg2P2O7 + Ba2P2O7 + Eu2O3 + MnCO3 in water. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 500–600ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 950ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish orange-red Emission peak: Orange-red Mn2+ band at 2.07 eV, violet Eu2+ band at 3.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.18 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+
Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: UV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300
16/9 % Ce 2/3 1/9 1/36

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).
600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

800 700

300
3+ 2+

100

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce ,Mn
Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Reference 1. Froelich, H.C., and Margolis, J.M., Calcium phosphate phosphor activated with cerium and manganese, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 400 (1951).

CaB2P2O9:Eu2+
Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 H3BO3 Eu2O3 (NH4)2HPO4 Mole % 98 200 2 (of Eu) 106 By weight (g) 134 124 3.5 140

Preparation Make a slurry of the CaHPO4 + Eu2O3 in methanol. Dissolve the H3BO3 + (NH4)2HPO4 together in a little water. Add the solution to the slurry. Stir. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, air, ~500–600ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 800ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 3. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1000ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep violet Emission peak: 3.08 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Now add the crushed (NH4)2CO4 by dry mixing.. 15.R. J. Physica. E. Powderize when dry. Dry in air. – (3... 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 SnO Mole % 5 75 5 By weight (g) 5 90 6.-Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 SnO (NH4)2CO4 Mole % 10 75 1 12 By weight (g) 10 90 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. F. N2. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2. Kröger. 118. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in system Ca3(PO4)2Ba3(PO4)2.61 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1250ºC. A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors.75 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .A. Kreidler. 2. 1 hour.35 2 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 + CaHPO4 + SnO by slurrying in methanol.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem. 923 (1971). 801 (1949). Soc.88 eV).

.88 eV). Dry in air. 1100ºC. 1250ºC.A. Kröger. N2. 2. – (3. -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 PbO Mole % 24 75 1 By weight (g) 24 90 2. 2 hours. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 923 (1971). Fire in capped quartz tubes. 801 (1949). 15. Powderize when dry. 1. 1 hour. Dry in air. 118. Powderize when dry.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. CO. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in system Ca3(PO4)2Ba3(PO4)2. 2 hours. Physica. Soc. 2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Kreidler.R.55 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize by dry milling. ~500ºC. F.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale orange Emission peak: 1. 2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 1100ºC. A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors. CO. 1.. Electrochem. J. Powderize.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. E. 1 hour.

J.. 1250 C. 355 (1947).88 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 37.64 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.H.68 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.2 1 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.J.66 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize when dry.88 eV). Dry in air. R.88 eV)...40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. – (3. – (3. Clapp. Ultraviolet phosphors and fluorescent sun tan lamps. Opt. R. Soc. stagnant air. Am. -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 TlOH Al2O3 Mole % 22 75 1 2 (of Al) By weight (g) 22 90 2. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and Ginther. 1 hour.

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Froelich, H.C., New ultraviolet phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 91, 241 (1947). 2. Witzmann, H., and Buhrow, J., Ein neuer schwarzlichtphosphor, Naturwissenschaften, 49, 180 (1962). 3. Clapp, R.H., and Ginther, R.J., Ultraviolet phosphors and fluorescent sun tan lamps, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 37, 355 (1947). 4. Bril, A., and Hoekstra, W., Philips Res. Rep., 16, 356, (1961), and Philips Res. Rep., 19, 296 (1964).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CeO3 NaHCO3 Mole % 15 75 5 5 By weight (g) 15 90 17 8.4

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.33 eV, 3.57 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Froelich, H.C., and Margolis, J.M., Calcium phosphate phosphor activated with cerium and manganese, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 400 (1951). 2. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 Mole % 24 75 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 24 90 1.76

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish blue-green Emission peak: ~2.52 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.53 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970). 2. McCauley, R.A., Hummel, F.A., and Hoffman, M.V., Phase equilibria and Eu2+activated, Tb3+-activated, and Mn2+-activated luminescent phases in CaO-MgO-P2O5 system, J. Electrochem. Soc., 118, 755 (1971).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 Mole % 24 75 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 24 90 1.76

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Remark This phosphor easily shows a weak green emission band due to the -phosphate (see Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 19 75 1 (of Eu) 5 By weight (g) 19 90 1.76 5.75

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish-red Emission peak: ~1.91 eV (Mn2+ band), ~3.01 eV (Eu2+ band) Emission width (FWHM): 0.24 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

-Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+,Mn2+(Al)
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 Al2O3 SnO MnCO3 Mole % 8 45 4 (of Al) 1.5 1 By weight (g) 11.8 75.4 2 2 1.15

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Remarks 1. This is a “tricky” phosphor, by no means yet understood or optimized. 2. Partial or complete replacement of Sr by Ca shifts the emission into deeper red. References 1. Kröger, F.A., A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors, Physica, 15, 801 (1949). 2. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952). 3. Sarver, J.F., Hoffman, M.V., and Hummel, F.A., Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in strontium orthophosphate systems, J. Electrochem. Soc., 108, 1103 (1961).

-Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SnO Mole % 20 75 5 By weight (g) 29.5 138 6.75

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.66 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

-Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.94 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970). 2. Hoffman, M.V., Eu+2 activation in some alkaline earth strontium phosphate compounds, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 560 (1968).

Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Reference 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970).

Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+
Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Fava, J. et al., Some new efficient luminophors with low-concentration quenching effects, J. Lumin., 18/19, 389 (1979).

-(Ca,Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+,Mn2+
Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SrCO3 SrHPO4 SnO MnCO3 Mole % 50 32 205 10 3 By weight (g) 50 47 376 13.5 3.45

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 500–600ºC. Powderize. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1150ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1.97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

Remarks 1. Increasing Mn concentration causes narrowing of the emission band but decreasing efficiency. 2. The -phosphate structure is maintained from about Ca/Sr of 10/90 to 100/0. Increasing Ca/Sr causes a shift of the Mn2+ band into deeper red. References 1. Butler, K.H., Alkaline earth orthophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 100, 250 (1953). 2. Koelmans, H., and Cox, A.P.M., Luminescence of modified tin-activated strontium orthophosphate, J. Electrochem. Soc., 104, 442 (1957). 3. Mooney, R.W., Temperature dependence of fluorescence of tin-activated orthophosphates, J. Electrochem. Soc., 105, 456 (1958). 4. Uehara, Y., Kobuke, Y., and Masuda, I., Copper-activated calcium orthophosphate and related phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 106, 200 (1959). 5. Wanmaker, W.L., and Bakker, C., Luminescence of copper-activated calcium and strontium orthophosphates, J. Electrochem. Soc., 106, 1027 (1959). 6. Sarver, J.F., Hoffman, M.V., and Hummel, F.A., Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in strontium orthophosphate systems, J. Electrochem. Soc., 108, 1103 (1961).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+
Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

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4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

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Absorption (%)

100

Emission

2. and Hummel.A.. It cannot be sensitized to respond to 4. air. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring (slurry heats up). Electrochem.. ~500ºC.S.40 eV UV. – (3. 30 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Reference 1.94 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2 Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 H3PO4 solution Mole % 99 1 62 (of P) By weight (g) 81 1. F. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 1. 2 hours.6 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of ZnO + MnCO3 in water or methanol.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~7–8% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Dry in air. Sarver. Stir to uniformity as well as possible. 950ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Ball-mill the slurry for about 1 hour. Soc.. Katnack.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. . Powderize when dry.15 47. 960 (1959). Powderize. This phosphor has been used as the red component in early color TV picture tubes. Phase equilibria and manganeseactivated fluorescence in the system Zn3(PO4)2-Mg3(PO4)2.L. 106. This is strictly a catholuminescent phosphor. 1 hour. 900ºC. 3. 2. 1 hour. air. Fire in open quartz boats. 1. F. Fire in open quartz boats. air.. J.88 eV). Powderize.88 or 3.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~6–8% Decay: near-exponential decay. Fire in open quartz boats.(Zn. Electrochem.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient ZnO MnO MnCO3 H3PO4 solution Mole % 79 20 1 62 (of P) By weight (g) 65 8. 1000ºC is too high. 900ºC is too low. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 1. F.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. J.L. Soc. This is strictly a catholuminescent phosphor. Fire in open quartz boats.15 46. 1. – (3. Katnack.7 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of ZnO + MgO + MnCO3 in water or methanol. Powderize when dry. J. Reference 1. 2.1 1..S. air. 2. F. Phase equilibria and manganeseactivated fluorescence in the system Zn3(PO4)2-Mg3(PO4)2. Dry in air. 960 (1959). Crush forming phosphate by wet mortaring or milling. Stir to uniformity. 106. 1 hour.. 100–1200 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. 2 hours. and Hummel.96 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). The decay of this phosphor is significantly longer than that of Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ (~30 msec to 1/10). air. It cannot be sensitized for UV excitation. 3. ~500–600ºC... The 950ºC firing temperature is critical. Sarver. . 950ºC. Powderize.A.

. Tb3+-activated. Hummel.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..A. 118. 755 (1971). MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Orange.V.. McCauley.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . F.red Emission peak: 1. and Mn2+-activated luminescent phases in CaO-MgO-P2O5 system.48 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.A. Electrochem.Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Soc. J. – (3. M.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..88 eV). and Hoffman.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Phase equilibria and Eu2+activated. R.

– (3.MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peak: 2.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .67 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgBa2(PO4)2:U Optical Properties Emission color: Green Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.89 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).

Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors.97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).H.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. p. Butler. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . K. ++ (3.. 274. Pennsylvania University Press. University Park (1980).

4. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). – (3.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. N2.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water or methanol.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. Dry in air. Powderize when dry.6 Halophosphates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. 1 hour. 1100ºC.Pr3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 140 400 50 10 By weight (g) 140 360 39 11.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .

and Alcala. – (3. 96. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 Sb2O3 Mole % 140 300 50 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 140 360 39 14. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.. 321 (1981). 1100ºC. Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Excitation-spectra and fluorescent lifetime measurements of Mn2+ in CaF2 and Ca5(PO4)3F2. N2.W. R.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+.J. Electrochem. References 1. P. McKeag.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..H. Lumin.70 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize when dry. 2. 22. or Ce3+. J..88 eV).6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water or methanol. and Ranby. Alonso.J. J. 1 hour. P.40 eV) . Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2... 1 (1949).. Sb3+. Jenkins. A. Soc. H.

E.W. N2. Davis..5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Energy-transfer between antimony and manganese in fluorophosphate phosphors.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 1657 (1973). Rev. T..S.. 96. 7. et al. Electrochem. Soules.H. Soc. 1 hour. – (3... P. Molecular orbital model for antimony luminescent centers in fluorophosphate. T.F. T. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish Emission peak: 3.88 eV). 1056 (1971).. Chem.J. J. 1100ºC. 55. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.9 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J.. Jenkins. and Ranby. Phys.R. 1 (1949).F... 2. Soules. and Kreidler. Fire in capped quartz tubes. H. B. A. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 SnO Mole % 200 300 50 10 By weight (g) 200 360 39 13. 3.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .00 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0. Powderize when dry. Phys. McKeag. Dry in air.

H.W. 96.72 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. and Ranby. Electrochem.. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. McKeag. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1100ºC. A. 1. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Dry in air. N2. J..23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. ++ (3. 1 hour. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 200 360 64 8. 1100º C. 1 hour.88 eV).J. Dry. P. N2. Wash in water several times.H.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. mix by dry grinding or milling. Soc.. Powderize. Powderize.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. 1 (1949).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Jenkins.

40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2. N2. 1. – (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1 hour.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: ~2. Dry. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 11. Powderize. Dry in air.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Wash in water several times. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968). A. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). Wachtel.. mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1100ºC. Powderize. 1100ºC. Bloomfield Report. 1 hour. Powderize when dry.

N2. A.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+. and Ranby.J. 1100ºC. Reference 1. mix by dry grinding or milling. Soc. McKeag. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.. H.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. – (3.40 eV) . 1100ºC. Dry in air. J. 96. 1 hour. Dry..70 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. 1.88 eV).H. P. or Eu2+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 11. Powderize. N2. Wash in water several times. Electrochem. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry. Jenkins. 1 (1949). Add 32 g NH4Cl.. Powderize. Sb3+. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish-green Emission peak: 2.W. Ce3+. Fire in capped quartz tubes..

1100ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Electrochem. Powderize when dry.. N2. 1 (1949).45 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. H. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. – (3. Dry.. J. 1100ºC. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.. 1. Jenkins. 2. Wash in water several times. McKeag. 96. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl SnO Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 13. P.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Pale pinkish-white Emission peaks: Continuous distribution from the UV into the IR. 1 hour. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Powderize. A. Powderize.95 and 3. Dry in air. N2. and Ranby. the two peaks near 1.H.J. Soc.W.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. mix by dry grinding or milling.

1100ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 295 550 64 8. Add 32 g NH4Cl.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Powderize. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Dry. Dry in air. 2. 1100ºC. Powderize when dry. N2. mix by dry grinding or milling. ++ (3.88 eV). N2. 1.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.75 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Wash in water several times.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour.

. Powderize. Add 32 g NH4Cl. N2. 1100ºC. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry. Powderize. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968). Wash in water several times. Dry in air. Bloomfield Report.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. 1. Wachtel. mix by dry grinding or milling. – (3. 1100ºC. 1 hour. N2.88 eV). Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 295 550 64 11. A.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

2. Dry. – (3. Powderize when dry. Jenkins.J.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. Reference 1.68 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+. A. Powderize. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl Sb2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 295 550 64 14. Wash in water several times.. N2. Electrochem. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and Ranby. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish-green Emission peak: ~2. N2. Soc. 1 (1949).. 1100ºC. H. 1 hour. 1. 1100ºC.. 96. J. Fire in capped quartz tubes. mix by dry grinding or milling. P. Ce3+. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. or Eu2+.W. 1 hour.88 eV).H. Powderize. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Dry in air. McKeag. Sb3+.40 eV) .

W. 1 (1949). Dry in air.. A.H.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. J. McKeag. Electrochem.. – (3. Jenkins. 1100ºC.88 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Reference 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: ~2. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. Soc..J.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 50 10 By weight (g) 295 550 63 11. 96.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. P. H. and Ranby. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry. N2. 1 hour.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.

Electrochem. P..43 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Dry in air... Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.J. Jenkins.. Powderize when dry.Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+.88 eV).W.H. and Ranby. 1 (1949).W. Reference 1. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 Sb2O3 Mole % 140 300 50 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 206 550 63 14. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish blue-green Emission peak: ~2. – (3. J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Electrochem. J.. McKeag. or Ce3+.H... 1 (1949). 1100ºC. Soc. Sb3+. H. 1 hour. A. Jenkins. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. Soc.J.. 96. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and Ranby. N2. H.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 96.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. A. McKeag. P.

Pr3+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 SnO Mole % 140 300 50 10 By weight (g) 206 550 63 13.Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+.5 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.

Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add 32 g NH4Cl. 2. 1 hour. N2. Dry. Powderize. N2. 1 hour. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-blue Emission peak: ~2. Wash in water several times. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. mix by dry grinding. 1100ºC. 1000ºC.88 eV). 1000ºC. Dry in air. Powderize.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water.Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. – (3. Powderize when dry. Powderize when dry.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . ++ (3. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-white Emission peak: ~2.84 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 395 700 64 8.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.75 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

and NH4Cl.39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient BaHPO4 BaCO3 NH4Cl UO2(C2H3O2)2. 850ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor 50% . + (3. Wachtel. 2. 1. Powderize. Add 32 g NH4Cl. A. BaCO3. 900ºC.12–2. and add the solution to the slurry. Dry. decant). Dry in air.88 eV). 2H2O Mole % 190 150 120 10 By weight (g) 443 295 64 42 Preparation Make a slurry in methanol of BaHPO4. N2. Dissolve the uranyl acetate in a little methanol. stir to uniformity. Bloomfield Report. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peaks: 2. N2. Powderize when dry. 1 hour. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. 2 hours.40 eV). mix by dry grinding or milling. let settle. Wash in water several times (stir.

Electrochem. N2.S. and Wells. Luminescent barium and magnesium halophosphates. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1100ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Wash in water several times. 414 (1951). Powderize.88 eV). J. R. 1 hour. J.2 g NH4Cl. Soc. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2. 1.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. 2.. Add 3. 1 hour.T. 1100ºC. N2.. mix by dry grinding. Powderize. Dry in air. 98. Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 BaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 200 700 64 8. Powderize when dry. Anderson. ++ (3.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol plus a little water.

.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. A. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Bloomfield Report. Wachtel. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968).

Cl -SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+ MgB2O4:Mn2+ MgYBO4:Eu3+ CaB2O4:Mn2+ CaB2O4:Pb2+ CaYBO4:Bi3+ CaYBO4:Eu3+ CaLaBO4:Eu3+ ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ CaLaB3O7:Ce3+.Cl.4.Mn2+ .Tb3+ LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ BaB8O13:Eu2+ SrB8O13:Sm2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ CaYB0.Br) SrB4O7:Pb2+ SrB4O7:Pb2+.7 Borates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: YBO3:Ce3+ YBO3:Eu3+ LaBO3:Eu3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+.Mn2+ SrB4O7:Eu2+(F.5:Pb2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Cr3+ YAl3B4O12:Th4+.7:Eu3+ Ca2La2BO6.Mn2+ Cd2B6O11:Mn2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+.8O3.Mn2+ SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+.Mn2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Ce3+.

. Sovers.. Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated sodium lanthanide titanates. A. J. G. Fire in open quartz boats. Blasse. J.00 and 3. Avella. C.. 117. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Blasse. and Bril.S. Soc. Fast-decay phosphors. J. F. 53. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. J.. 6. Solid State Chem.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. and de Poorter. O. G. 31. G. 613 (1967). air. Phys. 3. J. G. Chem.D. 48. 1 hour. Blasse. 52 (1972).. Bril. – (3. Soc.. Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3. and Wiggins..J. 3652 (1968). 346 (1970).. . A.. Philips Tech.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YBO3:Eu3+ Structure: Vaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of Y) 8 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 104 14 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 4. 4. Blasse. J. Rev.. 5. 1. Chem. 304 (1970).88 eV). 114.. 4450 (1970).. Electrochem. J.A. ~500ºC. and Bril.. A. A.J. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. Bril... and Poorter. Blasse. G.. Phys... Electrochem.A. 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.YBO3:Ce3+ Structure: Vaterite Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3..

1 hour. air.. and Bril. 1000ºC. Sovers. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV). 613 (1967). 1000ºC. and Wiggins. Philips J. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. Fine structure in the low temperature luminescence of Zn2SiO4:Mn and Mg4Ta2O9:Mn.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. – (3. 1 hour. Powderize. Powderize.98–2. 124 (1978).. air.J. Powderize.W. Fire in open quartz boats. air. 33. ~500ºC. air. Res. Fire in open quartz boats. LaBO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic (aragonite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of La) 8 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 150 14 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. A. Electrochem. 1 hour. 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 2 hours.. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. F. 3. C. Powderize. 3. 1.2. 1150ºC. Soc. A. J. Avella. air..J.S. Optical Properties Emission color: Red-orange Emission peaks: 1. 1250ºC. O. 114... 2. . Veenis..

02.L.. Powderize. Bril.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2 . Avella.88 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in capped quartz tubes. Sovers.J. C. Powderize. 2 hours. 111..Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.995. 613 (1967).10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 114. Fluorescent properties of some europium-activated phosphors.. 16 hours (overnight). and then take out. Soc. 1363 (1964). and 2. and Wiggins. A. O.J.88 eV). air. Soc. -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 PbO H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 99 1 600 5 By weight (g) 146 2. 3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. F. Place into cold furnace.. Electrochem.S. 2. and Wanmaker. 700ºC. Electrochem.. 2.09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1.7 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. J. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4.. 2.3 370 2. W. go slowly up with temperature to 600 C. N2 . – (3. J. 700ºC.

QE 45–50% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2 .15 372 2. N2 . and Müller. Phys. W. Powderize. Buhrow. H. H. Phys. 43. Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission. 6. 2. Naturwissenschaften. and Semisch. G. Z. and Schreiber.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore (CaO. and Treichler. 16 hours (overnight).. Chem. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and then take out. Müller. – (3. 205 (1959).. -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+. 542 (1958). Witzmann.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 PbO MnCO3 H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 1 1 600 5 By weight (g) 180 2. 4. and Treichler.. 45. Witzmann.. Place into cold furnace.. H..41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Mn). 212. Naturwissenschaften. W. H. Witzmann..7 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.88 eV). K. 103 (1964).. 49.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. H. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. 307 (1959). go slowly up with temperature to 600 C. Z. 1. (Leipzig). Witzmann. Zur lumineszenz kupfer. air. Witzmann. 3. 2 hours. 2. J.40 eV). Naturwissenschaften. Witzmann. 3.. 700ºC. R. R. 51. 700ºC. H.. H.. 181 (1962).. (Leipzig). Chem. Powderize.XB2O3-Pb. Naturwissenschaften. 5. Zur uv-emission bleiaktivierter strontiumboratluminophore. 580 (1956).28 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore.. and Müller. 211. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

850ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. 3. ~500ºC. 2. 49.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. mix by dry grinding. air. Witzmann. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Add the above NH4Cl. SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+. 1 hour. 181 (1962).. ½ hour. Powderize. N2 . H. Zur lumineszenz kupfer. Powderize.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore. H. Dry.88 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Wash in water several times. Powderize. Naturwissenschaften. Fire in open quartz boats.5 384 27 Preparation Mix all ingredients but the NH4Cl by dry grinding or milling. 1. 4 hours.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 700ºC. and Schreiber.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. CO .Cl Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 620 50 By weight (g) 180 3.

CO. Fire in open quartz boats. 3. and then take out. 1. -SrO·3B2O3:Sm Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Sm2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 99 1 (of Sm) 600 By weight (g) 146 1. air. 4 hours.812 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 800ºC.74 370 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. QE 60% (estimated) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . go slowly up with temperature to 600ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. N2. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by F or Br. Fire in open quartz boats. 900ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Powderize. The exact chemical formula of this material is still unknown. Place into cold furnace. Powderize. 2. 2.40 eV).

88 eV. 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Powderize.39 eV (see remark) Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Powderize. 1 hour. 0. 2. fire 2 hours at 1000ºC. N2. Fire in open quartz boats. N2. ~500ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .11 eV (see remark) Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgB2O4:Mn2+ Composition Ingredient MgO MnCO3 H3BO3 Mole % 98 2 205 By weight (g) 40 2. Fire in open quartz boats.3 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1.32 eV. For -structure. 700ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. – (3. 2. N2. fire 4 hours at 850ºC. For -structure.

1000ºC. MgYBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient MgO Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 205 By weight (g) 40.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Peak position depends on modification.985. Powderize. the high-temperature -phase.Remarks 1.3 107 8. ~500ºC. air. 3 014 817 (1961). Reference 1. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. air. QE Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 25–30% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . P. It can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Ce3+ + Li+. 2. Ranby.. 1 hour.S. Pat.098 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1200ºC. 1.W.8 63.88 eV). and 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 1. Powderize. 3.035. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. and the low-temperature -phase. air. This material comes in two different modifications. U..

Buhrow. ~500ºC. J.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.40 eV) . 1200 C. 2. J. CaB2O4:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 3.. 1 hour.40 eV) Reference 1. air. N2. 1 hour.CaB2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. mix by dry grinding.. – (3. 103 (1964).. Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore(CaO·B2O3-Pb. 3. 1. ½ hour. K.Mn).. H.. Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore (CaO·B2O3-Pb. N2.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. H. and Müller.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.Mn). and Müller. Buhrow. Naturwissenschaften.88 eV). – (3. Fire in open quartz boats. K.3 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Witzmann.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1.88 eV). 51.34 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. – (3. Add 2 g of NH4Cl. 1000ºC.02 eV (for UV 3. 103 (1964). Naturwissenschaften. Witzmann. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CaYBO4:Bi3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 99 (of Y) 1 (of Bi) 105 By weight (g) 100 112 2.99 eV (for UV 4. Powderize.88 eV). 51.

air. 1000ºC. 1 hour. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. air. Peak position seems to depend on the excitation. 3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 365 nm 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark 1. 1200ºC. air. 2.3 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in open quartz boats. ~500ºC. Powderize. 1 hour. 254 nm 50 exc. 1. Fire in open quartz boats. CaYBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 97 (of Y) 3 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 100 110 5.04 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2.88 eV). – (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission exc. ½ hour.

Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2. 4. – (3.148 Inorganic Phosphors Reference 1.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Blasse. 1 hour. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. J. air. Powderize.. 1 hour. 1. J. 52 (1972). 1200ºC. 1000ºC. Solid State Chem.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. N2. 1200ºC. G. Spectrum resembles that of YOE. Fire in capped quartz tubes. mix by dry grinding. Fire in open quartz boats. 3. 2. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV).. 16 hours (overnight).7 17. 4. Dry. 4. Reference 1. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. Wash in water several times. 2.6 63. Powderize.. G. Blasse. Fire in open quartz boats.. 52 (1972).2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Solid State Chem. This phosphor is somewhat discolored and less efficient if fired in air or oxygen. Powderize. CaLaBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO La2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 90 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 102 By weight (g) 100 146. ~500ºC. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. . N2.

Electrochem. 700ºC. 2. P. 1. 2 hours. 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4–5% Decay: Exponential decay.J. Phys.A. Cathodo-luminescence.. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.. air. F. 5. 3. 900ºC. Harrison. and Hummel.T. Powderize. J.E.Section 4: Phosphor Data 149 ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 H3BO3 Mole % 97 3 205 By weight (g) 79 3..W.. A170.88 eV). Amsterdam (1948). Fire in open quartz boats. 4.. Elsevier.A. Growth and decay processes. S. ~500ºC. Proc. Fire in open quartz boats. 16. 491 (1956). J. Soc. J. Terol. A. air. Kröger..21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.. 920 (1961). 1 hour. 103. Soc. and Otero. R. London. . M. 58. Z. – (3. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. D.. Powderize. about 26 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Anhydrous zinc borate as a host crystal in luminescence.29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. air. Fire in open quartz boats.. Phase equilibria and fluorescence in the system zinc oxide-boric oxide.5 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.T. 272 (1939). F. 2. 369 (1946). and Henderson. Pt. Soc. Strange. Randall. S. Naturforsch. 1..

150 Inorganic Phosphors Spectra 800 700 600 500 Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of La) 8 (of Eu) 100 (of Al) 205 By weight (g) 150 14 51 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. air. air. 3. 1 hour.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. 1200ºC. ~500ºC. air. Powderize.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in open quartz boats. 2. 1 hour.205 eV. Powderize. 1. additionally a weaker line at 2. 1000ºC. Fire in open quartz boats.015 and 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: Two overlapping lines at 2.

1.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) . 700ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. 1 hour.88 eV). CO.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Cl.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 La2O3 MnCO3 CeO2 H3BO3 Mole % 95 98 (of La) 5 2 310 By weight (g) 95 160 5. – (3. Powderize. 3.Br) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.4 192 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 900ºC. N2.8 3.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.Section 4: Phosphor Data 151 CaLaB3O7:Ce3+.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrB4O7:Eu2+(F. Powderize. ~500ºC. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV). – (3.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in open quartz boats. air. 2 hours.

.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. H. Witzmann. Lumin. J. G. – (3. 49. K. H. J. G.88 eV). Zur lumineszenz kupfer. Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Naturwissenschaften.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. H..09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 21. 43. Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission.. and Schreiber. and Shiokawa. R... Witzmann. Luminescence properties of Eu(II)-borates and Eu2+-activated Sr-borates.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 101 (1979). Naturwissenschaften. 580 (1956). and Semisch.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore. SrB4O7:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4... Adachi.. 181 (1962). Machida. Müller. 2.

88 eV).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 181 (1962).. 49. and Semisch.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.. H. 43. R.42.03 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Naturwissenschaften. Cd2B6O11:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. and Schreiber.88 eV). Witzmann. 580 (1956).. Müller.. – (3. Zur lumineszenz kupfer. Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 4. G.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore.. 2.SrB4O7:Pb2+. – (3. H. Witzmann. Naturwissenschaften. H.

N2..88 eV). YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 CeO2 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 102 17. Phase equilibria and fluorescence in the system zinc oxide-boric oxide. Powderize. Bril.. Phys. J.A. G. J. J. Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3. Hummel. 2. Harrison. G... 2. 491 (1956). Characteristic luminescence. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet + UV Emission peaks: 3.E.. Dry.C.. 103.57 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in open alumina crucibles.. Fluorescence. A. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 4. 1100ºC. air.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1.D.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. E. Chem. 616 (1957). 4450 (1970). 1. 1. CO.2 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize. Electrochem.A. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 2. Blasse. and Hummel. F. Powderize. J. 53. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Blasse. 900ºC. Philips Tech. 1200ºC.. and Bril. Electrochem. and Subbarao.. Wash in hot water several times. Soc. 31. F. Soc. ~500ºC. 1 hour. + (3. Rev. The system cadmium oxide-boric oxide. 3.. and Poorter.A. 1 hour. 2. 304 (1970). 104..References 1. D.20 and 3. A. Powderize. CO..

and Yamada. Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated sodium lanthanide titanates.. Powderize. Blasse. G.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 4. J. 1 hour. air. Dry. 52 (1972)... 5. Blasse..7 (of Y) 0. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Philips Tech. 955 (1977). Powderize. T.. 304 (1970). Rev. Powderize.G. Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1-xTb x Al3B4O12 phosphors. Fire in open quartz boats. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Chem. ~500ºC. 124. 1200ºC. Fire in open alumina crucibles... and Bril.. Lumin. 4.3 (of Bi) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 113 0. Danielmeyer. 179 (1976). 1 hour. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Phys. and Bril. 4. J. A. 2. 12. Wash in hot water several times.700 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Blasse. 1. 1. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. O.88 eV). 3652 (1968). 31. air. Takahashi. Soc. 1 hour. 1100ºC. Solid State Chem. Fire in open alumina crucibles.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. air. 2..33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. J. A. – (3. YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 99. 3. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. Characteristic luminescence. Efficiency and fluorescence quenching of stoichiometric rare-earth laser materials. 900ºC. H. Electrochem. G. 1 hour.3. 48. Powderize.. J... air. G.

Powderize. G.. air.. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 2.88 eV). Powderize. Powderize. 52 (1972). 2. Blasse. Powderize. 1067 (1968). J.A... 1. Soc. Solid State Chem. Lett.6 153 248 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in open alumina crucibles.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. van Os. Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1-X TbXAl3B4O12 phosphors.. 239 (1979). 1 hour. and Bril. 3. G. 61. and Yamada. 5. 4. O.01 and 2. J. 4.. A. A. Takahashi. 115. G. 1.. and Bril.035 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. Blasse. Fire in open alumina crucibles. air. 2. 52 (1972). Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 955 (1977)... – (3.. Phys. 1200ºC. 4. Blasse. Photoluminescent efficiency of phosphors with electronic transitions in localized centers. Wash in hot water several times. Solid State Chem. 124. Electrochem.. Soc. 1 hour. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 (of Eu) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 102 17. air.. Luminescence of bismuth in yttrium aluminum borate. 3. 1 hour... 1100ºC. 4. Rev. Fire in open alumina crucibles. M.. Blasse.3. J. 304 (1970). Fire in open quartz boats. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Chem. and Blasse. F. G. Characteristic luminescence. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. air. J. Philips Tech. 31. ~500ºC. T. G. 900ºC. Kellendonk. 1 hour.. Electrochem.

77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1100ºC. CO. 1. Status Solidi.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. 20. 1 hour.7 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. and Bril.88 eV).40 eV) Reference 1. – (3.4 17. G. 4. Powderize. 1 hour. 1200ºC. Fire in open alumina crucibles.40 eV) .23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Fire in open alumina crucibles. – (3. 551 (1967). ~500ºC. 2. 1 hour. 900ºC.88 eV).YAl3B4O12:Eu3+.Cr3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. air..Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Emission color: green Emission peak: 2. Powderize. N2. Fire in open alumina crucibles.Tb3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 CeO2 Tb4O7 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 80 (of Y) 10 10 (of Tb) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 90. 3. Powderize.Ce3+. CO. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats.2 18. Blasse. A. YAl3B4O12:Th4+. 1 hour.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. Wash in hot water several times. Some observations on Cr3+ fluorescence in huntite structure.88 eV). – (3. Powderize. Phys.

47. T. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. O. ~500ºC. Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1 xTbxAl3B4O12 phosphors. Phys. 3. 2. air. G. Ce3+ to Sm3+. 3. 2 hours.88 eV). Rev. G. 1. 2. and Yamada. 124.. A. Fire in open quartz boats. air. J. Phys. air. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.6 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated lanthanide oxyhalides LnOX. 1920 (1967). 46. LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 147 17. Tb3+. Powderize. Electrochem. Eu3+. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. 1 hour..005 and 2. 955 (1977).. Philips Tech. and Bril... Dy3+. Soc. 1. 1200ºC.. Blasse. Bi3+. J. Blasse. Chem. Fire in open quartz boats. Characteristic luminescence. A.020 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 31. 2579 (1967). 900ºC..40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Chem. – (3.. Fire in open quartz boats. Takahashi.. 304 (1970). and Study of energy transfer from Sb3+. and Bril.

. G. Electrochem. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Soc.. Blasse. 977 (1968). Bril.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3. A..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaB8O13:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet–UV Emission peak: 3.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and deVries. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 115. J.. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated barium octaborate.88 eV).

Chenot. 3 657 141 (1972).88 eV). ++ (3.88 eV).SrB8O13:Sm Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. ++ (3. C.. U.74 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.81 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.S.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Pat.31 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4..F. Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

++ (3. – (3.88 eV).24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet Emission peak: 2. ++ (3.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).74 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Emission width (FWHM): 0.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

Lehmann.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Pat.7:Eu3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2..5:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 La2O3 PbO H3BO3 Mole % 198 200 (of La) 2 105 By weight (g) 198 326 4. W.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaYB0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2La2BO6.6 65 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .8O3. – (3. 4 202 794 (1980).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1..S.88 eV). U.

Fire in open quartz boats. 2. Powderize. 1 hour. N2. Powderize. 1200ºC. ~500ºC.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1000ºC. 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. air. ++ (3. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour.88 eV).Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. N2. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2.48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.Mn2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The formula of this peculiar material is still uncertain but the mole ratio Ca-La-B in the formula is close to 2:2:1 YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.

4.8 Aluminates and Gallates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LiAlO2:Fe3+ LiAlO2:Mn2+ YAlO3:Ce3+ YAlO3:Eu3+ YAlO3:Sm3+ YAlO3:Tb3+ LaAlO3:Eu3+ LaAlO3:Sm3+ MgAl2O4:Mn2+ MgGa2O4:Mn2+ CaAl2O4:Mn2+ CaAl2O4:Eu2+ ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa4O7:Mn2+ SrAl2O4:Eu2+ BaAl2O4:Eu2+ CaAl4O7:Pb2+.Mn2+ SrAl12O19:Eu2+.5Al12O19:Ce3+.Mn2+ LiAl5O8:Fe3+ LiAl5O8:Mn2+ Y4Al2O9:Eu3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ KAl11O17:Tl+ KGa11O17:Mn2+ BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+.4 0.Mn2+ LiAlO2:Fe3+ Structure: NaCl Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 Fe(NO3)3· 9H2O LiF Mole % 101 (of Li) 100 (of Al) 0.6 2 By weight (g) 37.520 .Mn2+ Ca0.5Ba0.Mn2+ SrGa12O19:Mn2+ SrAl12O19:Ce3+.4 51 2.

Powderize. Fig. 4. 1250ºC. Electronic states of Fe3+ in LiAl5O2 and LiAl5O8 phosphors. Lumin. 125. Palumbo. Place crucibles into a cold furnace. Luminescence of iron-activated lithium meta-gallate. and Pott. 2. G.. and Mizuno. 6. and then take out. Soc. and Watchtel. Soc.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 3. Boca Raton. air.A. J... stir to uniformity. H. 19 (1971). add solution to the mixture of other ingredients.. and manganese luminescence.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Wash in diluted acetic acid (~10%). Electrochem. W. 1 hour. 5. U. Powderize when dry. 46.. Dry in air. and Sarver. Illum. Phys.T. 1250ºC. iron. 3. Electrochem. J. air. Stir to uniformity. Studies of compound formation on alkali-gammaaluminum oxide catalyst systems using chromium. J.J. A. J. 422 (1998). Rabatin. J. and then in water until neutral. CRC Press. 2496 (1974). The cathodoluminescence of Mn2+ activated and Fe3+ activated magnesium aluminate spinel. Phosphor Handbook. Infrared emitting fluorescent lamp and applications.. 3 857 054 (1974). Soc. 234 (1974).S. 4. p.. Eng. J.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. J. 2. Fire in open quartz boats.Preparation Dissolve iron nitrate in a little water. 78. Chem. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3.F. Add a solution of about 3 g Al(NO3)3·9H2O in little water. Dry in air. Lehmann. Pat. 920 (1978). Fire in covered alumina crucibles.. 3. Powderize. 111. Hummel. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1. S.T.. FL.. go slowly up with temperature to 900ºC. 2 hours. air.88 eV).H.. 7.. 252 (1964).. Van Broekhoven. F. Powderize when dry. Stork. J.. Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red + IR Emission peak: 1. D.. W. Kamiya.

1. 2 hours. long and strong phosphorescence Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. N2.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~6–8% Decay to 10% (or 1/e. Fire in open quartz boats. Chem.M. Phys.. Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+. 1203 (1968).. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Studies of compound formation on alkali-gammaaluminum oxide catalyst systems using chromium. 115.J.375 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J.LiAlO2:Mn2+ Structure: NaCl Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 99 (of Li) 499 (of Al) 2 By weight (g) 36. 78. Soc. Powderize.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.5 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Jaffe.. 2496 (1974). Stork.. and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8. 1/10-time in the 10 msec range. 1 hour. CO. as given): Non-exponential decay. Dry in air. 1250 C. and manganese luminescence. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.T. G. Powderize when dry.H. Fe3+. 2. and Pott. iron.. Electrochem. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.6 254 2. P. W. 1200 C. 2.

438 (1980).Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. 127. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1.. Powderize. Soc. J. – (3. 44. Appl. Weber. et al. T. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 94 (of Y) 100 (of Al) 6 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 83. 1.015 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical-spectra of Ce3+ and Ce3+-sensitized fluorescence in YAlO3. 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.. Electrochem. Fast decay UV phosphor YAlO3-Ce.785 – 2. 2.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1000ºC.6 6.6 51 10.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. 1 hour. M. 3205 (1973). air. air. 1300ºC. 4 hours. Takeda.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in covered alumina crucibles.J.. J.88 eV). Phys.

008–3. (3. 1. 1 hour.06 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.88 eV).6 51 7. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peaks: 2. strongest line at ~2. 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. air. air.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 4 hours. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Sm3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Sm2O3 Al2O3 CaF2 Mole % 98 (of Y) 2 (of Sm) 100 (of Al) 10 By weight (g) 110 3. 1300ºC.197 eV.06. 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remark Q yield (UV excitation) is about the same as that of YOE.8 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1300ºC.

1.6 53. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. strongest line at ~2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + (better than Y2O3:Tb3+) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaAlO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 94 (of La) 105 (of Al) 6 (of Eu) 20 By weight (g) 130. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 2.YAlO3:Tb3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Tb4O7 Al2O3 CaF2 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 (of Tb) 100 (of Al) 10 By weight (g) 102 18. CO. 1300ºC.4 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. 1300ºC.6 10.8 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.6 12.283 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. CO.7 51 7. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: Typical Tb3+ lines. 4 hours. Powderize.88 eV). 1 hour.

Fire in covered alumina crucibles.2 (of Sm) 20 By weight (g) 139 53. air.Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1 hour. Philips Tech.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV).40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Q yield (UV excitation) is about ~75% of YOE. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.. air.01–2. air. 1. Reference 1. 4 hours. LaAlO3:Sm3+ Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Al2O3 Sm2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 (of La) 105 (of Al) 0. 1 hour. 1. 1300ºC. Powderize. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peaks: 1.. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 2. A. air.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.300 12. 4 hours.4 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Characteristic luminescence.925–2. 1000ºC.88 eV). Fire in covered alumina crucibles.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 304 (1970). Rev. 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. – (3. 31. Blasse. and Bril. Powderize. 1. 1300ºC. G.6 0. 1000ºC. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3..

2 hours.15 107 0. CO.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Composition Ingredient MgO MnCO3 Al2O3 MgF2 Mole % 98 1 210 (of Al) 1 By weight (g) 39 1. 1250ºC.620 Preparation Mix by dry ball-milling.36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 20 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~7–8% Decay: Slightly non-exponential decay.

5. 114..W.. Rep.. Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors. and Brown. Rep. W. and Verlijsdonk. terVrugt... 108 (1970).. Soc.. Electrochem.2% reduces the efficiency of cathodoluminescence to ~4% and increases the 1/10 decay time to ~40 msec. 245 (1967). Luminescence of manganeseactivated aluminiu-substituted magnesium gallate. D. J. Soc.88 eV). J... 2. W. Radielovic. Electrochem. J. Res. Soc. W. D. Elsevier... Wanmaker. F. References 1. MgGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 120. Hummel. Lehmann. 78-5F4-ZSIBM-R1 (1978). and deBres. J. 252 (1964). Kröger..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. W...L. and Wanmaker.. Amsterdam (1948). Opstelten. 22. Electrochem.F. 3..Remark Reducing the Mn concentration from 1 to 0. Choice and evaluation of phosphors for application to lamps with improved color rendition.G. J.L.M. Brown. J. 25.. 1184 (1970). Wanmaker.G. J. Luminescence of Mn2+activated spinels in MgO-Li2O-ZnO-Ga2O3-Al2O3 system. J..J. terVrugt. Electrochem.46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1400 (1973). – (3..W. Rep. 304 (1967). Manganese-activated luminescence in MgO-Al2O3-Ga2O3 system. J.. and Sarver..T. 111. Philips Res. Philips Res. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .L. 1. 117.A. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. 2. J.A. J. 3... The cathodoluminescence of Mn2+ activated and Fe3+ activated magnesium aluminate spinel. Soc. Greenemitting phosphors. Palumbo. F.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 4. J.

5 5. 1200ºC.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1 hour.4 .9 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.CaAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 CaF2 Mole % 93 200 (of Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 93 102 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. CO. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. Dry in air. 1.3 3. 1300ºC.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~ a few percent Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaAl2O4:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 98 107 3. Powderize. 1 hour. Wash in a solution of 20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water. CO. Powderize when dry.

CO. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. CO.88 eV).13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: Single Eu2+ band. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1% Decay: ~1 µsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.88 eV). 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1200ºC.Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. 1200ºC.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1 hour. 1. Powderize when dry. 1 hour. Dry in air. + (3.

47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. – (3. New York (1949). H. and terVrugt. Luminescence of Mn2+activated spinels in MgO-Li2O-ZnO-Ga2O3-Al2O3 system. W. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. London. and Verlijsdonk. Strange.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. J.L. John Wiley & Sons. Philips Res... 871 (1969). Soc. 25. 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (gahnite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.W. S.W. Leverenz.. John Wiley & Sons.. W.. 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .W. 116. Leverenz.G.. 3. Luminescence of gallates. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.88 eV). 369 (1946).W. H. P.. Cathodo-luminescence. terVrugt.. Growth and decay processes. Soc. 58.W. J.T.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1... Phys. Wanmaker. 108 (1970). 2.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. J. Rep. Wanmaker.L. New York (1949). J. and Henderson. Electrochem..

CaGa2O4:Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.19 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

Reference 1. Brown, J.J., Can. Pat., 821 468 (1970).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

CaGa4O7:Mn2+
Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Reference 1. Brown, J.J., Can. Pat., 821 468 (1970).

SrAl2O4:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 145 107 3.5 5.4

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~1.5% Decay: ~2 µsec to 1/10 Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated alkaline-earth aluminates, Philips Res. Rep., 23, 201 (1968). 2. Palilla, F.C., Levine, A.K., and Tomkus, M.R., Fluorescent properties of alkaline earth aluminates activated by divalent europium, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 642 (1968). 3. Blasse, G., Wanmaker, W.L., and terVrugt, J.W., Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 673 (1968). 4. Abbruscato, V., Optical and electrical properties of SrAl2O4-Eu2+, J. Electrochem. Soc., 118, 930 (1971).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaAl2O4:Eu2+
Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 193 107 3.5 5.4

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl + 20 ccm NH4OH in 1 liter of water and then several times in diluted ammonium hydroxide. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Palilla, F.C., Levine, A.K., and Tomkus, M.R., Fluorescent properties of alkaline earth aluminates activated by divalent europium, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 642 (1968). 2. Blasse, G., Wanmaker, W.L., and terVrugt, J.W., Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 673 (1968). 3. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Phosphors based on lanthanide oxysulphates (Ln2SO6), Philips Res. Rep., 23, 461 (1968).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

CaAl4O7:Pb2+,Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

LiAl5O8:Fe3+
Structure: Cubic (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red Emission peak: 1.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. Jaffe, P.M., Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+ Fe3+ and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1203 (1968). 2. Melamed, N.T., Viccaro, P.J., Barros, F.D.S. et al., Optical properties of Fe3+ in ordered and disordered LiAl5O8, Phys. Rev. B5, 3377 (1972). 3. Neto, J.M., Abritta, T., Barros, F.D. et al., A comparative-study of the optical-properties of Fe3+ in ordered LiGa5O8 and LiAl5O8, J. Lumin., 22, 109 (1981).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

LiAl5O8:Mn2+
Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 99 (of Li) 499 (of Al) 2 By weight (g) 36.6 254 2.3

Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open alumina crucibles, N2, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.15eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~6–8% Decay: Non-exponential decay, 1/10 time in the 10 msec range; long and strong phosphorescence Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1. Jaffe, P.M., Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+ Fe3+ and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1203 (1968).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y4Al2O9:Eu3+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 50 (of Al) 5 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 84.5 25.5 8.8 6.2

Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 1000ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 1300ºC, 4 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: Mainly three lines about 1.975, 2.03 eV, and 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y3Al5O12:Ce3+
Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 35.5 (of Y) 62.5 (of Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 40 32 3.44 2.7

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1300ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. Add another 2.7 g NH4Cl; mix by dry grinding. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes, 1300ºC, 2 hours. Powderize. 3. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1300ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0.45 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~2% Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Characteristic luminescence, 1. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators, Philips Tech. Rev., 31, 304 (1970); and A new phosphor for flying-spot cathode-ray tubes for color television—yellow-emitting Y3Al5O12-Ce3+, Appl. Phys. Lett., 11, 53 (1967). 2. Blasse, G., Bril, A., and Poorter, J.A.D., Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3, J. Chem. Phys., 53, 4450 (1970). 3. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Gibbons, E.F. et al., Ce3+ activated Y3Al5O12 and some of its solid-solutions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 120, 278 (1973); and Gibbons, E.F. et al., Some factors influencing luminous decay characteristics of Y3Al5O12 - Ce3+ , J. Electrochem. Soc., 120, 835 (1973). 4. Tien, T.Y. et al., Ce3+ activated Y3Al5O12 and some of its solid-solutions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 278 (1973). 5. Sang, E., The signal generation mechanism in bistable storage-scan converters, SID Digest, 104 (1973).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

KAl11O17:Tl+
Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.14 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References (see below) Structure: Aluminate

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

KGa11O17:Mn2+

Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.49 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.14 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. Verstegen, J.M., Survey of a group of phosphors, based on hexagonal aluminate and gallate host lattices, J. Electrochem. Soc., 121, 1623 (1974). 2. Verstegen, J.M.P.J., Somerdijk, J.L., and Bril, A., Luminescence of LiBaF3:Eu2+, J. Lumin., 10, 411 (1975).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+
Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.65 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

Reference 1. Stevels, A.L.N., Ce3+ luminescence in hexagonal aluminates containing large divalent or trivalent cations, J. Electrochem. Soc., 125, 588 (1978).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y3Al5O12:Eu3+
Structure: Cubic (garnet) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

++ (3. Fire in open quartz boats.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. 340 (1974).88 eV). 1305. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. and Schrama. 1 hour. A. Smets.N.. Philips Res. Res. Powderize. 1250ºC.BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ Structure: Aluminate Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 BaF2 Mole % 80 100 1050 (of Al) 10 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 158 40 536 17. Rep. forming gas. B.M. 21.D.6 17. 1 hour.J. 1.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Stevels. A. 2.. Morphologic and crystallographic properties. Bull. Dry in air.G.. 1250ºC. 29.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 1. 2. Vapor-deposited CSi-Na layers. The luminescence properties of Eu2+-doped and Mn2+-doped barium hexaaluminates.L. Mater.77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Verlijsdonk. Powderize when dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. N2. J. (1986).. Nov.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

Dry in air. and Schrama. Powderize. 2. Morphologic and crystallographic properties.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. forming gas.88 eV).N. 2. 1. A. 340 (1974). Vapor-deposited CSi-Na layers. 1250ºC. CO..D. ½ hour.6 17.L.N. 1 hour. 500–600ºC.M. 123. A. Philips Res. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4... Fire in open quartz boats.D.6 27. 3. Rep.Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 MnCO3 BaF2 Mole % 80 70 1050 (of Al) 10 24 10 By weight (g) 158 28.. J. Stevels. and Schrama. 1 hour.BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. It may be useful for color correction in arc lamps.L. References 1. Powderize when dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2.2 536 17. 1. 29.. Stevels.M.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor retains its high efficiency to several 100 C. Electrochem. Soc. Fire in open quartz boats.. A. ++ (3. A.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 691 (1974). 1250ºC.

Dry in air. Eu2+-Mn2+ energy-transfer in hexagonal aluminates.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 BaCO3 Al2O3 CeO2 MnCO3 Mole % 25 10 35 1210 (of Al) 30 24 By weight (g) 25 7.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.125 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. This phosphor retains its high efficiency up to several 100ºC. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 207 (1976).8 69 617 51.P. 1250ºC. 1 hour.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. 14.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2–2. N2. This phosphor is sensitive to lamp-lehring conditions but very stable once it is in the lamp. ~500–600ºC. Reference 1.M. ~15 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 2. A. Lumin. J. 3. Powderize. 1250ºC. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Powderize when dry. ~½ hour. CO. 1. forming gas. J.. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. – (3. 1 hour..6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol.N..Ca0.88 eV). and Verstegen.5Al12O19:Ce3+. Stevels. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2.J.L. Fire in open quartz boats.6 27.5Ba0.

.M. Verstegen. Luminescence of LiBaF3:Eu2+. 10.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Survey of a group of phosphors.L.J. J. J. J. Soc. 2..SrAl12O19:Eu2+. 411 (1975).12 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. A.Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrGa12O19:Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. J. J. based on hexagonal aluminate and gallate host lattices.47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Verstegen. 1623 (1974). Somerdijk. Electrochem. Lumin.M.P.. 121.. and Bril.

39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Verstegen.L.SrAl12O19:Ce3+. Lumin.M.N. Eu2+-Mn2+ energy-transfer in hexagonal aluminates..P. – (3. A.J. J.88 eV).. J.Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Stevels. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .14 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 14. 207 (1976).

82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. – (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . air. 1.9 Molybdates and Tungstates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaMoO4 CaMoO4:Eu3+ SrMoO4:U MgWO4 CaWO4 Ca3WO6:U Sr3WO6:U Ba3WO6:U La2W3O12:Eu3+ CaMoO4 Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MoO3 Mole % 100 98 By weight (g) 100 141 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in open quartz boats.34 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. 1100ºC. 1 hour. air. 1000ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: ~2. 2.4. Powderize.88 eV).

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: ~2.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~0. Powderize. 1.8 4. 2.740 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . O2. Powderize.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 148 151 1 0.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in open quartz boats. Dry. 1100ºC.02 and ~2. Fire in open quartz boats.CaMoO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Eu2O3 NaHCO3 MoO3 Mole % 90 5 (of Eu) 5 105 By weight (g) 90 8. 1 hour.2 151 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water until neutral.5–1% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrMoO4:U Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MoO3 UO2(NO3)2· 6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 100 105 0. 1000ºC. air.

Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water until neutral. ~20 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1000ºC. O2. Powderize. 2 hours. Powderize when dry. 2.88 eV). O2. air. Fire in open quartz boats. add this solution to the other ingredients. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: ~1. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgWO4 Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient MgO WO3 Mole % 120 100 By weight (g) 48 232 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 800ºC. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. 16 hours (overnight).875 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2. + (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish white Emission peak: 2. Dry in air. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Dry.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. 1200ºC.88 eV). Powderize. 1.

~16 hours (overnight). Fire in open quartz boats.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. O2. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue Emission peak: 2. – (3.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2–2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . ~10 µsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This material is completely intersoluble with CaMoO4 in any proportion.77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.87 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1200ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaWO4 Structure: Tetragonal (scheelite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 Mole % 105 100 By weight (g) 105 232 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.

4. 1200ºC. Phys. Grasser.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark U is non-luminescent in CaWO4.88 eV).R. P. O2. 1 hour. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. J..References 1. R. Dry in air. H... and Scharmann. 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 139 (1955). 473 (1976). 2 hours. 148 (1955). Fire in open quartz boats.. A. F. Lumin. J. Kröger. Phys. Fire in open quartz boats.A.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. B. 68.740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. ++ (3.. Photoconductivity in calcium tungstate. and Weiss. Elsevier. Powderize when dry. add this solution to the other ingredients. Luminescent sites in CaWO4 and CaWO4:Pb crystals. Soc. 900ºC.. London. Cook. Z.. 12. Ca3WO6:U Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2·6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0.. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. W. Powderize by grinding or milling. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. 140.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 300 232 1 0. Amsterdam (1948). Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. Gobrecht. 3. 2. air.

Gobrecht. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. 139 (1955). and Gibson.F.F. 2 hours. and Weiss. W.A. 39. Opt. Sr3WO6:U Composition Ingredient SrCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2. 1. A.. Soc. 140.. Powderize by grinding or milling.6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0.. 139 (1955). Fire in open quartz boats. Gobrecht.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark U is non-luminescent in SrWO4.J. Am. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. and Weiss. Elsevier. air. + (3. 1000ºC. H. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids.25 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 140... Z. 900ºC. Powderize when dry.. add this solution to the other ingredients. 2. The luminescence of photo-conducting phosphors. 2. 1 hour. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. W. Z. Reference 1. Dry in air.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. G. F. J... Phys. Amsterdam (1948). Garlick. Phys.. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV). 935 (1949). O2.References 1. 3. H. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Kröger.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 443 232 1 0..740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol.

Z. 687 (1976). Gobrecht.. H. Fire in open quartz boats. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. References 1..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark U is non-luminescent in BaWO4.H. 1 hour.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 592 232 1 0. Alberda. 900ºC. Lumin. 2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry in air.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. 1. 1000ºC. and Blasse. 2. 139 (1955). Optical Properties Emission color: Green-yellow Emission peak: 2. Powderize when dry.. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. Luminescence in a new garnet phase with hexavalent metal-ions. and Weiss. Powderize by grinding or milling.Ba3WO6:U Composition Ingredient BaCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2·6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0. add this solution to the other ingredients.88 eV).740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol.17 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. Phys. J. W. G. air. Fire in open quartz boats. R.. 2 hours. O2. 140. + (3. 12–13.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 2. air.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).6 696 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. – (3. 1 hour. 1100ºC. Fire in open quartz boats.La2W3O12:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 WO3 Mole % 190 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 300 By weight (g) 310 17. air. 1. 2. 1 hour. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats.018 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1000ºC.

88 eV). 1. air. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 2.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 950ºC.10 Miscellaneous Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LiInO2:Eu3+ LiInO2:Sm3+ LiLaO2:Eu3+ NaYO2:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ CaGeO3:Mn2+ Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ YVO4:Eu3+ LaVO4:Eu3+ YAsO4:Eu3+ LaAsO4:Eu3+ Ca5(VO4)3Cl Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ LiInO2:Eu3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient In2O3 Eu2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 98 (of In) 2 (of Eu) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 136 3.03 eV and 2.08 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. air. 2.0 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~5% . Fire in open alumina crucibles. Powderize.5 37. weakly excited at 4.40 eV).4. 1 hour. 1 hour. – (3. 700ºC.

Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peaks: 1. LiInO2:Sm3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient In2O3 Sm2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 99. A. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~5% (3. G. Phys. Chem. air.88 eV). 950ºC. Powderize. Fire in open alumina crucibles.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 5.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1 hour. 1. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 1 hour.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..85–2. Powderize when dry. and Bril..520 37. Blasse. Dry in air.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides. 3327 (1966).7 (of In) 0. J.3 (of Sm) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 138 0. 700ºC. 45. 2. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice.. air.

~600ºC.775–2. Powderize when dry. air.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiLaO2:Eu3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 155 8. 2.02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. air. 1. Dry in air. Powderize. 1000ºC. Powderize. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1.8 37. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~1% Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV). – (3. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Store in a well-closed container.

Powderize when dry. This material is difficult to prepare. Store in a well-closed container. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice. air. J. This phosphor is slightly hygroscopic. Powderize. 3327 (1966). Phys.Remarks 1.025 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. ½ hour. ~600ºC. the reaction between Li2CO3 and La2O3 apparently does not go to completion. 45. On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides. Fire in open alumina crucibles. and Bril..8 85 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Dry in air.88 eV). 2.. – (3. Powderize. Reference 1.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . G. 5. 1 hour. Chem. Blasse. air. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 2. 1. NaYO2:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 101 By weight (g) 108 8. 900ºC. A.

. 45. 1300ºC. 2. CaTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Pr3O4 TiO2 Mole % 100 1 100 By weight (g) 100 1. Fire in open quartz boats. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice.05 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1300ºC. A. J.025 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Remarks 1. Reference 1. On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides. Dry in air. 1 hour. Powderize when dry. This material is difficult to prepare. Fire in open quartz boats. Chem. (b) most likely an appreciable amount of emission in the IR. the reaction between Na2O and Y2O3 apparently does not go to completion. 1. Blasse. Phys. Powderize by grinding or milling. G.. air. air. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.. + (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The efficiency of this phosphor is not likely improvable because of: (a) much “dead” absorption of the Ti4+-ion in the UV. 2. 3327 (1966). and Bril.64 80 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. 5.88 eV). Absorption (%) 100 Emission . This phosphor is slightly hygroscopic.

. Soc. The fluorescence of binary and ternary germanates of group-II elements.3 110 2 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Koelmans.. and Verhagen. 106. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 677 (1959). Powderize when dry. J. – (3.. H.C. 1150ºC. Attempts to improve this efficiency by addition of various other impurities failed.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The excitation efficiency of QE ~50–60% under 4.CaGeO3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (wollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 GeO2 NH4Br Mole % 98 2 105 2 By weight (g) 98 2.01 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Reference 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Electrochem. C. 2 hours. CO.M.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV was observed without addition of a sensitizer to the phosphor.88 eV).

2. Powderize when dry. O2.5 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO MgF2 MnCO3 GeO2 Mole % 90 5 5 55 By weight (g) 73.88 eV). air. Kröger.1 5.8 57.. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids.2 3. Fire in open quartz boats. 570ºC.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 1 hour.Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient MgO TiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 300 99 1 By weight (g) 121 79 1. Powderize by grinding or milling. Elsevier. 1.885 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.A. Amsterdam (1948). + (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. F. 1300ºC.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. ~16 hours (overnight). Fire in open quartz boats. Dry in air.

H. water steam. J. 57 (1949). Soc. Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors...20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 3. Powderize when dry. Ginther. D. 1 hour. 117.. J...J.. R..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Comparable to that of Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1 hour. Phys. 2. Electrochem. Soc. + (3. Electrochem. 1100ºC. Schulman. 1814 (1971).88 eV).8 129 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. R. Manganese-activated zinc beryllium germanate phosphors. E.. Green-emitting phosphors. The emission of this phosphor is thermally quenched a little above room temperature..W. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and Brown. CO. 1.J. 2.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Bube.H. Dry in air. Powderize by grinding or milling. 96. Fire in open quartz boats. and Larach. Palumbo. J. and Claffy. YVO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal (xenotime) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107 8.T.. Luminescence and trapping in phosphors containing gallium. 1000ºC. 2.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. This material forms solid solutions with Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ in all proportions. Chem. 21. J. 5 (1953). S. 1. References 1.

3.Eu) for color television electron beam excitation. 3. air.40 eV). 1 hour. R. Part of the V can be replaced by P. 953 (1967). Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4 . air.Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. References 1. J. 5. Fire in open quartz boats. J. Soc. Electrochem. 118 (1964).C.. F.K. Appl. 940 (1968). 112. J.. 702 (1962). and efficiency of luminescence. J. Optical absorption. F. Phys. + (3. F. O’Connor. Energy transfer and fluorescence processes in Bi3+ and Eu3+ activated YVO4. 1 hour. Lett. et al... Chem. Toma.. 2. efficiency of 3. Phys.C. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water. Soc. and Mathers. 9.40 eV excitation improving considerably with increasing temperature Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/7% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. M. This phosphor has been used for color correction of Hg arc lamps.G. and Palilla. air.. Soc. 407 (1966).. 4..K. Ropp. Lett.Nd. A. 1000ºC. 36. van Uitert. Levine. J. Powderize.88 eV).00 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV excitation can be somewhat improved by addition of Bi..C.R. 5. 6. Fire in open quartz boats.E. S. 1200ºC. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.Z. New highly efficient red-emitting cathodoluminescent phosphor (YVO4 .. 2. L. Dry. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in open quartz boats. and Rinkevics.. Phys. 1. Rare earth activated phosphors based on yttriuum orthovanadate and related compounds.. Mikus. Levine.. 1200ºC. 1 hour. J. for 3. Electrochem. A. 115.F.. 3. Palilla.. Powderize. 776 (1965). Spectra of some rare earth vanadates. Appl. 114. Role of F-orbital electron wave function mixing in concentration quenching of Eu3+. Electrochem..

Datta.K. Appl. 2. and Abramson. F. 112. YVO4-Eu a new highly efficient phosphor for color television. 10. air.K.K. 4.115 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.a highly efficient red-emitting phosphor for high pressure mercury lamps.. 1100ºC. A. 1. 31. 5. Rev.88 eV). Technol.. 1 hour. A. LaVO4:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 155 8. air. Soc.C. + (3. Electrochem. Electrochem. 11. 70. L..8 129 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling..Palilla. Brixner. J. Soc. 1 hour. 1. air. Fire in open quartz boats. Levine. 3. J. 16 (1966). Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. (1965). 1467 (1966). 7... and Bril.. Characteristic luminescence. Philips Tech. G... 1057 (1967).. 900ºC. R. 9. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water. 114. 1100ºC.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 8..C. F. and Palilla. Electrochem. Optics.773–2.. On luminescent properties of rare earth vanadates. YVO4-Eu.. A. Fire in open quartz boats. 304 (1970). The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Dry. Bismuth in yttrium vanadate and yttrium europium vanadate phosphors. Powderize. Powderize. 1 hour. Blasse.H. E. Fire in open quartz boats. and Levine.

A. 2. air.09 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.L. Soc. W. 1200ºC.. Powderize when dry. Rep. et al. Philips Res.40 eV UV upon replacement of some As by V. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. 114. ~500ºC. 367 (1967). The material forms solid solutions with YVO4:Eu3+ in all proportions. YAsO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal (xenotime) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 As2O3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 100 (of As) By weight (g) 107 8. 2. . 21. Aia.76–2. 1 hour. air... Wanmaker. M. Electrochem..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. – (3. 270 (1966). Fire in open quartz boats. J. Dry in air.88 and by 3. Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4.88 eV). Gently heat up while stirring until reaction (boiling) indicates formations of H3AsO4. Structure and luminescence of phosphate-vanadates of yttrium gadolinium lutetium and lanthanum. This phosphor becomes excitable by 4. 2.8 75 Preparation Mix by slurrying in 30% H2O2. Fire in open quartz boats.References 1. 1. Powderize.

Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4.. air. air.785–2. 1. et al. 21. Powderize.8 75 Preparation Mix by slurrying in 30% H2O2. 270 (1966).149 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. Dry in air. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . LaAsO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 As2O3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 100 (of As) By weight (g) 155 8.88 eV). Powderize when dry. 2. Wanmaker. Gently heat up while stirring until reaction (boiling) indicates formations of H3AsO4. W. Philips Res. 1 hour. The material forms solid solutions with LaVO4 in all proportions.40 eV UV upon replacement of a few percent of the As by V. 1000ºC.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 2. This material becomes excitable by 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. Rep.. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats. – (3.Reference 1. ~500ºC.L.

The luminescence of this phosphor is due to the vanadate. Reference 1. 16 hours (overnight). Ho) or very poorly luminescent (Eu3+). 2.. Powderize. This phosphor requires a deficiency of V and an excess of Cl in the preparation. 1. 1331 (1966). Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1000ºC. Electrochem. Blue luminescence in calcium chlorovanadates.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.Ca5(VO4)3Cl Structure: Apatite Composition Ingredient CaO NH4VO3 NH4Cl Mole % 500 200 200 By weight (g) 280 234 107 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling (some NH3 develops). ~500ºC. 1 hour.. 113. air..A. and Lublin. Soc. – (3. M. 2. J. Aia. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. Tb. air. P.88 eV).73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Other impurities were tested as prospective activators but are either dead (Mn.85 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

G.. This phosphor has been used for color correction of Hg arc lamps. ~16 hours (overnight). 579 (1950). Fire in open quartz boats.. Activator center in magnesium fluorogermanate phosphors. Chem. The exact formula of this material is still uncertain. J. L. Kemeny. Am.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 2. 783 (1960).H. Phys. The above formula is only that of the raw mix. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. 1200ºC.Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ Composition Ingredient MgO MgF2 MgCO3 GeO2 Mole % 700 100 8 192 By weight (g) 282 62 9. 2. Thorington. 1200ºC. Temperature dependence of the emission of an improved manganeseactivated magnesium germanate phosphor. 2 hours. + (3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Powderize by dry ball-milling. air. air.88 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1. some parts (mainly Ge fluoride) sublimes out during firing. Opt. and Haake. References 1. 2..88 eV). C. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. Soc.2 201 Preparation Mix by dry ball-milling. 33. 40.

– (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).88 eV). – (3.01 eV Excitation efficiency by UV:++ (4.CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ Structure: Perovskite Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ Optical Properties Emission color: whitish-yellow Emission peak: 2.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV:++ (4.

Mn2+ in SiO2 CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaI2:Eu2+. Dry.Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+.Br.Mn2+ in SiO2 SrF2:Eu2+ SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Sr(Cl.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.11 Halides and Oxyhalides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgF2:Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+ CaF2:Eu2+ CaF2:Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+. 1 hour. stir to uniformity. 900ºC.Tb3+ CaF2:U CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaCl2:Eu2+.4.Th4+ KMgF3:Eu2+ KMgF3:Mn2+ LiAlF4:Mn2+ K2SiF6:Mn4+ YOBr:Eu3+ YOCl:Ce3+ YOCl:Eu3+ YOF:Eu3+ YOF:Tb3+ LaOF:Eu3+ LaOCl:Bi3+ LaOCl:Eu3+ MgF2:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (sellaite) Composition Ingredient MgF2 MnCO3 Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 62 1. . Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add ~2 g of NH4F (dissolved in a little water) and ~2–3 ccm of HF acid. N2. Powderize.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2 ZnF2:Mn2+ BaxSr1–xF2:Eu2+ YF3:Mn2+ YF3:Mn2+.

. powderize. 101.. 1000ºC. and Scharmann. A.A. H. about 200 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark No sensitizer is known to permit excitation by these UV wavelengths. Make a slurry of the CaF2 + CeF3 + AlF3 in methanol.. P. F. 8.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Pt.Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.40 eV).O. H. N2. The manganese emission in AbF3 compounds.. The mechanism of the luminescence of solids. .. 16.. Powderize. stir to uniformity. Klasens. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 869 (1961). Electrochem. 1 hour. A. 2. and Eyring. air. CaF2:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 CeF3 AlF3 Mole % 90 5 5 By weight (g) 70 9. Zalm. Bräunlich. 4. 441 (1953). 189 (1954). and Huysman..25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. Zur thermolumineszenz von MgF2-Mn. Naturforsch. A. 15. 3... mix by dry grinding.. Rep. Z. New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors. Philips Res. Dry. Chem. Smith. (3.E. Add ~2–3 g of iodine. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~25% Decay: Exponential.88 eV)... Hanle. 289 (1947). Williams.L. W. F. J. J. 1 hour. P. Soc. Phys. 1000ºC. References 1. Add ~1–2 ccm HF acid.85 4.2 Preparation Start with plain CaF2 and pre-fire it in open quartz boats.

4. Electrochem. J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Luminescence of K4MnCl6 and KCl (Pb + Mn). CaF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 0. R. Physica. Rev. 171. 361 (1968)..2 (of Eu) By weight (g) 70 0. 98.W. mix by dry grinding. N2. and Bakker. Phys. 8.... Soc. 27 (1958). 628 (1941).68 eV.. Phys. 5. and Whippey. J. powderize. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. 105. F.88 eV). Rev.Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Electrochem. Kröger.. Dry. Investigations of 4f–5d transitions of Ce+3 in CaF2. stir to uniformity.. 2. 1 hour. 74 (1951).A. P. Leach.. 154. 3. Soc.350 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol (in a plastic container). Loh. Add ~2–3 g of iodine.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 800ºC... Fire in capped quartz tubes.. 3. R. E. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of Ce3+ in alkaline-earth fluorides. Energy transfer and sensitization in single crystal phosphors. Ginther. J.J. Schlesinger. M. Add ~2 ccm HF acid.88 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize. 270 (1967).

88 eV).88 eV by addition of Ce (see CaF2:Ce3+).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material can be sensitized for better UV excitation with 4...S. References 1. N2. stir to uniformity.. 117. Add ~2 ccm HF acid. Electrochem. powderize. 791 (1970). R. 116. ++ (3. Powderize. Add ~2–3 g of iodine. Soc. 800ºC. J.L. 68 (1969). CaF2:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 77 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Electrochem. Amster.Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.L. mix by dry grinding. Amster. Photosensitization of terbium fluorescence by europium in CaF2.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol (in a plastic container).. and Wiggins. Soc. Spectroscopic identification of europium-oxygen complexes in calcium fluoride. 2. C.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . R. 1 hour. J.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry.

4. Klasens. Garlick.D. The manganese emission in AbF3 compounds. The emission shifts to lower energy (= longer wavelength) with increasing Mn concentration. Soc. F.. up to ~60 msec to 1/10. Decay of cathodoluminescence and nonradiative processes in manganese activated phosphors.40 eV with addition of Eu (see CaF2:Eu2+).O. M..J. and Huysman. Soc. Smith. J.. 110. 3. H. 2. References 1. This material can be sensitized for better UV excitation by 3. Mn concentrations below 1% give somewhat longer decay times. J. A.88 eV). 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1. 104. Electrochem. 340 (1963).88 eV with addition of Ce (see CaF2:Ce3+).L.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. 45 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 441 (1953). (3. The material can be sensitized for better UV excitation by 4.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. R. The thermoluminescence of CaF2-Mn. Soc. P. Schmid.Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.. 189 (1954).29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.W.. and Mooney. Zalm.. G. R. 5. W. 4.J.. 365 (1967). 8. Soc. J. J. Electrochem. Ginther...F. .A. 109.. 101.. Electrochem. 2.. and Sayer.F. New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors. Rep. 678 (1962). Electrochem.. Philips Res. and Kirk. R.

J. Kröger. J.CaF2:Ce3+.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 98. N2. stir to uniformity.. Add ~2 ccm HF acid..35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. air. 2. 628 (1941). Fire in capped quartz tubes. Make a slurry of all the above ingredients in methanol. powderize. Ginther. 1 hour.88 eV).6 4. 8. F. Electrochem. 1000ºC. Dry. R. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3.A.Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 74 (1951). Powderize.2 Preparation Start with plain CaF2 and pre-fire it in open quartz boats.J.. mix by dry grinding. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Add ~2–3 g of iodine. and Bakker. Luminescence of K4MnCl6 and KCl (Pb + Mn). 1000ºC. 1 hour. CaF2:Ce3+.Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 CeF3 TbF3 AlF3 Mole % 80 5 10 5 By weight (g) 62 9. Physica.85 21. Soc.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Make a slurry of in methanol.26–2.88 eV).11 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. add solution to the CaF2 + LiF mix. Amster. R. stir to uniformity. Powderize. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. Photosensitization of terbium fluorescence by europium in CaF2.88 eV).Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: 2.345 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem. 791 (1970). Reference 1.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.260 Preparation Dissolve the uranyl nitrate in a little methanol.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark UV excitation is almost exclusively determined by the Ce3+ absorption (see CaF2:Ce3+).500 0. 1000ºC.L. Soc. air.6H2O LiF Mole % 100 0. + (3. 1 hour. Fire in open alumina crucibles. powderize. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.1 1 By weight (g) 78 0. 117.. Dry. CaF2:U Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 UO2(NH3)2.

Karras. Rev. P. R.. Phys. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet Emission peak: 2. Luminescence of hexavalent uranium in CaF2 and SrF2 powders. ++ (3. 3. Uber die optischen eigenschaften der erdalkalihalogenide vom flussspat-typ(II). and Lehmann. 2.. plus a little water. Phys.. 1 hour. Add the above amount of NH4Cl once again. Wash in water several times.. Status Solidi.. Phys. Gorlich.V.. 1000ºC.. Nicholas.97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour.. N2.5 100 By weight (g) 4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 387 (1961). Powderize when dry. 1. 155.3 1. H. H.6 1 (of Eu) 17. Status Solidi. 1.4 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Gorlich. Powderize. Dry in air. 2. CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO Eu2O3 NH4Cl SiO2 Mole % 7. 151 (1967). Fire in capped quartz tubes. P. mix by dry grinding.76 9.. CO. R.. and Lehmann.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. Dry. Karras. 1000ºC. J.88 eV).195 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 551 (1961). Fire in capped quartz tubes. Uber die optischen eigenschaften der erdalkalihalogenide vom flussspat-typ(I).

++ (3. Dry.15 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.76 1. Lehmann.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. 1 hour. 900ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CO. 122.Mn2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO NH4Cl Eu2O3 MnCO3 SiO2 Mole % 7. 1000ºC. Powderize.. J. 2.88 eV).7 1. Add the above amount of NH4Cl once again. 1 hour.2 10. Electrochem. plus a little water. Soc.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. mix by dry grinding.5 20 1 (of Eu) 1 100 By weight (g) 4. CaCl2:Eu2+. N2.09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1. 748 (1975). Wash in water several times. W.. Dry in air.

2. CO. Reference 1.. mix by dry grinding. Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry. 900ºC. 748 (1975). Powderize. Wash in water several times. The emissions of CaCl2:Eu2+. Dry in air. Mn2+ and CaBr2:Eu2+. Add the above amount of NH4Br once again. 1 hour. CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO Eu2O3 NH4Br SiO2 Mole % 7. ++ (3.5 100 By weight (g) 4.3 2. N2. 1.2 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Powderize when dry. plus a little water. The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by Br.6 1.2 (of Eu) 17. Mn2+ are identical.1 17. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: ~2.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 122.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1000ºC. W. Powderize.88 eV)..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission .865 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. Lehmann. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. 2. Electrochem.

748 (1975).. Lehmann. Add the above amount of NH4I once again. CO. Electrochem. Dry in air.5 29 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . mix by dry grinding.34 3. 900ºC.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize.88 eV). CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Composition Ingredient CaO CaF2 Eu2O3 NH4I SiO2 Mole % 6 3 2 (of Eu) 20 100 By weight (g) 3. Powderize. N2. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. 1 hour. Dry.4 2. W. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry. Wash in water several times..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. ++ (3. 1000ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2. Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. plus a little water. 122. J.

2.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 748 (1975).Mn2+). Reference 1.78 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is sensitive to even very small traces of Mn which causes a red emission band (see CaI2:Eu2+. Powderize. Lehmann. ++ (3. 122. plus a little water. 1 hour. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. 1. additionally a weak Eu2+-emission band at 2. Powderize.115 21 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes.14 0. J. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. CaI2:Eu2+.1 15 100 By weight (g) 3.. mix by dry grinding. Soc. CO. Add the above amount of NH4I once again.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Light red. 900ºC. N2. slightly pinkish hue Emission peak: 1.95 eV.65 (of Eu) 0. W. Powderize when dry. 1000ºC. Dry in air. Wash in water several times.Mn2+ in SiO2 Composition Ingredient CaO CaF2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4I SiO2 Mole % 7 1 0. Electrochem.9 0.

.88 eV). W. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 896 453 (1972).95 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3. Soc. Lehmann.F.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Can.88 eV). 748 (1975). Electrochem. J. C. SrF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. 122. Pat. Chenot.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1. ++ (3. ++ (3.12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..

1000ºC. J.5 (of Eu) 17. and SrI2 at ~2. mix by dry grinding. for SrCl2 is at ~3.3 2.06 eV. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peaks: Peak position depending on the used halide. Dry in air. for SrCl2 is 0. and for SrI2 is 0. plus a little water.175 eV. Powderize.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . for SrBr2 at ~3. Wash in water several times. Fire in capped quartz tubes.12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2.4 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Lehmann. 1 hour. 900ºC. Sr(Cl. ++ (3. for SrBr2 is 0. 1 hour.. 748 (1975).16 eV.Br. Dry. W.6 9. Electrochem. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors.5 100 By weight (g) 8. Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. Add the above amount of NH4I once again.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrO Eu2O3 NH4Cl SiO2 Mole % 8 1.88 eV). N2. 122. CO.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Powderize when dry. Emission width (FWHM): Width also depending on used halide.865 eV. 1..015 eV.

88 eV).. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3.O.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Reference 1.. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.W. ZnF2:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors.A. 122. 748 (1975). Electrochem.. Rep. W. H. Klasens. Soc.. 8. Lehmann... F.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. J. John Wiley & Sons. Philips Res. 441 (1953). The manganese emission in ABF3 compounds. and Huysman.. New York (1949). Zalm. H. P.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 Emission SrI2 SrBr2 SrCl2 100 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by Br or I. 2. . Leverenz.

P. Johnson. 38. 7. Am. 39. Soc. C.R. Mou. Opt.. 47 no. and Rosenbaum. and McClure. Pat. 38.D..S. G.8Sr0. F. J.8F2:Eu 2+ Ba0. Electrochem. and Studer F. 1007 (1948). F. Can. J. and Williams.. and Williams. BaxSr1–xF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: varies with composition from yellow to blue Emission peak: varies with composition from 2. Phys.S..2F2:Eu 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 800 700 600 500 2+ 400 300 Excitation BaF2:Eu 50 2 3 References 1.. J. 189 (1954). A. W. Soc. 709 (1949). ++ (3...4Sr0..3Sr0. 896 453 (1972).1Sr0.. Chem. Am.17. Soc. Photoionization and trapping of electrons in the system BaF2:Eu:Sm.9F2:Eu 2+ Ba0. 5. J. New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors. F. J.. B. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 SrF2:Eu 2+ Ba0. Optical properties of zinc fluoride phosphors. Opt. Am. 6. 1007 (1948). J....7F2:Eu 2+ 2+ 2+ 100 Emission 50 Ba0. 4.88 eV).J.2Sr0. Chenot.3. Fonda.. Smith.6F2:Eu Ba0.04 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 101.. Thermoluminescence of manganese-activated zinc fluoride phosphors.J.E. 124 (1952). Energy levels and rate processes in the thallium activated potassium chloride phosphor. Phys.L. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 ..04 to 3. 2.F. The phosphorescence decay of halophosphates and other doubly activated phosphors.E.. Rev. Johnson. D. 20. Opt.F. Studer. 11031–11038 (1993).. Soc.

Spectrosc. 2. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + (3.3. 5.88 eV). Spektr. 55 (1976)]. 4. (USSR) 13. (USSR) 45.40 eV) . Spektr. 40. Spectrosc. 235 (1962) [Opt. E. P.G. Opt. Reut. Opt.G.. Europium and Ytterbium.88 eV). 518 (1978) [Opt. Spectra of divalent rare earth ions in crystals of alkali-earth fluorides.60 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. 13.. (USSR) 40. Kaplyansky.A. 290 (1978)].. E. YF3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peaks: 2. Spektr.. Spectrosc.... Reut. and Feofilov. 129 (1962)].P. Nature of luminescence of bivalent Eu and Yb ions in fluorite-type crystals. 99 (1976) [Opt. 45.Th4+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Mn2+. Opt.60 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.38 and 2. Study on characteristics of wideband luminescence of Eu and Yb ions in crystals with fluorite structure. A. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3.

08 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.J. Seo. and Tsuboi. 3.. 19. 363 (1976). – (3. 59.K. J.L. and Blasse. G. Lumin. Lumin. A.88 eV). 62.. 6I emission and vibronic transitions of Eu2+ in KMgF3 . 293 (1994). 12688–12695 (2000). 11. Moon. B. T. J. A.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.. Phys. J. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: (3. B. Meijerink..40 eV) References 1. Ellens. Two-photon excitation spectroscopy of 4f7 4f7 transitions of Eu2+ ions doped in a KMgF3 crystal... A..42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .. KMgF3:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. Rev. Divalent europium luminescence in perovskite-like alkaline-earth alkaline fluorides.. H. 2.. no. Sommerdijk. and Bril.88 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 KMgF3:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.

99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) . 18 (1962). Electrochem. Cathodoluminescent J.97 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).J. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 characteristics of Mn-activated KMgF3 . 109.26 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Kurtz.. Soc.88 eV). – (3. ++ (3. R.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 K2SiF6:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. LiAlF4:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1..

1100ºC.996 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.4 8. Electrochem. 942 (1973).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. ~500ºC. to let the conversion of Y2O3 to YOBr take place).G. – (3.. A.967–2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2.88 eV). main line at 1. J. Paulusz. Powderize. Wash in water several times. 120. N2.8 108 Preparation Make a suspension of all ingredients in water. 1. ½ hour. Efficient Mn(IV) emission in fluorine coordination. N2. Dry. Powderize. Powderize.40 eV) .150 eV. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Boil down to dry (slowly. Soc. YOBr:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4Br Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107. 1 hour.

2... Blasse.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. and Bril. J. 115.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.47 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1.. This phosphor is difficult to prepare. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and Bril.. and Poorter. Rev. Electrochem. A. Blasse. Keep dry. Blasse. G. Philips Tech.. It tends either to be partly reduced (forming Eu2+. G.24 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. G. YOCl:Ce3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet UV Emission peak: 3. 2. blue emission) or to be partly oxidized (liberating brown bromine). A. 346 (1970). J. J. Photoluminescent efficiency of phosphors with electronic transitions in localized centers. 3.A. 1067 (1968). 117. Soc. This phosphor is hygroscopic. and Bril... Fast-decay phosphors. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.. 31.. A. 304 (1970). Electrochem..D. Soc. – (3. Characteristic luminescence.

88 eV). A. main peak at 2. 440 (1966).14 eV. Powderize.4 8. Fire in capped quartz tubes. to let the conversion of Y2O3 to YOCl take place). – (3.8 59 Preparation Make a suspension of all ingredients in water. Fire in capped quartz tubes...40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is hygroscopic. Powderize. Lett. Keep dry. N2. Broad band UV excitation of Sm3+-activated phosphors.00 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Blasse. Boil down to dry (slowly. 1. and Bril. ½ hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. 2. N2. Powderize. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Reference 1.97–2. 1100ºC. 23. 1 hour. ~500ºC. G. Phys.YOCl:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107. Dry. Wash in water several times.

038. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1. A.6 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize when dry.3 3. 1200ºC.88 eV). and 2. Powderize. – (3. 2. N2. N2. 1 hour. Dry in air. Phys. and Bril.. 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.6 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Broad band UV excitation of Sm3+-activated phosphors.YOF:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 YF3 Mole % 64 (of Y) 2 (of Eu) 34 By weight (g) 72. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 23. 440 (1966).. Fire in capped quartz tubes.105 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1 hour.5 49. 1000ºC.977.4 49. 1. Blasse.. Lett. YOF:Tb3+ Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Tb4O7 YF3 Mole % 61 (of Y) 5 (of Tb) 34 By weight (g) 69 9. G.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. LaOF:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 LaF3 Mole % 61 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 34 By weight (g) 99. – (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Dry in air.40 eV) . Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: 1. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1.145 eV.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 1 hour. 1000ºC. 1. 2. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. 1 hour. Powderize. 2.4 8. – (3. 1 hour. N2. 1200ºC. 1000ºC. Powderize when dry.88 eV).981–2.8 66.993 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.6 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.982–2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4–5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark UV excitation is very poor (too little absorption) and can probably be improved by addition of Ce3+. 1200ºC.88 eV). Dry in air. N2. main line at 1.981 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.

.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaOCl:Bi3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 3. Conf.. 10.88 eV)... et al. B. G. 48. A.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. Chem.56 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. Photoluminescence processes in LaOCl-Bi and YOCl-Bi. J. J. Int. Boulon.58 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 2. Lumin. 48. G. 217 (1968). Phys. Investigations on BI3+-activated phosphors. 217 (1968). Blasse. 95 (1975).. and Bril. – (3. Phys. Proc. Jaquier. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..

The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. – (3. Rev. and Bril. Characteristic luminescence..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. 31. Blasse. A. Philips Tech. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. 1. G.02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.LaOCl:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2. 304 (1970).88 eV).

Powderize. 1 hour.3 13. Store in well-closed containers.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.40 eV) . + (3.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.540 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.Mn2+ SrSO4:Eu2+ BaSO4:Ce3+ BaSO4:Eu2+ MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. 1000ºC.2 0.12 Sulfates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgSO4:Eu2+ MgSO4:Pb2+ CaSO4:Eu2+.Mn2+ Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ MgSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient MgSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 NH4Cl Mole % 97 3 ~10 1 By weight (g) 117 5. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Mn2+ CaSO4:Pb2+ CaSO4:Bi CaSO4:Ce3+ CaSO4:Ce3+.Mn2+ CaSO4:Eu2+ SrSO4:Bi SrSO4:Ce3+ SrSO4:Eu2+. N2.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.4.

88 eV).540 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Store in well-closed containers. Keep dry. – (3.65 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1000ºC.7 13. 1 hour.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. MgSO4:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient MgSO4 PbO (NH4)2SO4 NH4Cl Mole % 97 3 ~10 1 By weight (g) 117 56. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark MgSO4 (epsom salt) is water soluble. Powderize. N2.2 0.46 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.

Powderize. ½ hour.75 13. 900ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 3. Powderize. Wash in water several times. Dry.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. N2.8 5.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.42 eV (Mn2+).2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. CaSO4:Eu2+. mix by dry grinding.20 eV (Eu2+) Emission width (FWHM): 0. N2.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 90 5 (of Eu) 5 ~10 By weight (g) 123 8.88 eV). MgSO4 (epsom salt) is water soluble. 2. Add ~5 g of NH4Br and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. 2. Keep dry. 800ºC. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2. This material is excited only by UV of ~240 nm or shorter and apparently is fairly efficient. ++ (3.

Wash in water several times.23 6. Mix by dry grinding. Dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. 1 hour. N2.33 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 5. CaSO4:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CaF2 PbO (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 1 ~5 By weight (g) 133 0.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. N2. Powderize. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. 3.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The spectral positions of the Mn2+-emission band depends on the Mn concentration used. – (3. 1050ºC. 1 hour. 1. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 950ºC. Mix by dry grinding. 1 hour.6 g of (NH4)2SO4.780 2. 1000ºC. shifting to blue-green for 1% Mn and to yellow-green for 10% Mn. Add another 6. Fire in capped quartz tubes.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. N2.

Wash in water several times. Dry.3 3. It discolors in fluorescent lamps because of (probably) undissolved PbSO4 dissociation to PbO. 1. 1 hour. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Powderize.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. – (3. mix by dry grinding. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2.5 6. This phosphor is excited only by UV of ~220 nm or shorter and is fairly efficient.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). N2. 950ºC.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Add another 5–6 g of (NH4)2SO4. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.7% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 900ºC. 2. CaSO4:Bi Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Bi2O3 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 (of Bi) 5 (of Na) ~5 By weight (g) 118 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 6 0 Remarks 1. 2. N2.

Dry. Electrochem.01 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The nature of this red emission is still unknown: It is not likely to be due to Bi3+ but it may possibly be due to Bi5+ substituting for S6+. CaSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 128 5.. N2.2 3. Kröger. Wash in water several times. Powderize. 96..79 eV. – (3.88 eV). Fire in covered alumina crucibles. et al. 1. 132 (1949).A. 1 hour. Reference 1. 2. J.6 13. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. F.. N2. Bismuth as activator in fluorescent solids. Soc. 900ºC. Powderize. 1 hour.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 900ºC. mix by dry grinding. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Add above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again. 4.

700ºC.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.36 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.9 13. N2. 800ºC. 4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSO4:Ce3+. Powderize. N2. Add ~2 g of Li2SO4 and ~6 g of (NH4)2SO4. Powderize. ++ (3. Dry. 1 hour.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2. Add ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4.3 6. N2. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1000ºC.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CeO2 MnCO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 88. Add ~6 g of (NH4)2SO4. mix by dry grinding. 2.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.5 2. Powderize. 3.5 6 ~10 By weight (g) 121 4. 700ºC. Wash in water several times. Powderize.

and Ruffler. Wash in water several times.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 950ºC. about 1. 7. Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep violet Emission peak: 3. mix by dry grinding. Rabatin. 950ºC. 232 (1958). H. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Meeting. 2. Rudolf.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4% Decay: Near-exponential decay. J. 1000ºC. 2.12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3. Washington. Electrochem.1 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. DC. Tech. N2. CaSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 99 1 (of Eu) ~5 By weight (g) 135 1.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Abh. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Wiss. 1 hour. N2. 3. Dry. Soc. 1 hour.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. Powderize. 157 (May 1976). Powderize. Add another 6.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Add 5 g of NH4Cl.88 eV).76 6. 1 hour.. Abstr. N2.. mix by dry grinding. OSRAM Ges. 1.

1 hour. SrSO4:Bi Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 Bi2O3 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 (of Bi) 5 (of Na) ~5 By weight (g) 180 2... 1. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. and Ekstrand. – (3. Powderize. Lumin. 383 (1974). 1 hour. mix by dry grinding. Germ.3 3.. U. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. Pat. Luckey. 2.. K. Powderize. D.E. Dixon. 900ºC.L. 950ºC. Add another 5–6 g of (NH4)2SO4. Thermoluminescence of rare earth activated CdSO4. SrSO4 and BaSO4.S. 2. Wash in water several times. A. 3.88 eV). N2.. R..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This CaSO4 phosphor is stable in water. 8. J. Dry. 3 669 897 (1971).04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 2 051 240 (1971).5 6. Wachtel. N2.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Pat. References 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1–1.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4..

Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1. N2.6 13. Reference 1.A. 900ºC.11 eV (Two overlapping bands) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Wash in water several times. et al.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. Powderize.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. N2. Kröger. mix by dry grinding. 96. Dry. Soc. 900ºC.89 and 4. Powderize. J. F. Add the above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The nature of this emission is still unknown: It is not likely to be due to Bi3+ but it may possibly be due to Bi5+ substituting for S6+.. Electrochem.2 3. – (3. Bismuth as activator in fluorescent solids.88 eV). 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 132 (1949).. SrSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 173 5. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Dry.88 eV).6 g of (NH4)2SO4. N2.26 6. mix by dry grinding. 2. 3. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.19 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. about 5 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Add another 6.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. Powderize.88 eV).5 1.40 eV) SrSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 Eu2O3 SrF2 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 1 ~5 By weight (g) 180 3. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 900ºC. 900ºC.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. 1. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrSO4:Eu2+. Wash in water several times. 1 hour. Powderize. N2. 1 hour. 800ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ++ (3. ++ (3.

8. SrSO4 and BaSO4. 2. N2.11 eV (Two overlapping bands) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Thermoluminescence of rare earth activated CdSO4... Germ. 1 hour. A. J. – (3. Powderize. 900ºC. 900ºC.2 3. Dixon.. mix by dry grinding. Pat. K.. Wash in water several times.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. BaSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 173 5. D. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. U. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 2 051 240 (1971). 3 669 897 (1971).. Pat. Lumin. 2. N2. 4.6 13.L.88 eV). Powderize. Luckey. R.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry. and Ekstrand.E.. 383 (1974). 1 hour. Add the above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again. 1. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Wachtel.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 3.89 eV..S.

about 5 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV). 1 hour. Wash in water several times. 900ºC. N2.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Powderize.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. + (3. 800ºC. Dry. Add another 6. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.5 1.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaSO4 Eu2O3 SrF2 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 1 ~5 By weight (g) 180 3. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. mix by dry grinding. 1. Add 5 g of NH4Cl.26 6. Powderize.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. 1 hour. mix by dry grinding. 900ºC.

Pat. 2. MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Structure: KAl (SO4)2 Composition Ingredient MgSO4 BaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 100 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 120 219 10. N2.6 13. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. – (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Powderize. 1 hour. 2 051 240 (1971).88 eV). Store in a well-closed container. Germ.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Luckey. N2. 900ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Main peak at 3..455 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1100ºC. mix by dry grinding.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Powderize. Add ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. D. 1.

P. G. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and Stegenga. N2. G. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient MgSO4 CaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 240 128 10. Chem.P. N2. Sakaguchi. Electrochem. 2. Blasse..M. 950ºC... et al. Solid State Chem. Electrochem. 1272 (1977). 1. Nucl.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3.. Blasse.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air. 900ºC. Crystal-structure of barium magnesiumsulfate.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. J..6 13. G. and VanDenHeuvel. F. 121. et al. Soc. mix by dry grinding. 1 hour. Soc. J. References 1. 1475 (1974). J. Fine-structure in optical-spectra of divalent europium in alkalineearth sulfates. Ryan.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. G. Powderize. and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. VanDenHeuvel. Thermoluminescence characteristics of binary sulfate phosphors.. 876 (1976).. Add ~5 g of NH4Br. 2. ++ (3. 4. J.. Inorg.M.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.. Luminescence of barium magnesium-sulfate. 439 (1976). J. M.. 124. 17. 38.M.

40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2.88 eV). mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes.2 13. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient MgSO4 CaSO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 87 5 (of Eu) 8 ~10 By weight (g) 240 119 8. ++ (3. 1 hour. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. 950ºC. 2.01 eV (Mn2+). Add ~5 g of NH4Br.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Keep dry. Powderize.06 eV (Eu2+) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.8 9. 900ºC. 3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air. 1. N2. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4.

Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. 900ºC. Add 10 g of (NH4)2SO4.88 eV). Keep dry.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Store in a well-closed container.Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air. Optical Properties Emission color: Barely visible deep violet Emission peak: 3. 1100ºC. mix by dry grinding. + (3. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient MgO SrSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 240 173 10.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. N2. 1 hour.21 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. 1 hour.6 13.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air. 1.

Li+ ZnSe:Cu+.Al3+ ZnS:Cu+.13 ZnS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: ZnS:Ag+.Cl CdS:Ag+. .Br high brightness ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 ZnS:Ag+. Dry in air.Cl ZnS:Eu2+ ZnS:Mn2+ ZnS:Mn2+. Powderize when dry.In ZnS:Cl ZnS:Cu. each in a little water.050 2.I ZnS-CdS (25-75) ZnS-CdS (50-50) ZnS-CdS (75-25) ZnS-CdS:Ag. and stir again.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS AgNO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.Cl ZnS:Au.4.3 5 By weight (g) 98 0. then add the NH4Cl solution.Cl ZnS:Pb2+ ZnS:Pb2+.Cl ZnS-CdS:Cu. First add the silver solution. stir.5 Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 and the NH4Cl separately.Te2+ ZnS:P ZnS:P3 .Br long life ZnS-CdS:Cu.Cl ZnS:Pb.Cl CdS:In ZnS-CdS:Cu.Br.Sn ZnS:Cu+. Make a slurry of the ZnS in water or methanol.Cu ZnS:Sn2+ ZnS:Sn.Ag ZnS:Sn2+.Ni ZnS-CdS:Ag+.

Add this solution to the ZnS.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. John Wiley & Sons. in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. ++ (3. Dry. Shionoya.002 (of In) 5 By weight (g) 98 0. Leverenz. This phosphor corresponds to the commercial P-22B.5 Preparation Dissolve the gold in a very little amount of aqua regia.010 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Dry.005 0. Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..W. New York (1949). S. H.In Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Au metal In2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Ed. New York (1966). 1100ºC. P.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. References 1.. Powderize. The chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine. 2. Powderize.. Goldberg. Make a slurry in methanol.. Wash in water several times (to remove leftover halide). An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2.Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.88 eV).0023 2. Academic Press. 2. ZnS:Au.

Fire in open quartz boats. hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. 2.34 eV (First peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3. 3.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The green phosphorescence of this phosphor after excitation by UV or by e-beam is visible for several hours in the dark. 1200ºC. stir. and powderize.88 eV). 900ºC. Dissolve the In2O3 in a little nitric acid.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. 900ºC. 1 hour. Powderize.1. Add about 2–3 g of sulfur. 2. N2. Add the dry NH4Cl and about 2–3 g of sulfur. ZnS:Cl Structure: Cubic.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. dry. long afterglow Emission peaks: 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green. Fire in open quartz boats. H2S. 1 hour. 900ºC. Make a slurry of the phosphor in methanol. add the solution to the slurry. N2. H2S. 4. mix by dry grinding. 1 hour.34 eV. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Absorption (%) 100 Emission . ++ (3.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. H. Goldberg.W.. P. S. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Cu. Shionoya.Spectra (cubic) 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 Spectra (hexagonal) 800 700 600 500 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Dry.1 0. New York (1949). Leverenz.001 By weight (g) 98 0... H2O Mole % 100 0. Academic Press. . Make a slurry in water or methanol. Powderize. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.. add solution to the ZnS + SnS mix.Sn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS Cu(C2H3O2)2. John Wiley & Sons. New York (1966).150 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1150ºC.002 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate in a little water. 1 hour. Ed. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. N2. 2.

2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Absorption (%) 100 Emission .38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Green. Add enough water or methanol to make a uniform slurry. Irradiation of near-IR during excitation by 3. H2S. Add solution to the ZnS mix. Dry. ZnS:Cu+.Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 1100ºC. let settle) to remove left over chloride.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. long afterglow tail. ++ (3. Emission peak: 2. Powderize.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV UV causes strong quenching of the green emission.3 By weight (g) 98 0.001 0. Wash in water several times (stir.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. H2O AlCl3 Mole % 100 0.Al3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Cu(C2H3O2)2.002 0.88 eV).400 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate and the aluminum chloride together in a little water. ++ (3. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.88 eV). Dry. This phosphor is much more sensitive to IR than the fairly well-known ZnS:Cu. 1 hour.Co phosphor.

Rep. Gool..Cl Optical Properties Emission color: Blue + green Emission peak: 2. Kröger. 2..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.. ++ (3. Amsterdam (1948). 2. W.34 eV. New York (1949). Elsevier.A.. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids.P. A. Leverenz.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . H.88 eV).33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. John Wiley & Sons. Philips Res. The chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine.79 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. This phosphor corresponds to the P-31 cathodoluminescent phosphor. Structure: Cubic (zinc blende) ZnS:Cu+. 15. References 1. F. 238 (1960).W.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 2. and Cleiren.

24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.053 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Weaker band at 1. Powderize. 1100ºC. 1.95 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.15 0. + (3. H2S. Dry. 1 hour. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Fire in open quartz boats.540 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Powderize. 2. 1 hour. 1100ºC.ZnS:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient ZnS Eu2O3 Mole % 100 0. Powderize.03 (of Eu) By weight (g) 98 0. H2S. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV). Dry.25 eV.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 99 1 1 By weight (g) 97 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. Academic Press. References 1. 2..Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.W..88 eV). Leverenz. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.. Make a slurry in water..Te2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS MnCO3 ZnTe NH4Br Mole % 94 3 3 2 By weight (g) 92 3. The emission shifts slightly to lower energy (= longer wavelength) with increasing Mn concentration. ZnS:Mn2+. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2 or H2S. S.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. John Wiley & Sons.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Exponential. ++ (3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. H. Shionoya. New York (1966). New York (1949). Ed. This material is remarkable for its strong triboluminescence. ~1 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Goldberg. 1 hour.13 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. P. 1100ºC.8 2 Preparation First mix only ZnS + MnCO3 + NH4Br (not yet the ZnTe).5 5.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1 hour. N2. R. 1100ºC.385 0. This material is remarkable for its strong triboluminescence (red). 900ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1..92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.I.88 eV). Spectrosc. Fire in capped quartz tubes.4 (of P) 0. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.270 Preparation Mix by dry grinding.-USSR. Wachtel. 2. Smirnova. ZnS:P Composition Ingredient ZnS Zn3P2 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 2. G. Now admit the ZnTe.. ++ (3.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1200ºC. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour.5 By weight (g) 98 0. mix by milling or grinding. N2. Wash in a solution of a few percentage of Br in methanol and then several times in plain methanol. Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors. This phosphor has been developed by A. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. and Pron.1. Opt. 1 hour. H2.F. Reference 1. 67 (1967). 23.

2... P.14 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Phosphor is poorly reproducible because of high volatility of Zn3P2 at firing temperature. + (3.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.W. It shifts to a lower energy (= longer wavelengths) with increasing P.88 eV).50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow Emission peak: 2.88 eV). J.H. Spectral positions of the emission band depends on the P concentration. Long afterglow tail Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. A. Electrochem.24. McKeag. ++ (3.66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. New zinc sulfide phosphors activated by phosphorus.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5%. Reference 1. Soc. 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 96. The amount of P retained in the phosphor after firing certainly is much lower than the amount added..Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellowish Emission peak: 2. and Ranby. 85 (1949). ZnS:P3–.

An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. J. New zinc sulfide phosphors activated by phosphorus.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peak: 2. ZnS:Pb2+.H.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1.R. Leverenz. ... Soc. H.40 eV) References 1... 2. ++ (3. Electrochem. Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared. 382 (1946).. Fonda. Soc. McKeag. Am. Opt. G.. 36. J.88 eV).40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. + (3.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. 85 (1949). Am.40 eV) Reference 1. A. Soc.88 eV).W.98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. P.. and Ranby.R. John Wiley & Sons. Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared. 96. J. G. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Pb2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1. Fonda. 382 (1946). Opt.54 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. New York (1949)..W. 36.

88 eV).Cu Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Pb(NO3)2 Cu(C2H3O2)2 Mole % 100 0. N2. Reference 1.1 0.. Fonda. 1 hour. This phosphor is readily excited by UV and shows a long afterglow after excitation. 36. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. add the solution to the ZnS. Dry. 1100ºC. 352 (1946). When the afterglow has decreased to a low level.R. Soc. irridation of near-IR causes a strong orange emission (stimulation). G. Opt.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared. J. 2.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.001 By weight (g) 98 0. orange afterglow Emission peak: 1. Make a uniform slurry with water or methanol.ZnS:Pb. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish orange during excitation.330 0.002 Preparation Dissolve the lead nitrate and copper acetate together in a little water. ++ (3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Am.

5 ~2–3 Preparation Mix by dry grinding. N2.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Ag Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS AgNO3 Mole % 100 0.1 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.017 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour.01 By weight (g) 98 0.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. S. ++ (3. 499 (1974).. 1150ºC. ZnS:Sn. Acta Phys. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.88 eV). Polonica A.150 0. 45.ZnS:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS Sulfur Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 97 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Kulaszewcz.

this phosphor shows only little response (stimulation) to irradiated IR. Reference 1.12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Admit ~2–3 g of sulfur. In contrast to ZnS:Cu.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.Sn. Powderize when dry.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1150ºC. ++ (3.99. Wachtel.88 eV). + (3.88 eV).40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Li phosphor.Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 in a little water.. 1 hour. Dry in air. Make a slurry in water or methanol. ZnS:Sn2+. Soc. The Ag in the above recipe can be replaced by Li.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Li+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1. 2. Electrochem.. Add the solutions to the ZnS + SnS. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow Emission peak: 1. A. ZnS-Sn. 2. J. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 105. 432 (1958).99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

H.F. 432 (1958).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Morehead.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. Solids. Phys.W. 24. Leverenz. 105. Se Cu. 2. J. New York (1949) p.Li phosphor. A. Electrochem. 37 (1963). An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Chem. 202. Wachtel. ZnSe:Cu+. ZnS-Sn.. F. John Wiley & Sons..Cl Structure: Cubic (zinc blende) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Cl. Luminescence in ZnS.88 eV). J. Soc.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. + (3...

John Wiley & Sons. H2. When cool.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.139 Preparation Dissolve the In2O3 in a little nitric acid. 1.88 eV).88 eV). + (3. H. 2. Add the solutions to the CdS.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Inspect again under UV lamp. Material should be uniformly red luminescent. Leverenz.1 (of In) By weight (g) 145 0. Material should now be uniformly green. ++ (3. 900ºC.08 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Dry.Cl– Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Reference 1.. CdS:In Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 Mole % 100 0. Make a slurry in methanol.W. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.CdS:Ag+. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Powderize. 500ºC.55 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. inspect under UV lamp. Fire in open quartz boats. New York (1949). H2S.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 10%: Less than 1 nsec . Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Remove all parts which look different.

After this firing.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Powderize. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Add the Cu solution.5 2 By weight (g) 95. Screen through 200 mesh or finer. W.. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve. Phosphor has limited use in CR tubes for extremely fast display. This phosphor is thermodynamically in an unstable state.4 2. 650ºC. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it. H2O NH4I Mole % 98 2 0. and stir. then add the NH4I-solution.I Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. Reference 1. Dry. 1. 2. N2. Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. Mix well.9 Preparation Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4I separately. Solid State Electron. Do not heat up (except only in H2) to more than about 250ºC. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter of water. 2. 1 hour. N2. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats.. stir. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air. 800ºC.9 2. Lehmann. Powderize. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. 9. Add ~3 4 g of sulfur. each in a little water. 1 hour.9 2. 1107 (1966). Fire in capped quartz tubes. ZnS-CdS:Cu.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ . John Wiley & Sons.33 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. ++ (3.W. New York (1949).72 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Leverenz.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ ZnS-CdS (75-25) Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ZnS-CdS (25-75) Structure: Wurtzite Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. ++ (3. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.88 eV). H.88 eV).06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ ZnS-CdS (50-50) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). ++ (3.78 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..

H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. 700ºC. Mix well. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. 45 minutes.37 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.6 0. 800ºC. 1. Add the solution to the slurry. John Wiley & Sons. N2.Br. Leverenz.Ni Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. H2S.5 5. ++ (3.W. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 ZnS-CdS 40-60 ZnS-CdS 50-50 Emission ZnS-CdS 60-40 ZnS-CdS 70-30 ZnS-CdS 80-20 ZnS-CdS 90-10 ZnS 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 100 50 0 Reference 1.7 By weight (g) 93.8 0.88 eV). 1 hour..13 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. Dry. H. New York (1949). Add ~3–4 g of sulfur. ZnS-CdS:Ag. Powderize. stir.8 1. Fire in open quartz boats. Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water.40 eV) .

Reference 1.. Then add the NH4Cl solution. N2.03 5 By weight (g) 0. F.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 20% Decay to 10%: Non-exponential afterglow in the microsecond range Absorption (%) 100 Emission . New observations on superlinear luminescence.88 eV).. 2. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes.5 Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 and the NH4Cl separately.. 1100ºC.050 2. Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS of the desired ratio in water or methanol. Opt. ZnS-CdS:Ag+. Soc. stir. Urbach. J. 690 (1949).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Dry. Am.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. First add the silver solution. stir again. Mix well. and Pearlman. This phosphor is good for thermal imaging.. N.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS + CdS AgNO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 39. Optical Properties Emission peak: Peak position depending on the ZnS/CdS ratio Emission width (FWHM): ~0. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. D. ++ (3. The emission intensity increases sharply super-linearly with increasing excitation intensity and decreases with increasing temperature: The best obtained temperature response is about 20% per degree Centigrade near room temperature. Wash in water several times (to remove leftover halide). Powderize.R. Nail. each in a little water. Dry.

The phosphor of ZnS/CdS 72/28 is commercial P-22G.6 0. 1949. add the solution to the slurry. N2. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. 1 hour. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur.8 0. Reference 1. 1. H2S. Mix well. ZnS-CdS:Cu. Powderize.8 1.Br long life Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. After this firing. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air.W. 3. 2. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Fire the same as 2. Boil again in cyanide solution as above. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. 45 minutes.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 Emission CdS ZnS-CdS 25-75 ZnS-CdS 50-50 ZnS-CdS 75-25 ZnS 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 100 50 0 Remarks 1. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it. 800ºC.686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol.7 By weight (g) 93. H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0. . Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air. Firing includes rapid quenching. Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water. Chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve.. Dry. Leverenz. Screen through 200 mesh or finer. Powderize. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter water. and stir. New York. Powderize. 2. John Wiley & Sons.5 5. 700ºC. H. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water.38 eV . Wash in plain water. ZnS-CdS:Cu. N2. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it. 2.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.8 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0. 1 hour. 800ºC. 650ºC.7 By weight (g) 93.3 0. Wash in about 2 liters of 10% H2O2 solution at room temperature for about 2 hours while stirring.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. 1. Dry.600 0. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air. Fire in open quartz boats.686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. add the solution to the slurry. After this firing.5 5.Br high brightness Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. Screen through 200 mesh or finer. and stir. Powderize.35 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The zero-hour brightness of this phosphor is ~½ of that of the one on the previous page. 45 minutes. H2S. Mix well. Powderize. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter of water. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve.

F.. 2. The H2O2 wash is an idea by Wachtel.40 eV) Reference 1..S. 3 165 476 (1965). . its half-life under steady 5 kHz excitation is much shorter than that of the phosphor on the next page. Spectrosc.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. ++ (3. Pat. Smirnova. This phosphor has been developed for high zero-hour brightness.-USSR. and Pron.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. R. ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. 23.88 eV). Opt. G. 67 (1967). U.. A.. Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.I.

Powderize. 1 hour. 1200ºC.Na+ CaS:Eu2+ CaS:Mn2+ CaS:La3+ CaS:Pb2+. .14 CaS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgS:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+ CaS:Bi3+.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 0. Admit above amount of NH4Cl and also 2–3 g of sulfur.Na SrS:Eu2+ SrS:Mn2+ BaS:Au. mix by dry grinding.Cl CaS:Pb2+ CaS:Pb2+.F CaS:Tb3+ CaS:Tb3+.Na CaS:Ce3+ CaS:Cu+. Keep dry. Fire in open quartz boats.176 1 Preparation First mix only the MgO and Eu2O3. 800ºC.4. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Pb2+.Cl CaS:Sb3+ CaS:Sb3+.Cl CaS:Y3+ CaS:Yb2+ CaS:Yb2+.Cl SrS:Ce3+ SrS:Cu+. N2 loaded with CS2.Mn2+ CaS:Pr3+.Na CaS:Sm3+ CaS:Sn2+ CaS:Sn2+. 1 hour. 1.040 0. Powderize. Store in a well-closed container. N2.K MgS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient MgO Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 2.

K. 131 (1953)... Kasano.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/8% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. Cathodoluminescence of Ca1-xMgxS-Eu. H.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Megumi.88 eV).21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.27eV Emission width (FWHM):0. CaS:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Near UV Emission peak: 3. Electrochem..88 eV). H. – (3.11 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J.Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. + (3. Ca1-xMgxS-Ce. and Yamamoto. Soc.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

1100ºC. 1 hour. Convert it to CaS by one of the following methods: 1.. 4. Ellervee.M.03 (of Bi) 0.J. Powderize. 87 (1972). 90 (1949). 82. Fire in open quartz boats... stagnant air... Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 144 (1976). 5. 119. W. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Store in a well-closed container. 40. 1 hour. 3. 3. J. Jpn. and Mason..Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors.Na Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Bi2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. H2S. J... J. D. Soc. Lumin.420 Preparation Start from purest CaCO3. G. and Asano.77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Status Solidi B. N. Yamashita. Lehmann. J. long afterglow tail extending into seconds . 5.70 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4–5% Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range. Electron traps and infrared stimulation of phosphors. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S..5 By weight (g) 100 0. N2. 275 (1972). A. W. Electrochem. and Ryan. Lehmann.References 1. S. 2. 91 (1977). Electrochem. Soc. mix by dry grinding. F. CaS:Bi3+.E.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add the above amounts of Bi and Na. 1200ºC. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. Soc. Garlick. + (3.88 eV).18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1200ºC. Powderize.. Phys. Phys. 2. 96..F.F.

CaS:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CeO2 Mole % 100 0. Admit about 1–2 g of NH4Cl by dry grinding or milling.. 40. 2.. 5. 1200ºC. F. 1 hour.J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. N. Fire in capped quartz tubes. W. Fire in open quartz boats.. Phys.... 4. 3. 5. Soc. Soc. Lehmann. 1. Phys. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. Lumin. Electrochem. Na in above recipe can be replaced by Li but Na seems to have a slight edge over it. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Powderize. 82. Preparation required purest starting materials. and Mason.F.E. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. J. 275 (1972).086 Preparation Mix well. 90 (1949).05 By weight (g) 100 0. J. 1100ºC. Ellervee. Yamashita. 2. 144 (1976).. 119. J. References 1. and Asano. G. Luminescent-grade CaCO3 is not pure enough. Lehmann. Electron traps and infrared stimulation of phosphors. Soc. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Electrochem. N2. 91 (1977). 2. Jpn. Contamination by Mn as low as 1 ppm will cause appearance of the yellow Mn2+ emission..F. W.. first 1 hour in N2 and then 1 hour in H2S. J. A. Add about 2–3 g of sulfur.M.. Powderize. 96. Status Solidi B. S. Store in a well-closed container. and Ryan. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S+Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors. 87 (1972).. D. Garlick.

or I. References 1. J.. Electrochem. and Ryan.. Soc. W. Soc. The distance between the two emission bands (in eV) cannot be changed but the exact positions of the bands depend slightly on the used Ce concentration.Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Phosphor can be sensitized for efficient excitation by 3.. 3.13 eV. and Kato. Lehmann. 2. 130.. J.. W. 2. Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F. J. Okamoto. F. 7.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1164 (1971). 5. Electrochem. Electrochem. Lehmann. phosphor showing no color change and little saturation up to the highest current densities Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Br. F. This phosphor or modifications of it have found applications in CR tubes and for correction in arc lamps.. 119.. 3. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..M. 4. W. 6.40 eV by addition of Pb (see CaS:Pb2+)..88 eV). 118. – (3. F. 432 (1983). Phosphor has a slightly greenish body color due to the combined action of the blue absorption band and the green emission. 4. Preparation and cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce and Ca1-xSrxS-Ce phosphors. Cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce3+ and CaS-Eu2+ phosphors J. Lehmann. 2. Electrochem.. This phosphor is efficiently luminescent up to ~300ºC. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. K. and Ryan. Soc. 275 (1972). 118.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/20% Decay to 10%: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range..M. Soc. 477 (1971). Decay time after excitation by an e-beam pulse can be reduced to ~200 nsec (1/10 of original) by addition of Co.

Fire in open quartz boats.300 1. 2. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper. J.5 By weight (g) 100 0. Powderize. 2.55 eV. Wachtel. Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2. Soc. 199 (1960). Powderize. 1100ºC. 1 hour.. Na in the above recipe can be omitted or be replaced by Li or K. Store in a well-closed container. phosphor showing much less saturation at the high beam current than P-11 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. References 1. Soc. 3. Electrochem. Dry. add solution to the CaCO3. A. Lehmann. J.Na+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Cu(C2H3O2)2·H2O NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. 117.15 1. ++ (3. Add 800 mg of NaHCO3 plus ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Halides are not co-activators in CaS:Cu (in contrast to ZnS:Cu). Make a uniform slurry in water or methanol. silver..25 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate in a little water. 1000ºC. and gold.83 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 107. 2.Eu electroluminescent phosphors.. 100 sec to 1/10. 2.CaS:Cu+. The peak positions of the two emission bands depend on the alkali used (if any). 1389 (1970). 1. Mix by dry grinding.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/16% Decay: Non-exponential decay. CaS-Cu. 1 hour. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. H2S.. Powderize. H2. Electrochem. W. The relative heights of the two emission bands depend on the preparation conditions.88 eV).

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2.F) or by pB (see CaS:Pb). 3. Br. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Cl). 1100ºC. or I.CaS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 1200ºC. Powderize. 1. first 1 hour in N2 and then 1 hour in H2S. Fire in open quartz boats. see CaS:Ce3+.088 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Eu2O3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/10% (can be improved to ~16% by the addition of Ce.40 eV by addition of Sn (see CaS:Sn. Store in a well-closed container.05 (of Eu) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Mix by dry grinding. 1 hour. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .91 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Phosphor can be sensitized for excitation by 3. H2. Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F. – (3. 2. Powderize. This phosphor has a very characteristic pink body color due to the combined actions of the broad blue to yellow absorption band and the red fluorescence. Decay time after excitation by an e-beam pulse can be reduced to ~300 nsec by addition of Co.88 eV). 4. also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Add the above amount of NH4Cl.

. This phosphor is efficiently luminescent up to ~300ºC.Eu electroluminescent phosphors. Soc.1 ~2 By weight (g) 100 0.. Z. 107. W. Electrochem. J. 477 (1971). Add the above amount of NH4Cl. 3. Electrochem. 1 hour. 118. References 1. A. 4.. E. 119. Fire in capped quartz tubes. P.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/16% Decay: Near-exponential decay with ~8 msec to 1/10 ..5. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors.115 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the MnCO3. 3. 518 (1955). 1 hour. 233 (1957). 1100ºC. Electrochem. W. 6. 8. 2. The emission peak position depends slightly upon the used Eu concentration. 1.M. Naturforsch.. – (3. Electrochem. and Ryan.. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. 118.. Soc. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. J. and Uber eu-ionen in erdalkalioxyden und erdalkali-sulfiden. Partial or complete replacement of the Ca by Sr causes the emission to sift to higher energy (= shorter wavelength). 5. 7. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. Lehmann. and Banks.11 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J.. Naturforsch Pt A. 6. CaS:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. J. and Ryan. This phosphor or modifications of it have found applications in CR tubes and for correction in arc lamps.. A. 275 (1972). Oxidation states of europium in the alkaline earth oxide and sulfide phosphors. 199 (1960).M. 561 (1951). 2. H2S. Fire in open quartz boats. Mix by dry grinding.. 6. Brauer. Jaffe. Wachtel. W.88 eV). Powderize.. N2. Cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce3+ and CaS-Eu2+ phosphors J. 1100ºC. 12. 1164 (1971).. Pt. CaS-Cu.. Electrochem. Powderize. F.M. Soc. Soc. Lehmann. F. H2S. Soc. Lehmann. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. P. 102. Store in a well-closed container. 1200ºC. Z.

4. Jpn.. Sensitization by bismuth of the luminescence of manganese and samarium in calcium sulfide phosphors. Electrochem.V. References 1. and Mikhaylin. Br.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. 2.L. Soc. 2. 3. 118. and Era.88 eV).. K. 87 (1972). Shionoya. It serves only as a flux and can be replaced by F. V. 5.. The emission peak position depends slightly on the Mn concentration used. The Mn concentration is not critical. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. W. Intern Conf. Budapest (1966). Levshin. Lumin.. V. W.. or I.. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors..42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4... 30. S. 4. Lehmann.55 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 3.. the Mn2+ emission is fairly strong between about 1 ppm and 5% of Mn/Ca. Lumin. Paper 111. 1164 (1971). Partial or complete replacement of Ca by Sr shifts it towards green (see SrS:Mn2+). Chem. Soc. B. Partial (up to 10%) replacement of the Ca by Mg shifts the emission from yellow to orange-red. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. CaS:La3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish Emission peak: 2. J. Lehmann. 518 (1957). The Cl in the above recipe is not a co-activator.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. Mix by dry grinding. Powderize. another 2 g of NH4Cl.02 3 By weight (g) 100 0. 87 (1972). Add the above amount of PbO. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 1 hour. N2. Convert to CaS by one of the following methods 1. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Near-UV Emission peak: 3..39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1100ºC. Powderize. 5. Lehmann. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Add ~1g of NH4Cl. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 15–17% Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Lumin. 1200ºC. + (3.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. decay to be shortened to about 250 nsec (to 1/10) by addition of a trace of cobalt . Store in a well-closed container.045 1. H2S. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. CaS:Pb2+.. W. J.5 Preparation Start from purest CaCO3. Mix by dry grinding. 1200ºC. N2. 1 hour. 2.88 eV). Powderize.

Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. W. References 1. Lehmann. Normal luminescent-grade CaCO3 is not pure enough.... 2. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. 5. Lumin. 82. Soc. 275 (1972). CaS:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 87 (1972).. W. and Ryan. 119.M. A. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. Fluoride is much less effective..F. Phys. and Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 1164 (1971). Contamination by Mn as low as 1 ppm will cause appearance of the yellow Mn2+ emission. F. Electrochem. 91 (1977). + (3. 118. 3. Ellervee..88 eV). Preparation requires purest starting materials. Status Solidi B. 2. J. Electrochem. Lehmann.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Soc. This phosphor has limited application as UV emitter in CR tubes. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Absorption (%) 100 Emission . The NH4Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by NH4Br.. 3.

575 0. J. Electrochem..40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Soc. 1 hour. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors.Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 118. + (3. 1. CaS:Pb2+. (1977). Soc. Lehmann. Store in a well-closed container. 82. 91. F.670 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and MnCO3. Lehmann. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. J. 1 hour... W.. A.. Lumin. Ellervee.. 87 (1972). Status Solidi B.. W. Phys. 119. Powderize. W.5 0. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 1200ºC.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Red-orange (not the yellow of CaS:Mn2+ without Pb) Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats.. 2.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. H2S.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. Add the above amounts of PbO and NH4Cl. 2. J. 4. N2. Powderize. 5. Mix by dry grinding.3 2 By weight (g) 100 0.M. 3. 275 (1972).F. 1164 (1971). Lehmann. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and Ryan. 1100ºC.

Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Pr2O3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.165 0. respectively. 1 hour. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Mix by dry grinding.045 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and MnCO3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ++ (3. mainly two line groups in the blue-green and in the red. 1100ºC. 3. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale greenish-pink Emission peak: 1.5 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. Powderize. H2S.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Mn2+ emission shifts to lower energy (+ longer wave lengths) with increasing Pb concentration.40 eV) Decay: Exponential decay. about 0. Powderize. 1 hour.85 eV. also present (not shown in figure below) a strong line at 1. Add the above amount of PbO and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 2.05 eV in the IR Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1200ºC. 2. Mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CaS:Pr3+. Fire in open quartz boats.Pb2+. N2. 1100ºC. H2.88 eV).02 ~2 By weight (g) 100 0.50 eV.1 0. Store in a well-closed container.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. W.27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. Lumin. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. CaS:Sb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Reference 1. Lehmann. – (3. W. Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..88 eV). Lumin. 5. J. Lehmann. 87 (1972). 87 (1972).44 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The intensity ratio of the two visible line groups is very sensitive to the details of the preparation and excitation... 5..

840 Preparation 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 18% Decay: Exponential decay (~1. N. 118. 1 hour. 1100ºC.2. Store in a well-closed container.. Ca(S-Se)-Sb3+ phosphors... Luminescence centers of Ca(S-Se) phosphors activated with impurity ions having s-2 configuration.27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1089 (1973). Soc.44 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Jpn. J. Soc. 1300ºC. W. Add the above amount of Sb2O3 + NaHCO3. 1164 (1971). Phys.1 (of Sb) 1 By weight (g) 100 0. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.88 eV).Na Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sb2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. Powderize. Mix by dry grinding. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. N2. Powderize. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 3. Yamashita.. Electrochem.145 0. – (3.5 sec to 1/10) followed by a long but weak phosphorescence tail Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. H2S. 35. Fire (purest CaCO3 only) in open quartz boats. J. 2. Lehmann. 1. 1 hour. CaS:Sb3+.

Luminescence centers of Ca (S-Se) phosphors activated with impurity ions having s-2 configuration. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: Strongest lines at 2. Add the above amount of Na4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. and 2.References 1. 2. ~10 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. 1 hour.34 and 1.04. 118.. N. Ca(S-Se)-Sb3+ phosphors.. 2. Soc. H2S. Yamashita. 87 (1972).. J.. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. W. 1 hour. N2. 3.. 1. Powderize. Store in a well-closed container.20. Electrochem. 3. Phys. J. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. CaS:Sm3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sm2O3 Na4Cl Mole % 100 0.23 eV.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.01 (of Sm) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. W. – (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1200ºC. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. also present (not shown in figure below) two strong lines at 1. Soc. Lumin. 1100ºC. Mix by dry grinding.40 eV) Decay: Exponential decay. 1. J. 1089 (1973). Powderize. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.88 eV). 2. 1100ºC. Lehmann. first in N2.0175 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and Sm2O3. 5. ~ 1 hour and then in H2S for 1 hour.07. Lehmann. 1164 (1971). Jpn. 35.

F Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SnS CaF2 Mole % 100 0... CaS:Sn2+. CaS:Sn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-greenish Emission peak: 2. C Solid State. 2. and Asano. and Asano. ESR of 2s ½-state centers in CaS:Sn3+. CaSe:Sn3+ and CaSe:Pb3+.390 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . S. 41. W. J.. Lumin. 5.135 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 3. Soc... N. 536 (1976).. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 9. J. Phys. L65 (1976). N.. Reference 1.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. Phys. Lumin. W. Yamashita.5 By weight (g) 100 0.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Yamashita.1 0. ++ (3. 87 (1972)..88 eV). J.Remark Phosphor can be sensitized for excitation by 3. Lehmann. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. S. 5. Lehmann. 87 (1972). Jpn. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S:Se):Sn2+ phosphors.40 eV UV by addition of Sn (see CaS:Sn2+)..

29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Lumin. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Yamashita. Phys.88 eV). and Asano. N2. N. C Solid State.. 1200ºC. L65 (1976).. 2. N. 1100ºC. Soc. Mix by dry grinding.26–2. 2.. Store in a well-closed container.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 5.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Phys. W. J. ++ (3. Esr of 2s ½-state centers in CaS:Sn3+. S. J. Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats. 87 (1972). 1 hour. 1 hour.Preparation 1. CaS:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Powderize.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. CaSe:Sn3+ and CaSe:Pb3+..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. – (3.Se):Sn2+ phosphors. 9. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S. H2S.. and Asano. Lehmann. 536 (1976). 41. Yamashita. Add the above amount of SnS and CaF2 and about 2–3 g of sulfur. Jpn. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~4% Decay: Non-exponential decay of about 1 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.88 eV).. 3. S.

N2.. 1 hour. Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats. 1100ºC. 1200ºC. CaS:Tb3+. H2S. Powderize.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Tb4O7 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest lines a doublet at 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add the above amount of NH4Cl. 1. Mix by dry grinding. Powderize. – (3. 3. 1 hour. 2. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 5. 87 (1972).88 eV).6 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .26 and 2. N2. Store in a well-closed container. W. ~ 3. 1 hour.1 (of Tb) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Lumin. J.29 eV. Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Relatively poor Decay: Exponential decay. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1200ºC..187 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Tb4O7. Lehmann. Powderize.

CaS:Y3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. Lehmann...88 eV). Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.78 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. W. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 5. J. 87 (1972). 5. 87 (1972). – (3. Lehmann. Lumin. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors..80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . W..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Lumin.

Lumin.197 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Tb4O7.CaS:Yb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 1. N2. 1200ºC.66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 87 (1972). Store in a well-closed container.1 (of Yb) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.88 eV). 1 hour. Powderize. Powderize. Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. 5. 1 hour.. 1. 3. Lehmann. 1100ºC. H2S. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1200ºC. W. N2.. Powderize.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Yb2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Mix by dry grinding. CaS:Yb2+. ++ (3. J.

Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 432 (1983). 5. 2. J. Lumin. F.40 eV) Decay: Non-exponential decay in the 20–50 sec range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Soc.56 eV in cathodoluminescence Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. Okamoto. 87 (1972).. and Kato. SrS:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.47 eV – or 2. 2.3 eV.20 eV. Electrochem..66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3. Preparation and cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce and Ca1-xSrxS-Ce phosphors.. Lehmann.. W. K. 130.Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red Emission peak: 1.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).

powderize. ++ (3. H2S. Lehmann.1 2 By weight (g) 148 0..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/ Very efficient Decay: Non-exponential decay in the 10 sec range followed by long phosphorescence Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 117. Make a uniform slurry in water or methanol. 1389 (1970). Reference 1.31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.33 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.SrS:Cu+. Electrochem.250 1.68 Preparation Dissolve the copper sulfate and the NaHCO3 together in a little water. add this solution to the SrCO3.. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Na in the above recipe cannot be replaced by other alkalies. 1200ºC. and gold. Fire in open alumina boats.88 eV). Soc. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Store in a well-closed container. 2. 1 hour. W. silver. This phosphor shows exceptionally long and strong phosphorescence after excitation by UV. Powderize. J.Na Structure Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 CuSO4·5 H2O NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. Dry.

3. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. Mix by dry grinding. 2. Br. Fire in open quartz boats.03 mol% of Pb.SrS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.00 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. or I. This phosphor can be sensitized for efficient 3. 1100ºC. 1100ºC.26 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . H2S. also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. The Cl in the above recipe may be replaced by F. Add the above amount of NH4Cl. N2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay: Decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. The characteristic orange body color of this phosphor is caused by the blue to green absorption band and by the orange-red emission excited by ambient light. Store in a well-closed container. 1 hour.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 148 0. + (3. 2.88 eV). 1 hour.40 eV excitation by addition of ~0. Powderize.176 1 Preparation First mix only the SrCO3 + Eu2O3. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2.

Powderize. O. + (3.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV excitation by addition of ~0. Fire in capped quartz tubes.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Technical University of Berlin (1959).245 eV.03 mol% of Pb.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/Fairly efficient Decay: Exponential decay requiring ~4 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Phosphor can be sensitized for efficient 3. Sorge. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. Mix by dry grinding. H2S. 1100ºC. 1000ºC. Thesis.115 0.1 1 By weight (g) 148 0. H2S. This also shifts the emission band peak to ~2. Store in a well-closed container. Reference 1. 2. Powderize. Powderize. N2. Fire in open quartz boats. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.SrS:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 1100ºC.88 eV). 1 hour.540 Preparation First mix only the SrCO3 + MnCO3. 1. 3. 1 hour.

K Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient BaSO4 Au-metal K2CO3 Mole % 100 0. Powderize.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Replacement of K by Na gives near-dead material.BaS:Au. Cs. Rb. 2. . 1 hour. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper. Fire in open alumina boats. stir to uniformity. 700ºC.. 1389 (1970). Powderize.88 eV). Reference 1. W. dry and powderize. Add both solutions. 1 hour.. Lehmann. 900ºC.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. + (3. 2. H2S. and gold. Electrochem. under any circumstances.1 1 (of K) By weight (g) 233 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1. H2. Fire in open alumina boats. Store in a well-closed container. Do not. or P gives slightly different emission spectra. F.197 0. This material is very hygroscopic. Make a slurry of the BaSO4 in water or methanol. J.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1.690 Preparation Dissolve the Au in a little (as little as possible) aqua regia and the K2CO3 in a little water. Replacement of K in the above recipe by Li. 117. Soc. let it come into contact with water. silver.

88 eV). N2. 3. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peaks: Two overlapping bands ~2. Powderize.7 0. 1 hour. 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4. N2. 800ºC. H2S. 1 hour.42 and 2. Add the above amount of NaHCO3 and also ~2–3 g of sulfur. Powderize. 1. 800ºC. + (3. Store in a well-closed container. 800ºC.5% .15 Double Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaGa2S4:Ce3+ CaGa2S4:Eu2+ CaGa2S4:Mn2+ CaGa2S4:Pb2+ ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ CaGa2S4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 CeO2 NaHCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 1 1 By weight (g) 98 187 1. Powderize. 1 hour. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.840 Preparation First mix only CaCO3 + Ga2O3 + CeO2.68 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in open quartz boats.4. Mix by dry grinding.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water. J. 800ºC. Store in a well-closed container. Reference 1. Powderize. 1 hour.. Soc. 800ºC. 119..22 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. T. H2S.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. and Baglio. Peters. dry.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors.. and powderize. + (3.A. Powderize. Electrochem. Fire in open quartz boats.E.88 eV). J.76 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. 2. CaGa2S4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 Eu2O3 Mole % 99 200 (of Ga) 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 99 187 1. Fire in open quartz boats. 1. N2 bubbling through CS2. 230 (1972). 1 hour.

T. 1 hour. Powderize. Electrochem.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . H2S. Soc... N2 loaded with CS2. 2 hours.C. Store in a well-closed container. CaGa2S4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 2 By weight (g) 98 187 2. P. Dry in air.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 900ºC. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors.A. 2. J. Powderize. J. 137 (1974). J. 230 (1972). 800ºC. 121. and Hanlon.88 eV). Donohue. Fire in open quartz boats. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. and Baglio.E. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. 1.. Electrochem..E.74 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Se)4. Soc. Peters. Fire in open quartz boats..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water. References 1.. 119. 2. + (3. Powderize when dry.

1 hour. 800ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3. Powderize. H2S. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish-yellow Emission peak: 2. Add the above amount of PbO and also ~2–3 g of sulfur.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water. 1 hour.2 Preparation First mix only CaCO3 + Ga2O3. Store in a well-closed container. 800ºC. CaGa2S4:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 PbO Mole % 99 200 (of Ga) 1 By weight (g) 99 187 2.88 eV). 3. ++ (3. 1.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2 bubbling through CS2. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Mix by dry grinding. 800ºC. N2. Fire in open quartz boats.

1000ºC. H2S. ++ (3. H2S. dry. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4% Decay: Exponential decay. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. 2. ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient ZnS Ga2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 2 By weight (g) 96 187 2. 1. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water. Fire in open quartz boats. 800ºC.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. N2 bubbling through CS2. 1 hour.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Powderize. 1100ºC. and powderize. 1 hour. about 18–20 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize.88 eV).

Electrochem. 800ºC. and powderize.935 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. H2S.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Powderize.. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. G.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Soc. Vecht. Meeting. P.. Fire in open quartz boats. dry. 700ºC. 1 hour. and Smith. H2.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. A. Bird. 92 (May 1974).. 1. Fire in open quartz boats. Abstr. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency be e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . San Francisco. ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient ZnS BaCO3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 2 By weight (g) 96 275 2. 2.J.F.

93 (May 1974). Electrochem. Vac. Electroluminescent displays. Soc. Abstr.. References 1. Vecht. et al. Technol. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . A. Vecht. Vecht. 789 (1973). 2.. San Francisco. 10.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been used for DC-EL by A.. A. Meeting. Sci. J.

C.16 Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: SrAl2S4:Eu2+ SrGa2S4:Pb2+ BaAl2S4:Eu2+ SrGa2S4:Ce2+ SrGa2S4:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Ce3+ BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Y2O2S:Eu3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ SrAl2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. P. J..31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S.. and Hanlon. 137 (1974). Soc.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Donohue. 3.E. 121. Electrochem.4. 98 (1975). Electrochem. Red and white emitting phosphors for flying spot scanner applications. Luminescence properties of thiogallate phosphors. Peters.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. 122.51 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1. BaAl2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2..61 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + ..Se)4.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1. T.. J. SrGa2S4:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2.E. Soc.

3. Red and white emitting phosphors for flying spot scanner applications. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors.. Electrochem. 230 (1972). SrGa2S4:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.Se)4.53 eV.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. and Baglio. J. Soc. T.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.C... Electrochem. 2.. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . 122. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. J. Donohue. Electrochem. Soc. Soc. Luminescence properties of thiogallate phosphors. and Hanlon. 137 (1974).Reference 1...E. J. 119. J. T. Peters. 98 (1975). Peters.E.A.73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. 2. 121. SrGa2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. P.E..

J. 119. 2. Electrochem. and Hanlon. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S... Donohue.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 121.. Electrochem. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. 2.Se)4.. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. P. T.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. J. Soc.. Electrochem. BaGa2S4:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. and Hanlon. 119. J.73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.A. 2.A. Electrochem. T... J.. Soc. J. J.C. Peters. 137 (1974).53 eV.E.. Donohue. 230 (1972).. J. 137 (1974).E. 121. Peters.C.Se)4.E. J. 230 (1972).. Soc.E. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. and Baglio. P. Soc. and Baglio. Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..

Se)4.. J. P.. Y2O2S:Eu3+ Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange to red (lines) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2.. T.88 eV).A. Soc. Peters. J. Electrochem.. 230 (1972). Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. 137 (1974). 121. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. J.E.52 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Soc. and Baglio. Electrochem..E. + (3. J.C. Donohue.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. and Hanlon. 119.BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.

U..References 1.. W.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Electrochem. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (3.88 eV). Pat.26–2. Energy loss and energy storage from the Eu3+ chargetransfer states in Y and La oxysulfides. Soc. J. 118 (1970). + (3.. Ozawa. 3 418 246 (1968). Y2O2S:Tb3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Soc. J. and Struck. L.40 eV) . C.S. 3.H. Preparation of Y2O2S:Eu phosphor particles of different sizes by a flux method.R. 117.. Royce. 2. Electrochem. 413 (1977).. 124.88 eV).W. M. Fonger.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2...

3 5.2 5.4 Phosphor Screens by Brushing Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition Filming of Phosphor Screens .1 5.Section 5: Preparation of Phosphor Screens 5.

* This section is from W. onto a piece of white paper and some of the phosphor to be coated onto the dry lacquer layer.1 Phosphor Screens by Brushing This method gives excellent. 5. move the phosphor over the lacquer with a soft hair brush. These methods have been tested and used in this laboratory. phosphor layers. Spray a layer of Krylon-Clear (out of a spray can) onto the substrate. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook.) on a horizontal surface. Heat up the hot plate to a temperature where the paper under the substrate just about turns brown. the lacquer up. Let dry in air. thin but dense. Keep nozzle of the spray can about 5–10 cm over the substrate and spray enough to have the liquid laquer uniformly flowing over the area. They are useful but certainly not the only ways of preparing phosphor screens. Try to keep the laquer as uniform in thickness as possible. . The method is quick and easy and has been extensively used in the laboratory. The lacquer becomes tacky when hot and coats quickly with a very dense yet thin phosphor layer. etc. Simultaneously. Place the substrate. Procedure Place the clean substrate (glass. Now place all onto an electric hot plate with a flat metal top.Section 5 PREPARATION OF PHOSPHOR SCREENS* The following are examples of how to deposit inorganic phosphor powders in thin and uniform layers onto flat surfaces (usually glass). It is especially good for small screens.

In some cases. Sr(C2H3O2)2 .S. for a few minutes. let cool down. the phosphor will still stick to the substrate but the layer is much softer and easier damaged by accidental touching. Vosburgh. the organic layer underneath of the phosphor layer cannot be tolerated. in 1 liter water Pour solution A into the beaker to 20–40% of the volume. add the weighed amount of phosphor..M. close the upper end of the cylinder with one hand and shake vigorously. About 5–10 mg/cm2 usually is sufficient for most phosphors and purposes. Prepare two stock solutions. Reference 1. 205 (1977). Cover the beaker and let stand for about 1–24 hours. a volume equal to that of A. Wipe excess loose phosphor particles off with a soft paper tissue.K. however. Zn2SiO4 phosphors give well-adhering screens after 1–2 hours. U. It can easily be burned out by heating in the open air. face up. 3% solids Solution B: 1 g Sr acetate. Weigh the amount of phosphor to give the desired layer of thickness. over the area of the beaker opening.. . and Houston.G. Decant the excess liquid. 400ºC. Place it in a sufficiently large beaker. 2 798 821 (1954). It is widely in use to prepare phosphor screens for cathode-ray tubes.* The phosphor settles down during this time and the phosphor layer reacts with the silicate of the solution.. Then pour the suspension quickly to the solution A in the beaker. Screen the phosphor through a fine sieve immediately before use (this is an important point). W. Phys. The screen is now ready for most applications. Reference 1. Procedure Clean the glass to be coated. R. The phosphor adheres very tightly to the substrate and is not easily damaged. Pat. Cautiously (as not to damage the still soft phosphor layer) rinse the screen several times in water.. Lacquer becomes solid.Take the screen off the hot plate. Electr. Lehmann. Afterwards..2 Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution This method gives somewhat less dense (macroscopically) layer than brushing but permits tight thickness control and is easily used for large screens. 43. will bind the phosphor to the substrate. K. Solution A: K-silicate solution in water. Swank. or of Sr silicate from the reaction between parts A and B. into a glass cylinder. * Best reaction times depend on the material. Small amounts of this reaction product. Adv. ZnS-type phosphors react slower and have to stand overnight or longer. grams per square centimeter. Electron.. Dry in air. Pour solution B. J. 5.

Rutherford.F. Distance anode–cathode a few centimeters.. 117. J. Electrochem.. Then take the screen cautiously out of the solution (the phosphor adheres to the substrate even in the absence of any additional binder).. D. Pour this solution into a beaker and add a few grams of the phosphor. Soc. 1456 (1970). Current should be about 5–10 mg/cm2.. P. R. The Al film provides an optically reflecting rear layer (thus enhancing the output brightness of the tube) and protects the phosphor against damage by ion bombardment from unavoidable gas residues in the tube. . and Sargent.) into the upper part of the beaker. let the excess phosphor settle.5. Rinse again in water and then in methanol. A very uniform and compact phosphor layer will stick to the substrate within about 10–30 sec. Turn off voltage and stirrer. Dry. Keep the solution in suspension by stirring (magnetic stirrer). Wash briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter water to dissolve the Au film which is no longer needed. Grosso. Rinse briefly in water.E.E. Provide a solution of 200 mg MG(NO3)2·H2O in 1 liter methanol. Longer times give thicker but less uniform layers. optically transparent gold layer by evaporation in a vacuum. Insert the Au-coated substrate and an inert anode (Pt.4 Filming of Phosphor Screens Phosphor layers in commercial CR tubes are backed by a thin metallic Al film which the exciting electrons penetrate to reach the phosphor particles. Electrophoretic deposition of luminescent materials. Reference 1. etc. Procedure Coat the glass surface to be coated with a very thin.3 Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition This method is used to prepare dense layers of fine-particled phosphors for high-resolution cathode ray screens. carbon. 5. Apply about 100–150 V DC (subtrate = negative).

Let dry in air. Carefully lift screen out. 65 ccm propyl acetate. The cellulose now forms a very thin solid film touching only the tops of the phosphor particles. Deposit the Al film by evaporation in vacuum. face up.Procedure Place the phosphor screen. The solution will quickly spread over the whole water surface. 30 ccm isopropyl alcohol. into a beaker on a metal carrier to permit easy lifting out again. leaving behind a solid. With an eye dropper. 2 ccm octyl acetate. Heat the screen in open air to about 300–400ºC for a few minutes. Add water to cover the screen. . drop 1–5 drops (depending on the surface area) of the above filming solution onto the water in the beaker. The cellulose film will burn out leaving behind a shiny Al film. very thin film of ethyl cellulose floating on the water. The solvent evaporates within about 20–30 sec. It prevents the Al during the subsequent vacuum deposition to penetrate in between the particles. Provide a solution of: 50 ccm ethyl cellulose in amyl acetate (commercial cellulose binder).

Part 2: Additional Developments .

1 6.3 Alternative Preparation Methods Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques .2 6.Section 6: Phosphor Synthesis 6.

To further facilitate the reaction and to improve the crystallinity of the luminescent materials. The use of an interaction medium often results in lower reaction temperatures and allows for the optimization of the grain size of the luminophores being synthesized. Na2SiO3. As an example. . come into contact with each other on an atomic or ionic level. Such reactants include the carbonates and the hydroxides which decompose with the emission of CO2 or H2O upon heating the mixture. The amounts used are typically small. the starting materials are dissolved in a solvent. flux agents or molten salts are often added to provide a more interactive medium for the reaction.1 Alternative Preparation Methods* The traditional way of preparing phosphors has been by the mix and fire techniques detailed in the earlier sections. and then co-precipitate forming an intimately commingled starting mixture. Commonly used fluxes include NH4Cl. on the order of few mole percent. Y(NO3)3 and Tb(NO3)3 dissolved in water can be precipitated by the addition of a 2-to-1 solution of oxalic acid dissolved in hot water. Na2B4O7. In this method. the mixture is then heated or fired under an appropriate atmosphere.Section 6 PHOSPHOR SYNTHESIS 6. In these processes. This method is used in cases in which an insoluble salt can be identified for each of the reaction constituents. A wet co-precipitation method is also being used. Other routes for co-precipitation can involve sulfates or hydroxides. the oxides can also be dissolved directly in hot diluted nitric acid to obtain a treatable precipitate. To ensure the proper reactivity between the constituents of the phosphor. Alternatively. and Na4P2O7. Reactivity can also be improved by choosing starting materials which are unstable in controlled circumstances. The steam heating results in a very fast evaporation of the solvent or water. volatile and non-volatile. As the name denotes. the reactants are mixed thoroughly either in dryness or in suspension. as the interactive specific surface of the remaining elements increases in these processes. Examples of salts used for this purpose are Na2MoO4. This results in a more reactive mixture. The oxalates obtained in the precipitate can be converted to oxides by heating at a relatively low temperature of 800ºC. Molten salts are used as non-volatile fluxes and generally do not react with the starting materials. and boric acid. Droplets of this solution are then injected into a gas stream and are heated as they are transported downstream. an intimate reaction mixture is formed and deposited downstream from the flow. they generally do not leave the reaction mixture and must be removed by washing with water or other appropriate solvents. In this method. The volatile flux often reacts with the starting material and leaves the reaction mixture spontaneously. preferably water. the reactants are generally granular with radii in the micrometer range. There are two types of fluxes which are used. A suitable flux increases the reactivity of the constituents by dissolving at least one of the reactants and provides a medium to incubate the crystallization of the phosphor. the reactants are first dissolved in a solvent. As a result. NH4Br. through either decomposition or evaporation. Large amounts of the salts are used (up to 30% by weight of the phosphor material). these fluxes are always in the form of a melt. AlF3. The method of spray drying can also be used to synthesize luminescent materials.

The reaction of aluminum nitrate. aluminum nitrate. Equation 1 is an example of a stoichiometric combustion reaction of yttrium nitrate. Rohwer.The various methods described above pose the advantage of assuring a better and more homogeneous admixture of the reactants to be used in the synthesis and of generally requiring a lower temperature to achieve this synthesis.g. so that no residues remain in the product material. N2. grinding and milling) steps. carbohydrazide. metal nitrates. exothermic. For oxide phosphors. combustion synthesis has been investigated as a method to produce homogeneous. that is the ratio of the oxidizing to reducing components of the metal nitrate-fuel precursor mixture and is defined as: e (coefficie nt of oxidizing elements in specific formula) valency ( 1) (coefficie nt of reducing elements in specific formula) valency (2) *This section was kindly provided by L.. ammonium nitrate.g.. or glycine). are released and no residuals are left in the synthesized YAG material. Al2O3. as an alternative to time-consuming solid-state reaction and sol–gel processing techniques. 3YN3O9 + 5AlN3O9 + 15CH6N4O YAG(s) + 42N2(g) + 15CO2(g) + 45H2O(g) (1) When complete combustion occurs. and H2O. is an example of a highly exothermic reaction. Y3Al5O12 (YAG). and carbohydrazide. CH6N4O. crystalline. 6. Al(NO3)3. e. several research groups began to investigate the use of combustion synthesis for oxide phosphor preparation4–6 and found it to be a technique of interest for phosphor synthesis in general. For combustion to occur. to form aluminum oxide. * The above section was kindly provided by Cees Ronda. Later in the mid-1990’s. fine oxide powders. the only gaseous products. is known as a stoichiometric ratio or composition. . having a negative enthalpy of reaction ( Hrxn = –3800 kJ/mol). urea. self-sustaining reactions resulting from the appropriate combination of oxidizers (e.S. Grinding has often been implicated in the degradation of luminescent emission intensity through the creation of surface defects that quench the luminescence. and carbohydrazide to form yttrium aluminum garnet. fine particle size powders rapidly without extensive high temperature (>1500oC) annealing and mechanical separation (e.1–3 The method produces rapid. CO2.2 Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors* Beginning in the late 1980’s. the advantages of combustion synthesis are in its ability to produce well-crystallized. or ammonium perchlorate) and an organic fuel (e.. The stoichiometry of metal nitrate-fuel mixtures is expressed in terms of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient.g. A composition of metal nitrates and fuel in which the fuel reacts completely with all of the metal nitrates in the mixture. it is necessary that a large amount of heat be released during the formation of the products.

For Y3Al5O12 synthesized using carbohydrazide fuel. Tf. the target phase(s) can be achieved with significantly reduced external energy input. The photoluminescence emission spectra of YAG:Cr phosphors produced with carbohydrazide.The coefficients of the oxidizing and reducing elements are obtained from the balanced chemical equation for the combustion reaction of metal nitrates and a fuel. In these calculations. The maximum . or by adjusting the fuel to oxidizer molar ratio so e = 1. metal nitrates. The fuel alters the energetics and exothermicity of the reaction. The flame temperature can also be increased by adding excess oxidizer such as ammonium nitrate. and Cp is the heat capacity of products at constant pressure. the metal nitrate to carbohydrazide molar ratio is given by: 5 3 {[1 Al (-3)] [3 N 0] [9 O 2]} [1 Y (-3)] [3 N 0] [9 O 2]} 15 8 8 1. as noted below. The type of fuel and the fuel to oxidizer ratio affect the adiabatic flame temperature. in Equation 1. it is fuel lean when e > 1. For example. and fuel boils.875 is needed to obtain complete combustion of all components. and metal cations are considered to be reducing elements and have a negative valence. Combustion reactions using glycine fuel yield amorphous powders or ash which must be annealed to produce crystalline luminescent powders. and ruptures into a flame after about 3–5 minutes. Hess’ law can be used to approximate the adiabatic flame temperature for a combustion reaction: Tf To Hr Cp Hp (4) where Hr and Hp are the enthalpies of formation of the reactants and products. the metal nitrate to carbohydrazide molar ratio = 1. decomposes. Powders obtained from combustion reactions with urea or carbohydrazide fuels are luminescent in the as-synthesized state. and fuel rich when e < 1. and provides a method to increase or decrease the adiabatic flame temperature. The resultant product appears as a porous foam. In a typical reaction. urea. Y(NO3)3 and Al(NO3)3 are oxidizers and the reducing agent is CH6N4O. The oxidizer/fuel molar ratio required for a stoichiometric mixture ( e = 1) is determined by summing the total oxidizing and reducing valencies in the oxidizer compounds and dividing by the sum of the total oxidizing and reducing valencies in the fuel compounds.875 8 (-1) {[1 C (-4)] [6 H (-1)] [4 N 0] [1 O 2]} (3) = 1 and Thus. these temperatures are clearly much lower than the temperature at which crystallization of the desired phase takes place during conventional processing. The mixture is stoichiometric when e = 1. Stoichiometric mixtures are reported to produce maximum energy. The chemical energy released during the exothermic reaction between the metal nitrates and fuel can rapidly heat the system to a high temperature (>1800oC) and sustain that high temperature in the absence of an external heat source. e Combustion reactions are initiated in a muffle furnace or on a hot plate at temperatures of 500oC or less. the precursor mixture of de-ionized water. and glycine fuels followed by a heat treatment in air at 1300oC for 1 hour show the effect of flame temperature on the luminescent properties. oxygen is considered to be the only oxidizing element and has a positive valence while carbon. Thus. dehydrates. hydrogen. respectively. Nitrogen is considered to be neutral.

and in order to maintain efficiency the size of phosphor grains has to be reduced to reflect this fact. and glycine were 1825. 3. 79. 323-324. Preparation. Mater. S.. 10. and Patil. References 1.. Sci.A. 5. Lett. This is an indication that certain properties of the resulting powders. The integrated photoluminescence intensity is a maximum for reactions at or near stoichiometry. Mater. Chick.. urea... 3257 (1996).. The quality of the displays depends on the nature of the powders used. Shea. 6.. Lopez. the ingredients of the precipitate are in contact with each other at a molecular level and an efficient chemical reaction normally occurs. 4.E. et al.. 1780. Suresh. respectively. Mater. 6. Combustion synthesis of yttria. in the wet method. lower energy electrons do not penetrate into phosphor grains very deeply.C. This is especially true in low-voltage applications such as in the field emission displays of current interest. and Patil. . wet methods of preparation are often used. Soc. Jia.. al. *This section was kindly provided by W... A novel combustion process for the synthesis of fine particle alpha-alumina and related oxide materials. K. The flame temperature is also controlled by the fuel to oxidizer ratio of the particular fuel used. K. Am.C. aqueous solutions of specific constituent metallic salts are employed. 2.flame temperatures during reactions with carbohydrazide. and Sluzky. Lower temperature and shorter sintering periods give rise to smaller grain size particles. Zych. In these devices. fine and uniform powders with good crystallinity are generally preferred.J. Glycine nitrate combustion synthesis of oxide ceramic powders. 6.. Kingsley. are affected by the flame temperature of the reaction. 8 (2001). J. J.3. J. The grain size of phosphors prepared via solid-state chemical reactions depends on the temperature and the length of the sintering process. Synthesis of red-emitting.J. J. The addition of a NH4(OH) or oxalic acid causes the metallic hydroxides or oxalates to precipitate from the mixture. 6 (1990). but both the crystallinity and grain uniformity are poor if the treatment parameters are such as not to allow the chemical reaction to be completed.1 Introduction Phosphors used for most emissive display devices are in the form of powders.C. 25.. J. Kingsley. K. and 1210oC. in these cases.3 Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques* 6. x-ray analysis and spectroscopic investigation of nanostructured Lu2O3:Tb. 905 (1995). 5. Ceram.. E. E.. Combustion synthesis of fine-particle metal aluminates.. To resolve this problem. J. Mater. Lett. and Patil. 1305 (1990).. L. small particle size luminescent oxides used an optimized combustion process. L. O. 427 (1988). et. Ekambaram. Alloys Cmpds. McKittrick.. Chem. The photoluminescence intensity increases for powders obtained from reactions that reached higher flame temperatures.A.. such as crystallite size or and degree of disorder of the local environment at the activator ions. J. K.

for example. The sol–gel technique presents the following advantages: (a) High homogeneity of the chemical composition of the materials produced occurs. Willi Lehmann reported in 1975 that very efficient luminescence was observed in. and higher doping concentration becomes possible. (f) The sol–gel procedures produce little unintentional contamination.14-17 There are two ways to prepare such nanophosphor composites: (a) Alkoxide solutions of the phosphor are prepared from the appropriate precursors and then blended into the sol of SiO2 (or other matrixes). This "contamination" does not enter into the lattice and will not affect the intrinsic optical properties of the phosphor. In cases where phosphor powders are prepared by the sol–gel method. Nano-scale uniform pores can be obtained at intermediate processing temperature while high-density materials can be produced with higher annealing temperature. The drying and annealing processes have to be slow and deliberate. (d) The microstructure (porosity and size of pores) of the materials can be controlled. For example. the gels can be baked. These metalorganic alkoxides either are in liquid form or are soluble in certain organic solvents. (e) Thin films and multi-layers coatings of sol–gel materials can be readily prepared by spinning or dipping methods during the gelation period. The sol–gel method has been widely used to prepare a number of phosphors10-12 for displays and other materials that are of technical importance. Different . or I). No milling and grinding are needed. the processes hydrolysis and gelation can be induced to produce homogeneous gels from the mixture of alkoxides. known as alkoxides of metals. To obtain powder or ceramic samples. To get rid of these organic groups. (b) High uniformity of doping ions distribution exists. are no longer needed. 2. This allows the doping of fragile organic and biological molecules into porous inorganic materials and the fabrication of organic– inorganic hybrid materials. H3BO3.13 These materials are similar to those found in the nanoclusters in SiO2 which have been developed recently via the sol–gel method described in the first section. The sol–gel method is advantageous inasmuch as thin films or coatings of the phosphor can be formed on substrates directly and/or the sol–gel can be molded into designated forms. such as SiO2:CaX2-Eu2+/Mn2+ (where X = Cl. Fluxes. prepared by a solid-state reaction. what he called. Molecule-level-homogeneous multi-component materials can be obtained. samples have to be annealed above 1000°C and this may produce undesirable side effects. contributions to the optical spectra of these materials from inhomogeneous sources are generally expected to be smaller than those encountered in unordered systems. (b) Nanophases can be obtained by phase aggregation from doped SiO2 or other matrices during thermal treatments. heterogeneous materials. the geletion process then proceeds as before. It is difficult to completely remove the residual hydroxyls from the sol–gel materials. and powderized as in other traditional methods. powderizing may be used and trace of foreign particles can be mix in. such as B2O3. Because of the better homogeneity. otherwise cracks and striations will appear in the samples. sintered. processes are known to contaminate samples. A kind of metalorganic compounds.The sol–gel method of phosphor preparation is regarded as a wet method. No "local" concentration quenching will occur because of impurity clustering. Through the use of the appropriate reagents. Br. is used as precursors. (c) Processing temperature can be very low. and NH4Cl. The technique has the following disadvantages: 1. which are commonly used in ceramic technology and contaminate the end products.

TMOS (tetramethoxysilane. Doping or activator ions are introduced through either using another alkoxide solution or an aqueous solution of the doping ions. This acidic solution is added slowly (dropwise) into the precursor alkoxide mixture. on the other hand.2 Sol–gel techniques The sol–gel method is a chemical technique that uses metal alkoxides for the synthesis and production of glasses or ceramics through a series of chemical processes. Since then the method has received considerable attention and has been investigated extensively. while M. the particles consist of dense oxide or polymetric clusters formed by the precursors and reagents. such as optical glasses and solidstate laser materials. Some alkoxide solutions are commercially available (see Table 1).nanophosphor embedded glasses have been fabricated with this method. into liquid form. in which a hydrogen atom belonging to the hydroxyl (OH) group on an alcohol is replaced by a metal atom. and hydrochloric acid (HCl) is prepared so that it has a pH in the range of 2–5. Si(OCH3)4. is a composite substance consisting of a continuous solid skeletal structure which results from the gelation of the sol. when it was "rediscovered" and found to be very useful in synthesizing various materials of practical importance. an alkoxide is a metalorganic compound.4 A mixture of water. Graham1 prepared gels of silica from aqueous salts. They react readily but are not soluble in water. a mixture of water to alcohol to HCl with pH ~2–5 is added. Hydrolysis 3. similar procedures are applicable to other oxide compounds. A typical reaction goes as: (OR)3-Si-OR + H2O (OR)3-Si-OH + ROH . HCl acts as a catalyst in this process. and thermal treatment. The sol–gel technique was developed as early as 1864. silicate-related materials in this case. Ebelmen2 obtained silica gels from metal alkoxides.3 In general. For these matrices.19 6.18. gelation. drying. a solvent such as MeOH (methanol) or EtOH (ethanol) is normally used to produce the precursor solution. we use silicon alkoxides as an illustrative example for the preparation of sol–gel materials. To stimulate hydrolysis. and a solid glass or ceramic is produced in this way. alcohol. As an example. on the order of several hours. These liquid mixtures of the metal alkoxides are stirred for an extended period. liquid) or TEOS (tetraethoxysilane. in hydrolysis. a proper solvent is needed to convert solid alkoxides. These materials are transparent and can be used for displays and laser devices. a hydroxyl (OH) group attaches itself to the metal atom by replacing the alkoxide group (OR) in the TMOS or TEOS. liquid) are commonly used. This solute can be driven from the gel through thermal treatment. A gel. Si(OC2H5)4. Since the sol–gel method is a wet chemical method. T.3. The potential of the sol–gel process was not appreciated until 1980. a sol is defined as a colloid of solid particles suspended in a liquid. if used. 2. the procedure for the preparation of doped SiO2 sol–gel glasses is described. The reaction of alkoxides with water is called hydrolysis. Because the chemical–physical processes involved are similar for all metal alkoxides. the gel forms cells which encapsulate colloidal liquids. Preparation of precursor solutions The initial raw materials for sol–gel preparations consist of metal alkoxides either in solid or in liquid form (Table 1). including hydrolysis. 1.

Commonly used metal alkoxides and recommended solvents for solids Name aluminum isopropoxide aluminum n-butoxide aluminum sec-butoxide barium ethoxide barium isopropoxide bismuth isopropoxide calcium ethoxide calcium methoxide cerium isopropoxide copper ethoxide dysprosium isopropoxide erbium isopropoxide gadolinium isopropoxide gallium isopropoxide germanium methoxide germanium ethoxide germanium isopropoxide lanthanum isopropoxide lead isopropoxide magnesium methoxide magnesium ethoxide manganese isopropoxide praseodymium isopropoxide tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) strontium isopropoxide titanium(iv) ethoxide titanium(iv) methoxide titanium(iv) isopropoxide tungsten(vi) ethoxide tungsten(vi) isopropoxide yttrium isopropoxide zinc isopropoxide zirconium n-propoxide zirconium n-butoxide Chemical Formula Al(OC3H7i)3 Al(OC4H9n)3 Al(OC4H9s)3 Ba(OC2H5)2 Ba(OC3H7i)3 Bi(OC3H7i)3 Ca(OC2H5)2 Ca(OCH3)2 Ce(OC3H7i)3 Cu(OC2H5)2 Dy(OC3H7i)3 Er(OC3H7i)3 Gd(OC3H7i)3 Ga(OC3H7i)3 Ge(OCH3)4 Ge(OC2H5)4 Ge(OC3H7i)4 La(OC3H7i)3 Pb(OC3H7i)2 Mg(OCH3)2 Mg(OC2H5)2 Mn(OC3H7i)2 Pr(OC3H7i)3 Si(OC2H5)4 Si(OCH3)4 Sr(OC3H7i)2 Ti(OC2H5)4 Ti(OCH3)4 Ti(OC3H7i)4 W(OC2H5)6 W(OC3H7i)6 Y(OC3H7i)3 Zn(OC3H7i)2 Zr(OC3H7n)4 Zr(OC4H9n)4 Solvents isopropanol n-butanol liquid ethanol isopropanol isopropanol ethanol methanol isopropanol ethanol toluene-isopropanol toluene-isopropanol toluene-isopropanol liquid liquid liquid liquid isopropanol isopropanol methanol ethanol isopropanol toluene-isopropanol liquid liquid isopropanol liquid methanol liquid ethanol isopropanol isopropanol isopropanol n-propanol n-butanol . If the sol– gels are to be doped. CnH2n+1. an aqueous solution containing the doping ion/ions is also blended in during the hydrolysis step. Table 1. Hydrolysis can occur with any one of the (OR) groups of the molecule.Here R stands for the alkyl (alkylic radical). R=CH3 for TMOS. and R=C2H5 for TEOS.

and solvent. so that the networks are compressed more at the surfaces than in the bulk. water. during gelation. Pressure gradients develop through the volume of the gels. Silica gels prepared under more normal condition (pH 5–7) and/or higher water contents produce highly branched clusters which behave as discrete species. At still higher pH and excess water content. dissolution. gelation occurs. this may cause cracking of the sample. Several factors affect the rate of sol and gel formation including the temperature. With continuing gelation. Because water and alkoxysilanes are immiscible. the viscosity and the elastic modulus of the solution increase rapidly. Syneresis or spontaneous shrinkage of the network of the gel takes place as bond formation or attraction between clusters induces a contraction of the network and expulsion of liquid from the pores. these clusters begin to grow by combining with monomers or other clusters while releasing or condensing water or alcohols. Drying by evaporation under normal conditions gives rise to pressure within the pores that causes shrinkage of the gel network. and re-precipitation of monomers or oligomers. larger structures are produced by polymerization. Gelation 3. In most cases. colloidal silica is formed. . a common solvent such as alcohol is also normally used as a homogenizing agent.3. Additional cross-links form during gelation and the polymer chains become increasingly entangled. though both the sol and gel formation rates are known to increase with increasing temperature.4 With the proper thermodynamic conditions. sol–gel synthesis is carried out at room temperature. Different metal alkoxides can also coalesce to form "compound" clusters. ROH. Through the gelation process. Small clusters suspended in the liquid constitute the sol. That is through further condensation. these clusters link together during gelation. Links between clusters keep on multiplying until a giant cluster forms that spans the vessel. and the pH of the total admixture. the relative concentration of the alkoxide precursors. chains of polymers can cross-link to form three-dimensional clusters. Aging and drying Aging leads to changes in the structure and other properties of the gel. silica gels prepared at low pH (<3) and low water content (less than 4 mol% water per mole of alkoxide) produce primarily linear polymers with low cross-link density. The solid network retards the escape of the liquid and prevents structural collapse. In our example. 4. The final spanning cluster forms a skeletal framework which encloses cells containing the liquid phase (water or alcohol) and defines the gel phase. is released when an alcohol solution is employed: (OR)3-Si-OR + HO-Si-(OR)3 (OR)3-Si-O-Si-(OR)3 + ROH ROH is an alcohol: ROH=C2H5OH for TEOS and CH3OH for TMOS. If the gradients are too large. Gelation is a continuous process in which two partially hydrolyzed molecules begin to connect and intertwine with each other with the release (condensation) of water when in a water solution: (OR)3-Si-OH + HO-Si-(OR)3 (OR)3-Si-O-Si-(OR)3 + H2O Alcohol.

6. G. Soc. 2288. SPIE Sol–gel Optics III. Isotope effects in the multiphonon relaxation of hydrated and deuterated cesium chloro-manganate (CsMnCl3..7 References 1. Annealing and porosity control Additional treatment of the sol–gel is required to produce pore-free ceramic materials. and vapor sensors.. R.D. The condensation (water or alcohol) and pyrolysis reactions that occur during heating liberate a large volume of gas that can generate high pressures. 100 mol of H2O. SPIE Sol–Gel Optics III. D.. 476 (1992).. then wet gels.. C. and drying. Ceram.M. Sol-gel science: The Physics and Chemistry of SolGel Processing. Al(OC4H9)3 (see Table 1) can be used. 518 (1994). sintering at high temperatures results in densification driven by interfacial energy considerations. the exothermic process is suppressed if the gels are heated under inert conditions. J. By heating. Vidal. as described above. Rev. M. Academic Press.. Chem..07 mol of HCl. Prog.. Because of low permeability of the small pores in the network. 286 (1975). Ann.. filters.T. further evaporation drives the meniscus of the liquids into the bulk and the rate of evaporation decreases. Xerogels are useful in the preparation of dense ceramics and are also interesting because of their high porosity and large surface area.. T. Sol-gel synthesis of cadmium tin oxide powder. For the silicate system of our example. At 800°C. B. Yoldas.W. 3943.. Soc.7 Monolithic transparent -alumina results when an annealing temperature of 500ºC is used. B. and Lakshmanan. M. where oxidation is prevented. Jayachandran. J. Techniques for other materials Techniques to prepare other oxide and nitride compounds are similar to those used for SiO2.J. The temperature interval 400–525°C represents a region where considerable skeletal densification occurs with little associated weight loss. 2. A. 7. Phys.. 139 (2000). 18. Structural relaxation. 41 (1983). Bull..6 As an example. The resulting dried gel is called a xerogel. these materials are useful as phosphors.S. and 0. this may cause cracking when the samples are heated between room temperature and 400°C. MacCraith. 183 (1988). 2288. and Oton. 27. a process by which free excess volume is removed by diffusive motion of the network. catalytic substrates.J. Henry. and then dried gels can be obtained through the procedures of hydrolysis. 745 (1994). and Yen. 3.. the gel constituents move by viscous flow or diffusion in such a way as to reduce the solid–vapor interfacial areas and hence reduce porosity. Jia. Serrano..P. et al. B. 318 (1864). M. Sol-gel coating for optical chemical sensors and biosensors..E. the gel is completely densified leaving only a trace of silanols (Si-OH). Livage. Brinker.. Ebelmen.L.2H2O. A. there is partial densification of the sol–gel. New transparent polycrystalline silicate scintillators. Phys. W. Am. Levy. Brundage. M. E.. Chim. J. . W. Bescher. Removal of organics takes place by endothermic carbonization near 200°C. 4. Graham.. Solid State Chem. the alumina becomes phase when annealed at 1200°C. 16. C.6 5. 8. SPIE Sol-Gel Optics V.. J. 54. 17. and Sanchez.. and Scherer. 1758.. C. Gel glass-dispersed liquidcrystal optical shutters.. Alumina sols.. Serna. San Diego (1990). 10. 5. to make Al2O3. 129 (1864).M. 6.After shrinkage stops.2D2O). Chockalingam. et al. by 900°C. Hydrolysis can be conducted at 80°C with 1 mol of aluminum sec-butoxide.5. gellation. SPIE Sol-Gel Optics II. is the predominant shrinkage mechanism in this temperature interval. 9. followed by exothermic oxidation at temperatures between 300 and 400°C.

Lochhead. Jia. and Jiao.. Photoluminescence of Eu3+:Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 Glass. 2288. Jia. J. 13. SPIE Sol–gel Optics II. Liu. Teowee.A.J. G. Costa. W. Bommersbach.. Lehmann.. K. S. Levy.Y3+ codoped SiO2 sol-gel glasses.. and Bray.. Lochhead. 14. et al. R. Chem. W. 271 (1998). M.M. Chem. Rodrigo. and Otón. 8. Prospects of sol–gel technology towards luminescent materials. and Uhlmann. 11 (2000). Pope. 122. 536 (1994). 18.. E. Mater. 7. . R. 529 (1994).. Alloys Compds. 519. Rare-earth clustering and aluminum codoping in solgel silica: Investigation using europium(III) fluorescence spectroscopy. Soc. 1758. W.. Reisfeld.P.11. Feofilov.J. Second-harmonic generation from sol–gel derived ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films. Spectroscopic study of Eu3+doped and Eu3+.. Gel-glass dispersed liquid crystal projection display. 311. X..R.. V. 748 (1975). Symp.C. Res. Optically active sol-gel microspheres for flat-panel color displays. Boulton. and Bray..M.. 572 (1995).. SPIE Sol–gel Optics III. Soc. Quintana. 783 (1996). 16. Proc.... J. J. Mater. H. J.T. Meltzer.L. 292 (1992). J. W. D... Electrochem. 2288. C.. M. Fluorescence line-narrowing study of Eu3+-doped Sol-gel Silica: Effect of modifying cations on the clustering of Eu3+. Mater. 12..L.. 15. Mater. K. SPIE Sol–gel Optica III... 16..J.M. 19.. 1 (2001). D. 17. Opt.

7 Oxides Silicates Phosphates. and Borates Aluminates Halides and Oxyhalides CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides Other Compounds .1 7. Halophosphates.5 7.3 7.6 7.4 7.Section 7: Other Phosphor Data 7.2 7.

Willi Lehmann (posthumously). 7. Takashi Hase. Lauren E. Masaaki Tamatani.Al3+ SrY2O4:Eu3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+. Shinji Okamoto. Shea-Rowhler. and Hajime Yamamoto. Luis Carlos. Madis Raukas. Weiyi Jia.Al3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+ Y(P. Cees Ronda.Tb3+ Y2O2S:Eu (Y.Section 7 OTHER PHOSPHOR DATA Information about the following additional phosphors and their properties has been kindly provided (in Lehmann’s format) by Edith Bourret-Courchesne.Gd)2O3:Eu3+ YTaO4 YTaO4:Nb5+ YVO4:Dy3+ ZnGa2O4 ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ ZnO:Bi3+ ZnO:Zn ZnO:Ga. Shozo Oshio. Yoh Mita. Ultrafast Zn2SiO4:Mn .V)O4:Eu Y2O3:Ce Y2O3:Eu (YOE) Y2O3:Eu3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ce3+. Dongdong Jia. Yoshitaka Sato. Ultrafast ZnO-CdO:Ga.1 Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Bi4Ge3O12 CaTiO3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ GdNbO4:Bi3+ K2La2Ti3O10:Eu LuTaO4:Nb5+ SrIn2O4:Pr3+.

The other growth technique of the horizontal Bridgman–Stockbarger method is now popular to prevent growths forming a core.C. 2. The growth atmosphere has to be oxygen. Heidelberg. The crystals will only be really colorless when the raw materials Bi2O3 and GeO2 have a high purity. R. M. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto.Bi4Ge3O12 Structure: Cubic Preparation Grow the crystals of Bi4Ge3O12 from stoichiometric melts. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . p. Springer-Verlag. References 1. 2. and Grabmaier.40 eV). Phosphors for X-ray detectors in computed tomography.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 0. The melting point of the single crystal is 1044°C. otherwise the Pt crucible will be attacked. B. Phys. J. 3. atmospheric environment... J. W. ++ (4. 29 (1991)..3 × 10-6 s Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 44. and Monchamp..J. Blasse. B. Use a platinum crucible. Luminescence of Bi4Ge3O12: Spectral and decay properties.. 5495 (1973). and radio frequency induction heating..48. Appl.C. (1994). Optical Properties Emission peak: 485 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 3. Rossner. using Czochralski method. 4.. and Grabmaier. Lumin. Weber. G. R.. Luminescent Materials. 179.

40 eV). 2.352 0. – (4. Rivera. air. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Grind and press into pellets again. 1 hour. Powderize.01 7. 2. This compound is known as calcium titanate. 3 hours. I. 1000 C.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Fire in air. Fire in open quartz boats.209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Press into pellets.. 1. University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez (2001). . 1300 C.CaTiO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 1 3 By weight (g) 10. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.98 0. Master Degree Thesis. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.

.5 3 By weight (g) 10. et al. This compound is also known as calcium titanate.CaTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Orthorhombic. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Pr(NO3)3.209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.98 0. 1300 C. Press into pellets.. I. Nashville. 1000 C. 1. Rivera. W. air. P1 1 3 x50 1 x10 50 P0 3 3 P0 2 3 Remarks 1. I. Jia.01 7.. Fire in open quartz boats.H4 3 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 1 I6. Xu. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Effects of compositional phase transitions on luminescence of Sr1-xCaxTiO3:Pr3+. Solid State Commun.. Rivera.. + (4. 126.6H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 100 0. Proceedings of the Second National Student Conference of NASA URCSC 2000. et al. Fire in air. W.H5 3 600 D2. .40 eV). 2. 3 hours. 2. Grind and press into pellets again. 1 hour. Powderize.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 D2. 180 (2000). 2.313 0. 153 (2003). Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.

71 (1984).. Fire in air.. and Ostertag. 4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 0. 2 hours. The afterglow mechanism of chromiumdoped gadolinium gallium garnet. 1...5 By weight (g) 100 86. IEEE Trans. Bodinger...40 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1....Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Ga2O3 Cr2O3 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ Mole % 37. 31/32. Greskovich. G.. 69 (1997). Leppert. B. J. Dry in air.. Petermann. Nucl. H. such as water or methanol.C. C. Blasse. M. Ceramic scintillators. J. Reflectivity (%) 100 Emission . J. and Huber. Sci. 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 730 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 17 (1993).2 0. Lumin.6 Preparation Combine the proper amounts of the oxides with some nitric acid to form a precipitate. and Duclos.. S. B.17 × 10-3 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. Stir well and add the NH4OH solution. and Grabmaier. W. Rev. 2. Ball-mill the powder with a grinding media and a liquid vehicle. 27. Grabmaier. Mater. 900°C for an hour or more.5 62..5 0. 376 (1993).. Rossner. Annu. Fire in flowing O2. K. Co-doping with a small amount of Ce reduces the afterglow.C. Alloys Ingredients. 200. + (4. 1500–1550°C. The conversion of high energy radiation to visible light by luminescent ceramics. Broad band fluorescence of transition metal doped garnets and tungstates. G. Wash with water to remove the NH4Cl by-product and excess NH4OH. Sci. 2. 40.

3 hours.W..03.51 By weight (g) 15.98 1. Pat. suitable for 2537 Å Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Good Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.350 Preparation Mix by slurrying in acetone or by dry blende.A. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 2. Fire in covered crucible. Grisafe. 1. This phosphor has a general formula of Gd1-xBixNbO4 and per above ingredients yields a stoichiometry with x = 0.646 0. 1 hour. 1350–1650 C. Store in a well-sealed container. and Fritsch. air.51 56..S. C.701 6. 3 767 589 (1973). Powderize when dry. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Fire in covered crucible.. air. 600–800 C. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 430 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Broad range. 2. Reference 1. U. Dry in air. D.GdNbO4:Bi3+ Structure: Tetragonal (scheelite) Composition Ingredient Gd2(C2O4)3·10H2O Nb2O5 Bi2O3 Mole % 41.

Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1100 C. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.B. + (4..B.59 12. and 702 nm. 5 567 351 (1996).141 Preparation Mix stoichiometric amounts in a paint shaker for 30 minutes with about 20 mol% of excess potassium carbonate to compensate for losses due to volatilization. Reddy.B. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.. Pat.S.. Qi. U. increasing from 700 C to 1100 C. S.90 0. Y.S. 1100 C. Good electroluminescent properties result when this phosphor is intercalated with conductive polymers or metals. and Karam. Optical Properties Emission peaks: Lines at 594.. 700 C.E.K.. 3.. Qi.1 fL level under focused 15 kV/ 8 A excitation Remarks 1.02 mol Eu per mole of phosphor. References 1. 4.. This phosphor in general formulation of K2La2Ti3O10:Eu is another example of materials belonging to intercalation ingredients. Qi. 5.K2La2Ti3O10:Eu Structure: Layered perovskite Composition Ingredient K2CO3 TiO2 La2O3 Eu2O3 Mole % 23....Y.40 eV).. Reddy. and Northrop. V.E. S. Reddy. 24 hours.Y. 5 658 495 (1997). R. and Zhang.E. J.03 0. Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. and Cox. U. Pat. Northrop. U. 5 531 926 (1996).R. R.K. Cool to room temperature. 24 hours. 617. Karam..E.S. air. and Karam.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Characteristic emission at about 1.63 9.S. R. Filter. . 2 hours. 5 489 398 (1996). V. and screen through a 325-mesh stainless steel sieve. dry at 130 C.. R. U.. air.. R. 4.. Pat.06 57. air. Washed in de-ionized water.. R. Karam. Pat. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. air. Pat. Powderize.Y. 3. 5 531 928 (1996). and Karam. over 3 hours. 2.. V. U. R.. 2. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.19 By weight (g) 6.E.S.72 19. The described composition yields a concentration of 0. R..

and Chen. 1200°C.H. In the cases where flux is used. Fire in alumina containers. Ball-mill. 8–10 hours. 130. 10–14 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 394 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. 1250°C. 2435 (1983). leach with water. Soc. 2.. Brixner. Wash in methanol. Dry at 130°C. J. H. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. L. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates. using a Freon solvent as grinding medium. air.LuTaO4:Nb5+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Lu2O3 Ta2O5 Mole % — — By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix stoichiometric quantities of the Lu2O3 and Ta2O5. 1.40 eV). either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4. Fire in alumina containers.Y. . air. + (4... Electrochem.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani.

40 eV). stagnant air. 1250 C. Store in air. Dry in air.900 Preparation Mix by slurrying in ethanol. 3 hours. Powderize.2 (of Pr) 5 By weight (g) 147.33 277.8 200 (of In) 0. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2.340 3. ++ (4.SrIn2O4:Pr3+.64 0.517 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (10eV–1 keV) Decay to 1/e: ~10 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This contribution is from Shinji Okamoto. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .007 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.Al3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 In2O3 Pr6O11 Al(OH)3 Mole % 99. Fire in aluminum crucibles.

Press into pellets again.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Excitation (%) Emission Exc. 2.238 0. = 270 nm Em. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.SrY2O4:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 100 1 6 By weight (g) 10 15. 1000 C. = 250 nm Em. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 611 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (2. Fire in air.88 eV).3 0. Powderize by dry ball-milling.251 Preparation Mix by grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. ++ (3. 3 hours.000 psi. = 616 nm 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . 2 hours. = 611 nm 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 800 700 600 500 400 300 100 Emission Exc. 1350 C. 1. Fire in air.

33 79.Y. Structure and luminescence of SrY2O4:Eu.. Videa.064 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.. 2.H.401 Preparation Mix by slurrying in ethanol.. 3903 (1999). et al. ++ (4. A1352 (2001). 1300 C. Dry in air. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 146. Park. S.. SrTiO3:Pr3+.900–23. Yu. Soc. Powderize. J.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (10 eV–1 keV) Decay to 1/e: ~100 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Shinji Okamoto.340 3. C.. Park. High Li+ self-diffusivity and transport number in novel electrolyte solutions.. et al. Fire in aluminum crucibles. M.40 eV). J.879 0.8 100 0.2 (of Pr) 5–30 By weight (g) 147. B. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2. Electrochem.Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.Al3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 TiO2 Pr6O11 Al(OH)3 Mole % 99. Soc. Geil. stagnant air..009 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. References 1. Electrochem. 2 hours.. 148. B. W.J. Xu.

Xu.References 1..b ions. 2. 1. and Kataoka. . 655. Powderize. Phys. 126. Toki. et al. Appl. 1300 C. Characteristic enhancement of emission from SrTiO3:Pr3+ by addition of group. air.. 153 (2003).41 0. Grind and press into pellets again. S. SrTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 TiO2 Pr(NO3)3. W. 2. W. Rivera. H. Jia. H. 78. 2.5 3 By weight (g) 10. Lett.. 6387 (1999). Effects of compositional phase transitions on luminescence of Sr1-xCaxTiO3:Pr3+.. Fire in open quartz boats. Press into pellets. Tamura.212 0. Jpn. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 615 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. F. K. Appl. J. Phys. Itoh.. and Yamamoto. Okamoto. This compound is also known as strontium titanate.6H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 100 0. Fire in air.. for low-voltage electron excitation... SrTiO3:Pr3+.00 5. I. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.142 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.. 1000 C. ++ (4.. Solid State Commun. 38. S. 3 hours..40 eV). A new red-emitting phosphor.. (2001).

L. Budapest. Conf. 2.L. 51 114388 (1976).C. Wanmaker. Int. W. G. for an additional 2 hours. 200 C..9 85. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Luminescence. 3 417 027 (1968). Fire in 1150 C. Fire in 700 C. Wanmaker. W. + (4. J.G.8 7. Wanmaker. Decant with water until neutral. 3. 4. Fire in 1150 C.G.S.V)O4:Eu Structure: Xenotime Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 (NH4)2HPO4 Mole % 48 2 35 65 By weight (g) 104. J. U. Bril. J.. and Broos. Pat.. Proc. and Verlijsdok.L. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.M. A. 50 67782 (1975). J.88 eV). Pat. Dry in air.. ++ (8. Vrugt. 3.W. and Bres.8 Preparation Dry-blend all ingredients and place in a capped quartz or alumina crucible.S. Cool and slurry the powder in 2 wt% (NH4)2CO3 solution. Verlijsdok. 9–16 (1966). Cool and lightly mortar to break aggregates.. W. U.. 3 647 708 (1972).. for 2 hours.Y(P.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase. 1.T. 2.. for 2 hours. Cool and break up aggregates..40 eV). Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai).. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 619 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3..0 40.

ethanol. 572. After 20 minutes.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+. Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Mater. ++ (4. Cover the cuvette with paraffin film with a pin hole in the center as a outlet of vapor. et al. 55 (2001). Annealing in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow at 500–900°C to remove residual water. Eng. add the CeCl3 solution dropwise. .Y2O3:Ce Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 100 Y(OC3H7i)3 7 1 CeCl3 (aq.. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet (Ce3+) Emission peak: 375 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.) ethanol.40 eV). or other organic groups created and entrapped in the gels during gellation process. W. Jia. C.Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 sol-gel glasses. Place the wet gel in an oven at 40°C for one or two weeks to obtain transparent dry gels. Sci. water and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) — — — certain amount Preparation Stir ingredients. into a small container such as cuvettes.

5 Y(OC3H7i)3 EuCl3·6H2O 0. at a temperature of about 1300°C for at least 1 hour. It can be sensitized for excitation at 365 nm using Bi.5 1.6 6. and HCl (pH = 2.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air. however.9 ethanol. This phosphor is used in fluorescent lamps and also in projection television tubes.95 1.58 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Y2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 92. water. It can also be used in plasma display panels. Powderize.Y2O3:Eu (YOE) Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 CaF2 Mole % 94 (Y) 6 (Eu) 2.5) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. with reduced efficiency at 254 nm. Firing should occur in air.5 By weight (g) 108 10.

. Liu. Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulted water and ethanol....5 0. Symp. R.Y3+ codoped SiO2 sol-gel glasses.6 Y(OC3H7i)3 6.. 519 (1998). The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven. J. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. H. 2. 271. Y2O3:Tb3+ Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 92.95 1. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water.87 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. W.P. ethanol. and Jiao. J. or other organic radicals.6H2O ethanol. Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix. Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover. A wet gel will result. Spectroscopic study of Eu3+doped and Eu3+. Mater. Photoluminescence of Eu3+:Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glass.8 certain amount . Alloys Ingredients. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Weakly excited at 3. Jia. Proc. et al. 311 (2000).Preparation Dissolve europium chloride in 2–3 g of distilled water. Put the EuCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring. Res. S.9 TbCl3. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device. Soc. Feofilov. Jia. Meltzer. W.. to obtain transparent dry gels. 11. and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8. water.

88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission x10 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. to obtain transparent dry gels.9 CeCl3·6H2O ethanol. ethanol. and 621 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Eng. water.8 Y(OC3H7i)3 6. et al. Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix. Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses.61 1. Y2O3:Ce3+. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.40 eV). and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8. or other organic radicals. 585.53 .Preparation Dissolve terbium chloride in 2–3 g of distilled water. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 543 nm. Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover. 572.Tb3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 91.Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 solgel glasses. ++ (4. Put the TbCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring. Minor peaks at 495. A wet gel will result.95 1. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water.9 0. Sci. 55 (2001). Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device. Jia. C.. The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven. Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+. W. Mater.4 TbCl3·6H2O 0. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulted water and ethanol.

++ (5. A wet gel will result.87 eV). Jia. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Eng. Put the Ce-TbCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring. 572.39 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.Preparation Dissolve cerium and terbium chlorides in 2–3 g of distilled water. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet (Ce3+) Emission peak: 543 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. W. 55 (2001).3 53 96 . The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulting water and ethanol.Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 sol-gel glasses. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device. Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix.. or other organic radicals. to obtain transparent dry gels. Y2O2S:Eu Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 Na2CO3 S Mole % 94 (Y) 3 (Eu) 100 300 By weight (g) 110 5. Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses. C. Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+. Sci. et al. ethanol. Mater. Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 610 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3.34Gd0. Subsequently. Fig. if either the sintering or hot-pressing processes are subsequently used to produce the ceramic scintillator. FL. the mixture should be powdered in mortar.Preparation Mix the rare-earth oxides by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air. 478 (1998). the reaction product has to be washed a few times with water to remove residual flux. ++ (4. mix the rare earth mixture with Na2CO3 and S by dry mixing. the powder should be de-agglomerated. After cooling down.06O3 compacts can be densified into transparent ceramics by either vacuum sintering at 1800°C or hydrogen-gas sintering at 1800–1900°C. 38.Gd)2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Preparation Oxidize the co-precipitated oxalate at about 800°C. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Spectrum from the Phosphor Handbook. After drying.60Eu0. Boca Raton. CRC Press. Die or isostatically press the powder into powder compacts. (Y.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 1 × 10-3 sec . Preferably. Firing should occur in air in a vessel with a well-closing lid. p.40 eV). Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. using pressures up to about 300 MPa. at a temperature of about 1100°C for a few hours. The Y1.

8–10 hours. 130°C. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YTaO4 Structure: Monoclinic Preparation Stoichiometric quantities are mixed Y2O3. Ceramic scintillators. Dry in air. Rev.40 eV). 3. 27. Reference 1. Fire in capped alumina tubes.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. In the cases where a flux is used. 69 (1997). Co-doping of a small amount of Pr reduces the afterglow. Mater.. either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4. Ta2O5. – (4. Annu.. 10–14 hours. S. Powderize with a Freon solvent as the grinding medium. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 330 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. air. 2. leach with water and follow by methanol rinsing. and Duclos. C. 1200°C. Greskovich.. 1250°C. Sci. The sintered samples can be annealed in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to reduce the concentration of point defect/impurity-charge states in the host lattice. Fire in capped alumina tubes.

Fire in capped alumina tubes. 8–10 hours.. 1250°C.. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates. S. either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4.C. The use of a flux in the synthesis of M’-YTaO4 not only allows the growth of 4–12 µm single crystals but also assists greatly in the formation of the compound (see Ref. In the cases where a flux is used. 130°C. and Chen.. Powderize with a Freon solvent as the grinding medium. ++ (4. Dry in air. leach with water and follow by methanol rinsing. 2435 (1983). 229.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 410 nm (x-ray excitation 2% Nb) Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 54 (1995). 10–14 hours.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Issler. Ta2O5. H.L. References 1. 1200°C. 130. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors. C. Nb2O5. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YTaO4:Nb5+ Structure: Monoclinic Preparation Stoichiometric quantities are mixed Y2O3. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Alloys Ingredients. Soc. Electrochem. 2. Fire in capped alumina tubes. J.40 eV). air. J. and Torardi. L.H. 2)..Y. 2. Brixner.

130.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani.. 2435 (1983). Cool slightly and wash with a hot solution of 15 % NaOH. L. Structure: Tetragonal (zircon) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 NH4VO3 Dy2O3 YVO4:Dy3+ Mole % 17.15 82. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. and Chen..H.. J.Y. Electrochem.05 By weight (g) 70.80 0. Dry in air and powderize.0 0. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates.0 175. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellowish-green Emission peak: Two strong dysprosium peaks at 480 and 570 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Suitable for 2537 and 3650 Å Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . H.321 Preparation Blend the materials thoroughly and fire in an open quartz crucible for 2 hours at 1700°C. Rinse with deionized water until neutral. Brixner. Soc.

L. Eu.T. and van Uitert.. 3 hours. Tm.G. 2.S. which is optimum for excitation with mercury discharge lamps. Pat. Re-fire in H2 + N2 atmosphere.. and alike) can be added up to a half of the activator content. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 460 nm Emission width (FWHM): 137 nm Absorption edge: 270 nm (4.S. Thompson. A. Powderize. 1100 C. the emission characteristics can be adjusted. L. 1200°C. Powderize. Sm. 2. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.7 — Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or ethanol. 3 555 337 (1968). 3 152 085 (1964). Pat. Wash with diluted nitric acid to remove excess flux. Faria. Other rare-earth elements (Pr. U.14 18. R. U.C. U.4 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 0.. and Palumbo.A.. 3 322 682 (1967). D.7 lm/W or higher at 30 V DC Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 Li3PO4 (Flux) ZnGa2O4 Mole % 50 50 — By weight (g) 8.. By including such elements or combinations thereof. 3. Linares.28 mol% of Dy3+.. 3... Dry in air.G. G.S. 1 hour.Remarks 1. stagnant air. Pat. Fire in capped quartz crucibles. Ballman. References 1. Er. S. Powderize when dry.. This recipe yields a phosphor containing 0.

1200 C.Remark This contribution is from Sato Yoshitaka. 138. 1100 C.. J. 1509 (1991). and vaporize moisture by warming. ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 MnSO4 Li3PO4 (Flux) Mole % 48 50 2 By weight (g) 8. et al. Powderize when dry. Powderize. The ZnGa2O4 phosphor for low-voltage blue cathodoluminescence.0 lm/W or higher at 30 V DC Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . stagnant air. Powderize. mix. Itoh. Re-fire in H2 + N2 atmosphere. Electrochem. Reference 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 505 nm Emission width (FWHM): 25 nm Absorption edge: 270 nm (4. Add solution of Mn2+ ion. 3 hours. Wash with de-ionized water. Fire in capped quartz crucibles. 1 hour.4 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or ethanol Dry in air.7 0.14 18.. Soc. S.

2. 2... Display.. Y. 1120ºC.43 Preparation Mix by dry grinding. 1. University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez (2003). Toki. K. 1 hour.. Morimoto. Master Degree Thesis. 800ºC. References 1. E.26 eV). . Proceedings of Japan Display'92.. ZnO:Bi3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Bi2O3 Mole % 97. Digest Jpn. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2 hours. and Itoh. Tech.4 By weight (g) 10 1. ++ (4. Mosquera Vargas. Kataoka. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 645 nm Emission width (FWHM): 3540 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. H.Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato. Fire in air.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Store in well-sealed container. Toki. (1992). S. H. et al. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.6 2. ZnGa2O4:Mn green cathodoluminescent phosphors for VFDs. 421 (1992).. stagnant air.

ZnO:Zn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Mole % 100 By weight (g) 158 Preparation Fire in capped quartz crucibles in reduced atmosphere at 1000 C.280 g 1.7 g Preparation Mix ZnO and Ga2O3 porcelain dish. 1 hour. . and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e. stir to uniformity. Then add a little water to make the raw mix slightly moist. Dissolve the ZnCl2 in a little water. Powderize.3 (of Ga) about 1 (not critical) By weight 81 g 0. over night).g. Ultrafast Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 (Type WL-1201) Mole % 100 0.4 eV Absorption edge: 388 nm (300 K) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 16 lm/W or higher Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 505 nm Emission width (FWHM): 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnO:Ga. add solution to above mix. add alcohol to make a uniform slurry.. .

. HgI2. Meth. add solution to above mix. Properties Body color: Gray Particles: About in the 5–10 m size range Emission: Narrow band in the near-UV with a tail extending into the visible violet Peak about 3. 4.195 eV (=388 nm) Excitation by UV: By all UV shorter than about 380 nm Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1.S. decay < 1 nsec Remarks 1. PbI2. J.2 g 0. This phosphor is sensitive to traces of sulfur. stir to uniformity.3 (of Ga) about 1 (not critical) By weight 73 g 11. . 1 hour. Remove suspicious parts and powderize the rest. one-half hour. 62... D.. The bulk of the material should show deep violet luminescence (just at the limit of visibility). Weber. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. 2. Dissolve the ZnCl2 in a little water. Instr. Lehmann. The above recipe was provided by W. Nucl. Do not heat higher than about 300ºC except in pure hydrogen. Material should be completely dead. 3. inspect under UV lamp.. Meth. Derenzo. Patent 3583929 (issued June 1971). Fire in loosely capped quartz glass tubes ( about half full. Solid State Electron. Remove all parts that look different.7 g Preparation Mix ZnO + CdO + Ga2O3 in a porcelain dish. slowly flowing H2. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. W. 1107 (1966) and U. Soc. Electrochem. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state.. References 1.K.. Avoid all sulfur like the plague. stagnant air. The ZnCl2 in the above recipe can be replaced by about 1.1 g of NH4Cl. ZnO-CdO:Ga. M. Nucl. Lehmann. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature. not more). 214 (2002).E. A fast inorganic scintillator. A 486. 115.. or by about 1 ccm of concentrated HCl acid.2%. 800ºC. In case the material does not show the violet luminescence at all. 119 (1968). When cool. Inspect again under UV lamp. Cool while in H2 (Important!). Fire in open quartz boats. W. Klintenberg.J. 2. add alcohol to make a uniform slurry. Temperature dependence of the fast. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987.1. 3. Luckey. Ultrafast Composition Ingredient ZnO CdO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 Mole % 90 10 0. 538 (1968). M. 2.280 g 1. Instr.. S. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors. 9. 1100ºC.

Fire in loosely capped quartz glass tubes ( about half full.. 62. 7. . Properties Body color: Yellowish-gray Particles: About in the 5–10 µm size range Emission: Narrow band. Do not heat higher than about 300ºC except in pure hydrogen. 6.9 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in water or an alcohol and dry in air. peak about 413 nm. not more). 7.. Do not add more. (just at the limit of visibility). This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. J. over night). 115. D. Powderize..2%.. The CdO in the above recipe can be replaced by 17. Lehmann. The bulk of the material should be violet luminescent (if it does not. 6. 1107 (1966) and U. decay < 1 nsec Remarks 4. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. A fast inorganic scintillator.. 2. Inspect again under UV lamp. The above recipe was provided by W. 1100ºC. stagnant air. 800ºC. References 5. Remove any parts (if preaent) that look different. 1 hour. 9. Meth. Zn2SiO4:Mn Composition Ingredient ZnO SiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 194 110 6 By weight (g) 158 66 6.g. 1. 10% CdO is the limit of solid solubility. 5.S. The ZnCl2 in the above recipe can be replaced by about 1. slowly flowing H2. Avoid all sulfur like the plague. Nucl. W. inspect under UV lamp. Then add a little water to make the raw mix slightly moist. 8. Instr. Lehmann. Electrochem. Solid State Electron. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors. Patent 3583929 (issued June 1971). Luckey. This phosphor is sensitive to traces of sulfur.. or by about 1 ccm of concentrated HCl acid. Firing should occur in reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1150–1250°C for at least an hour. one-half hour.2 g CdCO3. Cool while in H2 (Important!). Soc. Fire in open quartz boats. When cool. 119 (1968). Remove suspicious parts and powderize the rest. 538 (1968). Color: violet Excitation by UV: By all UV shorter than about 400 nm Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1. W. Material should be completely dead.and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e.1 g of NH4Cl. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature). Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987..

245 (1996). Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. Lumin. 69. T. J. and Amrein. . C. This phosphor is used in plasma display panels and fluorescent lamps. The emission band shifts to lower energy with increasing Mn2+ concentration. Reference 1. Ronda. due to magnetic interactions lifting the spin selection rule. It has been used in monochromic computer monitor tubes and projection television tubes (mixed with other green phosphors)..The efficiency of this material (e-beam and (V)UV excitation) depends on the Mn2+ concentration. The quantum efficiency drops less fast than the emission decay time. Evidence for exchange induced luminescence in Zn2SiO4:Mn.. Higher Mn2+ concentrations adjust to a shorter decay time.

Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue.84 19.2 Silicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.120 0. Powderize and grind.367 4.92 39.84 0. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours. Sinter at 1300°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.00 0.00 1.40 1.16 Preparation Mix and grind. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . H3BO3 serves as flux.6 By weight (g) 10. Emission peak: 515 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 240 to 440 nm.7. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.Mn2+ Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 39.

96. Characteristic luminescence. Blasse. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 24.36 0. Blasse. Soc. 2.. Unpublished data.L... G. Sinter at 1250°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.L. 1... The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.75 0.. A.W. 304 (1970).51 2 By weight (g) 10. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates.00 4. and Bril. Rev. Philips Tech. Philips Res.Reference 1.87 24. A. Wanmaker. Jia. 31. W. Powderize and grind. Smith.. G. J. A. and Bril. Electrochem. 287 (1949). H3BO3 serves as flux. W. terVrugt. Pre-sinter at 800°C in N2 for 2 hours.04 12..48 Preparation Mix and grind.. Rep.87 49. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Optical properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 448 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 460 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. 2. 189 (1968). 23. J.00 0.. .

Sinter at 1300°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.34 1.00 1. Reference 1. Optical properties Emission color: Whitish blue-green Emission peak: Two peaks at 490 and 680 nm.16 .61 33.68 19.16 Preparation Mix and grind. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Mole % 49.Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+..83 16.33 By weight (g) 10.367 4.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnO H3BO3 Mole % 39. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours.00 0. W.22 0.071 0.00 1.84 39. Powderize and grind. Jia.58 By weight (g) 10. H3BO3 serves as flux.367 4.120 0.120 0. Unpublished data. respectively Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 260 to 420 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.00 0.68 0.40 0.40 1.

Sinter at 1350°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.11 0. W. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 SiO2 Ce2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 300 100 300 1 5 By weight (g) 10 3. 1. 1200 C. 2. 2 hours. 900 C.103 Preparation Mix by grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours. Reference 1. Powderize by dry ball-milling. Unpublished data..Preparation Mix and grind. Optical properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 480 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 440nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. Jia. Fire in 95%N2 + 5% H2. H3BO3 serves as flux. Powderize and grind. 3 hours .40 6 0.000 psi. Press into pellets again. Fire in air.

W. Reference 1. 900°C. 3 hours Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peaks: 280 and 355 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 410 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (2. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 SiO2 Ce2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 300 100 300 1 5 By weight (g) 10.00 0. Fire in 95%N2 + 5% H2. ++ (4.88 eV). Jia. 2 hours. ++ (3. Powderize. Unpublished data. Fire in air.110 0..40 6.000 psi.103 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. 1.00 3. 2. 1200°C.40 eV).88 eV) .40eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Grind and press into pellets again.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.74 8.75 0. This compound is also known as calcium aluminum silicate.238 0.87 49. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.14 0. Jia. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Mole % 24.87 24. 2.325 Preparation Mix and grind. Strong afterglow Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 240 to 450 nm.51 2 By weight (g) 10. Pre-sinter at 700°C in air for 2 hours. W.00 2. H3BO3 serves as flux.. Reference 1. Sinter at 1050°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Optical properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: 470 nm. Powderize and grind. Unpublished data.

Blasse. .00 1. G. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates. 23. Philips Res. A. Reference 1.. Rep.072 0.L. Jia.W.92 39. 2. Optical properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 470 nm Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 450 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. Wanmaker. Unpublished data.84 19. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 39. J. 189 (1968).Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.. Jia. Powderize and grind.. H3BO3 (B2O3) serves as flux.6 By weight (g) 10.W.4 1.163 Preparation Mix and grind. terVrugt. Pre-sinter at 800°C in air for 2 hours.... Sinter at 1200°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. Unpublished data.119 0.W. W.84 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. and Bril.369 4.

Pre-sinter at 800°C in air for 2 hours. 189 (1968).715 0. Blasse. Powderize and grind..Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 49. 2. H3BO3 (B2O3) serves as flux. Blasse.L. 23. Wanmaker. 304 (1970).912 2. G. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.83 16...W. A. Optical properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 470 nm Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 450 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. Rep. and Bril. G. 31. W.22 0. Sinter at 1200°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.. terVrugt..079 0.33 By weight (g) 10.. Rev.. J.. A. Philips Tech.61 33. Philips Res. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. 1.108 Preparation Mix and grind. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates. Characteristic luminescence.34 1.00 0. and Bril. .

1100°C. Lightly mortar.4 15.7. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Gd)BO3:Tb Structure: Pseudovaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Gd2O3 Tb4O7 H3BO3 Mole % 23 23 2 139 By weight (g) 51.Sm2+ (Y.0 85.3 Phosphates. reducing atmosphere. ++ (8. Dry at 110°C. and Bo rates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: (Y. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 544 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3. 400–500°C.40 eV). Halophosphates.88 eV).Mn Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu SrwFxB4O6. 2 hours.Gd)BO3:Tb (Y. 2 hours. 2.Gd)BO3:Eu -Ca2P2O7:Sn.5:Eu2+ SrwFxByOz:Eu2+.9 83. Decant with boiling water until neutral. Slurry powder in boiling 10% HCl for 30 minutes. 1.9 Preparation Dry blend ingredients. air. ++ (4.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .

88 eV). Wash by decanting in boiling water until neutral..J. Sony Research Center Reports. References 1. Hoshina. air. Wyckoff. C. 2. 1. Soc. 400–500°C.J. New York: (1964). 2nd ed.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase.W. 613 (1967). S.. O. 2. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates.Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase.. 114.. Electrochem. Fire in capped quartz tubes or alumina crucibles. J. Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai). 92 (1983).6 80.2 54. Fire in capped quartz tubes or alumina crucibles. (Y. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 619 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3. Crystal Structure. Avella. R. Slurry in boiling 10% HCl for 30 minutes.40 eV). air. 110°C..G. Interscience..4 10.4 Preparation Mix by dry blend. ++ (8. and Wiggins. Supplement. 2 hours. 1100°C. Dry in air. 52 133 091 (1977). 4.. Sovers. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Powderize. F. T. ++ (4. 3. 2 hours.Gd)BO3:Eu Structure: Pseudovaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Gd2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 32 15 3 130 By weight (g) 72.

. Soc..S.5% N2/0. A. Acad. 111.. 320. R. and Wiggins..5%H2. ~½ hour. Electrochem. U.. 1363 (1964).. Bril. Fournier.. Wyckoff. 5..20 1. and Yokozawa. 3 394 084 (1968).32 0.11 Preparation Mix by shaking with six ½ in.J..Mn Mole % 81. Dry in air.References 1. 1200 C.L. 1 hour. Electrochem. Cool in N2. 7. A.73 0. O. Interscience. J. Okada. 6.. 99. J.. F. Avella. Avella. Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai). + (4. and Wanmaker.J.40 eV). G.28 7.31 By weight (g) 18.W. C.92 0..T. NHK Giken Geppo. Arbus. 114. 22. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 350 and 575 nm Emission width (FWHM): 72 nm (For the latter peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 1. F. N2.04 8.. Koike. 3. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates.39 2.G. 176 (1979). Influence of the synthesis method on the luminescent properties of the vaterite-type YBO3-Eu3+. 2nd ed. Fluorescent properties of some europium-activated phosphors.. Sci. Soc..05 9. New York (1964).. Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 SrHPO4 Sn2P2O7 MnCO3 (NH4)2HPO4 -Ca2P2O7:Sn. Pat. 4. II. J. Fire in alumina trays. and Cousseins. nylon balls in a plastic jar on a paint mixer for ½ hour. D. K.Z. Crystal Structure. Fire in alumina trays. M. M. 613 (1967).88 eV) Excitation by e-beam: Weakly excited Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . 199 (1995). 625 C... 2. Powderize when dry. Eliminate the H2 2.J. W. Sovers.S. Chadeyron. 52 54690 (1977). Cr.

3. Mash.T. (99.Remarks 1.T.44 7.. Pat. Brit. 323 (1939).42 0. Wash in hot water. and Peters. Phys. and Henderson. The investigation of new phosphors.85 9.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .91 0. 2. Soc. 1025°C.55 45. Pappalardo. R.33 27..G.5 H2).5 N2:0.W.. P. D. ++ (4. Fire in molybdenum trays. S. S.E. References 1.71 By weight (g) 8. with particular reference to the pyrophosphates. U. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. S18. Dry.. 3. Appl. J. A. Henderson.25 Preparation Dry blend ingredients...S. Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrCl2 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 26. 4 772 417 (1988). 18 (1955). 173. Cool. Proc. 2 hours. T.40 eV). Exhibits very strong triboluminescence or mechanoluminescence. R. Ranby. 2. Firing temperature should not exceed 1250 C to prevent formation of -pyrophosphate... Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-white body Emission peak: 425 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.H.

filter. Blend the precipitate with half the SrF2 and grind. 32.49 61. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 370 nm Emission width (FWHM): About 20 nm Excitation by UV: In a broad range up to about 360 nm Excitation by e-beam and x-rays: Good excitation by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .12 By weight (g) 63. and dry the precipitate in air.. Cool. Place in an open quartz crucible and fire in air at 800°C for 1 hour. Inorg.11 0. Cool the slurry to below 20°C. J.30 247.5:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient Sr(NO3)2 SrF2 H3BO3 Eu2O3 Mole % 10. and grind with the remainder of the SrF2 into a fine powder.00 9. 1089 (1970).E. Luminescence and structural properties of alkaline earth chloroborates activated with divalent europium.36 2. Chem. T. Form a 1:1 solution of acetone and ammonium hydroxide and add to the above solution slowly while stirring vigorously.. SrwFxB4O6. A fine white precipitate will result and form a slurry..Remark This contribution is from Madis Raukas. and Baglio. Nucl. Combine these two solutions. J. Peters. blend. Reference 1. Fire for 2 hours at 890°C in a flow of H2 in N2 gas in the same open crucible.77 80. Cool and regrind.11 Preparation Dissolve Eu2O3 powder in dilute nitric acid solution and Sr(NO3)2 and boric acid in warm water (80°C).

3 448 056 (1969).S. C. Place in an open quartz crucible and fire in air at 900°C for 1–2 hours.96F0.Remarks 1. 2.. A fine white precipitate will result and form a slurry. Form a 1:1 solution of acetone and ammonium hydroxide and rapidly add to the above solution while stirring vigorously. and grind into a fine powder. which is used in high. SrwFxByOz:Eu2+. 703. References 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Narrow red and IR Emission peaks: 684.58 g 309. 725 and 732 nm Excitation by UV: in broad ranges 250–280. Cool. 697. and 502 nm due to Sm2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . The resultant is filtered and dried in air. blend.43 84.F.F. Pat. U. Blend the precipitate with SrF2 and grind.S. Pat.25 0. The most efficient version has been determined to be Sr0. Chenot. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.029.Sm2+ Composition Ingredient Sr(NO3)2 SrF2 H3BO3 Eu2O3 Sm2O3 Mole % 10. This is a Eu-sensitized.. 300–390 nm with additional peaks at 395. U.20 5. Combine these two solutions.. 3 649 550 (1972).and low-pressure discharge lamps as well as in CRTs. Cool and re-grind.98 40. 2. 693.12 0.09 5.5:Eu0.28 2. The slurry is kept at 80 C for about 2 hours and is cooled to ambient temperature. IR-emitting phosphor.11 By weight (g) 126.62B4O6.. C. 723. Chenot.09 Preparation Dissolve Eu2O3 and Sm2O3 powders in dilute nitric acid solution and Sr(NO3)2 and boric acid in warm water (90°C). 420. Fire for 2 hours at 900 C in a flow of H2 in N2 gas in the same open crucible.

2. C.F.62B4O6. This is a Eu-sensitized. IR-emitting phosphor.S. which is used in high. C. 3 693 006 (1972).96F0. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.. 3. Pat. U. References 1.F.5:Eu0.. The most efficient is Sr0. Pat.S. Chenot. Chenot.029. 2.011.F. . U. Chenot. C. Pat.Remarks 1.Sm0..and low-pressure discharge lamps as well as CRTs.. 3 448 056 (1969).S... U. 3 649 550 (1972).

Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 25 C 300 C O O 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .7.2 536 17. The phosphor remains efficient to high temperatures. Powderize.6 34. Powderize.Mn (BAM:Mn) BaMgAl10O17:Eu (BAM) CaAl2O4:Tb3+ CaAl4O7:Ce3+ CaTi0.5 17.Mn (BAM:Mn) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 MnCO3 BaF2 Mole % 80 70 1050 (Al) 10 (Eu) 30 10 By weight (g) 158 28.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in an alcohol and dry in air.4 Aluminates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: BaMgAl10O17:Eu.Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu. This phosphor can be used in plasma display panels and is in use in fluorescent lamps.9Al0. Fire in a reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1200–1500°C for at least 1 hour.1O3:Bi3+ CaYAlO4:Eu3+ MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ SrAl4O7:Eu3+ SrxBayClzAl2O4-z/2:Mn2+.

Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda.366 0. Grind and press into pellets again. 1. BaMgAl10O17:Eu (BAM) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 BaF2 Mole % 80 100 1050 (Al) 10 (Eu) 10 By weight (g) 158 40 536 17.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in an alcohol and dry in air. 2 hours.2 0.40 eV). Powderize. Fire in N2.Spectra were provided by Madis Raukas.000 psi. The phosphor remains efficient to high temperatures. 1400°C. + (4.6 17. with smaller peaks at 590 and 620 nm Emission width (FWHM): 0. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. CaAl2O4:Tb3+ Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Tb2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 1 2 By weight (g) 10 10. 3 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 543 nm.48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.139 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. 2. Powderize Fire in reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1200–1500°C for at least 1 hour. 900°C.88 eV) . This phosphor is used in plasma display panels and in fluorescent lamps. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. Fire in N2.

.000 psi 1. ++ (4. Jia. 148 (2003). Jia. D.. Lett. Phys. CaAl4O7:Ce3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Ce(NO3)3·4H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 200 2 2 By weight (g) 10 20.. Phys.. 1535 (2002). Appl. Appl. X.M. 900°C. Meltzer.366 0.J. Wang. 2. D. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 407 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.88 eV) . 1400°C. W.Ce3+. 3 hours. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. J.. 80.. 2.Ce3+ through persistence energy transfer.139 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. Persistent energy transfer in CaAl2O4:Tb3+. et al.. Powderize. Green phosphorescence of CaAl2O4:Tb3+.. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.4 0.S.40 eV). Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. This compound is known as calcium aluminate. R. Fire in N2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Jia. Yen. et al. 2 hours. W. 93. Grind and press into pellets again.

+ (4..1O3:Bi3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Bi2O3 Al2O3 Mole % 90 90 10 10 By weight (g) 9. This compound is known as calcium tetra-aluminate.18 4. 1300 C.9Al0. 2.40 eV). Fire in air.01 7. Press into pellets. Unpublished data.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.02 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Reference 1. Jia. 3 hours. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. 1 hour. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaTi0. Grind and press into pellets again. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 760 nm Emission width (FWHM): 440 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. air. W. 1000 C. 1.66 1. 2.88 eV) .

Powderize. + (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 621 nm.209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. 3 hours. Fire in air.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 1400°C.56 10. A. CaYAlO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetrahedral Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 100 1 3 By weight (g) 10. Soc. Jia. 2 hours. Energy transfer between Bi3+ and Pr3+ in doped CaTiO3. 161 (2003). J. Grind and press into pellets again.01 22.. W.. Fire in air. 150. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.000 psi. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.352 0. This compound is known as calcium titanate. 1000°C.88 eV) . Perez-Andujar.. 2. I. 2. Electrochem.40 eV). and Rivera. 1.. with weaker peaks at 588 and 702 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.19 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.

This compound is also known as calcium-yttrium aluminate. Jia. in alumina boats. Re-fire.40eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient Mole % By weight (g) (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·3H2O·2 9. Reference 1. reducing atmosphere (95% N2/5% H2).3 55 56. Store in a well-sealed container. Powderize by automatic mill.Tb)Ox (Oxide of coprecipitate as a Ce-Tb ingredient). 2 hours. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.88eV) . Fire in alumina crucibles. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2. 1650°C. 1600°C..76 nm) Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. 2 hours.048 eV (9. Unpublished data. Preparation Mix by automatic mill.0 CeO2 6 10. 2. +++(4. stagnant air. W.28 eV (543 nm) Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize.5 Tb4O7 * Desirable ingredient: (Ce.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.1 Al2O3 1 7.

and Matsuoka. 3 hours. Fire in air..209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Shozo Oshio. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. Grind and press into pellets again.. 2 hours. Oshio.S.98 0. T. 1. Shigeta. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. T.. 1000°C. 1350°C.40 eV).01 7. Powderize. + (4. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. S.352 0. Fire in air. SrAl4O7:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 200 1 3 By weight (g) 10.88 eV) . 6 290 875 (2001).. Pat. 2.000 psi. U.

4% H2 in N2 gas. Dry the admixture in air at 160 C for 5 hours.17 68.80 4. This compound is also known as strontium tetra-aluminate. powders.43 117.79 2. Jia.86 39.24 156. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrxBayClzAl2O4-z/2:Mn2+.02 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 512 nm Emission width (FWHM): 32 nm Excitation by UV: In a broad range suitable for mercury discharge Excitation by e-beam and x-rays: Specified as a phosphor for x-ray intensifiers . Re-fire at 1100–1200°C for about 4 hrs.10 0.34 By weight (g) 60.5% solution) Mole % 7. and standard solutions in acetone for 15 minutes.Ce3+ Composition Ingredient Sr(OH)2·8H2O Ba(OH)2·8H2O BaCl2 Al(OH)3 Mn(NO3)2 (52% solution) Ce(NO3)3 (47. in a nitrogen atmosphere containing 4% H2. Unpublished data.64 Preparation Wet blend all components. 2.34 0. Reference 1. Fire at a temperature below 400 C for an additional 5 hours. Cool to ambient temperature and sieve admixture through 100-mesh stainless screen.26 19..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Increase the temperature to 1100–1200°C and fire for 4 hours in a flow of 0. W. Re-blend and place in an open container. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.

4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y3Al5O12:Ce Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 35. at a temperature of about 1300–1500°C for at least 1 hour).7 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in water and dry in air.44 2. U. (e. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 3 649 550 (1972). Chenot.229Ba0.5 (Y) 62. U.. In highpressure Hg lamps it reduces the color temperature of the light.3.S. C. Chenot. C. 3 693 006 (1972). Pat. Firing should occur in reducing atmosphere.F.. 2. References 1.F.F. resulting in white light..S.. Ga). Chenot. forming gas or CO.005. .g. The emission spectrum consists of two bands. due to the spin-orbit split ground state of Ce3+. 3.. Pat.S.005. In LEDs it partially converts blue light into yellow light.5 (Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 40 32 3.. This phosphor is used in white LED lamps and also in high-pressure Hg lamps.126Al2O0. 2. The approximate formula is Sr0. U.g. The spectral position of the emission band of Ce3+ can be varied by replacing part of the Al by (e.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.. The material has a pronounced daylight color.437:Mn0. C. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. Powderize.Ce0. Pat. 3 448 056 (1969). as Ce3+ absorbs in the blue part of the spectral region and emits yellow light. 3. This is a cerium-sensitized xerographic lamp phosphor.688Cl1.

062 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. 3 hours.000 psi Dry in air. ++ (4. 1. 2. 1400°C. 1000ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 528 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Ce(NO3)3·4H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 200 2 2 By weight (g) 10 9. Powderize when dry. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. Press into pellets again.03 0.555 0. W. 2 hours.. Jia.. Powderize. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.40 eV). . Unpublished data. and Rivera. Fire in N2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. E.

. Reference 1. E.40 eV).0067 By weight (g) — — — . Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 640 and 667 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 900ºC.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. 2 hours.062 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. and Rivera. 1400ºC.04 6. Jia. Unpublished data.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient For precursor: Y(NO3)3·6H2O Al(NO3)3 Cr(NO3)3·9H2O Mole % 4. 1. ++ (4.051 0.72 0. Fire in N2. Grind. W.03 0. 3 hours. 2.Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 MnCO3 B2O3 Mole % 33 66 19 2 By weight (g) 10 9.

carbohydrazide produces the highest temperature (1825°C) while glycine produces the lowest (1210°C). When glycine is used. CA. 2. 707. and Devices. Sluzky.J.E. Am. Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphors for Flat Panel Displays. 2. Powders should be placed in well-sealed containers.J.75. L. 29. L. Soc. Eds. Phosphor development for alpha-silicon liquidcrystal light valve projection display. 79. The combustion flame temperature is dependent on the fuel used. and ruptures into a flame in 5–10 minutes. For carbohydrazide and urea fuels.8. 141. Shea Rohwer. E. Place the mixture in an appropriate flameproof dish and dissolve using de-ionized water (~50 ml). Electrochem. an amorphous ash is produced that needs to be annealed in air at 1000°C for 1 hour. J. the flame lasts for about 15 sec. Hess. N. The spectra obtained have the same structure but the materials produced by higher temperatures show higher intensities. Sci.0 Photon Energy (eV) 2. Shea-Rohwer. Soc. preheated to 500°C.. M. Lemoine. Nalwa and L. The solution boils. Handbook of Luminescence.2 0 .8 Remark 1. Rohwer... 3257 (1996). J.5 (fuel/oxidizer ratio) C2H5NO2 (glycine) 1. and Hesse. J. and 1. the result is a foamy powder which can be powderized.6 1...S. et al. References 1.. Display Materials. H. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peaks: 1. 1873 (1994). and 725 nm) Emission width: 0.71 eV. dehydrates. Ceram.7 CH4N2O (urea) 2. Shea.5 Preparation Mix the precursor and the fuel thoroughly in a glass mortar.85 eV (435 nm) Spectra 800 O O 750 700 Wavelength (nm) 650 600 550 Carbohydrazide Urea Glucine 1825 C Emission 100 1780 C 1210 C O 50 1.. Mater. This contribution is from Lauren E. and Walko. American Scientific Publishers.S. (688.05 eV at 707 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: 2. 2. K.E.. 1. 3172 (1994). Place the dish into a muffle furnace.. Stevenson Ranch. R.Fuels: CH6N4O (carbohydrazide) 1. 3. Synthesis and crystallization of yttrium-aluminum-garnet and relatedcompounds.. (2003). et al.

75 Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ BaFBr:Eu2+ BaFCl:Eu2+. Heat at 1000°C after eliminating water and O2 in stream of N2. inert box.Yb3+ CsI:Tl LaOBr:Tb3+ LaOBr:Tm3+ NaYF4:Er3+.Yb3+ (ErCl3)0. Optical Properties Emission color: Mostly green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by IR: Can be excited with 800.75 Composition Ingredient ErCl3 BaCl2 Mole % 25 75 By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in dry.5 Halides and Oxyhalides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: (ErCl3)0. and Cl2.Pb2+ BaFCl:Eu2+ BaMg3F8:Eu2+. Ar. and 1500 nm light Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .Yb3+ YF3:Tm3+.25(BaCl2)0.25(BaCl2)0. Crush after cooling and seal in glass capsule. 1000.7.Mn2+ BaY2F8:Er3+.Yb3+ YF3:Er3+.

Although not producing as efficiently luminescent material.. Appl. 1272 (1993).00 1. Wolfe. Reference 1. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. U. High-efficiency infrared-to-visible up-conversion of Er3+ in BaCl2. and Ohwaki. R.20 By weight (g) 68. Pat.S. The firing temperature can be lower (down to 700–750°C) for undoped barium magnesium fluoride. 74. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: 415 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: In a broad range. 2 hours. Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 MgF2 EuF2 Mole % 38.. 830°C. peaking at around 330 nm Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Good for x-ray intensifier screens Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.28 Preparation Dry mix. J. Y. Wang. J. Reference 1. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto.04 37.. Phys.. and Messier.W. higher temperature is required for activator diffusion. The phosphor is hygroscopic.Remarks 1. 2... 2.39 2. an inert or even air atmosphere can be used for the reaction. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .F. Fire in 5% volume of H2 in N2. Powderize. R. 4 112 328 (1978).80 60.

4.. Photoionization processes in barium fluorohalide crystals doped with Eu2+. Radzhabov.. Phys. 2. The fired material is ground. 13. Eds.13 0. This compound is photostimulable and.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Phosphors for X-ray and ionizing radiation. the materials are dried at 200–300°C. Shionoya. useful for radiography. and to protect from dissolving in water during washing. 439 458 1.. The phosphors are ground and re-fired. E. and sieved. 2. Before firing. Care is taken to avoid oxygen during firing.M. and Yen.0096 By weight (g) 14. Takahashi. BaBr2.25 1.. U. Pat. J. EuF3) are fired in a H2/N2 atmosphere at 600–1000°C (desirably at 700°C)... 55 12145.S.. 55 12143. Kotera et al. 3. 55 12144. The Phosphor Handbook. Matter..36 0. References 1.. therefore. 1159 (2001). New York (1998).Pb2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 BaCl2 EuCl2 PbF2 Mole % 49. Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. Kotera et al.70 17.52 49. S.40 eV). Excess ammonium halide may be used as flux. W. + (4.040 . This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. washed with cold water or organic liquids. K. Condens. CRC Press. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaFCl:Eu2+. dried. and Kurobori.Structure: Tetragonal BaFBr:Eu2+ Preparation Intimate mixtures of raw materials (BaF2.428 0. T. Japanese Patent Kokai.

Dietz. H. 4 057 508 (1977). References 1. Pat. U.S.F.. This x-ray phosphor is represented by the formula Ba0. Uhle..S.. 8.S.. Pat. Fire in N2. and Messier. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.. 2. 4. 3 951 848 (1976).9989Eu0. R. yttrium or lithium can be used for reducing the persistence (see the second reference). 2 303 917 (1942).000 ppm Al). Blend with with BaCl2 to serve as a flux. R. Separate the precipitate. Fire in a 5% H2-N2 mixture at 600–1000°C for 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission peak: Around 385 nm Emission width (FWHM): About 35 nm Excitation by e-beam: Specified as a phosphor for x-ray intensifiers Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. O.S. U.. Pat. 2. Wolfe. U. . R. Lead is an important additive for brightness enhancement and its amount can be varied from about 10 to 1000 molar ppm parts of host.W.J.0001FCl.Preparation Dry blend together.. As a further improvement.W. and Messier. ~ 830°C. R.000–15.01Pb0. 3. Wolfe. 2 hours..F. 4. Pat.. Sieve to –200 +355-mesh size. For the same purpose. lead can be replaced by aluminum or thallium in slightly different proportions (10–50 ppm Tl.. Structure: Tetragonal BaFCl:Eu2+ Preparation Stir the following overnight: (1-2x)BaF2(s) + BaCl2(aq) + 2x EuF2(s) 2 Ba1-xEuxFCl(s) A stoichiometric excess of aqueous BaCl2 solution is used. Spray dry the slurry of BaFCl:Eu and aqueous BaCl2. U. 3. the optimum being at around 100 ppm. 2 303 963 (1942).

Pat. 2.70 By weight (g) 41. + (4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 5. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors.99 2. Issler. Alloys Ingredients.) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. C.Heat the resultant phosphor/flux intermediate at 1000°C. Ferretti.26 43. This compound is photostimulable.S.07 Preparation Dry blend together.40 eV). and Kurobori. 3. 2. J. Condens. BaMg3F8:Eu2+.. 13.18 4. J.7 × 10–6 sec (UV exc.L. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Radzhabov. A. Photoionization processes in barium fluorohalide crystals doped with Eu2+. and Torardi.23 6. Matter. T.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 MgF2 EuF2 MnF2 Mole % 23. U. 229. 1159 (2001). Phys... 4 524 016 (1985).. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Store in a well-sealed container. Wash. E.59 1. 54 (1995). Fire in a flow of 5% H2 in N2 at 830°C for 2 hours.. Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Emission peak: 380 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.C.. S. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue (Eu2+) .53 70.

Emission peaks: Two bands.S. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaY2F8:Er3+.. 3.F. 2. and Messier.80Mn0. Wash with water after cooling to remove flux. Reference 1.05Mg2.20F10. The ingredients in the ratio shown above yields the composition of Ba1. Pat.. R. R. higher temperature is required for activator diffusion. 410 nm (Eu2+) and 610 nm (Mn2+) Emission width (FWHM): 80 nm (Mn2+) Excitation efficiency by UV: In a broad range.Yb3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 Er F3 BaF2 ZnF2 Mole % 78 20 2 100 10 By weight (g) Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol. Forming undoped barium magnesium fluoride requires lower firing temperature (700– 750°C). Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm . This contribution is from Madis Raukas.W. 4 112 328 (1978)..95Eu0. Wolfe. peaking at around 330 nm Excitation by e-beam: Good Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. U. Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100°C.

Thallium iodide is mixed with CsI before heating. A. Opt. grown from the melt after Czochralski.. Spectroscopic and laser properties of Er3+-doped monoclinic BaY2F8 single-crystals..5-µm wavelength laser-light emission by infrared-excitable phosphors. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Structure: Cubic CsI:Tl Preparation Single crystals can be grown by several conventional methods: 1.13 eV (299 nm).14 eV (241 nm) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. zone melting in a closed vertical crucible after Bridgman–Stockbarger 2. Luminescence characteristics are similar to those of YF3. 4. 22. et al.61 eV (269 nm).98 × 10-6 . References 1. 2. Appl. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. 5. 39. Y. Kaminskii.A. and dissolved in the melt (melting point 623°C). S95 (1990). 2.. Phys. Lett. Detection of 1.Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by infrared light: Efficient under 970 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Absorption edge: 4. Quant.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay to 1/e: 0. 587 (1981).. Mita. Electron.

Powderize. such as water.1 Preparation Combine the La2O3. During crystal growth. 800–1100°C.C. ++ (4.. 400–500°C. 1 hour. IEEE Trans. Ball-mill the powder with a grinding media and a liquid vehicle. Crystal scintillators. 3. 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.B. B.40 eV). and HNO3.1 By weight (g) 100 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Spectrum of the emission under x-ray excitation.3 mol%. 1. Tb4O7.C. References 1. London (1964).0 39. and Grabmaier. The luminescence intensity is nearly constant for Tl+ concentrations between 0. Fire in air. filter. and dry. Powderize and reblend powder. Blend with the Na2CO3. Nucl. Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Tb4O7 HNO3 Na2CO3 NH4Br LaOBr:Tb3+ Mole % 19.1 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 2.06 and 0.7 3. Fire in air..2 39. NS-31. Springer-Verlag. B.3 38. The theory and practice of scintillation counting. J. Blasse. 3.. and NH4Br. 372 (1984). This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. wash.6 0. Pergamon Press.. G. 1 hour.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . some of the thallium may be lost by evaporation. Sci.3 60. Grabmaier. Birks. 2. Heidelberg (1994). Luminescent Materials.

Abstr. Alkali bromide formed by the interaction of alkali carbonate and ammonium bromide serves as a re-crystallizing agent.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . 800°C. Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.S. Rabatin. Pat. J. 4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.. Rabatin.. while potassium bromide acts as the flux.G. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. 2. Spring Meeting. 2. Blasse. Bull. 1403 (1979). Electrochem. J. Investigations of Tb3+-activated phosphors.G. Concentration quenching of Tb3+ luminescence in LaOBr and Gd2O2S phosphors. Mater. Soc. 14.. Rep. J. A. Holsa. G.. et al. and Bril. 102 (1974). 22. – (4. 3 617 743 (1971). Fire in air.40 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaOBr:Tm3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient NH4Br Tm2O3 La2O3 Mole % — — — By weight (g) — — — Preparation (1-x)La2O3 + xTm2O3 + 2NH4Br. Ammonium bromide serves as the brominating agent. References 1. 3. Res.... U. 481 (1967). Philips Res. Tb activated rare earth oxyhalides for x-ray intensifying screen.

Rabatin. 3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.. Rabatin. NaF produced during decomposition of Na2SiF6 acts as flux and forms NaYF4 lattice. 229.C. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 Er F3 Na2SiF6 NaYF4:Er3+. U.. Alloys Ingredients. Pat. J.S.9 10..Yb3+ Mole % 57 39 4 100 By weight (g) 100 107. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani.8 226. in Ar atmosphere. 2. 4 208 470 (1978).S. add some potassium antimony tartrate to the final product. Pat.. for 2 hours.. 630°C. which has been precipitated from aqueous nitrate solution with HF solution.2 Preparation Mix Na2SiF6 with the proper amount of (Y.G. 3 591 516 (1971). References 1.G. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors. C. 2. J. Dry. 54 (1995).Yb. U. Issler.Er)F3. J.. If water vapor sensitivity is a problem. Fire in capped Pt crucibles. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by IR: Efficient at 970-nm wavelength Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak red emission Excitation by infrared light: Efficient under 970nm . and Torardi.L. S.

2. and Otomo. Reference 1. This contribution is from Yoh Mita. H.Er3+ (Ln-Y. Luminescence characteristics are similar to those of YF3 but more intense emission is reported. T.. NaLnF4-Yb3+.La) — efficient green-emitting infrared-excited phosphors. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak Excitation efficiency by infrared light: Efficient under 970-nm excitation . 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Er3+. Yamamoto.. Soc. Wash with water after cooling to remove flux. 1561 (1972).Gd.Spectra 800 700 x5 Emission 600 500 x1 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Electrochem. Y.Yb3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 ErF3 ZnF2 Mole % 78 20 2 10 By weight (g) — — — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol. 119.. Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100°C. Kano.. J.

. Reference 1.2 10 By weight (g) — — — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Tm3+. The green emission is accompanied with red emission. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. 2. but higher content of Er dopant is required for obtaining efficient emission. 48 (1969). et al. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish-blue Excitation efficiency by IR: Excitable with 970-nm light . Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100oC.Yb3+ Structure: Orthorombic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 TmF3 ZnF2 Mole % 74 35 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 15. Lett. Phys. The green emission is observed also under 800 or 1500 nm wavelength light.F.. Johnson. Appl. Comments on materials for efficient infrared conversion. L. which may be predominant upon higher incorporation of Er3+ and Yb3+ or partial oxidization. Wash with water after cooling to remove flux.

Blue emission is accompanied by red emission. 2. Comments on materials for efficient infrared conversion. 48 (1969). Johnson.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. This contribution is from Yoh Mita. et al. 15. . Lett.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.F. L. Phys. Appl..

++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue. long blue afterglow Emission peak: 450 nm Emission width (FWHM): 1950 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.Te ZnS:Ag.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in N2. Powderize. 1200ºC. Ultrafast CdS:Te CdS:In.6 CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaS:Bi3+ CaS:Eu2+ CdS:In CdS:In.Mn CaS:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaS Bi2O3 S Mole % 100 0.7.40 eV).Al ZnS:Te. Store in a well-sealed container.5 By weight (g) 10 0.Cl ZnS:Cu. 1 hour.323 0.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .

2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1200ºC. 88. Appl. W. Lehmann. Powderize. 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.. J. W. Lumin.Tm3+. Store in a well-sealed container. Cathodoluminescence of CaS:Ce3+ and Cas:Eu2+ Phosphors..Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red.488 0. J. 118. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. D.. References 1. 87 (1972). W. D.M. Soc..Y. 2.R. Jia. 3402 (2000). J.. long red afterglow Emission peak: 655 nm Emission width (FWHM): 1660 cm-1 Spectra. 2. Evans. et al. Jia. CaS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaS Eu2O3 S Mole % 100 1 By weight (g) 10 0.D. Ryan. Electrochem. . F. 477 (1971).. Lehmann.. Jia... Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Trapping processes in CaS:Eu2+. Unpublished data. 5. Phys. 1 hour. W.

. References 1.K. S. M. about 1 10 torr. S. 2. M.139 g 1g about 2 g . near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. Instr. M.. 214 (2002).. The quest for the ideal scintillator.K.J. and Klintenberg. A 486. Optical Properties Body color: Greenish-yellow Emission: Peak about 519 nm.E. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. HgI2.1 % about 2 (not critical) By weight 145 g 0.. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound. about 1 10 torr. 111 (2003).CdS:In Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 Mole % 99 % 1% By weight 1g 7. Meth. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer. Color: green Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Decay time: <1 nsec.95 mg Preparation Place the dry CdS and In powders in a quartz ampoule.. Instr. E. Weber.. Place the compound in a quartz ampoule. Nucl. Weber.. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. If it is not uniform it can be treated a third time at 900ºC for 10 hours in a vacuum-sealed ampoule. Bourret-Courchesne. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. PbI2. Temperature dependence of the fast. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. Meth.J. Derenzo. A 505. M.E. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. The compound should be a uniform light green color. CdS:In. Nucl. Derenzo. and Klintenberg. Ultrafast Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 NH4Cl pure sulfur Mole % 100 % 0. exponential Remarks 1. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne.

Then add the sulfur to the dry raw mix. This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. M. Klintenberg. Do not heat higher than about 250ºC except in pure hydrogen. Temperature dependence of the fast. Nucl. The above recipe was provided by W.2%. one-quarter hour. Optical Properties Body color: Grayish-yellow Particles: About in the 5–10 µm size range Emission: Narrow band. A 505.E. Instr.g. over night). Derenzo.. stir to uniformity. inspect under UV lamp.J.K. HgI2. 214 (2002). Meth... M. 4. . Dissolve the NH4Cl in a little water. 1. 3. 75% N2). and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e. 5. not more) slowly flowing H2S. Weber. slowly flowing H2. PbI2. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. Cool while still in H2 (Important!) Inspect again under a UV lamp. 1107 (1966). 1 hour. 2. Nucl. Material should be uniformly deep red luminescent.. Add both solutions to the CdS slurry. Bourret-Courchesne.. Dissolve the In2O3 in a little HNO3. and Klintenberg. Solid State Electron. 2. 111 (2003). Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS..6 g CdCl2. Lehmann.S.Preparation Make a slurry of the CdS in alcohol. Remove any suspicious parts and powderize the rest. A 486. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature).. Meth.. Derenzo.J. Fire in open quartz boats.K. decay < 1 nsec Remarks 1. Fire in loosely capped quartz tubes (about half full. Weber. Color: green Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1. The material should now be uniformly green luminescent (if it does not. W. S. The quest for the ideal scintillator. References 3.. U. M. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987. E. Instr. 9.E. 600ºC. The NH4Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by about 3.. M. Boil till development of brown N2O3 vapor ceases (but not to dry). When cool. Remove any parts (if present) that look different. The H2S in the above recipe can be diluted with N2 (about to 25% H2S. 6. Lehmann. Peak about 510 nm. S.. W. Patent 3 583 929 (issued June 1971). 900ºC.

Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. 39. M.. 214 (2002). Temperature dependence of the fast.01% (CdTe) 99. and Thomas. J. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle..99 % 0. 2.99%(CdS) By weight 1g 1g .. and Klintenberg. Dorenbos.D. Cuthbert.66mg Preparation Place the dry CdS and CdTe powders in a quartz ampoule. M. V. A 505. The compound should be a uniform yellow color. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. HgI2. Optical Properties Body color: yellow Emission: Peak about ~640 nm. M. about 5 10-5 torr. S.. P.J. 39. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne..Te Mole % 1% (In) 99%(CdS) 0. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. Sci. Instr. Nucl. Nucl. Nucl. Place the compound in a quartz ampoule. D. Meth. 546 (1992). M. Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS:In* CdS:CdTe* *see previous pages CdS:In. J.E. E. Schotanus.G. Phys.. Detection of CdS(Te) and ZnSe(Te) scintillation light with silicon photodiodes. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer.K.. Weber. 4. and Klintenberg. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. 1573 (1968). Optical properties of tellurium as an isoelectronic trap in cadmium sulfide.. The quest for the ideal scintillator.J. Derenzo. Bourret-Courchesne. A 486. References 1. PbI2. Color: red Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Decay time: 270 nsec...D.CdS:Te Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS CdTe Mole % 99. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound. 111 (2003). Appl. S. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI.K.E. and Ryzhikov. Derenzo. IEEE Trans. Weber. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. 3.. nonexponential Remarks 1. P. Meth.01 % By weight 10 g 1. about 5 10-5 torr. Instr.

first the AgNO3 solution is added. instead of Cl. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours.. 8. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. References 7. S.. The compound should be a uniform dark yellow color.J.Cl Composition Ingredient ZnS AgNO3 NH4Cl S Mole % 100 0.050 2. 214 (2002). exponential. Then sulfur is added.. Derenzo. This material is used as blue primary in cathode-ray tubes. and Klintenberg. A ZnS slurry is made with water or an alcohol. Color: red.5 nsec.5 2–3 g Preparation AgNO3 and NH4Cl are dissolved separately in water.J. two modifications can be made (cubic sphalerite and hexagonal wurtzite) with slightly difference spectra. A 486.. The mixture is dried in air and powdered. 111 (2003). Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle. Instr. Optical Properties Body color: dark yellow Emission: Peak about 618 nm. Meth. ZnS:Ag. M. and Klintenberg. E. about 5 10-5 torr.E. The material can be washed with water to remove any flux residue. Heating takes place at bout 1100°C in a CO atmosphere.. Remarks 2. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. PbI2. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer. M. During stirring. S. followed by adding the NH4Cl solution. Derenzo. In addition. HgI2. M. Nucl. Bourret-Courchesne. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. The quest for the ideal scintillator.. Wurtzite is obtained by heating above about 1020°C and fast cooling.E. A 505.Preparation Place the dry CdS:In and CdS:CdTe powders in a quartz ampoule. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. It can also be co-doped with Al. Decay time:3.03 5 — By weight (g) 98 0. Weber. Meth. Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light.. Weber. .K. Temperature dependence of the fast. Instr.K. M. Nucl.

06 0. Sinter at 1200°C in N2 gas flow for 3 hours. Afterwards methanol or water is added to make a uniform slurry which is stirred.03 0. Heating takes place at about 1100°C in a CO atmosphere.3 — By weight (g) 98 0. This material is used as green primary in cathode-ray tubes. The mixture is dried in air and powdered. Powderize and grind.4 2–3 g Preparation Copper acetate and aluminum chloride are dissolved in water and added to ZnS. ZnS:Te. It can also be co-doped with Au and Cu.232 1.00 0. to obtain more green emission. Then sulfur is added.Mn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS ZnTe MnO S Mole % 94 3 3 10 By weight (g) 10. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda.08 Preparation Mix and grind.ZnS:Cu.632 0.Al Composition Ingredient ZnS Cu(C2H3O2)2H2O AlCl3 S Mole % 100 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 650 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by 280–380 nm and blue green 450–540 nm . The material can be washed with water to remove any flux residue. Pre-sinter at 800°C in N2 for 2 hours.

2. 67 (1967).I. Smirnova. This compound exhibits strong tribo-luminescence... G.—USSR. Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. This contribution comes from Dongdong Jia. R. Spectrosc. 23.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Opt. .F. and Pron.

23K0.5 1 By weight (g) 231. and then wash with 3% HCl (to remove the excess CaO).7 Other Compounds The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaWO4:Pb2+ GaN:Zn Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Gd2O2S:Tb Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn Na1.5 49.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+ Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10F2:Tb Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 PbO CaWO4:Pb2+ Mole % 48.5 Preparation Mix ingredients.23K0. 1100°C. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 435 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3.42Eu0.7 100 4.46Er0.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+ Na1.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 10-5sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .12TiSi4O11:Eu3+ Na1.40 eV). several hours. Fire in air.29K0.42Eu0. ++ (4. Powderize.7.

Re-fire in H2+N2 atmosphere. Shionoya.. Fire in quartz tubes. New York. 2. Kamiya.. and Hoekstra. W. in Phosphor Handbook. and Hoekstra.. Philips Res. T.. 422–423 (1998). 296–306 (1964). 1 hour. W. 4. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Phosphors for lamps. 19. 3.S. A. W. New York. NBS1026 is used for lamps. CRTs. 1100 C. 629–630 (1998). H. Rep.5 eV) Luminance by cr: 650 cd/m2 at 50 V DC . in Phosphor Handbook. standard phosphors. Philips Res.M. S. 16.. NH3. Ed. pp. M. 356–370 (1961). Dry in air.. Rep. A. Powderize when dry. and Mizuno. and Yen. Powderize. CRC Press. 2. S. and Yen.Remarks 1.. Kojima.. Properties of the fluorescence of some N. 3. Ed. References 1. S. Add solution of Mn2+ and vaporize water by warming.B.. Shionoya. 1100 C. GaN:Zn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Ga2S3 Mole % — — By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Wash with de-ionized water. Phosphors for plasma display.. Efficiencies of phosphors for short-wave ultra-violet excitation. CRC Press. Excess Ca in the material blend gives favorable results. pp. Bril. Bril. W. 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 460 nm Emission width (FWHM): 100 nm Absorption edge: 354 nm (3. Powderize..

H. 2. and Kameshima. 4–6 (2002). Sato.2 some some 10 By weight (g) 100 0. Tamaki. M. and combine with sulfur and NaCO3. Proceeding of IDW'02 (2002)... Proceedings of the 9th International Display Workshops. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Take the oxide. H. Takahashi.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 3 × 10-6s . 1000°C. 1100°C. 2. Co-doping with a small amount of Ce reduces the afterglow.. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 510 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3.. Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Pr6O11 HNO3 S2 Na2CO3 Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Mole % 100 0.92 Preparation Combine Gd2O3 and Pr6O11 powders with some nitric acid to form a precipitate. GaN:Zn for VFDs. et al. ++ (4. Luminescence Properties of a Blue Phosphor.40 eV). Dec. Sato. Rinse well in water. Fire in air. Y. Fire in air. Y. 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato..56 some 3 2.

136. Honolulu. using powders with very small particle size. Three groups have proposed different processes for fabricating the oxysulfide ceramics. and Yamamoto.4 11. No.. mix the rare-earth mixture with Na2CO3 and S by dry mixing.... After cooling. 2. M.. Matsuda. Abstr. .. 3. Soc. Siemens proposed to apply a uni-axial hot pressing process instead of HIP. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. 879 (1998). W. Soc.. H. hot-isostatic-pressing process using a phosphor powder prepared by the conventional method for CRT phosphors. 1870RNP (1987). A.. Gd2O2S:Tb Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Tb4O7 Na2CO3 S Mole % 94 (Y) 6 (Tb) 100 300 By weight (g) 170. M. Electrochem. Yokota. M. Fall Meeting.3 53 96 Preparation Mix the rare-earth oxides by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air. Hitachi is able to lower the sintering temperature during HIP by adding a sintering aid using a powder having large particle size. Yoshida. Suzuki. References 1.F for X-ray computed tomography. Boston. Subsequently. Rossner. Y. K. No... Toshiba proposed a high-temperature. 2. Yamada.Remarks 1. and Tamatani. H. J. N. A scintillator Gd2O2S:Pr. Properties and application of gadolinium oxysulfide based ceramic scintillators. and Ostertag.. Fall Meeting. at a temperature of about 1100°C for a few hours. Firing should occur in air in a vessel with a well-closing lid. Abstr. After drying. 2713 (1989). the reaction product has to be washed a few times with water to remove residual flux.Ce. mixture should be powdered in mortar. Electrochem. Soc. Electrochem. Uchida. Praseodimium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide ceramics prepared by the hot isostatic pressing process.

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Cees Ronda. 2. This material is used in X-ray intensifying screens and in oscilloscope CRTs.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn
Structure: Lamellar intercalation Composition Ingredient Mole % By weight (g) Na2CO3 2.50 1.82 MgO 28.80 7.96 Li2CO3 7.50 3.80 5.00 6.45 Na2SiF6 SiO2 55.00 22.66 1.20 0.946 MnCO3 Preparation Mix stoichiometric amounts in a paint shaker for 30 minutes with about 20 mol% of excess potassium carbonate to compensate for losses due to volatilization. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 915 C, 36 hours. Grind. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, 4% H2 /N2, 850 C. Cool to room temperature. Powderize. Screen through a 325-mesh stainless steel sieve. Optical Properties Emission color: Redish-pink Emission peak: 695 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.40 eV), + (4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Characteristic emission at about 1.4 fL level under focused 15 kV/8 A excitation

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 2. This phosphor in formulation of Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2 is an example of a broad family of intercalation ingredient that, besides micas and fluoromicas, includes vermiculites and zeolites. 3. Described composition yields a concentration of 0.08 mol Mn per mole of phosphor. 4. Good electroluminescent properties when intercalated with conductive polymers or metals. References 1. Qi, R.Y., Karam, R.E., Reddy, V.B., and Cox, J.R., U.S. Pat., 5 567 351 (1996). 2. Qi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 658 495 (1997). 3. Reddy, V.B., Karam, R.E., and Northrop, S.K., U.S. Pat., 5 489 398 (1996). 4. Qi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 531 926 (1996). 5. Reddy, V.B., and Karam, R.E., Northrop, S.K., and Zhang, Y., U.S. Pat., 5 531 928 (1996).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na1.23K0.42Eu0.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Mole % Sodium silicate solution 30.7 (of Si) (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) 5.6 (of Ti) TiO2 (anatase) NaCl 58.1 (of Na) KCl 5.6 (of K) Eu(NO3)3·5H2O 0.12 (of Eu) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30 6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. To prepare ETS-10: Mix 20 g of water to the sodium silicate solution and add the NaCl and KCl. Stir and add anatase. Autoclave the gel under autogeneous pressure for 24 hours at 230°C. The resulting powder is filtered and washed with distilled water at room temperature and then allowed to dry at 110°C.

2.

To prepare Eu3+-doped ETS-10: Dissolve 0.07 g of Eu(NO3)3·5H2O in 250 ml of water and add 3.94 g of the already prepared ETS-10. The solution is stirred for 24 hours at 60°C. The precipitate is filtered and dried in air at 110°C. *The next two materials also use this as their basic recipe.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.00 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.044 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: The maximum excitation efficiency at 394 nm (7F0 5L6) and 465 nm (7F0 5D2) Decay to 10% (or 1/e, as given): To 1/e 3.63 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.02 msec Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Luis Carlos. 2. ETS-10 is also known as microporous sodium potassium titanosilicate. 3. ETS-10 is doped through an ion exchange between Na+ and K+ with Eu3+. Reference 1. Rainho, J.P., Carlos, L.D., and Rocha, J., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Lumin., 87, 1083 (2000).

Na1.23K0.42Eu0.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Sodium silicate solution (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) TiO2 (anatase) NaCl KCl Eu(NO3)3·5H2O Mole % 30.7 (of Si) 5.6 (of Ti) 58.1 (of Na) 5.6 (of K) 0.12 (of Eu) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30 6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. ETS-10 and ETS-10 doped with Eu3+ are prepared as in the case of the microporous titanosilicate compound described on the previous page. 2. To obtain Eu3+ doped narsarsukite: Eu3+-doped ETS-10 is calcined in air from room temperature to 800°C at a heating rate of 5°C per minute. The material is maintained at 800°C for 3 hours. Cool in air.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.03 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.003 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: The maximum excitation efficiency at 394 nm (7F0 5L6) and 465 nm (7F0 5D2) Decay to 10%: To 1/e 3.63 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.02 msec Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Luis Carlos. 2. This material is known as synthetic narsarsukite doped with Eu3+. 3. The end product is contaminated with quartz and cristobalite impurities. References 1. Rainho, J.P., Carlos, L.D., and Rocha, J., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Lumin., 87, 1083 (2000). 2. Rainho, J.P. et al., Synthesis and luminescence of Eu3+-doped narsarsukite prepared by the sol-gel process, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tecnol., 26, 1005 (2003).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na1.29K0.46Er0.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Mole % sodium silicate solution 30.7 (of Si) (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) TiO2 (anatase) 5.6 (of Ti) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30

NaCl KCl Eu(NO3)3·5H2O

58.1 (of Na) 5.6 (of K) 0.12 (of Eu)

6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. ETS-10 is prepared as in the case of the microporous titanosilicate compound described in the previous pages. 2. To prepare Eu3+-doped ETS-10: Dissolve 0.07 g of Eu(NO3)3·5H2O in 250 ml of water and add 3.94 g of the already prepared ETS-10. The suspension is stirred for 24 hours at 60°C. The precipitate is filtered and dried in air at 110°C. 3. To obtain Er3+ doped narsarsukite: Eu3+ doped ETS-10 is calcined in air from room temperature to 800°C at a heating rate of 5°C per minute. The material is maintained at 800°C for 3 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 0.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.014 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Maximum excitation efficiency at 520 nm (4I15/2 2H11/2) and 488 nm (4I15/2 4F7/2) Decay to 10%: To 1/e 7.8 ± 0.2 msec Spectra
1700 1650 1600 1550 1500
Wavelength (nm)

1450

700

600

500

400

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

0.75

0.80

Remarks 1. 2. 3. 4.

0.85 2.0 Photon Energy (eV)

2.5

3.0

3.5

0

This contribution is from Luis Carlos. ETS-10 is doped through an ion exchange between Na+ and K+ with Eu3+. This material is known as synthetic narsarsukite. The end product is contaminated with quartz and cristobalite impurities.

References 1. Rocha, J. et al., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Mater. Chem., 10, 1371 (2000). 2. Rainho, J.P. et al., Er(III) environment in luminescent titanosilicates prepared from microporous precursors, J. Mater. Chem., 12, 1162 (2002).

Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10F2:Tb
Structure: Lamellar intercalation Composition Ingredient Na2CO3 MgO Al2O3 (NH4)2SiF6 SiO2 TbF3 Mole % 14.23 42.66 13.94 4.74 23.74 0.69 By weight (g) 12.26 13.98 11.56 6.87 11.60 1.21

Preparation Mix all the ingredients thoroughly for 20–30 minutes, preferably in a paint shaker or similar device. Fire in a covered alumina crucible, with graphite pellets added, 1100 C, 12–24 hours. Cool to ambient temperature, powderize, and wash in de-ionized water. Optical Properties Emission Color: Bluish-green Emission peaks: 380, 415, 440, and 540 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.40 eV), + (4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: About 1 fL level under focused 15 kV/8 A excitation Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 2. The described procedure yields a concentration of 0.04 mol% Tb. The formula of the compound is Na2(Mg3-xTbx)Al2Si2O10F2. 3. This phosphor is an example of a broad family of intercalation compounds that includes mica, fluoromica, vermiculite, and zeolite. 4. Phosphor has good electroluminescent properties if intercalated with polymers or metals.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Cox, J.R., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 656 199 (1997). 2. Reddy, V.B., Karam, R.E., and Northrup, S.K., U.S. Pat., 5 489 398 (1996). 3. Oi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 531 926 (1996). 4. Karam, R.E., Reddy, V.B., Northrup, S.K., and Zhang, Y., U.S. Pat., 5 531 928 (1996). 5. Oi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., and Cox, J.R., U.S. Pat., 5 567 351 (1996).

Section 8: Commercial Phosphors and Scintillators

Section 8 COMMERCIAL PHOSPHORS AND SCINTILLATORS
Commercial phosphors and scintillators are arranged in order of increasing wavelength in Table 1. The data were compiled for recent producers’ data sheets and literature. Note that these may not be the only phosphors and scintillators available commercially or the materials still may not be manufactured. Many phosphors are specified by P numbers assigned by the Electronics Industries Association of the United States; these have been used since 1945 and are included in Table 1. The World Phosphor Type Designation System (WPTDS), established in 1982, is a more detailed, unified phosphor system designation system. It usually consisting of two letters: the first letter indicating the criterion for the phosphor screen emission color, the second letter indicating differences from the criterion. These symbols, together with other numbers and symbols used in Japan and Europe, are included in an extensive tabulation by Inaho and Hase in chapter 6—Section 6 of the Phosphor Handbook. Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators Wavelength of maximum Chemical emission (nm) formula 220, 310(1) 305 307 315 330–352 338 342–347 350 351 358–385 365 371 380 385 390 390 400 400 400, 525 410 BaF2(1,2) CeF3(2) MgSrAl10O17:Ce CsI(2) LaCl3:Ce3+(2) (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce YAlO3:Ce3+(2) BaSi2O5:Pb LaBr3:Ce3+(2) LuAlO3:Ce3+(2) SrB4O7:Eu Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+(2) Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+ CsF(1,2) ZnO:Ga Y2SiO5:Ce3+ Zn2SiO4:Ti P46 (70%) + P47 (30%) Y2SiO5:Ce3+(2)

Designation or acronym

YAP, YALO

LuAP LPS P16

P47 P52 P48 YSO:Ce

As LuYAP MSL CWO P5 LSO LGSO GSO BAM BAM:Eu.Ti)2P2O7:Ti ZnO:Zn Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb.F(3) ZnO:Zn Y2O2S:Pr3+ ZnS:Cu.Ni CdWO4(2) MgWO4 ZnWO4(2) Bi4Ge3O12(2) Sr6P5BO20:Eu Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb (Ba.Ce. 514 460 460 465 470/540 473 480 480 480 482 494 504 509 510 510 510 513 520 525 525 YTaO4:Nb Lu1-xYxAlO3:Ce3+(2) NaI:Tl(2) — CsI:Na+(2) CaWO4(2) CaWO4:W Lu2SiO5:Ce3+ Sr2P2O7:Eu (Lu.Cl CdS:In Zn2SiO4:Mn.Mn Gd2O2S:Pr(3) Gd2O2S:Pr.Cl ZnS:Ag.Mn P11* P37 CWO BGO P15 UFC P24 P31 P39 .Table 1 Commerical phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 410 415 415 418–420 420 420 420 420 420 425–430 433 435 440 447 450 455–504 456.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+ CaWO4:Pb CaF2:Eu2+(2) Gd2SiO5: Ce3+(2) Sr5Cl(PO4)3:Eu BaMgAl10O17:Eu ZnS:Cu BaMgAl10O17:Eu:Mn Sr2P2O7:Sn ZnS:Ag.

3) CaSiO3:Mn2+.Cd)S:Ag.Zn.Gd)2O3:Eu3+(2.Cd)S:Cu Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(2) MgF2:Mn2+ (Zn.6Cd0.Cu KMgF3:Mn2+ (Zn. 696 600 605 610 610 610 610 610 611 619 626 626 627 Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn.4S:Ag ZnS:Mn.Pr)0. YVE P54* .60O3(Eu.60O3(Eu.Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 525 526 528 530 540 543 544 544 544 544 546 546 550 550 559 560 560 560 584 585 590 590 593. 611 593.Cl Gd2O2S:Tb3+ La2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Y3Al5O12:Tb3+ (Ce.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn Y2O2S:Eu3+ (Sr.06(3) Y1.Mg)F2:Mn2+ MgF2:Mn2+ (Ca.Pb Y1. 619.Pr)0.Cu.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn (Y.V)O4:Eu3+ (Zn.34Gd0.Mg)F2:Mn2+ KMgF3:Mn2+ (Y.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn P1 ZSM P46 P34 P2 P43.Sb2O3 Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(2) ZnS:Pb.Ce.34Gd0.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb (La.Gd)BO3:Eu3+ Y(P.06 Y2O3:Eu3+ YVO4:Eu3+ (Sr. GOS P44 P45 P53 P28 YAG:Ce P33 P20 P26 P12 P19 P38 P21 P25 Hilight YGO P56.Cl CsI:Tl(2) Zn0.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb (Zn. YOE P49*.Cu ZnS:Ag.

6S:Ag Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ MgSiO3:Mn2+ Mg4(F)(Ge.Ce(2) P27 P13 GGG:Cr * These compositions are also sometimes designated as P22. P22 can be any of several compounds.Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 627 630 635 640 658 658 730 Gd2O2S:Eu3+ Zn0.4Cd0.Sn)O6:Mn2+ Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+ Gd3Ga5O12:Cr. (1) Core-valence luminescence (2) Single crystal scintillator (3) Transparent ceramic .

Appendices Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength Appendix III Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography Appendix I Appendix II .

combining (light) and (to carry). for a time. Initially. the assignation of this word was given to any substance that evinced the property of phosphorescence.1 Figure 1 Depiction of the discovery of phosphorus by Brand as perceived by Joseph Wright of Derby some years later (Copyright by Derby City Council Art Galleries. and meaning light carrying or luminous. The element phosphorus (P) was discovered in such a search by Henning Brand (1669) while experimenting with concentrated urine. this word was used more specifically to describe substances which became luminous following exposure to light excitation. The term phosphorescence was. distillation resulted in a white substance that gave out enough light to allow Brand to read in the dark. permission pending).APPENDIX I Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes The word phosphorus derives from the Greek [fosforos]. This phosphorescence property lent its name to the element (Figure 1). These developments and observations had their origin in alchemical attempts to manufacture noble metals through use of the evasive Philosopher’s Stone. . used to describe the emission of diffuse light from causes other than combustion.

it was five inches wide and the back of the head was flat. when viewed in the dark. he spent five hundred thousand in cash to acquire the head of a phoenix complete with a shining and colorful skeleton. born South of the Yangtze River.D. there is documented evidence that phosphors have been produced and put to use as early as 2000 years ago as is recorded in a Chinese text (Figure 2). The phosphors described were of the persistent type and were used in a painting which glowed in the dark and was considered to some to have inexplicable magic. He acquired at the same time a painting of a cow. . Tai Zong showed this painting to all his Ministers. Following the fall of the Tang Dynasty. of Run Zhou. regardless. is given in the caption.2 (A translation of the Chinese text. kindly provided by Professor Y. the painting when viewed in daylight showed the cow grazing outside an open pen.Historically. such as calcium from seashells and sulfur from volcanic activity. Hai Wai Yi Ji written by Zhang Qian. like a pillar. was the yongest son of the governor of Xu Wen. the picture showed the cow resting inside the barn. who consulted some imperial collections. He added that in the sea shores of the land of southern people (Japan) sometimes strong winds would grind these rocks with water to form a similar paint. Often they found that these shells contained a special liquid which when collected and mixed with paint formed a special type of ink. from which this passage is taken. Zhao. In the text. it is apparent that phosphorescent materials have been around for some time. southern people (Japanese) frequented the beaches to harvest nacre. courtesy of Dr. Tamatani.) by Wen Ying. Xiang-shan Ye Lu. Writings or paintings using this ink had the properties of vanishing in daylight and becoming visible in the dark. reference is made to a book published in the reign of Han Wu Di (140–88 B. the famous envoy sent to the Western regions by Han Wu Di. a scholar named Du Gao. The Chinese written text reads as follows (right to left): Xu Zhi-e. however. the painting eventually passed to Tai Zong. Later. the last emperor of the Southern Tang Dynasty. he claimed that he had obtained his information from a book.) which would indicate that manmade phosphors have been available for more than 2000 years. Some questions have been raised as to the accuracy of the compilations. none of them could explain the secret of the phenomena except for an officer in charge of religious matters named Zhan Nin. He explained that at low tide in the China Sea. found the reference in a work dating back to the Six Dynasties (220–586 A.). Xu presented the painting to his sovereign. The head possessed a red crest and a golden beak which vividly resembled those of a real rooster. The methods for preparing the phosphors or the phosphors used in these paintings apparently were obtained from Japan where raw materials. the second emperor of the Song Dynasty.) Figure 2 Copy of the Chinese text describing the acquisition of a luminescent painting by Xu Zhi-e written for a compilation of historical and folk tales published in the Song dynasty (960–1279 A.D. Li Yu. used for the synthesis of sulfide phosphors occur naturally.C. The page describing the phosphorescent painting is shown in Figure 2. On one occasion. He was fond of collecting rare antiques and other curios. M. All the court officials thought the Ning’s explanation was nonsense.

. The second is to reduce it to a meal and. both authors were professors at the famed University of Bologna. he was the first to point out that phosphorescence only occurred after calcinations and he tried to explain the phenomena as due to the slow release of fire and/or light trapped in the material during exposure. Licetus postulated. Potier’s recipe is likely the first phosphor recipe on record.The denomination of phosphor (phosphori) first appeared in the seventeenth century in connection with the discovery of the Bolognian Stone (BaS) by Vincenzo Casciarolo in 1602. The best calcinations results when stones. Preliminary scientific investigations of the properties of this stone were discussed in De Illuminabili Lapide Bononiensi Epistola by Ovido Montalbani and in Litheosphorus Sive De Lapide Boboniensi by Fortinius Licetus in 1634 and 1640. work it into cake either with water or the white of an egg. As quoted by E. Galileo was right and the diffuse light observed in that lunar phase is due to sunlight reflected from Earth. after a very hot fire has been made. the stone was of interest to pharmacologists because it reputedly also possessed depilatory properties. as the catalyst for the conversion of ignoble to noble metals).N. Licetus. when properly treated it gave rise to a reddish glow which led to the scientific study of luminescent objects. If not cooked sufficiently the procedure is repeated as before. respectively. on the other hand. barite) is found near Monte Paderno as scattered stones. After they have dried out they are put in layers with coal in a blast furnace and. Sometimes this is done three times. The first is to reduce the stone to very fine meal. In his book.e.4 it reads: According to the light-bearing quality sought for. though published in Latin. Cesare La Galla described the properties of the stone in De Phenomenis in Orbe Lunae published in 1612. From this powder various animals are formed in little boxes (pyxidiculum) which shine wonderfully in the dark. The method for preparation of the Bolognian Stone was described in detail by Pierre Potier in Pharmacopea Spagirica in 1625. that the faint light of a new moon was produced by lunar material similar to the Bolognian Stone.5 The properties of the phosphorescent stone attracted attention throughout the Italian peninsula and the European continent and led to much speculation as to the origin of the emission. these pores then held air suffused with light whose gradual release led to the observed phosphorescence. Of course.3 The base material (BaSO4. Montalbani described the various colors of light that could be obtained from the stone as a function of preparation and first suggested an analogy between the phosphorescence and burning. pure and diaphanous are used. in the place of thalerum (?). One popular belief advanced by Athanasius Kircher of Fulda (Hesse) was that the phosphorus attracted light much as a magnet attracted iron filings. for example. There was considerable interest throughout Italy in these materials and attempts were made to use it as the Philosopher’s Stone (i. When the oven has cooled off the cakes are taken out. shining. Harvey.6 he reported that the recipe for the preparation of the stone had been lost by then and he apparently had not been aware of Potier’s pharmacological work.. this suggestion lead to controversy on the source of this radiation with no lesser a luminary than Galileo Galilei. related in some detail the history of the stone and various attempts by the learned community in Bologna to explain the origin of the emitted light. Calcination was thought to produce pores in the stone. they are calcinated for four or five hours. published in 1646. The experiments leading to this conclusion are detailed in Ars Magna Lucis Et Umbra. News regarding the unusual properties of the lapide Bononiensi was carried to the British Isles by John Evelyn (1620– 1706) following a visit to Bologna in 1645. it (BaSO4) is calcinated in two ways. then to calcinate it in a crucible with very strong fire.

This compound is hygroscopic and turns to a liquid when exposed to atmosphere. An illustration by Marc’Antonio Cellio allegorizing the magical phosphorescent qualities of the Bolognia Stone produced in the course of calcinations.Figure 3 (left). Balduin called his material phosphorus hermeticus and disclosed his results in Aurum Superius et Inferius Aurae Superioris et Inferioris Hermeticum which appeared simultaneous in Amsterdam and in Frankfurt in 1675. Balduin communicated his results to the Royal Society of London in 1676 and as a consequence was elected to Fellowship of the Society. These drawings appeared in Il Fosforo o vero la Pietra Bolognese. The second material is known as Homberg’s phosphorus named after Wilhelm Homberg (1652–1715) who made notable contributions to the foundation of modern chemistry and who had an interest in the photochromic properties of silver nitrate. In the course of his . When calcium nitrate is overheated it develops a yellowish tint and emits a reddish phosphorescence in the dark following exposure to sunlight. Drawing of the furnace used by Casciarolo for calcinations of BaSO4 (barite) to produce his magical stone. His phosphor was henceforth named Balduin’s phophorus. The first one was due to Christian Adolph Balduin (1632–1682) who in 1675 prepared a phosphorescent form of calcium nitrate by mixing chalk and nitric acid and distilling the solution to dryness. he believed that the solution formed in this way represented a spiritus mundi and it is likely that the paint used in the Chinese paintings mentioned above was a solution of this type. 3. The interest in light-emitting materials led to the invention and synthesis of three other phosphori of interest to the scientific and/or the alchemical communities of that period. (right). published in 1680 by Cellio and are reproduced from Ref. this volume is in the University Library of Bologna. Because the material needed to be kept in a sealed vessel. Note that the structure of this furnace is not much different than modern ovens used for similar purposes.

the brightest pieces.8 His report is the earliest recipe of any phosphor written in English. had a wide ranging set of scientific interests including electricity. and let the purest part of the calx be pulverized and sifted. though the language in the recipe is a bit arcane. where it must be kept red hot. Nicola Zucchi (1586–1670). He was awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society twice. Mix with three parts of this powder one part of flowers of sulphur. by which means it is now in every person’s power to amuse himself and his friends with these curious experiments. let this mixture be rammed in a crucible. which. if good phosphorus.” We note. a man born under modest circumstances. Canton’s which makes an artificial phosphorus greatly superior to any single natural substance. and then be set by to cool. upon trial. persisted well into the nineteenth century. In 1652. for one hour at least. Theodore Sidot.experimentations. or breaking to pieces. that clouds were electrified both positively and negatively and designed experimental methods that are (even now) used to determine the sign of charges via induction. of about an inch and a half depth. published in London in 1772. In 1768. and cutting. another Professor from Rome. and optics. by keeping them in a good coal fire for half an hour. Priestly writes (pages 370–372):9 In the next place I shall present my reader with an account of this composition of Mr. of course. Beginning with the discovery of the Bolognian Stone. He showed. reported that the intensity of the phosphorescence emitted from the stone was proportional to the intensity of the excitation light and that the color of the light emitted was independent of the coloration of the excitation light. however.3 The beginning of modern studies of phosphor synthesis can be attributed to a French chemist. When it is cold. the method described is not much different than some of those presented in Section 2 of this work. emanated the radiation on its own. who in 1866 was able to grow small ZnS crystals using sublimation. fascination. others such as Giullio Cesare La Galla (1576–1624) of Rome speculated that the emissions were due to the slow release of fire and light trapped in the stone in the process of calcinations. magnetism. Homberg synthesized calcium chloride sometime in the 1690’s and showed it had phosphorescence properties. he found that his crystals phosphoresced in the dark. and may be preserved by keeping it in a dry phial with a ground stopple. In addition to Kircher’s conjecture as to the source of the light noted above. Light and Colours. the synthesis methods and experimental results were reported to the French Academy by Edmond Becquerel in a note in 1866 and the material . He attributed this explanation to Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) himself. and speculation. he reported in Philosophical Transactions the discovery of a strong phosphorescent material which was promptly named Canton’s phosphorus (CaS). Although Sidot’s original purpose was to study crystal growth. in 1751 for making artificial magnets and in 1765 for measuring the compressibility of water. Joseph Priestly cites Canton in The History and Present State of Discoveries Relating to Vision. the phenomena of and the origin of the observed phosphorescence were sources of much interest. much as a sponge would absorb water and then release it as it is squeezed. and let it be placed in the middle of the fire. will be a white powder. His receipt for making it is as follows: “Calcinate some common oyster shells. The idea of the Bolognian Stone attracting light and causing the phosphorescence either by reemitting the light or by reflecting it. scrape off. for example. turn it out of the crucible. rather than being attracted like a sponge or magnet to the stone.7 John Canton (1718–1772). and has the advantage of being easily and cheaply prepared. These conclusions were reaffirmed in 1728 by Francesco Zanotti who also asserted that the light. till it be almost full.

Klatt and Philip Leonard also showed that the phosphorescence properties of CaS and other phosphori depended on the presence of metal contaminants. Becquerel published his opus on light. La Lumiere-Ses Causes et Ses Effects (1867). 110–130 (1968). J.14 the word luminescence is used to describe most light emission processes following some form of excitation. alkaline chalcogenide phosphors are called Lenard phosphors. however. He was able to synthesize not only Sidot’s blende but also a series of alkaline earth chalcogenides (sulfides and selenides) and demonstrated that the light emission of the compounds could be altered by introducing metallic ions into the materials.html>). In 1950.11 perhaps due to his involvement in the discovery of Sidot’s blende. One of the principals there was Humboldt Leverenz who developed synthesized and investigated the properties of many the luminescent materials that are even now in use. . the emission from Sidot’s blende. the terminology describing phosphorescent phenomena was revised. pp. The Phosphor Handbook contains an updated discussion of modern synthesis methods as well as the description of phosphors suitable for a variety of technical purposes. Discovery of the elements. van der Krogt.was named Sidot’s blende.15 Because of the necessity for better phosphors for the display industries in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s. The word phosphor began to be applied in a more limited sense (i. Because of his extensive work on phosphors detailed in a Handbuch article. Philip E. (<http://www. Chem.13 In the late 1800’s. only to those materials which become self-luminous after exposure to light).. as of late. Weeks. He believed that in the latter case the luminescence observed in this gem was an intrinsic property of alumina and that Cr simply played a role as an activator. The technical differences between fluorescence and phosphorescence were resolved following the introduction in 1888 of the word luminescence by Eilhardt Wiedemann in chemical processes. References 1... The latter ions form diverse centers in the material and are said to activate the luminescence. the word phosphor is used to describe principally solid luminescent inorganic materials. It is our hope that the present volume serves to complement the information found in that handbook. hence they were named activator ions. respectively.E. for example.12 Results of studies by V.10 About this time. Elementymology & Elements Multidict: Phosphors (2003). Educ.A. This led to a long-lasting controversy with Lecoq de Boisbaudran who proved to be correct in proposing that the R-line fluorescence arose due to the presence of chromium.16 Because of the advent of atomic and quantum physics and chemistry and the work of many researchers in this area of inquiry which preceded us. Becquerel discusses at length the phosphorescence of various compounds including ruby (Al2O3:Cr3+). we have now a much better understanding as to the mechanisms which produce luminescence in solids and we are almost to the point where we can begin thinking in terms of designing and tailoring materials to our specific technical needs. considerable work took place at the Radio Corporation of America (RCA).e.. Phosphorescence and fluorescence are. M. still in use to categorize longand short-lived luminescent emissions. Lenard and his co-workers helped to establish phosphor research on a firm scientific footing at the turn of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century.vanderkrogt. P. for many years this work was accepted as the standard text in the phosphor art and material in the book remains useful even today. he published An Introduction to Luminescence in Solids in which he summarized much of his life’s work. is due to trace amounts of copper.net/elements/chronology_index.

90 (1889). and subsequently the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1665.. William M. Rend. Bull. in Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence: Perspectives for the 21stCentury.E.. R. p. Complete Works.A. A. Eds. Harvey. 7. Pazzagli.. 63. Schmidt. Canton.. W.. Rend..N. 46 (1888). Akademie Verlagsgesellschaft.. Ann.. Italy. Kricka. Lenard. New York (1950). 8. E.. J. John (1718–1772).J. Leipzig (1928). in Phosphor Handbook. Librairie de Firmin Didot Frerers. Lecoq. 34. History of phosphors technology. (2003) (<http://www. Accounts of his visit to Bologna in 1644–1645 appear in the inaugural volumes of the transactions and are also found in editions of his dairies: for example.. 188 (1866). Roda. he is also known for his books on flora and gardening. AIM25: Royal Society: Canton. Whatever happened to Wilhem Homberg?.W. He was one of the principals in establishing the Royal Society. Chem. Leverenz..aim25. 898. London (1973). S.B. American Philosophical Society. The various antique volumes cited are in depository at the University Library of Bologna. Dent & Sons. and Yen. and Stanley. A. The discovery of luminescence: the Bolognian Stone. Compt. Sci. H. E. in Handbuch der Experimentalphysik. Chapter 4. E. Phys. 12. Paris. 5.. Chem. M. 11..M. and Tamitani. 16.. L. 21–24 (1989). Vol.E.. CRC Press. FL. Phosphoreszenz und Fluoreszenz. 15. E. 38. I am grateful to Dr. M. Acad. P. New York (1998).M. Wied. La Luminiere-Ses Causes et ses Effets. Klatt. 9. A History of Luminescence. 3. and Lenard.... Yen . Wiedemann. Nakajima. Ph.ac. John. J. 4. Sci. Boca Raton. John Wiley & Sons.. (1998). Eds.uk/>). F. Acad. V.2. John Evelyn is a famed seventeenth century chronicler and diarist who traveled extensively in Europe in the early 1600’s. Jensen. Ann. Roda.. Becquerel... 14. Hist. Philadelphia (1957). 1107 (1886). 10. Becquerel. 13. Fils et Cie. S. P.. Guy Hill for contributing this citation. Shionoya. 3. W.. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. John Wiley & Sons. Compt. (1867) de Boisbaudran.. 6. Evelyn.. 103. and Tomaschek. Dairy of John Evelyn. 23.

APPENDIX II Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength The phosphors and scintillators in Sections 4. 660 362 363 363. 371 358–385 359 359. and 8 are listed in order of increasing wavelength of the maximum emission.Cl SrwFxB4O6. 575 351 352. 460 302. 370 350 350 350.Mn BaSi2O5:Pb -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ LaBr3:Ce3+ MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ CaO:Pb2+ KMgF3:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Ce3+ LuAlO3:Ce3+ CaS:Pb2+ CaS:Pb2+.5:Eu2+ SrB4O7:Eu2+(F. 344 320. 337 320.Cl SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+. Wavelength (nm) 220. 636 360 360. 327 310 314 315 315 319 320 320. 310 233 254 254 267 280.Cl. 400. 370.Br) YAl3B4O12:Eu3+.Cr3+ SrB4O7:Eu MgSO4:Eu2+ Y2O3:Ce3+ in SiO2 BaSO4:Eu2+ SrSO4:Eu2+ 453 . 319 303 305 307 309. 7. 345 325 330 330–352 333 334. 388 348 348. 355 335 Chemical formula BaF2 CaSO4:Pb2+ BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+ YAlO3:Ce3+ MgSO4:Pb2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ LaOBr:Tm3+ BaSO4:Ce3+ SrSO4:Ce3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ CeF3 MgSrAl10O17:Ce CaSO4:Ce3+ SrB4O7:Pb2+ CaO:Cd2+ CsI LuTaO4:Nb5+ CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ CaF2:Ce3+ Ca2P2O7:Ce3+ LaPO4:Ce3+ CaB2O4:Pb2+ YTaO4 LaCl3:Ce3+ CaO:Zn2+ YPO4:Ce3+ CaSiO3:Pb2+ Wavelength (nm) 337 338 342–347 347. 319 302. 413 365 366 366 368 370 370 370 371 375 375 376 376 Chemical formula -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ LaOCl:Bi3+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ BaSi2O5:Pb2+ YAlO3:Ce3+ -Ca2P2O7:Sn. 355 288 295 300.

643 418 418–420 420 420 420 420 420 420 422 423 423 423 425 425 425–430 429 430 432 continued Chemical formula MgBaP2O7:Eu2+ YTaO4:Nb5+ BaMg3F8:Eu2+. 610 411 411 412 412. 525 403 405 405 405.Wavelength (nm) 378 380 380 380. 512 390 390 390 391 391 394 395 400 400 400 400. 440 385. 415. 540 385 385 385 385.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ GdNbO4:Bi3+ CaWO4 . 413 386 388 388 388 388. 617 405. 440.Br.Mn2+ YOCl:Ce3+ Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ –Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ –Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Mn2+ CsF MgSrP2O7:Eu2+ ZnO:Ga Ca2MgSi2O7 CaO:Bi3+ BaF2:Eu2+ KAl11O17:Tl+ BaB8O13:Eu2+ BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ Zn2SiO4:Ti P46 (70%) + P47 (30%) CaB2P2O9:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+.Mn2+ CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 MSL CaWO4 CaWO4:W CsI:Na+ Lu2SiO5:Ce3+ Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ SrF2:Eu2+ –Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ CaF2:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Ti4+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ (Lu.Mn2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+. Pb2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+ LaOBr:Tb3+ YBO3:Ce3+ Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ CaSO4:Eu2+ ZnO:Al3+.Ga3+ ZnO:Ga3+ CaSO4:Eu2+. 660 413 413 413.Mn2+ Sr(Cl. 528 414–626 415 415 415 415 415 415 416 416. 620 405–432 407 407 410 410 Chemical formula -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+ BaFCl:Eu2+ Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+ Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10:Tb3+ BaFBr:Eu2+ BaFCl:Eu2+.Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ CaYBO4:Bi3+ Y2O3:Bi3+ YOF:Tb3+ Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ Lu1–xYxAlO3:Ce3+ NaI:Tl Y2SiO5:Ce3+ YPO4:V5+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+.I)2:Eu2+ CaAl4O7:Ce3+ CaAl2O4:Ce3+ Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Wavelength (nm) 410 410 410. 410.

Yb3+ CaS:La3+ ZnS:Pb2+.Mn2+ ZnS:Au. 656 493 494 495 496 continued Chemical formula Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ ZnS:Ag. 500. 512 464 464 464.Th4+ YF3:Mn2+ YPO4:Mn2+. 570 485 485 486 488 490.Cl– (ErCl3)0.I BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+.Wavelength (nm) 433 433 435 435 435 437 438. 514 459 459 460 Chemical formula CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaWO4:Pb CaF2:Eu2+ Ca5(VO4)3Cl CaWO4:Pb2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ CaS:Cu+. 532 465 465 467 467 470 470/540 473 475 477 477. 486 440 440 440 440 443 443 443 444.Ni CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ SrMgSi2O6:Eu CdWO4 MgWO4 BaAl2S4:Eu2+ YF3:Mn2+.Cl CaGa2S4:Ce3+ La2O3:Bi3+ SrB4O7:Pb2+. 530 445 446 447 448 448 448. 390 450 450 450 451 453 453 454.In Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ ZnS:Ag.Ti)2P2O7:Ti BaTiP2O7 Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ .Th4+ Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Bi4Ge3O12 Sr6P5BO20:Eu ZnWO4 YVO4:Dy3+ Bi4Ge3O12 YF3:Tm3+.75 Y2O2S:Eu3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ ThO2:Pr3+ SrIn2O4:Pr3+.Cl– Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+. 680 490–630 492 492 492 492.Cl ZnS:Cu Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ ZnS–CdS:Cu.Na+ BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Gd2SiO5: Ce3+ MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+ CaAl2O4:Eu2+ CaS:Y3+ ZnS:Ag+.Mn2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ ZnS:Cl– ZnGa2O4 Wavelength (nm) 460 460 463.Al3+ (Ba.Cl– ZnS:Cu+.Na CaO:Cu+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+ Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Ce3+ SrGa2S4:Ce3+ ZnS-CdS:Ag+.25(BaCl2)0. 490 454—800 455–504 456 456 456. 521 479 480 480 480 480 480. 490 454.

Mn2+ MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ SrAl12O19:Eu2+.5Al12O19:Ce3+.Br Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.As5+ ZnS–CdS:Cu. 564 504 504 504 504 505 506 508 508 508 509. 608 528.F Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ SrxBayClzAl2O4–z/2:Mn2+.Ce.F MgBa2(PO4)2:U ZnS:Pb.Mn2+ CaF2:Mn2+ MgWO4 SrAl2S4:Eu2+ CaS:Pr3+. 575 510 510 510 510 512 512 513 514 514 514 514 514 514 517 519 519 520 520 Chemical formula CaF2:Ce3+.Pb2+. 649 529 530 530 530 532 534 535 537 537 537 537 539 539 539 539 540 540 540 542 542 continued Chemical formula Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ ZnS:Cu+.Mn2+ CdS:In SrAl12O19:Ce3+.P (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ CaF2:U CaB2O4:Mn2+ CaMoO4 Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ SrS:Cu+.Ce3+ Y2O2S:Pr3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+.Cl KGa11O17:Mn2+ BaAl2O4:Eu2+ ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ SrS:Ce3+ BaSi2O5:Eu2+ Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ MgGa2O4:Mn2+ ZnO:Zn SrGa12O19:Mn2+ ZnO:S -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Mn2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Ca3WO6:U ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ ZnS:Cu. 528 522 522 523 525 525 525 525 525 527 528 528 528 528.As5+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ ZnS–CdS:Cu.Br CaSO4:Ce3+.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Gd2O2S:Pr.Mn2+ Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ SrGa2S4:Eu2+ YAl3B4O12:Th4+.Mn2+ Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ CaO:Sb3+ CaP2O6:Mn2+ CaS:Sn2+ CaS:Sn2+.Al3+ CaS:Ce3+ LiAl5O8:Mn2+ LiAlO2:Mn2+ SrAl2O4:Eu2+ CdS:In MgAl2O4:Mn2+ SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. 670 498 502 502 502.Ce3+.Mn2+ Wavelength (nm) 521 521 521.Mn2+ Ca0.Wavelength (nm) 496 496 496 496 496.Cu ZnS-CdS(75–25) Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+.Sn CaLaB3O7:Ce3+.Tb3+ .5Ba0.Na Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+.

5:Pb2+ CaAl2O4:Mn2+ La2O2S:Tb3+ SrS:Mn2+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ho3+ Y3Al5O12:Tb3+ CaO:Tb3+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ YOBr:Eu3+ LiInO2:Sm3+ LaAsO4:Eu3+ ZnS:P ZnS:P3–.Cd)S:Cu CsI:Tl+ Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+ NaYF4:Er3+. 550 542.Wavelength (nm) 542 542 542.Tb3+ ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Y2O3:Tb3+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.Br. 689 continued Chemical formula YF3:Er3+.Mn2+ LaAlO3:Sm3+ SrSO4:Eu2+.Mn2+ CaS:Tb3+ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ CaAl2O4:Tb3+ MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ ThO2:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ce3+.Na CaS:Tb3+.Tb3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ in SiO2 YAlO3:Tb3+ ZnS:Ag.Yb3+ BaY2F8:Er3+. 689 542–549 542–549 542–549 543 543 543 543 543 543 543 544 544 544 544 544 544 544 544 544–549 545 545 546 546 546 546 546 546 546 550 550 550 550 550 Chemical formula YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Ce. 636 551 551 551 556 556–608 559 559 560 560 562 563 564 564–644 566 566–620 571 571 573 574 574 575 577–630 577–670 577–695 579 579 580 582 582 584 585 585 585 585.Yb3+ ZnS:Eu2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Sr3WO6:U ZnS:Eu2+ Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ CaS:Sm3+ CaGa2S4:Eu2+ MgF2:Mn2+ CsI:Tl Zn0.4S:Ag Y2O3:Er3+ Ba3WO6:U CaAl4O7:Pb2+.Mn2+ .Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+.Cl (Y.Ni ZnS:Mn.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb CaF2:Ce3+.Mn2+ CaO:Sm3+ CaSiO3:Pb2+.Yb3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Wavelength (nm) 550.Tb3+ (Ce.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb (La.Tb3+ CaS:Sb3+ CaS:Sb3+. 665 550.Cl– Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ ZnS:Mn2+ ZnS-CdS:Ag.6Cd0. 670 551.Cl La2O3:Pb2+ (Zn.Mn2+ YPO4:Ce3+.Cu KMgF3:Mn2+ MgCaP2O7:Mn2+ ZnF2:Mn2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+.Gd)BO3:Tb3+ Ca2La2BO6.Cu.

660 588.Pb Y1. 695 586–699 588 588 588. 696 594.Mn2+ CaO:Eu3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+ YAsO4:Eu3+ LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ YAlO3:Eu3+ CaGeO3:Mn2+ CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ .Wavelength (nm) 586 586. 608.Mn2+ in SiO2 YVO4:Eu3+ (Y.8O3.Pr3+ Y4Al2O9:Eu3+ ThO2:Eu3+ CaCl2:Eu2+.34Gd0.Na+ KMgF3:Mn2+ MgF2:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. 629 593 593. 619.Mn2+ SrGa2S4:Pb2+ SrSO4:Bi YBO3:Eu3+ CaYBO4:Eu3+ (Y.Gd)2O3:Eu3+ (Ca.Zn. 683. 710 596 599 600 602 605 605 Chemical formula LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ LaPO4:Eu3+ LaVO4:Eu3+ CaS:Mn2+ MgS:Eu2+ MgB2O4:Mn2+ CaO:Tl+ YOF:Eu3+ (Zn.23K0. 611. 617. 827 589–627 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 592.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+ SrY2O3:Eu3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ NaYO2:Eu3+ SrAl4O7:Eu3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ in SiO2 CaMoO4:Eu3+ CaSO4:Bi LaBO3:Eu3+ LaOCl:Eu3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+.60O3(Eu. 619 696 593.06 Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ CaGa2S4:Pb2+ CaLaBO4:Eu3+ CaYB0. 620. 702 595.V)O4:Eu3+ K2La2Ti3O10:Eu3+ YPO4:Eu3+ KMgF3:Mn2+ CaO:Mn2+ ZnS–CdS (50–50) YAlO3:Sm3+ LaAlO3:Eu3+ LiInO2:Eu3+ Wavelength (nm) 608 608 608 608 609 610 610 610 610 611 611 611 611 611 611 611 612 612 612 612 612 614 614 614 614 614 614 614–699 615 615 615 615 615 615 615–695 617 617 continued Chemical formula CaS:Pb2+.Li+. 591.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn CaSiO3:Mn2+. 629 593.Gd)BO3:Eu3+ Y(P.Pr)0.42Eu0.7:Eu3+ Na1.Mn2+(Al) LiLaO2:Eu3+ Ba2SiO4:Ce3+.Mg)F2:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ CaGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa4O7:Mn2+ CaO:Eu3+.

Ce 633 (Zn.Cl 640 MgSiO3:Mn2+ 760 CaTi0. 667 Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ 1540 Na1.4Cd0.Te2+ Na1.Sn)O6:Mn2+ 623 LiAlF4:Mn2+ 658 Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+ 623 ZnS:Sn.42Eu0.Cu 660 Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ 623 ZnS:Sn2+.9Al0. 707.Sm2+ 685 SrB8O13:Sm2+ 626 ZnS:Pb2+ 627 Gd2O2S:Eu3+ 688.Te La2W3O12:Eu3+ 646 -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ 646 ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ MgYBO4:Eu3+ 646 ZnS:Mn2+.6S:Ag 730 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr.Mn 620 YOCl:Eu3+ 2+ 658 Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ 620 ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn 621 CaYAlO4:Eu3+ 658 Mg4(F)(Ge.Al3+ 642 BaS:Au.Mn2+ in SiO2 742 LiAlO2:Fe3+ 639 Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ 747 CaS:Yb2+ 640 CdS:Te 747 CaS:Yb2+.K 645 ZnO:Bi3+ CdS:In.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn .46Er0.29K0.Cl– 640.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+ 641 ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ __________________________________________________________________________ .Cl 649 CaS:Eu2+ ·xH2O:Eu3+ 620 SrS:Eu2+ 646 ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 650 ZnS:Te.23K0.Mn 725 Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ 629 Be2SiO4:Mn2+ 689 ZnS:Sn 4+ 630 K2SiF6:Mn 695 Na(Mg2–xMnX)LiSi4O10F2:Mn 713 CaGa2S4:Mn2+ 630 Zn0.Li+ 660 ZnS–CdS (25–75) 2+ 661 SrMoO4:U 625 Cd2B6O11:Mn 3+ 625 La2O3:Eu 680 -SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+ 626 (Sr.Ag 660 Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ 623 ZnS:Pb.Wavelength (nm) 617 618 620 620 620 620 Chemical formula Wavelength (nm) continued Chemical formula SrTiO3:Pr3+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn 681 LiAl5O8:Fe3+ 681 MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+.Mn2+ 626 LaOF:Eu3+ 626 ZnO:Se 684–732 SrwFxByOz:Eu2+.1O3:Bi3+ 640 MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ 800 CdS:Ag+.12TiSi5O13 646 ZnSe:Cu+. 2+ 2+ 629 -(Ca.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ 2+ 635 Zn3(PO4)2:Mn 730 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ 636 CaI2:Eu2+.

Smolensk. Willi managed to construct a workable bicycle out of parts from discarded bikes and was able to ride all the way to Germany and a joyful family reunion in Dinslaken. he found himself moving from place to place with his unit…in Cherkov (Ukraine). while engaged in the glider Verband. his circumstances in the camp improved so much so that in the summer of 1946 he made his first of five escape attempts.” With the encouragement of a library clerk. Willi was offered a post as photographer at the rocket facilities in Peenemunde which he declined. instead. In the Fall of 1941. With each change of position. and I started to dream about one day becoming an engineer or scientist. Unavoidably. he was promoted to sergeant (Feldwebel) in December 1944 and immediately assigned to an active combat unit defending the home front. 1945 and interned in Le Mans. Willi was assigned to a long range reconnaissance unit on the Eastern front at Luga near Leningrad. Participation in the club activities naturally led to his gravitating to the air force when his time came for military service in 1936. he was recaptured in France by the French and interned first in Sedan and then near the Belgian border. Willi possessed a keen intellectual sense and a deep natural curiosity. He finished elementary school in 1928 and attended a trade school for gardeners until 1931 as preparation for taking responsibilities in the family’s plant nursery business. He submitted a report on his work to the Air Ministry (Reichluftfahrtministerium). Hans. which would eventually bring him into the international phosphor community. he became interested and did some calculations and some nascent experiments in rocket propulsion. and Minsk. Willi demonstrated some of his intrinsic versatility for in short order he become the camp’s typewriter repairman.hot. world events intruded into his pastoral life and set him on a long odyssey. he was able to cross into Belgium but was captured and interned by the Belgians.S. With the war situation in flux through 1943. Hitler assumed power in Germany in 1933 and of course affected the course of history dramatically and disastrously.. He was captured by American forces on February 28. one of the glider club precursors to the Luftwaffe. prisoner. Willi was born born in 1914 in Dinslaken am Niederrhein. “Work in father’s nursery was pretty dull. In September of 1947. For example. Later he moved on to become a truck mechanic in the motor pool which moved to Le Havre in December 1945.APPENDIX III Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography Information about Willi’s early life in Germany has been kindly supplied by one of his sons.. in the form of brief autobiography Willi wrote for his family in 1990. He attempted again to get home in June of 1947 was caught again and confined to solitary for a period. While a U. From his teens and in his own words. he began reading mathematics books and establishing a technical background which he drew on for the rest of his life. His boot camp was in East Prussia and he did not take well to the training which was according to him “.” He consequently volunteered to become a photographer for the air force when an opportunity arose. Willi had a brief flirtation with the SA but did not become a member. On his third attempt. a camp librarian and as a farmer’s aid during his captivity in Belgium. On his first two escape attempts. After a short interlude as an engineering student. He worked variously as a miner. Kiev. though the report went no further. France. 461 . near Berlin. Breslau (Wroclaw). in 1934 he joined the Deutscher Luftsport Verband. dirty and plain stupid. He completed a photography course in Tutow and in 1939–1940 was promoted to corporal (Unteroffizier) as the head of a small photo group at the Luftkreigsschule in Werden.

he was allowed to attend the Techschule in Duisberg. Willi’s father having passed on in 1942.rer. New Jersey. Indeed. Willi met. Hans. Lehmann. It is interesting to note that by 1956. degree) in 1952. and Mary) were all born in the United States. The new Mrs.In the middle of his posting to the Eastern Front. In the early 1980’s. Willlie was granted an extended leave so that he could attend an engineering school in Germany. The children and several grandchildren appear to be prospering. Professor Krautz directed them to apply for positions in the lamp division of Westinghouse Electric then located in Bloomfield. and arrived in the States on October 1953 following an extended wait for immigration documents. His contributions in this field and his other activities at Bloomfield and later at Westinghouse R&D in Pittsburgh are detailed in the Foreword. Willi’s work on electroluminescence had attracted sufficient interest that he was approached by the University at Braunschweig to explore the possibilities of submitting his work in partial fulfillment of requirements for a doctorate degree. Professor Krautz also succeeded in getting Willi a scholarship which covered all his school expenses and relieved the financial burden on the Lehmann family now headed by an older brother. Also as noted in the Foreword. Paul. Willi and Claus Haake obtained their Diplom. Claus Haake. Willi along with a wartime friend. his thesis entitled “The Electroluminescence of Zinc Sulfide Phosphors as an Equilibrium Process” was submitted in late 1957 and accepted.S. Instruction commenced at the University in march 1948. Willi passed away on January 12. He acted as a consultant with Rogers Corp. He was granted the degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences (Dr. Following his return to Germany. Physiker’s (equivalent to American M. Phys. In order to bypass the arbitur requirements. Lehmann returned to Pittsburgh and currently resides there. During the waiting period. This proved to be a problem since he did not possess the proper credentials (arbitur) to matriculate in a university level program having attended a trade rather than a traditional Gymnasium. Willi was given the choice of areas to investigate. of course. applied for admission to the Technical University of Braunschweig in October 1947. they had to help in the reconstruction of university buildings and other facilities destroyed during the hostilities. Florida . 1993 from brain cancer. It was here that he was first encountered physics as a discipline and it immediately piqued his interest. In view of the dearth of jobs for physicists in postwar Germany. just in time to return to the war. Willi recalled that his first instructor was Erich Krautz who not only taught the Applied Physics course but also nurtured him through to his candidacy in physics (Cand. accepted. Ivey Coconut Grove. Yen Athens. He thought briefly about starting his own phosphor business but rejected the idea on grounds of his lack of acumen in business matters. Georgia Henry F. On arrival at Westinghouse. Willi attempted and passed a Begrabtemprufung (examination for the gifted) in the summer of 1944. Willi retired in 1982 at the age of 68 and took up residence in North Carolina. accompanied Willi to the States and their four children (Caren. Through a special dispensation. Both were offered positions. William M.Nat) shortly thereafter. he developed an interest in diffraction and the limits that it imposed on resolution and was also attracted by the furor surrounding the announcement of cold fusion. Mrs. wooed and wed Renate Bauer. and with Lawrence Livermore Laboratories in the late 1980’s.) in 1950. George. As their initiation as students. He chose to study electroluminescence and electroluminescent phosphors.

Materials Index .

CaGa2S4:Ce3+. Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+. BaMg3F8:Eu2+. Ca2La2BO6. BaFCl:Eu2+.5:Pb2+. CaLaBO4:Eu3+. CaMoO4.MATERIALS INDEX BaAl2O4:Eu2+. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+. CaGa2O4:Mn2+.Mn2+. CaAl2O4:Eu2+. CaGa2S4:Mn2+.Mn2+. Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. CaB2P2O9:Eu2+. CaAl4O7:Pb2+. BaGa2S4:Eu2+. BaB8O13:Eu2+. Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+.Mn2+ in SiO2.Mn2+. Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+. BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. CaAl2O4:Tb3+. BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+. CaF2:Ce3+. BaY2F8:Er3+. Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+. CaF2:Eu2+. Ca2B2O5:Mn2+. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. CaAl4O7:Ce3+. Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+. Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+. BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+.Mn2+. BaF2. Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+.Tb3+.Ti)2P2O7:Ti. C CaAl2O4:Mn2+. Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. CaGa2S4:Pb2+. Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+.Pb2+.Yb3+. BaTiP2O7. Bi4Ge3O12. BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+. CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. BaFBr:Eu2+. Ba3WO6:U. CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2. BaSi2O5:Eu2+. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+.Mn2+. CaF2:U. Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+. BaFCl:Eu2+.Mn2+. CaI2:Eu2+. BaxSr1-xF2:Eu2+. BaSi2O5:Pb2+. BaGa2S4:Ce3+. (Ba. CaF2:Ce3+. CaB2O4:Pb2+.Mn2+ in SiO2. Ba2SiO4:Ce3+. Ba2SiO4:Eu2+. BaSO4:Eu2+. B CaAl2O4:Ce3+. Ca2MgSi2O7. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U. CaB2O4:Mn2+.5Al12O19:Ce3+. Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. CaLaB3O7:Ce3+. Ca0.Mn2+. CaGeO3:Mn2+. CaCl2:Eu2+.Mn2+. CaF2:Ce3+. CaF2:Mn2+. BaAl2S4:Eu2+. Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+. BaSO4:Ce3+.Mn2+. CaGa2S4:Eu2+. CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2. BaS:Au. Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+. Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+.K.5Ba0. Be2SiO4:Mn2+. Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. . CaGa4O7:Mn2+.

CaS:Y3+. CaSO4:Eu2+. CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+. CaS:Cu+. CaSiO3:Ti4+.Mn. CaSiO3:Pb2+. CdS:In. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+. CaTi0. CaS:Eu2+. CaSO4:Ce3+. CaTiO3:Pr3+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+. CaO:Tl+.Cl.7:Eu3+.Cl. CaWO4:Pb2+. CaO:Tb3+. CaO:Sb3+. CaS:Ce3+. CaO:Cu+. -(Ca.F. CaWO4:W. -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+. CaSO4:Eu2+. CaWO4.Na+.Mn2+.Cl–. CaYBO4:Eu3+.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+.8O3. CaO:Eu3+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+.Cl. CaO:Cd2+. CdS:In. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Mn2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+. Ca2P2O7:Ce3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+. CaS:Tb3+. CaS:Sn2+. CaS:Bi3+. Ca2P2O7:Eu2+. CaTiO3:Eu3+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Mn2+. CdS:In.Zn. (Ca. Ca5(VO4)3Cl.Mn2+. CaO:Sm3+.Te. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+. CaSO4:Bi. CaS:Sb3+.Mn2+. CaS:Sm3+.1O3:Bi3+.Mn2+. CaS:Pb2+. (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce.Na. CaO:Pb2+.Na. (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce.9Al0. CaO:Eu3+. CaS:Sn2+. CaO:Mn2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+.Na+. CaS:Bi3+. CeF3. . CaS:Mn2+.Mn2+. Cd2B6O11:Mn2+. -Ca2P2O7:Sn. CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+. CaYBO4:Bi3+. Ultrafast. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+. CaS:Pr3+. CaS:Tb3+. CaSiO3:Eu2+.Pb2+.Pb.CaMoO4:Eu3+. CaSO4:Ce3+. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. Ca2P2O7:Eu2+. CaO:Bi3+. (Ce. CdS:Ag+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+. CaYAlO4:Eu3+. CaS:Pb2+. CaSiO3:Pb2+. Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+. CaO:Zn2+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. CaS:La3+. CaYB0. -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+. Ca3WO6:U. CaS:Pb2+. CaS:Yb2+. CaP2O6:Mn2+. CaSiO3:Mn2+. CaSO4:Pb2+. CaS:Sb3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+. CaS:Yb2+. CaSiO3:Ce3+.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb.Cl.

LaBO3:Eu3+.Mn2+.Mn2+. LiInO2:Sm3+. Mg4(F)(Ge. KMgF3:Eu2+. M . Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. L MgAl2O4:Mn2+. LaOCl:Bi3+. LiLaO2:Eu3+. E GaN:Zn. LaOF:Eu3+. LuAlO3:Ce3+. CsI CsI:Na+.Mn2+. Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+. La2W3O12:Eu3+. Gd2O2S:Tb3+. CsF. La2O3:Bi3+. MgSrAl10O17:Ce. LuTaO4:Nb5+. LiInO2:Eu3+.Ce. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. LiAlO2:Fe3+. LaOBr:Tm3+. Gd3Ga5O12:Cr. K2SiF6:Mn4+. MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+. LaAlO3:Sm3+. MgB2O4:Mn2+. LaCl3:Ce3+. MgCaP2O7:Mn2+. MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+. LaAsO4:Eu3+. LaOCl:Eu3+. (La. LiAlF4:Mn2+. LiAlO2:Mn2+. MgBaP2O7:Eu2+. (Lu.Ce. Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+. LaBr3:Ce3+. K2La2Ti3O10:Eu. LaAlB2O6:Eu3+. GdNbO4:Bi3+. (ErCl3)0. La2O2S:Tb3+. KGa11O17:Mn2+. LiAl5O8:Fe3+. MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+. La2O3:Eu3+. LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+.25(BaCl2)0.CdS:Te. LaVO4:Eu3+. LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+. LaOBr:Tb3+. MgGa2O4:Mn2+. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+.F.Ce.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb. LaAlO3:Eu3+. LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+. Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+. MgF2:Mn2+. G KAl11O17:Tl+. MgS:Eu2+.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+. LiAl5O8:Mn2+. KMgF3:Mn2+. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. LaPO4:Eu3+. Gd2O2S:Eu3+. Lu2SiO5:Ce3+. Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+.Sn)O6:Mn2+. LaPO4:Ce3+. MgBaP2O7:Eu2+.75. CdWO4. Gd2O2S:Pr3+. Lu1-xYxAlO3:Ce3+. Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+. CsI:Tl. Gd2SiO5:Ce3+. MgBa2(PO4)2:U. K La2O3:Pb2+. MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+.Tb3+. Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+. Gd2O2S:Pr.

46Er0. MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+. SrB4O7:Eu2+(F. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. Sr5Cl(PO4)3:Eu. Sr2P2O7:Eu2+. SrBaSiO4:Eu2+. SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+. SrSO4:Bi. MgSrP2O7:Eu2+. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+. SrwFxB4O6. SrS:Eu2+. N P P46 (70%) + P47 (30%). SrMoO4:U.Sm2+. MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+. SrY2O3:Eu3+. NaYO2:Eu3+. SrSO4:Eu2+. MSL. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. Na1. SrAl2S4:Eu2+. –Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Na.Mn2+. SrTiO3:Pr3+. NaI:Tl. SrAl12O19:Ce3+.Br. Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10:Tb. SrIn2O4:Pr3+.Mn2+.Mn2+. Sr(Cl. Na1. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+. NaYF4:Er3+.Cl.Al3+. –Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn.Ce3+.MgSiO3:Mn2+. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+. SrGa12O19:Mn2+. SrwFxByOz:Eu2+.42Eu0. SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2. SrS:Ce3+. MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+. SrS:Cu+. SrGa2S4:Pb2+. Sr2SiO4:Eu2+. SrB4O7:Pb2+. –SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+. SrGa2S4:Ce3+. SrAl2O4:Eu2+.Pr3+. SrB4O7:Pb2+. MgYBO4:Eu3+. Mg2SiO4:Mn2+.23K0. Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+.23K0. Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+.Mn2+. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. T . (Sr. SrB8O13:Sm2+. MgSO4:Eu2+. Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+. SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+. –SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+. –SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+. SrS:Mn2+. S SrF2:Eu2+.Mn2+. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+. MgWO4.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+.Mn2+. Na1.Yb3+. MgSO4:Pb2+. Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+.42Eu0. SrTiO3:Pr3+. Sr2P2O7:Sn2+. SrAl12O19:Eu2+.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+. Na(Mg2–xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn.Br). SrSO4:Eu2+.29K0.Mn2+(Al).Cl. Sr6P5BO20:Eu.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2. ThO2:Tb3+. ThO2:Eu3+. ThO2:Pr3+. SrGa2S4:Eu2+. Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+.5:Eu2+.Mn2+. Sr3WO6:U. SrxBayClzAl2O4–z/2:Mn2+. -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+. SrAl4O7:Eu3+.Al3+. Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+. Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. Mg2TiO4:Mn4+. SrSO4:Ce3+.

Cl–. ZnB2O4:Mn2+.Th4+. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. Z .Ni.Cd)S:Cu. YPO4:V5+. ZnS-CdS:Ag+.I.34Gd0.Mn2+. YAlO3:Ce3+. Y YPO4:Eu3+. ZnBa2S3:Mn2+. YPO4:Ce3+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+.Cd)S:Ag. ZnS-CdS (25-75).Br. Ultrafast. Y2O2S:Eu3+. Y3Al5O12:Mn4+. ZnS:Ag.Yb3+. Y3Al5O12:Cr3+. YBO3:Ce3+.4Cd0. ZnGa2S4:Mn2+.Tb3+.Gd)2O3:Eu3+. ZnAl2O4:Mn2+. Y2O3:Er3+.Cu. YVO4:Eu3+.Cl. ZnO-CdO:Ga. (Zn. Zn0. ZnS-CdS (50-50).Mn2+.Th4+. Y1.Mg)F2:Mn2+. YOF:Eu3+. ZnS:Ag+. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.06.4S:Ag.6S:Ag.Gd)BO3:Eu. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. YAlO3:Eu3+. YAlO3:Tb3+. YTaO4. ZnO:Zn. ZnS-CdS:Cu. (Zn.Ga3+. ZnS-CdS:Cu.Cr3+. (Zn. Y3Al5O12:Eu3+. YOBr:Eu3+.Ni. YPO4:Ce3+. YOF:Tb3+.Br long life. ZnO:Se. ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+. ZnS-CdS (75-25).Tb3+.YAl3B4O12:Bi3+. ZnS-CdS:Cu. ZnO:Ga3+. Y3Al5O12:Ce3+. YF3:Er3+. Y3Al5O12:Tb3+. Ultrafast. Y2O2S:Pr3+. Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE).Pr)0. (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+. Y4Al2O9:Eu3+. Zn2GeO4:Mn2+.Yb3+. YOCl:Eu3+.6Cd0. YVO4:Dy3+.Cl. (Y. YAlO3:Sm3+. YF3:Mn2+.Gd)BO3:Tb. (Y.In. ZnS:Au. ZnO:Bi3+. ZnGa2O4. YBO3:Eu3+.Cl. YAsO4:Eu3+. ZnO:S. Y2O3:Tb3+. Y2O3:Ce. YPO4:Mn2+. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. YOCl:Ce3+. ZnS-CdS:Ag. YF3:Mn2+. ZnO:Al3+. Y2O3:Ce3+. ZnS:Ag. YF3:Tm3+. ZnF2:Mn2+. ZnO:Ga. Y2O3:Bi3+. Y2O3:Ho3+.Ce3+. YAl3B4O12:Th4+.V)O4:Eu. (Y.60O3(Eu. Zn0.Br high brightness.Tb3+. YTaO4:Nb5+. Y2O2S:Tb3+. ZnGa2O4:Mn2+. (Zn. Y(P. Y2SiO5:Ce3+.

Ag. Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+. ZnS:Mn2+. ZnS:Cu. ZnS:Sn2+.Al3+. ZnS:Mn2+. ZnS:Cu+. ZnS:Eu2+.Sb2O3. ZnS:Mn.As5+. ZnS:Eu2+.Cl–. ZnS:Sn2+. ZnS:Sn. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. ZnS:Pb. ZnS:Pb2+. ZnS:Cu+. Zn2SiO4:Ti4+. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. ZnS:P.Li+.Cu. ZnS:Cu. ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ ZnSe:Cu+. .Te2+.Cl. Zn2SiO4:Mn.P. ZnS:Te.Mn. ZnS:Pb2+.Cl–. ZnWO4.Cl–. ZnS:P3–.Sn. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Cu.ZnS:Cl–.

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