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Published by: Ashok Nenaniya on Aug 24, 2012
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Types of Levelling Instruments | Definitions in Levelling

Automatic level, Backsight reading, Benchmark, Change point, Dumpy level, Fore sight reading, Important Definitions in Levelling, Intermediate sight, Line of Collimation, line of sight, Modern Tilting level, Reduced Level, Types of Levelling Instruments, Y-level

Various types of Levelling Instruments and Important Definitions | Surveying
1. Dumpy level 2. Y-level 3. Modern Tilting level 4. Automatic level

The levelling instruments essentially consist of the following:
A levelling head with three foot screws which enables to bring the bubble at its centre. Telescope that provides line of sight to bisect distinct objects. A bubble tube to make the line of sight horizontal either mounted on top or side of the telescope. A tripod for supporting the levelling instrument.

Important Definitions in Levelling Line of Collimation or line of sight
The line joining the point of intersection of the cross wires of the diaphragm to the optical centre of the objective and its imaginary continuation.

Reduced Level

The vertical distance measured above or below the mean sea level or benchmark is called as reduced level.

It is a permanent reference point whose elevations or reduced levels are known. All the levelling operations start from benchmark.

Backsight reading
The reading taken by levelling instrument on a levelling staff held on a point whose elevation is known. It is very first reading taken on the benchmark after setting up the instrument.

Fore sight reading
The reading taken on the point whose elevation is to be found out. It is the last reading before shifting the instrument.

Intermediate sight
Any other staff reading taken on a point of unknown elevation from the same setup of the instrument. All sights which are taken between back-sight or fore-sight or intermediate sight.

Change point
It is a point on which fore-sights and back-sight are taken.

Types of Measurements in Surveying | Civil Engineering

Angular Measurements, civil engineering, Guide to Surveying, Horizontal Distance, Linear Measurements, Types of measurements in surveying, Vertical Distance

Types of Measurements in Surveying
Surveying is the art of making suitable measurements in horizontal or vertical planes. This is one of the important subjects of civil engineering. Without taking a survey of the plot where the construction is to be carried out, the work cannot begin.

From the above definition, we conclude on two types of measurements in surveying. They are as follows:
1. Linear measurements 2. Angular measurements Now we will go on with the discussion of each of these types of measurements along with their subtypes.

Linear measurements are further classified as follows:
Horizontal Distance Vertical Distance

Horizontal Distance
A horizontal distance is measured in horizontal plane if a distance is measured along a slope, it is reduced to its horizontal equivalent.

Horizontal Angle

Vertical Distance
A vertical distance is measured along the direction of gravity at that point. The vertical distance are measured to determine difference in elevations in various points.

Angular Measurements
As the name itself suggests, the two sides meeting at an angle are measured. The angle between them is measured and represented in degrees or radians.

Types of Ranging | Chain Surveying

Chain Surveying, Direct Ranging, Guide to Chain Survey, Guide to Surveying, Indirect Ranging, Methods of Ranging, Ranging, Surveying and Levelling, Types of Ranging

Methods of Ranging in Chain Surveying | Guide to Surveying and Levelling
In measuring a survey line, the chain has to be laid out on the ground between the stations. If the line is short, the chain could be put in alignment easily but if it is long or the end station is not clearly visible, then intermediate points has to be established in line with end points to know the directions of the line by ranging.

Types of Ranging
There are two types of ranging: 1. Direct ranging 2. Indirect ranging

Direct ranging
Direct ranging is possible when the stations are intervisible. Ranging is done by eye-judgement. Ranging rods are erected vertically beyond each end of survey line. The surveyor stands 2m beyond the ranging rod while the assistant folds the ranging rod vertically in the intermediate stations. The ranging rod is held roughly in line by the thumb and fore-finger. The surveyor directs the assistant to move the rod to the left or right until the three ranging rods appear to be in a straight line. To avoid errors due to the ranging rods not being vertical, the lower end of the rod are cited for alignment.

Indirect Ranging

1. Indirect Ranging is possible when the ends of a line are not inter-visible as in the case when a hill ground or when the distance between the stations are so large that they are not clearly inter-visible.

Indirect Ranging Intermediate points are fixed by the process of reciprocal ranging as explained below. Let A and B be the ends of a survey line to be measured as a rising ground between them. Two chain men with ranging rods take the positions M1 and N1 such that they are as nearly in line with A and B as they could judge the chain men at M1 could N1 and B. And the chain men at N1 could see M1 and A. First chain men at N1 directs M1 to M2 so that he comes in the line with A and N. Then the chain man at M2 directs N1 to N2 such that he comes in line with B and M2. The process is repeated so that they align each other successively directing each other until they are both finally in the line AB.

Types of Scales in Engineering Surveying

Diagonal Scale, Engineering Surveying, Guide to Surveying, Plain Scale, Scale of chords, Surveying, Surveying and Levelling, Types of scales in engineering, Types of Scales in Surveying, Vernier Scale

Types of Scales | Engineering Surveying
In the previous article, we discussed briefly on the topic of “Scales in Surveying” where we came across an important term “Representative factor” which forms an important part in understanding the scales in Surveying. In this article, we will discuss different types of scales used in Surveying…

The scales are classified into four categories:
1. Plain Scale 2. Diagonal Scale 3. Vernier Scale 4. Scale of chords Lets go on with the discussion of types of scales briefly for our better understanding…

Plain Scale
Plain Scale is one on which it is possible to measure two dimensions only. For example, measurements such as units and lengths, metres and decimetres etc.

Plain Scale Six different plain scales in metric used by engineers, Architects and Surveyors.

Diagonal Scale
On diagonal scale, it is possible to measure three dimensions such as metres, decimetres and centimetres, units , tens and hundreds; yards, feet and inches etc. A short length is divided into number of parts using the principle of similar triangle in which sides are proportional.

Diagonal Scale 1-1 represent 1/10 PQ 2-2 represent 2/10 PQ 9-9 represent 9/10 PQ

Vernier Scale
A device used for measuring the fractional part of one of the smallest divisions of a graduated scale. It usually consists of a small auxiliary scale which slides alongside of the main scale. Least count of the vernier = the difference between smallest division on the main division and smallest division on the vernier scale.

Scale of Chords
Scale of chords is used to measure an angle and is marked on either on rectangular protractor or an ordinary box wood scale.

Scale of chords

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