1.

• Human operator is flexible and adaptable

2.

• Large individual differences

3.

• Obvious differences --> Physical size, strength
• Not obvious differences --> culture, style and level of skill

4

Regulatory reasons

Humanitarian reasons

Good business practice

Human Variability – Size, Strength, Range of Motion, Endurance, Stress tolerance

1.STATIC WORK

• Musculoskeletal effort required to hold a certain position, even a comfortable one. • Example: Sit & work at computers; Keeping head and torso upright requires small or great amounts of static work depending on the efficiency of the body positions we chose.

2.FORCE

• Amount of tension our muscles generate • Example: tilting your head forward or backward from a neutral, vertical position quadruples the amount of force acting on your lower neck vertebrae • Increased force is d/t increase in muscular tension needed to support head in a tilted position

1 Work activities should permit worker to adopt several different healthy and safe postures.

2
Muscle forces should be done by the largest muscle groups available

3 Work activities should be performed with joints at about mid-point of their ROM (esp. head, trunk, upper extremity)

appropriate

PHYSIOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL WORK

OPERATIONS RESEARCH

SYSTEMS DESIGN

LAW

WORK ORGANIZATION

DISCIPLINES IN ERGONOMICS
INDUSTRIAL DESIGN

ANATOMY ANTHROPOMETRY BIOMECHANICS

PSYCHOLOGY
MANUFACTURING

COGNITIVE WORK ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SOCIAL

Safety Officer

Architect

Industrial Engineer

Physiotherapist

Industrial Nurse

Mechanical Engineer

Occupational Health Officer Civil engineer

   

            

          

 Physical work environment

 Chemical environment

 Work physiology

 Anthropometry (Body sizes)

 Occupational Biomechanics

 Psychological aspects

 Social psychology

 Macro ergonomics

 Safety and Ergonomics

 Systems ergonomics

       

Factors

% of diseases and complaints

Reasons    

Materials storage and handling

Hand Tools

Production machine safety

Improving work station design

Lighting

Premises

1

2

3

4