Foreign Policy 2012

About Foreign Policy 2011

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As we seek to educate leaders and policymakers about how to meet the global challenges and opportunities of the 21st century, the Foreign Policy Initiative (FPI) conducts briefings for candidates and members of Congress and their staff of both political parties. FPI briefings bring the experience and expertise of Washington‘s leading foreign policy thinkers to members of Congress and federal candidates. The sessions, which can range from an hour to a half-day, are personally tailored to the interests of those being briefed. FPI will make available experts on the major foreign policy challenges facing the United States, including topics such as the Arab Spring, the rise of China, and the Iranian nuclear threat. We are prepared to brief candidates and members of Congress on critical issues ranging from the War on Terror to transatlantic relations, and from the defense budget to democracy promotion and human rights. In conjunction with our briefings, we have developed Foreign Policy 2012, a briefing book available on the FPI website at www.foreignpolicyi.org/foreignpolicy2012. This document pulls together key points, notable facts and additional resources from leading thinkers in each of the key foreign policy issue areas. FPI will update the briefing book on a regular basis in 2012. To schedule a briefing or suggest additional articles or content for the briefing book, please contact info@foreignpolicyi.org or (202) 296-3322.

About The Foreign Policy Initiative
In 2012 the United States and its democratic allies face many foreign policy challenges. They come from rising and resurgent powers, including China and Russia. They come from other autocracies that violate the rights of their citizens. They come from rogue states that work with each other in ways inimical to America‘s values and interests, that sponsor international terrorism, and that pursue weapons of mass destruction. They come from al Qaeda and its affiliates who continue to plot attacks against the United States and its allies. They come from failed states that serve as havens for terrorists and criminals and spread instability to their neighbors. The United States faces these challenges while engaged in military operations across the globe. The sacrifice of American lives and significant economic expenditure in these conflicts has led to warnings of U.S. strategic overreach, and calls for American retrenchment. There are those who hope that we can just return to normalcy—to pre9/11 levels of defense spending and pre-9/11 strategies and tactics. They argue for a retreat from America‘s global commitments and a renewed focus on problems at home—a reflexive but mistaken response to these difficult economic times. In fact, strategic overreach is not the problem, and retrenchment is not the solution. The United States cannot afford to turn its back on its international commitments and allies—the allies that helped us defeat fascism and communism in the 20th century, and the alliances we have forged more recently, including with the newly liberated citizens of Iraq and Afghanistan. America‘s economic difficulties will not be solved by retreat from the international arena. They will be made worse. In this new era, the consequences of failure and the risks of retreat would be even greater than before. The challenges that we face require 21st century strategies and tactics based on a renewed commitment to American leadership. The United States remains the world‘s indispensable nation—indispensable to international peace, security, and stability, and indispensable to safe-guarding and advancing the ideals and principles we hold dear. The Foreign Policy Initiative (FPI) is a non-profit, non-partisan tax-exempt organization under Section 501(c)(3) of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code that promotes:      continued U.S. engagement—diplomatic, economic, and military—in the world and rejection of policies that would lead us down the path to isolationism; robust support for America‘s democratic allies and opposition to rogue regimes that threaten American interests; the human rights of those oppressed by their governments, and U.S. leadership in working to spread political and economic freedom; a strong military with the defense budget needed to ensure that America is ready to confront the threats of the 21st century; international economic engagement as a key element of U.S. foreign policy in this time of great economic dislocation.

FPI looks forward to working with all who share these objectives, irrespective of political party, so that the United States successfully confronts its challenges and make progress toward a freer and more secure future.

Table of Contents
Afghanistan/Pakistan ………………………………………………………………………………… 1 America‘s Role in the World ………………………………………………………………………… 4 Arab Spring …..……………………………………………………………………………………….... 6 Asia Pacific ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 10 China …………………………………………………………………………………………………... 13 Democracy & Human Rights ……………………………………………………………………… 16 Defense Policy ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 19 Europe - NATO ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 23 Iran …………….……………………………………………………………………………………….. 26 Iraq …………….……………………………………………………………………………………….. 30 Israel/Peace Process ……………………………………………………………………….……….. 33 Latin America ……………….………………………………………………………………………... 36 Non-Military Foreign Aid …………………………………………………………………...……….. 39 North Korea …………………………………………………………………………………………… 41 Russia ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43 Trade …………..……………………………………………………………………………………….. 46 War on Terror/Islamic Extremism ………………………………………………………………….. 48

September 2012 Edition

Afghanistan/Pakistan
President Obama made the right decision in December 2009, when he ordered the ―surge‖ of 33,000 additional troops into Afghanistan. Since then, significant gains have been made by using a strategy that combines counterinsurgency (COIN) and counterterrorism (CT). However, these gains remain fragile and reversible, even after the May 2011 killing of al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden in nearby Pakistan. Regrettably, President Obama‘s June 2011 decision to withdraw the troop surge by September 2012—two months before the November presidential election—makes it more difficult to secure our gains and expand our success. The precipitous reduction of troops for political reasons risks setting back efforts to ensure that Afghanistan is no longer a sanctuary for America‘s enemies, and counter terrorists and insurgents operating inside Pakistan. In May 2012, President Obama signed a Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA) that will govern U.S. action in Afghanistan after Kabul takes control of the country‘s security by 2014, and strictly limit America‘s mission to counterterrorism and training the Afghan military.

Key Points:
 The United States has a vital interest in ensuring that Afghanistan never again becomes a safe haven for terrorists like those who attacked us on September 11, 2001. International disengagement from Afghanistan in the 1990s contributed to the country becoming a ―failed state‖—one that eventually became a Taliban-dominated safe haven for al-Qaeda. Today, failure in Afghanistan will only increase the danger of terrorist attacks against America‘s homeland and vital interests across the globe, and the likelihood that we will be drawn back into the region. Brookings Institution expert Michael O‘Hanlon described the consequences of failure in Afghanistan as a ―Taliban takeover of at least southern Afghanistan; and associated sanctuaries for the world‘s worst terrorist groups, which still want to strike American cities, gain control of Pakistan‘s nuclear arsenal, and provoke another India-Pakistan war.‖ Boosted by President Obama‘s 2009 troop surge, U.S. and coalition forces have gained operational control of larger swaths of territory from the Taliban—in particular, the southern provinces bordering Pakistan. American and allied troops have also killed or captured many senior al-Qaeda leaders, as well as other lower-level terrorists. However, the situation in Afghanistan remains perilous, with entrenched insurgent groups in the east working actively to undermine the security of Kabul. Bolstered by the troop surge, U.S. counterinsurgency efforts in Afghanistan have been critical to enabling our successful counterterrorism operations in the region—especially in Pakistan. Some have argued that the threat from al-Qaeda and the Taliban can be best met, not by a broad counterinsurgency and state-building effort in Afghanistan, but by the use of actionable intelligence gathering and counterterrorism operations by U.S. Special Forces similar to the mission that killed Osama bin Laden. However, a counterterrorism-based strategy in Afghanistan cannot operate effectively without the strong counterinsurgency campaign that is now in place. Counterinsurgency operations continue to squeeze our enemies into a smaller area, build local security and civil institutions, and provide bases and staging areas from which counterterrorism operations can be launched. The President‘s accelerated surge drawdown endangers the recent gains we have made in Afghanistan and should be reconsidered. Obama‘s decision undermines the U.S. military‘s counterinsurgency campaign and hurts counterterrorism efforts. The precipitous drawdown 1

On May 1. troops that he had announced in December 2009.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative. 6. the United States will need to keep the remaining 68.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. U.000 U. April 2012. 2012. Afghanistan will take lead responsibility for providing for its own security. The Strategic Partnership Agreement is a laudable guarantee of U. the United States. Since 2001. its mission will be strictly limited to counterterrorism and training the Afghan Security Forces. commitment to the future of Afghanistan.  The United States must remain committed to long-term success in Afghanistan—militarily. Prevailing in Afghanistan will require maintaining as high a level of troops in country as possible until the 2014 transition to Afghan control. ―Remembering Why We are Fighting in Afghanistan. During the Lisbon Summit of November 2010. 2012. May 29. to have 157. ―Reclaiming the Moral Case for Afghanistan. While the United States will retain a reduced troop presence.S.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. Fly. forces succeeded in hunting down and killing al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden in Pakistan. 2011. The Strategic Partnership Agreement commits the United States to helping to fund the Afghan security forces until 2024. and the Afghan National Police (ANP).  Notable Facts: 1. Fly.S.000 personnel. 2012. In 2014. 2011.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. and NATO allies all agreed on the strategic goal of having the Afghan government and the Afghan security forces fully in-the-lead by the end of 2014. Afghans fear that the United States and the international community will abandon the country. 4. as they did after the 1989 withdrawal of the Soviet Union‘s forces. Commentary.000 troops. By October 2012. 2.S. FPI Resources:  ―The War in Afghanistan is Far from Over. troops in country throughout 2013. 2     .000 U. Afghanistan. President Obama made public his controversial decision to withdraw by September 2012 the ―surge‖ of 33.will likely prevent further coalition gains in the eastern provinces of Afghanistan. There have been media reports that the Obama administration seeks even more drastic cuts to troop levels beyond the planned 2012 troop reductions. March 23. 2012. In order to effectively counter the Haqqani Network and other militant groups in eastern Afghanistan and cement hard-won security gains from the 2010-2011 fighting season in the country‘s south. the Afghan National Army (ANA) seeks to have 180.com. and lays the groundwork for America‘s continuing troop presence and access to bases in-country. Foreign Policy’s Shadow Government. and could lead to higher levels of violence and instability throughout the country. ―The Dangers of an Accelerated Drawdown in Afghanistan: What America‘s Civilian and Military Leaders Are Saying. economically. May 25. 5. April 19. the United States has been a critical part of the NATO-led coalition of over 40 countries in Afghanistan. and politically. 3. On June 22.S. ―FPI Analysis: Missed Opportunities at the 2012 NATO Summit.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative. FoxNews. Fly and Gary Schmitt.

The Weekly Standard Blog. 2012.‖ Sadanand Dhume. 2012. December 7.‖ Shaida Abdali. ―Afghanistan Campaign Is Far From Finished. Foreign Policy. America.‖ Frederick and Kimberly Kagan. ―This War Can Still Be Won. ―What It Will Take to Secure Afghanistan. ―Why the Summer of 2012?‖ FPI Director William Kristol. ―Picking a Winner in Afghanistan. ―What a Difference 11 Years Makes. The Wall Street Journal. ―FPI Fact Sheet: Success in Afghanistan Is Critical to Prevailing in The War On Terror. July 12.‖ FPI Director Robert Kagan. The Weekly Standard. Foreign Affairs’ Snapshots. 2011.‖ Max Boot. February 24. ―Retreat – But Whose?‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. March 22. The Weekly Standard Blog. 2011. ―FPI Analysis: Leveraging Pakistan to Prevail in Afghanistan. 2011. July 4.          3 . Washington Post. Roll Call. December 16. 2012. Washington Post. Fly.     Suggested Reading:   ―The AWOL Commander. February 1. June 23.‖ by Major Fernando M. 2012.‖ Marc Thiessen. June 9. ―Courting Disaster in Afghanistan. The Weekly Standard. June 16. Council on Foreign Relations. Retreats from Afghanistan. Los Angeles Times. June 23. 2012. March 20. ―More Afghan Cuts.‖ Max Boot. 2011. More War. 2012.‖ Frederick and Kimberly Kagan. 2011. ―Don‘t Come Home. 2012.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative. 2012. Luján (USA). National Review.‖ Michael O‘Hanlon. September 27. ―Don't Forget Pakistan‘s Liberals.S. March 19. 2011. 2012.‖ Jeffrey Dressler.‖ Thomas Donnelly. June 2012. The New York Times. ―Five Disasters We‘ll Face If U. ―The Case for Continuing the Counterinsurgency Campaign in Afghanistan. May 1.

militarily. Today. the United States holds a special place in world history. including war-funding. security. ―Our cause is the cause of all mankind. that work to strengthen ties with our allies through better trade relations to increase U.S. America should pursue policies that promote political freedom and stand against human rights abuses across the globe—abuses that mock the universal principles we hold dear. For that amount. America cannot afford to turn its back on its international commitments and allies—the allies that helped us defeat fascism and communism. and the alliances we have forged with other nations. At home. global leadership and protectionism. As such. ―America stands alone as the world‘s indispensable nation. For example. and oppose regimes that threaten American interests and subvert the cause of freedom. the capacity-building of partner militaries. Comprising less than 1. America‘s Founding Fathers and Presidents have frequently highlighted America‘s unique role in the world. this funding helps to support the spread of democracy and human rights abroad. and the stabilization of nations— and thus prevent rise of ungoverned territory that could foster militants and terrorists. America‘s global system of alliances and extended deterrence has helped to prevent the outbreak of major foreign aggression and keeps open the flow of global trade and commerce. U. America has suffered when its leaders embraced the path of diminished U.   Notable Facts: 1. not in the fatalism of America‘s inevitable decline as espoused by some. exports. economic difficulties will only deepen by pursuing a protectionist retreat within our borders. The United States should maintain vigorous support for democratic allies. 2. and achieve greater diplomatic and military coordination. including those in Iraq and Afghanistan. From the misguided isolationism of the 1930s to the counterproductive Smoot-Hawley Tariff at the onset of the Great Depression.S.America‘s Role in the World The United States remains the world‘s indispensable nation─vital to international peace. and economically─to ensure more secure and prosperous future.‖ President Reagan called America ―the last best hope on earth. Benjamin Franklin proclaimed. The U. but rather in a renewed commitment to strong and enduring American global leadership. Funding for the State Department and affiliated agencies has increasingly been used to support civilian missions in war zones and unstable states.S. 4 . Key Points:  Founded on the universal cause of freedom. the United States upholds a system of international peace and prosperity. the challenges we face require a vision and policies anchored. and stability.S.‖ And President Clinton said. Such a course only serves to weaken our national security and diminish economic opportunities for our citizens.5% of the federal budget. and that encourage all nations— particularly China and Russia—and international institutions to act responsibly in their deliberations and activities.‖ The United States must maintain robust engagement in the world─diplomatically. today consumes 4. to advance freedom and strengthen our security. budget of national defense.3% of America‘s gross domestic product (GDP). and crucial to safeguarding and advancing the ideals and principles we hold dear.

2012. the Super Committee.   Suggested Reading:  ―Leadership: America‘s Critical Foreign Policy Role. ―U. Military Might Shouldn‘t be Underestimated. September 29. The Weekly Standard. Remarks at the Brookings Institution. ―Defending Defense: Defense Spending. 2011. February 2. 2012.S. ―Conservative Foreign Aid. and Wealthier. These interventions have been supported by U. ―FPI Analysis: In Defense of America‘s International Affairs Budget. The United States has repeatedly rejected calls for isolationism and non-interventionism. 2011. 2011. ―Why the World Needs America. 2011. Washington Post. ―The Price of Power.‖ FPI Director Robert Kagan. 2012. Our National Pastime.S. 2012. January 11.‖ Max Boot. FPI Resources:  ―America Has Made the World Freer. and engaged in foreign missions abroad. The New York Times. June 20.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative. 2012.        “Nation-Building. CNN. the United States emerged as the predominant political. particularly since 1898.‖ FPI Director Robert Kagan.‖ FPI Director Robert Kagan. ―Neither Isolationist Nor Noninterventionist: The Right Way to Think About Foreign Policy.‖ Defending Defense Project (American Enterprise Institute. 2012.3. Foreign Policy Initiative.‖ Elliott Abrams. July 5.‖ FPI Director Robert Kagan. Safer. and The Heritage Foundation).‖ Defending Defense Project (American Enterprise Institute. April 25. February 24. October 14. and The Heritage Foundation). January 27. Foreign Policy. November 28.com. 2011.‖ FPI Director Robert Kagan.     5 . Fly and FPI Policy Director Robert Zarate. ―Defending Defense: A Response to the Obama Administration‘s Preview of the Fiscal Year 2013 Defense Budget Request. January 15.‖ Condoleezza Rice. Los Angeles Times. The Heritage Foundation. 2012. February 11.‖ FPI Director Robert Kagan. July 5. China‘s rise and Russia‘s resurgence pose a long-term competitive challenge to America and the international order. Presidents of both parties.‖ Senator Marco Rubio. Foreign Policy: in Praise of Nation-Building. 4. After the Cold War. ―The Importance of U. The New Republic. National Review. 2012. ―Ron Paul Is Wrong About Defense Spending and the Deficit.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. 2011. and military power in the world. 2011. Foreign Policy Initiative. November 16. The Daily Caller. economic.S. The Wall Street Journal. ―Future of U. March 14. Remarks at The Heritage Foundation.S. and the Price of Greatness. ―Not Fade Away.‖ Marion Smith. However.

for civic institutions to mature. while the well-organized Muslim Brotherhood won 235 out of 508 seats in the 2011-2012 Egyptian parliamentary elections. and that will advance the general reform effort significantly in the short and long term. The long-term success of democratic and economic reform is a key antidote to Islamic extremism. and elsewhere. At the same time. It is unfortunate that President Obama has ―led from behind‖ and repeatedly failed to grasp the opportunities presented by the Arab Spring. job-creating economies. and those now violently suppressed in Syria. and economic stagnation. Should the newly-elected government in Egypt fail to meet voter expectations on improving the economy. other competing political parties are now being formed to participate in the democratic process. it will likely face a competitive field of opposition parties in the next election. Al-Qaeda and other terrorist groups have exploited this environment to gain support.     6 . particularly from the region‘s disaffected youth. diplomatic recognition. Egypt. The United States must support such developments. Libya.Arab Spring After decades of authoritarian rule in the Middle East and North Africa. high unemployment. such support should be reviewed and. and to spur. deserve support from America and its allies. democratic governments anchored in the rule of law and respect for human rights. political oppression. political space is being opened for citizens to discuss and debate issues. the United States should aid and empower the long-term democratization process as much as possible. the United States should pursue the sorts of policies—including economic aid. political repression. if necessary. For example. The Arab Spring offers the region the opportunity to establish more moderate. Though there will be setbacks and challenges as these nations evolve at different paces and with varying leadership. the extension of greater opportunities to women— these cures must come from within Muslim societies themselves. the region‘s waves of mass protest movements give hope to populations choked by corruption. Reformers in the Middle East and North Africa should always know that the United States stands with them in their struggle against authoritarianism. or technical assistance—that have helped other nations to transition to democracy. Indeed. Even though the pace and success of the reform movements in each nation will be uneven. Libya. Within this process. Reformers in places like Tunisia. political and economic openness. the bipartisan 9/11 Commission Report noted the importance of broader cultural change in the region in countering Islamic extremism: ―Tolerance. the rule of law. and Islamist parties did well in Tunisia‘s election.‖ The United States has an enormous interest in the successful outcome of the broader reform movements underway in Tunisia. dynamic. and side with the reformers against the autocrats. The United States and its allies should pursue polices specifically designed to advance the promise of the Arab Spring. Syria. withdrawn in the event that the democratic process has been subverted by the respective government. and anti-Americanism. Key Points:  Decades of authoritarian rule in the Middle East and North Africa have produced a stagnant political and economic culture characterized by rampant corruption. in time. Egypt. and for the governing authority to be accountable to the will of the people.

7% of the vote over Shafiq‘s 48. former Prime Minister under President Hosni Mubarak. July 24. President Obama demanded that Assad step down in August 2011. While these results are disappointing for the liberal revolutionaries that overthrew the Mubarak regime. Tunisia held the Arab Spring‘s first democratic elections on October 25. 2011. Bahrain. but has failed so far to rally a collective response by the international community. 2.Notable Facts: 1.3%. 3. Mohammed Morsi. 5.‖ FPI Policy Director Robert Zarate and Policy Analyst Evan Moore. Foreign Policy’s Shadow Government. After forty years in power. Morsi won 51. July 23. However. The dictator‘s ouster was the culmination of the NATO-led intervention that began in March 2011 to protect Libyan civilians from the Gaddafi regime‘s security forces. with an overall voter turnout of 65 percent. 2011. In Egypt‘s June 2012 presidential runoff. and Syria. namely Bahrain.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. and end the Assad regime‘s campaign of indiscriminate violence against its own people While 224 people were killed in Tunisia‘s revolution. 2012. FPI Resources:  ―Foreign Policy Experts Urge President Obama to Take Immediate Action to Establish Safe Zones in Syria. ―FPI Bulletin: Syria Needs Intervention—Not Another Annan Plan. The Arab Spring began in Tunisia on December 17. including in Egypt. set himself on fire in a police station to protest harassment from authorities and the unlawful seizure of his cart. The country‘s newly-elected civilian leaders are now working to write a national constitution. As of publication. 7. some dictators—seeking to perpetuate their hold on power—have steadily increased the use of lethal force against peaceful mass protesters. against protesters from their Shia-majority populations. 2011. Libya dictator Muammar Gaddafi was killed by Libyan rebels on October 20. Shortly after Ben Ali‘s ouster in Tunisia. when Mohamed Bouazizi. which Saudi Arabia fears may be backed by Iran. dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled the country on January 14. 8.   7 . in which former interim prime minister Mahmoud Jibril won a plurality of seats in the country‘s interim National Assembly. July 3. 6. ―How Will History Judge Obama on Syria?. a member of the country‘s Muslim Brotherhood and a former parliamentarian. 4. Much of the Arab Spring has been characterized by street protests by reformers. Several of monarchies in the region have responded with power-sharing constitutional reforms. Yemen. 2012. Roughly 1. 2012. 2010. 2012.000 civilians. On July 7. Syrian dictator Bashar al-Assad‘s security forces have killed more than 19. Libya. After street protests throughout Tunisia erupted in Bouazizi‘s name. observers are hopeful that the pressing need for the new Egyptian government to fix its faltering economy will mitigate Morsi‘s Islamist agenda.‖ Open Letter Organized by the Foreign Policy Initiative and Foundation for Defense of Democracies. Syrian dictator Bashar al-Assad continues to wage war against the country‘s various antiregime opposition groups. 846 were killed in Egypt. Fly. beating Libya‘s branch of the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamist factions. narrowly beat Ahmed Shafiq. protests spread throughout the Middle East and North Africa.8 million Libyans cast ballots. Libya held its first post-Gaddafi election. a 26year-old street vendor. Foreign Policy Initiative. Another element of the Arab Spring has been Saudi Arabia‘s support of regional Sunni monarchies.

―Syria‘s Political Struggle: Spring 2012.         8 .‖ Ali Suleiman Aujali.‖ Joseph Holiday. 2012. July 6. ―American Power and the Libya Naysayers. ―Towards a Post-Assad Syria: Options for the United States and Like-Minded Nations to Further Assist the Anti-Regime Syrian Opposition.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative and Foundation for Defense of Democracies. Fly and Gary Schmitt. December 19. 2012. March 15.‖ Open Letter Organized by the Foreign Policy Initiative and Foundation for Defense of Democracies. 2011. February 25.         Suggested Reading:  ―What the U. The Wall Street Journal. 2012.‖ Jackson Diehl. 2012. Institute for the Study of War. The Weekly Standard. ―Syria‘s Maturing Insurgency. Washington Post. IV.‖ Charles Dunne.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative.‖ Elizabeth O‘Bagy. The Wall Street Journal. ―Foreign Policy Experts Urge President Obama to Take Action Against Assad. April 10.S. 2012. Washington Post. 2012. Taft. ―Helping Libya Take its Next Steps.‖ Joint Bulletin of the Foreign Policy Initiative and Foundation for Defense of Democracies. ―FPI Fact Sheet: The Case for Intervention in Syria. 2011. June 21. and William H. ―Foreign Policy Experts Urge House Republicans to Support U. ―Foreign Policy Experts Urge President to Take Action to Halt Violence in Libya. 2011. 2011. David J. Should do to Help Syria. July 8. Foreign Policy.‖ Senator John McCain. ―Foreign Policy Experts Urge President to Take Action to Halt Violence in Libya. ―Foreign Policy Experts Urge President Obama to Take Immediate Action in Syria.S. 2012.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. July 12. 2012.‖ Open Letter Organized by the Foreign Policy Initiative and Foundation for Defense of Democracies. ―What Obama Must Do in Syria After the Failed Annan Plan. October 1. ―A Triumph for Democracy in Libya. November 8. Operations in Libya. March 15.‖ Open Letter. Kramer.‖ Open Letter. July 10. July 13.‖ Ann Marlowe. ―NATO in Libya. 2011. 2012. June 7.‖ Richard Wike and Bruce Stokes.‖ Open Letter. July 12.‖ Elizabeth O‘Bagy. 2012. Washington Post. 2012. ―Disorganized Like a Fox: Why It's a Great Thing that the Syrian Opposition is Fragmented. June 29. ―The Missing Piece. June 20. Institute for the Study of War. 2012. Foreign Policy. 2011. February 17. ―The United States‘ Chance for a Do-Over with Egypt.

2012. March 5. Foreign Policy. March 8. March 23. Must Take Sides to Keep The Arab Spring From Islamist Takeover. May 7. May 2. 2011.‖ Francisco Martin-Rayo.         9 . ―The Case for Arming Syria‘s Opposition.‖ Stephen J. ―Where Democracy Is America‘s Second Choice. May 30. ―Prison Island. ―What Does the Syrian Opposition Believe?‖ David Pollock. ―Turn the Tide Against Bashar al-Assad.‖ Former President George W. 2012. Bush. ―On the Situation in Syria. Freedom House‘s Freedom at Issue. Hadley.‖ Courtney Radsch.S. 2012.‖ Tom Malinowski.S.‖ Senator John McCain. ―U. Senate.‖ Ray Takeyh. The Wall Street Journal. May 8. Washington Post. ―Slamming the Door on Press Freedom in Bahrain. 2012. May 17. Washington Post. Foreign Policy. ―The Arab Spring and American Ideals. The Wall Street Journal. 2012. 2012. May 17. 2012.‖ Senator Joe Lieberman. Washington Post. Remarks on the Floor of the U. 2012.

engage emerging partners. and stand to reap great benefits from deeper cooperation on economic.S. Allowing the balance of power in a region of the world so vital to U. Washington must now bolster economic and diplomatic ties with longstanding regional allies. and security fronts. Taiwan.500 Marines in Australia is a positive signal.Asia Pacific China‘s increasingly provocative behavior is challenging long-term security and stability in the wider Asia-Pacific region. and increase arms sales to Japan. South Korea.-built fighter recently ordered by Japan and potentially Australia—as well as explore other means to bolster the island nation‘s defensive capabilities. India— which has border disputes with China—has begun to modernize its military. To further reassure allies and improve the security situation in the region. Because the Chinese air force is rapidly overshadowing Taiwanese capabilities. Australia. Progress on economic trade agreements. diminished economic and political sway. pursue an expanded regional missile defense network to counter China‘s ballistic missile threat.S.-Japan-India Trilateral— and military exercises with likeminded partners. Beijing‘s expansive claims on the Spratly and Paracel Islands in the South China Sea have pushed even Vietnam closer to the West. will complement America‘s security engagement in the region. Washington should immediately begin discussions regarding selling Taiwan the F-35—an advanced 5th generation U. interests to shift in China‗s favor is a recipe for instability. such as through missile defense or submarine sales.S. such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership. and India. diplomatic. The United States should continue its long-standing policy of support for Taiwan. America should avert sequestration cuts to defense spending. and expand both security dialogues—such as December 2011‘s U. The Obama administration‘s decision not to sell Taiwan new model F-16 C/Ds fighters to upgrade its Air Force vis-à-vis China raised doubts about America‘s commitment to the longtime ally. Although the Obama administration‘s decision to station 2. Both democracies are bound together by increasingly shared values. Washington must reassure allies and partners that continuing uncertainty over the America‘s long-term defense spending will not diminish American naval and air power in the AsiaPacific.    10 . and potential conflict—all of which comes with costs likely to be greater than those required to keep the peace. The United States and India should reinvigorate their partnership on a wide range of strategic issues. Australia and Japan have announced changes to their defense strategies in response to China‘s growing military might. face major terrorist threats. Key Points:  The Obama administration‘s so-called ―pivot‖ or ―rebalance‖ towards the Asia Pacific must be accompanied by policies that reassure Asian allies about America‗s ability to maintain its dominant security position in the region and deter China. allies fear that deep ―sequestration‖ defense cuts mandated by the Budget Control Act of 2011 will constrain America‘s regional military deployments.

a similar number of frigates. China‘s air forces have bought or built hundreds of new 4th generation fighters—which are comparable to the American-made F-16s and F-15s. Foreign Policy Initiative. 2012. Over the past two decades. 2011.‖ FPI Policy Analyst Patrick Christy. 2011. Foreign Policy Initiative. ―Avoiding U.-India Strategic Partnership. more than four dozen.-India Drift. Its Navy has acquired 15 guided missile destroyers. November 16. When built. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta announced at the 2012 Shangri-La Dialogue that the United States will shift 60% of its naval assets to the Asia-Pacific region by 2020.4 billion.S. up from just $14 billion in 2000. 2. Policy Towards China. rather than the present 50-50 split between the Atlantic and Pacific.‖ FPI Policy Analyst Patrick Christy. 2011.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative. FPI Resources:  ―FPI Analysis: Overcoming Obstacles to Accelerate the U. June 4.S. March 7. the United States and India have inked a landmark civil nuclear cooperation agreement. March 27. June 11.‖ FPI Policy Analysts Patrick Christy and Evan Moore. 2012. Foreign Policy Initiative. and expanded security cooperation and defense trade. total bilateral trade surpassed $43. broadened bilateral relations. ―FPI Bulletin: President Obama‘s Trip to Australia. Finally. India signed its biggest defense deal with the United States so far—a $4. The Diplomat’s Flashpoints Blog. December 2. and The Heritage Foundation). including a new stealthy class. 2012. ―FPI Bulletin: An Off-Balance Pivot to Asia?‖ FPI Policy Director Robert Zarate and Policy Analyst Patrick Christy. 6. Since 2000.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative.Notable Facts: 1. 2012.1 billion contract to procure ten C-17 airlift aircraft. China is now moving forward with an aircraft carrier program. February 13. China also maintains the world‗s largest arsenal of mines to protect its littoral waters. cruise missile-armed patrol craft. 2012. ―Obama Drops the Ball on India. including attack subs and nuclear-armed ballistic missile subs. including those surrounding the major new naval base on Hainan Island.‖ Defending Defense Project (American Enterprise Institute. 3. Most notably. and scores of new amphibious ships. high-speed. China has procured more than 40 new submarines. February 15.S. 5. By 2008. In 2011.        11 .‖ FPI Policy Analyst Patrick Christy.S. The Diplomat. Foreign Policy Initiative. 4. Defense Spending. Since the early 1990s. ―FPI Bulletin: Obama Can Cut Defense or Pivot to Asia—But Not Both. ―FPI Analysis: Assessing U. ―Defending Defense: China's Military Build-Up—Implications for U. free flows of trade and investment reached unprecedented levels. it will have underground facilities to safely port as many as 20 submarines.

Foreign Policy. and Walter Lohman.S. The Heritage Foundation.‖ Michael Auslin. National Review. 2012. 2012. July 3. 2011. Ret. ―Defense Budget Cuts Will Devastate America‘s Commitment to the Asia–Pacific. Foreign Policy’s Shadow Government.‖ Multiple Authors.‖ Senator John McCain.Suggested Reading:  ―U. 2012. March 16.‖ Michael Auslin. July 18.‖ Max Boot. the Bad. Mark Stokes.           12 . Lewis Stern. ―Build. Los Angeles Times.‖ Dean Cheng and Bruce Klingner. Center for New American Security. ―Pivoting and Rebalancing: The Good. Russell Hsiao.‖ Daniel Blumenthal.0. And Clear: An American Strategy for Asia. ―Asian Alliances in the 21st Century. August 15. 2011. American Enterprise Institute.‖ Dan Blumenthal with Randal Schriver. 2012. July 2. ―America's 'Pacific Pivot' Craze. October 14.‖ Sadanand Dhume.. and the Ugly. 2012. The Heritage Foundation. May 22.–Vietnam Defense Relations: Investing in Strategic Alignment. 2012. Hold. May 3.C. Project 2049 Institute. Foreign Policy. December 6.S.). ―Don't Forget About the East China Sea. et al. 2011. ―Debating the Pacific Century. ―Why Asia Wants America. Military Strategy in Asia. June 4. August 30. The Diplomat. 2012. 2011. ―Failure 2. L. Colonel William Jordan (USA. ―Asia in the Balance: Transforming U.‖ Thomas Mahnken. and Michael Mazza.

It is clear that the United States and China differ deeply on a wide range of economic. In China today. Key Points:  China‘s increasingly assertive foreign policy has raised concerns throughout the region and the world. commitment to its allies and partners in the Asia-Pacific.S. North Korea. and Tibetans and other groups face a government-enforced crackdown. the United States should pursue increased arms sales to Japan.S.N. A strategy of engagement. freedom of religion banned. security. has raised concerns throughout the Asia-Pacific region and the world. cannot completely bridge these differences. by itself. and Syria. and Syria‘s atrocities against civilian protestors. they have served as another mechanism by which China (and Russia) continue to 13     . The United States should elevate its call for Chinese leaders to respect the human rights of all of its citizens and embrace democratic values anchored in the rule of law. and Uighurs in their continuing struggle for human rights and dignity. policy also should seek to help Asian allies to balance against China‘s increasingly assertive foreign policy and growing military might. In response. let alone to demonstrate respect for the human rights of its people.China China‘s growing economy and global trade ties have not led Beijing to fully embrace market-based economic principles and transparent business practices. although multiparty talks that included China (and Russia) were. U. in practice. conceptually. open political discussion is repressed.S. Taiwan. Instead.-Japan-India Trilateral— and military exercises with likeminded partners. an integrated long-term strategy towards China that advances America‘s core values and interests—one that not only emphasizes U. and human rights issues. It has shown an unwillingness to exert significant pressure on North Korea. and an expanded regional missile defense network to counter China‘s ballistic missile threat. Australia. China‘s continued military build-up. fueled by years of strong defense spending and an increasingly assertive foreign policy. should: 1) speak out against Chinese human rights abuses in every available forum and at every available opportunity. For example. engage emerging partners. The Obama administration‘s so-called ―pivot‖ or ―rebalance‖ towards the Asia Pacific must be accompanied by policies that reassure Asian allies about America‗s ability to maintain its dominant security position in the region and deter China. and is embroiled with neighbors in territorial disputes in the Western Pacific and South China Sea. but also supports Chinese dissidents. Tibetans. and expand both security dialogues—such as December 2011‘s U. Specifically. Beijing has blocked more effective U. Beijing targets Taiwan with missiles. and India. As appropriate. diplomatic.S. and 3) recognize that the best long-term solution for American concerns about Chinese behavior is China‘s eventual democratization and expose the connection between the nature of China‘s communist regime and its behavior at home and abroad. Security Council action against Iran‘s rogue nuclear activities. South Korea. 2) establish linkage between American policy towards China and China‘s human rights behavior. the United States should also seek solutions to major international issues without China. a promising method to deal with Iran. or pursue substantive political reforms. clearly and publicly. Washington must now bolster economic and diplomatic ties with longstanding regional allies. the U. there is a need for Washington to articulate. even when Pyongyang takes provocative actions with regard to its nuclear weapons and missile programs.

‖ Foreign Policy Initiative. 2012.S.S. ―FPI Bulletin: U. 2012 ―FPI Analysis: Assessing U. Must Hold China to its Promises in Chen Guangcheng Case. 2. given the likelihood that they could lead to a trade war with China. The Weekly Standard. working with democratic allies. the Chinese core military budget may well approach $300 billion. military spending. 14    . especially its submarine fleet which includes modern attack submarines. February 15. From 2000 to 2011. with ranges capable of hitting Taiwan. In an annual report to Congress in 2012. and is in the process of increasing their range. companies and raising the cost of goods for American consumers. Fly and Director of Democracy and Human Rights Ellen Bork. China‘s defense budget grew at an average of 11.‖ FPI Director of Democracy and Human Rights Ellen Bork. the United States. Moreover. At its current rate of purchase and production. traditional and naval. At the same time. 4. The Chinese military is also developing a conventional medium-range ballistic missile capability to threaten U. 2012.S. ―Xi Whiz!‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. Since the end of the Cold War. 5. During this same time period. 2012. But the cost of raising.S. in contrast to U. companies and benefits for American consumers. a fifth-generation.resist efforts to compel their client states. and Beijing should respect and enforce vigorously the intellectual property rights of Americans firms. China may be able eventually to sustain a force of nearly 80 submarines.  The fact that the United States and China are tied together economically should not hinder efforts to ensure that American businesses are treated fairly. May 2. and accuracy. training. Since the early 1990s. China is also developing the J-20. 3. twin-engine fighter aircraft. making it the second largest in the world. FPI Resources:  ―FPI Bulletin: An Off-Balance Pivot to Asia?‖ FPI Policy Director Robert Zarate and Policy Analyst Patrick Christy. which accounts for cost differences between China and the West. June 5. Using the purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rate. submarine fleet is currently at 53. 6.S.8 percent per year. Foreign Policy Initiative.S. Instead. February 18. carrier groups throughout the region. Notable Facts: 1. Policy Towards China. in working with China to end such practices. the Chinese air forces. the number of submarines in the U.2 percent over 2011. fleet has decreased. China has dramatically expanded its navy. it would be a mistake to impose U. hurting U.S. However. stealth. tariffs on Chinese imports. China‘s military spending currently focuses on the AsiaPacific region. which covers the globe. The U. The Obama administration has rightly refused to support such efforts. should seek other avenues to impair these rogue regimes‘ capabilities. have bought or built hundreds of new 4th generation fighters — fighters generally comparable to the American-made F-16s and F-15s. payload. China‘s officially disclosed military budget for 2012 is set to increase 11. China‘s economic growth and huge population offer tremendous opportunity for U. its currency allowed to float to reflect its market value. the Pentagon assessed that China possesses over 1000 conventional short-range ballistic missiles. The Pentagon officially estimates that China‘s military-related spending for 2011 amounted between $120 billion to $180 billion.S. Foreign Policy Initiative. and equipping a military in China is substantially less than what it costs to field an equivalent American force.S. China‘s businesses should operate in a transparent fashion.

April 30. ―FPI Bulletin: Mr.S. 2011. July 15. July 8. June 21. 2012. It‘s All About America. ―Countering Beijing in the South China Sea. ―Defending Defense: China's Military Build-Up: Implications for U. Policy Toward China. ―For China. 2012. April 3. Defense Spending.    Suggested Reading:  ―U. 2011. March 7.‖ Dan Blumenthal and Lara Crouch. ―Tipping Point in the Indo-Pacific.S. The Wall Street Journal Asia. July 6. ―Stop Ignoring Taiwan.‖ Amy Chang. Staff Research Report for the U. ―Hegemony with Chinese Characteristics. The Hoover Institution.‖ Trefor Moss. Foreign Policy. ―Making Sense of Six Chinas. July 6. 2012. ―5 Things the Pentagon Isn't Telling Us About the Chinese Military. Lawmakers Must Fix Pentagon‘s China Report.S.‖ Michael Auslin. August 24. 2011. Foreign Policy Initiative. ―The Implications of China's South China Sea Activities.‖ Bill French and Daniel Katz. 2011. ―Don‘t Discount Chinese Liberty. May 23. 2011. March/April 2011.               15 . President.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative. and The Heritage Foundation). Foreign Policy. The Diplomat. Staff Briefing for the Congressional China Caucus. ―State of Injustice. Foreign Policy.‖ Aaron Friedberg. January 17.‖ FPI Director of Democracy and Human Rights Ellen Bork. 2012.‐China Economic and Security Review Commission. 2011. 2012. The National Interest.‖ Dana Dillon. Foreign Policy. ―FPI Bulletin: Nobel Peace Prize to Liu Xiaobo Puts Pressure on China and President Obama. March 9.‖ FPI Director of Democracy and Human Rights Ellen Bork. 2012. Chinese Opportunity. 2012. ―The Growing Threat from China's Air Force.‖ Michael Auslin. July 29. June 26.‖ Defending Defense Project (American Enterprise Institute. The American Interest.‖ Michael Auslin. ―American Crisis. ―Friends Like These. ―Indigenous Weapons Development in China‘s Military Modernization. ―FPI Analysis: Time for a Strategic Reassessment of U. 2011.‖ Dan Blumenthal. Meet With the Dalai Lama.‖ Michael Auslin. June 1.‖ Will Inboden.‖ Liu Junning. The Wall Street Journal. Foreign Policy Initiative. Foreign Policy’s Shadow Government.‖ Sophie Richardson. October 8. 2012. The Wall Street Journal. 2010. Defense News.S. May 17. 2012. May 4. 2011.‖ Karl Eikenberry. Foreign Policy Initiative.

in which Vladimir Putin returned to the Presidency for a third term. and used the power of the state to harass political opponents and media outlets. Turning a blind eye to such undemocratic behavior further weakens democratic forces in Russia and harms American interests. As Benjamin Franklin observed. To that end. challenge regimes that subvert the cause of freedom. 2) establish linkage between U. is a prominent example of the Kremlin‘s complete control of Russian politics. and give greater support to the burgeoning protest movement against Putin‘s domination of the Russian state. The 2012 presidential election. policy towards China and Chinese human rights behavior. the Russian government has accelerated a systematic rollback of democratic reforms enacted in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union. the Burmese government is still effectively ruled by military officials in civilian garb. As such. by. the United States should: 1) speak out against Chinese human rights abuses in every available forum at every available opportunity. the United States should proportionally ease international pressure only in close and continuing coordination with the country‘s democratic opposition. Russia has also ignored its international obligation to establish and ensure a free and open political process inside its borders. open political discussion is repressed. China is still a country of. The United States should elevate its call for Chinese leaders to respect the human rights of all of its citizens and embrace democratic values anchored in the rule of law. Washington should work with our democratic allies to promote democracy and respect for human rights. and indispensable to safe-guarding and advancing the ideals and principles we hold dear. Those fighting for their freedom should never have cause to question whether America is on their side. curtailed press freedom and political expression. freedom of religion banned. In recent years. and for the Communist Party. who strongly control the country‘s politics 16     . Key Points:  The United States should pursue policies that promote political freedom and stand against human rights abuses across the globe—abuses which mock the universal principles we hold dear. and leverage the visibility of international institutions to aim a brighter spotlight on crimes against humanity. The United States should speak out much more forcefully against these actions.S. In China today. Dissidents and activists like Chen Guangcheng view the United States as a crucial ally in their fight for democracy and human decency. security.‖ Today. America must provide global leadership in working to spread political freedom and defend the human rights of those oppressed by their governments. and 3) recognize that the best long-term solution for American concerns about Chinese behavior is its eventual democratization and expose the connection between the nature of China‘s communist regime and its behavior at home and abroad. In response. America remains the world‘s indispensable nation—indispensable to international peace. America holds a special place in the world. America cannot and must not be indifferent to their struggle. not the Chinese people. The United States should respond swiftly to activities undertaken by the Kremlin to thwart the democratic process or violate basic human rights inside Russia. Despite initial political reforms. and Tibetans and other groups face a government crackdown. ―Our cause is the cause of all mankind.Democracy & Human Rights Founded on the universal cause of freedom. and stability. As Burma opens itself to incremental reforms. Ultimately.

and human rights defenders have been imprisoned and executed. Aung San Suu Kyi—the Nobel Prize-winner whose opposition party won over 95 percent of open seats in the country‘s April 2012 parliamentary elections—emphatically urged Washington and the international community to resist ―reckless optimism. On July 7. 2.8 million Libyans cast ballots. policy makers should recognize that a democratic state forces leaders to be held accountable to their people. and are still warring against the country‘s ethnic minorities. 17 . when Mohamed Bouazizi. 2011. set himself on fire in a police station to protest harassment from authorities and the unlawful seizure of his cart. which won nearly 60% of the vote and 392 of the 485 seats. 5.  Notable Facts: 1. beating Libya‘s branch of the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamist factions. Liu. while the United States may not agree with or condone the decisions of these new governments. Iranians stormed into the streets in the hundreds of thousands to protest the fraudulent re-election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. tepid. in which former interim prime minister Mahmoud Jibril won a plurality of seats in the country‘s interim National Assembly. and burgeoning radical Islamist movements. Tunisia. 3. 2010. The country‘s newly-elected civilian leaders are now working to write a national constitution. The 2010 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo. dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled the country on January 14. and was prevented from attending his award ceremony. the Obama administration sought to diplomatically engage the Iranian regime on the country‘s controversial nuclear program. A policy that advances freedom and democracy in the Middle East is entirely consistent with American interests and values. stifled economies. the United States should insist on free and fair elections. After street protests throughout Tunisia erupted in Bouazizi‘s name. at best. Tunisia held the Arab Spring‘s first democratic elections on October 25. the United States sought to establish regional stability at the expense of freedom. As post-revolutionary states like Egypt. as well make clear that the new governments must respect the rights of all their citizens. 4. a 26year-old street vendor. Journalists. Libya held its first post-Gaddafi election. However. 2012. 2011. If the administration had given the Iranian people more robust aid and support during this critical juncture.  The United States should embrace and champion the democratic revolutions that are remaking the Middle East.‖ She instead called for them to retain and use their leverage to encourage further democratic reforms in a nation that still remains largely shackled by dictatorial strongmen. even President Obama‘s moral support during the summer of 2009 was. even though she was under house arrest at the time of the elections.‖ Burma‘s ruling military regime refused to honor that election‘s results. Following the June 12 presidential elections of that year. activists. with an overall voter turnout of 65 percent.S State Department stated that the 1990 Burmese election results ―were an overwhelming victory for Aung San Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy party. The Iranian regime has used brutal tactics of repression to prevent another series of widescale demonstrations against the regime. the protesters explicitly asked for American support. This resulted in enshrined authoritarian governments that were unresponsive to the needs and aspirations of their people. In 2009. Beijing also successfully pressured 19 countries to boycott ceremony. and Libya begin to organize themselves. In their demonstrations. The U. However. For decades. Roughly 1. After the Obama administration lifted a long-standing investment on Burma. then the strategic situation in the Middle East might have been dramatically improved.and economy. The Arab Spring began in Tunisia on December 17. a signatory of Charter 08—a manifesto calling for democratic reform—was and is imprisoned by the Chinese government.

Foreign Policy Initiative. ―Foreign Policy Experts Urge President Obama to Take Action Against Assad. 2012.‖ Karel Schwarzenberg. July 21.S.‖ Michael Green and Daniel Twining. ―U. Foreign Policy Initiative.‖ FPI Director of Democracy and Human Rights Ellen Bork. 2011. February 17. 2012. July 26. Washington Post.‖ FPI Director of Democracy and Human Rights Ellen Bork. President. Freedom House‘s Freedom at Issue. ―For Tibetans. 2012. 2012.S. ―In Zimbabwe. Meet with the Dalai Lama. 2012. July 15.S. July 13. 2012. Must Hold China to its Promises in Chen Guangcheng Case. ―How Solidarity Spoke to a Nation: Lessons for Today‘s Democratic Insurgents. November 8. The Weekly Standard. 18     . July 27. December 19. 2012. Foreign Policy Initiative.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative. 2011.‖ Lobsang Sangay. ―How The Obama Administration Should Follow Up on Its Rhetoric on Rights in China. is Moving too Fast on Burma. Policy Towards China.      Suggested Reading:  ―Turning Burma‘s Small Steps into Bigger Ones. 2012. 2012. ―FPI Bulletin: U.‖ Open Letter Organized by the Foreign Policy Initiative and Foundation for Defense of Democracies. No Other Way to Protest.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. ―Towards a Post-Assad Syria: Options for the United States and Like-Minded Nations to Further Assist the Anti-Regime Syrian Opposition.‖ Vukasin Petrovic. 2012. Freedom House‘s Freedom at Issue. July 15.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative and Foundation for Defense of Democracies.‖ FPI Director of Democracy and Human Rights Ellen Bork. Democracy Must Be Driven from Below.‖ Open Letter Organized by the Foreign Policy Initiative and Foundation for Defense of Democracies. Washington Post.‖ Arch Puddington. July 17. March 30.     “Why is Obama Giving Up His Human Rights Leverage Against Russia?‖ FPI Director of Democracy and Human Rights Ellen Bork. April 30. ―FPI Analysis: Assessing U. 2011. February 15. 2012. National Review Online’s The Corner. Fly. The New Republic.‖ Open Letter Organized by the Foreign Policy Initiative and Foundation for Defense of Democracies. ―Mr. July 24.FPI Resources:  ―Foreign Policy Experts Urge President Obama to Take Immediate Action to Establish Safe Zones in Syria. 2011. May 11. 2012. ―Democracy and the Asia Pivot. ―Time for Obama to Stand Up for Human Rights.‖ FPI Director of Democracy and Human Rights Ellen Bork. May 2.  ―Foreign Policy Experts Urge President Obama to Take Immediate Action in Syria. Washington Post.

If sequestration cuts to defense spending are fully implemented. unless the President and Congress change current law. acquisition. Co-chaired by Bush National Security Advisor Stephen Hadley and Clinton-era Secretary of Defense William Perry. drastic cuts to defense spending resulted in the ―hollowing out‖ of the military. Air Force Chief of Staff General Norton Schwartz has stated that the present number of F-22 fighters creates a high risk for the U. For example. with units lacking sufficient personnel. escalating personnel entitlements. Known as ―sequestration. the decline in the size of the Navy. the fewest number since 19  .S. supplies. then the percentage of GDP America spends on defense would fall under 3%─the lowest total in the entire post-World War II era─and the defense budget would not be remotely adequate to secure America‘s interests and preserving the international leadership role that rests upon military preeminence.  Modernization Needs  Policymakers who support massive cuts in defense spending ignore the findings of a bipartisan panel on U. and American national security would be significantly weakened. current law now mandates additional ―sequestration‖ cuts in the $500-600 billion range due to the failure of the select bipartisan deficit committee to reach agreement on any further deficit reduction.S.Defense Policy In the dangerous post-9/11 world. In the 1990s. and force structure. First. The fact that F-22 procurement was capped at 187 aircraft is especially worrisome as China develops increasingly capable stealth aircraft and as Russia develops and sells resilient air defense systems. America‘s military is presently equipped for maintaining and preserving global peace rather than protecting the United States against 21st century global threats. military in meeting its operational demands. If the current debt deal governs defense policy for the next ten years. Armed Forces soon will face an indiscriminate. In total.‖ The American military faces a large and growing gap between the forces it requires and the forces it has. across-the-board cut of more than $500 billion over the next decade. On top of this. equipment. the Pentagon now faces cuts of more than $1 trillion over the next decade. and equipment. military have the weapons. the defense budget will face catastrophic cuts. military capabilities issued an ―explicit warning‖ on military readiness: ―The aging of the inventories and equipment used by the services. the United States must ensure that the men and women of the U. and other resources needed to carry out any mission and come home safely.S. the U. Pro-defense policymakers should vigorously oppose such devastating defense cuts. overhead and procurement costs. Key Points: Spending  Under the debt-limit deal. The Navy has 285 ships. and the growing stress on the force means that a train wreck is coming in the areas of personnel. This would endanger U.‖ this massive reduction in defense spending comes on top of the $487 billion in long-term military cuts already proposed by President Obama in February 2012. However. national security.S.S. spending caps are placed on the Pentagon for fiscal years (FY) 2012 and 2013. military readiness. the Quadrennial Defense Review Independent Panel‘s assessment of U.S. Continuing these spending caps over ten years will result in $487 billion in cuts to the regular defense budget. then the United States will not have the capacity to meet its stated military commitments.

S. that‘s $55 billion out of a $1. Senate Democrats have also not attempted to offset or stop sequestration‘s impact. The Obama administration should continue robust support for missile defense. Congress has mandated that the Navy have no less than 12 aircraft carriers. it stresses the enduring importance of the Asia-Pacific region to U. and our forces when they are deployed..4 trillion deficit. Enterprise will be decommissioned in 2013. the U. Since the end of the Cold War.‖ In addition to other critical investments. Bradley fighting vehicles. [The men and women of the U. Although the Navy currently has 11 carriers. it articulates a vision for the Pentagon‘s future that only accounts for the first of two rounds of deep cuts mandated by the debt-limit deal. America‘s military has operated at a far higher operational tempo than it did during the Cold War. Former Secretary of Defense Gates strongly cautioned against massive defense budget cuts: ―If you cut the defense budget by 10%. 4. homeland from such threats. President Obama‘s Fiscal Year 2013 defense budget proposal to Congress ignored the reality of sequestration. while the military has been busier than ever. The alternative budget submitted by House Republicans attempts to block the first year of sequestration cuts by replacing them with alternative spending reductions. America‘s friends and allies. President Obama unveiled a controversial strategic guidance document to reorient America‘s long-term defense planning. its size and strength have declined. Abrams tanks. In January 2012. and the U. 7.S. Aegis-equipped destroyers and cruisers. B-1 and B-2 bombers and a variety of support aircraft).S. B52. including 12 aircraft carriers. to defend America and our allies against the emerging threat of Iran‘s long-range and intercontinental ballistic missile capabilities.. Today. The Navy has fewer ships than at any time since 1916. Ford is not expected to be commissioned until 2015.g. Congressional observers believe that if this deadlock is to be resolved.g. sails the same basic ships (e. F-15. With rogue nations like North Korea and Iran acquiring more sophisticated.S. On the other hand. military] are not the problem. and maintain funding for the Navy‘s 313-ship plan. the U.. national security interests. The Bush administration deployed a limited missile defense system in Alaska and California to protect the U. 20 . The Air Force. 2. thereby making it even harder to increase our power-projection capabilities.S.. which would be catastrophic in terms of force structure.S. Black Hawk and Apache helicopters) that it did at the end of the Cold War. This is well below the 313-ship level that the Chief of Naval Operations has called a ―floor. the United States should restore production of the F-22. it will be during the ―lame-duck‖ session of Congress following the November elections. U. F-16 and F/A-18 fighters. On the one hand. Trident ballistic missile and Los Angeles-class attack submarines.S. However. military flies the same basic planes (e. 3.America‘s entrance into World War I. leaving the fleet with only ten carriers in the intermediate two-year period. including the planned deployment of a new missile defense network in Europe and proposed deployment on the East Coast.S. longer-range missile systems.. and employs the same basic ground systems (e. The Air Force is smaller and its inventory is older than at any time since its inception in 1947. Navy and Army are 30% to 40% smaller than they were during Desert Storm. Nimitz-class aircraft carriers). but before sequestration takes legal effect on January 2. 5. missile defense has taken on much greater importance.S. 2013.‖ The United States spends more money on personnel costs ($157 billion in 2011) than on weapons procurement ($151 billion) and the imbalance is likely to grow in future years. Notable Facts: 1. Gerald R.g. completely punting the responsibility of undoing the trillion-dollar cut—or implementing it—to Congress. Missile Defense  The United States should support robust missile defenses to protect the homeland. 6.

2011. The Heritage Foundation). The Heritage Foundation). 2012. Foreign Policy Initiative. July 24. July 12. July 30.S. the Super Committee. 2012. 2012. Foreign Policy Initiative. 2011. Washington Post.‖ Arthur Brooks. The Heritage Foundation). Foreign Policy Initiative. The Heritage Foundation). January 27.FPI Resources:  ―Real Leadership on Defense. 2012.‖ Gary Schmitt and Thomas Donnelly. Edwin Feulner. The Heritage Foundation). Foreign Policy Initiative. 21  . ―Defending Defense: A Response to the Obama Administration‘s Preview of the Fiscal Year 2013 Defense Budget Request. Fly and Policy Analyst Evan Moore. January 15.‖ House Armed Services Committee. ―The Danger of Obama‘s Inaction on Sequestration. The Heritage Foundation. ―The Price of Power. ―Defending Defense: Warning—Hollow Force Ahead!‖ Defending Defense Project (American Enterprise Institute. ―Why Conservatives Should Fund and Support a Strong National Defense. Foreign Policy Initiative. 2012. ―Ryan‘s Budget Protects Defense. and William Kristol.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. March 27. The Heritage Foundation). 2012. Defense Spending. March 7. May 23. 2012. May 17. ―Syria and Obama's Strategic Box.‖ Defending Defense Project (American Enterprise Institute.‖ Defending Defense Project (American Enterprise Institute.             Suggested Reading:   ―Sequestration Resource Kit. ―Defending Defense: China's Military Build-Up: Implications For U.‖ Defending Defense Project (American Enterprise Institute. ―Defending Defense: Sequestration Must Be Stopped.‖ Defending Defense Project (American Enterprise Institute.‖ Defending Defense Project (American Enterprise Institute. ―Obama‘s Defense ‗Pivot‘ Masks Shrinkage. July 27. National Review Online’s The Corner. 2012. November 16. The Weekly Standard Blog. ―Saying No to Sequestration. The Heritage Foundation). 2012. 2011.‖ FPI Director Robert Kagan. ―Defending Defense: The Dangers of Deep Defense Cuts: What America‘s Civilian and Military Leaders are Saying. Foreign Policy Initiative. ―Defending Defense: Sequestration‘s Shadow on the Defense Industrial Base. May 7. 2012. The Weekly Standard.‖ Congressman Howard P.‖ Defending Defense Project (American Enterprise Institute. National Review Online. May 15. POLITICO. 2012.‖ FPI Director Eric Edelman and Dov Zakheim. 2011.‖ Senator Jon Kyl.‖ by FPI Executive Director Jamie M. ―Buck‖ McKeon. Fly. July 21. July 22. and the Price of Greatness. Foreign Policy Initiative. updated periodically. The Wall Street Journal. ―Defending Defense: Defense Spending.

2012. ―Slashing America's Defense: A Suicidal Trajectory. 2012. What We Wasted.‖ Gary Schmitt and Thomas Donnelly. July 9. April 18.‖ Mackenzie Eaglen.‖ Steven Bucci and Alison Acosta Frazer. Commentary. June 7. American Enterprise Institute.‖ Gary Schmitt and Thomas Donnelly. March 24. Testimony before the House Armed Services Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations.‖ Bipartisan Policy Center. ―Indefensible: The Sequester‘s Mechanics and Adverse Effects on National and Economic Security.‖ Dov Zakheim. 2012. 2012. ―A Path to Security.‖ Mackenzie Eaglen. 2012. March 21. 2012. May 12. July 18. The Weekly Standard. January 5. Foreign Policy’s Shadow Government. AOL Defense. ―Fix Defense Sequestration—Without Tax Increases. 2012. ―Nearing Coffin Corner: U.‖ Mackenzie Eaglen. ―Panetta Plays Chicken. 2012.‖ Mackenzie Eaglen. ―CNO Article Raises Doubts About Joint Strike Fighter. January 24. March 15. ―Obama's Shift-to-Asia Budget Is a Hollow Shell Game.‖ Mackenzie Eaglen and Douglas Birkey. AOL Defense. Navy Shipbuilding Plan: Assumptions and Associated Risks to National Security. Roll Call.S. January 2012.S. July 19. Air Power on the Edge. The Weekly Standard.             22 . January 21. 2012. ―The Obama Way of War. ―The U. The Weekly Standard. ―A Budget Strategy that Courts Disaster. ―Sequestration Hurts Small Business More than Big Business.‖ Mackenzie Eaglen. The Heritage Foundation. American Enterprise Institute. and What We Need. 2012. ―The Past Decade of Military Spending: What we Spent. 2012. 2012.‖ Max Boot.‖ Thomas Donnelly.

Terrorism. instability in Africa and the Middle East.‖ President Obama‘s attempt to ―reset‖ relations with Russia alienated America‘s allies in Central and Eastern Europe. and sea forces to meet current and future threats. nuclear and missile proliferation. it remains vital that the United States and our European allies work together closely to meet these threats. The United States and NATO members in Europe should restore appropriate funding levels to their respective defense budgets.000 troops. Alexander Lukashenko‘s regime in Belarus—Europe‘s last dictatorship—is in the midst of a full-fledged crackdown against civilian demonstrators following his controversial victory in presidential ―elections‖ in 2010. continued defense budget cuts by NATO members risk crippling the alliance‘s ability to confront the threats of tomorrow and are already hampering current operations. left our allies feeling betrayed. Key Points:  A strong NATO alliance strengthens U.S. A unified and highly capable NATO is more likely to deter aggressors and deal successfully with future security challenges than a NATO that is politically divided and militarily weak. The United States and European Union must continue to embrace a vision of a Europe whole and free.000 to 40. 23    . Since 1949.‖ Many of these countries—including Poland. terrorists seek to disrupt our way of life. commitment to the security of Central and Eastern Europe. and pursue policies that draw Minsk and Kiev further into the West.Europe . Thus. Under the leadership of the proRussian President Viktor Yanukovych. a resurgent Russia. the Czech Republic. Slovakia. and America is confronted by new and resurgent powers. NATO—a transatlantic military alliance composed of democratic nations with shared values—has defended the Free World and its values in locales as varied as Libya and Afghanistan. As former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates noted: ―NATO has struggled. strategic thinking and budgetary decisions should focus on rebuilding air. Obama undermined Washington‘s relations with the democratic states of ―New Europe. The threat of tyranny did not disappear after the Cold War but rather fragmented into new dangers and challenges. and Georgia—had contributed significantly to the missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. America must voice support for European democrats as they continue to fight against authoritarianism. coupled with his abandonment of the ―Third Site‖ in favor of the ―Phased-Adaptive Approach‖ system. land. security. Each has the potential to impact transatlantic economic and military security. its deployment has exposed major deficiencies in military readiness. By moving strategically closer to Russia. disruption of sea lanes critical to global commerce.NATO As rogue states continue to pursue dangerous weapons. while NATO has been an indispensible partner in Afghanistan. Ukraine is back-sliding on many of the democratic gains won by the 2005 Orange Revolution. President Obama‘s decision to embrace closer relations with Moscow. at times desperately. President Bush‘s ―Third Site‖ plans for missile defense in Europe became a symbol of reciprocal U. to sustain a deployment of 25. However. Unfortunately. and a more assertive China are just a few examples of the wide range of challenges the United States and our democratic allies will face in the next decade. The trial and conviction of former Prime Minister— and opponent of Yanukovych in the 2010 presidential election—Yuliya Tymoshenko is one such example.S.

Fly and Henry Jackson Society Executive Director Alan Mendoza.‖ 2.‖ FPI Policy Analyst Patrick Christy.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. This year. August 8.S.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. Of the 28 NATO nations. NATO‘s Libya operation showed the limitations of Europe‘s military capabilities. October 2. Bases in Europe Remain Vital.Notable Facts: 1. October 22. ―Beyond Afghanistan. 2012. Fly and Gary Schmitt. ―A Stab in the Back. Whereas the U.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative. Fly and Wess Mitchell. September 19. July/August 2010. with the Royal Navy bearing the largest burden of downsizing.‖ Benjamin Weinthal. ―NATO in Libya. May 21. January 5. National Review Online. ―A Special Relationship in Jeopardy. ―The End of the Affair. July 30. FPI Resources:  ―FPI Analysis: Missed Opportunities at the 2012 NATO Summit. In two decades. only five of NATO‘s 28 members will meet NATO‘s budgetary requirement of 2% GDP on defense. July 11. 2011. October 1.-U. Foreign Policy. Foreign Policy.‖ Kurt Volker. 2012. 2012. As NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen conceded. the British government announced in 2010 that the defense budget will be cut by another 8% over the next four years. Foreign Policy. 2009.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. The Weekly Standard. ―Why Europe Needs Star Wars. the size of British armed forces has shrunk by nearly 40%.S. only 16 participated in the Libya intervention. May 25. ―Keeping America Safe: Why U. 2012. Further. Special Relationship. a Weakened NATO Can Still Write Its Own Future. that number has risen to more than 75% today. The American Interest. ―How Obama Lost Poland. ―The fact is that Europe couldn‘t have done this on its own. 2012. Defense budgets across Europe will continue to decrease as a result of the world financial crisis and ongoing debt crisis. July 24. 2012.        Suggested Reading:     "The Abandoned Alliance. The Commentator.‖ Mark Leonard.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative." Michael Kuz. ―Joint Bulletin: Maintaining Defense Spending Critical to U.K. 2009. Christian Science Monitor.‖ FPI Director Eric Edelman. with military manpower reduced by approximately 10%. Fly. 2010. The Heritage Foundation. The Weekly Standard. ―Open Letter to President Obama on Central Europe. 24  . 2009. September 9. 2012. ―Europe‘s Looming Defense Crisis is a Threat to NATO.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. 3. accounted for 50% of NATO members‘ defense spending a mere decade ago.S.‖ Luke Coffey.

August 19. 2011.‖ Patrick Keller and Gary Schmitt. The Hill.‖ Address by Secretary of Defense Robert Gates. Policy in Central Europe. 2012. April 2011. ―Promise And Reversal: The Post-Soviet Landscape Twenty Years On. Freedom House. Foreign Policy’s Shadow Government. May 20. July 15.S. The Wall Street Journal. ―Keeping New Allies: An Assessment of U. ―The Security and Defense Agenda (Future of NATO). June 10. Financial Times. ―Sounding the Alarm: Protecting Democracy in Ukraine. 2011. Damon Wilson. May 17. ―The 2012 NATO Summit in Chicago: NATO in Need of American Leadership. May 17. May 18. 2012.‖ Editorial. ―Revitalizing the Atlantic Alliance.‖ Luke Coffey.         25 .‖ David Kramer. Robert Nurick. ―The NATO Meeting in Chicago Should be More Than an 'Implementation Summit.‖ Center for European Policy Analysis.‖ Arch Puddington. 2012. 2012.  ―Continental Drift and NATO‘s Future. May 16. Freedom House.‘‖ Ian Brzezinski. The Heritage Foundation. with Evan Alterman. September 2011. ―Retooling NATO in Chicago. ―Democratic Change in Belarus: A Framework for Action.‖ Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen. 2011.‖ Center for European Policy Analysis and Freedom House. 2012.

Contrary to the assertions of many skeptics. Without stronger action. regional and nuclear ambitions. Failure to confront Iran over its nuclear program could force Israel to act alone. the United States should: 1) repeatedly raise Iranian human rights violations. The United States and the international community must prevent Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons. A state sponsor of terrorism. Tehran has repeatedly threatened Israel‘s national security and supported terrorism against Israeli citizens.S. Iran‘s terrorist proxies such as Hezbollah would be emboldened. Iran‘s continued defiance of its international obligations over its enrichment activities must be met with greater urgency by the United States and other nations. Key Points:  The United States and its allies should support Iran‘s democratic opposition and hold the regime in Tehran accountable for ongoing violations of human rights. Democratic change in Iran is in the long-term strategic interest of the United States. especially on Iran‘s energy. and 3) support further sanctions against individual regime human rights abusers. the United States should lead the international community in further tightening economic sanctions. Though a democratic Iran would not automatically resolve all major political issues. it would likely go a long way towards addressing international concerns about Iran‘s nuclear and regional ambitions. If the United States fails to prevent Tehran from acquiring nuclear weapons. and Israel‘s security would be threatened. An Iran that abides by basic norms of human rights and representative government is more likely to pursue its national interests lawfully and rationally. whether in bilateral diplomacy or in international forums. 2) press for the release of political prisoners and ask that Iran hold the perpetrators of human rights abuses to account. A nuclear-armed Iran would likely have grave consequences: neighboring states have already indicated they would begin their own nuclear programs. Iran has falsely claimed that organized internal dissent has disappeared. In addition to strong support for Iran‘s reform movement. Iranian-backed Hezbollah could retaliate with terrorism and rocket attacks against Israeli cities. in an attempt to demonstrate to the world that they have no choice but to accept the revolutionary regime‘s domestic. It is critical that all options—including the use of military force against Iran‘s contested nuclear program—remain on the table.Iran The Islamic Republic of Iran poses a grave threat to the United States and its allies and partners in the Middle East.     26 . shipping and financial industries. and is less likely to divert its national resources toward exporting violence and nuclear weapons. Israel will likely take preemptive action against Iran‘s nuclear facilities. it is only a matter of time before Iran acquires nuclear weapons. To this end. Iran is continuing to violate its international obligations as it develops the capability to make nuclear weapons on short notice. U. and that its rule is unquestioned. the pro-democracy ―Green Movement‖ is still very much alive. The International Atomic Energy Agency continues to report that Iran is developing sensitive technology that could be used in a nuclear weapons program. and international economic and political pressure on Tehran should be increased.

financial support.‖ In 2011. 27  . Kenya.S. In October 2011. Iranian government forces continue to plan and orchestrate international acts of terrorism. forces. Thailand. In 2012. and weapons to militias in Afghanistan and Iraq to target U.‖ Iran uses terrorist organizations such as Hezbollah and Hamas as proxies for terrorism and instability against Israel.‖ Though the regime denies having political prisoners. and political activists in Iran rapidly increased since 2009. FPI Resources:  ―The Obama Retreat. and Israeli officials on their soil. Fly. Notable Facts: 1. in which plotters—backed by Iran‘s Qods Force. June 16. Testifying before Congress. Iranian militia groups were responsible for the deaths of thirteen U. In May 2012. ―Any outcome that does not include . 4. The Weekly Standard. human rights activists—as noted by the Department of State—have been able to identify at least 900 languishing in Iranian prisons. the Bipartisan Policy Center estimates that Iran could produce sufficient amounts of highly enriched uranium for a weapon in between 26 and 103 days…That window could fall to just 8 days by November 2012. the Spring 2012 negotiations in Istanbul and Baghdad did not give any indications that Iran would be willing to take these steps. The Weekly Standard. The number of imprisoned journalists. an elite unit of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps—planned to detonate an explosive device in Washington.S. then Joint Chiefs Chairman Admiral Mike Mullen stated: ―Iran is very directly supporting extremist Shia groups [in Iraq]. there is ample reason to believe that Iran is continuing to delay and deceive the international community about the true nature of its nuclear program.‖ FPI Director William Kristol and Executive Director Jamie M. the most in the world. 5. which are killing our troops. 8. human rights defenders. Iran‘s nuclear program was never materially halted by the 2010 Stuxnet cyberattack. 2.‖ However. June 23. the verifiable dismantling of Iran‘s nuclear program and the removal of all nuclear material—at any level—will allow Iran to retain the ability to acquire nuclear weapons fuel in short order. Fly.S. Iranian government forces have supplied explosive devices. India. 3. D. the Committee to Protect Journalists reported ―Iran was holding 42 journalists in custody. 7. In July 2011.S.C. officials uncovered an Iranian terror plot to kill the Ambassador of Saudi Arabia to the United States. and training. A report by Human Rights Watch in January 2012 stated that ―Iranian authorities in 2011 carried out more than 600 executions and imprisoned more journalists and bloggers than any other country. ―No Iranian Nukes. Nobel Peace Laureate Shirin Ebadi said at least 42 lawyers had faced government persecution since June 2009. and Turkey. and nations across the Middle East. training. While satellite imagery shows Iran is attempting to cover-up evidence of testing systems related to triggering a nuclear explosion. In July 2012. 2012. Azerbaijan officials disrupted an alleged Iranian plot to attack U. the American Enterprise Institute assessed. Israel accused Iran and terrorist proxy Hezbollah for orchestrating an attack against Israeli tourists in Bulgaria that killed five and wounded dozens. Iran and Hezbollah have been blamed for ties to similar attacks against Israeli nationals in Cyprus. U. soldiers in Iraq. In December 2011. 6. With the secondary facility at Fordow functional. Iran—the chief ally and supporter of the Assad regime—continues to provide Syria with arms. 2012.‖ FPI Director William Kristol and Executive Director Jamie M. Lebanon.

―Time to Tighten the Noose on Iran. Foreign Policy. The Wall Street Journal. American Enterprise Institute. It‘s Time for Obama to Set Clear Lines for Military Action. 28               . 2012. ―Obama's Iran Loopholes. August 20. July 13. ―Update on Iran‘s Nuclear Program. July 4. ―The Case For Regime Change in Iran: Go Big—Then Go Home.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. March 30. Iraq. ―The Sources of Iranian Conduct.‖ Blaise Misztal. ―On Iran. 2012. June 27. ―Inflation and Iran's Regime. ―Iranian influence in the Levant. The Wall Street Journal.‖ Michael Singh. 2012. The Wall Street Journal. July 23.    Suggested Reading:  "The Most Dangerous Man in the World. 2012.‖ Patrick Clawson. 2012.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative. ―FPI Fact Sheet: The False Promise of Negotiations over Iran‘s Nuclear Program.‖ Yuval Porat. May 13. July 8. May 18. 2012. Bipartisan Policy Center.‖ Emanuele Ottolenghi.‖ Reuel Marc Gerecht. The Wall Street Journal Europe. July 9.‖ Claudia Rosett. April 13. 2012. Egypt. Washington Post. 2012. 2011. April 9. ―How Washington Encourages Israel to Bomb Iran. The Wall Street Journal Europe. Financial Times. 2012. ―Don't Throw Iran's Democrats Under the Bus. July 2. ―Iran Has No 'Right' To Enrich Uranium. Gerecht. ―The Iranian Nuclear Program: Timelines. The Wall Street Journal. The American Interest. 2012. July 12. April 12. 2012.‖ Editorial. 2012.‖ Sohrab Ahmari." Reuel M.‖ Yassamin Issapour. May 29. 2012. Washington Post. ―Oil Sanctions Against Iran Will Not Be Enough.‖ Michael Makovsky and Blaise Misztal. 2012. 2012.‖ Maseh Zarif. ―Toppling Iran's Unsteady Regime. 2012.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative and Freedom House. Fly and Gary Schmitt. and Afghanistan.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. ―Foreign Policy Initiative/Freedom House Analysis: The Green Movement Returns. The Wall Street Journal. The Weekly Standard. and Estimates.‖ Robert McNally. January 17. Data. ―How Iran Steams Past International Sanctions. Fly and Matthew Kroenig. ―Iranians Have Democratic Values. 2012. Foreign Affairs. March 25. May 23. 2012.‖ American Enterprise Institute and Institute for the Study of War.

2012. January/February 2012. ―Time to Attack Iran. ―Closing Tehran's Sanctions Loopholes. 2012.‖ Robert Joseph. Lindsey Graham. ―Meeting the Challenge: Stopping the Clock.      29 . Foreign Affairs.‖ Bipartisan Policy Center.‖ Frederick Kagan and Maseh Zarif. March 1. February 27. February 1. The Wall Street Journal. ―Iran Can't Be Allowed Nuclear 'Capability'‖ Senators Robert Casey. 2012. March 8. ―Resigning to Iran. National Review Online. ―America's Iranian Self-Deception. The Wall Street Journal. and Joe Lieberman.‖ Mark Dubowitz and Jonathan Schanzer. March 8. 2012. 2012.‖ Matthew Kroenig. The Wall Street Journal Europe.

and leaving Iraq vulnerable to internal destabilization. and external threats and influence.000 U. President Obama‘s decision to withdraw from Iraq empowers Iran. Iraqi government officials have been forced to make accommodations with Tehran in order to preserve Iraq‘s internal stability. presence incountry would have kept Baghdad strategically oriented towards the West. Sectarian tensions remain.S. and to defend the country from external threats until the Iraqi military was trained and equipped to fully perform this mission. democratic. that an American military presence in Iraq beyond 2011 would be required to maintain the security achievements resulting from the surge. troops could have helped to secure Baghdad‘s political and strategic orientation towards the West. A residual force of as many as 20. Iraq still faces difficult challenges as it emerges from decades of dictatorship.    Notable Facts: 1.Iraq With the critical assistance of the United States.S. The Obama administration‘s decision to withdraw all U. There was wide-spread understanding among U.S. Key Points:  Substantial progress has been made in Iraq. Iran has spent much of the post-2003 reconstruction period attempting to influence or intimidate Baghdad by arming and aiding Shia sectarian militias. The decision not to secure a Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) beyond 2011 is a dramatic failure of the Obama administration. The broadcast of open political debate and the sight of repeated elections in former totalitarian Iraq will likely add fuel to the reform movement active in neighboring nations Syria and Iran. to an atmosphere that sparks profound economic reform and opportunity. Iraq has made progress towards establishing a more stable democratic state in the heart of a region experiencing transformative revolutions. the United States and Iraq concluded a Status of Forces Agreement that allowed U. A stable. an Iraq allied with the United States boosts broader U. and the political process is at times sclerotic. and to the further repudiation of terrorism and Islamic radicals. In the fall of 2008. Although Iraqis today still face political. Because the United States has left before the Iraqi military could be properly trained and equipped. forces to remain in Iraq until the end of 2011. economic and security challenges. military forces from Iraq at the end of 2011 risks endangering the hard-won security gains of the 2007-2008 surge of U. poorly trained and ill-equipped Iraqi security forces. their numbers will be insufficient to this task.S.S. prosperous Iraq can play a larger beneficial role in the region. While the State Department will have thousands of personnel—many of them contractors—in Iraq after 2012.S. Maintaining a strong U. 30 . an always grid-locked parliament. and low oil production. frequent high-profile bombings staged by al-Qaeda. it is worth recalling how Iraq looked just a few years ago: widespread sectarian violence. as well as with their Iraqi counterparts. troops into the country. Moreover.S. Even so. military and administration officials. Those militias still pose a serious security threat to Iraq. and allied efforts for an historic transformation of the region—a change that leads to governments that respect individual freedom and human rights.

―Was Iraq Worth It?‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. ―Defeat in Iraq. American Enterprise Institute. 2012. ―Foreign Policy Experts Urge President Obama to Reconsider Troop Drawdown in Iraq. 2012. 2011. forces would withdraw by the end of that year. 2011.S.‖ Editorial. 4. military presence after 2011. 2012. December 16. 3. 2011. The Wall Street Journal. While that coalition still exists in the Iraqi government. September 15. ―Political Islam and the Battle for Najaf. ―FPI Fact Sheet: The Case for A Continued U. The Weekly Standard.‖ Danielle Pletka and Gary Schmitt. Foreign Policy Initiative. Foreign Policy Initiative. 2012. and ultimately collapsed after the administration proposed keeping only a token force of less than 5. 2011. ―Is Iraq Lost?‖ Frederick and Kimberly Kagan. July 26. 2011. ―John McCain on Iraq: Losing the Peace. Fly and Policy Director Robert Zarate. Should Reverse Course on Iraq.‖ FPI Policy Director Robert Zarate. December 14. News & World Report. the Obama administration did not recognize or reciprocate those advances until many months later.‖ Interview. September 15. Henry Jackson Society.‖ Open Letter. ―FPI Bulletin: Bringing the Iraq War to an Irresponsible End?‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. Negotiations became mired in Iraqi domestic politics. 5.     Suggested Reading:   ―Iraqi Distress Signals.‖ Michael Knights. Summer 2010. 2011.S. 2012. The Iraqi Council of Representatives elected in 2005 was dominated by religious and sectarian Shia parties. ―Blind in Baghdad. 2011. July 16. Kimberly Kagan.‖ Ramzi Mardini. January 23. For the immediate future. President Obama formally announced that all U. December 24.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative. American efforts in response have so far been weak or non-existent. The Weekly Standard. Iraq will continue to need support from the United States as it builds a military capable of defending its sovereignty and stability from outside states and internal threats.‖ Ayad Jamaluddin. On October 21. ―Why the U. U. July 5.S.000 troops in-country. and the secular al-Iraqiya list led by former Iraqi Prime Minister Ayad Allawi actually won the most seats of any party in the parliament. Institute for the Study of War. Fly. 31       . The Wall Street Journal. November 7.2. Nouri alMaliki‘s security-focused party dominates his Islamist coalition partners. ―Iraq‘s Recurring Political Crisis. Foreign Policy.‖ Frederick Kagan. Washington Post. February 16. 2012. Military Presence in Iraq After 2011. Iran has used a wide variety of means—including proxy militant groups—to sway or pressure Baghdad. February 24.S. and Marisa Cochrane Sullivan.S. FPI Resources:  ―Iraq Stands at the Brink of Disaster. Although Iraqi leaders had signaled their desire to negotiate for a U.

and Mideast Stability of Abandoning Iraq at the End of 2011.   32 . ―Iraq Threat Assessment: The Dangers to the United States. ―Losing Iraq?‖ Max Boot. 2011. ―Retreating With Our Heads Held High.‖ Frederick Kagan and Kimberly Kagan. Critical Threats Project. The Weekly Standard. The Weekly Standard Blog. October 21. May 2011. September 19. 2011. Iraq. American Enterprise Institute.‖ Frederick Kagan.

and abide by previous peace agreements. Successive American presidential administrations have understood the U. Iran is continuing to sponsor terrorism. and vital to the preservation of a democratic ally facing extraordinary security challenges. In September 2011. but also has the capacity to enforce an agreement that would provide both the Palestinian people with a demilitarized. or in the media. in the absence of a comprehensive peace agreement. and Israel with secure and defensible borders. the United States should make it clear that the prospects for long-term peace remain remote so long as groups like Hamas refuse to recognize the existence of Israel. However. renounce violence. Key Points:  The United State should not seek to impose preconditions for the resumption of Israeli-Palestinian peace negotiations.‖ noting that those negotiations ―will not happen—and their terms will not be set—through speeches. independent state. the United States should also seek to strengthen moderate forces in Lebanon and work vigorously to ensure the success of the reform movement in Syria. the Obama administration has publicly supported the idea of a Palestinian state within two years. While Israel remains in contact with Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas.Israel/Peace Process Israel faces continuing threats not only from Hamas and Hezbollah. strong.-Israel relationship to be mutually beneficial. (4) impose safe zones in Syria to protect embattled civilians. The United States should demand the conclusion of a comprehensive peace agreement prior to granting the Palestinian Authority statehood at the United Nations. Even Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid acknowledged that such preconditions are counterproductive to securing peace: ―The place where negotiating will happen must be at the negotiating table— and nowhere else. Although the United States said it will veto the request. In particular. or in the streets. and to march towards nuclear weapons-making capability in violation of its international obligations. To advance an enduring peace.S. To hasten the exit of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. and secure. or about anything else. and (5) examine limited retaliatory airstrikes against Syrian military targets. Israeli leadership has a strong consensus on the need to defend the country against the existential threat posed by Iran‘s quest for nuclear weapons-making capability. about building.‖ Israel needs a Palestinian partner that is not only willing to negotiate sincerely. a democratic and moderate Syria is in America‘s interest and would benefit regional peace. It is in America‘s interest to help ensure that Israel remains safe. (2) work to impose further unilateral and multilateral sanctions on the Assad regime for its ongoing human rights abuses. In the long term. The consensus between Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Defense Minister Ehud Barak 33     . but also from Iran and Syria. (3) provide the full range of assistance to vetted Syrian opposition groups. the Palestinian Authority submitted a request to the United Nations to become a formal state. Washington should: (1) continue to demand that the Syrian president immediately step down. President Obama‘s call in 2011 for Israel to renew negotiations with the Palestinians based on its 1967 borders is unhelpful to concluding a viable peace agreement. statehood risks dissuading the Palestinians from peace negotiations.‖ Reid added: ―No one should set premature parameters about borders. and possibly forcing Israel to surrender important territory.

and neither parliamentary nor presidential elections are now scheduled. Following the 2006 parliamentary election. government offices. The Palestinian Authority‘s legislative council and president have well exceeded the democratic mandate of their terms. 2012 ―After 20 Years. the Israeli leadership considers the capability to produce nuclear weapons as the threshold for a strike—a point that Iran is rapidly approaching. However.‖ FPI Director Dan Senor. From 2009 to 2010. and a stock market. President Obama attempted to persuade the Prime Minister that the United States would take military action against Iran if necessary when Netanyahu visited Washington in March 2012. control of the Palestinian territories was split between Abbas‘s Fatah party controlling the West Bank and Hamas controlling the Gaza Strip. Palestinian security forces have worked closely with Israel to quell supporters of Hamas. May 10.testifies to this shared belief. infrastructure. March 5. July 19. Suggested Reading:  ―Correcting Obama‘s Middle East Failure. The Bush administration recognized that natural growth in these settlements would require new construction. Although Fatah and Hamas are negotiating terms for power sharing and a timetable for an interim government followed by elections. Rather than focus his attention on demonizing Israel. May 14. there is a distinct difference between Israel‘s and the Obama administration‘s ―red lines‖ for action. The parliament was elected in February 2006 and its term should have ended in January 2010. ―Echoes of ‗67: Israel Unites. The economies of both the West Bank and Gaza Strip are reliant on foreign aid. Although President Mahmoud Abbas was elected in January 2005 for a term that ended in January 2009.‖ 2. 2012. 34    . 2012. 2012. ―What Happened to Israel's Reputation?‖ Israeli Ambassador to the U. he has embarked on positive internal developments within the Palestinian state. While the Obama administration tends to focus on the near-acquisition of a nuclear weapon as grounds for military force. Washington Post. 5. Washington Times. 4. it was extended for one year. the Obama administration insisted on a complete freeze of Israeli settlement activity as a prerequisite to peace negotiations. Palestinian Prime Minister Salam Fayyad has attempted to build the institutions of a functioning state—including strong security forces.‖ but not ―outward. 6. 2012. an expansion ―upward. Notable Facts: 1. FPI Resources:  ―Why Israel Has Doubts About Obama. but asked that these new buildings not create a de facto expansion of Israeli territory–that is. separation of powers. 3. Michael Oren. National Review Online. significant progress still remains elusive. The Wall Street Journal.‖ Charles Krauthammer. In the West Bank.S. However. The Wall Street Journal. July 26. but there has been large economic growth in the West Bank over the past five years as Israeli security measures have eased.‖ Senator John Barasso. Moving Beyond Oslo. no elections were held in January 2010.‖ Rabbi Benny Elon and Yossi Beilin.

‖ Jonathan Schanzer. Commentary. ―Fatah.‘‖ Elliott Abrams.‖ Robert D. Foreign Affairs. July/August 2011. 2011. 2011. May 6. March 5. June 2011. and the Statehood Gambit. Blackwill and Walter B. Hamas. Council on Foreign Relations.‖ Peter Berkowitz. Prime Minister‘s Office. Policy Review.‖ Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Los Angeles Times. Slocombe.‖ Elliott Abrams. ―The End of the ‗Peace Process. 2011. 35 . 2012. ―Israel: A True Ally in The Middle East. ―The Settlement Obsession. ―The Gaza Flotilla and International Law.      ―PM Netanyahu's Speech at AIPAC Policy Conference 2012. October 31. August 1.

support for Washington has diminished while Chinese. policies that serve only to strengthen the current regime.S. a program that targets criminal organizations in Central and South America. The Obama administration should work in greater cooperation with the Mexican government to curb the escalating violence that plagues America‘s neighbor to the south. many democracies in Latin America face pressure from autocratic rulers. The Panama agreement enhances America‘s longstanding ties with a nation increasingly fearful of the rapidly expanding drug war that is threatening governments across Central America. security lies in Guatemala. At the same time. The Colombia agreement rewards a stalwart ally of the United States and ensures economic ties with one of Latin America‘s fastest-growing economies. Venezuelan petrodollars. Brazil is America‘s second largest Latin American trading partner. and Venezuelan influence has grown. the greatest near-term threat to U. Guatemalan officials face increased levels of gang violence. ―Sanctions are an important tool of leverage for democratic change. end human rights abuses. organized crime. The Obama administration has rightly continued implementation of the Bush administration‘s $1. sanctions have the effect of denying funds to the Cuban regime‘s repressive apparatus. initiatives remain incomplete.‖ Rather. As a result of the Obama administration‘s increasing neglect of the region. In Central America. and few new policy proposals have emerged from the current administration. The United States should continue to demand that the Cuban government release all political prisoners. many governments in Latin America have expressed disappointment that the United States has not been more engaged. particularly in a post-Castro era.3 billion Merida Initiative. It is therefore critical for Washington to do more to strengthen democratic institutions in the region and d e e p en t ra d e t i es with democratic partners. Unfortunately. Thanks to globalization. Iranian. the bilateral free trade agreements with Colombia and Panama strengthen economic and strategic ties with two important democratic partners in the Western Hemisphere.Latin America America‘s strong presence in Latin America is important to America‘s national security and economic growth. As Senator Marco Rubio noted. democracy and security funding to the region has been slashed. the United States should increase its support for Cuba‘s pro-democracy movement. which it would otherwise use to exert further economic and political control over the Cuban people. Key Points:  The United States must do more to consolidate democratic gains in the region. and well36     . As one of the fastest growing economies in the world and the largest economy in the region. The United States should boost assistance to democratic allies in the region‘s facing an ongoing war against powerful drug traffickers and criminal gangs. using tools that have worked well against other tyrannies. The United States should expand exports opportunities to Brazil. and embrace real democratic political reform. new and diverse sources of foreign investment and trade have decreased the region‘s economic dependence on the United States. Signed into law in October 2011. and complex criminal organizations financed by illicit drug trade. Past U.S. such as making more effective use of the Internet to undermine the regime.S. Cuba‘s transition to freedom will not be accelerated by U. In the interim.

July 15. 2012. The Wall Street Journal. September 7.S. the newly implemented Colombia free trade agreement will increase American exports to Colombia by approximately $1. In January 2012. The Daily Caller. Brazil.‖ FPI Policy Analyst Patrick Christy. implemented significant restrictions on media freedoms. FPI Resources:  ―FPI Analysis: A Latin America Security Agenda for President Obama. The United States held a trade surplus with Brazil of $25 billion in 2011. Violence related to transnational criminal activity and drug trafficking has made Central America‘s North triangle—including El Salvador. ―U. Notable Facts: 1. March 9. according to the United Nations. Guatemala. Bilateral trade with Latin America‘s largest economy. April 12.‖ FPI Policy Analyst Patrick Christy. 2012. El Salvador‘s democratically elected government also faces spiraling violence and regional uncertainty. ―Latin America Loses Faith in Obama. 2012. Foreign Policy. By slashing Colombian tariffs for U. ―FPI Bulletin: High Time for Free Trade with South Korea. and Ecuador. 2. 2012 despite his ongoing bout with cancer.500. April 13.S. goods (which are sometimes as high as 35%). 5. Los Angeles Times.     Suggested Reading:   ―Impasse in El Salvador. July 2. ―Will Obama Defend Freedom in the Americas?‖ FPI Policy Analyst Patrick Christy. 2012. 3. Colombia and Panama. July 2. Foreign Policy Initiative. 2012. 37   . according to the office of the United States Trade Representative. Are Best Kept at Arm's Length. 2012. 4. AEI‘s The American.‖ Roger Noriega.funded drug cartels. April 5.‖ FPI Policy Analyst Patrick Christy. 2011. The Weekly Standard Blog. Iranian companies continue to launder billions in funds through Venezuelan banks and ventures in order to avoid international financial sanctions. April 25. A 2012 report by Freedom House stated that ―media freedom is on the defensive in much of Central and South America.‖ Juan Williams. 2012. Close to Home. The Weekly Standard Blog.1 billion. 6. Bolivia. ―Time to Defriend Hugo Chavez. 2012. and Honduras—home to the world‘s highest homicide rates. Mexico announced that the five-year death toll related to organized crime surpassed 47. ―Castro & Co.‖ Governments in Argentina. reached $101 billion in 2011.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative. Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez will face reelection on October 7.‖ Senator Marco Rubio.‖ Washington Post. in addition to the repressive governments in Cuba and Venezuela. ―Chávez‘s Dangerous Liaisons with Tehran.

October 20.‖ Vanessa Neumann. 2012. Commentary.‖ Editorial. April 11. ―The India of Latin America?‖ Jaime Daremblum. The Weekly Standard. 38 . The Weekly Standard Blog. October 17.‖ Roger Noriega. 2011. January 11.   ―After Chavez. February 13. ―Venezuela‘s Presidential Primary: Capriles Radonski Ready to Challenge Chavez. Foreign Policy. 2011. 2012. November 1. ―Hugo Chávez‘s Long Shadow. the Narcostate. ―Ecuadorean President Rafael Correa‘s Washington Post. 2011. February 2012. The Weekly Standard.‖ Roger Noriega and Jose Cardenas. 2012. The Heritage Foundation. ―Latin America Deserves More Attention.      ―Time for Latin America to Roll Up Iran Welcome Mat.‖ Ray Walser. Assault on Media Freedom. 2012.‖ Roger Noriega. Washington Times.‖ Jaime Daremblum. April 9. ―Iran's Gambit in Latin America.

all efforts should be made to ensure that American aid is spent properly and for its intended purpose. The U. the Millennium Challenge Corporation is an independent U. and freedom of its citizens. and reflects the generous character of our people. but also to develop new ones.S. jeopardize accomplishment of the overall mission. 2. and NATO forces in Afghanistan. In turn.  Notable Facts: 1. These grants have been used for water supply and sanitation projects. The Republic of Georgia. such aid helps not only to strengthen current U. particularly in African nations. As General David Petraeus. economic growth. 4. non-military foreign assistance plays a critical role in advancing America‘s strategic interests and moral values around the globe. created new markets for U. at a time when China and other emerging powers have become more active across the globe. 3. over the decades.S.S. and children from starvation and disease.Non-Military Foreign Assistance U. properly targeted and monitored U. it is important to remember that foreign assistance has saved countless men. in the process. such as the Marshall Plan that helped to rebuild postwar Europe and stem the advance of communism. education.S. and other activities.‖ Foreign assistance promotes health. For example. For example. finance and enterprise development. 39 . goods and services.S. Key Points:  The United States has a national interest in continuing properly monitored and targeted nonmilitary foreign assistance. told Congress in 2011. then-commander of U. infrastructural development. From major aid programs. federal government‘s budget for international affairs represents roughly 1% of total federal outlays. foreign assistance has helped millions of people. and 42 million Africans have been enabled to attend school. to today‘s smaller development initiatives. women.S.S. development policy. Non-military foreign assistance is essential in areas where the United States is at war. Ukraine. incidents of malaria have been cut by more than in 43 countries. the rule of law. allies and partners.S. At the same time. with the aim of creating the conditions in which foreign assistance is no longer needed. democracy promotion. Funding for democracy and human rights programs currently makes up less than one-tenth of one percent of the total budget.S. ―Inadequate resourcing of our civilian partners could. It also has helped to transition nations ruled by dictators to governments that uphold the human rights. in fact. aid promotes prosperity and opportunity. and good governance. U. The Obama Administration has worked to change America‘s development model by crafting the first U. agency that awards grants to nations that have shown a commitment to good governance and economic freedom. This approach emphasizes economic growth and accountability. and the Philippines are among the strategically important nations that have received such grants. And. American aid has also contributed to increasing prosperity in many nations and. No doubt.

―Invest in U. 2011. and is a donor of foreign assistance. Foreign assistance has historically enjoyed bipartisan support. Global Leadership. In the last Congress. 2011. Don‘t End It. 6.‖ Mark Green.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. National Review. POLITICO. February 24. et al.‖ Max Boot. ―More Effective Foreign Assistance Can Pay Real Dividends. M. aid. February 23. November 28. and Rob Mosbacher.‖ Paul Miller. July 29. The Daily Caller. 2011. ―USAID: Mend It. Congressmen Jim Kolbe and Connie Morella.‖ J. ―Seven Foreign Policy and Human Rights Orgs: Proposed Cuts to State And Foreign Ops Budget Threat to National Security.S. Peter McPherson. Brian Atwood. February 17. ―The Realist Case for Nation-Building. 2012. An historical example of the success of this method is South Korea. September 23. Bush‘s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the Millennium Challenge Corporation paved the way for the Obama administration‘s approach. POLITICO. Whereas the country once had a GDP and life expectancy on par with countries in sub-Saharan Africa and heavily relied on U. 2011.‖ Open Letter by Foreign Policy Initiative. The Daily Caller. Foreign Policy Online. 2011. 2011. Fly. January 27. ―Soft Power Part of Reagan Legacy. November 3.‖ Former Senator Tom Daschle and Former Secretary of Homeland Security Tom Ridge.‖ Elliott Abrams. November 18.‖ Former U. it now has one of the largest economies in the world. Members from both parties and both houses supported legislation to reform foreign assistance. 2010.S. FPI Resources:  ―FPI Analysis: in Defense of America‘s International Affairs Budget. January 21. April 6. and Andrew Natsios.        40 . 2011. President George W. ―USAID Is Foreign Policy‘s Best Dollar Value.. Foreign Policy’s Shadow Government. ―Congress and the Budget Quandary. Foreign Policy Online. 2011. 2011. POLITICO. ―What Is Foreign Aid For?‖ Paul Miller.5.‖ Former Senator Norm Coleman and Former Governor Mike Huckabee. Jim Kolbe.   Suggested Reading:   ―Conservative Foreign Aid.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative. 2011. Henrietta Holsman Fore.S. ―Why Congress Shouldn‘t Slash Foreign Aid. January 28. Commentary‘s Contentions Blog.

and Yemen. Instead of further bilateral deals. North Korea is the leading proliferator of nuclear and missile technology to the world. but has not yet made the political decision to do so. Currently. and torture are widespread. 2. and a key proliferator of missile and nuclear technology to its fellow rogue regimes across the world. and repeatedly conducted long-range missile tests. policy towards North Korea for the past two decades has been rooted in quid pro quo agreements in which the U. The new North Korean leader. For decades. Pyongyang has pursued a strategy of brazenly provoking the United States and its allies in order to force de-escalatory negotiations and extract economic and food aid from the international community. Kim Jong-Un. stopping North Korea‘s sale of conventional arms. In 2002. Khan proliferation network. U. in 1994.S. Kim Jong-Il had succeeded North Korea‘s first leader. a nuclear state.   Notable Facts: 1. when Pyongyang blocked international inspectors from investigating its nuclear activities. and improve broadcasts into the country to inspire the population against the regime. Pyongyang has played a key role in the development of Iran‘s nuclear and missile programs. and has sold missiles to Libya. and sank a South Korean ship.Q.S. shelled South Korean territory.North Korea North Korea is the most brutally repressive regime in the world. Key Points:  The North Korean regime shows no regard whatsoever for human rights. economic aid. Syria. disappearances. and extrajudicial killings. Over 200. his father Kim IlSung. North Korea has rejected these inducements. it is believed that a circle of older relatives and advisers assist him in the day-to-day affairs of the state. He assumed power following the death of the country‘s former leader. Instead of continuing negotiations in the hope of denuclearization. and again in 2009. the United States should lead an international effort to undermine the stability of the regime by freezing Pyongyang‘s financial assets abroad. North Korea was a key participant in the A. The current crisis over North Korea‘s nuclear program began in 1993. promised aid in exchange for North Korean good behavior. North Korea‘s ―military-first‖ philosophy ensures that the country‘s military receives preferential treatment over the people. and permitted the construction of two light-water plants in return for a freeze on North Korea‘s plutonium production program. often for arbitrary reasons. The North Korean people do not enjoy any political rights. and that international food aid often does not reach those who it is meant to help. it was revealed that North Korea has pursued a secret nuclear program during the eight years of the Agreed Framework. Vietnam. the North has completed physical preparations for a third nuclear test.S. The Clinton administration negotiated and signed the Agreed Framework in 1994. provided fuel oil. among others. the United States should rally the world to apply maximum pressure against the North Korean regime. ballistic missile and nuclear technology. is believed to be in his late-twenties. 41 . Unfortunately. increase efforts to help North Korean escapees. While it is unclear if Kim Jong-Un has full control over the regime. Syria‘s secretly-built nuclear reactor near Dair al-Zour--destroyed by an Israeli airstrike in September 2007—was a mirror-image of a North Korean reactor at Yongbyon. in which the U.000 people are imprisoned in a system of gulags for political crimes. North Korea provocatively tested a nuclear explosive device in 2006. his father Kim Jong-il in December 2011. and threatened to withdraw from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT).

Fly.‖ FPI Policy Analyst Evan Moore. The Diplomat. December 23. July 19. The Wall Street Journal Asia. The Six-Party Talks broke down when Russia and China undermined negotiations by taking North Korea‘s side during negotiations.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. Fly. December 20.‖ Christian Whiton. The Bush administration created the Six-Party Talks in 2003 in an effort to break from the Clinton administration‘s bilateral model for negotiations. May 1. and Christian Whiton. 4. ―Seeking Instability. Fall 2010. and Japan—to join the United States in pressuring North Korea. 2010. 2012. ―It‘s Time for the Lights to Come on in North Korea. 2010. nuclear tests. ―Pressuring Pyongyang. 2011. The Weekly Standard Blog. September 26. Although President Obama did not initially respond to North Korean provocations by calling for further negotiations. 2011. Journal of International Security Affairs. South Korea. FPI Resources:  ―Don‘t Return to Korea Status Quo. Carolyn Leddy. North Korea is heavily dependent on China‘s aid for assistance. November 24. and nuclear weapons-related activities.3. in which the United States agreed to provide food aid in return for Pyongyang‘s cessation of long-range missile launches. 2009. 5. The Weekly Standard Blog. ―North Korea: The Goal Is Regime Change.‖ FPI Policy Analyst Evan Moore. and get key regional powers— namely.     Additional Resources:  ―Power Struggles and Purges in Pyongyang. the North‘s failed—but nonetheless provocative— launch of a satellite-bearing rocket in April 2012 scuttled that agreement. his administration ultimately agreed to the short-lived ―Leap Day Deal‖ of 2012. 2012. April 20.‖ Bruce Klinger. ―It's Time for a Political War on Pyongyang. National Review Online’s The Corner. Russia.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. ―Tackling Pyongyang‘s Proliferation Trade.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M.   42 . The Commentator. Fly. The Wall Street Journal Asia. While South Korea eventually emerged from the Korean War as a global economic powerhouse. However.‖ Carolyn Leddy. China.

S. North Korea. Russia has not only prevented more effective sanctions to curb Iran‘s controversial nuclear program. diplomatic response to such Russian provocations has been weak and irresolute. The United States should speak out much more forcefully against these actions as then-Senator Obama did in condemning Russia‘s flawed 2008 election as a ―tragic step backwards. especially in Europe.Russia The Obama administration's effort to ―reset‖ relations with Russia should not overlook the challenges that the Kremlin's current policies pose not only to a more stable. curtailed press freedom and political expression. The United States should respond swiftly to activities undertaken by the Kremlin to thwart the democratic process and violate basic human rights inside Russia. American policy should seek to strengthen economic.    43 . Together with our democratic allies. the United States should not hesitate to pursue alternative multilateral approaches that exclude the Kremlin. When Russia obstructs international consensus. and other states of concern. and allied interests elsewhere. and used the power of the state to harass political opponents and media outlets. but also sold Iran advanced anti-aircraft weapons systems. but also to the survival of the fading democratic process within Russia. Key Points:  The price for the Obama administration‘s ―reset‖ effort to gain Russian cooperation on nuclear nonproliferation and arms control should not be American timidity toward Russian actions that harm U. the United States should work with democratic allies and like-minded partners to pressure Iran. and cultural ties to the region. Russia has threatened its neighbors—and even invaded Georgia—and used its regional energy distribution dominance to gain political leverage in foreign capitals dependent on Russian fuel. Although it may have seemed promising to engage Russia and China in multilateral talks with Iran and North Korea. Russia has also ignored its international obligation to establish and ensure a free and open political process inside its borders. diplomatic. The United States and our allies should maintain strong support for the independence and sovereignty of the democratic states on Russia‘s borders. democratic world. Moscow‘s continuing violations of human rights and subversion of the rule of law inside Russia should alarm everyone who supports democratic rights and freedoms. The U. in practice Moscow and Beijing have used such negotiations to protect their client states from international pressure. strategic interests and moral values. In recent years. When appropriate. The United States should work with Russia on issues where both share interests. the Russian government has accelerated a systematic rollback of democratic reforms enacted in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union.S. the United States should pursue a relationship with Russia that accounts for the reality of the Kremlin‘s policies in a manner that is consistent with U. military. as they have in securing loose nuclear materials against the threat of terrorist seizure. At the same time.‖ Turning a blind eye to such undemocratic behavior further weakens democratic forces in Russia and harms American interests.S.

-Russian ‗Reset. In August 2008.S. and after recognizing the breakaway provinces of South Ossetia and Abkhazia as independent states. the Russian Federation invaded the country of Georgia.Notable Facts: 1.S. October 10. and other irregularities aimed at boosting United Russia‘s performance at the polls. Through its membership in the Organization for Cooperation and Security in Europe (OSCE). Russia had fallen to 154th. Fly and Policy Director Robert Zarate.‖ FPI Director Robert Kagan and David Kramer. ―FPI Analysis: Moving Beyond the U. 2010.‖ FPI Director Robert Kagan. Drop the Russian Reset. in 2010.‖ In 2000. 44         .‖ FPI Policy Director Robert Zarate and Policy Analyst Evan Moore. 2012.‘‖ Foreign Policy Initiative. 2012. Transparency International ranked Russia 82nd in the global ratings. ―Beware ‗Flexibility‘. 3. their own political parties or other political organizations and provide such political parties and organizations with the necessary legal guarantees to enable them to compete with each other on a basis of equal treatment before the law and by the authorities. March 31. which has dominated the country‘s politics for over a decade. in full freedom. The Weekly Standard. The New Republic.-Russian ‗Reset‘. 6. March 30. In a surprise development. 4. 5. On March 4. ―Why is Obama Giving Up His Human Rights Leverage Against Russia? ” FPI Director of Democracy and Human Rights Ellen Bork. 2012. President. These actions violate the cease-fire agreement that Presidents Medvedev and Saakashvili signed on August 12. 2012. December 7. harassment of election monitors. 2012. Fly and Policy Director Robert Zarate.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative. Vladimir Putin was elected to his third term as Russian President. May 9. Russian voters in the December 2011 parliamentary elections dealt Prime Minister Vladimir Putin‘s political machine a stunning blow. which will end in 2018. 2008. June 18. The outcome was all the more astonishing given widespread allegations of ballot-box stuffing. National Review Online. continues to occupy them. 2011. the Indem think tank estimates market corruption at over $300 billion annually. roughly 25% of Russia‘s gross national product. FPI Resources:  ―FPI Bulletin: Mr. 2. Russia has agreed specifically to ―respect the right of individuals and groups to establish. 2011.-Russia Relations as President Putin Returns. retaining only a slim majority of 238 seats in the 450-member lower house. and opposition demonstrators began a campaign of protests and activism that remain ongoing. June 17. Putin‘s United Russia party. ―Time to Abandon ‗Reset‘?‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M.” FPI Executive Director Jamie M. June 6. ―FPI Analysis: Evaluating the U. Washington Post. The election was beset by fraud. 2012. ―A Bill that Cracks Down on Russian Corruption. Foreign Policy Initiative. lost 77 seats in the Russian State Duma.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. 2011. Fly. ―Loosening Putin‘s Grip. Washington Post.S. Today. June 22. Foreign Policy Initiative. ―FPI Bulletin: Reassessing U.

            45 . ―The Right Way to Sanction Russia. Foreign Policy. June 28. 2012. ―Russia‘s Strongman is Losing his Grip. ―A Tormenting in Moscow. Washington Post. 2012.‖ Gary Kasparov. ―President Putin's First 60 Days. Foreign Affairs. July 30. Assisting Rogue Regimes. The Wall Street Journal Europe. 2011. July 21. ―The Promise of Russia‘s Middle Class‖ Condoleezza Rice. 2012.‖ Mark Schneider. Rampant Corruption. Testimony before the House Foreign Affairs Committee. 2011. May 4. 2012. March 8. ―A Kremlin Made of Sand‖ Leon Aron. ―The Kremlin‘s Blacklist. National Review.Suggested Reading:  ―Why Vladimir Putin Is Immune to the American Reset. 2012. ―After New START. Washington Post.‖ David Satter. ―Russia‘s Choice. The Heritage Foundation.‖ Michael Weiss.‖ Rachel Denber. 2012. 2012.‖ Nicholas Eberstadt. ―Russia 2012: Increased Repression. 2012.‖ Vladimir Kara-Murza. May 7. The Wall Street Journal. July 16. April 12. Foreign Policy. March 15. 2012. Foreign Policy.‖ Leon Aron.‖ Masha Lipman. July 26. February 28. National Review Online. March 21. Washington Post. 2012.‖ David Kramer.‖ Garry Kasparov and Boris Nemtsov. November 1. ―The Dying Bear: Russia‘s Demographic Disaster. ―Putin's Got America Right Where He Wants It. 2012.

2.     Notable Facts: 1. economic growth and creating more jobs for Americans. the United States and India. 87% of its economic growth. The Obama administration has refused to support new tariffs. Protectionist policies ultimately hurt U. goods exports in 2010. Key Points:  American leadership on trade is critical to increasing U.S. The U. global protectionist sentiment could rise. particularly given that 95% of the world‘s consumers live outside U. Developing countries purchased 53% of U. economy benefits from the foreign direct investment (FDI) that flows into U. goods and services. businesses and consumers that could result in fewer jobs. and new or expanded production facilities. Colombia. led by a boom in sales to East Asia and the Americas. companies and raise the cost of goods for American consumers. and natural resources.S. the United States tops both Germany and China by about $200 billion as the world‘s top exporter. With one of the fastest growing economies in the world and the largest economy in South America. The agreements were initially signed by the Bush administration in 2006 and 2007. farm products. reduced wages. which would likely lead to a counterproductive trade war with China that hurt U.S. these companies often use this investment capital to fund research and development activities. The White House estimates the South Korea agreement alone will increase U. Without U. 46 . and Beijing should respect and enforce vigorously the intellectual property rights of Americans firms. equipment purchases. it would be a mistake to impose U.S. in working with China to end such practices.Trade Free trade is critical to promoting America‘s economic prosperity. GDP by at least $11 billion and support 70. The United States should also expand export opportunities to Brazil and India. and 95% of its consumers. 2011.-Chinese economic interdependence should not hinder efforts to ensure that American businesses are treated fairly. borders. international markets represent 74% of the world‘s purchasing power. free trade also enhances America‘s national security interests by strengthening ties with democratic allies and cultivating future partners. According to the U. When it comes to the sales of manufactured goods. Yet the U.S. President Obama signed into law the congressionally-approved U.S. its currency should be allowed to float to reflect its market value. and higher prices. However.S.-Brazilian trade relationship still has great potential to grow.S.S. Brazil is America‘s second largest Latin American trading partner.S.S. interests.S. free trade agreements with Panama.S. leadership on trade. companies and benefits for American consumers. China‘s businesses should operate in a transparent fashion.000 jobs. In addition. companies.S.S. services. which are increasingly bound together by shared strategic and economic interests. In turn. By opening foreign markets for U. Chamber of Commerce.S. U. stand to reap great benefits from deeper trade relations. tariffs on Chinese imports. After a long delay. delivering another blow to U.S. and South Korea on October 23. China‘s growing economy and population offer both tremendous opportunity for U.

Foreign Policy Initiative. 2010. ―Enhance U. ―FPI Analysis: Assessing U.‖ FPI Policy Analyst Patrick Christy. 2011. ―FPI Bulletin: High Time for Free Trade with South Korea. The Wall Street Journal. February 15. Economy with Free Trade—Not Unilateral Tariffs. ―How About a Free-Trade Deal With Europe?‖ Paula Dobriansky and Paul Saunders. More than 50 million Americans work for companies that engage in international trade. Colombia. and one in three acres of U.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative.‖ Former U.S. Washington Post. December 20.S. 2012. ―FPI Bulletin: Boost U. 2011. Has No Good Reasons to Stall on Latin America Free-Trade Deals. ―Colombia and Obama‘s Latin America Policy: Time to Close Ranks and Support a Friend. July 23. FPI Resources:  ―Obama Drops the Ball on India. Department of Treasury. Chin. September 7.‖ Ray Walser and Bruce Klingner. 2011. The U. Fly and Policy Analyst Patrick Christy. July 8.      47 . and South Korea. Department of Commerce‘s Economics and Statistics Administration reported in 2011 that foreign direct investment (FD) in the United States over the last decade has supported more than 5 million U.S.S.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. jobs. Foreign Policy Initiative. The Heritage Foundation.‖ FPI Policy Analyst Patrick Christy.‖ Curtis S. Fly and Policy Analyst Patrick Christy.‖ Editorial. The Wall Street Journal. Panama.S. One in three manufacturing jobs depends on exports. 4.‖ Ray Walser. ―Letter to President Obama. 2012. The Diplomat. Trade Representatives Mickey Kantor and Charlene Barshefsky. et al. August 8. and Panama. according to the U. Security: Pass Free Trade Agreements with Colombia. ―FPI Bulletin: Boost U.S.     Suggested Reading:  ―America Needs a Business Pivot Toward Asia. 2011.S. Foreign Policy Initiative. farmland is planted to feed hungry consumers overseas.. October 6. Economy with Free Trade—Not Unilateral Tariffs. 2012. March 27. 2012. Policy Towards China. 2010.3.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. ―The U.S. March 2.S. June 21. October 6.S. The Heritage Foundation. 2011.

The threat of another major attack remains. according to The Heritage Foundation. Success in Afghanistan is critical to America‘s long-term security interests. homeland and vital interests across the globe. intelligence gathering and counterterrorism efforts. It is essential that America work with allies and partners to maintain sustained. economic development. and global operations against its enemies by using a broad array of tools.S. homeland have been foiled. the Iranian plot to kill the Saudi ambassador on American soil—have been foiled because of U. respect for human rights. several high-profile terrorist attacks against the homeland—including the 2009 Christmas Day attack. 40 other attempted terrorist attacks against the U. America and our allies should work with reformers who seek to build free.    Notable Facts: 1.S. The re-emergence of a ―failed state‖ in Afghanistan will only increase the terrorist risk to the U. but also to hold accountable foreign governments that cultivate or provide sanctuary to violent extremists. disrupt. In particular. comprehensive. the United States must also focus on the vast majority of Muslims who seek a better future for themselves and their families. including the Patriot Act and other homeland security measures. such support should be reviewed and/or withdrawn in the event the recipient government engages in anti-democratic activity.‖ The United States thus should implement polices specifically designed to advance America‘s long-term interests in the Arab Spring. and covert and military operations. political and economic openness. At the same time. most recently. Washington and its allies must also remain resolved to succeed in Afghanistan. and the likelihood that we will be drawn back into these countries. support Iraq.War on Terror/Islamic Extremism The United States must continue not only to isolate. homeland. Since 9/11. The United States has a vital interest in ensuring that Afghan territory never again becomes a safe haven for terrorists threatening the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) terrorist surveillance programs. In addition. The United States remains at risk for terrorist attacks. and technical and legal expertise that has helped other nations transition to democracy—that help to promote the rule of law. and accountable governance. In countering the forces of extremism. The United States must support such developments. The bipartisan 9/11 Commission Report noted the importance of socio-political changes in the region to countering Islamic extremism: ―Tolerance. and seize the opportunities offered by the political reform movements that are sweeping the Middle East. diplomatic and economic initiatives.S. By doing so. America should pursue efforts—including economic aid. and further isolate such violent ideologies as a political force in Muslim populations. the extension of greater opportunities to women—these cures must come from within Muslim societies themselves. the rule of law. Key Points:  The United States must stay on the offense against terrorist organizations using all instruments of national power. effective public diplomacy. the October 2010 parcel plot and. the United States can dramatically weaken the message and appeal of Islamic extremism. and defeat terrorists seeking to attack America‘s homeland and strategic interests. 48 . prosperous societies. Even though the pace and success of the reformers in each nation will be uneven.

July 1. 2012. ―Terror Is Their Family Business. May 2.‖ Abe Greenwald. National Review Online. AEI‘s Critical Threats Project. al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden was killed in a daring raid by U. 2012. reportedly took control of the alQaeda network. Security. July 30. On May 2. September 20. Navy SEALS. National Review Online’s The Corner. 2011.‖ Sasha Gordon. 2012. 2011. 2012. Ayman al-Zawahiri. September 9. Fly and Policy Analyst Evan Moore. Foreign Policy’s Shadow Government. ―Abyani Tribes and al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula in Yemen. Foreign Policy’s AfPak Channel.S. ―We Can‘t Just Play Whack-A-Mole in The War on Terror‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. National Review Online’s The Corner. 2012. Bin Laden‘s lieutenant. was killed in Pakistan by a CIA drone strike.     Suggested Reading:  ―Splitting al-Qa'ida and its Affiliates. 2011. the organization‘s regional affiliates are increasing their profile within the network by directing terrorist acts against Western targets. Zawahiri‘s new second-in-command. September 30. June 27. 2012. Washington Post. Although al-Qaeda‘s central leadership continues to reside in Pakistan. ―FPI Fact Sheet: Success in Afghanistan Is Critical to Prevailing in The War On Terror. American Enterprise Institute. Foreign Affairs’ Snapshots. May 2.‖ Jeffrey Dressler. FPI Resources:  ―A War that‘s Bigger than Afghanistan. 2011. American Enterprise Institute.‖ Katherine Zimmerman.‖ FPI Director William Kristol. ―Civilian Casualties Plummet in Drone Strikes. On June 4. ―Recipe for Failure: American Strategy Toward Yemen and al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula. 2011. ―Targeted Killings Can't Be Total Strategy to Defeat al Qaeda. ―The Will and Moral Courage. Fly.‖ Congressman Patrick Meehan.‖ Peter Bergen and Jennifer Rowland. ―The Drone Blowback Fallacy. 2012. September 2011.S. July 7. ―Ten Years After 9/11: al-Qaeda's Reemergence in Yemen.‖ Foreign Policy Initiative. July 24. 2011.com. CNN.2. February 17. ―What We Got Right in The War On Terror. July 25.‖ Katherine Zimmerman. Abu Yaha al-Libi.‖ Christopher Swift. 3. 2012.           49 . ―Can we Declare the War on al Qaeda Over?‖ Mary Habeck.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. 2011. Fly. July 13. Commentary. ―Boko Haram: An Overlooked Threat to U. September 30.‖ FPI Executive Director Jamie M. June 23.‖ Daniel Byman. The Heritage Foundation. American Enterprise Institute.‖ Frederick Kagan. 2012. 2012. ―The War Goes On. The Weekly Standard.

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