Code No: R05222103

Set No. 1

II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 THERMODYNAMICS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A ﬂuid contained in a horizontal cylinder ﬁtted with a frictionless leak proof piston, is continuously agitated by means of a stirrer passing through the cylinder cover. The cylinder diameter is 0.4 m. During the stirring process lasting 10 minutes, the piston slowly moves out a distance of 0.485 m against the atmosphere. The net work done by the ﬂuid during the process is 2 kJ. The speed of the electric motor driving the stirrer is 840 rpm. Determine torque in the shaft and power output of the motor. [16] 2. (a) State the zeroth law of thermodynamics. Explain how it forms the basis for temperature measurement? (b) A closed system undergoes a thermodynamic cycle consisting of four separate and distinct processes. The heat and work transferred in each process are as tabulated below. Process Heat Transfer in KJ/min Work transfer in KJ/min 1-2 20,000 0 2-3 -10,000 30,000 3-4 0 20,000 4-1 15,000 -25,000 Show that the data is consistent with the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. Also evaluate the net work output in KW and the change in internal energy. [6+10] 3. (a) Deﬁne thermal eﬃciency of a heat engine. Can it be 100 percent? (b) A reversible heat engine receives heat from two thermal reservoirs at 870 K and 580 K, and rejects 50 KW of heat to a sink at 290 K. If the engine output is 85 KW, make calculations for the engine eﬃciency and heat supplied by each reservoir. [6+10] 4. (a) Describe the process of formation of steam and give its graphical representation (b) Steam enters an engine at a pressure 10 bar absolute and 2500 C. It is exhausted at 0.2 bar. The steam at exhaust is 0.9 dry. Find i. Drop in enthalpy ii. Change in enthalpy. [7+9]

5. 1 kg of air at 1.2 bar pressure and 180 C is compressed isentropic ally to 7 bars. Find the ﬁnal temperature and the work done. If the air is cooled at the upper pressure to the original temperature of 180 C ,what amount of heat is rejected and what further work of compression is done. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: R05222103 6. (a) Explain i. Heating and dehumidiﬁcation ii. Cooling and dehumidiﬁcation

Set No. 1

(b) A Room of dimensions 6mX 3mX 3m contains an air water vapour mixture at 1 bar 300 C and 70 % Relative humidity. Calculate i. Mass of air ii. Mass of water vapour iii. Degree of saturation

[10+6]

7. (a) What is a cycle? What is the diﬀerence between an ideal and actual cycle. (b) Derive an expression for eﬃciency of Brayton cycle in terms of pressure ratio. [8+8] 8. (a) Explain the four processes make up the simple ideal Rankine cycle. How do actual vapor cycles diﬀer from the idealized ones(with the help of P-V, T-S charts)? (b) Discuss the essential properties of refreigerants. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [10+6]

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Code No: R05222103

Set No. 2

II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 THERMODYNAMICS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Write the diﬀerences between system and control volume. (b) A gas undergoes a reversible non-ﬂow process according to the relation P = (-3V+15)where V is the volume in m3 and P is the pressure in bar. Determine the work done when the volume changes from 3 to 6 m3 . [6+10] 2. (a) Explain the principle of working of constant volume gas thermometer. (b) Given that the ice point is 00 C and 320 F and that the steam point is 1000 C and 2120 F, set up a correlation between the Centigrade and Fahrenheit scales. [6+10] 3. (a) State the limitations of ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. (b) What is a thermal energy reservoir? (c) An engine operating on a Carnot cycle works with in temperature limits of 600 K and 300 K. If the engine receives 2000 KJ of heat, evaluate the work done and thermal eﬃciency of the engine. [6+2+8] 4. (a) Explain the following terms relating to steam formation i. Sensible heat of water ii. Latent heat of steam (b) Find the internal energy of 1 kg of steam at 20 bar when i. It is super heated, its temperature being 4000 C ii. It is wet, its dryness being 0.9. Assume super heated steam to be have as a perfect gas from the commencement of superheating and thus obeys Charles low. Speciﬁc heat for steam = 2.3 k j /kg. k. [7+9] 5. (a) State the characteristics of. i. An isothermal and ii. An adiabatic expansion (b) One kg of ideal gas is heated from 200 C to 960 C. Assuming R = 287 J / kg. K and γ = 1.18 for the gas, ﬁnd out i. Speciﬁc heat ii. Change in internal energy and iii. Change in enthalpy. 6. (a) Deﬁne 1 of 2

[7+9]

Code No: R05222103 i. Humidiﬁcation ii. Dehumidiﬁcation iii. sensible heating

Set No. 2

(b) Avessel of 6m3 capacity contains two gases ?A? and ?B? in proportion of 45% respectively at 300C.If the value of ?R? for the gases is 0.288 Kj /kg. k and 0.295 Kj /kg. K and if the total weight of the mixture is 2 kg, calculate i. Partial presser ii. The mean value of ?R? for the mixture. 7. (a) Drive an expression for the mean eﬀective pressure of Diesel cycle. (b) Deﬁne the following terms with respect to Dual cycle i. ii. iii. iv. Compression ratio Cut-oﬀ ratio Expansion ratio Network of cycle. [6+10]

[8+8]

8. In an ammonia vapour compression system, the pressure in the evaporator is 2 bar. Ammonia at exit is 0.85 dry and at entry its dryness fraction id 0.19. During comptression, the work done per kg of ammonia is 150kJ. Calculate the C.O.P and volume of vapour entering the compressor per minute, if the rate of ammonia circulation is 4.5kg/min. the latent heat and speciﬁc volume at 2 bar are 1325kJ/kg and 0.58m3 /kg respectively. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R05222103

Set No. 3

II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 THERMODYNAMICS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Write the diﬀerences between system and control volume. (b) A gas undergoes a reversible non-ﬂow process according to the relation P = (-3V+15)where V is the volume in m3 and P is the pressure in bar. Determine the work done when the volume changes from 3 to 6 m3 . [6+10] 2. (a) A domestic refrigerator is loaded with food and the door closed. During a certain period the machine consumes 1 KW-hour of energy and the internal energy of the system drops by 5000 KJ. Find the net heat transfer for the system. (b) 1.5 kg of liquid having a constant speciﬁc heat of 2.5 KJ/kg-k is stirred in a well insulated chamber causing the temperature to rise by 150 C. Find ∆E and W for the process. [8+8] 3. In a steam boiler, hot gases from a ﬁre transfer heat to water which vaporizes at constant temperature. In a certain case, the gases are cooled from 11000 C to 5500 C while the water evaporates at 2200 C. The speciﬁc heat of gases is 1.005 KJ/Kg-K, and the latent heat of water at 2200 C, is 1858.5 KJ/Kg. All the heat transferred from the gases goes to the water. How much does the total entropy of the combined system of gas and water increase as a result of the irreversible heat transfer? Obtain the result on the basis of 1 kg of water evaporated. If the temperature of the surroundings is 300 C, ﬁnd the increase in unavailable energy due to irreversible heat transfer. [16] 4. (a) Explain the following terms related to steam. i. External work of evaporation ii. Entropy of evaporation (b) The following observations wave taken with a separating and throttling colorimeter arranged in series. Water separated = 2kg , steam discharged from the throttling colorimeter =20.5kg ,temperature of steam after throttling = 1100 C , initial pressure = 12 bar( absolute), barometer =760 mm of Hg, ﬁnal pressure =5mm of Hg. Estimate the quality of steam supplied. [6+10] 5. (a) Express the Vander waal’s constant in terms of critical properties. (b) Atmospheric air is sucked in an internal combustion engine cylinder. The pressure, temperature and volume of air after suction are 1bar, 750 Cand800cm3 respectively. The air is then reversibly compressed to 15bar and 1/8th of its volume. Heat of combustion of fuel is then added to air at constant volume until its pressure is 50bar 1 of 2

Code No: R05222103

Set No. 3

i. Determine the index of compression process ii. Calculate the change in entropy of air during each process. iii. Determine if there is any heat exchange between air and cylinder walls during compression. state the direction of heat ﬂow. [7+9] 6. A 1.8 kg mole of Carbon dioxide at a presser of 1.8 bar, 750 C is mixed in a thermally insulated vessel with 2.8 kg-mol of Nitrogen is at equilibrium; Determine the ﬁnal temperature and pressure and the change in entropy of the mixture. [16] 7. (a) Discuss the use of air standard cycle analysis for the study of internal combustion engines. (b) An engine of 250 mm bore and 375 mm stroke works on Otto cycle. The clearance volume is 0.00263m3 . The initial pressure is limited to 25 bar, ﬁnd the following: i. The air standard eﬃciency of the cycle. ii. The mean eﬀective pressure for the cycle. [6+10]

8. (a) State the merits & demerits of regenerative cycle and reheat Rankine cycle. (b) Find the C.O.P of a refrigeration system if the work input is 75kJ/kg and refrigeration eﬀect produced id 160kJ/kg [10+6] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R05222103

Set No. 4

II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 THERMODYNAMICS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A ﬂuid contained in a horizontal cylinder ﬁtted with a frictionless leak proof piston, is continuously agitated by means of a stirrer passing through the cylinder cover. The cylinder diameter is 0.4 m. During the stirring process lasting 10 minutes, the piston slowly moves out a distance of 0.485 m against the atmosphere. The net work done by the ﬂuid during the process is 2 kJ. The speed of the electric motor driving the stirrer is 840 rpm. Determine torque in the shaft and power output of the motor. [16] 2. A turbo compressor delivers 2.33 m3 /s of air at 0.276 MPa, 430 C which is heated at this pressure to 4300 C and ﬁnally expanded in a turbine which delivers 1860 KW. During the expansion, there is a heat transfer of 0.09 MJ/sec to the surroundings. Calculate the turbine exhaust temperature if changes in kinetic and potential energy are negligible. Take Cp = 1.005 KJ/kg-k and R = 0.287 KJ/Kg-K for air. [16] 3. (a) There exists a property of a closed system such that a change in its value is equal to δQ/T for any process undergone by the system. Prove this statement. (b) 5 Kg of water at 300 C is mixed with 1 kg of ice at 00 C. The process of mixing is adiabatic. Calculate the temperature of mixture and the change of entropy for the mixing process. Take speciﬁc heat of water = 4.187 KJ/Kg-K and latent heat of ice = 335 KJ/Kg. [8+8] 4. (a) Steam initially at a pressure of 10.5 bar 0.96 dry throttled to a pressure of 1 bar. Find the ﬁnal condition of steam. Also calculate the change of entropy per kg of steam. Assume Cp for super heated steam = 2.1 KJ/kg. k (b) Find the entropy of 1 kg of super heated steam at a pressure of 12 bar and a Temperature of 2500 C. Take speciﬁc of super heated steam as 2.1 kJ/ kg. k [8+8] 5. (a) Derive an expression for heat transfer in a non-ﬂow constant volume process. (b) A spherical shaped of 14 M diameter contain ’H2 ’ at 330 C and 1.3 bar. Find the mass of ’H2 ’ in the balloon using real gas equation. [7+9] 6. A 2.2 kg mole of Carbon dioxide at a presser of 2 bar, 800 C is mixed in a thermally insulated vessel with 3.2 kg-mol of Nitrogen is at equilibrium; Determine the ﬁnal temperature and pressure and the change in entropy of the mixture. [16] 7. In a gas turbine plant working on Brayton cycle, the air at inlet is 27C,0.1 MPa. The pressure ratio is 6.25 and the maximum temperature is 800C. The turbine and compressor eﬃciencies are each 80%. Find compressor work, turbine work, heat 1 of 2

Code No: R05222103

Set No. 4

supplied, cycle eﬃciency and turbine exhaust temperature. Mass of air may be considered as 1 kg. Draw T-s diagram. [16] 8. (a) Explain about the re-heating and refrigeration of a steam cycle with help of neat diagrams? (b) Obtain an expression for Joule’s cycle in terms of pressure ratio. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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