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Radio Link Time-Out Every time a SACCH message can not be decoded the radio link time-out counter is decreased by 1. If the message can be decoded the counter is incremented by 2. However, the value can not exceed the initial value. The initial value is set by the parameter RLINKT for radio link time-out in the mobile station and by RLINKUP for timeout in the BSC. If the mobile moves out of coverage and no measurement reports are received in the BSC, there will be a radio link time-out and the message Channel Release (cause: abnormal release, unspecified) is sent to the mobile station and the SACCH is deactivated in the BTS. A Clear Request message is sent to the MSC. To be sure that the mobile has stopped transmitting, the BSC now waits RLINKT SACCH periods before the timeslot is released and a new call can be established on the channel. 2. Layer 2 Time-Out If the BTS never get an acknowledge on a Layer 2 message after the time T200XN200, the BTS will send Error Indication (cause: T200 expired) to the BSC, which will send Channel Release (cause: abnormal release, timer expired) to the mobile station and a Clear Request to the MSC. The SACCH is deactivated and the BSC waits RLINKT SACCH periods before the timeslot is released and a new call can use the channel. This is only valid if the call is in steady state, i.e. not during handover or assignment.
3. Release Indication When the BTS received a layer 2 DISC frame from the mobile it replies with a Layer 2 UA frame to the mobile station and a Release Indication to the BSC. The system does only react on Release Indication if it is received during a normal disconnection situation. If such a message is received unexpectedly this will usually cause radio link time-out or timer T200 expiration as the mobile station stops the transmitting of measurement reports. It is also possible that the release will be normal depending on when the Release Indication is received. 4. MSC Time-Out Normal Release: If the MSC never received a response on a message (e.g. Identity Request) and there is no radio link time-out or layer 2 time-out, the MSC will send a Clear Command to the BSC. The time-out is depending on the message. When receiving Clear Command, the BSC will send a Channel Release (cause: normal release) and then deactivates the SACCH. Reject (only SDCCH): If the MSC never receives a response on the first message after Establish Indication, the MSC will send a reject message. If the connection was a Location Update it will be a Location Update Reject (cause: network failure) and if the connection was a mobile originating call (CM Service Request) a CM Service Reject (cause: network failure) will be sent. The MSC will then send a Clear Command to the BSC and the call is cleared by Channel Release (cause: normal release). 5. Assignment to TCH Before sending an Assignment Command from the BSC at TCH assignment, the following two criterions have to be fulfilled:
a. There must be a TCH channel available, i.e. no congestion b. The locating algorithm must have received at least one valid measurement report. If either of the criterion is not fulfilled, Assignment Command will not be sent and a Channel Release (cause: abnormal release, unspecified) will be sent to the mobile station and a Clear Request to the MSC. TCH Drop reason (1) The classification of TCH Drop Reasons are arranged in the order of priority: 1.Excessive Timing Advance 2.Low Signal Strength 3.Bad Quality 4.Sudden Loss of Connection 5.Other Reasons Excessive Timing Advance The TCH Drop counters due to Excessive Timing Advance will pegged when the during the time of disconnection, the last Timing Advance value recorded was higher than the TALIM Parameter. This drop reason is commonly apparent to isolated or island sites with a wide coverage area. Action: Check if the cell parameter TALIM is < "63" Solution: Set TALIM to a value close to 63. Tilt antenna/reduce antenna height/output power, etc. for co-channel cells.
TCH Drop Reasons (2) Low Signal Strength on Down or Uplink or Both Links The drops counters due to Low Signal Strength will be pegged when the Signal Strength during the last Measurement Report before the call dropped is below the LOWSSDL and/or LOWSSUL Thresholds. LOWSSDL and LOWSSUL are BSC Exchange Property parameters which is used only for statistics purposes and does not affect the behavior of calls. If both UL and DL Signal Strength are below the thresholds, only Drop due to Low SS BL will pegged. Normally a call is dropped at the border of large rural cell with insufficient coverage. Bad tunnel coverage cause many dropped calls as well as so called coverage holes. Bad indoor coverage will result in dropped calls. Building shadowing could be another reason. Action: Check coverage plots. Check output power.
HSN. Change BSIC. Check Frequency Plan (Co-BCCH or Co-BSIC Problem). Faulty MAIO assignment can cause frequency collisions on co-sited cells especially on 1x1 Reuse. Change FHOP.Check power balance and link budget. Change MAIO. HOP. External interference is also one possible cause of problem on quality. Perform drive tests & site survey. BADQDL and BADQUL (expressed in DTQU) are BSC Exchange Property parameters which is used only for statistics purposes and does not affect the behavior of calls. . Block/Deblock TRX TCH Drop Reasons (3) Poor Quality on Down or Uplink or Both Links The drops counters due to Bad Quality will be pegged when the Signal Strength during the last Measurement Report before the call dropped is above the BADQDL and/or BADQUL Thresholds. Perform drive tests. Solution: Add a repeater to increase coverage in for example a tunnel. Check FHOP if correctly configured (BB or SY). Record RIR or on-site Frequency Scanning to identify source of interference. Add a new base station if there are large coverage holes. Check TRX/TS with high CONERRCNT. HOP. only Drop due to BAD Quality BL will pegged. Change to a better antenna (with higher gain) for the base station. Problem on Bad Quality is usually associated with Co-channel Interference on BCCH or TCH. Check for External Interference. Solution: Change BCCH frequency. Check antenna installation. Check antenna configuration & type. Check if Omni site. If both UL and DL Quality are above the thresholds. HSN parameters. Check MAIO. Use available radio features. Action: Check C/I and C/A plots.
very sudden and severe occurrence of interference. Bad Quality and Sudden Loss from the Total TCH Drop Counts. MS runs out of battery during conversation. Check CONERRCNT per TRX and TS.TCH Drop Reasons (4) Sudden Loss of Connection Drops due to Sudden Loss are drops that have not been registered as low signal strength. Reset TRX with high CONERRCNT. parking garages. Correlate Handover Lost to Drops due to Sudden Loss Solution: Fix Hardware Faults and Alarms. transmission link problems on A-bis. Ensure that Synchronization and A-bis Link are stable. and the locating procedure indicates missing measurement results from the MS. There are some common scenarios that could lead to Sudden Loss of connections such as very sudden and severe drops in signal strength. such as when subscribers enter into buildings. . excessive timing advance. and sometimes Handover Lost. Drops due to Other Reasons are generally associated with hardware problems. Change RBLT with high DIP Slips. Check for DIP Slips. Action: Check BTS Error Logs. Alarms and Fault Codes. bad quality or hardware (other) reasons. Check LAPD Congestion. Handover Lost. elevators. Change CONFACT or increase Transmission Capacity Investigate HO Lost Problem TCH Drop Reasons (5) TCH Drops due to Other Reasons TCH drops due to Other Reasons are computed by subtracting the sum of drops due to Excessive TA.. Synchronization or A-bis link fault (transmission faults). Check CONERRCNT per TRX and TS. Low SS. BTS HW faults. Check Alarms and Fault Codes. etc. Action: Check BTS Error Logs. Check Transmission Link (A-bis). Ater or Ainterfaces. and MS Faults.
Change RBLT with high DIP Slips. no indoor coverage or network equipment failure. Action: Check MS fleet. Ensure that Synchronization and A-bis Link are stable. Tilt antenna/reduce antenna height/output power. Another reason is that the MS is damaged and not working properly. Correlate Handover Lost to Drops due to Other Reasons Solution: Fix Hardware Faults and Alarms. etc. Increase output power. Mobile Error Some old mobiles may cause dropped calls if certain radio network features are used. Perform drive tests. choosing illadvised locations to attempt calls.">Solution: Set TALIM to a value close to 63. Subscriber Behavior Poorly educated subscribers could use their handsets incorrectly by not raising antennas. Perform drive tests. Use available radio features. Solution: Change frequency. Too High Timing Advance Action: Check if the cell parameter TALIM is < style="font-weight: bold. Check for DIP Slips. for cochannel cells. etc.Check output power. Check frequency plan. Repair faulty equipment. Action: Check coverage plots. Check BTS error log Solution: Add new sites. Investigate HO Lost Problem Problem reason of drop in SDCCH Low Signal Strength on Down or Uplink The reason for poor coverage could be too few sites. Reset TRX with high CONERRCNT. . Poor Quality on Down or Uplink Action: Check C/I and C/A plots. shadowing.Check Transmission Link (A-bis). wrong output power. Action: Check customer complaints and their MS. Solution: Inform operator.
Action: Check TCH congestion Solution: Increase capacity on TCH or using features like Assignment to another cell.Battery Flaw When a subscriber runs out of battery during a conversation. Dynamic Half-Rate Allocation and FR-HR Mode Adaptation etc . the call will be registered as dropped call due to low signal strength or others. HCS. Congestion on TCH The SDCCH is dropped when congestion on TCH. Action: Check if MS power regulation is used. Check if DTX uplink is used. Cell Load Sharing.
Drops due to ‘Other’ reasons are generally associated with hardware problems and disturbances. elevators. parking garages. low signal strength or bad quality) are indicated and the locating procedure indicates missing measurement results from the MS. 4. straight forward meaning for the dropped call is described for the first three items. timing advance. Main contributors in sudden and other TCH drop: • • • • • • • Very sudden and severe drop in signal strength. when a call is abnormally disconnected. The term Sudden Loss is used because if the network cannot establish a connection with the lost MS after a pre-defined period. the following Urgency condition is checked at that time and the relevant counter is incremented as a consequence: 1. such as when subscribers enter into buildings. Very sudden and severe occurrence of interference or bad quality. Refer to Ericsson system. number of drops due to ‘Other’ reasons is obtained by subtracting the drops with known reasons from the total number of drops. MS running out of battery during conversation.Dropped Call due to Sudden Drop On circuit switch service. Sudden Drop is quite not easy to understand. A connection is marked as sudden loss if none of the three types of urgency states (that is excessive TA. Handover Lost. BTS HW faults. the sudden loss counter is incremented if the last reported measurement from the MS does not fulfill any of the reasons mentioned. 2. signal strength. MS Faults. etc. 3. . Sudden Loss is drops that have not been registered as bad quality. However. Synchronization or Abis link fault (transmission faults). Excessive TA Low Signal Strength Bad Quality Sudden Drop As named. a Clear Message with cause code Call Control be treated as normal Disconnection is sent to the MSC – named Clear Request Message.
Action: Check coverage.Probable Reasons of Bad Handover Performance ---Neighboring Cell Relation Action:Add neighbor cell relation. Action: Check BTS error log. ---Link Connection or HW Failure Action: Check BTS error log. ---Blocking on Target Cell Action: Remove Blocking on Tager Cell ---Congestion A high congestion might lead to dragged calls (handover performed at a not intended location) and a lot of unsuccessful handovers. Action: Check TCH congestion. ---Permitted Network Color Code problem Action: Check NCC Permitted ---HW faults. Perform link performance measurements. Check interference. ---Missed measurement frequencies in BA-list Action: Check measurement frequencies list. ---Timer Expire After MS is Lost The MS never answers the base station. ---Many Neighbors Defined Many defined measurement frequencies defined (>16) will decrease the accuracy of . Perform site visit. ---Bad Antenna Installation Action: Perform site survey and check antenna installation. Check antenna cabling.
Bad downlink quality may indicate interference from another co-channel base station. Action: Check interference. ---Wrong Locating Parameter Setting Action: Check locating parameters. Outgoing handover due to bad uplink quality may indicate interference from co-channel another MS. ---Receiver Antenna Problem or RBS HW problems (in candidate cell) Action: Check antenna installation. Action: Check inter-MSC/BSC handover performance. ---High Interference. On the border.the mobile measurements to locate the best six servers. wrong definitions in either MSC or BSC may be reason for the problem. ---Incorrect Down Tilt Action: Perform site survey and check antenna installation. ---Delayed Handover Decision A delayed handover decision can be due to congestion in the target cell. ---Bad Radio Coverage Action: Check coverage plots. Check RBS HW and Error log of the target cell ---Poor Inter-MSC/BSC Handover Performance For outer or external cell. Action: Check number of definitions. Action: Check handover parameters. Solution: Correct antenna tilting. Many measurement frequencies mean few samples per frequency and problem for mobiles to decode the BSIC. Check if many handovers are performed due to downlink or uplink bad quality. the quality may be rather bad and the signal strength low. Co-Channel or Adjacent The potential handover candidate is disturbed by interference. .
Action: Check SDCCH Mean Holding Time ---Too Frequent Periodic Registration Action: Check Random Access Distribution. Action: Check if ACSTATE is on. Make trend comparisons. control or automatic blocked. Check the timer T3212 in the BSC and the parameters . the basic SDCCH configuration in a cell will be under-dimensioned. ---Increasing Traffic Demand The high traffic could be related to an occasional event or due to a long term growth. Check parameters related to Adaptive configuration of logical channels ---Long Mean Holding Time If the mean holding time is long. this generates a higher traffic load. Check if combined SDCCH is used. it will cause SDCCH congestion. Check if the channels are manual.Probable Reasons of SDCCH Congestion ---Low Availability Action: Check SDCCH Availability. ---Bad use of Adaptive configuration of Logical Channels By using the Adaptive configuration of logical channels feature. Action: Check if short term traffic growth. Check SDCCH dimensioning. If this feature is not used correctly.
The recommendation is to use Attach/Detach. However. Check Location Update Performance. ---Cell Broadcast Used Action: Check if Cell Broadcast is active. ---Location Area Border Cell If the cell is situated on a misplaced Location Area border. An introduction of IMSI attach/detach will increase the traffic on SDCCH. check if it is used by the operator. Action: Check site position and location area border. ---Extensive SMS Usage Extensive SMS usage increases the SDCCH traffic and could cause congestion if badly dimensioned SDCCH channels. High Ratio of Random Accesses Action: Check Random Access performance . ---IMSI Attach/Detach in Use. this means that unnecessary many normal LUs are performed.If active. Check parameter CRH etc. . ---Cell Software File Congestion Action: Check SAE setting. the benefits are that the paging success rate will increase. Action: Check SMS activity.---BTDM and GTDM in the MSC Solution: Decrease the periodic registration.
.like co-channel 2)SDCCH time slot faulty 3)Poor TRX DL quality 4)Hardware fault like antenna or duplexer malfunction 5)May be feeder cable and connectors are faulty. 6)Site taking calls from a very far distance..SDCCH drop reasons 1)High intreference of freq.
3. . “call forwarding to C-number” is activated. The HLR then contacts the servicing MSC/VLR and asks it to assign a MSRN to the call.Mobile Station Routing Number]. The HLR also checks if theservice. The GMSC sends an Initial Addressing message (IAM) to the servicing MSC/VLR and uses the MSRN to route the call to the MSC/VLR. the call is rerouted by the GMSC to that number. The HLR looks up the MSISDN and determines the IMSI and the SS7 address for the MSC/VLR that is servicing the MS. The PSTN subscriber dials the MS’s telephone number (MSISDN).The MSC/VLR returns an MSRN via HLR to the GMSC. which identifies that this is a call to a mobile network subscriber. 2. The PSTN sends an Initial Address message (IAM) to the GMSC. the MSISDN is analyzed in the PSTN. Once the servicing MSC/VLR receives the call. the MSRN can be released and may be made available for reassignment.GSM Mobile Terminated Call 1. The GMSC analyzes the MSISDN to find out which HLR. and queries the HLR for information about how to route the call to the serving MSC/VLR. if so. the MS is registered in. 4. [MSRN . A connection is established to the MS’s home GMSC.
8. the page will be sent out across the entireLocation Area(LA). When the MS detects the paging message to the BTS’s in the desired LA. Authentication procedure (Start ciphering. it sends a request on RACH for a SDCCH. the network uses an IMSI or TMSI valid only in the current MSC/VLR service area. 10. . If the subscriber answers. using AGCH. Since the MSC/VLR does not know exactly which BSC and BTS the MS is monitoring. To page the MS. The BTS’s transmit the message over the air interface using PCH. The MSC/VLR instructs the BSC/TRC to allocate an idle TCH. The MSC/VLR then orders all of its BSCs and BTSs to page the MS. The BSC provides a SDCCH. The BTS and MS are told to tune to the TCH. Equipment identification). When the MS detects the paging message. 6. Over SDCCH all signaling preceding a call takes place. This includes: Marking the MS as “active” in the VLR. 7. 9.5. The mobile phone rings. the connection is established. SDCCH is used for the call set-up procedures.
164 is used. For a telephone number in the PSTN/ISDN network. Numbering plans are used to identify different networks. Mobile Station ISDN Number (MSISDN) The MSISDN is a number which uniquely identifies a mobile telephone subscription in the public switched telephone network numbering plan. In order to switch a call to a mobile subscriber. According to the CCITT recommendations. The maximum length shall be 15 digits. The numbers used to identify the identities in a GSM/PLMN network is described in this chapter. data networks or other PLMNs. The length of the MSISDN depends on the structure and numbering plan of each operator.MSRN. prefixes not included. numbering plans E. Each subscription is connected to one Home Location Register (HLR). See also Figure 56.IMEI) GSM identities The GSM network is complex and consists of the Switching System (SS) and the Base Station System (BSS). the mobile telephone number or catalogue number to be dialled is composed in the following way: MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN CC = Country Code NDC = National Destination Code SN = Subscriber Number A National Destination Code is allocated to each GSM PLMN. . interfaces both the Base Station System and also other networks like PSTN/ISDN.TMSI. as an application of CCITT recommendation E. which consists of HLR. the right entities need to be involved. The international MSISDN number may be of variable length.GSM IDENTITY NUMBERS(IMSI. The following is an example of dialling a GSM subscriber. MSC. AUC and EIR. In some countries.CGI.164. more than one NDC may be required for each GSM PLMN. The switching system. VLR. It is therefore important to address them correctly.
It will be stored in the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). For a correct identification over the radio path and through the GSM PLMN network. At reception of the MSRN. The interrogation call routing function (request for an MSRN) is part of the Mobile Application Part (MAP). Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) HLR knows in what MSC/VLR Service Area the subscriber is located. See also Figure 56. . The IMSI consists of three different parts: IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN MCC = Mobile Country Code (3 digits) MNC = Mobile Network Code (2 digits) MSIN = Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (max 10 digits) According to the GSM recommendations. All network–related subscriber information is connected to the IMSI. 7 signalling network.International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) The IMSI is the information which uniquely identifies a subscriber in a GSM/PLMN. the IMSI will have a length of maximum 15 digits. HLR sends it to the GMSC.MSC/VLR for the purpose of interrogation is sent over the No. which can now route the call to the MSC/VLR exchange where the called subscriber is currently registered. This identity is called the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) and is used for all signalling in the PLMN.HLR . a specific identity is allocated to each subscriber. In order to provide a temporary number to be used for routing. as well as in the Home Location Register (HLR) and in the serving Visitor Location Register (VLR). All data exchanged between the GMSC . see Figure 56. the HLR requests the current MSC/VLR to allocate and return a Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) for the called subscriber.
LAC = Location Area Code. International Mobile station Equipment Identity (IMEI) The IMEI is used for equipment identification. consists of three parts: MSRN = CC + NDC + SN CC = Country Code NDC = National Destination Code SN = Subscriber Number Note: In this case. Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) The TMSI is a temporary number used instead of the IMSI to identify an MS. It raises the subscriber’s confidentiality and is known within the serving MSC/VLR-area and changed at certain events or time intervals. according to the GSM recommendations. IMEI has the length of 15 digits. LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC MCC = Mobile Country Code (3 digits). The maximum length of LAC is 16 bits. chapter 5.) IMEI = TAC + FAC + SNR + sp TAC = Type Approval Code (6 digits). an individual serial number of six digits uniquely identifying all equipment within each TAC and FAC sp = spare for future use (1 digit) According to the GSM specification. It follows the same numbering plan as MCC in IMSI. (See IMEI. identifies the country. . identifies the manufacturer SNR = Serial Number (6 digits).The Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN). enabling 65 536 different location areas to be defined in one GSM PLMN. SN is the address to the serving MSC. identifies the GSM/PLMN in that country and follows the same numbering plan as the MNC in IMSI. determined by a central GSM body FAC = Final Assembly Code (2 digits). The structure of the TMSI may be chosen by each administration but should have a maximum length of four octets (8 digits). An IMEI uniquely identifies a mobile station as a piece or assembly of equipment. identifies a location area within a GSM PLMN network. Location Area Identity (LAI) LAI is used for location updating of mobile subscribers. MNC = Mobile Network Code (2 digits).
BCC = Base Station Colour Code (3 bits). . or MSC/VLR service areas. NCC is primarily used to distinguish between operators on each side of border. identifies the Base Station to help distinguish between BTS using the same BCCH frequencies Location Number (LN) Location Number is a number related to a certain geographical area. identifies the GSM PLMN.Cell Global Identity (CGI) CGI is used for cell identification within the GSM network. CGI = MCC + MNC + LAC + CI CI = Cell Identity. identifies a cell within a location area. Note that it does not uniquely identify the operator. The Location Number is used to implement features like Regional /Local subscription and Geographical differentiated charging. as specified by the network operator by ”tying” the location numbers to cells. maximum 16 bits Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) BSIC allows a mobile station to distinguish between different neighboring base stations. location areas. This is done by adding a Cell Identity (CI) to the location area identity. BSIC = NCC + BCC NCC = Network Colour Code (3 bits).
The BSS notifies the Mobile about the changeover to voice mode. 9. The PSTN indicates to the MSC that it has received all the digits and the called subscriber is being rung. etc. all signaling takes place. The call is also switched from signaling to voice. Over SDCCH. The MSC allocates a voice circuit on one the digital trunks between the MSC and the BSS. 12. 10.Access Grant Channel] 3. 6.GSM Mobile Originating Call Flow Mobile User calling a Land Line Subscriber. The MSC routes the call and sends the call towards the called subscriber. The BTS and MS are told to tune to the TCH.Random Access channel] 2. [RACH . [SDCCH . Equipment Identification. The MSC informs the mobile that the called subscriber is beingalerted via a ring. 5. This includes: marking the MS status as active in the VLR 4. [AGCH .slow dedicated control channel]. The MSC/VLR instructs the BSC to allocate an Idle TCH (this message contains the dialed digits and other information needed for call establishment). The called subscriber answers the call. TCH allocation assigns a specific Frequency & a Timeslot on that frequency. sends Channel Request(Chan_Req) message on RACH to ask for a signalingchannel (Radio Resources). 8. to the MSC/VLR. The MS sends a call setup request through SDCCH. 7. Then comes Authentication Procedure which includes Ciphering (The channel is ciphered so as to protect the call). . 1. The BSC allocates a Traffic Channel(TCH) using AGCH. MS after dialing a number & pressing SEND key. MSC informs the BSS about the allocated voice circuit. 11.
as defined in the EG8: GSM/DCS System-Specific Parameters. When a new TRX is added. •To measure any interference problems such as coverage from neighboring Countries. as well as Monitoring the network after sudden environmental conditions. Drive testing during the day will mimic the conditions as seen by subscribers. •To provide the initial test parameters used in Benchmarking (as defined in the “Analysis” section of the Network Performance and Monitoring Guideline). •To monitor the network against a slow degradation over time.Drive Testing The Purpose of Drive Testing Drive testing is principally applied in both the planning and optimisation stage of network development. •To verify the network system parameters. such as gales or electrical storms. there are other purposes for which drive testing can be used: •To provide path loss data for initial site survey work •To verify the propagation prediction during the initial planning of the network. any power Adjustments or changes to the antenna. However. •To locate any poor coverage areas. any changes in clutter or traffic habits such as the addition of new roads etc. the removal or addition of a new site.g. . •To monitor the performance of a competitor’s network. •To locate any RF issues relating to traffic problems such as dropped or blocked calls. but may clog up the network if call analysis is being performed. When to Drive Test Drive testing can take place during the day or at night and is dependant upon the Operator’s requirements and subscriber habits. •To verify the performance of the network after changes have been made e.
For new sites that are being tested. a map of scale no less than 1:20. For planning purposes. It is important that a drive test is documented. Secondary routes are used in areas where problems have been located during a primary route test and further investigation is needed. There are three levels of drive testing depending on the purpose of the test: Primary Route: This includes all major roads. particularly when setting up a new site. There may be other areas of the network that require temporary coverage during a certain time of the year e. Miscellaneous Routes: This includes in-building and non-access routes to vehicles such as shopping malls. Secondary Route: This includes all streets. This minimises any errors and checks the point of handovers and cell dimensioning.000 should be used. who will need accurate records of any test work carried out. It will also allow for certain test signals to be transmitted and tested. A route is prepared by photocopying a map and highlighting the route to be driven. an exhibition centre or a sports stadium. ----Route Plans The area to be drive tested is ascertained before leaving the office. hotels. golf courses. Drive testing should not be uniform throughout the whole network. conference centres etc. Where to Drive Test Some areas of a network will have greater performance problems than others. airports. A drive test should be planned in both directions. It is recommended that the route is marked in a contiguous circuit. and at the same speed. it is recommended that the transceiver is forced to camp .g. such as a University Campus. These areas should be examined and planned in greater detail. However. and a map of scale 1:10. taking account of one-way streets at this stage. where accessible. drive testing is performed during the day.Drive testing during the night will allow a greater area to be surveyed due to the reduction in vehicular congestion. For primary routes. without interrupting normal operation. by-streets and compounds.000 is recommended for secondary routes. night-time testing does not mimic the conditions experienced by subscribers. unless a new site is put into service for a specific objective. All documentation will be passed to Analysts and Engineers. highways and throughfares and should be given priority to all other roads when conducting a coverage test. but should be weighted towards areas where there are significant RF problems. where possible. This is specified by the Operator and can either take the form of creating a new item of documentation or filling in an existing document. drive testing is typically performed at night and for maintenance purposes.
It . The threshold for determining the level of poor audio is programmed during the set-up of the test. some of which can be sub-divided further. Some field test equipment can perform basic analysis of particular Layer 3 messages during data collection. Layer 1 Messages Other Layer 1 criteria that is useful for field measurements include: C1 • criteria ARFCN of Serving Cell . using Layer 3 messages. In GSM. BCCH in idle mode)) Time • Slot (TS) Layer 3 Messages All Layer 3 messages should be collected where possible. this particular classification is very difficult to determine with great accuracy. Call Classification In principle there are five call classifications. Good Calls: These are calls that are successfully placed on the network and maintained for the required duration. The test should be re-driven with any forced handovers removed. these calls can be subdivided into: End • User Hang-up System Hang-up • Other • Blocked Calls: These are calls that cannot be placed on to the network. Again. This enables certain conditions such as call classification or handovers to be flagged to the survey technician.• (TCH in dedicated mode. Layer 3 Messages are used by Analysts to determine more accurately the cause of a problem within the network.onto the cell (forbidding any handovers) in order to ascertain the full coverage of the cell. Roamed calls may also be good calls or dropped calls. these can be sub-divided as follows: System • Busy End User Engaged • No • Service Other • Roamed Calls: These are calls that are successfully placed on another network. Noisy Calls: These are calls which have been successfully completed for the duration of the call but which experienced a number of noise bursts that a subscriber may find intolerable. Dropped Calls: These are calls that are successfully placed on to the network but are terminated without authorisation. Using Layer 3 Messages.
the equipment fails to trigger the collection device to save the data to file. install a back-up positional device to safeguard against lost GPS Coverage Holes If there are patches of poor coverage in unexpected areas. Complete • a route plan using secondary roads as far as possible Make • notes of any buildings / obstructions that may cause shadowing Take • note of pedestrian / vehicular habits in the area Dropped Calls Dropped calls can be caused by either RF environments or incorrect system parameters. Troubleshooting No Data Collected Occasionally. It is important that back-up equipment is used. No Positional Information Collected If data is collected using GPS only. Check all cables • Ensure • the Processing Unit is powered Re-start • the laptop computer Re-start the equipment • Re-drive • the test. it may indicate the fringes of a coverage hole. . The setting should be a minimum of 30 seconds. since a GPS receiver will re-transmit the last known position until it receives an update.should be noted that it is not enough to monitor just the RxLEV and the RxQUAL. The following data should be checked to ensure that it has been collected properly. ensure that the automatic setting for the call length is not shorter than that for the timer monitoring for unauthorised call drop-outs. such as a Dead-Reckoning device. Check the GPS antenna • cable to the receiver Drive to an open area • and ensure that the GPS system is working correctly If • required. the data will be inaccurate and cannot be analysed. It is important to re-drive this particular area. Layer 3 Messages • Neighbour • Cell List (BA Table) RxLEV (Server • & Neighbour) RxQUAL (Server • & Neighbour) Finally. If the vehicle moves without GPS cover. it may be possible that satellite reception was lost during a drive through a tunnel etc. Handover Problems Handover problems are generally caused by inaccurate settings of the handover boundary.
Check the following. checking when handovers occur. If this succeeds.Adv for • the Serving Cell Also. where the server will keep changing. The transceiver antenna • is fitted correctly Collection of Layer 3 • Messages Collection of Neighbour • Cell List (BA Table) Collection of Scanning • Information Collection of Cell • Identities Collection of T. If a particular serving cell can be isolated as a potential cause of handover problems. Check • that the number called is fully functional Check • that there is adequate coverage from the expected serving BTS Check • the equipment transceiver is functioning correctly by using an ordinary mobile to call the office If all appears • functional. slowly drive around the cell in a radius of around 500m . and congestion at the switch. ensure that the collection of data from the new serving cell immediately after the handover has occurred (particularly RxLEV and RxQUAL) is not timed to occur prior to the-synchronisation of the transceiver itself. try to place calls through an alternative BTS. . it is recommended that the drive test is temporarily halted in order to try and locate the cause. Blocked Calls / System Busy If calls are repeatedly classified as blocked.This can cause ping-ponging.1km. inform the office immediately and re-suspend the drive test.
It is stopped at receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message. The maximum value of this timer is 5 seconds. T3110:This timer is used to delay the channel deactivation after the receipt of a (full) CHANNEL RELEASE. or an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT EXTENDED message.It is stopped at receipt of the first UPLINK FREE message. It is stopped at receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message. Its value is set to 675 ms if the channel type of the channel allocated in the HANDOVER COMMAND is an SDCCH (+ SACCH).e. The value of this timer is set to 1 second. or an . T3124: This timer is used in the seizure procedure during a hand-over. T3146:This timer is started either after sending the maximum allowed number of CHANNEL REQUEST messages during a packet access procedure. no time out of T3109) of the channel release procedure. Its purpose is to let some time for disconnection of the main signalling link. S and T.It is stopped at receipt of a VGCS ACCESS GRANT message. Or on receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message during a packet access procedure. T3128:This timer is started when the mobile station starts the uplink investigation procedure and the uplink is busy. Its purpose is to detect the lack of answer from the network or the lack of availability of the target cell. Its value is set to such that the DISC frame is sent twice in case of no answer from the network. the immediate assignment procedure is aborted. T3130:This timer is started after sending the first UPLINK ACCESS message during a VGCS uplink access procedure. Its value is set to 5 seconds. the uplink investigation procedure is aborted. after the receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGN REJECT message.The value of this timer is set to 5 seconds. T3142:The timer is used during packet access on CCCH. At its expiry. At its expiry. after the receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message. The minimum value of this timer is equal to the time taken by T+2S slots of the mobile station's RACH. whichever occurs first. when the two cells are not synchronized.Its purpose is to detect the lack of answer from the network to the special signal.) T3134:This timer is used in the seizure procedure during an RR network commanded cell change order procedure. Or on receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message. the uplink access procedure is aborted. whichever occurs first.At its expiry. T3126:This timer is started either after sending the maximum allowed number of CHANNEL REQUEST messages during an immediate assignment procedure.Timers and counters for Radio Resource Management Timers on the Mobile Station Side T3122: This timer is used during random access. Its value is given by the network in the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message. otherwise its value is set to 320 ms. (It should be chosen to obtain a good probability of normal termination (i.Its value is given by the network in the IMMEDIATE ASSIGN REJECT message.
2. see GSM 04.60. At its expiry. Its purpose is to keep the old channels sufficiently long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels. NOTE: Its value should be large enough to ensure that the MS detects a radio link failure. Its value is network dependent. the mobile station returns to the packet idle mode. T3109:This timer is started when a lower layer failure is detected by the network. T3190:The timer is used during packet downlink assignment on CCCH. At expire. The value of the timer is 5 seconds. and to release the channels if the MS is lost.It is stopped at the receipt of a RLC/MAC block on the assigned temporary block flow. . S and T are defined in section 3. plus the value of T3124. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum time for a L2 establishment attempt. Timers on the network side T3101:This timer is started when a channel is allocated with an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message. Its value is network dependent.1. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum transmission time of the HANDOVER COMMAND. The value of the timer is 5 seconds.60. the packet access procedure is aborted.) T3105:This timer is used for the repetition of the PHYSICAL INFORMATION message during the hand-over procedure.3. It is started at the receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message or of an PDCH ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message when in dedicated mode. Its value is network dependent. Its value is network dependent. NOTE: This timer may be set to such a low value that the message is in fact continuously transmitted. T3103:This timer is started by the sending of a HANDOVER message and is normally stopped when the MS has correctly seized the new channel. T3164:This timer is used during packet access using CCCH. The minimum value of this timer is equal to the time taken by T+2S slots of the mobile station's RACH.IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT EXTENDED message. It is started at the receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message. It is stopped when the MS has correctly seized the channels. see GSM 04. Its purpose is to release the channels in case of loss of communication. when it is not engaged in a RF procedure. and to release the channels if the MS is lost. It is stopped at the transmission of a RLC/MAC block on the assigned temporary block flow. It is also used in the channel release procedure. T3107:This timer is started by the sending of an ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message and is normally stopped when the MS has correctly seized the new channels. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum transmission time of the ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message plus twice the maximum duration of an attempt to establish a data link multiframe mode. plus the maximum duration of an attempt to establish a data link in multiframe mode. The maximum value of this timer is 5 seconds. At expiry. Its value is network dependent. Its purpose is to keep the old channel sufficiently long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels. the mobile station returns to the packet idle mode.
NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum transmission time of the RR_CELL CHANGE ORDER. and to release the channels if the MS is lost. Its value is network dependent.T3111:This timer is used to delay the channel deactivation after disconnection of the main signalling link. T3119:This timer is started by the sending of a RR-CELL CHANGE ORDER message and is normally stopped when the MS has correctly accessed the new cell. Its value is network dependent. NOTE: This timer may be set to such a low value that the message is in fact continuously transmitted. plus T3134. plus the maximum duration of an attempt to establish a data link in multiframe mode. . NOTE: The value could allow for repetitions of the Channel Request message and the requirements associated with T3101. T3115:This timer is used for the repetition of the VGCS UPLINK GRANT message during the uplink access procedure. T3113:This timer is started when the network has sent a PAGING REQUEST message and is stopped when the network has received the PAGING RESPONSE message. Its value is network dependent. Its purpose is to keep the old channels sufficiently long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels. and to release the channels if the MS is lost. Its purpose is to let some time for possible repetition of the disconnection. Its value is network dependent. Its purpose is to keep the old channel sufficiently long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels. Its value is network dependent. It is stopped when the mobile station has correctly seized the temporary block flow. T3141:This timer is started when a temporary block flow is allocated with an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message during a packet access procedure. Its value is equal to the value of T3110. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum transmission time of the PDCH ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message plus T3132 plus the maximum duration of an attempt to establish a data link in multiframe mode. T3117:This timer is started by the sending of a PDCH ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message and is normally stopped when the MS has correctly accessed the target TBF.
KPI Introduction 1. 12. SDCCH BLOCK RATE Definition: SDCCH congestion of total number of SDCCH seizure attempts 8. CALL DROP RATE (CDR) Definition: Rate of all losses of TCH connections during a call in relation to the number of successful Call Setups 4. TCH Availability Definition: Available TCH of total number of defined TCH 13. TCH Assignment Failure Rate (exclude blocking) Definition: Rate of RTCH seizure failed (system + radio) during normal assignment procedure over the total amount of RTCH request for normal assignment procedure 11. LOCATION UPDATE SUCCESS RATE Definition: Successful location update attempts of total number of location update attempts. TCH ASSIGNMENT BLOCK RATE Definition: Rate of TCH unsuccessful seizures during assignment procedure due to congestion 10. EMD (Erlang Minute per Drop) Definition: Total of Erlang minutes (TCH occupation) in one period measurement per drop call (after TCH Assignment). neither by assignment failures. PSR (PAGING SUCCESS RATE) Definition: Rate of successful paging attempts of total number of paging attempts. 9. SCR (SUCCESSFULL CALL RATE) Definition: Rate of calls going until normal release that is not interrupted by SDCCH DROP. CSSR (CALL SETUP SUCCESS RATE) Definition: Rate of calls going until TCH successful assignment 2. SDCCH DROP RATE Definition: Dropped SDCCH connections of total number of SDCCH connections without TCH congestion. 3. 7. RACH Success Rate Definition : Rate of Successful RACH over the total number of channel required message received . HOSR (HAND OVER SUCCESS RATE) Definition: Successful internal and external outgoing handovers of total number of internal and external outgoing handover attempts 5. The formula is based on NSS point of view.The formula is based on NSS point of view (based on MSC or LAC) 6. and neither by CALL DROP.
If there is no problem on the dominant cell. increase the output power. check the TCH Time Congestion. the problems of low TCH assignment are TCH availability and interference. If there is congestion on TCH. Mostly. If the output power is low. Check the disturbance whether it is on SDCCH or target TCH. . swap or repair HW. check the faulty BTS by extracting BTS error log. it is recommend doing the dimensioning and adding TRU based on carried TCH traffic demand. If there is no congestion on TCH. it is recommended to add BTS.TCH ASSIGNMENT SUCCESS RATE Probable Reason: 1) No dominant serving cell: The serving cell cannot cope with the TCH traffic. If hardware fault found. improve the frequency plan. check the output power of the BTS. 4) Interference: Disturbance on SDCCH or target TCH 5) Faulty transceiver: Faulty equipment The following procedure should be performed for TCH Assignment analysis: For TCH assignment success rate. check the interference whether cochannel or adjacent channel. Perform drivetests to check the coverage and received RxLEV. the first thing. If the output power is ok. If no dominant cell or similar signal strengths of a few cells found during drivetests. 2) Severe congestion on TCH: Failing TCH allocation for assignment or handover due to congestion 3) Low signal strength for call access: The signal strength might be higher on the BCCH than on the TCH. If disturbance found.
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