PTI‟s Rural Governance Vision Empowering the Community

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Pakistan‟s Rural Power Structure
Administrative structure created by the British for the British continues
Rural elite created and supported for control of the common man and the resources he produces Centralized control, top-down approach

The rural elite continues its role
Politics in rural areas revolves around symbols of state power Police, Revenue, Irrigation, etc. The common villager remains a pawn in the game of power politics
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Pakistan‟s Rural Power Structure
All legislation on Local Governance in Pakistan has been under military rules. (1959, 1979, 2001) In 1959, the military government introduced the “Union Council” as the basic building block of local government
It shifted power and functions away from the organically developed “Village” ignoring traditions dating back centuries

All subsequent local government models compounded the error by thoughtlessly assuming Union Councils synonymous with the village community

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PTI‟s Rural Governance Vision
 PTI aims give back the Power where it belongs - The Community

 Focus on the “Community” as the first building block
A “bottom‟s up” approach to replace the „top-down‟ system

 Local Governance systems should be based on natural and traditional structures that have evolved over centuries
It is only these time-tested structures which the Community identifies with and owns

 It is time that we commence rural governance from where evolution has placed it –– The “Village”  PTI‟s Local Governance model will necessarily be Provincial and shall reflect special features of a Province
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Local Government
Zila Government

TM Admin
Union Council

Pakistan Statistics* Districts
Tehsils Union Councils “Mauzas” Settlements

121
388 6028 52376 170246

Settlements

Source: Mauza Census 2008 ACO
Mauza

Tehsil * GB & AJK not included.

District

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What is a “Village/Mauza”
A territorial unit with a separate name

Has definite boundaries, precisely measured area, divided into plots / “khasras” with Survey numbers
A “Village/Mauza” is a “revenue estate”, having a separate Record of Rights Other names used for it are: Deh, Killi, Chak, Goth, Dhok, Abadi A “Mauza” ordinarily has one or more settlements

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Village/Mauza Disaggregated Data
Urban Mauzas Urban/Rural mix Mauzas Rural Mauzas Forest Mauzas Unpopulated Mauzas Total Mauzas Provinces Punjab Sindh KPK Balochistan PAKISTAN* Urban 658 170 144 127 1099 U/R Mix 990 290 206 90 1576 1099 1576 45906 439 3356 52376 Rural 22951 5283 11334 6338 45906 Forest 288 96 25 30 439 Un-pop 2172 144 145 895 3356 TOTAL 27059 5983 11854 7480 52376 2% 3% 88% 0.8% 6.4%

* GB and AJK not included
Source: Mauza Survey 2008. ACO
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Average “Mauzas”
“Mauzas” in a District Punjab average Sindh average KPK average Balochistan average Pakistan Average Average “Mauzas” in a Thana Average “Mauzas” in a UC Average “Mauzas” in a Patwar Circle Average Population of a “Mauza” 620 400 280 300 400 31 8 4-5 2400 Punjab 2800 Sindh 3700 KPK 1700 B/tan 1100
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Punjab 42

Sindh 14

KPK 39

B/tan 25

Source: Population Survey 1998 (adjusted), Mauza Survey 2008

Infrastructure in “Mauzas”
Facility Electrified Health RHC/BHU Dispensary Education Primary School Middle School High School 73% 27% 13% 86% 30% 16% 92% 32% 19% 78% 35% 17% 61% 16% 9% 10.5% 9% 12% 10% 12% 14% 8% 7% 12% 6% Pakistan 73% Punjab 84% Sindh 50% KPK 70% Balochistan 36%

College
Metalled Road Public Transport Veterinary Cover

4%
54% 61%

4%
80% 70%

7%
70% 71%

3%
38% 67%

3%
20% 52%

Public facility
Private facility
Source: Mauza Survey 2008

11%
15%

8%
9%

11%
24%

13%
18%

6%
4%
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“Mauza” Fragmentation
1 Settlement 2-3 Settlements 4-5 Settlements 6-9 Settlements >10 Settlements

51% 20%
13 %
12% 23%
7 % 7 %

51% 3%

24% 11%

5% 24%

7% 37%

Punjab Sindh

70%
62%

14%
19%

11%
10%

3%
4%

2%
4%

KPK
B’tan
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Source: Mauza Census 2008 ACO

Village Governance – PTI‟s Model
Each Village / Mauza to be governed by an empowered Village Council Comprising an average of seven or more Councilors elected for four years Seats to be reserved for women The national average population in a Mauza is 2400.
 Punjab 2800  Sindh 3700  KPK 1700  B/tan 1100

One elected member for a Population ranging between 150 and 400 depending on the Province
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Village Governance – PTI‟s Model
Elections to VC on “Open Free List System” A Village need not be divided in electoral Blocks Candidates do not need to contest against each other The contestant obtaining the highest votes to be the Chairman One half Councilors – who obtained the minimum votes – to retire after two years and replaced by freshly elected  Making the Village Council self renewing

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Strengths of a Village
A village directly generates the following financial resources:
Land Revenue, Abiana, Agri Income Tax, Registration & Mutation Fees The “Commodity Producing Sector” contributes 46.7% to Pakistan‟s GDP. This is all from rural areas.

Our systems, however give no right to the rural areas to receive a fair share of what they generate or produce
Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan 2010-11 13

PTI‟s Vision of Rural Empowerment
 A Village must have sufficient money as a „right‟ to maintain services and perform functions
 For employing essential village staff and maintaining services

 A Village must also have access to Development Funds as a matter of right
 Decades of neglect of Villages needs to be corrected

 For the first time in Pakistan‟s history, Public Funds shall be placed with the People
 In the hands of the People, to be spent by the People  As per their self determined priorities  Without red tape

 Public Funds belong to the People and they can be trusted with them 14

Village Funds for Empowerment
Recurring Fund
Rs. 500,000 per average village (per annum) to finance core functions for communal living Chowkidar, Village accountant, sanitation, emergency maintenance of public services etc. Numberdari grant of land to be given to the Village Council

Development Fund
Rs. 20 lacs per average village (per annum) for investment in infrastructure as per their self determined priorities This would mean a direct investment of Rs. 1 crore per average village over a 5 year period

Every year Rs. 125 billion will go directly to all the Villages of Pakistan
Rs. 625 billion in a 5 year PTI tenure
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Village Funds for Empowerment
Self Generated Fund
Village to be a body corporate which can enter into a contract for provision of services  Establishment of cattle/vegetable/grain markets to end the current exploitative Government/„Arthti‟ controlled market regime Integrating Overseas Pakistanis with the development of villages of their origin or choice

Additional Financing window at District level
For Village sewerage and water supply
New schemes and rehabilitation of dysfunctional ones

On cost sharing basis Maintenance to be VC function

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PTI‟s village self governance proposal is a paradigm shift which will be facilitated for it to quickly strike roots
To protect VCs from the machination / manipulations of the vested interests that shall lose power under the new system:
User friendly SOPs for functioning of VCs and use of Public funds All VCs to go through a process of familiarization with these SOPs A modern IT based system for Performance and Financial Audits shall be installed for transparency and efficiency Third Party Audit of all Village funds
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State Support the New Village Structure

Legal Empowerment Of Village
 VC to maintain village solidarity and unity through Alternate Dispute Resolution (ADR) methods
 Negotiation, Mediation and Reconciliation backed by Law  The objective is to resolve as many disputes as possible within the village to reduce the burden of dispute resolution up the chain

 Village Council Chairman to be Justice of Peace under Section 22A of the Criminal Procedure Code
 Able to summon police for assistance  To be consulted for facts during investigation of an alleged crime  To be consulted to help eliminate false cases
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Community Oversight of Public Services
 A Village Council must be enabled to judge the performance of government functionaries who so deeply impact village lives  Thana Oversight Committee
 One nominated Councilor of each VC to be a member  Meet at least once a month and review performance of Police

 Different Committees from relevant VCs to oversee the performance of:
     Revenue Officials Agriculture & Livestock Departments Primary Healthcare Elementary Education Irrigation Department

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Responsibilities of the „New‟ Village
The Village Council will ensure the following services: Village Record Maintenance
Births, Deaths, Marriages

Establishing & Maintaining common village services Preventive Healthcare Sewerage Solid waste management Water Supply Watch & Ward Preventing / Removing Encroachments which are a public nuisance
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Future of the „New‟ Village
Bringing Economic Opportunities to the Village
 The Village Bank
 Banking sector and Pakistan‟s economy must benefit from bringing the village communities into the official economy  The Village Council to act as an intermediary in bringing formal Banking services to the Village
 Thereby ensuring a breakthrough in provision of Agricultural Credit to small farmers

   

Agro technology Communal Dairy farming services Aggregating small farmer demand for inputs Etc. etc. etc.

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Taking PTI‟s Community Empowerment Model to an Urban Setting

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Pakistan‟s Urban Governance Structure
Cities potential usurped by Provincial Govts.
 Cities generate Taxes on Properties, Water Rate etc
 However, these are fixed and recovered by Provincial Government agencies

 City functions stand usurped as well
 Development Authorities established (KDA, CDA, LDA, MDA, FDA)  Water and Sanitation Agencies  Parks & Horticulture Authorities  Environmental Protection Authorities  Traffic Engineering Authorities

 Prime Ministers and Chief Ministers behaving like Mayors
 Multan, Larkana, Lahore
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PTI‟s Urban Governance Vision
All Urban Governance functions to go back to the Municipality

City Government to be the sole custodian of Urban governance
City Government to raise independent revenue for city development
Fund investment in instruments Municipal Bonds etc. Urban infrastructure by innovative

Provincial Government role
Policy formulation Standard setting
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PTI‟s Urban Governance Vision
Self governance fund on “Village Model” for “Nano” Urban communities Mainstreaming overgrown villages that are now small rural towns

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“Nano” Urban Communities
Category 1 Railway Line Kutchy Abadi 2 1 New Cavalry Grounds RA Bazar 4 1.5 Cavalry Grounds Walton Colony 2 2 CG Extension 3 Super Town 4 Old Super Town Nishat 5 Colony s 3 4 5 Type Very Good Good Un-Satisfactory Bad Very Bad

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Madina Colony 5

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The Forgotten Rural Town
All over rural Pakistan, hundreds of Villages have turned into Towns
 The Government mostly ignores this reality  The 2001 Local Government Ordinance also ignored their existence

These „overgrown‟ Villages have lost their rural character
 Advantages of being a Village lost  Advantages of being a City nowhere in sight  They are not getting the infrastructure that is synonymous with urban areas

These „over-grown villages‟ must also be given specialized treatment which helps them transform smoothly into a City
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THANK YOU

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