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PTI‟s Rural Governance Vision Empowering the Community


Pakistan‟s Rural Power Structure
Administrative structure created by the British for the British continues
Rural elite created and supported for control of the common man and the resources he produces Centralized control, top-down approach

The rural elite continues its role
Politics in rural areas revolves around symbols of state power Police, Revenue, Irrigation, etc. The common villager remains a pawn in the game of power politics

Pakistan‟s Rural Power Structure
All legislation on Local Governance in Pakistan has been under military rules. (1959, 1979, 2001) In 1959, the military government introduced the “Union Council” as the basic building block of local government
It shifted power and functions away from the organically developed “Village” ignoring traditions dating back centuries

All subsequent local government models compounded the error by thoughtlessly assuming Union Councils synonymous with the village community


PTI‟s Rural Governance Vision
 PTI aims give back the Power where it belongs - The Community

 Focus on the “Community” as the first building block
A “bottom‟s up” approach to replace the „top-down‟ system

 Local Governance systems should be based on natural and traditional structures that have evolved over centuries
It is only these time-tested structures which the Community identifies with and owns

 It is time that we commence rural governance from where evolution has placed it –– The “Village”  PTI‟s Local Governance model will necessarily be Provincial and shall reflect special features of a Province

Local Government
Zila Government

TM Admin
Union Council

Pakistan Statistics* Districts
Tehsils Union Councils “Mauzas” Settlements

388 6028 52376 170246


Source: Mauza Census 2008 ACO

Tehsil * GB & AJK not included.



What is a “Village/Mauza”
A territorial unit with a separate name

Has definite boundaries, precisely measured area, divided into plots / “khasras” with Survey numbers
A “Village/Mauza” is a “revenue estate”, having a separate Record of Rights Other names used for it are: Deh, Killi, Chak, Goth, Dhok, Abadi A “Mauza” ordinarily has one or more settlements


Village/Mauza Disaggregated Data
Urban Mauzas Urban/Rural mix Mauzas Rural Mauzas Forest Mauzas Unpopulated Mauzas Total Mauzas Provinces Punjab Sindh KPK Balochistan PAKISTAN* Urban 658 170 144 127 1099 U/R Mix 990 290 206 90 1576 1099 1576 45906 439 3356 52376 Rural 22951 5283 11334 6338 45906 Forest 288 96 25 30 439 Un-pop 2172 144 145 895 3356 TOTAL 27059 5983 11854 7480 52376 2% 3% 88% 0.8% 6.4%

* GB and AJK not included
Source: Mauza Survey 2008. ACO

Average “Mauzas”
“Mauzas” in a District Punjab average Sindh average KPK average Balochistan average Pakistan Average Average “Mauzas” in a Thana Average “Mauzas” in a UC Average “Mauzas” in a Patwar Circle Average Population of a “Mauza” 620 400 280 300 400 31 8 4-5 2400 Punjab 2800 Sindh 3700 KPK 1700 B/tan 1100

Punjab 42

Sindh 14

KPK 39

B/tan 25

Source: Population Survey 1998 (adjusted), Mauza Survey 2008

Infrastructure in “Mauzas”
Facility Electrified Health RHC/BHU Dispensary Education Primary School Middle School High School 73% 27% 13% 86% 30% 16% 92% 32% 19% 78% 35% 17% 61% 16% 9% 10.5% 9% 12% 10% 12% 14% 8% 7% 12% 6% Pakistan 73% Punjab 84% Sindh 50% KPK 70% Balochistan 36%

Metalled Road Public Transport Veterinary Cover

54% 61%

80% 70%

70% 71%

38% 67%

20% 52%

Public facility
Private facility
Source: Mauza Survey 2008






“Mauza” Fragmentation
1 Settlement 2-3 Settlements 4-5 Settlements 6-9 Settlements >10 Settlements

51% 20%
13 %
12% 23%
7 % 7 %

51% 3%

24% 11%

5% 24%

7% 37%

Punjab Sindh







Source: Mauza Census 2008 ACO

Village Governance – PTI‟s Model
Each Village / Mauza to be governed by an empowered Village Council Comprising an average of seven or more Councilors elected for four years Seats to be reserved for women The national average population in a Mauza is 2400.
 Punjab 2800  Sindh 3700  KPK 1700  B/tan 1100

One elected member for a Population ranging between 150 and 400 depending on the Province

Village Governance – PTI‟s Model
Elections to VC on “Open Free List System” A Village need not be divided in electoral Blocks Candidates do not need to contest against each other The contestant obtaining the highest votes to be the Chairman One half Councilors – who obtained the minimum votes – to retire after two years and replaced by freshly elected  Making the Village Council self renewing


Strengths of a Village
A village directly generates the following financial resources:
Land Revenue, Abiana, Agri Income Tax, Registration & Mutation Fees The “Commodity Producing Sector” contributes 46.7% to Pakistan‟s GDP. This is all from rural areas.

Our systems, however give no right to the rural areas to receive a fair share of what they generate or produce
Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan 2010-11 13

PTI‟s Vision of Rural Empowerment
 A Village must have sufficient money as a „right‟ to maintain services and perform functions
 For employing essential village staff and maintaining services

 A Village must also have access to Development Funds as a matter of right
 Decades of neglect of Villages needs to be corrected

 For the first time in Pakistan‟s history, Public Funds shall be placed with the People
 In the hands of the People, to be spent by the People  As per their self determined priorities  Without red tape

 Public Funds belong to the People and they can be trusted with them 14

Village Funds for Empowerment
Recurring Fund
Rs. 500,000 per average village (per annum) to finance core functions for communal living Chowkidar, Village accountant, sanitation, emergency maintenance of public services etc. Numberdari grant of land to be given to the Village Council

Development Fund
Rs. 20 lacs per average village (per annum) for investment in infrastructure as per their self determined priorities This would mean a direct investment of Rs. 1 crore per average village over a 5 year period

Every year Rs. 125 billion will go directly to all the Villages of Pakistan
Rs. 625 billion in a 5 year PTI tenure

Village Funds for Empowerment
Self Generated Fund
Village to be a body corporate which can enter into a contract for provision of services  Establishment of cattle/vegetable/grain markets to end the current exploitative Government/„Arthti‟ controlled market regime Integrating Overseas Pakistanis with the development of villages of their origin or choice

Additional Financing window at District level
For Village sewerage and water supply
New schemes and rehabilitation of dysfunctional ones

On cost sharing basis Maintenance to be VC function


PTI‟s village self governance proposal is a paradigm shift which will be facilitated for it to quickly strike roots
To protect VCs from the machination / manipulations of the vested interests that shall lose power under the new system:
User friendly SOPs for functioning of VCs and use of Public funds All VCs to go through a process of familiarization with these SOPs A modern IT based system for Performance and Financial Audits shall be installed for transparency and efficiency Third Party Audit of all Village funds

State Support the New Village Structure

Legal Empowerment Of Village
 VC to maintain village solidarity and unity through Alternate Dispute Resolution (ADR) methods
 Negotiation, Mediation and Reconciliation backed by Law  The objective is to resolve as many disputes as possible within the village to reduce the burden of dispute resolution up the chain

 Village Council Chairman to be Justice of Peace under Section 22A of the Criminal Procedure Code
 Able to summon police for assistance  To be consulted for facts during investigation of an alleged crime  To be consulted to help eliminate false cases

Community Oversight of Public Services
 A Village Council must be enabled to judge the performance of government functionaries who so deeply impact village lives  Thana Oversight Committee
 One nominated Councilor of each VC to be a member  Meet at least once a month and review performance of Police

 Different Committees from relevant VCs to oversee the performance of:
     Revenue Officials Agriculture & Livestock Departments Primary Healthcare Elementary Education Irrigation Department


Responsibilities of the „New‟ Village
The Village Council will ensure the following services: Village Record Maintenance
Births, Deaths, Marriages

Establishing & Maintaining common village services Preventive Healthcare Sewerage Solid waste management Water Supply Watch & Ward Preventing / Removing Encroachments which are a public nuisance

Future of the „New‟ Village
Bringing Economic Opportunities to the Village
 The Village Bank
 Banking sector and Pakistan‟s economy must benefit from bringing the village communities into the official economy  The Village Council to act as an intermediary in bringing formal Banking services to the Village
 Thereby ensuring a breakthrough in provision of Agricultural Credit to small farmers

   

Agro technology Communal Dairy farming services Aggregating small farmer demand for inputs Etc. etc. etc.


Taking PTI‟s Community Empowerment Model to an Urban Setting


Pakistan‟s Urban Governance Structure
Cities potential usurped by Provincial Govts.
 Cities generate Taxes on Properties, Water Rate etc
 However, these are fixed and recovered by Provincial Government agencies

 City functions stand usurped as well
 Development Authorities established (KDA, CDA, LDA, MDA, FDA)  Water and Sanitation Agencies  Parks & Horticulture Authorities  Environmental Protection Authorities  Traffic Engineering Authorities

 Prime Ministers and Chief Ministers behaving like Mayors
 Multan, Larkana, Lahore

PTI‟s Urban Governance Vision
All Urban Governance functions to go back to the Municipality

City Government to be the sole custodian of Urban governance
City Government to raise independent revenue for city development
Fund investment in instruments Municipal Bonds etc. Urban infrastructure by innovative

Provincial Government role
Policy formulation Standard setting

PTI‟s Urban Governance Vision
Self governance fund on “Village Model” for “Nano” Urban communities Mainstreaming overgrown villages that are now small rural towns


“Nano” Urban Communities
Category 1 Railway Line Kutchy Abadi 2 1 New Cavalry Grounds RA Bazar 4 1.5 Cavalry Grounds Walton Colony 2 2 CG Extension 3 Super Town 4 Old Super Town Nishat 5 Colony s 3 4 5 Type Very Good Good Un-Satisfactory Bad Very Bad


Madina Colony 5


The Forgotten Rural Town
All over rural Pakistan, hundreds of Villages have turned into Towns
 The Government mostly ignores this reality  The 2001 Local Government Ordinance also ignored their existence

These „overgrown‟ Villages have lost their rural character
 Advantages of being a Village lost  Advantages of being a City nowhere in sight  They are not getting the infrastructure that is synonymous with urban areas

These „over-grown villages‟ must also be given specialized treatment which helps them transform smoothly into a City