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DEFINITION OF TERMS Pharmacodynamics – the study the way drugs effect the body.

Pharmacokinetics – the study of the way the body deals with drugs and includes absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion of the drug. Once the pharmacokinetics of a drug is determined, rational dosage regimen can be instituted. Drug Absorption – refers to what happens to a drug from the time it is introduced to the body until it reaches the circulator fluids and tissues. Drug Distribution – it involves the movement of drugs after absorption or injection into the interstitial or cellular fluids. Onset of Action – the time administered drug produce its effect on system. Biotransformation/Metabolism – the process by which drug s are change into new, less active chemical Excretion – the removal of a drug from the body. The skin, saliva, the lungs, bile and feces are route used to excrete drugs. Critical Concentration – the amount of a drug needed to cause a therapeutic effect. Half-life – the time it takes the amount of drug in the body to decrease to one-half of the peak level it previously achieved. Peak Plasma Level – refer to high plasma concentration of the drug for a maximum therapeutic effect. Therapeutic Blood Level – refer to the drug plasma concentration achieved within the standard margin of safety and effectiveness. PHARMACOKINETICS PROCESSES 1. Absorption – refers to what happens to a drug from the time it is introduced to the body until it reaches the circulating fluid and tissues. Areas of the Body for drug Absorption: a. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract either orally or rectally b. Mucous membrane c. Skin d. Lungs e. Muscle of subcutaneous tissues Process of absorption 1. Passive Diffusion – occurs across a concentration gradient from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. 2. Active Transport – a process that uses energy to actively remove a molecule across a cell membrane. This process is not important as absorbing drugs, but use in excretion in the kidney 3. Filtration – involves movement through pores in the cell membrane down a concentration gradient or the pull of the plasma protein. This process is use in drug excretion 1. Blood flow – rich blood flow supply enhances absorption, whereas poor circulation hampers absorption 2. Pain – slows gastric emptying rate so the drug remain longer in the stomach 3. Stress 4. Foods 5. Exercise – its can decrease blood circulation to the GI tract by causing more blood flow to the muscles 6. Nature of the absorbing surface – transport of drug molecule is faster through a single layer of cells (intestinal epithelium) the transverse layers of cells (skin) 7. Solubility of the drug- the drug must be in solution Mucous membranes (Sublingua, buccal) Perfusion or blood flow to the area Integrity of the mucous membranes Presence of food or smoking Length of time drug retained in the area Perfusion or blood flow to the area Integrity of skin Perfusion or blood flow to the area Integrity of lung lining

Topical (skin) Inhalation

Ability to administer drug properly First – pass effect – the breakdown of oral drug in the liver immediately after absorption. Drugs given by other routes often reach reactive tissues before passing throughout the liver for biotransformation 2. Distribution – the portion of the drug that gets through the first-pass effect is delivered to circulation for the transport throughout the body. It involves the movement of drug to the body tissue

Factors that affect Distribution 1. Protein binding – drugs are bound to proteins the blood to be carried in circulation. The drugs must be freed from the protein binding site at the tissue for therapeutic effect 2. Barriers to Drug Distribution Blood – Brain Barrier – is a protective system of cellular activity that keeps many things (Foreign invaders, poisons) away from the CNS Drugs that are highly lipid soluble are more likely to pass the blood-brain barrier cells in CNS Teratogenic – cause defect on fetus may be virus Placenta Barrier – Many drugs pass through the placenta and the effect the developing fetus. In pregnant women, Drugs should be given only when the benefit clearly outweighs any risk. Many drugs are secreted into the breast milk, thus having the potential to affect the neonate. Note: (Breast milk) The nurse must always check the ability of a drug to pass into breast milk when giving a drug to a nursing mother. 3. Volume distributor – client with edema has enlarged area in which a drug can be distributed and may need an increased dose. Similar dose may be needed for client with dehydration. 4. Obesity – body weight plays a role in drug distribution because blood flows through fat slowly, thus increasing time before drug is released. 5. Receptor combination – a receptor is an area on a cell where drug attaches and response takes place. 3. Biotransformation (Metabolism) Liver enzyme system – the liver is the most important site of drug metabolism or biotransformation, the process by which drugs are changed into new, less active chemicals. The liver detoxifies many chemicals and uses others to produce needed enzymes and structures. Factors that affect drug metabolism: 1. Age - infant and elderly have reduced ability to metabolize some drugs 2. Nutrition – liver enzymes involved in metabolism rely on adequate amounts of amino acids, lipids, vitamins, and carbohydrates 3. Insufficient amounts of major body hormones – insulin/adrenal corticosteroids can reduce metabolism of drugs in the liver 4. Excretion – is the removal of a drug from the body. The kidney plays the most important role in drug excretion. Routes use for drug excretion: a. Skin b. Saliva c. Lungs d. Bile e. Feces Factors that affect drug excretion: 1. Renal excretion – carried out by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion, which increases quantity of drug excreted. Other renal processes that result in tubular reabsorption. -Drug metabolites in urine can be reverted back into the blood stream 2. Drugs can affect elimination of other drugs Example: Antacid increase elimination of ASA, thus decrease its effect

3. Blood concentration levels – when peak level of blood is reached, excretion becomes greater than absorption and blood levels of drugs begin to drop. 4. Half life of a drug - is the time takes for the amount of drug in the body to decrease to one-half of the peak level it previously achieved. It is important in determining the appropriate timing for a drug dose. Note: The nurse can use her knowledge of drug half life to explain the importance of following a schedule of drug administration in the hospital or at home. …… Figure above shows the process by which drug is handles by the body

FACTORS INFLUENCING DRUG EFFECTS AND ACTIONS a. Weight The recommended dosage of a drug is based on drug evaluation studies and is targeted at a 150-pund person. Heavy individuals require larger doses while lighter individuals require lesser dose of the drug. b. Age Age is a factor primarily in children and older adults. Children and older adults have lesser dose compared to an adult. c. Gender Psychological difference between men and women can influence a drug‟s effect Males have more vascular muscle so the effects of the drug will be seen sooner than with females Female have more fat cells than males, so drugs that deposit in fat may be slowly released and cause effects for a prolong period of time Women who are given any drug should always be questioned about the possibility of pregnancy d. Physiological Factors Physiological differences such as diurnal rhythm of the nervous and endocrine system Acid-base balance, hydration and electrolyte balance can affect the way a drug works On the body and the way the body handles a drug. e. Pathological Factors Pathological conditions can change the basic pharmacokinetics of a drug. Presence of pathology (disease) and the severity of symptoms may call for an adjustment of dosage f. Genetic Factors Genetic differences can sometimes explain a patient`s varied response to a drug. Some people lack certain enzyme system necessary for metabolizing a drug while others have overactive enzyme systems and break down drugs very quickly. g. Immunological factors People can develop an allergy to a drug. After exposure to its (drug) proteins, a person can develop antibodies to a drug. Future exposure to that drug may result to a full-blown allergic reaction h. Psychological Factors The patient‟s attitude about a drug has been shown to have a real effect on how that drug works The nurse„s positive attitude, combined with additional comfort measure can improve patient„s response to a medication. i. Environmental Factors The environment can affect the success of drug therapy. Some drugs are helped by a quiet, cool, non-stimulating environment If a patient„s response to a medication is not as expected, the nurse might look for changes in environmental condition.

.j. although of minor significance as therapeutic agents. or an increase in adverse effects. Drug-Food Interactions Some food increase acid production speeding the breakdown of the drugs molecule and preventing absorption and distribution of the drug Some food clinically reacts with certain drugs and prevents their absorption into the body. Tolerance Some drugs are tolerated by the body overtime Drugs that are tolerated no longer cause the same reaction and need to be taken in increasingly larger doses to achieve a therapeutic effect. They are unimportant as a class of preparation today but at one time. Use as a vehicle. is aqueous in character and is used in making syrups which are employed as vehicles. before sugar was available. Example: Cherry juice – use to prepare cherry syrup Raspberry juice – for raspberry syrup Syrups – concentrated solutions of sugar as sucrose or other aqueous liquid.1 LIQUIDS (Single phase (Clear)-Aqueous) Aromatic Water – clear. It result in an increase or decrease in the desired therapeutic effect of one or all of the drugs. saturated aqueous solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic substance. the drug can accumulate in the body. loading to toxic levels and adverse effect l. Example: Oral Rehydration Solutions (Oresol) – as electrolyte replenisher Juices – is prepared from fresh ripe juice. k. Drug – Drug Interaction When two or more drugs are taken together there is a possibility that these drugs will interact with each other to cause unanticipated effect in the body. Cumulation When a drug is taken is successive doses at intervals that are shorter than recommended. The nurse should first consult a drug guide for a listing of clinically significant drug to drug interaction m. honey was the most common sweetening agent. Has great importance in chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Example: Glacial acetic acid – as causatic agent Hydrochloric acid – as acidifying agent Solutions (oral) – are liquid preparations that contain one or more soluble chemical substances usually dissolve in water. or when the body is not able to eliminate a drug properly. flavors or performing agent. Drug-Laboratory Test Interactions Administration of a particular drug may alter test that are done on various chemical levels or reaction as part of a diagnostic study Drug Laboratory test interaction is a result the drug being give and not necessarily as result of a change in the body„s response or action DIFFERENT PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS A. Example: Simple syrup – use as flavor (Solution of sucrose in purified water alone) Honeys – are thick preparations somewhat apllied to the syrups. n. Example: Peppermint water – flavored vehicle Rose water – performing agent Aqueous Acid – the official inorganic acids and organic acids.

Use internally for their medicinal value.2 LIQUIDS (Single phase – Non – Aqueous) 1. adhesive liquids. It function as a cleansing or antiseptic agent Example: Vaginal douche – Lactic acid irrigation Enemas – are rectal injections employed to evacuate the bowel (Evacuation Enema) or influence the general system by absorption or to effect locally the seat of disease (Retention enema) or they may contain radiopaque substances for examination of the lower bowel Example: Sulfasalazine rectal enema – for treatment of ulcerative colitis Barium sulfate enema – use for x-ray visualization of the large intestine Irrigation solutions – used to wash or bathe surgical incisions. produced by dispersing gum in water.for washing wounds Eye (Ophthalmic solutions) – are sterile products essentially free from foreign particles. Providone Iodine (Betadine). Example: Delabarre – use during teething period of babies has a soothing effect 2. Example: Nasalcrom Nasal Solution – for seasonal or perennial rhinitis A. Glycerin solutions . Example: Aromatics – Amimonia spirit – use as respiratory stimulant Dental Liniments – are liquid preparations which are applied to the gums for their local stimulant and anesthetic effect. sweetened .Mucilages – are thick. They are similar to mucilage but they differ in having a jelly-like consistency. pleasantly flavored .9% . Example: Sodium chloride irrigation 0. suitably compounded and packaged for insulation into the eye Example: Tears naturalle II (alcon) – for the relief of dry eyes Otic (Aural solutions) . anti-biotics or anesthetics used for treating the pharynx and nasopharynx by forcing air from the lungs through the gargle which is held in the throat. Example: Acacia mucilage – use as emulsifying agent for cod liver oil. usually water.1% gargle – use as oral antiseptic Douches – is an aqueous solution which is directed against a part or into a cavity of the body. Example: KY Jelly – use as lubricants Mouthwash – are mostly aqueous in nature. hydro alcoholic liquids intended for oral use Example: Phenobarbital Elixir – use as sedative and hypnotic Spirits Essences – alcoholic or hydro alcoholic solution of volatile substances. a few by inhalation and a large number as flavoring agent. subsequently the gargle is expectorated Example: Cepacaine solution – contains a topical anesthetic for the relief of pharyngeal and oral pain. Jellies – a class of gel in which the structural coherent matrix contains a high proportion of liquid. Bactidol – use as antiseptic.are placed in the ear carnal by drops or in small amount for the removal of excessive cerumen (ear wax ) of the treatment of ear infection . Alcoholic Liquid Preparations Elixir – are clear. deodorant and refreshing effect in the mouth Gargles – are aqueous solution (frequently containing antiseptic . Example: Listerine. wound or bodily tissues. pleasantly flavored solutions often colored and may either be acidic or basic reaction. inflammation or pain Example: Auralgen Otic Solution – for treatment of acute otitis media Nose (Nasal Solutions) – are usually aqueous solutions designed to be administered to nasal passage in drops or sprays.

Infusions are unstable and susceptible to attack by bacteria and fungi. Example Tincture of Iodine 2% . They are applied to the skin by means of a soft brush or suitable applicator. They are intended for “External Use only” and should be applied to dry tissues.use as keratotolytic. sprains and rheumatism Medicated oil – are solutions of medicinal ingredients in bland oil. It is seldom use now. For “External Use only” IT should not be applied to skin that is bruised or broken. and other special inhaler device. alcoholic solutions of soap or emulsions and may contain anti-microbial preservatives. Example: Ventolin Inhalation Aaerosol – use as beta-adrenergic agonist A. No longer use. this preparation is designed that the drug is carried into the respiratory tree of the patient.use in dispersing ear wax 3. Extracts – concentrated preparations of vegetable or animal drugs obtained by removal of the active constituents of the respective drugs with suitable menstrual. tablet or powders . Ethereal Solutions Collodions – are liquid preparations containing pyroxylin I a mixture of ethyl ether and ethanol.use a germicide and fungicide strong Iodine 7% use as antiseptic Fluid extracts – liquid preparation of vegetable drugs. Example: Salicylic Acid Collodion 10% . Agent in treatment of corns or warts 4. Each ml contains the therapeutic constituents of 1g of the standard drug that it represents. metered dose inhalers.Glycerins or glycerites – are solutions or mixtures of medical substance in not less than 50% by weight of glycerin (solvent) Example: Extermol {contains 5% carbamide peroxide (urea hydrogen peroxide)} in glycerin. (% concentration – 100%) because of its concentrated nature. containing alcohol as a solvent or as a preservative. fluid extracts are too potent to be taken safety by patient for self – administration it‟s no longer used. Infusions – a dilute solution of the readily soluble constituents of crude drugs. 3 Types of Extracts Semi-liquid extract – use as concentrates in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals Solid extract – use in ointments and suppositories Powdered extract – use in formulation of capsule. Example: Toothache drops – use as local analgesic Oleovitamins – are liver oil diluted with edible vegetable oil solution of the indicated vitamins or vitamin concentrate (usually Vitamin A and D) In fish liver oil usually in a form of soft gel capsules Inhalants/Inhalations – are drugs or solution or suspensions of one or more drugs substances administered by the nasal or oral respiratory route for either a local or systemic effect. Oleaginous Preparations Liniments – are solution or mixture of various substances in oil. Toothache Drops (Odontalgicum) – are preparation used for the temporary relief of toothache by application of a small pledget of cotton saturated with the product into the tooth decay cavity.3 LIQUIDS [SINGLE phase – Extractives (Obtain from plants)] Tinctures – are alcoholic or hydro alcoholic solution prepared from vegetable materials or from chemical substances. Example: Camphor liniment – use as mild counterirritant for inflamed joints. Decoction – this once-popular process water-soluble and heat-stable constituent from crude drugs buy boiling in water for 15 minutes cooling straining and passing sufficient cold water through the drug to produce the required volume. Inhalations are administered with the use of nebulizers. or both. evaporation of all or nearly all of the solvent and adjustment of residual masses or powders to the prescribed standards.

dissolved. Example: Nivea (cleansing cream) – for beautifying purpose Pastes – are ointment like preparation suited only for external application. SEMI-SOLID Ointments – semi-solid preparation intended for external application to the skin or mucous membrane. Example: Milk of magnesia – use as gastric antacid Gels – semi-solid on standing and liquefies on shaking. soften. round. Unclassified Pharmaceutical Preparations . Aluminum hydroxide gel. Emulsion – a two-phase system in which one liquid is dispersed throughout another liquid in the form of small droplets. but of great importance industrially for waterproofing. Example: Koalin mixture with pectin – for treatment of diarrhea in children Lotion – suspensions “for External Use only”: topical application to the skin: Example: Caladryl lotion – use as anti-prutic Magmas/Milk – are dispersion of insoluble inorganic molecules or suspensions of finely divided materials in small amount of water. they are use to absorb serous secretion making it suited for application on and around moist lesions Example: Zinc oxide paste – use as mild astringent.liberating the drug involved. protective and antiseptic in the treatment of skin diseases C. round solid dosage forms containing medicinal agent and are intended for oral administration Lozenges – are flat. It is not commonly use now. Use as antacid 2. A. suspended or dispersed in a suitable vehicle. May be covered with a colored coating to make them attractive Pills – are small. soap making and others. They are never refrigerated because they stratify. Suppositories – are solid dosage forms intended for insertion into body orifices where they melt. Soft capsules are sealed together Tablets – preparation of powdered drug which are compressed or molded into small disk. Suspensions – Liquid preparations containing suspended insoluble particles is a liquid. Has a “Shake well” label Mixture – oral liquids containing one or more active ingredients. Example: Cremalin gel. SOLIDS Powders – mixture of finely divided drug or chemicals in dry powdered state for internal or external use. Example: foot powders – use as antiperspirants Capsule – are usually made of gelatin which are use to dispense powdered drug. or rectangular preparations which are held in mouth until they dissolved. Example: Lidocaine ointment – use as local anesthetic Creams – Viscous liquid or semi-olid emulsion for external use.Resins – are natural or induced solid or semi-solid exudations from plants (usually back of tree). 4 LIQUIDS [TWO-phase] 1. or dissolved and exert localized or systemic effects D. Example: Cold liver oil emulsion – use as cathartic B.

Example: Corn plasters. Package as either large-volume parenteral (LVP) or small volume parenteral (SVP) multiple dose or single dose. Whole Blood Uses: 1. PRP-platelet rich plasma b.Dressing – external applications resembling ointment usually use as a covering or protection. For exchange transfusion 4. salonpas plaster Cataplasms/Poultices – it is a soft. PC-platelet concentrates USE: to control or to prevent bleeding in patients with dangerous degree of thrombocypenia 4. Treatment of severe anemia 2. Example: Soltratulle. Treatment of acute hypovolemic shock 3. usually applied hot in cloth. DISTURBANCES IN OXYGENATION A. Treatment of acute hemorrhage 2. Packed red cells Use to treat severe anemia 3. seeds etc. moist mass of herbs. Platelet transfusion 2 kinds a. DISTURBANCE IN THE OXYGEN CARRYING METABOLISM 1. Example: Kaolin Poultice Cements – are dental preparation employed primarily as protective coverings for exposed pulps Example: Zinc-Eugenol cement Injections/Parenteral – those intended for injection under the through one or more layers or the skin or mucous membrane. Sofratulle Plaster is substances intended for external application of such materials and of such consistency as to adhere to the skin and attach to addressing. Example: D5LR 1000 ml (LVP) ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION TERM Parenteral Intravenous Intraarterial Intraspinal/intrathecal Intraosseous Intraarticular Intrasynovial Intracutaneous/Intradermal Subcutaneous Intramuscular SITE Other than the gastrointestinal tract (by injection) Vein Artery Spine Bone Joint Joint-fluid area Skin Beneath the skin Muscle TERM Oral (Per orem) Sublingual Epicutaneous (Topical) Transdermal Intraocular Intranasal Aural Intrarespiratory Rectal Vaginal Urethral SITE Mouth Under the tongue Skin surface Skin surface Eye Nose Ear Lung Rectum Vagina Urethra I. Whole plasma .

E. G-25.g. Avoid giving Herapin by IM to immunize hematomas 2.hemophilia factors (AHF) Nursing Considerations Monitor allergic reaction especially with AHF Monitor vital signs-if there is pulse. bleeding gums. Alleaviate atrial fibrillation and flutter. Treatment of congestive heart failure 2. Digitalizing or loading dose of the amount needed to obtain a therapeutic effect 2. Hemostan. Indirect anticoagulant-act to prevent formation of prothromborin by the liver. Anti-coagulant – drugs that inhibit clotting of blood. Lanoxin >Digitalizing –the process of reaching the desired therapeutic by giving successive doses of cardiotonic drug.g. nasal laryngeal sugery. tarry stools 6. anti. Vit K. Protamine SO4 7. Reduce formation of trombi after MI 4. DISTURBANCE IN THE OXYGEN CARRYING TRANSPORT 1. BT 5. Coumadin.epistaxis. tromborin 2. petechiae. Treatment of clotting defects 2. arterial tachycardia and premature extra systole Mechanism of action a.g. PTT. 3. SC 2. Decrease impulse conduction thru AV node to slow down the heart. Be alert for signs of bleeding. Treat bleeding from dental socket. Increase calcium in myocardial cell to promote muscle protein binding and thus increase cardiac contraction c.USES 1. Increase myocardial contractility by direct action on myocardium b. Examples: Digital. Hemostatics . Direct anticoagulant-act directly in the blood stream. Heparin-given IV.E.drugs that reduce capillary bleeding or hasten coagulation of blood USES 1. USES 1. Coagulant-drugs used to combat bleeding caused by anticoagulant E. Warfarin.g. Provide hemostasis during various form of surgery . Monitor prothomborin time and bleeding time closely-PT. Dicumarol-given orally. Treatment of deep vein thrombosis and thrombophlebitis 3. fibrinogen 4. Treatmant of pulmonary emboli and coronary occlusion 2. such as G-24. When giving subcutaneous injection. Cedilanid. Nursing Considerations: 1. Use small needle when giving subcutaneus injection. Cardiotonics or cardiac stimulant-drugs that act to improve muscular contraction of the heart and slows down heart beat USES 1.E. act quickly but don‟t last long. Prevent coagulation of blood of transfusion 2 types 1. Treatment of hypovolemia 5.E. G-26 7. E. Maintenance dose-the amount needed to maintain the therapeutic effect . To correct hypofibrogenemia . do not dissolve clot that has already formed but it prevents formation of new ones. E. CT. Aquamephyton. decrease rate administration B. Two aspects involed 1. gelfoam 3.g.g.g. Never give piggy back with other drug like antibiotic because it will in activate the heparin 4. don‟t massage site: also rotate injection site. In correction of hemophilia .

drugs that increase urinary excretion of water and sodium . myocardial contractility and blood pressure Example: Inderal. loss of consciousness e) Check IV site always – if needle is out the vein it can cause tissue irritation or sloughing off with necrosis 5. Obtain baseline data-check cardiac rate and rhythm. vomiting. 3. and headache. b) Monitor VS esp. keep IV solution and tubing wrapped in foil. Diuretics . acidosis. Catapres. Uses: Treatment of mild to severe essential hypertension. „‟Nitroglycerin‟‟ Sublingual . Reduce dose gradually. Minipres. Treat cardiac arryhythmias Mechanism action It decrease cardiac rate. if below 60 and above 120. Lidocaine 3. Antihypertensive .g.Nursing Considerations 1. the BP q 15 minutes c) Best run as piggy back to main IV fluid . Watch out for rhythm of pulse.if discontinued abruptly can cause excessive hypertension.Nistrotat. Monitor BP and pulse frequently while taking the drug. Treat spasm of coronary thromboses – e. don‟t give. Nipride (Nitroprusside Soduim). 4. Nitrates.g. Sublingual preparation can be repeated Q10 minutes for 3 doses – if not relieve of pain call doctor or go to the hospital 4. Relieve pain of angina pectoris by dilating coronary arteries 2. Nitroglycerin is not habit forming .c ardiac cutput. vomiting.drug that lower down BP quickly in hypertensive Emergency: it is incorporated to IV fluids. anorexia. Avoid alcohol and stay on diet prescribed by the doctor. Persantin. 3. Oral preparation best taken on an empty stomach 1/2 –hour before meals. Relaxes venous and arteriolar smooth muscle other medication should be added d) Watch for sign of toxicity – severe hypertension. Nitrobid Ointment – Nitrol Nursing Consideration 1. nausea. but notify doctor 3. 2. Isordil =Group II-treat coronary vascular diseases – e. Use as myocardial depressant in treatment of angina pectoris and subaortic stenosis 2. Causes vasolidation Example:.drugs that increase blood supply to a part by dilating blood vesseis and relexaton of vascular smooth muscle Two Groups =Group I-drugs used to treat peripheral vascular diseases – e. Vasolidators .g. Observe digitalis precaution-Take apical rate for full minute. Cylclospasmol. Aldomet. BP. 2. Treatment of vasospastic and peripheral vascural disease 3.may be taken regularly: effect last only for few minutes 2. Nursing Consideration a) Due to light sensitivity. BUN. Salt and water retention may occur-relieved by diuretic. Mechanism of action a. Peratrate USES 1. Nitpride Nursing Considerations 1. Quinidine. 2. Beta-blockers or cardiac depressant-drugs that block beta-adrenergic reflexes but not alpha receptors USES 1. creatinine. electrotes.drugs that cause vasodilation and reduction of blood pressure. Nitrites.

Bronchodilator or anti-asthmatic drugs – drugs that cause bronchodilation thereby making breathing easier for the patient USES: In management of bronchial asthma. Spironolactone – aldactone 3. wheezing membrane. Watch for sign of hypokalemia like muscle weakness and cramps – patients needs supplement 3. =O2 will relieve dyspnea. brondil b. Patient should not smoke 2. Theophylline – aminophylline. c. Monitor daily weight 6. Oxygen – indicated in all types of coronary infarction especially with cyanosis =In coronary infarction and cyanosis this is occlusion impaired cardiac function edema result in poor absorption of 02 increase anoxia. Facilitate expectorant in pneumonia. reduce thick or tenacious respiratory secretions and promote an facilitate expulsion of mucus from the respiratory passages. Mercurial diuretic inhibit renal tubular absorption of Na. Frusema.USES: 1. lessen pain. diamox 4. DISTURBANCES IN OXYGEN EXCHANGE 1. reduce secretion of mucus Examples: a. Loop diuretic inhibit reabsorption of Na and CI in the ascending loop of henle 2. Mucosolvan. dehydration. Expectorant/mucolytic – drug that loosen secretions. bricanyl. Treatment of chronic respiratory disorder Mechanism of Action: Increase respiratory tract fluid to help liquefy and reduce viscosity of thick tenacious secretions E. Encourage fluid intake to help liquefy secretions congestion pulmonary . emphysema. Avoid driving 3. reduce secretion of mucus Mechanism of Action: Relieve boncho spasm. Treatment of edema in cardiac patient with aim of reducing fluid accumulation and relieve the ailing heart 2. K 2. Reduce intracranial and intraocular pressure Mechanism of action 1. CO2. quibron. Resyl. Loviscol Nursing Consideration: 1. Do deep breathing exercises 4. Mucomyst. Treatment of hypertension 3. bronchial asthma 2. Isoprotrenol – isuprel for inhalation 2. bronchitis. Furosemide – Lasix 2. slow down heart rate =80 – 100% should be used via nasal catheter. Na. Benadryl. Mannitol 250 cc Nursing Consideration: 1. Monitor electrolytes BUN. USES: 1.g. Cough and cold remedies a. Robitussin. Monitor intake – output 4. CI and water in the cortical diluting segment Side effects: Hypokalemia. shrink swollen mucous membrane. electrolyte depletion Examples: 1. ventolin.

Codeine Phosphate c. 0.3 % NaCl B. Partial fluid replacement Examples: With electrolyte added 1. Anti-tussive or cough suppressant – drug that suppress cough reflex but are used usually when cough is non-purulent. Electrolyte Replacement – solutions used to replace the lost anions or cations or prevent their depletion. Calcium chloride -Sodium a. Food high in K (banana. best given in liquid USES: Suppress non-productive cough Mechanism of Action: Has direct effect on cough center in brain to suppress cough reflex Examples: 1. Robitussin DM 2. Decongestant – drug used to shrink engorged mucous membrane of the nose USES: for nasal congestion Mechanism of Action: Shrink engorged mucous membrane by vasoconstriction Two kinds: a. oranges) -Magnessium a. Calories – nutritional substances which furnish calories to be utilized as energy sources in metabolism USES: 1. Oresol. Calcium Sandoz effervescent (PO) b. Trind DM. Topical – nasal drops b. acts by principle of osmosis and diffusion . Kcl (incorporated to IV) b.9% NaCl IV solution -Potassium Chloride a. FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE A. Magnessium sulfate (given deep IM) C. Ornade Spansule. Isolyte M 3. Oral Rehydration – solutions taken orally to replace lost electrolytes Examples: Pedialyte. 3% NaCl IV solution b. Normosol R 5. Ionosol MB 4. Supplies calories in patient who cannot maintain adequate oral calorie intake 2. Peritoneal dialysis – a minor operation done to remove toxic substance from the body as in case of renal failure. Dextromethorphan hydrobromide: Rondec DM. Sinutab. Drexin II. Replacement of specific anion and cation Examples: -Calcium a. Lactated Ringers Solution – LRS 6. Calcium gluconate (incorporated to IV) c. 0. Dextrose 5% in water 2. Systemic – PO Exmples: Trind DM. Gatorade (commercial) D.b.

Nutrition 1. D. Solution remain in peritoneal cavity for 15-30 mins 3. Keratosis – dryness and roughness of skin b. E. They are not synthesized by the human body. Osteomalacia – softening of bone. DISTURBANCES IN METABOLISM A. yellow vegetables. Vitamin C Fat Soluble Vitamins 1. Outflow should approximate inflow 5. egg. Proper visual functioning Vitamin A deficiency would result in: a. Maintain and restore health 3. 30-50 liters is usually exchanged 7. Vitamin A – fat soluble vitamin which is unstable and readily destroyed by oxidation Uses: 1. Monitor VS closely 8. becomes flexible and twisted deformity Sources: a. Water soluble vitamins – Vitamin B complex. Abdominal pain may indicate or build up fluid due to incomplete outflow 9.Dialyzing fluid – the solution used that resembles electrolyte composition of blood plasma Example: “Inpersol” Nursing Considerations 1. fat. Vitamins – substances present in minute amount found in natural food. Liver. Night blindness – nyctalopia Sources: a. Repeated for 12-36 hours 6. Vitamin D – “Sunshine vitamin” Uses: Regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the body Vitamin D deficiency would result to: a. Overcome specific deficiencies Two main categories 1. Calciferol . Rickets – disease manifested by improper tooth and bone development b. Xerophthalmia – eye disease in which eyeball dries and atrophies (leads to blindness) c. Accurate recording is necessary III. Proper maintenance of epithelial 2. milk. K – require bile. Promote normal growth and development and nutrition 2. butter b. Fat soluble vitamins – Vitamin A. Sunshine c. USES: 1. “Alaxin” 2. pancreatic secretion for absorption 2. Solution is allowed to flow out 4. Milk and milk products b. 1-2 L of solution is allowed to run rapidly (10-20 mins) 2.

Aquamephyton. Vitamin K – “Antihemorrhagic vitamin” Uses: a.3. milk. For fertility b. For virility Sources: a. Tomotoes. vegetable oil b. Synthetic Vitamin E 4. Treat or prevent bleeding tendencies b. egg b. Prolonged clotting time of blood b. Synkavit Water Soluble Vitamins 1. As coagulant Vitamin K deficiency would result to: a. Vitamin K. Vitamins B – divided and subdivided into several types a) Thiamine –Vit B1 – Anti beri – beri vitamin” Uses = treat beri – beri = treat pellagra B1 deficiency –would lead to = tendency to edema = neuritis. liver. legumes = Thiamine HCL – PO or IM b) Riboflavin – Vit B2 Use: Play a role in carbohydrates (protein metabolism) B2 definciency would result to = vascularization of cornea = glossitis – tongue is painful = lip lesion Sources: = egg. Vitamin E – fertility Uses: a. Wheat germ. milk = Riboflavin c) Pyridoxine – Vit B6 Uses: = as co enzymes in metabolism of amino acids = utilization of essential fatty acid B6 deficiency = dermatitis = skin oral lesion d) Cobalamine – B12 very impotant anti – anemic vitamin . yeast. neuralgia = muscular weakness Sources: = beef. Hemorrhagic tendencies Sources: a.

Calcium Phosphorus Uses: 1. Renal osteopathy – acidosis causes excessive calcium and phosphorus absorption from the bones and last in the urine. Milk and milk products . Cholin. guavas = ce-vi-sol. tomotoes. ascorbic acid 2. Vitamin C – Ascorbic acid Uses: = essential for growth = needed for formation of teeth and body = maintain intercellular cement substance = promote and repair of damage tissue and healing wounds and destroyed by heat Deficiency = capillary fragility = scurvy = bleeding gums Sources: = citrus fruits.Nicotinic Acid f) Folic Acid Uses: = essential in blood = treat marcocytis anemia Deficiency: = glossitis.eggs. cereals = Niacin. meat = Rubramin e) Nicotiric Acid or Niacin Uses: = as a vasodilator in peripheral vascular disease = treatment of pellagra Deficiency = pellagra Sources = liver . Maintenance of general body cell activity Deficiency 1. 4. Needed in proper development and maintenance for bone and teeth 2. Sources: 1. Osteoporosis – calcium and phosphorus are absorbed but fail be deposited in the bones 3. Biotin – essential for proper metabolic process of the body 2. Minerals a.Use: treat pernicious enemia B12 definciency =pernicious enemia Sources: = milk. lean. anemia g) Panthothenic acid. Rickets and osteomalacia 2.yeast . fish. Tetany – low calcium level would result in increased excitability or peripheral nerve that would result in muscle cramp leading to tonic muscle contraction.

Digestalin 3. Mydriatics d. Not absorbed but excreted unchanged in faces black stool Example: Charcocaps. Decrease of motility of GI tract b. Ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) – PO. Absorbent – drugs that inhibit gastro intestinal absorption of wide variety of drugs. Galusil . 000 calories/day is given. Iron Uses: Treatment of iron deficiency anemia (hypochromic type) . Charcotabs 4. Donnatal Side effect: dryness of mouth . Jectofer. Anti – Cholinergic drugs – drugs that inhibit gastro intestinal absorption of wide variety of drug thereby inhibiting absorption of these agent from GI tract Uses: a.2. Delay emptying time of the stomach c. Meat. Component 1) Nitrogen 2) Glucose 3) Electrolyte 4) Vitamins 5) Minerals 6) Amino Acid B. chemical and toxin Use: As antidote in certain acute oral poisoning mechanism of action adhere to wide variety of drug thereby inhibiting absorption of this agent from GI tract. Calcium lactate – PO 3. Organ meat c. Gastro –Intestinal Tract Disturbances 1. Treatment of peptic ulcer b. Imperon 3. As much 7. eggs. Cremalin . Calcium gluconate – IM b. legumes 2. Lugol‟s solutions 3. Use: Given to patient who is unable to maintain nutrition adequate for metabolic need as in chronic diarrheal state or inflammatory bowel/disease. Antiflatulent – drugs used to prevent or relieve flatulence Use: Relieve symptoms of acute gas in the stomach Mechanism of action: Acts in the stomach and intestine to form a film that causes air bubbles to collapes Examples: Festal. Artispasmodic Mechanism of action: a.*Tarry stool is expected Sources: 1. Seafoods b. Decrease gastric secretion Examples: Atrropine S04. Maalox 2. Antacid –drugs used in the treatment of hyperacidity and peptic ulcer Uses: controls peptic ulcer or hyperacidity by neutralizing the gastic acidity in the stomach Examples: MOM . Riopan . Librax. Pre operative medication c. Behytl . Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) – method of providing complete nutrition by IV route. Iodine –used in proper functioning of thyroid Sources: a.

Relief of constipation b. vomiting vertigo Use: Treatment and prevention of nausea. Kaopectate. Furamide 11. Gastro intestinal colic b. Cathartic or Laxative – drug that promotes defecation or relieves constipation Uses: a.drugs used to control diarrhea Uses : a. Used in retarding growth of certain types of cancer 4. Promotes conversion of glucose to its storage from Glycogen . blurring of vision Examples: Bonamine. Replacement of therapy when gland do not secrete the needed hormone 2. Uses of Hormones: 1. Anti – amoebic – drugs used in the treatment of amoebiasis Use: Treats patient with intestinal and extra intestinal amoebic infestation Example: Flagyl. Compazine 9. Neurogenic bladder Example: Spasmocibalgin 6. Hormonal Disturbances Hormones – are substance secreted into the bloodstream by the ductless gland for regulation of body process. In cases of stress when the body‟s normal supply is insufficient 3. Anabolic drugs – group of synthetic hormone used to promote tissue healing after long illness 1. Anti-diarrheal . Anti – helmentics – drugs used to treat infestation of various worms Use : Eradication of virous species of worm Example: Combatrin C. Softening of stool to prevent straining during defecation Mechanism of action: a. Inhibit peristaltic activity b. Bowel evacuation before diagnostic x-ray c. Emetics – drug that will induce vomiting Use: Ingestion of poisonous substances Example: Ipecac Syrup 8. Used as oral contraceptive 5. Hydrate stool thereby increasing its bulk and water content b. Immodium. Absorption of toxic substances c. Suppression of enterophatic organism Example : lomotil . Humagel 7. Anti – emetic – drugs used in the relief and treatment of nausea.5. Insulin – hormone secreted by the islet of langerhans in the pancreas responsible for converting glycogen Use: In treatment of diabetes mellitus Mechanism of action: 1. Lormide. vomiting and motion sickness Mechanism of action: Inhibit vestibular function and or suppression of the vomiting center Side Effects: drowsiness. Promote peristalsis which aids in the passage of the stool 10. Increase glucose transport across muscle and fat cell from the bloodstream thereby reducing blood sugar 2. Antipasmodic – drugs that relieve spasm of smooth muscle Uses : a. Dramamine.

Mental confusion Cold clammy skin . Replacement therapy in treatment of myxedema cretirism or simple goiter b.Types of Insulin: Divided according to onset and duration Peak of Action 3 to 4 hours 12 to 24 hours 8 hours 8 hours 8 hours Duration of Action 6 to 8 hours 24 to 32 hours 24 hours 24 hours 24 to 32 hours Quick acting regular Long lasting a) Protamine Zinc b) Eslobin Zinc c) NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) d) Lente or Semilente Nursing Consideration a) Test urine before meals + -No insulin ++ .5 units of regular insulin +++ . Treat hyperthyroidism. Example: Proloid . Lugol‟s solution .diabetic drugs Use mechanism of action – same as insulin Example: Orinase .they do not Counteract the effect of the circulating thyroid hormone Uses: a.10 units of regular insulin ++++ .Stuper Blurred vision . Prepare patient for surgery Mechanism of action a. Anti-thyroid drugs – drugs that suppress or inhibit the production of thyroid hormone . Tolinase 3. Treatment of confirmed hypothyroidism Mechanism of action a. In the hospital provide sugar or any juice ready to bedside g) Strict aseptic technique is essential h) Watch out for sign of insulin toxicity or insulin shock of hypoglycemic shock. growth and development via calorigenic and protein anabolic effect. Diabianese . Treat thyrotoxicsis c. Oral hypoglycemic agent or anti.Convulsion When these symptoms occurs with the diabetic patient – give sugar or fruit juices or 50% dextrose 2.15 units of regular insulin b) Insulin usually given by subcutaneous route – 90 degress because is destroyed by GI tract c) Rotate site of injection – prevent atrophy of subcutaneous tissue d) Measure in unit – match the unit being used with the insulin syringes e) Insulin should be kept cool – refrigerated not frozen don’t shake but warm by rolling hand f) Patients who are diabetic should always carry sugar with them. Iodine block the release of thyroid hormone Example: Tapazole .Drowsiness Weakness . thyroiditis b. Thyroxine 4. Thyroid hormone – hormone secreted by thyroid gland whose active principles is thyroxine which contains iodine that is essential for the proper functioning of the general body metabolism Uses : a. Thyroid hormone affects the rate metabolism. such a Nervousness . It increase rate of oxidation in the cell. They block the organic biding of iodine in into thyroglobulin to form thyroid hormones b. Dymelor . thereby increasing rate expenditure and heat production.

Emergency treatment of shock and anaphylaxis f. c) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) – stimulate adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids (used in treatment of gout.5. Example : Prednisone. Suppression of inflammation in rheumatic fever. Mineral corticoid act on distal tubule of kidney to promote reabsorption of Na ions and increase urinary excretion of K. Syntocinon. Relief of cerebral edema after surgery e. inhibit release of proteolythc ehzymes thereby preventing normal inflammatory response b. rheumatic lupus erythematosus) d) Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) = Female – responsible for development of graffian follicle in ovaries = Male – increase size of seminiferous tubules e) Luteinizing Hormone (LH) or interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH) = Female – controls for development of corpus luteum after follicle has ruptured = Male – stimulates interstitial cell of testes to produce male sex hormones testosterones Two hormones secreted by posterior pituitary 1. Pituitary hormone – secretion of the anterior and posterior of the pituitary gland (hypophysis) it is composed of the anterior lobe Hyperpitutarism: would result in gigantism or acromegaly Hypopituitarism: would result in dwarfism >Five know hormones secreted by anterior pituitary a) Growth hormone – somototropin (GH) controls general body growth and bone growth. b) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) –increased the activity of thyroid gland and causes it to release thyroid hormone. Suppression of inflammatory reaction in food and drug allergies d. Ergotrate 2. Decadrone Side effects in prolong use of steroids . Oxytocin – direct stimulating action on uterine muscles causing uterus to contract Uses: a) To induce labor b) Contracts uterus and reduce hemorrhage after delivery Examples : Methergin . Hydrocortesine. collagen and nephrotic syndrome c. Celstone. Adjunctive therapy in some form of cancer Mechanism of action a. Interfere with the immune and allergic response by decreasing number of lymphocytes. eosinophils in the blood c. Anti – inflammation effect in organ and tissue transplant preventing rejection g. Stabilizes the cell membrane. Treatment of adrenal insufficiency b. Vasopressin or ADH Pressor effect – cause peripheral vascular constriction Antidiuretic effect – increase renal water absorption Use: Treatment of symptoms of diabetes insipidus Adrenal Gland – located above kidney >Adrenal Medulla – secretes a hormone called epinephrine Action of epinephrine a) Increase heart rate b) Increase blood pressure c) Cause dilation of pupils > Adrenal Cortex – secret hormone called corticosteroids Two Categories of corticosteroids a) Glucocorticoid – stimulates conversion of protein to carbohydrates: stop inflammation b) Mineralcorticoids – cause kidney to retain Na and excrete K Uses: a.

Hydrocortesone – solu-cortef IV. deep voice muscle development Uses : 1) Treatment of sexual infantilism 2) As anabolic agent to promote muscular growth and weight gain 3) Use in female to treat menstrual disorder as menorrhagia. B) Male Hormone a) Androgen – natural or synthetic male hormone (Testosterone) responsible for the development of secondary male sex characteristics as facial and body hair.a) Cushingoid syndrome – type of obesity in which fat is distributed to shoulder causing „‟buffalo hump. It causes swelling and development of endometrium to prepare uterus for implantation of endometrium to prepare uterus for implantation of fertilized ovum Progesterone – meaning for “ gestation” is also secreted by placenta during pregnancy that help Decrease uterine contraction which prevent spontaneous abortion Prepare breast for lactation Cause cell to develop in endometrium which nourishes young embryo Uses: 1) Treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding – amenorrhea 2) Treatment of endometriosis Nursing Consideration: Both are contraindicated for patient with history of cancer of breast or reproductive organ. Premarin.natural hormones secreted by the ovaries essential for secondary sex characteristics of female and for maintaining normal menstrual cycle Uses : 1) Correction of hormonal imbalance 2) Replacement therapy in menopause and after complete hysterectomy 3) Relieve pain form post – partum breast engorgement 4) Inhibit lactation by inhibiting lactogenic hormone 5) Treatment of sexual infantilism Example: Depo-estradoil. acne c) Growth suppression in children d) Headache.‟ ‟in face – moonfaced and around waist b) Hirsutism. premenstrual tension 4) To suppress lactation – treat breast engorgement 2) Oxytoxics – drugs from plants or synthetic that are used for their effect on smooth muscle of the uterus and constriction of peripheral blood vessel Uses: a) To induce labor b) Prevention and treatment of post-partum hemorrhage . Stlbestrol b) Progesterone – ovarian hormone secreted by corpus luteum during last half of menstrual cycle. DISTURBANCE IN SEXUALITY AND REPRODUCTION 1) Sex hormones A) Female Hormone a) Estrogen . Examples: Dexametahasone – decadron. vertigo e) Slow wound healing f) Depression Hypofunction of adrenal cortex – cause condition known as “ Adddisons disease” Hypersecretion of adrenal cortex – cause condition known as Cushing syndrome 3) Adrenal Steroid – drug that resembles in action and chemical properties the secretion of adrenal cortex. Trace.

menorrhagia Example: Estrogen and progesterone combination .c) Relieve migraine and other vascular headache Mechanism of action: Hasten uterine contraction thereby lessening bleeding Fertility drugs – drugs used to enhance fertility and increase chance of pregnancy in anovulatory woman Mechanism of action: It appears to increase the output of pituitary gonadotropin which in turn stimulates the maturation and endocrine activity of the ovarian follicle and subsequent development and function of corpus luteum Example : Clomid. Varidose Anti inflammatory enzymes that are helpful in reduction in inflammation and edema Example: Chemolose. dermatitis Example: Prednisone. Pergonal Nursing Consideration: a) Contraindicated in presence of ovarian cyst since further enlargement of ovary may occur b) Incidence of multiple pregnancy has increased 4) Anti-fertility drugs or oral contraceptive – drugs that prevent ovulation Mechanism of action a) Inhibit secretion of pituitary gonadtropin by maintaining high blood level of estrogen and progesterone – there is inhibition of FSH. Sedation e. bronchiolar constriction Uses: a. sneezing. It also relieves itching and constricts blood vessel. rashes. Such eczema. ovarian follicle cannot mature.allergies – drugs that will block or counteract the effect of histamines.natural constituent of many tissues both plants and animals.Ovulen. b) Cause thickening of cervical mucus which inhibit sperm movement Uses: 1. released by stimulation of either physical or chemical nature causing symptoms of allergic response as watery eyes. coryza. > Histamines . Treat menstrual disorder as dysmenorrhea. Treatment of minor allergic reaction d. Prevention of motion sickness . They encompass wide pharmacologic spectrum – salicylates corticosteroid anti inflammatory enzymes Uses : a) Reduction of inflammation in chronic or recurrent inflammatory condition b) Treatment of cronic inflammatory dermatoses. Papase 3) Anti – histamines or anti . ovulation can‟t take place. Betnovate 2) Enzymes – complex proteins that hastens or induce chemical without being changed themselves Uses: a) To reduce swelling in trauma b) To liquefy pus c) To promote drainage d) To soften mucus e) To clean wound of dread tissue f) To dissolve fibrin and clots g) To improve some inflammatory condition f) To reduce inflammation and edema after surgery Example : Papase . Prevent conception 2. Symptomatic relief of allergic rhinitis b. Ovral INFLAMMATORY AND IMMUNOLOGIC DISTURBANCES 1) Anti-inflammatory drugs – drugs that are uses in the treatment of inflammation and in condition characterized by inflammatory process. Treatment of mild urticaria or pruritus c. Papase. Diprosene cream.

Guerin – vaccine against PTB – 0.5cc IM followed in 7-10 days by 1cc IM 8.spider and snake bites b) Immune Serum Globulin – (Gamma Globulin) preparation made from plasma or serum of hyper immunized donors that contains these antibodies.prevention of various infectious disease Active immunizations 1. Measles vaccines (Lirugen) – suspension of live attenuated rubeola virus – one simple dose of 0. mumps.If symptoms have occur. Secretion such as exotoxins > Immunity . Introduction of living virulent organism b. antigen-antibody formation b) Toxoid – substances containing exotoxins that has been treated which chemical or heat so that they are no longer poisonous but which is still able to induce formation of antibodies Uses: 1) Prevention of certain infectious disease and childhood disease such as mumps.They are normally present in adult human blood Use . rubella vaccine – one simple dose vial given subcutaneous 7. Rabies vaccine – preparation of killed fixed virus which has been grown in duck embryo tissues 1cc subcutaneous daily for 14 days . Diptheria Toxoid – sterile solution of formaldehyde treated toxin product from corynabacteium Diphtheria given 3 doses at 1cc IM qt 4 – 6 weeks interval. Tetanous toxoid – sterile solution of treated toxins products from clostridium tetany doses -0.5cc subcutaneous 6. IM – 4 -6 weeks interval x 3doses b. Salk vaccine – 1cc. Introduction of attenuated organism those are alive but no longer capable of producing the disease c. Drixine. Polio Vaccine a.Observe dog – if there are signs of rabies-gives vaccine right away .5cc IM at 3-4 weeks interval 3. Sabine vaccine – given orally 4.Example: said to exist when the level circulating anti – bodies against specific information is high enough so that the individual is not susceptible to that infection Drugs . Typhoid vaccines – suspension of killed typhoid bacilli .05 cc intradermally . BCG – Bacilles. 2. vaccine is useless 9. measles. rondec C.used to promote immunity 1) Active immunity a) Vaccine . pertussis. MMR vaccine – measles.5cc subcutaneously at 7-28 days interval 5. poliomyelitis 2) Prevention of disease transmitted through injury or animal bite such as tetanus or rabies 2) Passive immunity a) Antitoxin and antivenoms – substances obtained from blood or person or animal who have had the disease Uses: a) Prevention and treatment of bacterial toxin infection b) Treatment of symtoms caused by insects.killed attenuated microganisms that are not strong enough to cause the disease but which will trigger the immune procces. Dimetapp. Chlortrimeton Anti histamine –decongestant combination Example: Actifed . Benadryl. it is done in the following ways: a. Calmette. The use of dead organism d. Tuss Ornade 4) Immunization .Given before rabies virus attack nervous system . Phenegran.3 doses of 0. Cholera – suspension of killed vibrio organism 0.artificial introduction of antigen into the body.

Passive Immunization 1.00 “ u “ IM VI. redness at injection site. Apomorphine Uses: a) Treatment of mental depression. Uses: a) Diagnosed and treat myasthenia gravis b) Prevent post – operative abdominal distention c) Treat post – operative atony of the bladder and urinary retention d) Constricts pupils of the eyes to produce miosis Mechanism of action: It stimulates or increases the effect of acetylcholine Example: Prostigmine.000 – 10.000 “ u “ IM Therapeutic dose – 20.000 . pain. Action would depend on what area of the brain is involved a) Analgesic b) Sedative c) Anticonvulsant d) Anesthetics 3) Parasympatomimetics or Cholinergics – drug that stimulate the parasympathetics system.00 – 60.Caffeine. Neostigmine. Neurologic 1) CNS stimulant – drugs that increase or enhance the cognitive function in the central nervous system. force and rate of cardiac beat is increased.Pilocarpine 4) Sympathomimetics or Adrenergic drugs that stimulate the sympathetic system Uses: a) Treatment of circulatory emergencies like cardiogenic shock – cardiac output is increased.> Side effects in almost all vaccines and toxoids: a) low mild fever.000 “ u “ – 200. blood pressure in increased b) Treatment of bronchial asthma c) Control local hemorrhage . malaise. such as: a) Stimulant exerting effect on cerebal cortex – useful for increasing alertness.000 “ u “ IM Therapeutic dose – 40. Tetanus antitoxin – obtained from human of horse serum Prophylactic dose – 5.10. DISTURBANCES IN PERCEPTION AND CORDINATION A.00 “ u “ IM 3. Diphtheria antitoxin – sterile concentrated isotonic solution of antitoxinbearing globulins from plasma of horses immunized with diphtheria toxoid and toxin Prophylactic dose – 10. 00 – 60. Gas – gangrene antitoxin Prophylactic dose – 5. edema. exhaustion b) Treatment of narcolepcy and catalepcy c) Appetite suppression and weight reduction by stimulation of pre-frontal lobe which affect satiety center of hypothalamus 2) CNS depressant – drugs that cause depression of central nervous system. wakefulness and mental activity Example . Amphetamine b) Stimulant that effect medullary centers – used to stimulate vomiting and respiratory center Examples – Nikethamide (Coramine).000 “ u” IM Therapeutic dose 10.000 “ u “ IM or IV 2.

Carbacil. Boric Acid. conjunctiva and cornea Examples: Decadron Phosphate Ophthalmic Ointment 5) Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitors – drugs that will cause depression of the rate of secretion of aqueous humor. Aramine 5) Sympatholytics or Adrenergic BLOCKERS – drugs that inhibit or decrease the effect of epinephrine Uses: a) Treatment of peripheral vascular disease b) Treatment of vascular headache Mechanism of action: Block of epinephrine Examples: Ergotamine (Cafergot) 6) Neuromuscular blocking agents –drugs used for the relief of muscle spasm – give parenteral Uses : a) Symptomatic control of muscle spasm in convulsive state of tetanus or epilepsy b) Facilities intubation c) Potentiation of surgical anesthesia Mechanism of action: Blocks transmission of nerve impulse at skeletal neuromuscular junction B. Alphagam 2) Mydriatic .drug that cause papillary dilation and cycloplegia Uses: a) Diagnostic procedure requiring nydriasis or cycloplegia b) Use in acute iris inflammation Mechanism of action: Adrenergic dilates pupil by contraction of dilator muscle of iris Examples: Atropine Sulfate. Adreline.d) Treatment of rhinitis e) Treatment of allergic response Mechanical of action: Stimulate or increase the effect of epinephrine Example: Intropin. It is used as supplement to miotic medication Uses: Treatment in glaucoma – by reducing intra-ocular pressure Example: Diamox C. Nose . Silver Nitrate. Ephedrine. Uses: a) Treatment of surface bacterial infection b) Treatment of keratoconjunctivitis c) Prevention of gonorrheal opthalmia neonatorum d) Bacteriostatic irrigating solution Mechanism of action: a) It hihibits bacterial protein synthesis b) It interferes with viral DNA synthesis Examples: Chloromycetin Ophthalmia ointment. Maxitrol 4) Ophthalmic Anti-inflammatory agents – drugs used to treat inflammatory ophthalmic disorder of the eyelid. Epinephrine HCL 3) Ophthalmic anti-infective – drugs used the treatment of eye infection or inflammation.drugs that cause papillary constriction (miosis) Uses: a) Treatment of glaucoma b) Treatment after ocular surgery Mechanism of action: Cholinergics cause contraction of sphincter/ ciliary muscle of iris resulting in pupillary constriction Examples: Pilocarpine. Eyes 1) Miotic .

or reduce frequency or severity of seizures caused by epilepsy. Chloromycetin otic drops E. Skelan.1) Nasal decongestant D. edema and pruritus Examples: Auralgan otic solution. prevent.biotic which are primarily bacteridical in active concentration they are soluble. meningitis and head trauma Uses: a) Treatment. inflammation and pain of ear disorder Mechanism of action: a) Anti-infectives inhibit or destroy bacteria present in the ear b) Corticosteroid – control inflammation. Musculo-Skeletal 1) Muscle relaxant – drugs used for the relief of muscle spasm-giving oral Use: Relief of acute muscle spasm associated with trauma and inflammation Mechanism of action: a) Depress transmission of nerve impulses from spinal cord to skeletal muscle b) Directly inhibit muscle activation Examples: Robaxisal. eclampsia. Flexil b)Pen-G-Sodium c) Compocillin d) Prostaphillin . Robaxin.inhibitory action b) Bacterical – lethal effect A) Penicillin – broad spectrum or narrow spectrum anti. Ear 1) Otics .drugs used to treat infection. ANTIBIOTICS – substances produce by living cells that are detrimental to life of other organisms Classification according to activity against microorganism a) gram positive b) gram negative c) viral d) fungal e) broad spectrum antibiotic – effective against 1 – 2 classes Classification according to susceptibility of invading organism a) Bacteriostatic . Phenobarbital ( Sodium Luminal). reduction of severity of epileptic or non epileptic seizures b) Treatment of status epilepticus Mechanism of action: a) Depression of nerve tissue b) Inhibit carbonic abnormal neuronal discharge c) They reduce monosynaptic or polysyonatic impulse transmission thus decreasing excitability in the entire nerve cell Examples : Valium. Pensyn. Magnesium Sulfate. Nontoxic and readily absorbed Uses: Highly effective against gram positive and gram negative cocci Mechanism of action: Act as inhibiting bacterial well synthesis during stage of actual multiplication Examples : a) Ampicillin – Penbritin. Dilantin 3) Anti-Parkinsonians – drugs used to treat Parkinsons disease Example: Levodopa VI. Anectine 2) Anti – convulsant – drugs used to treat. prevention.

Aminoglycoside – broad spectrum bacterial antibiotic used for serious life threatening infection Examples: Amikacin.Erythrocin. Pyrazinamide 2) Anti leprotics – agents that has a bacteriostatic effect on mycobacterium leprae. Streptomycin Sulfate. PAS – (para-aminosalicylic acid). Other Chemotherapeutics 1) Anti – TB drug – drugs effective on the growing tubercle bacilli Use – treat and prevent all forms of tuberculosis Mechanism of action – inhibit DNA and protein synthesis in susceptible organism Examples: INH – (isoniazid).blood dyscarias (IV and orally) Example – Chloromycetin Succinate F. Vibramycin.sulfazalazine E.B. Ledermycin.coli Use: a) Treat urinary tract infection b) Provide pre-operative and post-operative suppression of bowel flora c) Treatment of ulcerative colitis Mechanism of action – interfere with bacterial synthesis of folic-acid thereby inhibiting growth and multiplication of bacterial Examples: Azo-gantrisin. Erythromycin – agents used to treat acute pelvic inflammatory disease Example . Keflex. Kantrex. Keflin C . active against most gram positive organism. Rulid G. Camoquin .septicemia b) Treat gram positive cocci Mechanism of action: Inhibit cell wall synthesis Examples: Ceporex. Use – to treat all forms of leprosy Example: Dapsone 3) Anti-malarial – drugs used for both prophylaxis and treatment of malaria Use – provide treatment of acute attacks of malaria Examples: Aralen. Rifampin.Tetrex D.14 days H. It acts both as bacterial and bacteriostatic agens Uses: a) Treat infection of respiratory tract . Iloson.Tetracycline – broad spectrum antibiotic that is primarily bacteriostatic Uses: a) Treat gram positive organism that are resistant of penicillin b) Effective in some anaerobic infection c) Alternative treatment of both gonorrhea and synthesis Mechanism of action: Inhibit protein synthesis Examples: Terramycin.genetic-urinary tract . Sulfonamides –effective against gram positive and gram negative bacteria including E. Chloramphenicols – effective against Salmonella typhi infection Side effect . Cephalosporin – semi-synthetic anti-biotic. Gentamicin Nursing consideration in all antibiotic 1) For parenteral administration – skin testing is necessary 2) Punctual administration to maintain blood level of the medicine 3) Usually given 10.

They are controlled substances Uses: a) Relief of moderate to severe pain b) Pre-operative sedation alone or in combination with tranquilizer Mechanism of action: Acts on the sensory cortex of the brain to produce analgesia Example: Codeine Sulfate. such as. Nalline HCI VIII. Doloxene Nursing Considerations 1) Salicylates – are irritating to the gastric mucosa and cause gastric irritation 2) Watch out for salicylates toxity. Aspirin. Compazine Minor tranquilizer Examples: Librium. DRUGS USED FOR RELIEF OF PAIN A) Analgesic – drug that relieve pain. fever Examples: Ascriptin. menopausal anxiety 3) Treat nausea and vomiting Two groups Major tranquallizer – more potent and action more effective in treatment of major Psychiatric disorder and more likely to cause serious side effects Examples: Thorazine. Mycostatin vaginal suppository 5) Urinary tract germicides – are anti-bacterial drugs concentrated in renal tubules and other areas of kidney and bladder Uses – bacteriuria. asthma. Demerol E) Narcotic Antagonist – drugs used to reverse or antagonize action caused by narcotics Uses as antidote for narcotic overdose – reverse the respiratory depression Mechanism of action: It competes with narcotic for the receptor site Examples: Narcan. Morphine S04. Mandelamine. pyelonephritis Examples: Azo-gantrizin. vomiting. pain. Ponstan Mechanism of action – depression of peripheral chemoreceptors to block pain impulse B) Antipyretics – drugs that relieve or reduce fever mechanism of hypothalamus to reduce the fever Example: Tempra. do not cause tolerance or addiction Example: Aspirin. Macrodantin VII. Tylenol. A. Medicol C) Salicylates – group of analgesic derived from salicylate acid frequently used in the treatment of arthritis and rheumatic fever. Sparine.nausea. without producing loss of consciousness.that will relieved pain without producing loss of consciousness but may cause physical and psychologic dependence. MAL-ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR PATTERN. tinnitus (ringing of ears). headache D) Narcotic Analgesics drugs . Miltown. it also relieves symptoms of inflammation.4) Anti-fungal – drugs with fungistatic and fungicidal properties Uses: a) Treat severe fungal infection caused by candida b) Treat monilial infection of oral cavities (thrush) c) Treat monilial infection of vaginal and intestinal tract Examples: Mycostatin oral suspension. Valium. Biogesic. cystitis. Tranquilizer – drugs that relive emotional tension usually without impairing mental ability Uses: 1) Treat symptoms associated with neuropsychiatric condition as manic depression 2) Control of anxiety associated with other condition such as peptic ulcer. Equanil .

CELLULAR ABERRATIONS A. mylaran 2) Antimetabolites – drugs used in the treatment of choriocarcinoma. Seconal. they prevent cells from reproducing and surviving . Novocaine 2) General Anesthesia – agents that produce unconsciousness: given rectally. lymphomas. Pentothal. Anti-depressant or Psych energizer – drug whose main action is relieve symptoms of depression making patient more energetic and communicative Uses: 1) Treat symptoms associated with psychiatric disorder 2) Control appetite in treatment of obesity Examples: Benzedrine. Hypnotic – Sedative Sedative – drugs use to calm or dispel anxiety or hyperactivity by mild depression of higher brain center Hypnotic – drug used to induce sleep Examples: Palmate. Doxedrine. Nembutal 2) Chloral hydrate – relieve withdrawal symptoms in alcohol and narcotic addiction Uses of Sedative Hypnotic a) Treatment of insomnia before an operative or diagnostic procedure b) Sedation and relief of anxiety c) Alleviate alcohol withdrawal syndrome d) Prevent nausea and vomiting Mechanism of action: Depression of CNS D. Antineoplastic Drugs – drugs used to destroy cancer cells in the body or inhibit cell division or Inhibit cell division Classification 1) Alkylating Drugs . leukemias Mechanism of action: a) Interfere with cell function as synthesis and respiration b) Attack nucleoproteins that are essential for all cell division thereby inhibit replication Examples: Nitrogen mustard.drugs used in the treatment of sarcomas. leukemia. Anesthesia 1) Local anesthesia – drug that cause temporary loss of feeling and motor activity without loss of consciousness Uses: a) Infiltration anesthesia in dental and minor surgical procedure b) Used in regional spinal and caudal anesthesia Mechanism of action: Prevention of nerve impulse generation and conduction Examples: Pontoccaine. IV or by inhalation Mechanism of action: Depression of CNS Examples: Ketalar. it is used as sedative in small doses and hypnotic in larger doses Examples: Amytal. Tofranil C. Nembutal Sedative becomes a hypnotic when given in a larger dose Example: Choral Hydrate Types of sedative – hypnotic 1) Barbiturates – drugs that depress CNS.B. Cytoxan. Pentothal IX. Xyloccaine. osteogenic cancer Mechanism of action a) Interfere with the normal metabolism of cell b) Interfere with pattern synthesis. Sodium .

DIAGNOSTIC AGENTS Classification: 1) X-ray Opaque Drugs – drugs used to aid physician in demonstration of abnormal condition Uses: Demonstrate gastrointestinal disorder as gastric duodenal ulcer. cancer. Sacromas. Teslac 4) Radioactive Isoptopes Mechanism of action: Destroy or inhibit cell by radioactive particle emission – when beta or gamma particles hit the tissue. Millie Currie (MC) .used to locate disease area because of their affinity for specific body tissues References: 1) Essential Drugs List by the Department of health 2) Karch. Bismuth 2) Drugs used to stimulate the secretions of various glandular substances Examples: Bromsulphalein – to test the function of the liver 3) Radioactive Subtances . leukemias Mechanism of action: inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis thereby inhibiting proper cell division Example: Pactinomtcin.unit of measurement of radioactive isotopes Example: Radioactive lodine – 1 131 a) Used for thyroid disease b) Palliative treatment in thyroid cancer c) Diagnosis of thyroid function Nursing Consideration a) Knowledge of half life – so you will know when to discontinue precaution b) Knowledge of biological activity and behavior or substance c) Time spent with the patient should be minimal d) Distance should be considered – talk to the patient in the doorway e) WEAR PROTECTIVE SHIELD 5) Alkaloids – drugs derived from periwinkle plants Mechanism of action a) High concentration of vinca alkaloids will alter nuclei acid and protein synthesis b) Asparaginase breakdown amino acid resulting in tumor cell Example: Vincristin – Oncovin 6) Antineoplastic Antibiotic – drugs used to treat lymphomas.Three groups of metabolites a) Folic Acid antagonist – inhibit enzyzmes that prevent reduction of folic acid to tethahydrolic acid – Inhibit Example – Methotrexate b) Purine Antagonist – interferes with the synthesis of purine necessary for formation of nucleic acid c) Pyramidine Antagonist – inhibit pyramidine necessary for growth development of abnormal cell 3) Hormones – drugs that are used for palliative effect in breast and endomentrial cancer Mechanism of action a) Inhibit neoplastic cell growth in reproductive organ by creating unfavorable environment b) Inhibit changes in hormonal balance of the body Examples: Mehace. focus on Nursing Pharmacology. Mithracin X. adhesions and diverticuli Examples: Barium.2004 3) Nurses Drug Handbook . it will cause ionization of tissue fluid and gaseous molecules – will lead to chaotic interaction – eventually death of tissue. 2 Ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins A Wolters Kluwer Company: Philadelphia. Amy M.

MN. RN Clinical Coordinator .4) PIMS MIMS 5) Other Pharmacology of Nursing Textbooks ELVIE A. IMASON. MAN.