You are on page 1of 40




Department of Electrical Engineering




I Rakesh Kumawat student of fourth year of Electrical Engineering have completed practical training at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) for 30 days from 21/05/12 to 19/06/12. Being an engineering student, the training at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) has been particularly beneficial for me. I saw various procedures, processes and equipments used in production of electricity by nuclear power, which were studied in books, and thus helped me in understanding of power generation and distribution concepts of electrical power. Rajasthan Atomic Power Station, a constituent of board of Nuclear Power Corporation Of India Limited is a very large plant & is very difficult to acquire complete knowledge about it in a short span. I have tried to get acquainted with overall plant functioning and main concepts involved therein.

RAKESH KUMAWAT Electrical Engineering B.M.I.T.,JAIPUR.


I am highly indebted and owe a sense of gratitude towards Mr.R.K.Sharma Training Superintendent for giving me opportunity to impart training at Nuclear Training Centre of RAJASTHAN ATOMIC POWER STATION under the guidance of eminent professionals. It was highly educative and interactive to take training at such a prestigious organization. My sincere gratitude and thanks to Mr. R.C. Purohit , Senior Training Officer and Training Co-ordinator, for providing me opportunity to complete my training work at NTC. I am also thankful to all those who helped me directly or indirectly through their invaluable guidance and inspiration for successful completion of this training. RAKESH KUMAWAT B.M.I.T.,JAIPUR.



S. NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

CHAPTER Introduction Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Nuclear Reactor Technology Indian Nuclear Power Cataloging of Nuclear Reactors Radioactive Waste Management Safety RAPPCOF Fire Section Environmental survey laboratory Future of the Industry View of different stations Conclusion

PAGE NO. 5 6 7 21 23 28 30 33 35 36 37 37 40


The only method in use today is through nuclear fission.. All reactors heat water to produce steam. and sustained at a steady rate. as opposed to a nuclear bomb.INTRODUCTION Nuclear power is any nuclear technology designed to extract usable energy from atomic nuclei via controlled nuclear reactions. and a few radioisotope rockets have been produced. 5|Page . controlled. A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated. This is usually accomplished by methods that involve using heat from the nuclear reaction to power steam turbines. More than 150 nuclear-powered naval vessels have been built. though other methods might one day include nuclear fusion and radioactive decay . in which the chain reaction occurs in a fraction of a second and is uncontrolled causing an explosion. 14% of the world's electricity came from nuclear power. which is then converted into mechanical work for the purpose of generating electricity . The most significant use of nuclear reactors is as an energy source for the generation of electrical power and for the power in some ships . In 2007.

The land selected is in between Rana Pratap Sagar 6|Page .RAJASTHAN ATOMIC POWER STATION UNIT-1&2 Fig. from Kota. an industrial city of Rajasthan.-1 Unit-3&4 Rawatbhata remote town in Chittorgarh district about 64 KMs.

When a relatively large fissile atomic nucleus (usually uranium-235 or plutonium-239) absorbs a neutron.200.Dam &Gandhi Sagar Dam at the right bank of Chambal River. This nuclear chain reaction can be controlled by using neutron poisons and neutron moderators to change the portion of neutrons that will go on to cause more fissions. where the thermal energy can be harnessed to produce 7|Page . Fission splits the atom into two or more smaller nuclei with kinetic energy (known as fission products) and also releases gamma radiation and free neutrons. typically via nuclear fission. and so on. The water from the reservoir of the Rana Pratap Sagar Dam serves the requirements of the Nuclear Power Plants. Nuclear reactors generally have automatic and manual systems to shut the fission reaction down if unsafe conditions are detected. . a fission of the atom often results.220 MWe and two units of 235 MW newly constructed which feed the Northern Grid as abase load station. There are four PHWR units of 100. For employees various colonies are constructed with all the domestic facilities. which release more neutrons. A cooling system removes heat from the reactor core and transports it to another area of the plant. nuclear power plants convert the energy released from the nucleus of an atom. A portion of these neutrons may later be absorbed by other fissile atoms and create more fissions. NUCLEAR REACTOR TECHNOLOGY Just as many conventional thermal power stations generate electricity by harnessing the thermal energy released from burning fossil fuels.

Reactors for nuclear submarines and large naval ships. This fuel choice increases the reactor's power density and extends the usable life of the nuclear fuel load. diminish or eliminate many of the risks associated with nuclear fission 8|Page . are the subject of active research and may be used for practical power generation in the future. but is more expensive and a greater risk to nuclear proliferation than some of the other nuclear fuels. There are many different reactor designs. which may be viable in the future. Typically the hot coolant will be used as a heat source for a boiler. safer and less of a risk to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. A number of new designs for nuclear power generation. Many of these new designs specifically attempt to make fission reactors cleaner. and the pressurized steam from that boiler will power one or more steam turbine driven electrical generators. Fusion reactors.electricity or to do other useful work. commonly use highly enriched uranium as a fuel. Some of these designs have been engineered to meet a specific need. collectively known as the Generation IV reactors. for example. utilizing different fuels and coolants and incorporating different control schemes.

Beryllium has also been used in some experimental types. a neutron moderator is a medium which reduces the velocity of fast neutrons. and hydrocarbons have been suggested as another possibility. Increasing or decreasing the rate of fission will also increase or decrease the energy output of the reactor. In nuclear engineering. thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235. solid graphite (20% of reactors) and heavy water (5% of reactors).NULLEAR FISSION PROCESS A complete chain reaction of nuclear fission is as shown in fig. cause more fissions. Commonly used moderators include regular (light) water (75% of the world's reactors). 9|Page .

This decay heat source will remain for some time even after the reactor is shutdown. 10 | P a g e .000 times that of the equal mass of coal.000.  Heat produced by the radioactive decay of fission products and materials that have been activated by neutron absorption. It contains 306 horizontal calandria tubes made form Nickel. A turbine generally consists of low. It also contains a special Heat Generation The reactor core generates heat in a number of ways:  The kinetic energy of fission products is converted to thermal energy when these Some of the gamma rays produced during fission are absorbed by the reactor in the form of heat. The heat power generated by the nuclear reaction is 1. TURBINE Turbine is tandem compound machine directly coupled to electrical generator. which has 12 fuel bundles making a total of 3672 fuel bundles.pressure cylinder (double flow for 500 MW units). In the middle it has piping connection for moderator outlet & inlet.Zically-2.CALANDRIA It is the heart of reactor and contains fuel and moderator. The entire assembly is supported from calandria vault roof. It also has 6 openings at the top through which pass the reactivity control mechanism assemblies. it is made of Austenitic Stainless Steel.

This velocity attained during expansion depends on the initial and final heat content of steam. COOLING A cooling source . But in some reactors the water for the steam turbines is boiled directly by the reactor core. long 4. The difference between initial & final heat content represents the heat energy converted into mechanical energy. connected in parallel. the shell material is carbon steel & tube material is Monel. A steam turbine converts heat energy of steam into mechanical energy and drives the generator. Most reactor systems employ a cooling system that is physically separate from the water that will be boiled to produce pressurized steam for the turbines. Turbine is the horizontal tandem compound re-heating impulse type running at 3000RPM with special provision for the extraction of moisture. for example the boiling water circulated past the reactor core to absorb the heat that it generates. It uses the principle that the steam when issuing from a small opening attains a high velocity. 049 thou thick the design pressure on the heavy water side of the boiler is 1350 psig at 5700 f. The heat is carried away from the reactor and is then used to generate steam. FUEL 11 | P a g e .5” dia. Each heat exchangers has 195 tubes approximately 42 ft.Turbine has a maximum continuous & economic rating of 229MW.often water but sometimes a liquid metal . like the pressurized water reactor. STEAM GENERATORS The boiler assemblies contain 10-u shaped shell & tube heat exchangers . The hot coolant inlet channel and returning cold-water channel are welded.

Most of the fission products remain bound in the UO2 matrix and may get released slowly only at temperatures considerably higher than the normal operating temperatures.clad gap. in the core there would no significant Increase in the reactivity.length elements covering the whole length of the core. permit almost all the heat generated in a fast power transient to be initially absorbed in the fuel. The thin zircoloy-2/4 cladding used in fuel elements is designed to collapse under coolant pressure on to the pellets. Also. The use of 12 short length fuel bundles per channels in a PHWR. Also on the account of the uranium dioxide being chemically inert to the water coolant medium. rather than full. Furthermore. subdivides the escapable radioactive facility in PHWR has also the singular advantage of allowing the defected fuel to be replaced by fresh fuel at any time. The thermal characteristics namely the low thermal conductivity and high specific heat oh UO2. high melting point of UO2 permits several full power seconds of heat to be safely absorbed that contained at normal power. 12 | P a g e .72% u-235) precludes the Possibility of a reactivity accident during fuel handling or storage. in the ever of any mishaps causing redistribution of the fuel by lattice distortion or otherwise. the defected fuel releases limited amount of radioactivity to the primary coolant system. This feature permits high pelletclad gap conductance resulting in lower fuel temperature and consequently lower fission gas release from the UO2 matrix into pellet.The use of natural uranium dioxide fuel with its it s low content of fissile material (0.

The basic fuel material is in the form of natural uranium dioxide a pellet. sheathed & sealed 13 | P a g e . Twelve of such bundles are located in each fuel channel.FUEL DESIGN Fuel assemblies in the reactor are short length (half meter long) fuel bundles.

This system circulates the moderator through two heat exchanges. opening & closing of the respective seal plugs. Y&Z Direction) of fueling machine head and make it mechanisms have been provided which enables clamping of fueling machine head to the end fitting.e. sending spent fuel From magazine to shuttle transfer station. One of the machines is used to fuel the channel while the other one accepts the fuel thin Zircaloy tubes.pressure moderator system. which remove heat dissipated by 14 | P a g e . refueling to compensate for fuel depletion& for over all flux shaping to give optimum power distribution is carried out with help of 2 fueling machines. In this type of reactor. the fueling machines facilitate removal of failed fuel bundles. receiving new fuel in the magazine from fuel transfer system. FUEL HANDLING On – power fuelling is a feature of all PHWRs. which work in conjunction with each other on the opposite ends of a channel. Various mechanisms provided along tri-directional movement (X. shield plugs & perform various fuelling operations i. which have very low excess reactivity. Each fueling machine is mounted on a bridge & column assembly. MODERATOR SYSTEM The heavy water moderator is circulated through the calandria by aid of a low temperature & low. Welding them to end plates to form fuel bundles assembles these tubes. from shuttle transfer station to inspection bay & from inspection bay to Spent fuel storage bay. In addition.

Moderator inlet nozzles. which circulates pressurized coolant through the fuel channels to remove the heat generated in fuel. eight numbers in 220MW contains nuclear grade. The cooled moderator is returned to the calandria via. referred as Primary Heat Transport System. two inlet headers. mixed ion. feeders.high.gas over the heavy water in calandria. Primary Heat Transport (PHT) System Primary Heat Transport (PHT) System The system. The major components of this system are the reactor fuel channels. boron to affect start. The concentration deuterium in this cover –gas is control led by circulating it using a sealed blower and passing through the recombination containing catalyst alumina. The purification systems consists of stainless steel ion –exchange hoppers. The high chemical purity and low radioactivity level of the moderators are maintained through moderator purification neutrons during the process of Resin (80% anion &20% cat ion resins).coated with 0.3% palladium.up of reactor helium is used as a cover. two reactor outlet headers. four pumps & 15 | P a g e . The purification is also utilized for removable of chemical shim.

If the coolant is a moderator. Control rods that are made of a nuclear poison are used to absorb neutrons. which makes it a less dense poison. the coolant also acts as a neutron moderator. Figure 6 depicts schematically the relative layout of major equipment in one bank of the PHT system. In some reactors. and therefore a less effective moderator. The coolant circulation is mentioned at all times during reactor operation. A higher temperature coolant would be less dense.interconnecting pipe & valves. In other reactors the coolant acts as a poison by absorbing neutrons in the same way that the control rods do. In these reactors power output can be increased by heating the coolant. REACTIVITY CONTROL The power output of the reactor is controlled by controlling how many neutrons are able to create more fissions. and extracting the control rod will increase it. Absorbing more neutrons in a control rod means that there are fewer neutrons available to cause fission. so pushing the control rod deeper into the reactor will reduce its power output. The headers are connected to fuel channels through individual feeder pipes. The headers steam generators & pumps are located above the reactor and are arranged in two symmetrical banks at either end of the reactor. Nuclear reactors generally have automatic and manual systems to insert large amounts of poison 16 | P a g e . shutdown& maintenance. Thermal neutrons are more likely than fast neutrons to cause fission. A moderator increases the power of the reactor by causing the fast neutrons that are released from fission to lose energy and become thermal neutrons. then temperature changes can affect the density of the coolant/moderator and therefore change power output. so more neutron moderation means more power output from the reactors.

17 | P a g e . some of which can be converted into usable energy.(boron) into the reactor to shut the fission reaction down if unsafe conditions are detected. ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION The energy released in the fission process generates heat. A common method of harnessing this thermal energy is to use it to boil water to produce pressurized steam which will then drive a steam turbine that generates electricity.

18 | P a g e .

19 | P a g e .

While a reactor could be one in which heat is produced by fusion or radioactive decay. 20 | P a g e .REACTOR The reactor is used to convert nuclear energy into heat.

It is at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre where all the research works regarding the new technologies and nuclear science. The two units’ setup on turnkey basis by G. The list of proposed sites for (PHWR) in India- KAPP3&4 RAPP7&8 Jetpur(Maharastra) 740X2 740X2 740X2 The list of various Nuclear Power Plants in India is as follows:- Station Rated Capacity (MW) Year of Criticality 21 | P a g e . The purpose of this reactor was to give the ground for development of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). America is still working successfully. Indore etc. Mines at Jadugura.INDIAN NUCLEAR POWER The Headquarters of Indian Nuclear Power Projects are located at Mumbai known as the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) which covers all the aspects of R&D and power production.. It was a Boiling Water Reactor. and Centre for Advance Technology. Nuclear Fuel Compels (NFC) at Hyderabad. The first nuclear power plant was constructed at Tarapur in 1969.E. Other than the power production plants there are various other institutions that come under DAE like.

TAPS-1&2 RAPS-1 RAPS-2 RAPS-3 RAPS-4 RAPS-5 RAPS-6 MAPS-1 MAPS-2 NAPS-1 NAPS-2 KAPP-1 KAPP-2 KAIGA-1 KAIGA-2 KAIGA-3 KAIGA-4 TAPS-3 TAPP-4 MADRAS Kk project 1 Kk project 2 2 x 160 100 200 235 235 235 235 220 220 220 220 220 220 235 235 235 235 540 540 500 1000 1000 1969 1972 (S/D) 1980 1999 2000 Project under construction Project under construction 1983 1985 1989 1991 1992 1993 1996 1996 Project under construction Project under construction 2006 2005 F/B reactor Project under construction Light water reactor under construction Light water reactor under construction 22 | P a g e .

3% of the nuclei are U238 is solitary responsible for the fission with neutrons having energies greater than 1. considerably increased in a fast reactor.44 barns and U-235 fast fissions can be ignored with so little U-235 in natural uranium.2 MeV. therefore only half the fission neutrons can cause U-238 fissions.5 new neutrons.e. Therefore. the fuel is highly enriched in U-235 with a substantial decrease in U-238. So out of the 100 neutrons produced at fission. The fast fission cross section in U-235 is only 1. produced in one neutron generation.5 new neutrons and. only 50 can cause U-238 fissions. So for every 100 neutrons. out of the 100 fast neutrons produced at fission only 5 will cause further fissions and produce 5 x 2. i. Now the neutrons produced at fission are fast neutrons with an average energy of 2 MeV. The U-235 fast fissions are thus. One of two alternatives is available which lead to a power reactor classification as follows: FAST BREEDER REACTORS The U-235 content of the fuel can be increased. out of these 50 neutrons 5 will be able to cause fission and remaining 45 will be scattered and lose so much energy that they can no longer cause U-238 fission. So. 99.5 or 100 neutrons in the next generation.CATALOGING OF NUCLEAR REACTORS CLASSIFICATION OF REACTOR ON BASIS OF NEUTRON ENERGY: Each fission process produces 2. Thus even if leakage and radioactive capture are ignored the chain reaction can not be maintained by fast neutrons in natural uranium. Some reduction in neutron energy does 23 | P a g e . The inelastic scattering cross-section of U-238 is 10 times greater than the fission cross-section at these neutron energies. If the fissions occur in natural uranium fuel. at least 40 must cause further fissions so as to produce 40 x 2. at least one of these must produce a further fission for a chain reaction to be maintained..

The mass of U-235 required for the reactor to be critical varies with a mount of U-235 enrichment. The average power density in a (FBR) is 500 MW/m3 compared with 100 MW/ m3 for a (PWR). The capture cross-sections of most elements for fast neutrons are small & since there is a relatively large mass of U-235 in the reactor. It is therefore essential that a heat transport fluid with good thermal properties be used. 24 | P a g e . The choice is also limited to a non-moderating fluid & liquid metals seem to satisfy both requirements. absence of moderator results in a small core. the excess reactivity required in a fast reactor is small. Fission product poisoning is not significant as that temperature coefficient of reactivity is low. To avoid large fuel inventories a fast reactor.occur due to inelastic collisions of neutrons with nuclei of the fuel and structural material but most of the fissions are caused by neutrons of energies greater than 0. Therefore. would require fuel containing at least 20% U-235 by volume.1Mev. the macroscopic capture cross-sections of structural material and fission products are small compared with the macroscopic fission cross-section of the U235. fast reactors have high power density cores. In all cases the critical mass of fissile material required increases rapidly below 15% to 20% U-235 enrichment. The highly enriched fuel.Consequently there is more flexibility in the choice of materials and stainless steel can be used instead of aluminum or zirconium. Incidentally the critical mass of U-235 in a fast reactor is considerably greater than in a thermal reactor with the same fuel composition.

Thus. even allowing for the low percentage of U-235 in natural uranium. at present in operation. the thermal neutron fission cross-section in natural uranium is 4. reactors were classified on the basis of neutron energy and the various advantages and disadvantages of fast and thermal systems were enumerated. fewer than 23 neutrons can be lost by escape or radioactive reaction could be sustained. the moderator used and the heat transport system used.5 barns. for every 77 neutrons captured in natural uranium about 40 will cause fission and produce 40 x 2. Thus. the U-235 fission cross-section is 580 barns whereas the radioactive capture cross-section is 106 barns. For 77 neutrons out of every 100 to be captured. If the neutrons are reduced to thermal energies. the alternative is to reduce the neutron energy until the fission cross-section of U-235 is sufficiently increased. TYPES OF THERMAL REACTORS: Previously. Most of the power reactors in existence are thermal reactors. In thermal reactors the fission neutrons are thermalized by slowing them down in a moderator.2 barns whereas the radioactive capture cross-section is 3. 25 | P a g e . are thermal reactors. but some of these considerations will be discussed later when moderator and heat transport system properties are discussed. It was mentioned that most of the reactor systems. Thermal reactors will now be classified further on the basis of core structure.THERMAL REACTORS Since a chain reaction can not be maintained with fast neutrons without considerable enrichment.5 or 100 new neutrons. Some reference will be made to the advantages and disadvantages of each type.

The basic requirements & properties of moderators & heat transport systems will be discussed at length later.TYPES OF HETROGENEOUS REACTORS: Classification of heterogeneous reactors may be based on the type of moderator used or on the heat transport system employed. 26 | P a g e . It is sufficient. for the moment to list the moderators and heat transport fluids in general use. The moderator may be:  Light water  Heavy water  Graphite  Organic liquids The heat transport system may be:  Pressurized light water  Pressurized heavy water  Boiling light water  Boiling heavy water  Gases such as CO2 or helium  Liquid metals  Steam or fog  Organic liquids HEAVY WATER MODERATED REACTORS These have much lower neutron capture cross section than both light water and graphite. The principal advantage of using heavy water as a moderator is.

of which Chernobyl is one. In the PHWR. France abandoned this approach in favor of an extensive PWR programme. only gas cooled reactors will be referred to here.therefore.g. a liquid or a gas must be used as the coolant. GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS With a graphite moderator. respectively. selecting carbon dioxide as the coolant because of its relative chemical inertness and low neutron activation. with load factors in excess of 90% over extended periods. the Soviet Union’s RBMK series of power stations. the light and heavy water moderated designs. PRESSURIZED HEAVY WATER REACTOR (PHWR): PHWRs have established over the years a record for dependability. In addition oxide or carbide fuel improve the fuel integrity & the fuel in less susceptible to distortion. Although there are water cooled graphite-moderated reactors. The D 2O moderator is maintained at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of about 70°C.. Neutron economy is so much improved that not only can natural uranium fuel be used. France and United Kingdom undertook the early development of the graphite moderated reactor. there is no longer need of enrichment plant. but separated by a carbon dioxide filled annulus which minimizes heat transfer from fuel to the moderator. Whilst the United States and Canada pioneered. but that this fuel can be used in oxide/carbide form. initially. The UK continued to be heavily committed to gas cooled reactors in the form. is the zircaloy pressure tube containing the natural UO2 fuel assemblies and the heavy 27 | P a g e . Thus. of magnox and subsequently the advanced gas cooled reactor. the heavy water moderator is contained in a large stainless steel tank (calandria) through which runs several hundred horizontal zircaloy calandria tubes. e. Concentric with the calandria tube. The thermal utilization factor is increased because of lower neutron capture in the moderator. the neutron economy that can be achieved with it.

The term pressurized refers to the pressurized D2O coolant which flows in opposite directions in adjacent tubes and passes its heat to the secondary coolant via the steam generators. SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM : Solid radioactive waste in segregated into three general categories based on contact dose.water coolant at a pressure of about 80 kg/cm² and a temperature of about 300°C.As it can contain no radioactivity. Contaminated metal parts and miscellaneous items. and conditioned for either interim site storage or for disposal. Category -1 Waste: Largely originates Protective clothing . 28 | P a g e . This waste will be collected in unshielded standard drums. System pressure is maintained by a pressurizing one of the legs of a steam generator. The design of facilities is such that the average public exposure from radioactive materials at the exclusion boundary is a small fraction of the recommended AERB limits. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT Operation of a nuclear facility like nuclear power station inevitably leads to the production of low level radioactive wastes which are collected segregated to select best processing method.

tritium. storage. wide range beta-gamma and particulate monitors are recorded in the control center. Facilities for filtration are provided. on contact. sampling and necessary treatment and dispersal of any liquid waste produced by the station. The active and potentially active exhaust air and gases are all routed to a gaseous effluent exhaust duct. Tritium monitoring is carried out by laboratory analysis. This system handles radioactive wastes that are carried in liquid streams from the laundry active floor drains. 29 | P a g e . Signals from the iodine. The system is designed to control the release of radioactivity in the liquid effluent streams so that radiations dose to members of the public is with in those stipulated by the regulatory board. LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: The Liquid Radioactive Waste Management System provides for collection. This exhaust flow is monitored for noble gases. iodine and active particulate before being released. : Filter cartridges and ion exchanges resins Typically this waste has an unshielded radiation field greater than 1 R/hr. handling and storage operation. GAS RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: An extensive ventilation system collects potentially active exhaust air from such areas as the Reactor Building. the storage area. decontamination center and chemical laboratories. the decontamination center and the heavy water management area.Category-II & III Waste. These require additional shielding and greater precautions than for category-I during transportation.

PEOPLE DO" contribute to accidents and 30 | P a g e . Factors responsible for Safety:  Plant layout  Design of machinery  Safety Gadgets and equipments  Protective aids  Safety culture & Respect for Safety  Attitude of the management/ employer . Open discussion and other measures  Safety Manual  Enforcement  Unsafe Act & Unsafe conditions Causes of Accidents: Hazards are the risks and perils or dangers that injuries. "HAZARDS DO NOT CAUSE ACCIDENTS.SAFETY INDUSTRIAL SAFETY We mean that the measures adopted as a whole in industry to reduce accidents to bare minimum.Caution Boards  Display of Good practices about Safety  Safety meetings.

Kinds of Hazards:  Fire  Heat  Material Handling  Floors  Ladders  Tools  Machinery  Walking and Working surfaces  Process  Chemicals  Electricity  Unsafe Act  Unsafe Condition RADIATION SAFETY Radiation in Nuclear reactor is produced in following ways :  Directly in fission reaction  By decay of fission products Following types of radiations are encountered:  Alpha radiation  Beta radiation  Gamma radiation  Neutron radiation 31 | P a g e .

Neutron radiations are mainly present inside the reactor vault. It can be very easily shielded 235 92U + 0n1  92U236  Xe + Kr + 0n1 + gamma + Heat 32 | P a g e . feed water and steam cycle etc.e. are completely separate from the nuclear systems and are therefore not supposed to be and neither they are to carry any sort of radioactive particle and therefore free of contamination and radiation. shows the emissions of Alpha. It is worth noting that the secondary side of the plant i. 3 1H  2He3 (18 KeV) +beta It also does not have good penetrating power and in human skin it can penetrate up to about half mm. Gamma and 238 92U  2He4  92U234 + (alpha) It has very low penetrating power and can be stopped by simple paper. The following reaction Neutron. Beta. It is also wroth noting that all radiations are emitted from the nucleus of every radioactive nuclide which will always have a tendency to become stable by emitting radiations through disintegration. whereas Beta and Gamma radiation fields may be present almost everywhere inside the reactor building and in negligible amount even outside the reactor building.Out of the above types of radiations Alpha radiation is practically zero.

Activity of Carrier free Co60 : 1128 Ci/g Half Life: 5.27 year 33 | P a g e . (1) Administrative Control (2) Zoning Technique (3) Design Control (4) Operation Control (5) Maintenance and House keeping Exposure to any kind of radiation can be controlled by an individual by following methods: (1) Distance (2) Shielding (3) Decay (Time to Decay) RAPPCOF (COBALT FACILITY) Here.Following methodologies are used to control the exposure to the radiation and therefore resistive of the radiation dose. recovery of COABALT-60 SLUGS/PELLETS from the IRRADIATED ABSORBER RODS received from different Nuclear Power Plants. 27Co59 +0n1 27Co60 +γ Thermal 0n1 activation X-section: 37 Barns   Sp.

cobalt is irradiated in the form of nickel coated pellets of 1 mm dia x1 mm ht for production of high specific activity Co-60 (> 100 Ci/g) and in the form of aluminum clad slugs 6 mm dia x 25 mm ht for the production of specific activity between 30-100 Ci/g. Recovery of Co-60 from Cobalt Adjusters: The cobalt adjusters are brought to RAPPCOF from power stations in a special shielding flask. Transportation of sub-assemblies from pool to Recovery Cell 4. Dismantling of adjuster in pool 3.  Radiations: β :0. Cell door operation 34 | P a g e . : 1.31 MeV max.35 R/hr SLUGS/PELLETS: The facility is designed to handle about 1 Mega Curies of Co-60. the following operations are carried out in a sequence: 1.33 MeV 100%  :γ  :γ §Thermal Energy/1000 Ci : 4 cal/s §Radiation field at 1 mtr from 1 Ci : 1. In order to meet the demand of high and medium specific activity Co-60 and also for the fabrication of sources of various sizes and shapes. For complete recovery of cobalt activity. Discharging of adjuster into pool 2.17 MeV 100% : 1.

Recovery of pellets 7.For fire production mainly three things are required 1)fuel for burning 2) oxygen to support fire and 3) the third one is temperature. Loading of cobalt in transport flask 11. It is located at 3&4 unit area . CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE 35 | P a g e . N O . CLASS OF FIRE SOURCE OF FIRE BEST EXTINGUISER FIRE SECTION RAPS have one common fire section from unit 1-6. Recovery of slugs/pellet capsules from sub-assemblies 6. Transportation of cobalt shielding flask S. Measurement of activity 10.5. For fire extinguishing we remove any one out of these three things. Preparation of transport pencils for slugs 8. Preparation of pellet capsules for transportation 9.

2.petrol Fire in gaseous substances(H2) Fire in chemicals. paper.) smoke detectors b.dasoline. acid. ordinary combustibles Oil. metals Electrical fire Soda. 4. water Foam. 3.disel. 5.S. co2 Co2 gas Co2. A B C D E wood.paints.1. dry chemical Co2. LAB AT RAWATBHATAMeasurements of concentration of radio nuclides in various environmental matrices collected from the environment of rawatbhata nuclear site. ATMOSPHERIC Air tritium Rain water Sulphide Air particulate TERRESTRIAL Soil Grass Cereals Pulses Milk 36 | P a g e AQUATIC Water Silt Sedim Fish Weed . dry chemical FIRE DETECTORSa.) temperature detectors ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY LABORATORY (1)OBJECTIVES OF E.grease.L.

1000 MWe per year . 1000MWe light water reactors (LWR) coming two 5 year plans. • Measurement of direct radiation exposure using environmental thermo luminescent dosimeters. • Computation of radiation does to the public and demonstrate compliance with applicable regulatory limits FUTURE OF INDUSTRY: The nuclear power programme in India up to year 2020 is based on installation of a series of MWe & 500MWe pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) UNITS.• Measurement of internal contamination due to gamma emitting radio nuclides by whole body counting of RAPS radiation workers.e. NPCIL plans to contribute about 10% of the total additional needs of power of about 10000MWe per year i. VIEW OF DIFFERENT STATIONS RAJASTHAN ATOMIC POWER STATION-1&2 37 | P a g e . The total installed capacity of nuclear generation would increase UNITS & fast breeder reactors (FBR) units.


39 | P a g e .

It proved an opportunity for encounter with such huge components like 220MW generators. The way various units are linked and the way working of whole plant is controlled make the students realize that engineering is not just learning the structure description and working of various machines.CONCLUSION The practical training at R. Training is not carried out into its tree spirit.M. It has allowed as an opportunity to get an exposure of the practical implementation to theoretical fundamental. It is recommended that there should be some practical work specially meant for students where the presence of authorities should be ensured. turbines. 40 | P a g e . proper management. Prepared by : RAKESH KUMAWAT B.S. transformers and switchyards etc. but the greater part is of planning.T. It also provides an opportunity to learn technology used at proper place and time can save a lot of labor for example almost all the controls are computerized because in running condition no any person can enter in the reactor building. But there are few factors that require special mention.A. has proved to be quite faithful.I.P. However training has proved to be quite faithful.Tech (Electrical Engineering) B. There should be strict monitoring of the performance of students and system of grading be improved on the basis of the work done.