PROJECT REPORT

Project Title

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM & ITS EFFECTIVENESS IN AN ORGANIZATION
REPORT SUBMITTED FOR THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE

POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT (APPROVED BY AICTE)

(2007-2009)

SUBMITTED TO

SUBMITTED BY Mahendra Asati

INJ BUSINESS SCHOOL
GREATER NOIDA CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that__________________ , _______________ Prasad is a bonafied student of two year regular course of PGDM(post graduation diploma in management) in our institute. The project titled "Study of Performance appraisal in an organization and it's effectiveness " is her original work. The student bears a good moral character.

Faculty (HR Department)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
My sincere thanks to faculty supervisor __________________ and agency supervisor _____________________ under whose able guidance and kind cooperation I was able to complete the project work titled "Study of Performance Appraisal System and its Effectiveness in an Organisation" . All those employees of Dabur India Ltd deserve special thanks for their cooperation and help in the collection of necessary and relevant material for this work. Also, I do thank and remember my friends for their effort and helping hand. Every effort has been made to enhance the quality of work. However, I owe the sole responsibility of the shortcoming, if any, in the study.

_______________________

CONTENTS
Page Nos. Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Objective and Methodology of the Study Chapter 3: Oraganisation Profile Chapter 4: Performance Appraisal- Theoretical Review Chapter 5: Performance Appraisal System in Dabur India Ltd. Chapter 6: Analysis and Interpretation of Data Chapter 7: Conclusion and Suggestions ANNEXURES

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 TITLE OF THE PROJECT:

Study of Performance Appraisal System and Its Effectiveness in an Organization
INTRODUCTION The history of performance appraisal is quite brief. Its roots in the early 20th century can be traced to Taylor's pioneering Time and Motion studies. But this is not very helpful, for the same may be said about almost everything in the field of modern human resources management. As a distinct and formal management procedure used in the evaluation of work performance, appraisal really dates from the time of the Second World War -not more than 60 years ago. Yet in a broader sense, the practice of appraisal is a very ancient art. In the scale of things historical, it might well lay claim to being the world's second oldest profession! There is, says Dulewicz (1989), "... a basic human tendency to make judgments about those one is working with, as well as about oneself." Appraisal, it seems, is both inevitable and universal. In the absence of a carefully structured system of appraisal, people will tend to judge the work performance of others, including subordinates, naturally, informally and arbitrarily.

The human inclination to judge can create serious motivational, ethical and legal problems in the workplace. Without a structured appraisal system, there is little chance of ensuring that the judgments made will be lawful, fair, defensible and accurate. Performance appraisal systems began as simple methods of income justification. That is, appraisal was used to decide whether or not the salary or wage of an individual employee was justified. The process was firmly linked to material outcomes. If an employee's performance was found to be less than ideal, a cut in pay would follow. On the other hand, if their performance was better than the supervisor expected, a pay rise was in order. Little consideration, if any, was given to the developmental possibilities of appraisal. If was felt that a cut in pay, or a rise, should provide the only required impetus for an employee to either improve or continue to perform well. Sometimes this basic system succeeded in getting the results that were intended; but more often than not, it failed. For example, early motivational researchers were aware that different people with roughly equal work abilities could be paid the same amount of money and yet have quite different levels of motivation and performance. These observations were confirmed in empirical studies. Pay rates were important, yes; but they were not the only element that had an impact on

employee performance. It was found that other issues, such as morale and selfesteem, could also have a major influence. As a result, the traditional emphasis on reward outcomes was progressively rejected. In the 1950s in the United States, the potential usefulness of appraisal as tool for motivation and development was gradually recognized. The general model of performance appraisal, as it is known today, began from that time. Modern Appraisal Performance appraisal may be defined as a structured formal interaction between a subordinate and supervisor, that usually takes the form of a periodic interview (annual or in which the work performance of the subordinate is examined and discussed, with a view to identifying weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for improvement and skills development. In many organizations -but not all -appraisal results are used, either directly or indirectly, to help determine reward outcomes. That is, the appraisal results are used to identify the better performing employees who should get the majority of available merit pay increases, bonuses and promotions. By the same token, appraisal results are used to identify the poorer performers who may require some form of counseling, or in extreme cases, demotion, dismissal or decreases in pay. (Organizations need to be aware of laws in their country that might restrict their capacity to dismiss employees or decrease pay.)

Whether this is an appropriate use of performance appraisal -the assignment and justification of rewards and penalties -is a very uncertain and contentious matter. Controversy, Controversy Few issues in management stir up more controversy than performance appraisal. There are many reputable sources -researchers, management commentators, psychometricians -who have expressed doubts about the validity and reliability of the performance appraisal process. Some have even suggested that the process is so inherently flawed that it may be impossible to perfect it (see Derven, 1990, for example). At the other extreme, there are many strong advocates of performance appraisal. Some view it as potentially "... the most crucial aspect of organizational life" (Lawrie, 1990). Between these two extremes lie various schools of belief. While all endorse the use of performance appraisal, there are many different opinions on how and when to apply it, There are those, for instance, who believe that performance appraisal has many important employee development uses, but scorn any attempt to link the process to reward outcomes -such as pay rises and promotions. This group believes that the linkage to reward outcomes reduces or eliminates the developmental value of appraisals. Rather than an opportunity for constructive review and encouragement, the reward- linked process is

perceived as judgmental, punitive and harrowing. For example, how many people would gladly admit their work problems if, at the same time, they knew that their next pay rise or a much-wanted promotion was riding on an appraisal result? Very likely, in that situation, many people would deny or downplay their weaknesses.

Nor is the desire to distort or deny the truth confined to the person being appraised. Many appraisers feel uncomfortable with the combined role of judge and executioner. Such reluctance is not difficult to understand. Appraisers often know their appraises well, and are typically in a direct subordinate-supervisor relationship. They work together on a daily basis and may, at times, mix socially. Suggesting that a subordinate needs to brush up on certain work skills is one thing; giving an appraisal result that has the direct effect of negating a promotion is another. The result can be resentment and serious morale damage, leading to workplace disruption, soured relationships and productivity declines. On the other hand, there is a strong rival argument which claims that performance appraisal must unequivocally be linked to reward outcomes. The advocates of this approach say that organizations must have a process by which rewards -which are not an unlimited resource -may be openly and fairly distributed to those most deserving on the basis of merit, effort and results.

There is a critical need for remunerative justice in organizations. Performance appraisal -whatever its practical flaws -is the only process available to help achieve fair, decent and consistent reward outcomes. It has also been claimed that appraises themselves are inclined to believe that appraisal results should be linked directly to reward outcomes -and are suspicious and disappointed when told this is not the case. Rather than feeling relieved; appraises may suspect that they are not being told the whole truth, or that the appraisal process is a sham and waste of time. The Link to Rewards Recent research (Bannister & Balkin, 1990) has reported that appraises seem to have greater acceptance of the appraisal process, and feel more satisfied with it, when the process is directly linked to rewards. Such findings are a serious challenge to those who feel that appraisal results and reward outcomes must be strictly isolated from each other. There is also a group who argues that the evaluation of employees for reward purposes, and frank communication with them about their performance, are part of the basic responsibilities of management. The practice of not discussing reward issues while appraising performance is, say critics, based on inconsistent and muddled ideas of motivation. In many organizations, this inconsistency is aggravated by the practice of having separate wage and salary reviews, in which merit rises and bonuses are decided arbitrarily, and often secretly, by supervisors and managers.

There are basically three purposes to which performance appraisal can be put. First, it can be used as a basis for reward allocation. Decision as to who gets salary increase, promotion, and other rewards are determined by their performance evaluation. Second, these appraisals can be used for identifying areas where development efforts are needed. The performance appraisal is a major tool for identifying deficiencies in individuals. Finally it can be used as a criterion against which selection devices and development programs are validated. As a key input into management's reward and punishment decision, performance appraisals can motivate or de-motivate employees. Three different approaches exist for doing appraisals. Employees can be appraised against 1. 2. 3. Absolute standards Relative standards Objectives

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

Since organizations exits to achieve goals, the degree of success that individual employees have in reaching their individual goals is important in determining organization effectiveness. Performance system is fundamentally, a feed back process, which require sustained commitment. The cost of failure to provide such feedback may result in a loss of key professional employees, the continued poor performance of employees who are not meeting performance standards and a loss of commitment by employees, in sum, the myth that the employee know what. they are doing without adequate feedback from management can be an expensive fantasy. THE APPRAISAL PROCESS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Establishing Performance Standard Communicate Performance expectations to employees Measure actual performance Compare actual performance with standards Discussion with the employees and identification development programs to bridge the gap.

6.

Initiate action

THE PURPOSE OF APPRAISING PERFORMANCE In general the appraisal systems serve a two fold purpose 1. To improve the work performance of employees by helping them realize and use their full potential in carrying out their firms mission. 2. To provide information to employees and managers for use in making , work related decisions. More specifically appraisals serve the following purposes. a) Appraisals provide feedback to employees and help the. "' management identify the areas where development efforts are "' needed to bridge the gaps thereby serving as vehicles for personal " and career development. b) It helps management spot individuals who have specific skills so that their promotions/transfer are in line with organizational requirements. c) Appraisal serve as a key input for administering a formal organisation reward and punishment system. d) The performance system can be used as a criterion against which selection devices and development programs are validated.

REQUIREMENT SYSTEM.

OF

THE

PERFORMANCE

MANAGEMENT

Reliability: The foremost requirement of a sound system is reliability. In this contact it refers to consistency of judgment. For any given employee, appraisals made by raters working independently of one another should agree closely. But raters with different perspective (e.g. supervisors, peers, subordinates) may see the same individuals job performance very differently. To provide reliable data, each rater must have an adequate opportunity to observe what the employee has done and the condition under which he or she has done it. By making appraisal system relevant, sensitive and reliable we assume the resulting judgment are valid as well. Acceptability: In practice, acceptability is the most important requirement of all, for it is true that human resources program must have the support of. those who will use them. Unfortunately, many organizations do not put much effort into garnering the front end support and participation of those who will use the appraisal system. Ultimately it is management's responsibility to define as clearly as possible the type and level of job behaviour desired of employees. It is important to enlist the active support and cooperation of subordinates by making explicit what aspects of job performance they will be evaluated on.

Practicality: This implies that appraisal instruments are easy for managers and employees to understand and to use.

For years, personnel specialists have searched for the 'Perfect; appraisal method as if it were some kind of miraculous cure for many pitfalls that plague organizations. Such a method does not exist. In tomorrow’s world of work far more emphasis needs to be placed on process issues. Factors such as timing and frequency are no less important. In sum performance appraisal is a dialogue involving people and data. Both technical and human issues are involved. Neither can be overemphasized at the expense of the other. WHO SHOULD EVALUATE PERFORMANCE? The most fundamental requirement for any rater is that he or she has an . adequate opportunity to observe the rates job performance over a reasonable period of time. This suggest several possible raters. The immediate supervisor: Generally appraisal is done by this person. He is probably the most familiar with the individual's performance and in most jobs has had the best opportunity to observe actual job performance. Further more, the immediate supervisor is probably best able to relate the individual's performing to department and organizational objectives. In some jobs such as outside sales, law enforcement and teaching, the immediate supervisor may observe a subordinate's actual job performance

rarely (and indirectly thru written reports). Here judgment of peers play important role. However, there is a danger of potential bias. Subordinates: Appraisal by subordinates can be useful input to the immediate development. Subordinates know first hand the extent to which the supervisor actually delegates, how well he communicates, the type of leadership he has and the extent to which he or she plans and orgasms. Self appraisal: On one hand it improves the rate's motivation and moral, on the other it tends to be more lenient, less variable and biased. The evidence on the accuracy of self assessment is fairly complex. In industry it is seen that feed back/ input is taken from various sources -Peers, subordinates, superiors etc. Some companies have gone step ahead in taking feedback from the customers and integrating it into the performance management process.

APPROACHES TO PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

The traditional approach: The one dimensional model

The Job

Define what results have to e achieved

Performance contact

Define a set of key objectives against the accountabilities Accountabilities i.e, output Review performance against the key objectives

In this model job expectations are defined in terms of what results have to be achieved. This model doesn't have a long term focus and can't be used for employee development and career path planning,

A satisfactory performance implies doing a job effectively and efficiently, with a minimum degree of employee -created disruptions. Employees are performing well when they are productive. Yet productivity itself implies both concern for effectiveness and efficiency. Effectiveness refers to goal accomplishment. Efficiency evaluates the ratio of inputs consumed to outputs achieved. The greater the output for a given input, the more efficient the employees. Similarly, if output is a given, consumed to get that output results in greater efficiency. There are basically three purposes to which performance appraisal can be put. First, it can be used as a basis for reward allocations. Decisions as to who gets salary increases, promotions, and other rewards are determined by their performance evaluation. Second, these appraisals can be used for identifying areas where development efforts are needed. Management needs to spot those individuals who have specific skill or knowledge deficiencies. The performance appraisal is a major tool for identifying these deficiencies. Finally, the performance appraisal can be used as a criterion against which selection devices and development programs are validated.

Chapter 2 OBJECTIVE &
METHODOLOGY

Chapter 2 OBJECTIVE & METHODOLOGY

1. Objective of the study This project aims at studying the system of performance appraisal and its effectiveness in an organization. Performance appraisal is the most significant and indispensable tool for the management as it provide useful information for decision making in area of promotion and compensation reviews. Thus broad objectives of the study includes: • To know the present system of performance appraisal • To know the extent of effectiveness of the appraisal system

To identify and know the area for improvement system

2.

Sample of the study

The population covered for the present study consisted of employee belonging to supervisory and the level above. For the purpose of this study, survey covered the employee of DABUR INDIA LTD. falling under supervisor and the level above. The study covered a sample of 100 employee belonging to supervisory level and above.

3.

Methodology of the project

The project work has been carried out in three stages, a structured questionnaire with objective and question was communicated tested and finalize. During the second stage, the questionnaire was administered to the employees at Dabur India Ltd. by contacting them. The work relating to data entry compilation, data analysis and report writing constituted the third stage. Interview index was also used at some places to get information on the project subject. The details of the methodology adopted are presented below: The Questionnaire Keeping in view the objective of the study, questionnaire was designed and tested on few employees. After getting the proper response and sanction from the concerned department the questionnaire was finalized. Response to Questionnaire In all 96 questionnaire were given to employees falling in the category of supervisors and above. Out of which 48 could be collected back duly completed. The researcher individually contacted the employees to get response on the questionnaire. Data entry and analysis It has been an uphill task to enter the enormous data received through the questionnaire which consisted nearly 20 questions. Response to the descriptive

questions though very few but was valuable for the purpose of study. Hence these were further structured in time with the system adopted for compilation and data analysis. Limitations Many employees gave guarded answers to some crucial questions. Some of them did not fill the questionnaire due to lack of time Response could not be collected from the total sample selected. Some of the questionnaire could not be completed due to reasons other than time factor. The confidentiality of the system created some problem in getting information.

Chapter 3 ORGANISATION PROFILE

Chapter 3 ORGANISATION PROFILE
. History The story of Dabur goes back to 1884, to a young doctor armed with a degree in medicine and a burning desire to serve mankind. This young man, Dr. S. K. Burman, laid the foundations of what is today known as Dabur India Limited. From those humble beginnings, the company has grown into India's leading manufacturer of consumer healthcare, personal care and food products. This phenomenal progress has seen many milestones, some of which are mentioned below:

1884 -Dr. S K Burman lays the foundation of what is today known as Dabur India Limited. Starting from a small shop in Calcutta, he began a direct mailing system to send his medicines to even the smallest of villages in Bengal. The brand name Dabur is derived from the words 'Da' for Daktar or doctor and 'bur' from Burman.

1896 -As the demand for Dabur products grows Dr. Burman feels the need for mass production of some of his medicines. He sets up a small manufacturing plant at Garhia near Calcutta.

Early 1900s -The next generation of Burmans take a conscious decision to enter the Ayurvedic medicines market, as they believe that it is only through Ayurveda that the healthcare needs of poor

Indians can be met.

1919 -The search for processes to suit mass production of Ayurvedic medicines without compromising on basic Ayurvedic principles leads to the setting up of the first Research & Development laboratory at Dabur. This initiates a painstaking study of Ayurvedic medicines as mentioned in age-old scriptures, their manufacturing processes and how to utilize modern equipment to manufacture these medicines without reducing the efficacy of these drugs.

19208 -A manufacturing facility for Ayurvedic Medicines is set up at Narendrapur and Daburgram. Dabur expands its distribution network to Bihar and the northeast.

• •

1936 -Dabur India (Dr. S K Burman) Pvt. Ltd. is incorporated. 1940 -Dabur diversifies into personal care products with the launch of its Dabur Amla Hair Oil. This perfumed heavy hair oil catches the imagination of the common man and film stars alike and becomes the largest hair oil brand in India.

1949 -Dabur Chyawanprash is launched in a tin pack and becomes the first branded Chyawanprash of India.

1956 -Dabur buys its first computer. Accounts and stock keeping are one of first operations to be computerized.

1970 -Dabur expands its personal care portfolio by adding oral care

products. Dabur Lal Dant Manjan is launched and captures the Indian rural market.

1972 -Dabur shifts base to Delhi from Calcutta. Starts production from a hired manufacturing facility at Faridabad.

1978 -Dabur launches the Hajmola tablet. This is the first time that a classical Ayurvedic medicine is branded -from Shudhabardhak bati to Hajmola tablet.

1979 -The Dabur Research Foundation (DRF), an independent company, is set up to spearhead Dabur's multi-faceted research.

1979 Commercial production starts at Sahibabad. This is one of the largest and most modern production facilities for Ayurvedic medicines in India at this time.

1984 -The Dabur brand turns 100 but is young ~enough to experiment with new offerings in the market.

1986 -Dabur becomes a public limited company through reverse merger with Vidogum Limited, and is re-christened Dabur India Limited.

1989 -Hajmola Candy is launched and captures the imagination of children and establishes a large market share.

1992 -Dabur enters into a joint venture with Agrolimen of Spain for

manufacturing and marketing confectionery items such as bubble gums in India.

1993 -Dabur sets up the oncology formulation plant at Baddi, Himachal Pradesh.

1994 -Dabur India Limited comes out with its first public issue. The Rs.10 share is issued at a premium of Rs.85 per share. The issue is oversubscribed 21 times.

1994 -Dabur reorganizes its business with sales and marketing operations being divided into 3 separate divisions.

1994 -Dabur enters the oncology (anti-cancer) market with the launch of Intaxel (Paclitaxel). Dabur becomes only the second company in the world to launch this product. The Dabur Research Foundation develops the unique eco-friendly process of extracting the drug from the leaves of the Asian Yew tree.

1995 -Dabur enters into a joint venture with Osem of Israel for food and Bongrain of France for cheese and other dairy products.

1996 -Dabur launches Real Fruit Juice which heralds the company's entry into the processed foods market.

1997 -The Foods division is created, comprising of Real Fruit Juice and Hommade cooking pastes to form the core of this division's product portfolio.

1997 -Project STARS (Strive To Achieve Record Successes) is initiated by the company to achieve accelerated growth in the coming years. The scope of this project is strategic, structural and operational changes to enable efficiencies and improve growth rates.

1998 -The Burman family hands over the reins of the company to professionals. Mr. Ninu Khanna joins Dabur as the Chief Executive Officer. ..

1999-2000 -Dabur achieves the Rs.IOOO crore turnover mark

What is that life worth which cannot bring comfort to others", these words of Dr. S K Burman have inspired generations of Dabur. Keeping r" these golden words in mind, Sandesh or the Sustainable Development Society was set up to carry out welfare activities aimed at improving the A quality of life of the rural people in its area of operation. This society is given complete financial and managerial support by Dabur India Limited.

PRODUCTS AND SERVICES A vast array of products touching the lives of almost every individual, from an infant to a grand old man, from poor to rich; that's how the Dabur's range of health personal care and food products could be best explained. Today Dabur trust has traveled beyond the boundaries of India and is available in more than 50 countries worldwide. These value for money products have made Dabur a household name Healthcare is one of the biggest and oldest divisions of Dabur with a wide range of OTC healthcare products. It comprises of: Ayurvedic Health Tonics Chyawanprash The leader in the chyawanprash market in India, Dabur Chyawanprash is one of the most well known Ayurvedic products in India and abroad. An effective herbal immune modulator, Dabur Chyawanprash has the essential goodness 'of amla and over 50 other herbs. Dabur has conducted several clinical trials on this product, which confirm its efficacy as a unique product that strengthens the body from within. Digestives Hajmola Tablets Hajmola Tablets are the first classical Ayurvedic products to be branded and positioned as fun-filled product with medicinal properties. It finds mention in Ayurvedic scriptures as Kshudhavardhak Bati, and was branded as

Hajmola, a name derived from Hajma which means digestion in Urdu. It is available in regular and tamarind flavour.

Hajmola Candy To cash in on the brand equity enjoyed by Hajmola, Dabur launched Hajmola Candy in 1989. Since then, the company has added Mango and tamarind flavors besides the regular one.

Pudin Hara

One of the oldest products in Dabur portfolio, Pudin Hara is available in liquid as well as capsule form. It has a special combination of mint oils and cures gastric problems without any side effects. The company has added effervescent powder with goodness of Mint for gas and acidity and named it Pudin Hara G. Hingoli Asafoetida or Hing is mentioned in Ayurveda as an effective aid in digestion, and is used a lot in Indian cooking. Dabur's Hingoli has all the goodness of asafoetida and other herbs.

Childcare Products Dabur Lal Tail The largest baby massage oil in India, it has the goodness of herbs which helps in strengthening the bones of infants. Dabur Janma Ghutti This Ayurvedic preparation helps in strengthening the digestive system of new borns.

Women Care Products

Efarelle Comfort A herbal medicine in self gel capsule form to help overcome abdominal pain during PMS. A combination of natural oils, this formulation gives immediate relief from pain without any side effects. The largest division in terms of sales, the Family Products Division of Dabur has in its portfolio hair care and skin care products, oral care and select foods like honey. Hair & Skin Care Dabur is the leader in hair care products in India, and has covered almost all the categories of hair oils.

Dabur Amla Hair Oil -As a brand has made its mark beyond India and is a leading hair oil brand in Middle East and Africa. A perfumed heavy hair oil, it is Dabur's largest brand. Dabur Special Hair Oil -It is light hair oil that combines the natural hair care properties of lemon and hibiscus. Vatika -The fastest growing hair oil brand of India, Vatika has single handedly created an altogether new category of herbal enriched natural oils. The Vatika range also includes an herbal shampoo, which has made its mark in the very first year of its launch in the competitive shampoo market of India. The company has recently launched Vatika Anti -Dandruff Shampoo having herbal ingredients to fight the problem of Dandruff Gulabari -Rose water derived from best of Indian roses makes the skin supple and glowing. Oral Care Dabur Lal Dant Manjan -It is the second largest tooth powder brand of India and the largest in coloured tooth power category. This herbal tooth powder is very popular in rural parts of India. Binaca Toothbrushes -After having acquired this dormant brand a few years back, Dabur launched toothbrushes under this umbrella. There are plans to launch other oral care products under the Binaca brand.

Dabur Honey When repositioned in 1993, it totally changed the perception of Indian consumer. Honey, which was mainly used for its medicinal properties in India, is today competing for space on breakfast table. Ayurvedic Specialties is a range of over 350 Ayurvedic Medicines -both. classical Ayurvedic drugs and proprietary Ayurvedic medicines - developed by Dabur's own research and development. Dabur has products for all the 16~ categories as defined in the Ayurveda. Some of the leading products in this category are: Asav Arishtas -These are medicated decoctions with a self-generated alcohol content. Dabur has a range of over 30 Asav Arishtas. Some of the well-known ones include Dashmularishta, Drakshasava, Lohasava, Parthadyarishta and Ashokarishta. Chumas -These are finely ground medicinal powders used to treat a variety of ailments ranging from digestive problems to cough and fever. Ras Rasayans -Preparations containing mineral drugs as main ingredients are called Ras Rasayans. Dabur has a range of more than 50 Ras Rasayans which are used by Ayurvedic practitioners in the cure of host of ailments. Medicated Oils -The oils boiled alongwith certain prescribed drugs are known as medicated oils. These oils retain the curative properties of herbs and is used for inunction and massage. Launched over two years back, the Dabur Foods

range include juices under the brand name Real and cooking pastes under the brand name Hommade. To give a better focus this division has been carved out as a subsidiary company of Dabur India Limited. Subsidiarie. Dabur Foods Limited -Dabur Foods Limited, a 100% subsidiary of Dabur India Limited, is spearheading Dabur's foray into food processing industry. The company, set up in April 1999, is marketing a range of fruit juices under the brand name Real, Hommade Cooking Paste and Sauces and Lemoneez lemon juice. Dabur was the first company in India to introduce fruit juices in packaged form without any artificial additive. Real is today the market leader in this category with more than 50% market share. Hommade cooking paste is the oply national brand in this category. Lemoneez is the only product in its category available in unique drop and trickle pack and uniquelPharmaceuticals Branded Pharmaceuticals -It includes a range of natural ethical products like New Livfit, Honitus, Ulgel etc. and a range of contrast media and gynecological. Oncology -This wide and formidable range includes brands such as Intaxel, Docetaxel and Topotecan, all of which were manufactured for the first time in India by Dabur. Little wonder then, that Dabur is the undisputed market leader in this category in India and has plans to establish itself as a generic oncology player in select global markets.

Bulk Drugs and Chemicals -This range consists primarily of bulks in the oncology category.

Joint Ventures Dabon International Limited -Dabur has also collaborated with Bongrain of France for the manufacture and marketing pf specialty cheese and other dairy products. This joint venture company has already made its presence felt in the Indian cheese market through the launch of processed cheese under the brand name LeBon, and a specialty cheese under the brand name Delicieux. Subsidiaries Dabur has six subsidiary units, which come under the umbrella of the Dabur India organization. These are: Dabur Foods Limited -Dabur Foods Limited, a 100% subsidiary of Dabur India Limited, is spearheading Dabur's foray into food processing industry. The company, set up in April 1999, is marketing a range of fruit juices under the brand name Real, Hommade Cooking Paste and Sauces and Lemoneez lemon juice. Dabur was the first company in India to introduce fruit juices in packaged form without any artificial additive. Real is today the market leader in this category with more than 50% market share. Hommade cooking paste is the only national brand in this category. Lemoneez is the only product in its category available in unique drop and trickle pack and uniquely shaped

tabletop pack. Dabur Nepal Private Limited -Dabur Nepal was the first manufacturing base overseas for Dabur group. The company is today the leading exporter of Nepal and the third largest and most modern manufacturing base for Dabur. Dabur Nepal is today involved in promoting cultivation of herbs and apiculture activities in Nepal. The company has set up state of the art greenhouse at Banepa for developing saplings for 20 medicinal plants. Dabur Nepal has also set up an Apiculture centre for promoting bee-keeping activity in Nepal and developing queen bees and bee colonies for exports. Dabur Egypt Limited -Dabur Egypt is groups gateway to Africa. This manufacturing base set up a couple of years back to c~ater to the demands of Middle East and African market is producing Hair Care, Skin Care Products and Foods. Dabur Oncology PIc. -Set up recently in UK, this subsidiary of Dabur India Limited will be manufacturing anti-cancer formulations for European market. The company is in the process of setting up manufacturing base near London and is expected to start operation from year 2001. Dabur Finance Limited Dabur has an illustrious Board of Directors who are committed to take the company onto newer levels of human endeavour in the service of mankind.

Chapter 4 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

Chapter 4 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Since organisation exist to achieve goals, the degree of success that individual employees have in reaching their individuals goals is important in determining organizational effectiveness. The assessment of how successful employees have been at meeting their individual goals, therefore, becomes a critical part of HRM. This leads us to the topic of performance appraisal. PURPOSE There are basically three purposes to which performance appraisal can be put.

First, it can be used as a basis for reward allocations. Decisions as to who gets salary jncreases, promotions, and other rewards are determined by their performance evaluation.

• Second, these appraisals can be used for identifying areas where development efforts are needed. Management needs to spot those individuals who have specific skill or knowledge deficiencies. The performance appraisals is a major tool for identifying these deficiencies. • Finally the performance appraisal can be used as a criterion against which selection devices and development programs are validated. It is

one thing to say, for example, that our selection process is successful in differentiating satisfactory performers from unsatisfactory performers. THE APPRAISAL PROCESS

Established performance standard

Communicate performance expectations to employee

Measure actual performance

Compare actual performance with standards

Discuss the appraisal with the employees.

If necessary, initiate the corrective action

The appraisal process begins with the establishment of performance standards. These should have evolved out of job analysis and the job description discussed under human resource planning. These performance standards should also be clear and objective enough to be understood and measured. Too often, these standards are articulated in some such phrase as "a

full day's work" or "a good job". Communication only takes place when the transference has taken place and has been received and understood by the subordinate. Therefore feedback is necessary from the subordinate to the manager. Satisfactory feedback censures that the information communicated by the manager has been received and understood in the way it was intended.

The third step in the appraisal in the measurement of performance. To determine what actual performance. To determine what actual performance is, it is necessary to acquire information about it. We should be concerned with how we measure and what we measure.

What we measure is probably more critical to the evaluation process than how we measure, since the selection of the wrong criteria can result in serious dysfunctional consequences. And what we measure determines, to a great extent, what people in the organization will attempt to excel at.

One of the most challenging tasks facing managers is to present an . accurate appraisal to the subordinate and then have the subordinate accept the appraisal in a constructive manner. Appraising performance touches on one of the most emotionally charged activities the assessment of another individual's contribution and ability. The impression that subordinates receive about their assessment has a strong impact on their self-esteem and, very important, on their subsequent performance.

The final step in the appraisal is the initiation of corrective action when necessary. Corrective action can, be of two types. One is immediate and deals predominantly with symptoms. The other is basic and delves into causes. Immediate corrective action often described as "putting out fires," whereas basic corrective action gets to the source of deviation and seeks to adjust the difference permanently.

Immediate action corrects something right now and gets things back on track.

Chapter 5 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM IN DABUR INDIA LIMITED

Chapter 5 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM IN DABUR INDIA LIMITED
In Dabur India Limited they have the system of performance appraisal of their employees. The main objective of this performance appraisal system is to evaluate the performance, promote their employees and to arrange for their various training programmes if they require for enhancing their skills in their respective areas and in contribution enhancement.. Employees are evaluated by how well they accomplish a specific set of objectives that have been determined to be critical in the successful completion of their job. This approach is frequently referred to as . management by objectives. Management by objectives is a process that converts organization~l objectives into individual objectives. It can be thought of as consisting of four steps: goal setting, action planning, selfcontrol, and periodic reviews. In goal setting, the organization's overall objectives are used as guidelines from which departmental and individual objectives are set. In action planing, the means are determined for achieving the ends established in goal setting. That is, realistic plans are developed to attain the objectives. Self-control refers to the systematic monitoring and measuring of performance. Finally, with periodic progress reviews, corrective action is initiated when behaviour deviates from the standards established in the goal-setting phase. Dabur uses very constructive

performance appraisal process while evaluating its employees. Its evaluation is based on quantitativewise and objectivewise. Company set goals to its employee by properly reporting with its employees and then evaluating them upto what extent it has been achieved and if there is failure in reaching the target what are the causes or reasons behind it. Every evaluator has his or her own value system which acts as a standard against which appraisals are made. Relative to the true or actual performance an individual exhibits, some evaluator~ mark high and others low. The former is referred to as positive leniency error and the latter as negative leniency error. When evaluators are positively lenient in their appraisal, an individual's performance becomes over- stated; that is, rated higher than it actually should. Similarly, a negative leniency error understates performance, giving the individual a lower appraisal. As such there is no scope of error as far as the Dabur company is concerned, but sometimes over estimation of target brings about a description in the evaluating criteria. Thus, though chances are less, positive leniency errors have been stated to be committed. Outcome of Performance Appraisal As far as Dabur company is concerned, there are four outcomes possible: a. Outstanding -If the performance evaluated by the management turns out to be outstanding. If the employee performs in such a way as to collect 3 consecutive outstanding performance into his/her credit) he / she gets promoted.

b.

Excellent -If the performance evaluated by the management turns out to be excellent. If the employee performs in such a way as to collect 3 consecutive excellent performance into his/her credit, he/she gets promoted.

c.

Good -If the performance evaluated by the management turns out to be good. The management sends the employee to the training programme to improve his/.her skill to perform form.

d.

Below average -If the performance evaluated by the management turns out to be below average. And, if the employee collects 3 below average to his/her credit, then he/she dismissed

Duration of Appraisal System The time constraints enables the employee to show or project his/her capabilities in term of performance as per the duration allowed. In Dabur India Limited, the performance appraisal system is carried out annually. Feedback The company provides the annual feedback to its employees and thus, in term bring out the highlights of the self assessment programme. This enables the better communicaiton between the management and employees ad thus, helps in promoting the business future.

Response There are mixed responses from the feedback by the employees. It has helped some of the employees in motivating themselves while those who felt bad were thoroughly communicated and all the confusion and failure part were discussed with employees.

Chapter 6 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

Chapter 6 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

After collecting the data on "Performance Appraisal System" data was Analyzed and interpreted. The various topics covered for analysis and interpretation of data are: ) 1. Promotions

A promotion may be defined as an upward advancement of an employee in an organisation to another job, which commands better pay/wages, better status / prestige and higher opportunities / challenges and responsibility, a better working environment, hours of work and facilities etc. Promoters have a salutary effect on the satisfaction of the promoted person's need for esteem, belonging and security. They also afford an opportunity for greater self-actualizing action through more varied and challenging assignments. The promotion policies differ from an organisation to another. The guidelines for departmental promotion in are same for male and female employees. The period of experience required for filling a higher post departmentally varies from 3-5 years. 5 years experience for promotion to managerial staff and 3 years experience for promotion to Junior Management staff is needed. The other area of promotion apart from seniority are merit and fitness. Though these guidelines are not in a written format the supervisor and manager get it at the time of appraisal from the personnel department.

As per the guidelines from the personnel department employees are to be promoted accordingly. However there is confusion among the employee as these guidelines are not being explained time to time, many are not aware of the existing promotion policy in the organisation. Respondents were asked whether the promotion is well defined in the organisation. The responses are given below: N=96 Response Yes No Can't say Number 16 52 28 Percentage 16.66 54.16 29.16

From the above table, it can be seen that 30% agree that promotion is well defined in the organisation. However 54% were not able to say it as there is lack of information about the promotion policy. Every employee need to be communicated about the existing promotion policy.

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes 16

52

28

Series1

No

Can't Say

Respondent were also asked to suggest any change in the policy. The responses were as given below: Response Merit not recognized Does not define career plan Not integrated with business Heterogeneity within policy for different position Number 20 26 0 56 Percentage 20.83 16.66 0 58.83

Majority suggested for no change in the policy. It seems they are satisfied with the current policy.

Aligning goal Respondent were asked about the present system, does it help in aligning individual goal with those of the organisation. The responses were as given below: Response Yes No Can't say No response Number 44 12 36 4 Percentage 45.83 12.5 37.5 4.16

Here the response from the supervisor were 45.83% for the factor that it help in aligning their goal with those of organisation.
44 36

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

12 4 Yes No Can't Say No response

Series1

Career Progress Career progress is something which is continuous, with the input from organisation in term of training, feedback and counselling. In today's changing scenario this has to be followed in every organisation so that an individual make progress in the career adding value to himself and the organisation. Respondent were asked about the current system helping in their career progress. Career advancement is the most motivating factor when employee aspire for the advancement of his career and for better opportunities to use his/her talents. From the organisation's point of view, it is necessary to develop in manager. Some expectations of opportunities for the future in order to keep their motivation high. Career planning means helping the employee plan his career in terms of his capabilities with the context or organisational needs. Individual, after becoming aware of some of his/her capabilities and career and development opportunities chooses to develop himself/herself in a direction that improves his/her chances of being able to handle new responsibilities. It is also the responsibility of the employer to help him/her to identify the career opportunity, make choices and develop his/her career and provide opportunities for career planning and succession planning

Question asked was as follows: Are the issues like career planning and succession planning a part of company’s policy The responses to the above were as given below:

Response Yes No Cant say

Number 16 44 36

Percentage 16.66 45.83 37.5

Here only 46% of the respondent gave response that it does not while 38% gave response that there is no career development plan at all.

50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes 16

44 36

Series1

No

Can't Say

Feedback

Providing feedback playa constructive role. It helps the employee know his/her weakness and strength. Feedback provides for the area of improvement.

Respondent were asked about the frequency of feedback based on their performance. The responses were as given below:

Response Rarely On a few occasion Sometimes Often Almost always

Number 24 40 24 8 Nil

Percentage 25 41.66 25 8.34 Nil

41 percent responded that feedback is provided though on a few occasion. The frequency has to increase both from the individual and organisation point of view to keep the individual motivated for work in line with the organisational expectation.

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Rarely On a few Som im et es occasion Oft en Alm ost always

Remedial measure Based on the performance the remedial measures are taken to do away with weakness if any and build on the strength and add to the existing capability

Response on the remedial measure were as given below:

Response Job rotation Sent to training programmed Counseled Any other None

Number 44 40 12 Nil Nil

Percentage 45.83 41.66 12.5 Nil Nil

Here the response were both for job rotation and training programme. During the course it was felt that more training input is to be provided to the employee to overcome the weakness and improve upon the existing capability of the employee.

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 J ob rot ion Sent t CounselledAny ot at o her t raining program None

PROMOTION POLICY AND PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL APPRAISAL SYSEM Respondent were asked whether the promotion policy is linked with the performance appraisal system

The responses were as given below: Response Yes No Cant say Number 54 28 14 Percentage 56.25 29.15 14.58

Majority response were that promotion policy is linked with the performance appraisal system.

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

54

28 14

Series1

Yes

No

Can't Say

SWOT ANALYSIS

1. Strength -Dabur India Limited is the first Indian major company which came up with the idea of Ayurvedic concept in various family and health care products. mostly whatever ingredients it uses in its product are extracted from nature as it has very less synthetic chemical constituents used in its product and so it does not has any threat of side effect. As it has its product in major areas viz. family, health care and in food division it can easily has larger share of market. By this performance appraisal system act as motivating factor for its employees to a great extent by increasing their efficiency and skills. For example, if we see Dabur Lal Dunt Manjan, it is India's number one tooth powder doing very well in rural as well as in urban market.

2. Weakness -The main weakness of the company is that the company is taking the performance appraisal in objective wise, while evaluating a particular employee performance, on objective wise, the employee does not get enough opportunity to express completely and freely the valid reasons of his/her failure to the organization. Weakness is also highlighted when Dabur India Limited do this performance appraisal procedure annually.

3. Opportunity -With the help of this performance appraisal system the employee always get feedback from the company. He / she can realize

easily his/her level of efficiency. By this performance appraisal system the employee gets enormous opportunity to enhance their skills by special training and various other managements programme. 4. Threats -While evaluating an employees performance the performance appraisal system there is always a chance of fear that those employees who are unable to achieve their target can take it as a huge set back for them and in the log term it tends to decrease their efficiency level how good the employee is and thus it effect the over all performance of the organization.

Chapter 7 CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS

Chapter 7 CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS
Conclusion The analysis and interpretation of data on study of performance appraisal and its effectiveness in an organization led to the following conclusions: • The promotion rule though defined need to be communicated to every employee before appraisal process is done and also justify the promotion as a result of the appraisal. That the promotion policy followed differs at different position and category. A uniformity has to be there in the implementation of promotion policy at all levels

The process of performance appraisal followed in Dabur India Ltd. at the supervisory and above level IS to say not good but of satisfactory level. The employees do not rate it very good

• The appraisal outcome has to be used frequently for the purpose of reward on performing well together with the feedback on the performance. Also when performance goes down employee has to be given feedback and motivated to do better.

The organization at present doesn't lay career planning and career suggestion plans.

In Dabur India Ltd. feedback is being provided to the employee though on a few occasion.

Performance appraisal in Dabur India Ltd is done on an annual basis.

• More emphasis on training and job rotation as remedial measures.

The mechanism of counseling pre-performance and post performance is not in practice at the organization in strict term. During. the course of study suggestion came from the employee side for the need of counseling.

Suggestions The study undertaken bring some interesting result.

Training the Appraiser: It is proposed that appraiser be trained for clear understanding of the system and its objective and also counseled to be honest, fair, just, unbiased in appraising the appraisal.

Factors/traits of evaluation: It is proposed that appraisal evaluated on above factors/traits be given suitable remark or justification for being given different quantitative grade.

• Greater clarity has to be has to there in terms of job responsibility. This is possible when the appraisal is done on the basis of the description.

In the organization, performance appraisal is done on an annual basis which should be done Quarterly to make it more effective.

• Consistency is demanded in the promotional policy. It should not change every year. • Monetary difference between two grades should not be large, it should be motivating in nature. • Performance appraisal system should be made more transparent and

rationale.

Performance feedback: The performance feedback sessions should be improved which would results in increasing employee motivation to improve performance. The following could be incorporated.

Pin point the problem behaviors and make sure the employee is aware of it

Make sure the employee understands the consequences of the problem behaviors. Get employee's commitment to change and make sure he cares about the change

• Assistance should be provided to improve poor performance. Make a realistic plan appropriate to the behaviour and set a time frame for improvement. • To make sure to review performance time to time • The other change which has to be incorporated at the supervisor and the level above are: • These should be listing down of task undertaken during the last one year and the result achieved.

In some areas of performance there should be self appraisal and more and more counseling so that employee improve upon weak area and understand what is expected of him/her at the organization level.

• Based on the above an open appraisal system is suggested.

In an open appraisal the employee would come together to set the targets, to understand the mutual expectations and support to be provided by the appraiser to the employee for achieving mutually accepted goals/targets. Through this process of setting targets the interpersonal relationship between the appraiser and the employee would improve. The open appraisal system reduces the whims and fancies of the appraiser. It promotes result-orientation as it is based on performance rather than on personality based appraisal.

Annexure
a) b) Questionnaire Bibliography

QUESTIONNAIRE
TO STUDY PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM
Q.1. Is the promotional policy well defined in your organization? a. Yes Q.2. b. No c. can't say

Do you know the objectives of the Performance appraisal system. If yes kindly specify.

Q.3. How often the performance appraisal form is filled or Performance Appraisal is done. a. e. Q.4. fortnightly. not fixed. b. monthly c. six-monthly. d. annually

On what basis is the performance appraisal done. a. d. merit cum seniority b. seniority cum merit. c. merit only seniority only. e. any other. Pl. specify

Q.5 Who appraises you? a. c. e. Q.6. appraisal committee. b. self-appraisal d. any other please specify your immediate supervisor 360 degree appraisal.

What methods are being used for performance appraisal a. c. e. forced choice distribution method. ranking method. any other, kindly specify b. d. essay method critical incident method

Q.7.

In your opinion does it identify the training needs? a. to a large extent b. to some extent c. cant say d. not at all

Q.8.

Is the promotional policy linked with the performance appraisal system a. yes b. no c. can't say

Q.9. Are the issues like career planning and succession planning a part of company's policy a. yes b. no c. can't say.

Q.I0 Does the system help you in aligning your goals with those of the organization. a. yes b. no c. can't say

Q.11. What role does top management play in the performance appraisal. kindly comment.

Q.12. Are you a part of the appraisal committee a. yes b. no

Q 13 . Do the employees get the feedback of performance appraisal a. c. d. Q.14 yes, every time. only when required rarely e. never b. often, but not always.

Does the organization provide counseling after the appraisal. a. always b. often c. rarely d. never. e. can't say.

Q.15. Who does the counseling a. trained professionals b. untrained counselors. c. can't say

Q.16. What kind of remedial measures are taken. a. job rotation b. sent to training programmes c. counseled

d. any other, kindly specify Q.17. How do you rate the overall assessment of performance appraisal a. Outstanding b. Very good c. Good e. Poor d. Satisfactory

Q.18.

What do you feel are the positives in the perfomance appraisal system in

your organization, Kindly mention

Q.19

What do you feel are the shortcomings of the performance appraisal system being followed in your organization, Kindly mention

Q.20. For how long have you been working in this organisation

Q.21. Suggestion towards improving the performance appraisal system in your organisation

BIBLOGRAPHY

1)

Flippo EdwinB., Personnel management, Edition sixth, Tata Mc Graw Hills, 1984, p.g. 225-230

2)

Gupta, C.B., Human Resource Management, Edition Fifth(Reprint),Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi 2001, P.G. 5.3-5.10

3)

Rao, P. Subba,Essentials of Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations;Edition Second, Himalaya Publishing House, New Delhi 2001, p.g.206-210

WEB SITES SURFED

www.google.com www.indiatimes.com www.msn.com

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