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10.1 Introduction Junction improvements in the study area have been carried out in three major intersections with respect to geometric design. The design specifications, improvement drawings and recommendations are presented in this chapter 10.2 Design standards for Junction Improvements. It is desirable that the intersecting roads meet at or nearly at right angles. Design elements: 10.2.1 Design speed : The design speed at an intersection governs the various elements such as entry – exit radii and inscribed diameter. The design speed at the intersections may vary from 30 kmph to 25 kmph. 10.2.2 Radius at entry: The radius at entry is determined by the design speed, super elevation and coefficient of friction. The radius should result in the drivers lowering their speeds to the design speed of the rotary. A range of 15 – 25 m is suitable for the urban areas 10.2.3 Radius at exit: The exit radius should be higher then the entry radius to enable the vehicles to gain speed while leaving the intersection. A range of 20- 35 m may be adopted in the design. A lower radius may be adopted if the design speed at the exit demands to be low because of higher pedestrian flows and site conditions 10.2.4 Width of carriageway at entry and exit: The carriageway width of the intersection legs is governed by the design year traffic entering and leaving the intersection. The width at entry and exit depends upon the carriageway width of the approach road. The carriageway width of the approach road depends on the number of lanes to be accommodated in each direction which depends on the traffic entering and leaving the intersection. The width of the exit should be always greater than or equal to the width at entry to facilitate free movement of entering traffic towards the intersection. The table 10.1 below presents the IRC recommendation on width of carriageway at entry and exit. The entry radius range in the suggested width is from 15 – 25 m. Table 10.1 : Width of carriageway at entry and exit: Carriageway width (m) 7 m( 2 lanes) 10.5 m( 3 lanes) 14 m (4 lanes) 21 m (6 lanes) Width of carriageway at entry and exit (m) 7m 7.5 m 10 m 15 m 10.2.7 Visibility at intersections: The safety of traffic can be ensured only if the visibility is full and unimpeded along both roads. Any obstructions should be clear of the minimum visibility triangle for a height of 1.2 m above the roadway. The visibility distance along the minor road in a priority intersection is about 4.5 – 9.0 m. On the major road, visibility distance of 120 150 m is to be adopted for arterial and sub arterial roads , 90 m for a collector street and 60 m for a local street. 10.2.8 Design vehicle: The design vehicle for the intersection design has to be selected based on the requirements of the future, terrain conditions, economic justification , importance of road and similar other considerations. As per IRC 3 – 1983 (Dimensions and weights for road design vehicles) , three trypes of commercial vehicles are recognized. : - Single unit, Semi Trailer and Truck trailer combination. The intersection has to be designed based on the dimensions and turning radii of these design vehicles. The dimensions of road design vehicles that are used in creating the standard templates are as follows. Table 10.2 : Dimensions of road design vehicles. Characteristic Width Height Length Desirable and Maximum Dimension 2.5 m 3.8 – 4.2 m 11 m (Single unit truck) 12 m (Single unit bus) 16 m (Truck tractor) 18 m (Truck trailer) 12.8 m (Single unit truck) 13.72 m (Semi Trailer ) 13.75 m (Semi Trailer full Trailer) 10.2.5 Entry and exit angles: Entry angles should be larger than exit angles, and it is desirable that the entry angles should be 600 if possible; the exit angles should be small, even tangential. The design with an entry angle of 600 and exit angle of 300 is considered as ideal design . 10.2.6 : Angle of intersecting roads:
10.2.9 Radius of curve: The design of intersections curves has a profound influence on speed. Curve radii are therefore, selected to control speed and ensure safety of operation. Generally, the approach to the design of curves falls under one of the following categories: (i) Design of curves for a minimum speed and sharpest turn (ii) Design of curves to permit different operating speeds.
Final Report – Integrated Transportation Planning and Traffic Management in Cantonment May 2007
CTE, JNTU 165
control of speed. Intersection ahead signs and speed limit signs have to be provided in all legs approaching the intersections at a distance of 30 – 40 m from the stop line based on the design speed. There should not be any parking activities in the common area. JNTU 166 . speed change lanes are provided on major intersections where the traffic on an acceleration lane is expected to be more than 1000 pcu / day. Bigger diameter which is a high common area is recommended for a heavy traffic.2. For junctions with commercial vehicles. The design lengths of acceleration and deceleration lanes are given in table 10. The minimum area required as common area is determined by 12 – 15 m radius control circles tangential both to centre line of the minor road and the side of the central reserve away from the minor road. The diameter of the central island in case of a mini round about is one third of the circumscribed circle within the outer carriageway boundaries subjected to a minimum of 8m.2 m wide and 3. The approach noses of islands should be rounded off to a minimum radius of 0. In residential streets. a radius of 10. they will increase the speed until the desired open highway speed is reached. a curb radius of 6 m is regarded as the minimum.6 m from the edge of the carriageway. If a central island is placed in terms of round about or a rotary. m preferably 7 sq. To avoid this a proper corner island is provided to forma separate turning roadway which is a connecting roadway for traffic turning between two intersection legs. Table 10. protection of vehicles leaving or crossing the main traffic stream. The approach to the nose should be marked for additional guidance of traffic by means of diagonal markings or chevrons. However. Where the inner edges of pavement for left turns at intersections are designed to accommodate semi trailer combinations. protection of pedestrians. blockage of prohibited movements and location of traffic control devices. An area of 5 sq. In the former case. Its is the length that has to be traveled by the vehicle inorder to pass in an intersection.9 m and the merging end nose should be rounded off to a radius of atleast 0. The length of deceleration lane depends upon the maneuvering speed and the deceleration characteristics. Channelisation serves for separation of conflicts. The circumscribed diameter touching the four legs of the intersection depends on the traffic flowing in the intersection. a larger diameter of about 15 – 25 m may be adopted if there is enough space.12 Common area 10. traffic is disrupted and hazard may be caused. However.3 below.4 : Design lengths of Acceleration and Deceleration lanes Design speed of turning roadway curve (kmph) Minimum curve radius (m) Design speed of highway (kmph) Length of taper (m) 65 60 80 70 100 80 110 90 Design speed of highway (kmph) Length of taper (m) 65 60 80 70 100 80 110 90 Stop condition 100 130 150 165 25 15 90 120 150 165 100 210 340 465 30 40 50 60 65 27 45 79 95 130 Total length of decceleration lane.3 m. Elongated or divisional islands should be 1. they will reduce the speed to a safe value at which the intersection can be negotiated.5 m will suffice. or where the design permits vehicles to turn at speeds of 25 kmph or more. Hence No parking sign has to be provided.Chapter10: Junction Improvements The sharpest turns are usually provided for unchannelised intersections and for curbs of urban streets at intersections. The stop signs are to be Final Report – Integrated Transportation Planning and Traffic Management in Cantonment May 2007 CTE. including taper (m) 85 75 60 115 110 100 85 145 140 130 120 100 160 150 145 140 115 Total length of acceleration lane. control of angle of conflict. The suggested minimum radius for the speeds are given in table 10. 10.10 Speed change lanes: Drivers entering into or leaving an intersection have to necessarily change their speed. Common area which is the circumscribed circle touching the four legs of the intersection is the crucial part of the design of an intersection.4 below Table 10.2.3 to 0. To avoid this. design vehicle and the directional movements of traffic .2. the radius of that island depends on the radius of entry.13 Traffic signs: At all junctions 'Kept Left' signs (directional arrows) should invariably be displayed if vehicles are required to go round them.5 to 6 m long. In the latter case.2. a maximum diameter of 60 m is adopted in design. islands or other means is known as channelisation. When such deceleration or acceleration is accomplished on the road. the pavement area at the intersections may become excessively large for proper control of traffic.m is the minimum area of the island.3 : Suggested minimum radius for turning speeds: Design turning speed (kmph) Suggested minimum radius (m) 25 15 30 27 40 45 50 70 60 95 65 130 10.11 Channelisation: The direction of traffic flow at intersections to definite paths. including taper (m) 75 70 190 180 150 120 320 300 270 240 180 450 420 400 370 300 75 170 90 100 120 250 80 210 175 10.6 – 0. by means of traffic markings. The length of an acceleration lane depends on the speed at which the drivers merge with through traffic and the acceleration characteristics. elimination of excessive intersectional areas. The edges of the island are usually offset 0.
and this is an important consideration in narrow streets. the width of street used also increases.5 m is desirable. m Plot area from 101 to 200 sq. parallel parking makes the least use of the width of the street. As the parking angle increases. words or other devices. Minimum parking standards suggested by IRC are given in table 10.2. which accommodates nearly 2 times the number of vehicles as parallel parking.5 Design Parking space standards for different land use : S. Additional spaces at the rate of one for every subsequent 200 sq.m of floor area One space for every 10 seats One space for every 20 seats One space for every 4 guest rooms One space for every 8 guest rooms One space for every 10 guest rooms One space for each guest rooms One space for every 10 beds 2 3 4 5 6 7 Offices Industrial premises Shops and markets Restaurants Theatres and Cinemas Hotels and Motels (i) Five and Four star hotels (ii) Three star hotels (iii) Two star hotels (iv) Motels Hospitals 8 When applying the above standards . one way of ensuring that future development of land use and building activity adequately takes care of parking needs is to promulgate zoning ordinances whereby all new ore remodeled buildings will be required to have within a cartilage a prescribed parking space.2. One and half spaces for every flat of 100 to 150 sq. The minimum curb length is consumed by right angle parking. Parallel parking 2. the parking space requirements of a car can be considered as 3 m x 6 m when individual parking space is considered and 2. On the other hand.5 x 5 m when community parking is envisaged. for controlling . While on street parking and its regulation will be an important aspect of the overall parking policy. m of initial floor area.3 Typical layouts of bus bays. 10. m or more of floor area Special. costly developed area One space for every flat of 50 to 100 sq. m Plot area from 501 to 1000 sq. applied or attached to the carriageway or kerbs or to objects within or adjacent to the carriageway . except signs.m of floor area One space for upto 200 sq.1. guiding and informing the road users. 10.8 m x 2. a stall 0.The type of carriageway marking for a particular intersection is dependant on a number of variables like speed characteristics and availability of space. For two wheelers.3. m of fraction thereof One space for every 80 sq.Chapter10: Junction Improvements provided at a distance of 2-3 m from stop line in all legs approaching the intersections.m of floor area. m Plot area from 201 to 300 sq. Table 10.m of floor area.1 Parking structures: Parking may be proposed as On street as well as off street. Parking demand is a function of the land use. JNTU 167 . 30 angle parking 3. Residential (i) Detached. Two spaces for every flat of above 150 sq. Pedestrian crossing sign must be provided at the pedestrian crossings.3. Parallel parking consumes the maximum curb length which decreases as the angle of parking increases. Right angle parking. m Plot area from 1000 sq. 10. m of floor area One space for every four dwellings (iv) Multi storeyed group housing scheme One space for every 70 sq. The markings are divided into two categories as follows (a) Markings on approaches to intersections: • Stop lines • Give way lines • Pedestrian crossings • Markings on speed change lanes • Direction arrows • Protected right turn lanes (b) Markings in Intersection area • Markings at rotaries • Box markings • Continuity lines The junction improvement drawings proposed for the Malkajgiri municipality are given in Appendix. m and above Parking space standard No private or community space is required Only community parking space is required Only community parking space is required Minimum one – third of the open area should be earmarked for parking Minimum one – fourth of the open area should be earmarked for parking Minimum one – sixth of the open area should be earmarked for parking (ii) (iii) Flats One space for every two flats of 50 to 99 sq. Final Report – Integrated Transportation Planning and Traffic Management in Cantonment May 2007 CTE. though variations can exist within the same land use.No Land use 1. warning. 60 angle parking 5.3. Common methods of On street parking These are: 1. 45 angle parking 4. patterns . parking structures and truck terminals: 10. m Plot area from 301 to 500 sq. 14 : Road markings: Road markings are defined as lines.2 Design standards for On – Street parking Facilities 10.5 below. set into . semi – detached row houses: Plot area upto 100 sq.
Chapter10: Junction Improvements From the point of view of maneuverability.3.1 gives some of the typical layouts and dimensions for on street parking stalls. The proposed facility should be close to major parking generators. Obviously. The facility should be served by good access streets. The overall aesthetics of the area should receive due attention. A few of them are illustrated in Fig 10. angle parking seems to be better than parallel parking which usually involves a backing motion. predominated by small.2. A variety of layouts can be possible depending upon the area. It is desirable to locate the facility such that no exit or entrance is within a distance of at least 50 m from an intersection. The types of off–street facilities become unavoidable. On exceptionally wide (wider than 20 m ) and low volume streets. The types of off. various types of off –street facilities become unavoidable. 10. a comprehensive study should be done before hand to help determine the location. JNTU 168 . it is recommended that in general parallel parking should be favored on streets. Off. the prime consideration should be the nearness to the place of usage by the prospective customers. Fig 10. properly located and developed on a piece of vacant land or surrounding an office complex or super market. As regards safety.street facilities commonly considered are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Surface car parks Multi –storey can parks Roof parks Mechanical car parks Underground car parks. consideration might be given for angle parking.3.4.2 to 10. are very popular with the motorists. A stall size of 2.5 m x 5m is probably adequate for Indian conditions .1 Surface car parks Surface car parks.2. Delay to traffic is minimum with angle parking. types and size of these facilities. Great care is needed in their design and operation. For a satisfactory answer. it has been noticed that angle parking is more hazardous than parallel parking.size cars. Since these facilities are costly to provide and maintain. Final Report – Integrated Transportation Planning and Traffic Management in Cantonment May 2007 CTE.2. Considering the above. There are certain basic considerations which govern the location of these facilities.street Parking Facilities: Considerations in locating off-street parking facilities: On –Street parking can only solve a part of the parking problem of major cities.2.1 Layouts and dimensions of on street parking stalls 10. Fig 10.
Chapter10: Junction Improvements Fig 10.4 Typical dimensions of parking layout design Final Report – Integrated Transportation Planning and Traffic Management in Cantonment May 2007 CTE.3 : Typical layouts of offstreet parking Fig 10. JNTU 169 .2 Typical lay outs of parking areas Fig 10.
The taper on either side should be about 8:1. Such facilities have become common and popular in many cities.4 Bus – bays: Properly designed bus –bays recessed into the curb facilitate loading and unloading of passengers without the vehicles blocking the atream of traffic on the carriageway. therefore. A minimum distance of 75 m from the intersections is desirable for urban situation and for rural locations a distance of 300 m is desirable. the maximum value being 6:1. mechanical ventilators should be provided. Horizontal floors with separate helical entrance and exit ramps have been found to be efficient. as is often the case. Ramps are preferably made one. the stop should be sufficient away from the intersection so that the bus can be maneuvered from the curb to the extreme right lane well before the intersection.5 Typical Garrage layouts of multi storeyed parking The length of the recess should be about 12-15 m for a single bus with an additional length of 12 -15 m for every additional bus. Some of the desirable standards for designing of the multi –storey car parks are: (i) Gradient of the ramp: 1 in 10 generally and 1 in 8 for very short ramps. Otherwise. The following are the guidelines for the location of the bus –bays: (i) the bus stops should not be located too close to the intersections. Larger capacity tends to increases the time for unparking a car. there is no need for artificial means for ventilation. About five floors is also the upper limit for the same reason. JNTU 170 . If the garage is without external walls. (ii) (iii) Final Report – Integrated Transportation Planning and Traffic Management in Cantonment May 2007 CTE. The operation of the multi –storey car parks can be with customer parking or attendant parking or a combination of the two. always feasible.storey car parks are designed for a capacity of about 400 to 500 cars.2 Multi-storey car parks Surface parks consume too much of the precious land in the heart of the city and are not. they should be divided.6 10.3. Fig 10. the entrance and the exits should be well lighted. The car parking floors.2. Bus stops should be as far as possible so located as to disembark the passengers at safe places such as curbs or islands. (ii) Clear height between floors: 2. Multi.5 to 10. For buses intending to turn right at an intersection.1 m (iii) Parking stall dimensions : 2. Another arrangement could be with parking floors themselves continuously sloping to gain access from one level to another.Chapter10: Junction Improvements 10.5 m x 5m (iv) Inside radius of curves : 7m (v) Width of traffic lane on ramps and entrance : 3.way. A simple arrangement is to have level floors and direct floor to floor ramps.storey car parks. One of the alternatives when land is costly is to provide multi.2.way. Some typical layouts of multi storeyed parking are given in Fig 10. the ramps. If two. About five floors is also the upper limit for the same reason. The bus stops should be located preferably on the farther side of the intersection.75 m (vi) Gradient of sloping floors : Not steeper than 1 in 20 (vii) Loading standards : 400 kg/m2 The arrangement of the floors and the access ramps needs careful thought and a large number of alternatives are available.
7 Lay out of bus bay abutting footway Final Report – Integrated Transportation Planning and Traffic Management in Cantonment May 2007 CTE.5 m desirable L 2 = 6 W minimum for congested areas = 8 W desirable A layout of the bus-bay when a separate lane is provided for slow moving vehicles is given in Fig 10.Chapter10: Junction Improvements Where L 1 = 12 m Minimum for Congested locations of single bus. add 15 m for every additional bus W = 3 m minimum for congested areas = 3.8 : Layout of bus bay with a separate lane for slow moving traffic Fig 10. JNTU 171 .6 : Typical layout of multi storeyed parking A simple design of the bus –bay directly abutting the footway is given in Fig .8 Fig 10. add 12 m for additional bus = 15 m desirable for single bus. 10.7 Fig 10.
5 The width may be increased by 0. workshop) is in addition to the parking area requirement. The area required for the entrance forecourt. of passengers 20 45 70 95 Width 1. Fig 10. Typical layout of a truck terminal is given in Fig 10. They should be close to major generators of commercial activity. For single unit trucks a space of 3. The width of the loading platforms should be 3.75 m * 7. JNTU 172 . The length of truck berths depends upon the type of trucks to be handled.Chapter10: Junction Improvements Width ‘W’ of island depends on number of passengers expected to be present at a particular time for loading and unloading purposes.5 to 4.5 m per vehicle is adequate. The truck terminals should be located on important arterial routes and at the confluence of a number of such routes.9 below.5 Truck Terminals: The indiscriminate parking of trucks in the streets and upon spaces of the towns and cities has many adverse effects.9 : Typical layout of a truck terminal Final Report – Integrated Transportation Planning and Traffic Management in Cantonment May 2007 CTE.5 2. Security of the goods contained in the parked vehicles can also be a serious problem. toilet facilities and food deserve careful consideration. For truck – tailer combinations lengths up to 15 m may be needed. Truck –trailer combinations obviously need longer lengths than single unit trucks. resting place and ancillary facilities ( weigh bridge. About 600. The foremost is the degradation of the environment and the increased hazards to traffic. fuelling facilities.5 m. No.0 1.0 2.5 m for 25 passengers thereafter. The needs of the truck drivers who have often to drive for long hours and consequently need rest.750 trucks can be accommodated in a parking area of one hectare. hotel. The right approach is to provide well designed truck terminals at the fringes of the cities. 10.
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