ARMY, MARINE CORPS, NAVY, AIR FORCE

SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND RECOVERY
MULTISERVICE PROCEDURES FOR SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND RECOVERY FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.26

JUNE 1999 AIR LAND SEA APPLICATION CENTER

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

MULTISERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES

QUICK REFERENCE CHECKLIST Decide to Survive!
S U R V I V A L Size up the situation, surroundings, physical condition, equipment. Use all your senses Remember where you are. Vanquish fear and panic. Improvise and improve. Value living. Act like the natives. Live by your wits.

1. Immediate Actions a. Assess immediate situation. THINK BEFORE YOU ACT! b. Take action to protect yourself from nuclear, biological, or chemical hazards (Chapter IX). c. Seek a concealed site. d. Assess medical condition; treat as necessary (Chapter V). e. Sanitize uniform of potentially compromising information. f. Sanitize area; hide equipment you are leaving. g. Apply personal camouflage. h. Move away from concealed site, zigzag pattern recommended. i. Use terrain to advantage, communication, and concealment. j. Find a hole-up site. 2. Hole-Up-Site (Chapter I) a. Reassess situation; treat injuries, then inventory equipment. b. Review plan of action; establish priorities (Chapter VI). c. Determine current location. d. Improve camouflage. e. Focus thoughts on task(s) at hand. f. Execute plan of action. Stay flexible!

Recommend inclusion of this manual in the aviator’s survival vest.

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3. Concealment (Chapter I) a. Select a place of concealment providing (1) Adequate concealment, ground and air. (2) Safe distance from enemy positions and lines of communications (LOC). (3) Listening and observation points. (4) Multiple avenues of escape. (5) Protection from the environment. (6) Possible communications/signaling opportunities. b. Stay alert, maintain security. c. Drink water. 4. Movement (Chapters I and II) a. Travel slowly and deliberately. b. DO NOT leave evidence of travel; use noise and light discipline. c. Stay away from LOC. d. Stop, look, listen, and smell; take appropriate action(s). e. Move from one concealed area to another. f. Use evasion movement techniques (Chapter I). 5. Communications and Signaling (Chapter III) a. Communicate as directed in applicable plans/orders, particularly when considering transmitting in the blind. b. Be prepared to use communications and signaling devices on short notice. c. Use of communications and signaling devices may compromise position. 6. Recovery (Chapter IV) a. Select site(s) IAW criteria in theater recovery plans. b. Ensure site is free of hazards; secure personal gear. c. Select best area for communications and signaling devices. d. Observe site for proximity to enemy activity and LOC. e. Follow recovery force instructions.

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.. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I 1................ and user information........................... Virginia Marine Corps Combat Development Command Quantico...................... EVASION Planning.. Rhode Island Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center Maxwell Air Force Base.......................... 1...................... Evasion............ application............................................. evasion............................................................................3 AFTTP(I) 3-2....................... and Recovery Note: This UNCLASSIFIED publication is designed to provide Service members quick-reference survival.......... implementation plan............................FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50............................ 2............ purpose...................... I-3 Movement ...................... I-3 CHAPTER II NAVIGATION Stay or Move Considerations ..................... II-10 River Travel........................................... II-12 iii ................... and Recovery Multiservice Procedures for Survival...... Evasion............................ 4..... II-10 Ice and Snow Travel ............................. Virginia Navy Warfare Development Command Newport.................................................. 8...............S......... 3... 7.... II-12 Summer Hazards ....... II-1 Travel Considerations......... Army Training and Doctrine Command Fort Monroe...................... and recovery information.........26 FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50..... II-12 Dry Climates... 2........... I-1 Camouflage .. II-11 Mountain Hazards ...................3 AFTTP(I) 3-2........................ 4...... See Appendix B for the scope..................................................... 6...... 3.................... I-1 Shelters ...... 5.... II-1 Navigation and Position Determination .... Alabama 29 JUNE 1999 Survival.........................................................26 U.....

........................................................................................................... Food Procurement..................... 3..................................... 4....................................... Water Preparation and Storage............................. RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING RECOVERY 1................................. 2............. VI-3 Fires ................ Tropical Climates ...................................................... Chemical Conditions .................................... 4............... Food Preparation . 4.................................................... VII-1 2......... II-13 10................................................ 3...................................... II-13 CHAPTER III CHAPTER IV 1................................... VIII-11 CHAPTER IX INDUCED CONDITIONS 1............ IX-7 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B THE WILL TO SURVIVE ..........................9....... 1.................................... IX-1 2........................................................ Signaling .. A-1 PUBLICATION INFORMATION ............. III-2 Responsibilities................................................................. VIII-1 2........... VI-1 Care and Use of Clothing ..................................... VII-1 3.................................................................... V-15 Health and Hygiene ........ VIII-9 3...................................................................................... IV-1 Site Selection................ VI-2 Shelters ............. Water Procurement ............................................. 1.................................................................................................. V-18 CHAPTER VI PERSONAL PROTECTION Priorities ...................................................................................................................................................... Radio Communications (Voice and Data)................. Biological Conditions ................................................................................................. B-2 iv I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX A B ...... IV-1 Site Preparation .... 2........... V-18 Rules for Avoiding Illness......................... VII-7 CHAPTER VIII FOOD 1......... 2............ IX-6 3.......... Food Preservation .......................... V-1 Common Injuries and Illnesses....... Open Seas .... VI-8 CHAPTER VII WATER 1...... Water Requirements ...................... IV-1 CHAPTER V MEDICAL Immediate First Aid Actions ......................................... III-1 2.................................................................. V-9 Plant Medicine...................................... 6........................ 5............................................... IV-1 Recovery Procedures ......................................................... VI-1 Other Protective Equipment........................................ Nuclear Conditions .................. 3................

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(a) Coniferous areas (broad slashes). after-shave lotion. Planning a. (4) Gum and candy (smell is strong or sweet). (3) Neutral or friendly country or area. (8) Staying out of sight. Camouflage patterns (Figure I-1): (1) Blotch pattern. (5) Tobacco (odor is unmistakable). or other cosmetics.Chapter I EVASION 1. (2) Using established procedures. (b) Desert areas (barren). b. Camouflage a. Guidelines for successful evasion include(1) Keeping a positive attitude. 2. (5) Drinking water (DO NOT eat food without water). (3) Following your evasion plan of action. Basic principles: (1) Disturb the area as little as possible. (c) Snow (barren). (2) Slash pattern. (6) Conserving strength for critical periods. (3) Apply personal camouflage. (2) Avoid activity that reveals movement to the enemy. Review the quick reference checklist on the inside cover. (a) Temperate deciduous (leaf shedding) areas. (4) Being patient. (3) Insect repellent (camouflage stick is least scented). (2) Selected area for evasion. b. The following odors stand out and may give an evader away: (1) Scented soaps and shampoos. I-1 . (2) Shaving cream. c. (7) Resting and sleeping as much as possible. d. Where to go (initiate evasion plan of action): (1) Near a suitable area for recovery. (4) Designated area for recovery.

and charcoal. neck. and the under chin. berries. Use scarf. (3) DO NOT over camouflage. (c) Grass (narrow slashes). (4) Remember when using shadows. (c) DO NOT select vegetation from same source. (b) Change camouflage depending on the surroundings. Camouflage Patterns c. (2) Ears. (2) Take advantage of natural concealment: (a) Cut foliage fades and wilts. May use blotched and slash together. dirt. collar. Use dark colors on high spots and light colors on any remaining exposed areas. (d) Use stains from grasses. (3) Combination. netting.(b) Jungle areas (broad slashes). Give special attention to conceal with a scarf or mosquito head net. hands. or mask if available. Position and movement camouflage follows: (1) Avoid unnecessary movement. netting. (4) Light colored hair. I-2 . vegetation. they shift with the sun. Use a hat. Personal camouflage application follows: (1) Face. or coloration methods. BLOTCH SLASH Figure I-1. d. The insides and the backs should have 2 colors to break up outlines. (3) Head. change regularly.

Irregular shape S . rough terrain. (2) Use the military crest. (c) With observable approaches. If travel is necessary (1) Mask with natural cover (Figure I-2). (5) Take the direction finding threat into account before transmitting from shelter.Low silhouette I . (3) Restrict to periods of low light. (3) Be wary of flash floods in ravines and canyons. Use camouflage and concealment. name tags. A moving object is easy to spot. (b) With escape routes (DO NOT corner yourself). rank insignia. etc. Locate carefullyeasy to remember acronym: BLISS. Break up the outline of the body. b. and rocks to keep from forming paths to site. “V” of crotch/armpits. or reduced enemy activity. (4) Conceal with minimal to no preparation.Blend L . B .) and blends with the environment. (6) Ensure overhead concealment. (2) Locate entrances and exits in brush and along ridges. etc. Conduct observation from a prone and concealed position. 3. glasses. Movement a. 4. Shelters a. or (6) (7) (8) (9) Ensure watch alarms and hourly chimes are turned off. wind. ditches. Remove unit patches.Secluded location (1) Choose an area (a) Least likely to be searched (drainages. bad weather.pens). I-3 .Small S . (5) Never expose shiny objects (like a watch.

roads. vehicles. Peripheral vision is more effective for recognizing movement at night and twilight. aircraft. troops.). animals. etc. fires. I-4 . wire. (c) LISTEN for vehicles. (d) SMELL for vehicles. (5) At irregular intervals (a) STOP at a point of concealment. aircraft. buildings. etc. troops. (b) LOOK for signs of human or animal activity (smoke.Figure I-2. weapons. etc. tracks. troops. Watch for trip wires or booby traps and avoid leaving evidence of travel. Ground Movement (4) Avoid silhouetting (Figure I-3). animals.

TRY NOT TO (a) Overturn ground cover. (2) DO NOT break branches. Route selection requires detailed planning and special techniques (irregular route/zigzag) to camouflage evidence of travel.) (5) Pick firm footing (carefully place the foot lightly but squarely on the surface to avoid slipping). In snow country. d. check clothing and equipment for items that could make noise during movement and secure them. I-5 . and sticks.Figure I-3.) (d) Mangle grass and bushes that normally spring back. Some techniques for concealing evidence of travel follows: (1) Avoid disturbing the vegetation above knee level. Break up the human shape or recognizable lines. (Cloth wrapped around feet helps muffle this. b. (c) Make noise by breaking sticks. Avoid Silhouetting (6) Employ noise discipline. leaves. rocks. (4) DO NOT grab small trees or brush. or grass. this creates a path of snowless vegetation revealing your route. (3) Use a walking stick to part vegetation and push it back to its original position. (b) Scuff bark on logs and sticks. (This may scuff the bark or create movement that is easily spotted. c.

downed logs.) leaving less evidence of travel.) (8) Concentrate on defeating the handler if pursued by dogs. (e) Patting out tracks lightly to speed their breakdown or make them look old. (c) Traveling during windy periods. (Figure I-6). (b) Moving before and during precipitation allows tracks to fill in. presenting as low a silhouette as possible (Figure I-4). go over the top. passing under or between lower rails. (Figure I-5) (5) Use same method of observation for railroad tracks that was used for roads. align body parallel to tracks with face down. (7) Secure trash or loose equipmenthide or bury discarded items. Go under fence if unavoidable. (d) Taking advantage of solid surfaces (logs. I-6 . etc. rocks. look for electrical insulators or security devices. etc. DO NOT touch fence. shadows. (Trash or lost equipment identifies who lost it. Cross in a manner leaving your footprints parallel (cross step sideways) to the road. e. (3) Penetrate rail fences.(6) Mask unavoidable tracks in soft footing by (a) Placing tracks in the shadows of vegetation. and snowdrifts. If impractical. cross tracks using a semi-pushup motion. (4) Cross roads after observation from concealment to determine enemy activity. Penetrate obstacles as follows: (1) Enter deep ditches feet first to avoid injury. Next. Cross at points offering concealment such as bushes. crossing at damaged areas. bend in road. (2) Go around chain-link and wire fences. Repeat for the second track.

Rail Fences Figure I-5. Road Crossing I-7 .Figure I-4.

Railroad Tracks WARNING: If 3 rails exist. I-8 .Figure I-6. 1 may be electrified.

(2) DO NOT soil the map by touching the destination. or destroy. food. shelter. Consider the following for maps (in a combat environment): (1) DO NOT write on the map. (4) Supplies available. e. Leave only when (1) Dictated by the threat.Chapter II NAVIGATION Assess the threat and apply appropriate evasion principles. (2) Determine which direction to travel and why. (2) Are certain of your location. (b) Man-made checkpoints. b. Determine your general location by (1) Developing a working knowledge of the operational area. and/or help. (4) Using prominent landmarks. (2) Route of travel. Note: These actions may compromise information if captured. Leave information at your starting point (in a non-combat environment) that includes (1) Destination. Stay with the vehicle/aircraft in a non-combat environment. and have the ability to get there. 2. (3) DO NOT fold in a manner providing travel information. Consider the following if you decide to travel: (1) Follow the briefed evasion plan. d. (3) Using information provided in the map legend. cache. have a known destination. (3) Personal condition. (a) Geographic checkpoints. (3) Decide what equipment to take. 1. (c) Previous knowledge of operational area. c. (2) Using the Rate x Time = Distance formula. (3) Can reach water. Navigation and Position Determination a. II -1 . (4) Convinced rescue is not coming. Stay or Move Considerations a.

(2) Using stick and shadow method to determine a true north-south line (Figure II-1). South is halfway between the hour hand and 12 o’clock position. (b) Northern Hemisphere. II -2 . b. Point the 12 o’clock position on your watch at the sun. (c) Southern Hemisphere. North is halfway between the 12 o’clock position and the hour hand. Stick and Shadow Method (3) Remembering the sunrise/moonrise is in the east and sunset/moonset is in the west. (a) Digital watches.(5) Visualizing map to determine position. and west) by (1) Using compass. Visualize a clock face on the watch. CAUTION: The following methods are NOT highly accurate and give only general cardinal direction. south. Point hour hand at the sun. Figure II-1. east. Determine cardinal directions (north. (4) Using a wristwatch to determine general cardinal direction (Figure II-2).

or match). nail. II -3 . (c) Do the following during travel: •Hold navigator so the shadow aligns with mark of present time (drawn arrow now points to true north). •Secure navigator on flat surface (DO NOT move during set up period). Direction Using a Watch (5) Using a pocket navigator (Figure II-3) (a) Gather the following necessary materials: •Flat writing material (such as an MRE box). Note: The shortest line between base of shadow tip device and curved line is a north-south line. •Connect marks to form an arc. •Pen or pencil. •1-2 inch shadow tip device (a twig.To Determine North/South NORTHERN HEMISPHERE NORTH MID POINT SOUTH MID POINT HOUR HAND HOUR HAND SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE If on daylight saving time subtract one hour from actual time Figure II-2. end construction at sundown. •Indicate north with a drawn arrow.Using A Watch . Do the following: •Attach shadow tip device in center of paper. •Mark tip of shadow every 30 minutes annotating the time. (b) Start construction at sunup.

flat. (d) Remember the navigator is current for approximately CAUTION: The Pocket Navigator is NOT recommended if evading. level nonmetallic surface.1 week. Orient the map by (1) Using a true north-south line (Figure II-5) (a) Unfold map and place on a firm. Figure II-3. Stars c. II -4 . Figure II-4. Pocket Navigator (6) Using the stars (Figure II-4) the (a) North Star is used to locate true north-south line. (b) Southern Cross is used to locate true south-north line.

•Easterly (subtract variation from 360 degrees). (c) Rotate map and compass until stationary index line aligns with the magnetic variation indicated in marginal information. •Westerly (add variation to 360 degrees). Orienting a Map Using a True North-South Line II -5 .(b) Align the compass on a true north-south line. Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating dial compass N N N Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating dial compass Figure II-5.

Star indicates magnetic line on EVC Chart. Map Orientation with Compass Rose II -6 .(2) Using a compass rose (Figure II-6) (a) Place edge of the lensatic compass on magnetic north line of the compass rose closest to your location. 180 Figure II-6. (b) Rotate map and compass until compass reads 360 degrees.

(c) Select area providing maximum satellite reception. f. (b) Positively identify a major land feature and determine a line of position (LOP). Route selection techniques follow: II -7 . (c) Check map orientation each time compass is used.(3) If there is NO compass. (a) DO NOT use GPS for primary navigation. (e) Repeat steps (b) through (d) for other LOPs. e. (d) Conserve GPS battery life. Determine specific location. Figure II-7. Use the compass for night navigation by (1) Setting up compass for night navigation (Figure II-8). (3) Using point-to-point navigation. d. orient map using cardinal direction obtained by the stick and shadow method or the celestial aids (stars) method. Triangulation (a) Try to use 3 or more azimuths. (2) Aligning north-seeking arrow with luminous line and follow front of compass. (1) Global Positioning System (GPS). (b) Use GPS to confirm your position ONLY. (2) Triangulation (resection) with a compass (Figure II-7). (d) Plot the LOP using a thin stick or blade of grass (combat) or pencil line (non-combat).

(3) Straight-line heading as follows: (a) Maintain heading until reaching destination. (c) Resume your route of travel. (b) Contour around obstacle to landmark. Sum is number of clicks to the left of stationary index line. Heading between 180 and 360 degrees. (b) Measure distance by counting the number of paces in a given course and convert to map units. (2) Dogleg and 90 degree offset (Figure II-9). New sum is the number of clicks to the right from stationary index line. Heading of 300 degrees = 20 clicks right. Compass Night Navigation Setup (1) Circumnavigation. EXAMPLES Heading of 027 degrees = 9 clicks left.Setting the Compass for Night Travel Luminous Line North Seeking Arrow Stationary Index 64 Bezel Ring Each click of the Bezel Ring equals 3 degrees. (a) Find a prominent landmark on the opposite side of the obstacle. Figure II-8. subtract heading from 360 then divide sum by 3. II -8 . Heading between 0 and 180 degrees is divided by 3.

(c) Use pace count in conjunction with terrain evaluation and heading to determine location. (b) Intentionally navigated to left or right of target so you know which way to turn at the linear feature. or injured/uninjured condition. (a) Pick out landmarks on the heading and walk the trail of least resistance to a point. Adjust estimation of distance traveled against these factors to get relative accuracy when using a pace count. (4) Deliberate offset is (a) Used when finding a point on a linear feature (that is. road or river). •Distances measured by paces are approximate (example in open terrain. 900 paces per kilometer [average]. (b) On reaching a point. Dogleg and 90 Degree Offset •One pace is the distance covered each time the same foot touches the ground. (5) Point-to-point is same as straight line. An individual’s pace varies because of factors such as steep terrain. II -9 . or example in rough terrain. 1200 paces per kilometer [average]). establish another landmark and continue. day/night travel.N W E 90 0 180 0 90 0 S 1 80 360 0 90 0 original heading O bstacle original heading plus 45 to heading 0 90 0 m inus 45 0 from original heading Figure II-9.

(2) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. Use an oar in deep water. log. c. lakes. It may be a primary mode of travel and LOC in a tropical environment (use with caution if evading). damage. a. d. g. Travel Considerations a. Keep near shore. (3) Rapids (DO NOT attempt to shoot the rapids). (5) Hazardous animals. 4. b. and unfordable rivers: (1) Circumnavigate swamps. etc. Stay near inside edge of river bends (current speed is less).3. Pick the easiest and safest route (non-combat). Go around obstacles. River Travel River travel may be faster and save energy when hypothermia is not a factor. (4) Waterfalls. f. Maintain a realistic pace. pack imbalance. (3) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. Consider using a flotation device when crossing rivers or large/deep streams. take rest stops when needed. d. g. Use a pole to move the raft in shallow water. and bogs if needed. Consider the following for swamps. b. e. e. bamboo. Take special care of feet (change socks regularly). Travel in forested areas if possible. II -10 .). and personal safety. Use flotation device (raft. Consider food and water requirements. j. Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with NO escape in the event of heavy rains. i. Pack equipment to prevent loss. c. f. Travel on trails whenever possible (non-combat). lakes. Watch for the following DANGERS: (1) Snags. k. h. not over or through them. Avoid overdressing and overheating. (2) Sweepers (overhanging limbs and trees).

Ice and Snow Travel Travel should be limited to areas free of hazards. (b) Trees without uphill branches (identifies prior avalanches). II -11 .5. a. (2) Deep soft snow (if movement is necessary. (2) Bitterly cold winds. Obstacles to winter travel follow: (1) Reduced daylight hours (BE AWARE). DO NOT travel in (1) Blizzards. (c) Heavy snow loading on ridge tops. (4) If caught in an avalanche. Figure II-10. b. Travel is easier in early morning or late afternoon near dusk when snow is frozen or crusted. make snowshoes [Figure II-10]). (3) Poor visibility. do the following: (a) Backstroke to decrease burial depth. Improvised Snowshoes (3) Avalanche prone areas to avoid: (a) Slopes 30-45 degrees or greater.

(b) Travel in forested areas if possible. belly crawling.(b) Move hand around face to create air pocket as moving snow slows. Avoid ridge tops during thunderstorms. c. II -12 . Avoid areas prone to avalanches. Summer Hazards (see page II-10. Glacier travel is hazardous and should be avoided. c. Follow the easiest trail possible (non-combat). and unfordable rivers. 8. lakes. Lightning. avoiding— (1) Deep sandy dune areas. (2) Swamps. (a) Circumnavigate swamps. Avalanche. In sand dune areas— (1) Follow hard valley floor between dunes. (a) Weak ice should be expected where— •Rivers are straight. b. items h through k. (c) Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with no escape in the event of heavy rains. •Water vapor rising indicates open or warm areas. (c) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. distribute your weight by laying flat. b. (a) Travel on trails when possible (non-combat). d. (b) Air pockets form when a frozen river loses volume. c. (5) Frozen water crossings. Dry Climates a. (2) Rough terrain. paragraph 3. •Objects protrude through ice. and bogs if needed. or using snowshoes. Mountain Hazards a. 7. Flash floods. •Rivers or streams come together. Travel Considerations. (b) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. •Snow banks extend over the ice.) (1) Dense brush. lakes. DO NOT travel unless certain of reaching the destination using the water supply available. (c) When crossing frozen water. 6. Avoid low areas. Travel at dawn or dusk on hot days.

(2) Sit low in the raft. Using winds (1) Pull in sea anchor. If a sandstorm occurs (1) Mark your direction of travel. (3) Deflate the raft slightly so it rides lower in the water. (3) DO NOT sleep on the trail. 9. Tropical Climates a. f. Find trails— (1) Where 2 streams meet. Avoid obstacles like thickets and swamps. Travel only when it is light. 10. (4) Cover the mouth and nose with a piece of cloth. (4) Exercise caution. they may indicate a pitfall or trap. Using currents (1) Deploy sea anchor (Figure II-11). (Sail aids in making landfall. Sea anchor may be adjusted to make use of existing currents. d. (3) Sit up in raft so body catches the wind. (6) Remain stationary until the storm is over. it may have spines or thorns (use gloves if possible). Part the vegetation to pass through. b. (2) Sit or lie down in direction of travel. e. (2) Use a walking stick to probe for pitfalls or traps. (4) Construct a shade cover/sail (Figure II-12). (3) Try to get to the downwind side of natural shelter.(2) Travel on the windward side of dune ridges. e. Open Seas a. (2) Inflate raft so it rides higher. the enemy uses the trails also.) II -13 . While traveling trails (1) Watch for disturbed areas on game trails. c. b. (2) Where a low pass goes over a range of hills. Avoid grabbing vegetation. DO NOT climb over logs if you can go around them. (5) Protect the eyes.

Figure II-11. (3) Lighter colored reflection on clouds (open water causes dark gray reflections) (in the arctic). (2) Greenish tint in the sky (in the tropics). Shade/Sail Construction c. Making landfall. Sea Anchor Deployment Figure II-12. II -14 . Indications of land are (1) Fixed cumulus clouds in a clear sky or in a cloudy sky where all other clouds are moving.

(a) Odors from swamps and smoke. (11) Select a landing point. (a) Avoid places where waves explode upon rocks. (a) Swim forward on the back of a wave. d. (b) When the seaward wave approaches. (8) In moderate surf. work shoreward in the next trough. (b) Roar of surf/bird cries coming from one direction. from smallest to largest). (c) Parallel shoreline and attempt landfall at a point further down shore. (7) Try to make landfall during the lull between the sets of waves (waves are generally in sets of 7. (3) Secure all gear to body before reaching landfall. Swimming ashore (1) Consider physical condition. (12) After selecting a landing site (a) Face shoreward. (10) If caught in the undertow of a large wave— (a) Remain calm and swim to the surface. (2) Use a flotation aid. (5) Use the sidestroke or breaststroke to conserve strength if thrown from raft. (6) Directional flights of birds at dawn and at dusk. (c) After it passes. (b) Assume a sitting position with feet 2 or 3 feet lower than head to absorb the shock of hitting submerged objects. face it and submerge. (4) Remain in raft as long as possible. (6) Wear footgear and at least 1 layer of clothing. (b) Lie as close to the surface as possible. (9) In high surf. II -15 . (a) Swim shoreward in the trough between waves.(4) Lighter colored water (indicates shallow water). (b) Find a place where waves smoothly rush onto the rocks. (5) The odors and sounds. (b) Make a shallow dive just before the wave breaks to end the ride.

small flows. (c) Deploying a sea anchor for stability.e. Icebergs. (5) Penetrate surf by— (a) Taking down most shade/sails. (1) Use paddles to avoid sharp edges. Rafting ashore (1) Select landing point carefully. (3) Land on the lee (downwind) side of islands or point of land if possible. f. II -16 . (2) Use caution landing when the sun is low and straight in front of you causing poor visibility. CAUTION: DO NOT deploy a sea anchor if traveling through coral. Making sea ice landings on large stable ice flows. (3) Keep raft inflated and ready for use. (b) Using paddles to maintain control. and disintegrating flows are dangerous (ice can cut a raft). (4) Weight down/secure raft so it does not blow away. (2) Store raft away from the ice edge. (4) Head for gaps in the surf line.

b. (8) Use terrain masking to hinder enemy direction finding. f. Listening (use reception times in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces). Make initial contact as soon as possible or as directed in applicable plans/orders. etc. Use data burst if available. g. space blanket. III-1 . Combat. (5) Keep transmissions short (3-5 seconds maximum). e. d. c. Non-combat. instructions of all 1.Chapter III RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING Inventory and review the operating communications and signaling equipment. (1) Use concealment sites (combat) that optimize line of site (LOS). (7) If transmitting in the blind. (6) Move after each transmission (ONLY in combat. (1) Turn off locator beacon. (3) Follow plans/orders for on/off operations. (2) Face recovery asset. Locate spare radio and batteries (keep warm and dry). then as directed in applicable plans/orders. (1) Ensure locator beacon is operational.). Radio Communications (Voice and Data) a. Transmissions. (2) Follow standing plans for on/off operations to conserve battery use. If no immediate contact. (3) Keep antenna perpendicular to intended receiver (Figure III-1). vegetation. ensure a clear LOS towards the equator. (4) DO NOT ground antenna (that is finger on antenna or attaching bolt. (2) Keep it with you to supplement radio communications. if possible).

Radio Transmission Characteristics 2. III-2 . Signaling a. (2) Use as directed in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces. Pyrotechnic signals. (3) Extend over raft's edge before activating. (1) Prepare early (weather permitting).100% 91% 91% 60% 31% 24% 41% 65% Signal Strength/ Operator Orientation 1% Top cone of silence 30-50% 900 30-50% 100% Main lobe Main lobe 100% 30-50% 90 0 30-50% Bottom cone of silence 1% Cut-away Sideview of Antenna Power Distribution Figure III-1.

Strobe/IR lights. consider filters and shields. Figure III-2. (2) If no radio. (1) Materials: (a) Manmade (space blanket. (b) Provide concealment from ground observation. (b) Natural use materials that contrast the color and/or texture of the signaling area (rocks. brush. (a) Maximize visibility from above. signal paulin. (1) Prepare early. Pattern signals (use as directed in applicable plans/orders). c. (3) Conserve battery life. use only with confirmed friendly forces. Note: Produces one residual flash when turned off. parachute). Signal mirror (Figure III-2). (3) Cover when not in use.b. (2) Use as directed by recovery forces. (3) Size (large as possible) and ratio (Figure III-3). (2) Location. III-3 . (1) Use as directed by recovery forces. d. Sighting Techniques Note: Make a mirror from any shiny metal or glass. stomped grass). branches.

(1) DO NOT waste in rough seas or fast moving water.Figure III-3. (2) Conserve unused dye by rewrapping. III-4 . (3) May be used to color snow. Signal Key e. (5) Contrast (use color and shadows). Figure III-4. (6) Pattern signals (Figure III-4). Size and Ratio (4) Shape (maintain straight lines and sharp corners). Sea dye marker.

Non-combat considerations: (1) Use a fire at night. (2) Use smoke for day (tires or petroleum products for dark smoke and green vegetation for light smoke). voice. whistle. Smoke Generator III-5 . Figure III-5. (4) Use audio signals (that is. (Figure III-5) (3) Use signal mirror to sweep horizon. and weapons fire).f.

Assess evidence of human activity at/near the site (in combat). (3) DO NOT approach recovery vehicle until instructed. Pack and secure all equipment. (2) Recovery site characteristics (slope. c. Site Selection a. especially on sloping or uneven terrain. For a landing/ground recovery— (1) Assume a non-threatening posture. Responsibilities a. Follow recovery force instructions. size. b. IV-1 . ground. b. c. (2) Secure weapons and avoid quick movement.Chapter IV RECOVERY 1. 2. Secure loose equipment that could be caught in rotors/propellers. b. c. free of obstructions. a ground-to-air signal may be your only means to effect recovery. b. If no radio. etc. d. c. obstacles. Establish radio contact with recovery forces (if possible). Assist recovery force in identifying your position. (4) Beware of rotors/propellers when approaching recovery vehicle. Stay concealed until recovery is imminent (in combat). boat. Prepare signaling devices (use as directed or as briefed). Be prepared to authenticate as directed in applicable plans/orders. Site Preparation a. Recovery Procedures a. be prepared to report— (1) Enemy activity in the recovery area.). 3. Locate area for landing pick-up. (4) Signal devices available. etc. Maintain communication with recovery forces until recovered. 4. d. e.). Locate several concealment sites around area (in combat). flat and level). Mentally review recovery methods (aircraft. Plan several tactical entry and exit routes (in combat). (3) Number in party/medical situation. if practical (approximately 150 feet diameter.

(3) Sit or kneel for stability while donning device. Figure IV–1. or radio call to signal you are ready. For hoist recovery devices (Figures IV-1 and IV-2)— (1) Use eye protection. (6) Keep hands clear of all hardware and connectors. vigorous cable shake. Rescue Strap IV-2 . (10) DO NOT assist during hoist or when pulled into the rescue vehicle. (2) Allow metal on device to contact the surface before touching to avoid injury from static discharge. Follow crewmember instructions. if available (glasses or helmet visor). (2) Follow the procedures in "d" above. e. (4) Put safety strap under armpits. For nonhoist recovery (rope or unfamiliar equipment)— (1) Create a “fixed loop” big enough to place under armpits (Figure IV-3). (7) DO NOT become entangled in cable.d. (8) Use a thumbs up. (9) Drag feet on the ground to decrease oscillation. (5) Ensure cable is in front of you.

Forest Penetrator IV-3 .Figure IV-2.

Fixed Loop IV-4 .Step 1 Step 2 Figure IV–3.

Immediate First Aid Actions Remember the ABCs of Emergency Care: Airway Breathing Circulation a.Chapter V MEDICAL WARNING: These emergency medical procedures are for survival situations. Figure V-1. and feel for air exchange. listen. Chin Lift V-1 . Determine responsiveness as follows: (1) If unconscious. (c) Open the airway by lifting the chin (Figure V-1). (b) Roll victims onto their backs. (d) Look. 1. (2) If no response— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body. Obtain professional medical treatment as soon as possible. arouse by shaking gently and shouting.

(b) Roll victim on side (drains the mouth and prevents the tongue from blocking airway). (j) With open airway. remove any blockage. •Thrust upward to expel air from stomach. (e) If breaths are blocked. Treat Chest Injuries. You may cause more tissue damage and increase bleeding. (5) If breathing difficulty is caused by chest trauma. try again. CAUTION: DO NOT remove an impaled object unless it interferes with the airway. V-2 . (f) If breaths still blocked. (b) Cover victim's mouth with your own. (d) Fill victim’s lungs with 2 slow breaths. (b) Elevate the wounded area above the heart. (g) Sweep with finger to clear mouth.(3) If victim is not breathing— (a) Check for a clear airway. For travel. paragraph 1d. but breathing— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body. •Check for chest rise each time. (c) Pinch victim’s nostrils closed. Control bleeding as follows: (1) Apply a pressure dressing (Figure V-2). you may shorten and secure the object. refer to page V-7. start mouth to mouth breathing: •Give 1 breath every 5 seconds. b. (h) Try 2 slow breaths again. continue (c) through (f) until successful or exhausted. (i) If the airway is still blocked. give 5 abdominal thrusts: •Straddle the victim. (2) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use direct pressure over the wound. •Place a fist between breastbone and belly button. (4) If victim is unconscious. reposition airway.

Figure V-2. Application of a Pressure Dressing V-3 .

(3) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use a pressure point between the injury and the heart (Figure V-3). (b) Maintain pressure for 6 to 10 minutes before checking to see if bleeding has stopped.

Figure V-3. Pressure Points

V-4

(4) If a limb wound is STILL bleeding— CAUTION: Use of a tourniquet is a LAST RESORT measure. Use ONLY when severe, uncontrolled bleeding will cause loss of life. Recognize that long-term use of a tourniquet may cause loss of limb. (a) Apply tourniquet (TK) band just above bleeding site on limb. A band at least 3 inches (7.5 cm) or wider is best. (b) Follow steps illustrated in Figure V-4. (c) Use a stick at least 6 inches (15 cm) long. (d) Tighten only enough to stop arterial bleeding. (e) Mark a TK on the forehead with the time applied. (f) DO NOT cover the tourniquet. CAUTION: The following directions apply ONLY in survival situations where rescue is UNLIKELY and NO medical aid is available. (g) If rescue or medical aid is not available for over 2 hours, an attempt to SLOWLY loosen the tourniquet may be made 20 minutes after application. Before loosening— •Ensure pressure dressing is in place. •Ensure bleeding has stopped •Loosen tourniquet SLOWLY to restore circulation. •Leave loosened tourniquet in position in case bleeding resumes.

V-5

1. Wrap a wide band around the injured limb. Tie with a square knot.

SQUARE KNOT

2. Pass a stick, bayonet or scabbard through the tourniquet knot.

3. Tighten tourniquet by turning stick just enough to stop arterial bleeding.

4. Bind free end of the stick to keep tourniquet from unwinding.

Figure V-4. Application of a Tourniquet

V-6

c. This occurs when chest wall is penetrated. may cause sucking sound. (6) Place very weak or unconscious victim on side. may create bloody froth as air escapes the chest. (b) Prevent tongue from blocking airway. (c) Insulate from ground. Results from blunt trauma when 3 or more ribs are broken in 2 or more places. (d) Decreased urine output. •DO NOT give fluids if they cause victim to gag.) (1) Identify by one or more of the following: (a) Pale. fast pulse. (a) Remove wet clothing. (a) Immediately seal wound with hand or airtight material. The flail segment is the broken area that moves in a direction opposite to the rest of chest during breathing. (2) Maintain circulation. (4) Maintain normal body temperature. (5) Place conscious victim on back. (d) Lift untapped side of dressing as victim exhales to allow trapped air to escape. (c) Monitor breathing and check dressing. (1) Sucking chest wound. Treat shock. •DO NOT give fluids to an unconscious victim. may cause victim to gasp for breath. and sweaty skin. Treat chest injuries. (c) Anxiety or mental confusion. as necessary. (3) Treat underlying injury. this will— (a) Allow mouth to drain. (b) Tape airtight material over wound on 3 sides only (Figure V-5) to allow air to escape from the wound but not to enter. It may be present with or without visible injury. (b) Give warm fluids. d. cool. V-7 . (Shock is difficult to identify or treat under field conditions. (2) Flail chest. (d) Shelter from the elements. (b) Fast breathing and a weak.

e. (3) Fractured ribs. • Tape pad to site • DO NOT wrap tape around chest. and dislocations. (c) Roll victim onto side of flail segment injury (as other injuries allow).Figure V-5. (1) Control bleeding. and constrictive clothing. jewelry. Sucking Chest Wound Dressing (a) Stabilize the flail segment as follows: • Place rolled-up clothing or bulky pad over site. but necessary to prevent the possible development of pneumonia). (3) If fracture penetrates the skin— V-8 . sprains. (a) Encourage deep breathing (painful. (2) Remove watches. (b) DO NOT constrict breathing by taping ribs. Treat fractures. (b) Have victim keep segment still with hand pressure.

(d) Elevation. (c) Avoid cooling that can cause frostbite or hypothermia. (a) Use immersion or cool compresses. (b) Apply dressing over wound. V-9 . NOT in straight position.(a) Clean wound by gentle irrigation with water. arm-to-chest). CAUTION: Splint fingers in a slightly flexed position. immobilize the bones on both sides of the joint. Burns. parachute cord. (c) Compression. (5) Splint in position found (if unable to straighten limb). (13) Elevate injured area above heart level to reduce swelling. (4) Position limb as normally as possible. (2) Remove watches. (10) Apply cold to acute injuries. (b) Avoid aggressive cooling with ice or frigid water. (9) Use RICES treatment for 72 hours. (e) Stabilization. (15) Loosen bandage or reapply splint if no pulse is felt or if swelling occurs because bandage is too tight. (a) Rest. constrictive clothing. If fracture is in a joint. (6) Improvise a splint with available materials: (a) Sticks or straight. etc. Hand should look like it is grasping an apple. 2. (14) Check periodically for a pulse beyond the injury site. (b) Body parts (for example. jewelry. (8) Keep the fractured bones from moving by immobilizing the joints on both sides of the fracture. stiff materials from equipment. (1) Cool the burned area with water. (a) DO NOT use continuous cold therapy. (7) Attach with strips of cloth. opposite leg. (b) Repeat 3 to 4 times per day. Common Injuries and Illnesses a. (b) Ice. (11) Use 15 to 20 minute periods of cold application. (12) Wrap with a compression bandage after cold therapy.

skin is hot and flushed [sweating may or may not occur]. Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt per quart. fast pulse). and possible reduction in vision caused by sun exposure). (5) DO NOT use lotion or grease. (1) Sun/snow blindness (gritty. Eye injuries. (2) Heat exhaustion (pale. charred material that will cause burned areas to bleed. (b) Drink water. (a) Rest in shade. (c) Use cool compresses to reduce pain. (Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt [if available] to each quart of water. seizures. Heat injury. (1) Heat cramps (cramps in legs or abdomen). •Check after 12 hours. Shock. (4) Cover with sterile dressings. Figure VI-2. V-10 .) (8) Change dressings when soaked or dirty. patch eye for 24 hours and then reattempt removal using steps (a) and (b). (3) Heat stroke (victim disoriented or unconscious.(3) DO NOT remove embedded. (c) Protect from further heat exposure. b. (7) Drink extra water to compensate for increased fluid loss from burns. CAUTION: Handle heat stroke victim gently. cool skin). •Replace patch for another 12 hours if not healed. (a) Irrigate with clean water from the inside to the outside corner of the eye. (2) Foreign body in eye. improvise a small swab. (b) If foreign body is not removed by irrigation. c. moist. (a) Prevent with improvised goggles. (See Chapter VI. Moisten and wipe gently over the affected area. page VI-3. (c) If foreign body is STILL not removed. and cardiac arrest can occur. burning sensation.) (b) Treat by patching affected eye(s). (a) Rest. (b) Drink water. (6) Avoid moving or rubbing the burned part. sweating.

) (b) Maintain airway. •Ears. sleeping bags. • •Insulate from above and below. (b) Protect victim from the environment as follows: •Remove wet clothing. and toes are affected first. •Prevent further heat loss. DO NOT rub frozen tissue. respiratory and cardiac failure. fingers. repeated freezing and thawing causes severe pain and increases damage to the tissue. puffy skin. then frostbite is present.(a) Cool as rapidly as possible (saturate clothing with water and fan the victim). • Intense shivering with impaired ability to perform complex tasks leads to— • •Violent shivering. •Areas will feel cold and may tingle leading to— • •Numbness that progresses to— • ••Waxy appearance with stiff skin that cannot glide freely over a joint. or shelter. (c) Frostbitten areas are deeply frozen and require medical treatment. d. sluggish thinking go to— • ••Muscular rigidity with blue. (2) Hypothermia— (a) Is a progressive injury. and circulation. • •Cover top of head. nose. •Warm with blankets. CAUTION: In frostbite. breathing. Remember to cool the groin and armpit areas. If body heat WILL NOT rewarm area in 15 to 20 minutes. difficulty speaking. (b) Frostnipped areas rewarm with body heat. Cold injuries: (1) Frostnip and frostbite— (a) Are progressive injuries. DO NOT thaw frozen tissue. V-11 . •Put on dry clothing (if available). (Avoid overcooling. jerky movements go to— ••••Coma.

armpits. • •Place heat packs in groin. Skin tissue will be sensitive. Avoid overly rapid rewarming which may cause cardiac arrest. (e) Keep area dry. (b) Keep sores dry. cuffs. (b) Minimize activity. DO NOT use your mouth to create suction. f. (1) Immersion injuries. (d) Loosen boots. and open to air. (d) Clean bite with soap and water. cover with a dressing. (d) DO NOT open or squeeze sores. to improve circulation. (2) Saltwater sores. (2) Poisonous. (b) Pat dry. (a) Avoid walking on affected feet. and around • •Avoid causing burns to skin. etc. (a) Change body positions frequently. Clean and bandage wound. (c) Use antiseptic (if available). warm. CAUTION: This snakebite treatment recommendation is for situations where medical aid and specialized equipment are not available. Skin tissue damage. e.. (1) Nonpoisonous. DO NOT rub. Snakebite. Skin becomes wrinkled as in dishpan hands. Rewarming of victim with skin-to-skin contact by volunteer(s) inside of a sleeping bag is a survival technique but can cause internal temperatures of all to drop. (c) Dry socks and shoes. •Warm central areas before extremities.neck. Keep feet protected. (c) DO NOT cut the bite site. (f) DO NOT apply creams or ointments. CAUTION: Handle hypothermia victim gently. (a) Remove constricting items. V-12 .

(c) Treat for shock as needed. (b) Cover with clean dressing. (1) Stings.(e) Overwrap the bite site with a tight (elastic) bandage (Figure V-6). (j) For conscious victims. Infection. Use soap (if available). (1) Keep wound clean. artificial respiration may be required (page V-1. paragraph 1a). h. (i) Construct shelter if necessary (let the victim rest). (b) Remove jewelry and watches. g. (c) Remove tentacles and gently scrape or shave skin. (e) DO NOT rub area with sand. (a) Flush wound with salt water (fresh water stimulates toxin release). Marine life. (f) Treat for shock. (a) Immerse affected part in hot water or apply hot compresses for 30-60 minutes (as hot as victim can tolerate). force fluids. Check for pulse below the overwrap. (2) Punctures. (d) Apply a steroid cream (if available). (g) DO NOT use urine to flush or treat wounds. i. Skin irritants (includes poison oak and poison ivy). (2) Use iodine tablet solution or diluted betadine to prevent or treat infection. (2) Keep covered to prevent scratching. (h) Position extremity below level of heart. (3) Change bandages as needed. V-13 . (1) Wash with large amounts of water. paragraph 1c). (f) Splint bitten extremity to prevent motion. (g) Treat for shock (page V-7. The intent is to slow capillary and venous blood flow but not arterial flow.

Figure V-6. Compression Bandage for Snake Bite V-14 .

diarrhea. (3) Eat charcoal. (1) DO NOT take laxatives. fever. Willow and aspen trees (Figure V-7). pain. strawberry leaves. (b) Leach out the tannin by soaking or boiling. (4) Treatments. Constipation (can be expected in survival situations). Make a paste by mixing fine charcoal particles with water. (1) Medical uses. Apply cool compresses or soak affected part to relieve itching and promote healing. acorns. Drink strong tea solution (may promote voiding of worms). (3) Preparation. dysentery. Tannin. Plant Medicine a. (c) Skin problems (dry rashes and fungal infections). (b) Diarrhea.) k. or leaves in water. (d) Lice and insect bites. (a) Burns. banana plants.j. Wash affected areas with tea to ease itching. (2) Sources. •Apply compress to burned area. colds. Aches. common plantain. •Pour cooled tea on burned areas to ease pain. (1) Medical uses. Dysentery and diarrhea. b. sprains. skin problems. •Increase tannin content by longer soaking time. •Replace depleted material with fresh bark/plants. and worms. (a) Place crushed outer bark. (2) Use a liquid diet. (1) Drink extra water. Salicin/salicylic acid. inflammation. (2) Exercise. (It may relieve symptoms by absorbing toxins. V-15 . dysentery. and parasites. (3) Drink extra water. (2) Sources. and sore throat (aspirin-like qualities). and blackberry stems. 3. acorns. Tannin solution prevents infection and aids healing. Found in the outer bark of all trees. Burns. •Moisten bandage with cooled tannin tea.

•Hold in place with a dressing. (c) Make poultice of leaves. (a) Gather twigs. buds. (b) Drink tea made from leaves for vitamin and minerals. or cambium for symptom relief.(3) Preparation. and minerals. moist layer between the outer bark and the wood) of willow or aspen. and dysentery. and stings. (a) Brew tea from seeds. (3) Preparation. (c) Use poultice to treat cuts. buds. •Make a pulpy mass. There are over 200 plantain species with similar medicinal properties. (4) Treatments. (b) Gather milky white sap for its papain content. moist poultice for aches and sprains. •Apply pulpy mass over injury. (b) Drink tea for colds and sore throat. Papain. diarrhea. meat tenderizer. (a) Make cuts in unripe fruit. (b) Brew tea from leaves. wounds. (a) Drink tea made from seeds for diarrhea or dysentery. (b) Eat ripe fruit for food. (3) Preparation. or cambium layer (soft. (1) Medical uses. d. (a) Use sap to tenderize tough meat. (2) Source. burns. (c) Use warm. (c) Avoid getting sap in eyes or wounds. (a) Chew on twigs. (2) Source. Itching. (1) Medical uses. •Crush the plant or stems. The common plantain is shown in Figure V-7. Common plantain. (4) Treatments. and a food source. Digestive aid. Fruit of the papaya tree (Figure V-7). (c) Make poultice. (b) Prepare tea as described in paragraph 3a(3). V-16 . stings. vitamins. abrasions. c. (4) Treatments. sores.

(3) Preparation. (c) Collect yellow pollen for flour substitute. burns. Papaya . Useful Plants V-17 E. Wounds. (a) Pound roots into a pulpy mass for a poultice. inflammations. (d) Peel and eat tender shoots (raw or cooked). (b) Use plant for food. and an excellent food source. vitamins. Typical Aspen leaf edible young leaf shoot C.e. (2) Source. Typical Willow leaf 6-16 inches tall edible pollen B. A. and minerals. Common Cattail. (4) Treatments. (1) Medical uses. boils. Cattail plant found in marshes (Figure V-7). (b) Cook and eat green bloom spikes. (a) Apply poultice to affected area. Plantain Figure V-7. Cattail ground level edible rootstalk D. sores.

d. sand. (d) Use adhesive tape/mole skin to prevent damage.4. (a) Check body regularly.) (2) Comb and clean debris from hair. or boiling for 5 minutes. (Use white ashes. (1) Minimize infection by washing. V-18 . or loamy soil as soap substitutes. c. b. dry. (3) Use smoke to fumigate clothing and equipment. and massage. h. (4) Clean and protect feet. Try to get 7-8 hours sleep per day. g. Clean all eating utensils after each meal. (2) Wash clothing and use repellents. (3) Cleanse mouth and brush teeth. bleach. (b) Pick off insects and eggs (DO NOT crush). etc. (d) Gargle with salt water to help prevent sore throat and aid in cleaning teeth and gums. and clothing. f. netting. ticks. Health and Hygiene a. Eat varied diet. (a) Use hardwood twig as toothbrush (fray it by chewing on one end then use as brush). (1) Check body for lice. 5. Rules for Avoiding Illness a. e. Locate latrines 200 feet from water and away from shelter. Exercise daily. (b) Use single strand of an inner core string from parachute cord for dental floss. Prevent and control parasites. Purify all water obtained from natural sources by using iodine tablets. Prevent insect bites by using repellent. (c) Check frequently for blisters and red areas. Dry wet clothing as soon as possible. (a) Change and wash socks (b) Wash. (c) Use clean finger to stimulate gum tissues by rubbing. Wash hands before preparing food or water. c. Stay clean (daily regimen). fleas. b.

Chapter VI PERSONAL PROTECTION 1. Keep clothing dry to maintain its insulation qualities (dry damp clothing in the sun or by a fire). (2) Remove wet clothing and rewarm by fire. Second 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct necessary tools and weapons. d. VI-1 . (2) Procure water. (3) Establish multiple survival signals. (1) Use salt water. Care and Use of Clothing a. f. Wear loose and layered clothing. b. g. Keep entire body covered to prevent sunburn and dehydration in hot climates. Dampen clothing when on the ocean in hot weather. NOT drinking water. (1) Tight clothing restricts blood flow regulating body temperature. If you fall into the water in the winter— (1) Build fire. 2. (2) Dry clothing before dark to prevent hypothermia. Avoid overheating. (3) Wear a hat when in direct sunlight (in hot environment). then accomplish individual tasks accordingly. (3) Finish drying clothing by fire. c. (2) Procure food. Never discard clothing. (4) Build Fire. c. e. When fully clothed. Evaluate available resources and situation. the majority of body heat escapes through the head and neck areas. (1) Remove layers of clothing before strenuous activities. First 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct survival shelter according to selection criteria. b. (2) Use a hat to regulate body heat. (2) Layers create more dead air space. Priorities a.

tape. (1) Fluff before use. (3) Center foot on triangle with toes toward corner. i. 3. Examine clothing frequently for damage. (5) Fold side corners. (1) DO NOT sit or lie directly on the ground. over the instep.h. (2) Allow wet clothes to freeze. (b) Safety pins. (3) Repair when necessary by using— (a) Needle and thread. Other Protective Equipment a.. (2) Air and dry daily to remove body moisture. If no fire is available— (1) Remove clothing and get into sleeping bag (if available). especially at foot of bag. (3) Break ice out of clothing. (2) Wash clothing whenever possible. (c) Tape. one at a time. (2) Fold into a triangle. Improvised foot protection (Figure VI-1). or tuck into other layers of material. Sleeping bag. (6) Secure by rope. vines. (1) Cut 2 to 4 layers of cloth into a 30-inch square. Figure VI-1 Improvised Foot Wear (4) Fold front over the toes. Keep clothing clean (dirt reduces its insulation qualities). j. etc. VI-2 .

Gaiters (Figure VI-3). leaves. etc. Figure VI-2. (2) Available food and water. Sun and Snow Goggles c. insects. Gaiters 4. dry moss. (1) Near signal and recovery site. Used to protect from sand. Shelters Evasion considerations apply. (2) Improvise by cutting small horizontal slits in webbing. dry grass. and scratches (wrap material around lower leg and top of boots).(3) Improvise with available material. bark. snow. (1) Wear in bright sun or snow conditions. (3) Avoid natural hazards: VI-3 . or similar materials. a. Figure VI-3. Sun and snow goggles (Figure VI-2). b. Site selection.

(b) Drainage and dry river beds except in combat areas. Temperate climates require any shelter that gives protection from wind and rain. (c) Avalanche areas. Snow Cave. (3) Thermal A Frame. (4) Location large and level enough to lie down in. b. your snow shelter is too warm and should be cooled down to preclude melting and dripping. Types. (b) Air vent is required to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning when using an open flame inside enclosed shelters. Find shelter needing minimal improvements (Figure VI-4). Snow Trench. (a) Snow is the most abundant insulating material. unless you can see your breath. VI-4 . (Figures VI-5 through VI-7). insulated shelter. Cold climates require an enclosed. (1) Immediate shelters. Note: As a general rule. Figure VI-4. Immediate Shelters (2) General shelter.(a) Dead standing trees.

Thermal A Frame Figure VI-6.Figure VI-5. Snow Trench VI-5 .

arrange them in layers starting at the bottom with each layer overlapping the previous one. White is the best color to reflect heat (inner most layer should be of darker material). a minimum of 2 layers of material suspended 12-18 inches above the head is required. (b) For thermal protection. (a) To reduce the surface temperature. c. (2) Cover with available material. Snow Cave (4) Shade shelter. (5) Elevated platform shelter (Figure VI-9). Shelter construction. Tropical/wet climates require enclosed. (a) If natural materials are used. elevated shelter for protection from dampness and insects. (1) Have entrance 45-90 degrees from prevailing wind. the shelter floor should be elevated or dug down (approximately 18 inches).Figure VI-7. VI-6 . Hot climates require a shade shelter to protect from ultraviolet rays (Figure VI-8). See Figure VI-10 for an example.

Poncho/Parachute Shade Shelter Figure VI-9. Shingle Method VI-7 . Elevated Platform Shelter Figure VI-10.Figure VI-8.

(9) Sand and rocks. etc. (b) Flint and steel (experiment with various rocks and metals until a good spark is produced). 5. (e) Pyrotechnics. Fire building. e. (7) Grass and sod. The 3 essential elements for starting a fire are heat. (1) Heat sources: (a) Matches or lighter. (4) Sheet of plastic or plastic bag. or dry moss. etc. (2) Vehicle or aircraft parts. (2) Use fires at dusk. fuel. (3) Use fires at times when the local populace is cooking.— (b) If using porous material like parachute. such as flares (last resort). (5) Bark peeled off dead trees. (d) Concentrated sunlight (use magnifying glass or flashlight reflectors). broad leaves. and oxygen. Construct a bed to protect from cold. Evasion considerations: (1) Use trees or other sources to dissipate smoke. Bed construction. (3) Blankets. (c) Sparks from batteries. (8) Snow. Shelter construction materials: (1) Raft and raft parts. b. poncho. or during inclement weather. d. dry moss. damp. or parachute material. dawn. leaves.• Stretch as tight as possible • Use a 40–60 degree slope. a. (6) Boughs. • Use additional layers in heavy rain. ground using— (1) Raft or foam rubber from vehicle seats. Fires CAUTION: Weigh hazards and risks of detection against the need for a fire. blankets. (2) Boughs. VI-8 .

• Foam rubber. and fuel. • Candle (shred the wick. saturate with Vaseline. fork. (To get tinder to burn hotter and longer. (2) Fuel is divided into 3 categories: tinder. not the wax). Tinder must be very finely shaved or shredded to provide a low combustion point and fluffed to allow oxygen to flow through. Without prior training. etc. Figure VI-11. Chapstick.) (a) Tinder. kindling. carry a fire-starting device with you.(f) Friction method (Figure VI-11). aircraft fuel. • Plastic spoon. insect repellant. Friction Method Note: If possible.) Examples of tinder include— • Cotton. this method is difficult to master and requires a lot of time to build the device. or knife. (Gather large amounts of each category before igniting the fire. VI-9 .

Kindling must be small enough to ignite from the small flame of the tinder. • Bamboo (open chambers to prevent explosion). VI-10 . Use the log cabin fire to produce large amounts of light and heat. c. and provide coals for cooking. Use the tepee fire to produce a concentrated heat source for cooking. •Dry grasses. lighting. to dry out wet wood. Figure VI-12. or signaling. •Petroleum products. Gradually add larger kindling until arriving at the size of fuel to burn. (b) Kindling. (c) Fuel. etc.•Dry bark. Fires are built to meet specific needs or uses. •Gun powder. (1) Tepee fire (Figure VI-12). • Dry dung. Tepee Fire (2) Log cabin fire (Figure VI-13). Types. Examples of fuel include— • Dry hardwood (removing bark reduces smoke). •Pitch.

CAUTION: DO NOT use porous rocks or riverbed rock—they may explode when heated. Figure VI-14. Build fires against rocks or logs.Figure VI-13. Use fire reflectors to get the most warmth from a fire. Sod Fire and Reflector VI-11 . Log Cabin or Pyramid Fires (3) Sod fire and reflector (Figure VI-14).

Dakota Fire Hole (5) Improvised stoves (Figure VI-16).(4) Dakota fire hole (Figure VI-15). Improvised Stove VI-12 . Figure VI-15. These are very efficient. Figure VI-16. Use the Dakota fire hole for high winds or evasion situations.

or an illness increases water loss. (a) Abundance of lush green vegetation. • Lowers body temperature. DO NOT drink— (1) Urine. sleet) (FigureVII-1). heat. (2) Precipitation (rain. (c) “V” intersecting game trails often point to water. snow. injury. Water Procurement a. (5) Snow or ice. and springs). (6) Melted water from new sea ice. b. (4) Sea water. lakes. (2) Fish juices.Chapter VII Water 1. • Induces dehydration. • Causes minor cold injury to lips and mouth. VII-1 . (d) Presence of swarming insects indicates water is near. (a) DO NOT eat ice or snow. (e) Bird flight in the early morning or late afternoon might indicate the direction to water. (5) Alcohol. Minimum 2 quarts per day to maintain fluid level. Exertion. Water sources: (1) Surface water (streams. Water Requirements Drink extra water. 2. (4) Ground water (when no surface water is available) (Figure VII-2). Note: Pale yellow urine indicates adequate hydration. dew. (3) Subsurface (wells and cisterns). (3) Blood. (b) Drainages and low-lying areas.

Water Indicators VII-2 .Figure VII-1. Water Procurement Figure VII-2.

Old Sea Ice or Icebergs OLD SEA ICE NEW SEA ICE Bluish or blackish Milky or grey Shatters easily Does not break easily Rounded corners Sharp edges Tastes relatively salt-free Tastes extremely salty VII-3 .(b) Melt with fire. Figure VII-3. • Catch rain in spray shields and life raft covers. • Drink as much as possible. (b) Precipitation. • Use waterproof container. • Collect dew off raft. • Stir frequently to prevent damaging container. Table VII-1. (c) Melt with body heat. • Speed the process by adding hot rocks or water. Water Generator (6) Open seas. (d) Use a water generator (Figure VII-3). (a) Water available in survival kits. • DO NOT place next to the skin. • Place between layers of clothing. (c) Old sea ice or icebergs (Table VII-1).

cut as large a piece of vine as possible (cut the top first). cut off 6 inches of opposite end. VII-4 . • •Shake and listen for water. • • When water flow stops.(7) Tropical areas. Leaning Tree •Banana plants. • • Cut bark (DO NOT use milky sap). color. • • If juice is clear and water like. water will flow again. • • Tap before dark. •Leaning Tree. Figure VII-4. • • Pour into hand to check smell. bore into the roots and collect water. •Water trees (avoid milky sap). • • DO NOT touch vine to lips. • • For evasion situations. (a) All open sources previously mentioned. • Vines (Figure VII-5A). (b) Vegetation. • •Bore hole at bottom of section to obtain water. • • Produce most water at night. • Old bamboo. Cloth absorbs rain running down tree and drips into container (Figure VII-4). •Plants with hollow sections can collect moisture. and taste to determine if drinkable. Let sap stop running and harden during the daytime.

•Beach well. Beach Well VII-5 . obtain water by digging a beach well (Figure VII-6). Water Vines and Green Bamboo CAUTION: Liquid contained in green coconuts (ripe coconuts may cause diarrhea). Along the coast.• •Cut out entire section to carry with you. • •Filter and purify. Figure VII-6. • Green bamboo (Figure VII-5B). Figure VII-5 A and B.

(8) Dry areas. •Water bag must be clear. (a) Solar still (Figure VII-7). (b) Vegetation bag (Figure VII-8). •Water will taste like the plant smells. Vegetation Bag (c) Transpiration bag (Figure VII-9). Solar Still Figure VII-8. VII-6 . Figure VII-7.

Transpiration Bag Figure VII-10. (2) Purify all other water. Seepage Basin 3. Purification. Filtration. VII-7 . Filter through porous material (sand/charcoal).(d) Seepage basin (Figure VII-10). Water Preparation and Storage a. (a) Boil at least 1 minute. CAUTION: DO NOT use poisonous/toxic plants in vegetation/ transpiration bags. b. (1) Water from live plants requires no further treatment. Figure VII-9.

(2) Put in clear container and expose to the sun’s ultraviolet rays to kill bacteria. d. (2) Prophylactic. Storage. Follow instructions on package. (1) If water cannot be purified. obtain water from a clear. (b) Pour from one container to another to improve taste VII-8 . cold. Potable Water. covered or sealed container. (3) Section of bamboo. To prevent contamination.(c) Water purification tablets. (4) Flotation gear. use a clean. (1) Trash bag. and fast running source (if possible). c. to aerate. clean.

Procurement techniques. watering. Figure VIII-1. Fishing Locations (4) Reptiles and amphibians are found almost worldwide. (2) Birds can be found by— (a) Observing the direction of flight in the early morning and late afternoon (leads to feeding. b. (5) Insects are found— (a) In dead logs and stumps. VIII-1 . feeding. (b) Listening for bird noises (indication of nesting areas (3) Fish and other marine life locations (Figure VIII-1). (b) Droppings or tracks look fresh. (c) On ponds. and roosting areas). (b) At ant and termite mounds. and bedding areas. (1) Mammals can be found where— (a) Trails lead to watering. and slow moving streams. Sources and location. (1) Snares— (a) Work while unattended. Food Procurement a. lakes.Chapter VIII FOOD 1.

•Avoid disturbing the area. and the animal’s escape. • To construct a squirrel pole (Figure VIII-4) use simple loop snares. (d) Placement of snares (set as many as possible). • •Once tightened. Snare Placement (c) Construction of simple loop snare. •Mouth of dens (Figure VIII-2). •Use materials that will not break under the strain of holding an animal. •Use a figure 8 (locking loop) if wire is used (Figure VIII-3). Figure VIII-2. and bedding areas. • Make noose opening slightly larger than the animal's head (3-finger width for squirrels. •Use funneling (natural or improvised) (Figure VIII-5). preventing reopening. VIII-2 . the wire locks in place.(b) Location: •Trails leading to water. fist-sized for rabbits). feeding.

Funneling VIII-3 . Squirrel Pole Figure VIII-5. Locking Loop Figure VIII-4.Figure VIII-3.

Procurement Devices (4) Hunting and fishing devices. (b) Spear. VIII-4 . (d) Pole. (d) Be ready to kill the animal. Figure VIII-6. (f) Trap. (See Figure VIII-7 for fishing procurement methods. (e) Net. and hook. (2) Noose stick (easier and safer to use than the hands). it may be dangerous. line.) (a) Club or rock. (3) Twist stick (Figure VIII-6).met. binding the animal's hide in the fork. (c) Slingshot. (a) Insert forked stick into a den until something soft is (b) Twist the stick. (c) Remove the animal from the den.

slimy gills. •Pale. (i) Avoid cone-shaped shells (Figure VIII-8). (b) Avoid reaching into dark holes. •Flabby skin. (c) Kill animals before handling. (e) Kill fish before bringing them into the raft. VIII-5 . (d) DO NOT secure fishing lines to yourself or the raft. (h) Avoid all crustaceans above the high tide mark.Figure VIII-7. •Flesh that remains dented when pressed. •Unpleasant odor. Procurement Methods (5) Precautions: (a) Wear shoes to protect the feet when wading in water. Animals in distress may attract the enemy. (f) DO NOT eat fish with— •Spines. (g) DO NOT eat fish eggs or liver (entrails). •Sunken eyes.

for example: •Centipedes. (k) Avoid poisonous insects. swelling. such as— •Flies. Cone-Shaped Shells of Venomous Snails (j) Avoid hairy insects. blindness and possible death in a few hours. VIII-6 . •Poisonous spiders. paralysis.Cone shell Warning! These snails can sting and cause acute pain. •Mosquitoes. the hairs could cause irritation or infection. •Ticks. (l) Avoid disease carrying insects. •Scorpions. Terebra shell Figure VIII-8.

fine hairs. (h) Old or wilted leaves. (e) Bulbs (only onions smell like onions). nausea. Prickly pear and thistles are exceptions.) requires more than 24 hours to test. Before using the following guide use your evasion chart to identify edible plants: Note: If you cannot positively identify an edible plant and choose to try an unknown plant. ensure there are enough plants to make testing worth your time and effort. leaves. (a) Before testing for edibility. however. (b) Spines.) (k) Almond scent in woody parts and leaves. eat in moderation. or black spurs. (2) Avoid plants with the following characteristics: Note: Using these guidelines in selecting plants for food may eliminate some edible plants. (i) Plants with shiny leaves. Bracken fern fiddleheads also violate this guideline. bark. etc. (f) Grain heads with pink. Even after testing food and finding it safe. these guidelines may help determine edibility. (b) Test only 1 part of 1 plant at a time. (g) Beans. (c) Remember that eating large portions of plant food on an empty stomach may cause diarrhea. or cramps. (d) Umbrella shaped flowers (hemlock is eliminated). and thorns (skin irritants/contact dermatitis). bulbs. or seeds inside pods. (j) White and yellow berries. DO NOT waste time testing a plant that is not abundant. (Aggregate berries such as black and dewberries are always edible.c. (a) Milky sap (dandelion has milky sap but is safe to eat and easily recognizable). Plant Foods. VIII-7 . (1) Selection criteria. (c) Mushrooms and fungus. Each part of a plant (roots. purplish. Two good examples are green apples and wild onions. these guidelines will help prevent choosing potentially toxic plants. test all others before eating. stems.

(1) Test only 1 part of a plant at a time. place the plant on your tongue and hold it for 15 minutes. (6) During testing. If any ill effects occur. buds. (8) Before placing the prepared plant in your mouth. The same part or plant may produce varying reactions in different individuals. Wait another 8 hours. thoroughly chew a pinch and hold it in your mouth for 15 minutes (DO NOT SWALLOW). (7) Select a small portion of a single part and prepare it the way you plan to eat it. smell alone does not indicate a plant is edible or inedible. Remember. (4) DO NOT eat 8 hours before the test and drink only purified water. If any ill effects occur during this period. Test procedures. test for contact poisoning by placing a piece of the plant on the inside of your elbow or wrist. swallow the food and wait 8 hours. NEVER ASSUME a part that proved edible when cooked is edible raw. take NOTHING by mouth EXCEPT purified water and the plant you are testing. If no ill effects occur.d. induce vomiting and drink a water and charcoal mixture. roots. The sap or juice should contact the skin. test the part raw before eating. the plant part as prepared is safe for eating. (12) If no ill effects occur. (11) If nothing abnormal occurs. touch a small portion (a pinch) to the outer surface of your lip to test for burning or itching. Some plants have both edible and inedible parts. rinse out your mouth with water. (9) If after 3 minutes there is no reaction on your lip. Usually 15 minutes is enough time to allow for a reaction. CAUTION: Test all parts of the plant for edibility. and flowers). (2) Separate the plant into its basic components (stems. eat ¼ cup of the same plant prepared the same way. (5) During the 8 hours you abstain from eating. (3) Smell the food for strong acid odors. (10) If there is no reaction. VIII-8 .

•Save inner organs (heart. ripe fruits. a. rather than color. (b) Wash when ready to use. (1) Mammals. is the best indicator of ripeness. Butchering and skinning. 3. brain. remove it from the bones. and kidneys) and all meaty parts of the skull.CAUTION: 1. Softness. Small Game Skinning VIII-9 . you may not be able to cook. (a) One cut skinning of small game (Figure VIII-9). tongue. •Remove the intestines. •Avoid rupturing the intestines. Cook underground portions when possible to reduce bacterial contamination and ease digestion of their generally high starch content. liver. 2. •Open the abdominal cavity. During evasion. Food Preparation Animal food gives the greatest food value per pound. and above ground ripe vegetables not requiring significant preparation. (a) Remove the skin and save for other uses. (d) Unused or inedible organs and entrails may be used as bait for other game. Cook unripe fruits and discard seeds and skin. (c) If preserving the meat. and eyes. 2. Ripe tropical fruits should be peeled and eaten raw. Concentrate your efforts on leafy green plants. Figure VIII-9.

(2) Baking. and scavenger birds. DO NOT save. (b) Drop heated rocks into containers to boil water or broth). Cooking. Saltwater fish may be eaten raw. (b) Protect from flies. snails. (d) Remove gills to prevent spoilage. (a) Scale (if necessary) and gut fish soon after it is caught. (3) Fish. head with 2 inches of body. (b) Bury food in dirt under coals of fire. thoroughly cook all wild game. (a) Wrap in leaves or pack in mud. (4) Birds.(2) Frogs and snakes. berries. freshwater fish.) (b) Recommend cooking grasshopper-size insects. (1) Boiling (most nutritious method of cooking—drink the (a) Make metal cooking containers from ration cans. and most nuts can be eaten raw. (6) Fruits. (a) Gut soon after killing. mussels. crawfish. (The rest is edible. CAUTION: To kill parasites. (c) Skin or pluck them. cook food. b. (a) Skin. (c) Remove entrails. (d) Skin scavengers and sea birds. clams. (b) Discard skin. and internal organs. (b) Insert knifepoint into anus of fish and cut open the belly. (a) Remove all hard portions such as the legs of grasshoppers or crickets. VIII-10 . CAUTION: Dead insects spoil rapidly. (5) Insects.

(3) Remove fat. repeat process until palatable. (b) Second method: •Boil. pour off water. (4) Roasting. (2) Short term. (c) Wrap food in absorbent material such as cotton and re-wet as the water evaporates.(3) Leaching. they produce soot giving the meat an undesirable taste. (b) Frozen food will not decompose (freeze in meal-size portions). c. and taste the plant. (2) Cut or pound meat into thin strips. (b) Roast thinly sliced meat and insects over a candle. particularly in shady areas or along streams. however. is cooler than the surface. (a) Food wrapped in waterproof material and placed in a stream remains cool in summer months. Keeping an animal alive. (a) Shake shelled nuts in a container with hot coals. VIII-11 . Some nuts (acorns) must be leached to remove the bitter taste of tannin. boiling water is sometimes best. •If bitter. •Crushing and pouring water through. (b) Earth below the surface. Food Preservation b. •Discarding water. c. (1) Use salt to improve flavor and promote drying. Cold water should be tried first. (a) Food buried in snow maintains a temperature of approximately 32 degrees F. Refrigerating. Drying and smoking removes moisture and preserves food. Use one of the following leaching methods: (a) First method: •Soaking and pouring the water off. (1) Long term. (4) DO NOT use pitch woods such as fir or pine. 3.

VIII-12 . (a) Use clean material. (d) Wrap soft fruits and berries in leaves or moss. Soft material acts as insulation helping keep the meat cool. (1) Wrapping food. and shrimp in wet seaweed. (a) Wrap before flies appear in the morning. (b) Wrap pieces individually. (b) Cover during daylight hours to protect from insects. (b) Place meat in fabric or clothing for insulation. e. (2) Hanging meat. (c) Place meat inside the pack for carrying.d. it attracts unwanted animals. (d) Carry shellfish. Protecting meat from animals and insects. (c) Ensure all corners of the wrapping are insect proof. (a) Hang meat in the shade. DO NOT store food in the shelter. (3) Packing meat on the trail. crabs.

Nuclear Conditions CAUTION: Radiation protection depends on time of exposure. (a) Seek existing shelter that may be improved (Figure IX-1).Chapter IX INDUCED CONDITIONS (NUCLEAR. and shielding. a. distance from the source. Immediate Action Shelter IX-1 . BIOLOGICAL. Figure IX-1. (1) FIND PROTECTIVE SHELTER IMMEDIATELY! (2) Gather all equipment for survival (time permitting). (3) Avoid detection and capture. AND CHEMICAL CONSIDERATIONS) 1. Protection.

follows: (b) If no shelter is available. dig a trench or foxhole as •Dig trench deep enough for protection. then enlarge for comfort (Figure IX-2). •Cover with available material. Improvised Shelter IX-2 . Parachute or other suitable material Wind Enough room to work 3 Feet Minimum Figure IX-2.

give close attention to fingernails and hairy parts. or underground sources are safest. wells. DO NOT look at fireball! Remain prone until blast effects are over. b. DO NOT smoke! 4-6 3-7 8 DAILY RADIATION TIME TABLE for NO RATE METER 9-12 2-4 hours exposure per day Complete isolation 13 Normal movement. Good Weather: Bury contaminated clothing outside of shelter (recover later). No Water: Wipe all exposed skin surfaces with clean cloth or uncontaminated soil.0 inches 2. as soon as possible.7 inches Cinder Block 5. 3 or more feet of earth.3 inches One thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2. NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS: Fall flat.3 inches Ice 6.2 inches Wood (Soft) 8. DO NOT wring out! PERSONAL HYGIENE: Wash entire body with soap and any water. Fallout/dusty conditions--keep entire body covered. Priority: (1) Cave or tunnel covered with (5) Abandoned stone/mud buildings. IX-3 . Present minimal profile to direction of blast. •Water in pipes/containers in abandoned buildings.8 inches 2. SHELTER SURVIVAL: Keep contaminated materials out of shelter. keep warm. Substance: (1) Water. 5 minutes unsheltered is maximum! (4) Basements. Additional thickness added to any amount of thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2. Rinse and /or shake wet clothing. (a) Water sources (in order of preference): •Springs. Bad Weather: Shake strongly or beat with branches. •Snow (6 or more inches below the surface during the fallout). Keep handkerchief/cloth over mouth and nose. (3) Culverts. SHELTER: Pick. Allow no more than 30 minutes exposure on 3d day for water procurement. Brief exposure (30 minutes maximum) Brief exposure (1 hour maximum) Figure IX-3.8 inches Snow 20. Radiation Shielding Efficiencies (5) Leave contaminated equipment and clothing near shelter for retrieval after radioactive decay. sleep. and rest. Cover exposed body parts.(4) Radiation shielding efficiencies (Figure IX-3). Improvise goggles. (6) Foxhole 4 feet deep (remove topsoil (2) Storm/storage cellars within 2 feet radius of foxhole lip). (6) Lie down.3 inches 3. RADIATION SHIELDING EFFICIENCIES Iron/Steel Brick Concrete Earth .

•Aquatic food sources (use only in extreme emergencies because of high concentration of radiation). turnips. wash and wipe containers before use. (2) Food. (b) Water preparation (Figures IX-4 and IX-5). •Shells of all eggs (contents will be safe to eat). etc. (b) Animal foods. •Skin carefully to avoid contaminating the meat. (a) Processed foods (canned or packaged) are preferred. leaving at least 1/8 inch of meat on the bone. potatoes. •Smooth skinned vegetables. •Lakes. etc. water). pools. •Streams and rivers (filtered before drinking). •Before cooking. (d) Plant foods (in order of preference). •Milk from animals. •Cook all meat until very well done. •Edible portions growing above ground that can be washed and peeled or skinned (bananas. etc.). •Purify all water sources. (c) Avoid. carrots. •Discard all internal organs.). •Filtering through earth removes 99 percent of radioactivity. fruits. •Plants whose edible portions grow underground (for example.•Use a seep well. •Avoid animals that appear to be sick or dying. •Water from below the surface (DO NOT stir up the IX-4 . apples. cut meat away from the bone. or above ground plants that are not easily peeled or washed. ponds. Wash and remove skin.

Figure IX-4. Filtration Systems, Filtering Water

Figure IX-5. Filtration Systems, Settling Water
IX-5

c. Self-aid: (1) General rules: (a) Prevent exposure to contaminants. (b) Use personal hygiene practices and remove body waste from shelter. (c) Rest, avoid fatigue. (d) Drink liquids. (2) Wounds. (a) Clean affected area. (b) Use antibacterial ointment or cleaning solution. (c) Cover with clean dressing. (d) Watch for signs of infection. (3) Burns. (a) Clean affected area. (b) Cover with clean dressing. (4) Radiation sickness (nausea, weakness, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of hair, radiation burns). (a) Time is required to overcome. (b) Rest. (c) Drink fluids. (d) Maintain food intake. (e) Prevent additional exposure. 2. Biological Conditions a. Clues which may alert you to a biological attack follow: (1) Enemy aircraft dropping objects or spraying. (2) Breakable containers or unusual bombs, particularly those bursting with little or no blast, and muffled explosions. (3) Smoke or mist of unknown origin. (4) Unusual substances on the ground or vegetation; sick looking plants or crops. b. Protection from biological agents follow: (1) Use protective equipment. (2) Bathe as soon as the situation permits. (3) Wash hair and body thoroughly with soap and water. (4) Clean thoroughly under fingernails. (5) Clean teeth, gums, tongue, and roof of mouth frequently.

IX-6

c. Survival tips for biological conditions follow: (1) Keep your body and living area clean. (2) Stay alert for clues of biological attack. (3) Keep nose, mouth, and skin covered. (4) Keep food and water protected. Bottled or canned foods are safe if sealed. If in doubt, boil food and water for 10 minutes. (5) Construct shelter in a clear area, away from vegetation, with entrance 90 degrees to the prevailing wind. (6) If traveling, travel crosswind or upwind (taking advantage of terrain to stay away from depressions). 3. Chemical Conditions a. Detecting. (1) Smell. Many agents have little or no odor. (2) Sight. Many agents are colorless: (a) Color. Yellow, orange, or red smoke or mist. (b) Liquid. Oily, dark patches on leaves, ground, etc. (c) Gas. Some agents appear as a mist immediately after shell burst. (d) Solid. Most solid state agents have some color. (3) Sound. Muffled explosions are possible indications of chemical agent bombs. (4) Feel. Irritation to the nose, eyes, or skin and/or moisture on the skin are danger signs. (5) Taste. Strange taste in food or water indicates contamination. (6) General indications. Tears, difficult breathing, choking, itching, coughing, dizziness. (7) Wildlife. Presence of sick or dying animals. b. Protection against chemical agents follows: (1) Use protective equipment. (2) Avoid contaminated areas. (a) Exit contaminated area by moving crosswind. (b) Select routes on high ground. (c) Avoid cellars, ditches, trenches, gullies, valleys, etc. (d) Avoid woods, tall grasses, and bushes as they tend to hold chemical agent vapors.

IX-7

(1) If a chemical defense ensemble is available— (a) Use all protective equipment. d. (b) Rinse contaminated areas with water. Self-aid in chemically contaminated areas. IX-8 . Burying. handkerchief. dead fish. (c) Improvise a breathing filter using materials available (T-shirt. (3) Keep food and water protected. fabric. etc. c. Pinch-blotting. or animals). (b) Follow antidote directions when needed. (4) DO NOT use plants for food or water in contaminated areas. •Destroying. (2) Look for signs of chemical agents around water sources before procurement (oil spots. foreign odors.(e) Decontaminate body and equipment as soon as possible by— •Removing.). Warm water. •Neutralizing. (2) If a chemical defense ensemble is not available— (a) Remove or tear away contaminated clothing. Tips for the survivor: (1) DO NOT use wood from a contaminated area for fire.

hunger. (3) Develop a realistic plan. Group dynamics of survival include— (1) Leadership. (4) Reassuring and encouraging each other. depression. (c) Identifying signals of distress created by stressors (indecision. anger). (c) Favoring persistency in overcoming failure. Strengthen your will to survive with— (1) The Code of Conduct. boredom. illness. (4) Patriotic songs. and cohesiveness promote high morale: (a) Preventing panic. A-1 . isolation). anxiety. (2) Pledge of Allegiance. death. withdrawal. good organization. responsible for my actions. (5) Combat psychological stress by— (a) Recognizing and anticipating existing stressors (injury. and dedicated to the principles which made my country free. (b) Attributing normal reactions to existing stressors (fear. (4) Anticipate fears. (d) Facilitating formulation of group goals. Psychology of Survival a. (5) Thoughts of return to family and friends. (2) Keep a positive attitude. Preparation— (1) Know your capabilities and limitations. c. (3) Working as a team. guilt. 1. b. and propensity to make mistakes). (3) Faith in America. I will trust in my God and in the United States of America. (2) Taking care of your buddy.Appendix A THE WILL TO SURVIVE ARTICLE VI CODE OF CONDUCT I will never forget that I am an American fighting for freedom. carelessness. forgetfulness. (b) Creating strength and trust in one another. fatigue. environment.

Identify your personal beliefs. With other survivors— (1) Identify or appoint a religious lay leader. (b) Organizing according to individual capabilities. (4) Pray for each other. Praise God and give thanks because— (1) God is bigger than your circumstances. k. (1) Talk to your God. (5) Try to have worship services. (3) Share scriptures and songs. e. l. wisdom. (2) Love for family and self. (2) Discuss what is important to you. repeat them to yourself and to your God. d. (2) God will see you through (no matter what happens). 2. and rescue. Use self-control. i. or hymns. (1) Faith and trust in your God. (4) Pray for protection and a positive outcome. h. Remember past inner sources to help you overcome adversity. Forgive— (1) Yourself for what you have done or said that was wrong. Meditate. Collect your thoughts and emotions. clergy. (3) Never lose hope. or others. (3) Hope comes from a belief in heaven and/or an after-life. g. (4) Never give up. A-2 . b. strength. j. Spiritual Considerations a. (2) Those who have failed you. (2) Give thanks that God is with you. f.(5) Influencing factors are— (a) Enforcing the chain of command. (3) Ask for God’s help. Worship without aid of written scripture. (c) Accepting suggestions and criticism. Trust. Remember scripture. Pray for your God’s help. c. verses.

(b) Praise your God.(6) Write down scriptures and songs that you remember. (7) Encourage each other while waiting for rescue. A-3 . remember— (a) Your God loves you.

3. Scope This UNCLASSIFIED multiservice tactics. validate the information. Application The target audience for this publication is any Service member requiring basic survival. and procedures publication is designed to assist Service members in a survival situation regardless of geographic location. regulations. The Army will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Army training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commander. 2.Appendix B Publication Information 1. and recovery information. techniques. and curricula as follows: Army. and reference and incorporate it in Service and command manuals. evasion. US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). and recovery information. evasion. Purpose This publication provides Service members a quick reference. Distribution is in accordance with the Department of Army Form 12-99-R. B-1 . weatherproof. pocket-sized guide on basic survival. Implementation Plan Participating Service command offices of primary responsibility (OPRs) will review this publication. 4.

We encourage recommended changes for improving this publication. will likewise be incorporated in revisions to this document. Air Force. The Navy will incorporate these procedures in US Navy doctrinal and training publications as directed by the commander. Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC).Marine Corps. responsibilities. Send comments and recommendation directly to— B-2 . US Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC). This publication reflects current joint and Service doctrine. command and control (C2) organizations. facilities. Distribution is in accordance with Military Standard Requisitioning and Issue Procedures Desk Guide and Navy Standing Operating Procedures Publication 409. and procedures. The Marine Corps will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Marine Corps training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commanding general. User Information a. personnel. appropriately reflected in joint and Service publications. Air Force units will validate and incorporate appropriate procedures in accordance with applicable governing directives. Distribution is in accordance with Marine Corps Publication Distribution System. c. Key your comments to the specific page and paragraph and provide a rationale for each recommendation. The TRADOC-MCCDC-NWDC-AFDC Air Land Sea Application (ALSA) Center developed this publication with the joint participation of the approving Service commands. Changes in Service protocol. b. Navy. ALSA will review and update this publication as necessary. 5. Distribution is in accordance with Air Force Instructions 33-360.

mil ALSA ALSA Center ATTN: Director 114 Andrews Street Langley AFB.mil B-3 .af. VA 23665-2785 DSN 575-0902 COMM (757) 225-0902 E-mail: alsadirector@langley.Army Commander US Army Training and Doctrine Command ATTN: ATDO-A Fort Monroe VA 23651-5000 DSN 680-3153 COMM (757) 727-3153 Marine Corps Commanding General US Marine Corps Combat Development Command ATTN: C42 3300 Russell Road Quantico VA 22134-5001 DSN 278-6234 COMM (703) 784-6234 Navy Commander Navy Warfare Development Command (Det Norfolk) ATTN: ALSA Liaison Officer 1530 Gilbert Street Norfolk VA 23511-2785 DSN 262-2782 COMM (757) 322-2782 E-mail: ndcjoint@nctamslant.af.navy.mil Air Force HQ Air Force Doctrine Center ATTN: DJ 216 Sweeney Boulevard Suite 109 Langley AFB VA 23665-2722 DSN 754-8091 COMM (757) 764-8091 E-mail Address: afdc.dj@langley.

217. J. USA Commander Training and Doctrine Command J. E. ABRAMS General.This publication has been prepared under our direction for use by our respective commands and other commands as appropriate. KINNAN Major General.58. . USN Commander Navy Warfare Development Command TIMOTHY A. USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center This publication is available on the Army Doctrinal and Training Digital Library (ADTDL) at http://155.58. JOHN N. SMITH Rear Admiral. USMC Commanding General Marine Corps Combat Development Command B. RHODES Lieutenant General.

1 March 1996 Air Force Distribution: F DISTRIBUTION: Active Army. SHINSEKI General. requirements for FM 21-76-1. KINNAN Major General. United States Army Chief of Staff Official: JOEL B.FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50. . Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number 110906.26 29 JUNE 1999 By Order of the Secretary of the Army: ERIC K.S. HUDSON Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army By Order of the Secretary of the Air Force: TIMOTHY A. Army National Guard. and U.3 *AFTTP(I) 3-2. USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center *Supersedes: AFPAM 36-2246.

MARINE CORPS: PCN 14400006800 .

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