MB0043 – Human Resource Management (Book ID: B1132) Set - 1

Q1.Trace out the growth of Human resource Management in India. Answer: Over many centuries India has absorbed managerial ideas and practices from around the world. Early records of trade, from 4500B.C to 300B.C, not only indicate international economic and political links, but also the ideas of social and public administration. The world’s first management book, titled “Arlhãshastra”, written three millennium before Christ, codified many aspects of human resource practice in Ancient India. This treatise presented notions of the financial administration of the state, guiding principles for trade and commerce, as well as the management of people. These ideas were to be embedded in organizational thinking for centuries (Rangarajan 1992, Sihag 2004).Increasing trade, that included engagement with the Romans, led to widespread and systematic governance methods by 250 A.D. during the next 300 years, the first Indian empire, the Gupta Dynasty, encouraged the establishment of rules and regulations for managerial systems, and later from about 1000 A.D. Islam influenced many areas of trade and commerce. A further powerful effect on the managerial history of India was to be provided by the British system of corporate organization for 200 years. Clearly, the socio cultural roots of Indian heritage are diverse and have been drawn from multiple sources including ideas brought from other parts of the old world. Interestingly, these ideas were essentially secular even when they originated from religious bases. In the contemporary context, the Indian management mindscape continues to be influenced by the residual traces of ancient wisdom as it faces the complexities of global realities. One stream of holistic wisdom, identified as the Vedantic philosophy, pervades managerial behavior at all levels of work organizations. This philosophical tradition has its sacred texts from 2000B.C. and it holds that human nature has a capacity for self transformation and attaining spiritual high ground while facing realities of day to day challenges (Lannoy 1971). Such cultural based tradition and heritage can have a substantial impact on current managerial mindset in terms of family bonding and mutuality of obligations. The caste system, which was recorded in the writings of the Greek Ambassador Megasthenes in the third century B.C., is another significant feature of Indian social heritage that for centuries had impacted organizational architecture and managerial practices, and has now become the focus of critical attention in the social, political and legal agenda of the nation.

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Q 2 . What are the factors that impact recruitment in organization? Answer: All organizations, whether large or small, do engage in recruiting activity, though not to the same intensity. Few factors that impact the nature of recruitment: 1. The size of the organization- the smaller the organization the more the need to carefully scrutinize the candidate for a job and the fitment to the organizational culture. The risk in case of job-candidate mismatch can prove equally expensive for a smaller organization as compared to the larger one. 2. The employment conditions in the country where the organization is located- critically impacts the recruiting strategy. The methods for recruiting, the selection tools that are most suited and the legal framework that bear on the employer are some aspects that need to be considered. 3. The affects of past recruiting efforts which show the organization’s ability to locate and keep good performing people- constantly reviewing the effectiveness of the recruiting methods and the selection tools used, evaluating the success at-work of the new recruits are some methods used by organizations to ensure that quality hiring practices are in-place. 4. Working conditions and salary and benefit packages offered by the organization- this may influence turnover and necessitate recruiting; (v) The rate of growth of organization-the phase in the life-cycle of the firm is a measure of the recruiting effort. 5. The level of seasonality of operations and future expansion and production programmers – ensuring that the recruitment numbers come from a well-planned Human Resource Plan is critical to ensure that there is no over-hiring or under- hiring of the required talent to achieve the organizational objectives. 6. Cultural, economic and legal factors – these too affect the recruiting and selection methods that are used.

Q3.State the major career development activities found in organizations. Answer: Today, HR managers participate in developing business strategies and ensure that human 2

resource dimensions are considered. For instance, the HR manager for manufacturing has HR responsibilities for 600 employees. In that role she contributes to workflow, production, scheduling, and other manufacturing decisions. It also means that she is more accessible to and has more credibility with manufacturing workers, most of whom are hourly workers. Making the transition in HR management required going from seven to three levels of management, greatly expanding the use of cross-functional work teams, and significantly increasing training. To ease employee and managerial anxieties about the changes, GE Fanuc promised that no employees would lose their jobs. Managers and supervisors affected by the elimination of levels were offered promotions, transfers to other jobs in GE Fanuc, or early retirement buyouts. Additionally, employees were promised profit sharing, which has resulted in up to three weeks additional pay in profit sharing bonuses in some years. The test of the change is in the results. GE Fanuc’s revenue is up almost 18%. Over 40 work teams meet regularly to discuss work goals, track their performance against established measures, and discuss problems and issues. Employee turnover is also extremely low in most areas. Transitions in HR management are also paying off in the Bank of Montreal, based in Montreal, Quebec. Emphasizing human resources has involved 35,000 employees in organizational success. This recognition meant focusing greater attention on the talents of diverse employees working at the bank. Specific efforts were made to expand opportunities for women employees, who composed about three-fourths of the bank’s workers. As a result, several years later about one-fourth of all managers and executives are women. Similar attention also was focused on other diverse groups of employees. So that all employees were given opportunities to grow and learn, the Bank of Montreal’s Institute of Learning was established at a cost exceeding $50 million. The goal of providing five days of training and education to every employee each year has been met for several years. To focus on performance, each department and every employee have performance targets and measure son such factors as customer service, return on equity, and profitability. Yearly, the scores from all measures are computed as indices, and then compiled into one figure to measure overall bank performance. Executives believe that their emphasis on HR activities has contributed significantly to the Bank of Montreal’s achieving period profits for seven years in a row. In summary, it is evident that the transition of HR management at GEFanuc and at Bank of Montreal has enhanced organizational competitiveness and success.

Q4.What are the major problems faced in benefits management? Answer: One of the most vexing problems faced by modern human resource management is how to assure 3

that the employees of the organization are being compensated appropriately for their contributions. One critical part of that determination, of course, is whether their “pay” is the correct amount within the context of affordability, equity, and market conditions. Affordability and equity are generally (not always, but usually) internal organizational issues that management can rely on internal data and information to analyze and manage. Determining market conditions, however, has always been difficult. Over the past century the methodologies, practices, and science of arriving at market pay information and intelligence has evolved from chamber of commerce and industry and professional association information sharing to sophisticated survey design, implementation, and analysis. While simple arithmetic might have been sufficient in 1950, advanced mathematics, and statistical analyses are required today.

Q 5 . Assume yourself as an HR Manager of a publishing house. You find that the morale of the employees is generally low. What steps would you take to improve employee morale? Answer: Stage 1 - Listen Get feedback and ideas. Stage 2 - Communicate with solutions to business issues and employee concerns. Stage 3 - Recognize business and employee accomplishments and successes. Stage 1: Listen to employees Relationships between the organization and employees are fractured following a period of upheaval. And this situation won’t improve on its own. Companies must take a proactive approach, beginning with listening to employees and getting their concerns out into the open. Leaders must acknowledge employee issues and be motivated to make improvements. Of vital importance is publicizing that employee feedback is encouraged and necessary and that the organization values their ideas. Decide the messages behind the listening activities deployed, and use them consistently, for example: We know staff morale is low and want your help. We need to save money and are looking for ideas on how to best achieve that. We want to add to our top line and need your feedback on opportunities to look at. Leaders should be visible, approachable and well-briefed, so that they canfield employee questions. Interaction should be face-to-face whenever possible. Key messages should also be developed and be used as part of regular, ongoing communication activities. 4

Managers need to believe in and support all listening activities. They should be briefed on the rationale and approach for these activities before they meet with employees, and asked for their ideas on how listening activities should be implemented. Leaders should be visible, approachable and well briefed, so they can field questions. Listening activities Employee survey - This can encompass routinely scheduled company surveys or those designed expressly to communicate change. Employee discussion/focus groups - Include as many employees as possible. Managers with the right people skills (listening, questioning, for example) can be trained to run these groups. Management discussion groups - Led by a facilitator, these sessions are designed specifically as management briefings. Managers are guided through a process that will enable them to run employee discussion groups and to get feedback on specific topics. (This approach works best with cost saving or similar topics, rather than morale and trust issues.) Stage 2: Communicate your solutions to business issues and employee concerns The next stage is communication. The listening activities should have created lots of ideas and feedback. In this stage, it's important to build a shared understanding of your company’s future, including substantive solutions to business issues and progress being made. Build a shared understanding of your company’s future, including solutions to business issues and progress being made. Who does what in stage 2? Company leaders focus on addressing concerns expressed by employees in the listening stage and briefing managers on issues. The purpose is to create a shared understanding of the challenges and solutions facing the organization. Managers undertake specific efforts to communicate these outputs. They must create opportunities for dialogue and discussion, which leads to higher levels of employee engagement. Managers should also assure employees that they can expect honest and timely information. They should show their willingness to discuss anything on employees’ minds and help employees feel comfortable asking questions and sharing solutions. Employee advisory work groups should be set up to address a number of challenges most critical to the organization. Because this program thrives on momentum, these groups should have clear objectives and a limited shelf life. Potential activities must be honed down to focus only on their most important issues. A kick-off meeting can define the team’s scope, role and timescales. Work groups should also encourage leaders to communicate progress through all communication 5

channels. Communication activities. Public forums - Communication should take place in person through Town Hall and team meetings, site visits and brown bag lunches. Gossip is curtailed if managers become more transparent with performance data, such as sales figures and customer information. A highly visible and approachable leadership team shows that senior management cares about its workers. This alone serves to foster a more positive employee work environment. One-on-One dialogues - Discussions between managers and direct reports enhance personal communication and increase trust. Electronic media - Emails, web casts and other means of rapidly reaching out across boundaries should be employed to reinforce messages and speed the flow of information. Stage 3: Recognize business and employee accomplishments and successes. Focusing on quick wins and success stories and recognizing employee accomplishments will help keep morale as high as possible. No one is immune from becoming despondent and unproductive when they work in a doom and gloom environment. Negativity is often exacerbated outside the workplace by personal issues and a constant onslaught of negative news stories. Focusing on quick wins and success stories and recognizing employee accomplishments will help keep morale as high as possible. Leaders and managers seek out successes and recognize and thank employees for their contributions to the company and/or team initiatives. Every effort should be made to point out quick wins, for example, a project deadline met, a new order placed, or success in a key objective. Recognition activities Formal initiatives - include established companywide recognition programs as well as rewards such as small bonuses and plaques. Informal gestures - include such things as a warm "thank you" for a job well done, or a congratulatory email or hand-written note. Public recognition includes acknowledging an employee or work group’s contributions in a meeting with their peers, or in company publications. Being recognized publicly often has the added bonus of encouraging and motivating peers to strive for similar successes.

Q6.Explain the general procedures followed in the case of a disciplinary action. Answer: 6

Keys to handling disciplinary issues in the workplace Establish the facts of each case It is important to carry out necessary investigations of potential disciplinary matters without unreasonable delay to establish the facts of the case. In some cases this will require the holding of an investigatory meeting with the employee before proceeding to any disciplinary hearing. In others, the investigatory stage will be the collation of evidence by the employer for use at any disciplinary hearing. In misconduct cases, where practicable, different people should carry out the investigation and disciplinary hearing. If there is an investigatory meeting this should not by itself result in any disciplinary action. Although there is no statutory right for an employee to be accompanied at a formal investigatory meeting, such a right may be allowed under an employer’s own procedure. In cases where a period of suspension with pay is considered necessary, this period should be as brief as possible, should be kept under review and it should be made clear that this suspension is not considered a disciplinary action. Inform the employee of the problem. If it is decided that there is a disciplinary case to answer, the employee should be notified of this in writing. This notification should contain sufficient information about the alleged misconduct or poor performance and its possible consequences to enable the employee to prepare to answer the case at a disciplinary meeting. It would normally be appropriate to provide copies of any written evidence, which may include any witness statements, with the notification. The notification should also give details of the time and venue for the disciplinary meeting and advise the employee of their right to be accompanied at the meeting. Hold a meeting with the employee to discuss the problem The meeting should be held without unreasonable delay whilst allowing the employee reasonable time to prepare their case. Employers and employees (and their companions) should make every effort to attend the meeting. At the meeting the employer should explain the complaint against the employee and go through the evidence that has been gathered. The employee should be allowed to set out their case and answer any allegations that have been made. The employee should also be given a reasonable opportunity to ask questions, present evidence and call relevant witnesses. They should also be given an opportunity to raise points about any information provided by witnesses. Where an employer or employee intends to call relevant witnesses they should give advance notice that they intend to do this. Allow the employee to be accompanied at the meeting Workers have a statutory right to be accompanied by a companion where the disciplinary meeting could result in:  A formal warning being issued; or 7

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The taking of some other disciplinary action; or The confirmation of a warning or some other disciplinary action (appeal hearings).

The chosen companion may be a fellow worker, a trade union representative, or an official employed by a trade union. A trade union representative who is not an employed official must have been certified by their union as being competent to accompany a worker. To exercise the statutory right to be accompanied workers must make reasonable request. What is reasonable will depend on the circumstances of each individual case. However, it would not normally be reasonable for workers to insist on being accompanied by a companion whose presence would not prejudice the hearing nor would it be reasonable for a worker to ask to be accompanied by a companion from a remote geographical location if someone suitable and willing was available on site. The companion should be allowed to address the hearing to put and sum up the worker’s case, respond on behalf of the worker to any views expressed at the meeting and confer with the worker during the hearing. The companion does not, however, have the right to answer questions on the worker’s behalf, address the hearing if the worker does not wish it or prevent the employer from explaining their case. Decide on appropriate action After the meeting decide whether or not disciplinary or any other action is justified and inform the employee accordingly in writing. Where misconduct is confirmed or the employee is found to be performing unsatisfactorily it is usual to give the employee a written warning. A further act of misconduct or failure to improve performance within a set period would normally result in a final written warning. If an employee’s first misconduct or unsatisfactory performance is sufficiently serious, it may be appropriate to move directly to a final written warning. This might occur where the employee’s actions have had, or are liable to have, a serious or harmful impact on the organization. A first or final written warning should set out the nature of the misconduct or poor performance and the change in behavior or improvement in performance required (with timescale). The employee should be told how long the warning will remain current. The employee should be informed of the consequences of further misconduct, or failure to improve performance, within the set period following a final warning. For instance that it may result in dismissal or some other contractual penalty such as demotion or loss of seniority. A decision to dismiss should only be taken by a manager who has the authority to do so. The employee should be informed as soon as possible of the reasons for the dismissal, the date on which the employment contract will end, the appropriate period of notice and their right of appeal. Some acts, termed gross misconduct, are so serious in themselves or have such serious consequences that they may call for dismissal without notice for a first offence. But a fair disciplinary process should always be followed, before dismissing for gross misconduct. 8

Disciplinary rules should give examples of acts which the employer regards as acts of gross misconduct. These may vary according to the nature of the organization and what it does, but might include things such as theft or fraud, physical violence, gross negligence or serious insubordination. Where an employee is persistently unable or unwilling to attend a disciplinary meeting without good cause the employer should make a decision on the evidence available. Provide employees with an opportunity to appeal. Where an employee feels that disciplinary action taken against them is wrong or unjust they should appeal against the decision. Appeals should be heard without unreasonable delay and ideally at an agreed time and place. Employees should let employers know the grounds for their appeal in writing. The appeal should be dealt with impartially and wherever possible, by a manager who has not previously been involved in the case. Workers have a statutory right to be accompanied at appeal hearings. Employees should be informed in writing of the results of the appeal hearing as soon as possible. Special cases Where disciplinary action is being considered against an employee who is a trade union representative the normal disciplinary procedure should be followed. Depending on the circumstances, however, it is advisable to discuss the matter at an early stage with an official employed by the union, after obtaining the employee’s agreement. If an employee is charged with, or convicted of a criminal offence this is not normally in itself reason for disciplinary action. Consideration needs to be given to what effect the charge or conviction has on the employee’s suitability to do the job and their relationship with their employer, work colleagues and customers.

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MB0043 – Human Resource Management (Book ID: B1132) Set - 2
Q1.What are the objectives of human relations? Answer: A human Relations Programme there by attempts at enhancing employee motivation and workplace morale through an improved three-way communications and through employee participation in the decision making process. Human relations seek to emphasise employee’ aspects of work rather than technical or economic aspects. For example while it might be in the best interest of an organization to have a employee skilled and completely proficient in one job/set or responsibilities, today’s organization provides’ opportunities for employees to multiskill and acquire knowledge of new yet related jobs/responsibilities. These acts as a motivators for employees as they benefit by learning new skills/jobs and given an opportunity can perform and excel in another job. It also seeks to make employment and working conditions less impersonal. The human relations approach emphasises policies and techniques designed to improve employee morale and job satisfaction. For example it is common place in organizations to provide for/ encourage employee empowerment where-in the team brings about creative measures to reduce cost improve customer satisfaction. Such teams design and implement selfdriven initiatives to bring about the business result. It is believed that this is accompanied by increased employee efficiency and reduction in employee dissatisfaction. An understanding of emerging workplace human behavior can be summarized as: i) Assist the manager to develop a better realization of how his own attitudes and behavior play a part in everyday affairs of the team and its morale; ii) Assist the manager to develop a keener sensitivity towards the team members and interpersonal dynamics. iii) Partner with the managers in helping him drive the business goals and take part ownership of work challenges and how best to resolve them. iv) Enable him to anticipate and prevent problems, or at least to resolve more effectively those that he cannot avoid; and v) Network with other teams with related dependencies and help resolve inter-team business impacting challenges. 1

This Scope of Human Relations springs up from the problems which have different causes and perspectives. Halloran has stated these as:  Every person brings a unique set of talents, ambitions and work experience to a job. These personal attributes change overtime, often as a result of the degree of success or failure the person experiences in the work world. Matching so many unique sets of personal qualities to a standardized technology can create problems. The organizational aspects of a company, such as its size, geographic location, economic health, and degree of automation, define the scope of work and the activity in each work division. These frequently arbitrary, structural definitions often cause difficulties inhuman relations. Innovations in technology and production methods generally require the restructuring of job roles and responsibilities. Radical changes in basic organizational structure can cause severe strains between employees and management and create intense problems in human relations. Promotion of individuals to positions of greater responsibility and authority generally creates a need for changed behavior.

Q 2 . Explain the need for Human Resource Planning. Answer: Human Resource Planning is understood as the process of forecasting an organization’s future human resource demand for, and supply to meet the objectives such as the right type of people in the right number. After this process only the HRM department can initiate recruitment and selection process.HRP is a sub-system in the total organizational planning. Human resource planning is important for helping both organization and employees to prepare for the future but you might be thinking “Are not t hings always changing?" Human resource planning is the process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number and kind of people, at the right place, at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing tasks that will help the organization achieve its overall objective. Human Resource Planning System. A. Objectives of Human Resource Planning: Human Resource Planning fulfils individual, organizational and national goals; but, according to Sikula,"the ultimate mission or purpose is to relate future human resources to future

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enterprise needs, so as to maximize the future return on investment in human resources. In effect, the main purpose is one of matching or fitting employee abilities to enterprise requirements, with an emphasis on future instead of present arrangements.” The objectives may be laid down for a short term (i.e., for one year). B. Estimating the Future Organizational Structure or Forecasting the Manpower Requirements: The management must estimate the structure of the organization at a given point in time. For this estimate, the number and type of employees needed have to be determined. Many environmental factors affect this determination. They include business forecasts, expansion and growth, design and structural changes, management philosophy, government policy, product and human skills mix, and competition. Forecasting provides the basic premises on which the manpower planning is built. Currently Human Resource Management Systems encompass: The payroll module automates the pay process by gathering data on employee time and attendance, calculating various deductions and taxes, and generating periodic pay cheques and employee tax reports. Data is generally fed from the human resources and time keeping modules to calculate automatic deposit and manual cheque writing capabilities. This module can encompass all employee-related transaction as well as integrate with existing financial management systems. The work time gathers standardized time and work related efforts. The most advanced modules provide broad flexibility in data collection methods, labour distribution capabilities and data analysis features. Cost analysis and efficiency metrics are the primary functions. The HR management module is a component covering many other HR aspects from application to retirement. The system records basic demographic and address data, selection, training and development, capabilities and skills management, compensation planning records other related activities. Leading edge systems provide the ability to “read” applications and enter relevant data to applicable database fields, notify employers and provide position management and position control. Human Resource Management function involves the recruitment, placement, evaluation, compensation and development of the employees of an organization. Initially, businesses used computer based information system to:  Produce pay checks and payroll reports;  Maintain personnel records;  Pursue Talent Management. Online recruiting has become one of the primary methods employed by HR departments to garner potential candidates for available positions within an organization. Talent Management systems typically encompass:  Analyzing personnel usage within an organization;  Identifying potential applicants;  Recruiting through company-facing listings;

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Recruiting through online recruiting sites or publications that market to both recruiters and applicants. The significant cost incurred in maintaining an organized recruitment effort, cross-posting within and across general or industry-specific job boards and maintaining a competitive exposure of availabilities has given rise to the development of a dedicated Applicant Tracking System, or 'ATS', module.

Q3.How can we evaluate the effectiveness of training programs conducted in organizations? Answer: An objective of training evaluation is to determine the payoff from the training investment. It focuses on the improvement of the participant in the training programme to perform jobs for which they were trained, what was effective and what was not, whether the trainees required any additional on the job training, and the extent of training not needed for the participants to meet job requirements. There are various approaches to training evaluation. To get a valid measure of training effectiveness, the manager should accurately assess trainee’s job performance two to four months after completion of training. However this focus is not easy to establish and track in most organizations. Per Kirkpatrick’s study, training effectiveness of outcome can be measured: 1. Reaction: Evaluate the trainee’s reaction to the programme. Did he like the programme? Did he think it worthwhile? 2. Learning: Did the trainee learn the principles, skills and fact that the supervisor or the trainer worked them to learn? 3. Behaviour: Whether the trainee’s behavior on the job changed because of the training programme. 4. Result: What final results have been achieved? Did he learn how to work on machine? Did scrap page costs decrease? Was turnover reduced? Are production quotas now being met? etc., Structured interviews with the immediate supervisor of the trainees are acceptable methods for obtaining feedback in training. The supervisor is asked to rate the former trainee on job proficiency directly related to the training objectives. Another approach is to involve the use of experimental and control groups. Each groups is randomly selected, one to receive training (experimental) and the other not to receive training (control). The random selection helps to assure the formation of groups quite similar to each other. Measures are taken of relevant indicators of success (e.g. words typed per minute, units of work produced per hour etc.) before and after training for both groups. If the results shown by the experimental group are 4

significantly greater than those of the control group, the training can be considered as successful. Another common method is the longitudinal or time series analysis. A series of measurements are taken before the programme begins and continues during and post completion of the programme. The results are then plotted on a graph to ascertain changes if any, have occurred and continue to remain as a result of the training investment that was made. In addition, pre-andpost tests are administered to the training groups. Prior to the training, a test related to the training material is applied, and the results of this pre-test are compared with results on the same or similar test administered after the programme has been completed.

Q4.Assume yourself as an HR Manager. You have been given the responsibility of promoting the rightful employees. For this, performance appraisal of the employees must be carried out. What appraisal method would you choose? Justify. Answer: Typically, performance appraisal has been limited to a feedback process between employees and Managers. However, with the increased focus on teamwork, employee development, and customer service, the emphasis has shifted to employee feedback from the full circle of sources depicted in the diagram below. This multiple-input approach to performance feedback is sometimes called "360-degree assessment" to connote that full circle. There are no prohibitions in law or regulation against using a variety of rating sources, in addition to the employee’s Manager, for assessing performance. Research has shown assessment approaches with multiple rating sources provide more accurate, reliable, and credible information. For this reason, HR Management supports the use of multiple rating sources as an effective method of assessing performance for formal appraisal and other evaluative and developmental purposes.

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The 360 degree matrix

The circle, or perhaps more accurately the sphere, of feedback sources consists of Managers, peers, subordinates, customers, and one’s self. It is not necessary, or always appropriate, to include all of the feedback sources in a particular appraisal program. The organizational culture and mission must be considered, and the purpose of feedback will differ with each source. For example, subordinate assessments of a Manager’s performance can provide valuable developmental guidance, peer feedback can be the heart of excellence in teamwork, and customer service feedback focuses on the quality of the team’s or agency’s results. The objectives of performance appraisal and the particular aspects of performance that are to be assessed must be established before determining which sources are appropriate. We shall discuss the contributions of each source of ratings and feedback. In addition, precautions are listed to consider when designing a performance management program that includes 360-degree assessment. Superiors: - Evaluations by superiors are the most traditional source of employee feedback. This form of evaluation includes both the ratings of individuals by Managers on elements in an employee’s performance plan and the evaluation of programs and teams by senior managers.

Q5.What are the objective of job evaluation? Answer: Grievances always vary from company to company and it has many definitions also many authors. Grievance is used company to indicate various forms and stages of an employee’s dissatisfaction. According to the Dale Yoder, “a written complaint filled by an employee and claiming unfair treatment.” Another definition comes with Prof. Jucious who defines as, “any discontent or dissatisfaction, whether expressed or not and whether valid or not, arising out of anything connected with the company that an employee thinks, believes or even feels unfair, unjust or inequitable.” There are various factors which arise grievances. A grievance is always a symbol of some malfunctioning or maladjustment and anable and skillful manager can always find out the real or submerged reasons for a grievance. The dispute or grievance constitutes a managerial problem and the scientific method is usually most productive in arriving at a satisfactory solution. IA grievance should be dealt within the limits of the first line supervisor. The appellant authority should be made clear to the employee so that he cannot get satisfaction from his immediate supervisor, he should know the next step. The grievance should be dealt with speedily. In establishing a grievance procedure, if the 6

grievance is against an instruction given by a superior in the interest or order and discipline, the instructions must be carried out first and then only employee can register his protest. In the grievance handling the some factors include: Receive and define the nature of the dissatisfaction. Get the facts analyze and divide. Apply the answer follow up. In establishing a grievance procedure, if the grievance is against an instruction given by a superior in the interest of order and discipline, the instructions must be carried out first and then only employee can register the protest. In the language of the labour management relations, a grievance is a complaint formally presented by the employee or employees to the management. In case, the grievance has not been settled by top management and top union leadership, the same may be submitted to an impartial arbitrator.

Q6. Why is it important to handle grievances carefully? Answer: What might happen if an organization does not provide some method by which a employee can voice his complaints and obtain a explanation? The employee will be unhappy, his productivity is impacted, he openly begins to share his discontent with not just his colleagues but also outsider’s friends, relatives, maybe even customers and vendors. Just as the employee has all the right to voice a grievance, as employer (or the management) owens it to the employee to respond suitably to the grievance. It is but commonsense that the resolution of a problem rests on management. The earliest and clearest opportunity for issues resolution is found at the first stage, before the grievances has left the jurisdiction of the manager. For this reasons, many firms have specifically trained their managers on how to handel a grievance or complaint properly. If the dispute or grievance constitutes a managerial problem it can often be resolved by the manager himself with the help of the HR team. The following steps discuss how a grievance can be redressed: 1. Receiving the grievance: The manner and the attitude with which the manager receives the complaint of grievance is important. The basic premise is that the manager should at the outset assume that the employee is fair in presenting his/her opinion/complaint. The complaint should not be prejudged on the basis of past experience with this or other employees. When a employee approaches the manager with a issue the manager needs to make himself available to listen it all out and provide him/her the undivided attention. Research confirms that managers who were more task-oriented, as contrasted with managers who were more people-oriented, tended to experience a significantly higher number of grievances being filed in their units. 2. Reviewing the grievance: Once a complaint is received all facts supporting the issue needs to be gathered. Proper record keeping such as performance ratings, job ratings, attending records, 7

and suggestions are reviewed. In addition, with the increasingly legal implications of modernlabour-management relations, the manager should keep records on each particular grievance. All action taken, discussion with the employees, summary and what is agreed to all of it needs to be recorded. Analysisand decision: With the problem defined and the facts in hand, the manager must now analyze and evaluate them, and come to some decision. It is important for the manager to involve others in the process to ensure that it is fair and is the best solution. The manager must include the views of his own manager as he might not be aware of all the implications of the problem and its resolution. Involving HR too is a recommended process in all organizations. HR can then seek finance or legal counsel if required, before any decision is taken. All involved in the decision making process need to be aware that the decision may create an undesirable precedence within the department as well as the company. Response: Open it might not be possible to provide a positive resolution to the problem. If the solution decided is adverse to the employee’s views, attention needs to be given to the method of communication. Employees dislike managers who will take no stand, good or bad. Clearly communicating the message and sharing as much information as possible about the process used to make the decision. The manager can also invite HR or his manager to sit-in on the conversation with the employee. As far as possible this should happen in a face-to-face meeting. In the event an employee wishes to take the appeal beyond to the next stage of the procedure he must be allowed to do so. The manager must have the opportunity to explain his decision to the other members so they can take a well-informed decision. Follow up: The objective of the grievance procedure is to resolve a disagreement between an employee and the organizations. Open communication is important for this process. The purpose of phase is to determine whether the employee feels that the problem has been sufficiently redressed. If follow up reveals that the case has been handled unsatisfactorily, then redefinition of the problem, further fact-finding, analysis, solution and follow up are required. At this stage the manager can step aside and allow someone else in a position of authority like the HR or the manager’s manager to lead the process and close it.

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