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COMMUNICATION PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF ADVERTISING AGENCIES
The Communication Process
From our first cry at birth our survival depends on our ability to inform or persuade others to take some action. And as we develop, we learn to listen and respond to others’ messages. So to understand how marketers communicate, lets look at how humans communicate.

The series of events that take place when people share ideas. The communication process begins when one person formulates and encodes an idea as a message and sends it via some medium to another person. The person receiving the message must decode it, formulate a new idea, and then encode and send a new message. A message that acknowledges and responds to the original message constitute feedback which also affect the encoding of a new message. Because we all communicate regularly , we don’t think about these complex processes. But the same basic sequence applies to marketing communication- so advertisers cannot afford o take this processes for granted. Success depends on getting the message into the market’s collective awareness.

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Encoding In the encoding stage, advertisers translates an idea or message into words and illustrations - or symbols. In abbreviated messages such as advertising, words and symbols are especially important. For symbols to work, sender and receiver must agree on their meaning. Encoding messages in terms that others will understand - is a major challenge of advertising. Axe print Ad

Message – “Axe use creates attraction from the women and arouses desires”. How this is encoded – using purely pictorial illustration the ad delivers the message using portrayal of a woman fantasy. Thus supporting the statement “ The Axe effect “

Channel
The message is transmitted through some channel from the source to the receiver. The channel in an advertising communication system consists of one or more kinds of media, such as radio, television, newspapers, magazines, billboards, point-of-purchase displays, and so on.

Word-of-mouth communication represents another channel that is of special interest because it can sometimes play a key role in an advertising campaign. It should be noted that any communication system has a channel capacity. There is only so much information that can be moved through it and only so much that a receiver will be motivated to receive and capable of processing.

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Decoding The way the message is decoded - interpreted by the receiver - is another challenge for the advertising person. We have all had the unpleasant experience of being misunderstood. And that, of course, is the last thing marketer want. Unfortunately, message interpretation is only partially determined by the words and the medium used. The unique characteristics of the receivers are also very important, and the sender often knows little or nothing about them. Attitudes, perceptions, personality, self-concept, and culture are just some of the many influences that affect the way people receive and respond to message and how they behave as consumers in the marketplace. Complicating this problem is the fact that the sender’s advertising message must compete with hundreds of others every day. So the sender doesn’t know bow the message is received, or even if it’s received, until some acknowledgement take place. Feedback That’s why feedback is important. Feedback verifies that the message was received. In advertising, feedback may come in variety of forms: redeemed coupons, telephone inquiries, visit to a store, requests for more information, sales, or response to a survey. Dramatically low responses to an ad indicate a break in the communication process. Questions arises- is the product wrong for the market ? Is the message unclear ? Are we using the right medium? Without feedback, these questions cannot be answered. To better understand and anticipate how people will decode and respond to marketing communications, advertising professionals constantly monitor human perceptions, attitudes, motivations and actions.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising The Apple 1984 Tv Commercial

One of the most acclaimed ads in the history of advertising is the Apple Macintosh “1984” television commercial. Now let us see how this ad achieved the marketing objectives of apple and how it delivers the message in a manner that it is perceived the way it was intended and get desired response from the target audience.

The background of the PC market at the time of the advertising

The PC market was dominated by IBM and Apple’s awareness was little in the market. The computers used were big in size and required great user knowledge of operation. Therefore the computer use was restricted to large corporations. Apple’s vision was to make available the power of the computer to a individual and to provide him a tool which he can use to achieve creative freedom.
Apple pinned high hopes on their computer Macintosh which was a product designed to open the computing market to individual users and thus create a drastic change in the way people used computers. What was needed was a great product launch that would create huge awareness and attention for the new product.

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The Communication message
 The time has come when the domination of IBM over the computer industry will end.  The computer that allows people to achieve freedom over the use and creative expression has arrived.  Stop being under the control of a technology that offers you no choices, choice of expressing yourself, choice of being easy to use, choice of being the self.  Be a part of the revolution in the computer industry

The channel used – Television
TV commercial was chosen to be a medium for achieving a mass communication of the product introduction. The slots during the highly popular Super bowl matches were selected.

The Advertisement

The ad shot by director Ridley Scott used a futuristic science fiction theme. The ad shows a large complex in which tubes connect one hall to the another in the beginning. The large setting very appropriately suggests the intensity of the ad. A large number of people are uniformly robed in black outfits and some of them even have gas masks on their face. The scene shows them sitting in front of a large screen on which a person is addressing in a authoritative manner. This is a representation of the commanding nature of IBM’s technology that allows no user freedom. Next the focus shifts to a woman running through tunnel with troopers following her from behind. The woman is wearing red shorts a tank top featuring the apple logo, she is a athelete. She carries a Sledgehammer in her hand.
The woman thus embodies the spirit of the Macintosh – free & different from convention. After she reaches the end of the tunnel and the entrance to the hall she begins to swirl the hammer reaching a high rotational momentum and then releases the hammer in the air towards the screen. The camera follows the hammer until it strikes the screen and smashes it into pieces. This signals the end of the domination of IBM and the arrival of the new Macintosh which promises to change the computing history. Voice-over – “On January 24th 1984, Apple will introduce Macintosh, and you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like “1984”. The ad does not show even a glimpse of the product as it builds curiosity about what is it that is so revolutionary and different that promises to change the history forever ?.

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After the ad was aired it generated tremendous amount of interest and created the required image for apple. People lined outside retail stores in order to catch a glimpse of the Macintosh and sales figure of 80,000 in 72 days was more than expected. This ad went on to create history in the advertising world and created a new dimension in creative advertising.

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AIDA Model For Communication A somewhat simplified model based on the identical principle of sequential stages of consumer action is known as AIDA model. AIDA stands for A - Attracting attention I - Arousing interest D – Building desire A – Obtaining action

Advertising as a communication medium can in most cases effectively perform the first three functions. In the case of direct-action advertising, it also must translate desire into action , unaided by any other promotional instruments. In the case of indirect-action advertising , however, the action can be aided at the time of purchase by two- way communication between the intending buyer and the sales staff.
Let us examine the attention, interest, desire and action components in more detail

Attention

The layout is the most important factor that directs attention to an advertisement. Typography and colors used in the layout can rivet us. The size of the advertisement also compels us to get attracted to it. Contrast by white space is the good attention-getter. Movement is a vital element for getting attention. Movement can be physical or emotional. The position of the advertisement also adds to its attention value. Celebrities in the advertisement, dramatization, model selection, illustration all this contribute to attention.
Interest
Ad seen does not mean ad read. Mostly people see the illustrations and do not read the copy. Here illustration have to work hard. They should together with headlines must provoke further reading. The selection of the illustration and its integration to life are thus very important. Even copy format is important for interest creation. Some people get worked on by a scientific copy and some by a humorous copy. Here there is a dilemma for a copywriter. He has to satisfy maximum number of people so he has to search for a common denominator of interest.

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Desire

The basic purpose of advertising is to create a desire for the product or service being advertised. It is function of appeals used for the motivation of people. Vivid description or copy always helps. Buying motives , physiological as well as psychological, make people purchase product. The copy of the advertisement must kindle these motives. There are certain barriers here – certain reservations in the mind of customers. We have to overcome them. We have to convince by giving evidence, testimonials, endorsements, facts and figure. On arousal, people become prone to buy the product.
Action
The logical end of the desire aroused is to buy the product. 1. Products are associated with the company. 2. The message is repeated. 3. Certain immediate action appeals are used.

The attention stage is the cognitive stage, the target audience is exposed to the message, which when received by them causes a cognitive response awareness. The interest and desire stages are the affective stages which affect the attitude and bring about an intention to buy. The final action stage is the behavior stage. In practice all the ad copies do not lead the consumer through awareness to purchase. AIDA model suggests only the desirable qualities in an advertising copy as a communication tool.

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Park avenue Print Ad

“ Formals are back – suddenly others will feel quite under-dressed ”
Attention In the above ad the attention of the reader is drawn by the semi nude people sitting on the chairs. Interest The interest of the reader is created by the unusualness of the ad as well as the headline “Formals are back”. Desire Desire in this ad is created by the copy that reads “suddenly others will feel quite under- dressed” This generates a feeling of product superiority as compared to other formal wear. Action The print ad attempts to achieve the desired response in the copy as “ Available at Raymond shop or Park avenue – Parx Store and select garment outlets.

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Rural Communication
The rural communication for products and services differs drastically from that of the urban nature of communication. Rural communication due to some special factors has to be developed in a manner which takes into consideration the demographics and psychographics of the rural regions in which the marketing objectives are to be achieved. Below are some of the important distinguishing factors that have to be considered while developing communication for rural markets.

Poor literacy rate Linguistic diversity Tradition bound nature Deep-rooted behavior patterns Mass media reaches only 57% of the rural population Unconventional media is used for creating awareness TV : prime medium Cinema : more than 1/3rd of rural folk watch Radio Print : rural youth indicative of increasing literacy Outdoor : hoardings, wall paintings, illumination POPs: symbols, pictures, colours Publicity Vans

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Few of the available options in the traditional media are Puppetry, Folk Theater & Song, Wall Painting, Demonstration, Posters, Agricultural Games, and Post Cards etc.
Puppetry
Puppetry is the indigenous theatre of India. From time immortal it has been the most popular form and well-appreciated form of entertainment available to the village people. It is an inexpensive activity. The manipulator uses the puppets as a medium to express and communicate ideas, values and social messages. Thus in rural India puppetry is a source of livelihood, avenue for entertainment and creative expression which is ritually sacred and meaningful as a means of social communication and vehicle of social transformation. Song and Drama Division of the Government Of India make wide use of puppets in its campaigns to promote various government projects. Several other organizations, government, semigovernment and private, have also used puppets in support of individual schemes. Life Insurance Corporation of India used puppets to educate rural masses about Life Insurance; enlisting the help of the literacy house in Luck now. These plays were shown to the audience in villages in UP, Bihar, & MP. The number of inquires at local Life Insurance Companies during the period immediately following the performance was compared with normal frequency and found to be considerable higher. The field staff of the corporation also reported a definite impact on the business. Indian Institute of mass communication, New Delhi made a study of comparative impact of puppetry and documentary films, in two villages near Delhi. People in both the villages responded more favorably to the puppet shows then the films.

Folk Theater
Folk theaters are mainly short and rhythmic in form. The simple tunes help in informing and educating the people in informal and interesting manner. It has been used as an effective medium for social protest against injustice, exploitation and oppression. BBLIL used Magician quite effectively for launch of Kadak Chhap Tea in Etawah.

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Demonstration
"Direct Contact" is a face-to-face relationship with people individually and with groups such as the Panchayats and other village groups. Such contact helps in arousing the villager's interest in their own problem and motivating them towards self-development. Demonstration may be A. I. Method demonstration ii. Result demonstration B. I. Simple Demonstration ii. Composite Demonstration The five steps to make any demonstration effective are below: Information about people Objectives to be accomplished Demonstration plan & Execution of the plan Evaluation of the demonstration Reconsideration after evaluation. In result demonstration, help of audio -visual media can add value. Asian Paints launched Utsav range by painting Mukhiya's house or Post office to demonstrate that paint does not peel off.

Haats & Melas
The countries oldest tradition holds the key to solving these problems. The mobile supermarkets of rural India. Facts & Figures: Over 47,000 haats and 25,000 melas are held annually. The average daily sale at a Haat is about Rs.2.25 Lacs Annual sales at melas amount to Rs.3,500 crore. Over half the shoppers at haats have shopping lists. More than 10,000 melas draw visitors from all over India. Nearly half the outlets at melas are for manufactured goods. Haats is a better opportunity for promotion after brand building has been done at Mela. Melas are organized after harvest season, so the villager has enough money, which he will be ready to spend. Demonstration at Haat is essential to convert customers at haats since their atitude is far more utilitarian than that of visitors to a fair.

Wall Paintings
Wall Paintings are an effective and economical medium for advertising in rural areas. They are silent unlike traditional theatre .A speech or film comes to an end, but wall painting stays as long as the weather allows it to. Retailer normally welcomes paintings of their shops, walls, and name boards. Since it makes the shop look cleaner and better. Their shops look alluring and stand out among other outlets. Besides rural households shopkeepers and panchayats do not except any payment, for their wall to be painted with product messages. To get one's wall painted with the product messages is seemed as a status symbol. The greatest advantage of the medium is the power of the picture completed with its local touch. The images used have a strong emotional association with the surrounding, a feet impossible for even a moving visual medium like television, which must use general image to cater to greatest number of viewers.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising A good wall painting must meet some criteria to generate awareness and remind consumer about the brand. The wall should:  The most frequented shops can be painted from inside also one feet above the ground level.  It is courteous to take the verbal permission of owner .The permission is normally given. However by taking the permission of the rural retailers or house owners, one gets the owner morally committed to taking care of wall painting.  The message should be simple, direct and clear.  A definite way of arresting is to use bright colors and these do not fade away easily. A good paint will survive the ravages of dust, sand and rainstorms for about three years.  Paintings must be taken after rainfall.  It should be peaked up during the festival and post harvest season. To derive maximum mileage their usage needs to be planned meticulously

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Defining Advertising
“Advertising is any paid form of non personal communication and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor. “
Advertising is directed to groups of people rather than to Individuals and is therefore nonpersonal in nature. These groups may be teenagers or to a family as a whole.

Again most advertising intends to persuade its audience, though some ads such as legal announcements are intended to merely inform the general public. A company usually sponsors ads in order to convince people that its products will benefit them.
Apart from promoting tangible goods like suits, soaps and soft drinks advertising also helps advertise intangible services like banking, insurance etc. For a message to be considered an ad the sponsor must be identified. It is quite obvious that the sponsor would want himself to be identified or why pay to advertise?

Classification of Advertising
Advertising can be classified by four main criteria : Target audience, geographic area, medium and purpose By Target audience

Advertising is usually aimed at a particular segment of the population – the target audience. When you see an ad that doesn’t appeal to you, it may be because the ad is not aimed at any of the groups you belong to. A TV commercial for Pepsodent which first concentrated on kids then they included adults as their target audience (“bade hone se kuch nahi hota toothpaste badalnese sab kuch hota hai”)
There are two main type of target audiences, consumer and businesses. Consumer advertising Most ads in the mass media- TV, radio, newspaper and magazine- are consumer advertising Sponsored by the manufacturer of the product or the dealer who sells the product, they are typically directed at consumer- people who buy the product for their own or someone else’s personal use.

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Business advertising

The majority of consumer advertising appears in mass-consumer media. Business advertising, on the other hand , tend to be concentrated in specialized business publications or professional journals, in direct-mail pieces sent to businesses, or in trade shows. Since business advertising rarely uses the mass media, it is often invisible to consumer.
There are four types of business advertising : Industrial, trade, professional and agricultural. Industrial advertising is aimed at individuals in business who buy or influence the purchase of industrial products, including goods and services used in the manufacture of other products(raw materials, semi manufactured goods, components). Industrial products also include goods or services used to conduct business- i.e., capital goods(office machines, computers, desks, operating supplies) or business services ( insurance, bookkeeping, maintenance ). Company use trade advertising to obtain greater distribution of their products by developing more sales outlets or selling more products to existing outlets. Professional advertising, aimed at teacher, accountants, doctors, dentists, architects, engineers, and lawyers, typically appears in official publications of professional societies(such as archives of ophthalmology published by the American Medical association). Professional advertising has three objectives 1) To convince professional people to buy particular brands of equipment and supplies for use in their work; 2) To encourage professional to recommend or prescribe a specific product or service to their clients or parties; and 3) To persuade the person to use the product personally.

By Geographic area A neighborhood store usually uses local advertising in its immediate trading area because that’s where the majority of its customers come from. Local advertisers face a variety of special challenges.

On the other hand, a business that is part of a well-known Indian chain might use any of the four classifications of advertising based on geography- local, regional, national or even international.
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In recent years, the world has experienced dramatic political realignment , and many traditional trade barriers have disappeared.

By Medium

Advertising can be classified on the basis of the medium used to transmit the message like radio, television, or newspaper. An advertising medium is any paid means used to present an advertisement to its target audience. Word-ofmouth, therefore, is not an advertising medium.
By Purpose

Advertising can also be classified on the basis of the sponsor’s objectives, some ads promote a good or service; other promote ideas. Some advertising is meant to generate profits for the advertisers; some sponsored by non profit groups. Some ads try to spur the target audience to action, other to create awareness or understanding of the advertiser’s good or service.
Product advertising promotes goods and services. Non product advertising sells ideas. Corporate advertising can have various objectives; to counter public criticism or promote non controversial causes, such as support for the arts or charities. Commercial versus non commercial advertising

While commercial advertising seeks profits, Non commercial advertising is used around the world by governments and non profit organizations to seek donations, volunteer support, or a change in consumer behavior.

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In this advertisement the target is the female youth audience and manages to deliver the message of the ill effects of alcohol consumption in a dramatic format. It raises question for the growth to rethink their drinking habits.
Action versus awareness advertising :

The objective of commercial advertising, is to create interest in, and image for, a product and to influence reader or viewers to select the specific brand.
A direct mail ad, on the other hand, exemplifies action advertising because it seeks an immediate, direct response from the reader.

Most ads on TV and radio are awareness ads, but some are a mixture of awareness and action. A 60 second TV- commercial may devote the first 50 seconds to image building and the last 10 to phone number for immediate information. Functions of advertising
For any business with something to sell, advertising performs several functions, and its effects on that organization is dramatic. To demonstrates perhaps one of the most basic marketing functions of advertising- to identify product and differentiate them from others. Second main function of advertising is that the information must be properly communicated about the product means the features of the product and the location of the sale of the product. Third function of advertising is to induce consumer to try new products and to suggest reuse. This can be done by giving a coupons to a consumers and people who received free coupons tried the product and then tried it again. That’s another reason for advertising to induce consumers to try new products and to suggest reuse. One of the many purpose of advertising, through is to increase product usage.

As with any popular product, imitators immediately appeared, and the battle against competitors has been continuous ever since. Another function of advertising is to build value, brand preference and loyalty.
The last and main function of advertising is to lower the cost of sales. The cost of reaching a thousand people through advertising is usually far less than the cost of reaching just one prospect through personal selling.

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Advertising Agencies – Structure, Functions & Evaluation
Organizational structure
While advertising agencies are fairly adept at tailoring their structure to the needs of specific clients, a typical advertising agency typically involves four main departments.
• • • •

Account Management Creative Services Media Planning and Buying Account Planning and Research

Account Management

The Account Manager works closely with the client to map out their communications needs and define the role the agency can play in helping meet their business objectives. The account manager engages agency resources as appropriate and ensures all the work done for the client is suitable for their business and that projects run smoothly.
On a day-to-day basis, this means creating agency teams to work on specific projects, communicating the agency opinion in formal points of view, presenting work, and setting timelines and budgets. The account manager is ultimately responsible for ensuring that all agency work is effective and projects are completed on time within budget. There are a number of levels within the account management group. The most common positions (starting from the more senior) are as follows: Management Representative, Account Supervisor, Account Executive, and Assistant Account Executive. Not all titles are required for every account and each is staffed according to its unique needs.

Creative Services If an advertising agency’s “products” are the advertisements it creates, then it’s the creative services group that is responsible for making these products. Advertising can take many forms (TV commercials, radio spots, print ads, and outdoor billboards to name a few), but collectively they are referred to as “the creative” or “the work.”
Development of the creative is typically done in teams of two. A Copywriter (words) and an Art Director (visuals) work together to create rough versions of the ads including: TV storyboards, print layouts, and radio scripts. Creative teams can work successfully together for years -- often hired, fired and promoted together.

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Overseeing these teams is the agency Creative Director, who approves all the work before it is shared with the client. Even though the creative director rarely writes ads himself, he has a tremendous influence on all the work an agency develops. The Creative Director helps guide each team, ensuring that the work is unique and appealing while strategically on target. Once an idea for a radio or TV ad is ready to be brought to life, a Producer joins the team. The producer coordinates with the outside resources necessary to produce finished ads – in the case of a TV commercial this can include a large group: a commercial director and his production company, actors and voiceover artists, film editors, musicians. The producer estimates the cost to produce the ads, writes contracts, and coordinates the production from start to finish. The Traffic Manager performs a similar function for print ads, estimating costs and coordinating these jobs from start to finish. In addition, the Traffic Manager is also responsible for getting all ad materials where they need to go. He sends print ads to the appropriate magazines and delivers TV spots to the appropriate networks.

Media Planning and Buying Typically, the largest portion of a marketer’s budget goes towards buying media. This places a huge responsibility on the media planning and buying department.
Media Planners determine how to best expose the creative message to the desired target. They determine what combination of TV, Radio, Magazines, etc., would reach as many target consumers as possible at the lowest cost. The result of their research and analysis is the Media Plan. The Media Plan is formatted similar to a calendar, and lays out when and where the advertisements will appear. Plan effectiveness can be measured in many ways.

Media Buyers take the media plan recommended by the planners and negotiate its purchase as inexpensively as possible. The media buyer’s frontline experience often provides invaluable expertise on when and how to make these commitments. As a client’s media budget can be quite large, even small tactical changes can result in big savings.
Research and Account Planning

Advertising agencies have been actively doing research since the 1920s. Historically, this research has been focused on helping agencies and their client answer specific business questions. For example, a perfume manufacturer might want to know:
• • • •

Do consumers like this new fragrance? Which package is more appealing? Is the main message of this commercial coming through? What is the market share of this competitor?

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While useful for specific issues, traditional research was typically not an integral part of the creative development process. All that changed with the emergence of Account Planning.
Account planning takes a more insightful look into consumer attitudes, including those about the brands they use. In-depth discussions among small groups of consumers tell agencies a lot more about what consumers think and feel than a nationwide survey. Account Planners use this information in a unique way. Rather than simply report facts, planners weave facts together into compelling stories. These stories can form the basis of a brand positioning, a unique product benefit or perhaps even a commercial storyline.

They are all intended to achieve a similar goal: create an identity for the client’s brand which is distinct from the competition and compelling to the target consumer.

An ad agency organizes its functions, operations, and personnel according to the type of accounts it serves, its size, and its geographic scope. In small agencies (annual billings of less than 500 to 750 million) each employee may wear many hats means one person can do a task of other persons for which there should be a different post. The owner of president usually supervises daily business operations, client service, and new business development. Account executives and account supervisors generally handles day-to-day client contact. The account executive may also do creative work and write copy. Artwork may be produced by an agency art director or purchased from an independent studio or free-lance designer. Most small agencies have a production and traffic department or an employee who fulfills these functions. They may have a media buyer, but in small agencies the account executives also purchase media time and space.

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Small agency structure

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Medium and large agencies generally have a more formal organization and are usually structured in a departmental or group system. In the departmental system, the agency’s functions – account services, creative services, marketing services, and administration- are handled by separate departments, as shown in diagram. The account executive handles client contacts, the creative department writes and lays out ads, and media people select media

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In groups system, the agency is divided into number of “little” agencies or groups. Each groups may serve one large account or, in many cases, three or four smaller ones. An account supervisor heads each groups staff or account executives, copywriters, art directors, a media directors, and any other necessary specialists. A very large agency may have dozens of groups with separate production and traffic units for each.
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How Agencies Work The workflow in an agency is not as linear as one may initially expect. Projects typically do not start in one department, then get handed off to the next, and so forth.
The process is much more collaborative with multiple agency departments involved at key points along the way. This may seem a bit chaotic at times, but the process encourages input from diverse points of view, stimulates healthy debate and allows strong ideas to emerge regardless of the source. Ultimately, the process leads to the best possible creative. While no two advertising projects run exactly the same, what follows is a rough chronology of how most advertising is generally created:

Project assignment The client details his business objectives to the account manager, and together they define the role that advertising is expected to play. Often advertising is just one component in a marketing plan that also includes many communications efforts – public relations, promotions, direct mail, etc.
The account manager collects as much information as possible and briefs the key agency departments – strategic planning, creative, and media. Strategic Development As a group, the agency team analyzes the assignment – what type of people would use this product? Why would they use it? What would compel someone to purchase it? Research is vital at this stage, and can be conducted among consumers, industry experts or published reference materials. The goal of strategic development is to find a compelling story about the product (referred to as the positioning) and a unique message for the advertising creative (the creative brief). Media Development Is typically initiated alongside of strategic development. The media team creates a detailed profile of the target consumer -- how old are they? How much money do they earn? Where do they live? What are their hobbies? A media plan is developed to reach these consumers based on their media consumption habits. The plan is presented to the client and (when approved) is purchased by the media buyers. Creative Development The creative team develops rough versions of ads. After input by the creative director, the account manager and strategic planner are consulted for further fine-tuning. Creative work is then presented to the client and, when approved, is often tested among consumers. The advertising will be judged a success if it grabs consumer attention and motivates him to try the product – changes may be made if necessary at this point. Once finalized, TV spots are shot, radio spots recorded, and the print ads produced. Campaign Debut The Traffic Manager sends the advertising where it is needed and ensures it debuts in accordance with the media plan. This can get quite complicated, as each type of ad must be finished at varying

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times prior to debut - magazine ads will need to arrive as much as a month prior to publication, while TV and Radio spots may be needed by stations just a few days before air.

Tracking of an advertising campaign is essential, allowing client and agency to gauge the impact of their efforts and signal changes that might need to be made. Tracking can be done in a variety of ways, depending on the client’s business goals. Product sales are evaluated. Changes in consumer opinion may be measured. Media purchases will checked to ensure they ran as purchased.

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Evaluation of Advertising Agencies
An advertising agency can be evaluated taking into consideration the following parameters. General • Size compatibility with the clients needs. • Strength of management. • Financial stability. • Compatibility with other clients. • Range of services. • Cost of services. Marketing information • Ability to offer marketing counsel. • Understanding of the market we serve. • Experience dealing in our market. • Success record. Creative Abilities • Relevance to strategy • Art strength. • Copy strength. • Overall creative quality. • Effectiveness compared to work of competitors. Production • Faithfulness to creative concept and execution. • Diligence to schedules and budgets. • Ability to control outside services. Media • • • • Existence and soundness of media research. Effective and efficient media strategy. Ability to achieve objectives within budget. Strength at negotiating and executing schedules.

Personality • Overall personality, philosophy, or positions. • Compatibility with client staff and management. • Willingness to assign top people to account. References • Rating by current client. • Rating by past client.

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ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES AND BRANDING

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Advertising Objectives:
Need of Advertising Objectives: It is an important step in designing an advertising campaign, since all other decisions in advertising take their cue from the objectives. If there is an error at this step itself, the whole campaign suffers. Some campaigns may have short or long term objectives. But all objectives have to be precise, quantifiable & measurable. 1. It helps the marketers/advertisers to know in advance what they want to achieve & to ensure they are proceeding in the right direction. Also helps in making one’s goals real & not imaginary, so that advertising programmes can be developed for meeting the objectives. 2. It also guides & controls decision making in each area & at each stage. In the past, advertising within the organization was almost like a freelance activity, & could not be subjected to established management norms & controls. This has undergone changes over the years. Since advertising involves heavy expenditure to the advertiser, it slowly got included in those management activities that are expected to yield results proportional to the effort & cost involved. People began to expect tangible results from advertising & when such evaluation came role of objectives or goals in advertising became crucial. Two Distinct Schools of thoughts:  Advertising has to necessarily bring in more sales. So, it should certainly include sales growth. i.e. Sales = f (advertising)  This is diametrically opposite view, that advertising is essentially a communication task & should have communication goals or goals intended to shape the awareness & attitudes of the consumers.

SALESMANSHIP TO BRAND BUILDING The hub of advertising today is to go beyond mere selling. Advertising has to create those positive images that linger in the consumer’s mind & lead to “brand” building. Advertising that only sells will end up, in today’s market environment, merely creating commodity brands. So the task of advertising today is to sell & simultaneously endow the brand with all positive values that will make it more attractive to the target consumers.

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ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES WITH A SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO DAGMAR
Some useful models AIDA, the four stage model The acronym denotes Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action. It suggests that any effective impersonal sales presentation should attract Attention, gain interest, arouse a desire & result in action. Five & Six Stage Models . UNAWARE

AWARE

IMAGE

ATTITUDE ACTION A HIERARCHY OF EFFECT MODEL OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS In 1961, Lavidge and Steiner published a paper in the Journal of Marketing entitled, A Model for Predictive Measurements of Advertising Effectiveness. They suggested that advertising effectiveness should be measured in terms of movement up the hierarchy rather than solely on its ability to evoke action in the consumer. In addition, they created a new model of the hierarchy itself, which took into account models from the field of psychology, which attempted to describe learning itself as a process. The model described three distinct phases of learning, which occur in the following order: 1) Cognitive, 2) Affective, and 3) Conative. The three phases correspond roughly to the categories 1) thinking, 2) feeling, and 3) doing. Lavidge and Steiner broke each category into two corresponding mini-stages and presented a model of the hierarchy with the following ordered phases: Awareness, Knowledge, Liking, Preference, Conviction, and Purchase.

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New Theoretical Models The first stage consisting of awareness &knowledge levels, is comparable to cognitive or knowledge component of the attitude. The affective component of the attitude, the like dislike aspect, is represented by liking or preference levels. The remaining attitude components are the conative component, the action or motivation element, represented by the conviction or purchase levels, the final two levels in the hierarchy. Lavidge and Steiner's model required the consumer to pass through all six of the stages, in the given order, before reaching the final stage (Action). All these models belong to a class that is commonly called the ‘hierarchy of effects’ models. Each step is believed to be a necessary, but insufficient condition for the succeeding step. Advertising was not perceived as having a direct influence on sales, but on factors that mediate sales. DAGMAR In 1961, Russell H. Colley presented a report to the Association of National Advertisers entitled, Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results (DAGMAR). Colley propounded the concept for quantifying advertising goals & using those goals to measure performance. He suggested a precise method for selecting and quantifying advertising goals. Most important, it proposed that advertisers should collect feedback measures to determine if their advertising met those goals. Thus, DAGMAR approach could be summarized as “defining an advertising goal.” An advertising goal is a specific communication task, to be accomplished among a defined audience, in a given period of time. Here, a communication task is involved & not a marketing task. 29

_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising A COMMUNICAION TASK Advertising is a paid form of communication that is intended to create awareness, impart information, develop attitudes or induce action. In Dagmar approach, the communication task is based on a specific model of communication process. The model suggests that there is a series of mental steps through which a brand or objects must climb to gain acceptance.

An individual starts at some point by being unaware of a brand’s presence in the market. The initial communication task of the brand is to increase consumer awareness of the brand –to advance the brand one step up the hierarchy. The second step of the communication process is brand comprehension & involves the audience member learning something about the brand. What are its specific characteristics? In what way does it differ from its competitors? Whom is it supposed to benefit? The third step is the attitude (conviction) step & intervenes between comprehension & final action. The action phase involves some overt move on the part of the buyer, such as buying the brand for the first time visiting a showroom, or requesting information. It implies that the audience member will sequentially pass through a set of steps, & is termed as a hierarchy of effect model.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising The distinction between marketing and advertising goals, and the emphasis on movement up the hierarchy offered several advantages over the previous, sales-based measures. The most obvious was the ability to more narrowly define advertising objectives, and to effectively measure progress towards them. In addition, the formalization of the theory gave practitioners a framework to examine and utilize the long-term effects of advertising more strategically.Colley argued that the effectiveness of advertising should be judged based on the extent to which it moves the consumer upward on the hierarchy, rather than solely on its ability to move the consumer to the ultimate stage: Action. Thus, Colley made a distinction between advertising goals and marketing goals; advertising goals should be stated and measured in terms of movement on the hierarchy, while marketing goals tended to be concerned almost exclusively with achieving a desired action A SPECIFIC TASK The second important concept of the Dagmar approach is that the advertising goal should be specific. It should be written, measurable task involving a starting point, a defined audience, and a fixed time period. MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE The Dagmar approach needs to be made more specific when actual goals are formulated. For example when brand comprehension is involved, it is necessary to indicate exactly what appeal or image is to be communicated. Furthermore, the specification should include a description of the measurement procedure. If a high protein cereal were trying to increase brand comprehension among a target audience, managers could well decide promote its protein content. However only mentioning its protein content would be inadequate. Is the cereal to be perceived as one containing a full day’s supply as a protection against illness or as one, which supplies more energy than other cereals? If a survey includes the request, “Rank the following cereals as a protein content”, then brand comprehension could be quantified to mean the percentage who rated first.

BENCHMARK A basic aspect of establishing a goal & selecting a campaign to reach it is, to know the starting conditions. Without a benchmark, it is most difficult to determine the optimum goal. For example, the selection of awareness-oriented goal might be a mistake, if the awareness is already high. Without a benchmark measure, such a circumstance could not be ascertained quantitatively. Moreover benchmark could also suggest how a certain goal can best be reached. For example it would be useful to know whether the existing image needs to be changed, reinforced, diffused, or sharpened. A benchmark is also a prerequisite to the ultimate measurement of results, an essential part of any planning program & of the DAGMAR approach. The key to DAGMAR approach is probably the generation of well – conceived benchmarks before advertising goals are determined.

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TARGET AUDIENCE A key tenet of the Dagmar approach is that the target audience be well defined. If the goal is to increase awareness, from 25% to 60% in certain time period, then it is essential to know the target audience precisely. The benchmark measure cannot be developed without a specification of the target audience. The campaign execution will normally depend on the identity of the target segment. All parties involved will understand that the results will be available for evaluating the campaign, which could lead to a contraction, expansion , or change in the current effort.

TIME PERIOD The objective should involve a particular time period, such as six months, or one year. With a specified time period, a survey to generate a set of measures can be planned & anticipated.

WRITTEN GOALS Finally goals should be committed to paper. If the goals are written clearly, the basic shortcomings & misunderstandings become exposed, & it becomes easy to determine whether the goal contains the crucial aspect of DAGMAR approach. Suppose an economy priced BEER “BD”, has a bad quality image, despite the fact that blind test indicated that it does not have any real quality problems. An objective might be developed with respect to a scale ranging from –5 to +5(inadequate taste to adequate taste). An admissible objective here would be to increase the percentage of male “BD” drinkers in India, who give a nonnegative rating on the scale from 5% to 25% in 12 month period. This objective is measurable and has a starting point, a definite audience, & a fixed time period. DAGMAR was in conflict over sales-oriented measurement approaches, for it made a careful distinction between sales goals and advertising goals, but it lit a controversy in the advertising community that still smolders.

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CHALLENGES TO THE DAGMAR APPROACH
There have been six different kinds of challenges to the Dagmar model. SALES GOAL Some purists believe that only a sales measure is relevant. But, many variables other than advertising affect sales. That is, Sales = f(advertising, pricing, distribution, the product, and other controllable variables; and competition, legislation, demand, the economy, and other uncontrollable variables) PRACTICABILITY The Dagmar approach falls short of providing sufficient details to implement the approach. A level in the hierarchy to be attacked must be selected, & a campaign to influence those at that level must be developed. Neither of these tasks is easy. MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES The third problem is measurement. What should be measured when we speak of attitude awareness, or brand comprehension? Substantial conceptual & measurement problems underlie all these constructs. NOISE IN THE SYSTEM Noise exists in the hierarchy model. There are many causal factors other than advertising that determine sales & awareness. For example, variables such as competitive promotion or unplanned publicity can affect an awareness campaign. INHIBITING THE GREAT IDEAS The DAGMAR model is basically a rational planned approach that among other things, provide guidance to creative people. The problem is that if it does, in fact have, any influence on their work, it must also necessarily inhibit their efforts. When the creative approach of copywriters & art directors is inhibited, there is less likelihood that they will come up with great ideas. Thus, too many rules and too much structure curb genius.

HIERARCHY MODEL OF COMMUNICATION EFFECT The sixth type of argument against the Dagmar approach model attacks the basic hierarchy model, which postulates a set of sequential steps of awareness comprehension & attitude leading to action. The counterargument is that other models may hold in various contexts & that it is naïve to apply Dagmar hierarchy model in all situations. For example, action can precede attitude formation & even comprehension with an impulse purchase of a low involvement product. Consumers do not normally go through all steps in the traditional hierarchy of effects model when they buy something. The do-feel-think model -- the low

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising involvement model -- recognizes, sometimes consumers skip some steps or change the order of steps in their own process of purchase. The low-involvement model changes the order of responses to think-do-feel, with the idea that consumers first learn about a product, then try it, and finally form an opinion. This situation occurs when there is little initial interest in the product or when there is minimal difference between the products, requiring little decision making. It also describes impulse purchasing. The hierarchy model which is the ‘ HEAR-UNDERSTAND-DO’ model, inhibits great advertising by emphasizing tests of recall, communication & persuasion. CHANGED ADVERTISING ENVIRONMENT The hierarchy of effects model has been an effective tool for illustrating the complicated consumer behavior toward both low involvement products and high involvement products. However, the advent of new media that are based on recent technological developments has rapidly changed the advertising environment for consumers. These new media are characterized by increased interactivity, convenience, and customization of information. Given this rapidly changing media environment, the traditional hierarchy effects model cannot sufficiently explain consumers' purchasing behavior DAGMAR thus, pre-supposes the understanding of the consumer behavior & an acquaintance with marketing environment. The basic inputs of DAGMAR are however not easy to crystallize. Market segmentation, brand personality & perceptions do affect the process of the formulation of the advertising object. Advertising objectives revolve Around 4 Broad Themes  The behavioral constructs; generating trial purchases & store visits.  Attitude; attitude change & attitude measurement.  Awareness; creating awareness of new products / brands & new ideas  Product positioning & brand building. At times, companies set inducement of trial purchase & visits to retail stores as an advertising objective. They do so especially when they are offering a new product. Such an objective directly supplements the sales task. Also direct mailers, reminder advertising & retail advertising normally have an inducement of immediate or trial purchases as their offer. ‘Attitude change’ is a major area of advertising objectives. Creating awareness is a must for a campaign, for new products. Product positioning & brand building is also a very important area. This task is of communicating the firm’s value proposition to the target audience & winning over the intended locus in their mind is basically achieved through advertising. Advertising objectives hover around the task of product positioning & brand building & long-term brand equity.

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Areas where Advertising Objectives can be set: Introduction of new products Expansion of markets for existing products/brands. Reminding the customers Countering Competition Brand image & company image building. Supporting a sales promotion activities Stimulating impulse buying etc………….  Consumer Attitude: Attitude is a central theme in advertising. The attitude is made of three interrelated components –cognitive, affective, and conative. The cognitive components deal with the cognition, or knowledge. The affective component deals with affections/emotions. For example, feelings of likes or dislikes toward object are dealt on the affective plane. And the conative components deal with behavior or action. These three components together shape what is known as attitude. “Attitude change” on part of the target audience is the main concern for the marketing communicators. People normally resist change & dislike someone trying to influence their attitude, especially when the attitudes are strongly held & cherished by them. So the marketing communicators attempt the persuasive process of communication, shaping the attitude of the audience in his favor. This becomes clearer by the following example: Inspite of a long tradition of drinking milk, this trend had been on the decline, especially amongst the urban youth who form a significant market for the product. Milk was being perceived by them as a ‘plain’, ‘boring’ drink or mistakenly among the health –conscious, as ‘fattening’. This attitudinal block resulted in more milk being earmarked for the production of milk products or as an intermediary in tea or coffee, than for consumption as a drink. The economic ramifications of this trend are alarming for the farmers who needed incentives to produce higher quantities of milk. FCB- Ulka Advertising was entrusted the task of changing urban attitude towards milk and replace the ‘boring’ perception with the ‘cool’ one. THE KEY CONCERN A survey among 1,00,000 households in 1995 revealed the low direct consumption of milk. Milk was largely consumed as an intermediary in sweets or as an ingredient in paneer, tea, butter etc. THE MAKETING OBJECTIVE It was decided to boost direct consumption of milk to motivate the farmer to produce more milk. Therefore, though no one needed to be educated about the benefits of milk, people were finding enough reasons not to consume milk directly.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising AGENCY AND CLIENT BELIEF 1. The decline in milk consumption was greater among kid/teens. Milk took a backseat when compared to soft drinks. 2. Adults believed that milk was essential for growing children but not for them.

COMMUNICATION TASK
The agency believed that educating the consumer about the benefits of milk would make it even more drab and boring. The communication task was therefore designed to change consumer attitude towards milk, from being a ‘boring, conservative drink’ to a ‘youthful, exciting and nutritional energy drink’. This entailed the use of communication that would have to look and feel of a soft drink commercial, yet would be firmly rooted in the nutritional values of milk.

CREATIVE STRATEGY AND EXECUTION
The advertising task, which sought to bring about a change in consumer attitude, was designed to depict milk as a modern and fashionable drink for today. Although the target group comprised people of all age, the key target segment was defined as urban, trendsetters, in the age group of 8 to 25 years. The creative breakthrough was achieved when the writers assigned the task hit upon a unique idea of using the HINDI work for milk ‘doodh’ as a musical note. Thus was born the ‘doodh doodh’ tune with doodh playing the role of the ‘sa-re-ga-ma’ and reminding consumers of ‘milk’, in an interesting manner. The film showed energetic people of all ages enjoying the glass of milk, with a jingle set to a lively reggae beat extolling the benefits of drinking milk. The jingle was composed with Hindi English lyrics, the popularity of such film songs and music videos.

MEDIA
Television was chosen as the primary medium because of its popularity and the fact that an audiovisual medium lends itself to demonstrate of high energy fun and youthful more vividly. MILK CONSUMPTION TODAY The communication has definitely made the youngster sing the ‘doodh doodh’ tune, in addition to the songs of the ‘colas’. A measure of effectiveness of the communication was that the TV commercial was voted by viewers of India’s number one channels as one of the best commercial aired on television. There was tremendous popularity of the commercial among all age groups & it successfully shaped their attitudes towards milk.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising BRAND BUILDING Management thinkers today strongly believe that the customer is the king. The single most important job in marketing is the job of creating and retaining a customer. Numerous research studies across the world have proven that the best way of creating & retaining customers today is by building strong brands. Now what are brands? products? enhanced products? products with names? BRAND= PRODUCT + IMAGES A brand is much more than the mere product it stands for. A brand is the amalgam of the physical product & the notional images that go with the brand. When we recall a brand, not only do we recall the physicality of the product but also images it conjures SUNDROP LML VESPA = sunflower oil+(healthy family+happy children+loving mother+tasty food+modern home+…………………) = scooter+(style +extra power+macho image+great looks+international)

GODREJ STORWEL = steel cupboard+(lasting value+premium+care+family heirloom+…………..) Brand: A brand name is nothing more than a word in the mind, a special kind of word. A brand name is a noun, a proper noun, which like all proper nouns is usually spelled with a capital letter. Brand can be defined as a variety of something that is characterized by some distinctive attribute. A brand is defined as a name, term, symbol, design or a combination of them, which is intended to identify the goods, and services of one seller and to differentiate them from those of competitors. The Dictionary of Business and Management defines a brand as: "a name, sign or symbol used to identify items or services of the seller(s) and to differentiate them from goods of competitors." Walter Landor, one of the greats of the advertising industry, said: "simply put, a brand is a promise. By identifying and authenticating a product or service it delivers a pledge of satisfaction and quality." Building from this idea of a 'mental box' a more poetic definition might be: "A brand is the most valuable real-estate in the world, a corner of the consumer's mind". These are all great definitions, but we believe the best is this: "A brand is a collection of perceptions in the mind of the consumer". This definition makes it absolutely clear that a brand is very different from a product or service. A brand is intangible and exists in the mind of the consumer.

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A brand has specific: • Attributes-a brand image brings certain attributes to mind. Mercedes brings to mind expensive, durable, well built and high prestige automobiles. • Benefits-attributes must be translated into functional and emotional benefits for eg: the attribute “durable “ could translate into the functional benefit “ I won’t have to buy another car for several years.” • Values-says about the producer’s values. Mercedes stands for high performance, safety and prestige. • Culture- Mercedes represents German culture like organized, efficient, high quality. • Personality – the brand can project a certain personality. • User- the brand also suggests the kind of customer who buys or uses the product. The brand offers the company some defense against price competition. In customer terms, a brand represents a promise. Its value to consumers is that it reduces risk, saves time and provides reassurance. Predictable results are the promise of a brand. This is the reason behind brands being attractive to firms wishing to gain a strategic resource in their asset profile.

 Brand Objectives:  To attract a loyal and profitable set of customers.  To make it easier for the customers to identify goods & services of one seller from the offer of the competitors.  To build a corporate image.  To serve as a powerful competitive advantage for a firm.

Importance of a brand from the seller’s point of view:  The sellers’ brand name and trademarks provide legal protection of unique product feature.  The brand name makes it easier for the seller to process orders and track down problems.  It makes it easier for the retailers to handle the product

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The brand pyramid The concept of a brand can be thought of as a pyramid consisting of different layers of meaning and involvement.

Emotional Involvement Mark of association Moments of choice Mark of assurance Mark of specification. Brand meaning –The Brand Pyramid At its lowest level a brand is simply an identifying mark to distinguish the product from alternatives. Normally, at this level, there is an implicit statement of specification. A4 paper consists of paper of a certain size. Low fat yoghurt consists of yoghurt with a minimum level of fat content. The simplest way in which the brand works is as shorthand or a mnemonic for a specification or guarantee. For a brand to successful at this level it has to be widely recognized (high brand awareness). However, at the levels of specification and guarantee it can be copied and so long term will not act as a barrier to price competition. At the next level, the brand becomes more than a mark of specification, it becomes a mark of assurance. Food marked Nestlé will achieve a minimum standard of quality. Cars made by Ford will have a certain level of reliability. Moving in up another step, the brand starts to represent moments of choice. Drink Coke when you are thirsty. Eat Mars when you need energy. If the brand becomes associated with a choice (in the consideration set), then it is more likely to be purchased. But successful brands can position themselves to become the only choice. When you are hungry & instantly need food… one can think of “ MAGGI” ..JUST 2 MINS At the next step, the brand provides a mark of association, a badge of a club that the individual wants to be associated with. Here the purchaser is starting to make some form of emotional connection with the brand and to use the brand to establish a self-image to other people. I eat Pizzas only from Pizza Hut.. I wear Nike. I read the Financial Times. If you then increase this association with the brand to a point of emotional involvement, then the brand starts to represent who the individual wants to be. "The brand is me. This is my brand". One person may say I drink Pepsi, wear Levis outfits. I am young, exciting,

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising cool person & am at par with the youth in the rest of the world. Another; I shop from Crossroads, Globus, buy organic food. I am a particular type of person Top brands establish emotional linkages and promises that cannot be copied by competitors. An own-label Cola is not Coke. This means that the brand can be defended against price-competition. It may compete with other brands, but it is rare for an individual brand to compete on price as it has the potential to devalue the brand (and reduces the longrun potential for profits). Nonetheless maintaining a brand is not a cheap option - it doesn't just happen. The brand has to maintain relevance and connection with its target customers, which means advertising to reinforce position and meaning, rather than just awareness. For a company looking at the financial return it gets from brands, it has to take into account the extra income it receives from having a strong brand against the costs of maintaining the brand.  Brand name decision: Manufacturers & service companies who brand their products must chose which brand names to use. The decision of selecting a particular strategy is not easy because all the alternatives have their merits & demerits. The different branding strategies available are:
• • •

Corporate branding (sometimes referred to as Umbrella or monolithic branding) Product branding (Individual Brand names) House branding (sometimes referred to as Endorsement branding)

Product branding (Individual names) Here, each individual product has its own independent brand name and resources, such as P & G’s Tide washing powder. With this strategy, the company name is either totally or virtually absent. There is no joint responsibility among the different products. Each brand gets promoted & moves by itself. Where a company produces quite different products, it is not desirable to use one blanket family name.

HLL individual brands :-

Bathing soap line:
Detergents line:

Dove, Lux, Pears , Lifebuoy, Liril & Hamam

Surf, Rin , Wheel.

Washing Soaps Line: Sunlight & 501 Toothpastes: Close-Up & Pepsodent

Coconut oil:
Cooking Oil: Advantages: Dalda

Nihar

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising It gives each brand the opportunity to have unique values, personality, identity and positioning. This approach implies that every new product the company brings on to the market is a new brand, and can be positioned precisely for a specific market segment. Procter & Gamble (P&G) have always taken the view that unless a product cannot stand on its own, then it does not deserve to get launched. It makes it easier for the company to evaluate brand performance and worth, and makes for better resource allocation decisions. If the product is a flop, or is involved in a marketing disaster, the bad news does not attach itself to the company name. Disadvantage: Product branding is costly, as advertising and promotion costs cannot be shared, and its success depends on the product itself having a sustainable competitive advantage and clear positioning in the marketplace. Product branding can lead into product line branding if the product takes on line extensions, as is the case with Future Tide. It can also go further to product range branding, where a number of products or services in a broad category are grouped together under one brand name and promoted with one basic identity. Whilst generating some economies of scale in advertising and promotion, care must be taken to ensure that the extensions do not step away from the central proposition of the main product brand, and that they do not cannibalize its sales.
Corporate branding (sometimes

referred to as Umbrella or monolithic branding or family branding)

Corporate branding is where the corporate name is the brand, and here the products tend to be described more in alpha numeric or letter terms, and do not have distinctive brand names. Different products of the company are marketed under one brand name. It does not mean that the entire product mix of the company should go under a single brand name. A company may resort to different branding approaches for different product lines. Amul is the umbrella brand name for National Dairy Development Board’s ( NDDB) milk & milk related products viz milk, curd, milk powder, butter, ghee, milk chocolates, Paneer etc. Videocon is a family brand for a variety of products of Videocon Corporation. Its TVs, VCRs, refrigerators, washing machines, DVDs & air conditioners go under the Videocon brand name. Advantages: It gives each product the strength of the corporate brand values and positioning. Development cost is less because there is no need for “name” research or heavy advertising and promotional expenditures. Johnson & Johnson with a wide product range in the baby care segment & medicare segment runs an ad campaign every year to promote its

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising products. The same campaign takes care of all the diverse products of the company. It is the Johnson’s brand name that is advertised & all the products get covered. It builds up the strength of the corporate brand and its financial value. New product launch becomes easier & cheaper. New products would enjoy easy recognition & a market set-up. Thus, sales of the new product are likely to be strong if the manufacturer’s name is good. It is imperative that the family brand maintains the same standards of quality. Thus, there is composite responsibility among the products coming under the brand. Corporate branding is very appropriate to those companies engaged in service industries, as their products are more intangible in nature. When consumers cannot see the product, the company brand name helps give them an assurance of quality, heritage, and authenticity. Many Asian companies have taken this route because the commitment and longevity of the company are judged to be of great importance in their countries. One of the great proponents of corporate branding has been Sony Corporation. The late founder and chairman of Sony Akio Morita was quoted as saying, "...I have always believed that the company name is the life of an enterprise. It carries responsibility and guarantees the quality of the product..." House or endorsement branding: Some manufacturers tie their company name to an individual brand name for each product. This is House or endorsement branding which uses both above ideas, and the corporate name is placed alongside the product brand name, as is the case with Nestle's Milo. This policy is also followed by Kellogg (Kellogg’s Rice Krispies, Kellogg’s Corn Flakes, Kellogg’s Wheat flakes, Kellogg’s Chocos. The company name legitimizes & the individual name individualizes the product. Advantages: The product brand assumes its own identity and positioning, but draws strength from the values of the corporate brand, and give consumers the assurance, related to quality, of the corporate brand. It helps with the introduction of new products, where it can be very difficult to break into mature markets without the endorsement of a strong and credible corporate parental brand name. Economies of scale in advertising and promotion One possible disadvantage is where the product is not favorably received and causes damage to the parental brand name. An endorser brand is an established brand that provides credibility and substance to the offering. Endorser brands usually represents organizations rather than products because

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising organizational associations such as innovation, leadership and trust are particularly relevant in endorsement context. For instance Nestea and Nescafe create associations with its mother brand Nestle and Mcchicken, Mcburgers, Mctikki, etc. from Mcdonald’s.Tata has 80 different companies operating in seven business sectors, which are endorsed under the megabrand TATA. Company name as a Brand: In some cases the company itself is used as a brand name under which varied products are marketed. Companies like Bajaj, Philips, Cadbury’s J & J , Videocon BPL, HMT, & Samsung use the company as brand name for their products. The sheer power & sway of the company’s reputation is utilized in marketing the products. The company serves as a quality assurance for the consumers & by introducing new names the company may lose the identity & leverage. Company name is used in branding only when the company is confident that lending its name to its products gives a better identity & image. Middlemen’s Brand/Store Brand/ Private Label Some manufacturers leave their products for branding by the distributors /retail; chains as per the latter’s choice. Such brands are called Middlemen’s Brand/Store Brand/ Private Labels. Small manufacturer’s who do not possess the financial & management resources for building brands usually take this route. Basic Blues is the store brand of Tata’s Westside retail chain. Foodworld is a store brand owned by Foodworld chain store. The methods described above are not discrete. They are actually part of a continuum that can be made use of in the branding process. The unmistakable trend, however, is towards the corporate brand end of the continuum, where with every communication the company gets double messages across, and leverages on the value of both corporate and product brand names. Once a company decides its brand name strategy, it faces the task of choosing a specific brand name. Selecting a brand name & Logo Is the first task in brand management. A good brand name will be distinctive, easy to pronounce, recognize & remember; it may denote something about the nature/function of the product, will also be appealing. Different approaches in selecting brand names are: Names, which communicate the functions/ some key attributes of the product. Viz… GoodKnight, the mosquito repellant, offers a good night’s sleep. Fair & Lovely promises fair & lovely skin. Names, which communicate the specialty of the product

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Viz… The name Taj given to the hotel chain of Indian Hotels is an attempt to recapture & reflect the Moghul splendor. Shampoos with names Sunsilk, Halo, try to communicate certain product claims. Use of Acronyms Amul originated from Anand Milk Union Ltd. MRF originated from Madras Rubber Factory. Use of company name Bata, Cadbury’s , Sony, Samsung. Irrespective of the approach in selecting a brand name, there is always a search for some meaning/associations. It is natural because the name is the first tool for the owner of the brand to communicate his brand’s properties/uniqueness. It is important since it does some selling. Selecting a Logo It is used for visual identification. It enhances the recognition by the provision of a symbol of identity. It is a pictorial symbol intended to communicate with the consumers. Name & logo together identify the company’s product. Flags, Mascots, pictures, graphic designs, plain alphabets or even a splash of colours are used as logos. Air India’s Maharaja. Whenever one thinks of Indian Airlines, one thinks of Maharaja., with his myriad moods. The logo has become inseparable to the brand. Brand Name, Logo, Slogan The three must go together, i.e. must be compatible, & reinforce the other. Brand name Onida MRF Radial Logo The green eyed devil The man with steel muscles Slogan Neighbour’s envy, owner’s pride India’s answer to world class car

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Brand Strategy Decisions: A company has many choices when it comes to brand strategy. The company can introduce line extensions, brand extensions, multibrands (new brand names introduced in the same product category), new brands (new names for a new product category) & cobrands. Brand extension Is an effective tool /weapon in brand management. It means extending a brand name to more products. Why Firms opt for Brand Extension? • Instant Brand recognition • Economical than launching a new brand name • Helps leverage the strength of the existing brand to new additions • Help the brand into a ‘superbrand’ in the minds of the consumer Types Of Brand Extensions:A brand name can be extended in three ways: 1. Extended to other items in the same product line.( Line Extension) 2. Extended to items in a related product line.( Related Brand Extension) 3. Extended items in an unrelated product line.( Unrelated Brand Extension/ Outside the category extension) 1. Extended to other items in the same product line.( Line Extension) It is the simplest form of brand extension. It consists of making some additions to the line & cater to different segments of users of the product. It consists of introducing additional items in the same product category under the same brand name, such as new flavors, forms, colours, added ingredients & package sizes. The key criteria are whether the core strength of the parent brand can be leveraged for the new items . This is known as the principle of ‘ benefit transfer’. The new items (extensions) also give back some benefits to the parent brand. Lifebuoy’s line extension into Lifebuoy Personal( pink color with new perfume) , Lifebuoy Plus( old Lifebuoy with a different perfume), Lifebuoy Gold( change of traditional red colour to pure white, with a different fragrance & higher price, Liquid Lifebuoy( modern product form), Lifebuoy Active( to take on the challenge posed by non carbolics) While Lifebuoy continues its fight into the next century of its growth, HLL is endeavoring to keep Lifebuoy young & novel. The parent brand & the extensions together enhance the competitiveness of HLL’s soap lines. Lifebuoy remains the largest selling soap brand in India & a big revenue earner for HLL. Many companies are introducing branded variants, which are specific brand lines supplied to specific retailers or distribution channels. They result from the pressure retailers put on manufactures to enable the retailers to provide distinctive offerings. A camera company

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising may supply its low-end cameras to mass merchandisers while limiting its higher –priced items to specialty camera shops. Risks of Line Extension:  It may lead to the brand name losing its specific meaning. Ries & Trout call this ‘ line extension trap’. In the past when a person asked for a Coke, he/she used to receive a standard bottle. Today, the seller has to ask: New, Classic? Regular or diet? Caffeine or Caffeine free? Bottle or Can?  Even when a new line extension sells well, its sales may come at the expense of other items in the Line. A line extension works best when it takes away sales from competitor’s brands & not when it deflates or cannibalizes the company’s other items. Line Extensions Positive side:  They have a higher chance of survival than brand- new products.  They help strengthen brand power & keep the brand live, modern & contemporary. HLL’s Surf Ultra & Surf Excel, help Surf remain modern & also strengthen its claim as a major player in detergents.  Changing consumer tastes can be accommodated though line extensions.  Mounting advertising & promotion expenses necessitate a reduction in the brand portfolio of any firm. Line extensions help the firm to do so.  At times companies add independent brands to a product line, but later they find these brands cannot stand independently & then they bring it under an ongoing strong brand. Nestle first made Sunrise an independent brand & later reverted it as a line extension of Nescafe & called it Nescafe Sunrise. 2. Extended a brand name to products in a related product line. (Category Extension) The brand name is extended over different products, but the products are related in some way. i.e. they belong to the same category. For years, Dettol is well known for its antiseptic lotion. When the company Reckitt & Coleman, decided to expand into new antiseptic products, they decided to launch them under the Dettol brand name, i.e. as brand extensions in related category. They felt it would enable the new products to gain immediate identification as sister products. Viz.. Dettol Soap- antiseptic soap Dettol Plaster- antiseptic bandage Dettol Handwash- antiseptic wash. 3. Extended items in an unrelated product line.( Unrelated Brand Extension/

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Outside the category extension) A company may use its brand name to launch new products in other categories. Here the brand extension is put to several tests & the value of the brand is leveraged to maximum. Honda uses its company name to cover different products as automobiles, motorcycles, and lawnmowers, marine engines. Brand extension offers many of the same advantages as Line extensions. The reward arises from the substantial savings in the cost & the time involved in developing an altogether new brand. Sony puts its name on, most of its new electronic products & instantly establishes the new product’s high quality. Nike has successfully transitioned from sneakers to clothing, sports equipment & watches. The risks involved are: The brand name may be inappropriate to the new product. Pierre Cardin when put his name on a wine, it failed. The new product might disappoint buyers & damage their respect for the company’s other products. The brand name may lose its special positioning in the consumer’s mind through overextension. Brand Dilution, occurs when consumers no longer associate a brand with a specific product or highly similar products & start thinking less of the brand. Therefore, before a brand name transfer, it is imperative for a company to research how well the brand’s associations fit the new product. The best result would occur when the brand name builds the sale of both the new product & the existing product.  Main requirements for Success of brand Extension are Three basic requirements covering the mother brand & the extensions must be: 1. In customer’s perception there must be consistency between the parent brand & the extensions. In consumers’ perceptions there was no consistency between the ‘mother’, Pond’s talcum powder & the extension, Pond’s toothpaste. So, it suffered in the market. 2. Extension should be in the brand’s area of expertise, so that there is scope for leverage. Also, then consumers find the extension credible. Surf’s extension to Surf ultra was within the parent’s expertise. Maggi’s extension of its ‘instant culinary’ expertise across food categories- from noodles to ketchups, soups & pickles- looked natural. On the contrary, Lipton had great expertise in tea, but venturing into biscuits needed a different expertise altogether. 3. Benefit transfer.: The mother brand’s benefits must be transferable & be transferred to the extensions. Thus, users of 5-star ice cream will expect the same kind of gratification as they received from 5-star chocolate.

New brands:

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising When a company launches products in a new category, it may find that none of its current brand names are appropriate. If Timex decides to make toothbrushes, it is not likely to call them Timex toothbrushes. Cobrands ( Dual Branding ; partnership branding ) Co-branding, which is a happening thing in today’s marketing circles, with different companies coming together and share their competencies to get the maximum revenues. It is defined as " Co-branding is a form of cooperation between two or more brands with significant customer recognition, in which all the participant’s brand names are retained." This cooperation between the brands is of medium to long-term duration. Co-branding is however different from other forms of marketing alliances like joint promotions and joint ventures, in terms of duration and strength of relationship and the additional value created by sharing of each others’ strengths. Co-branding lies between the two extreme points of marketing alliances. It is of medium to long- term duration and its shared value potential is not as low as of a temporary nature nor it is as high as to justify the culmination into a joint venture. On the basis of strength of relationship and shared value creation, there exist different forms of co-branding with subtle differences between the different layers of the hierarchy. Co-branding has four layers in the hierarchy. Reach and Awareness Co-branding This is the lowest level of shared cooperation in a co branding exercise and its objective is to rapidly increase the awareness of the sharing brands through each other’s strength in the respective domains. This type of co-branding is found in the credit cards. Co-branding of this type finds the maximum utility of co-branding. There is a spate of cobranded credit cards between Citibank and Jet Airways, Standard Chartered Bank and Indian Railways, Indian Oil and Citibank and Citibank and The times of India. The benefits of co-branded cards to the cardholder is that he gets points whenever he uses it and he can get these points redeemed for additional products or services for free. Thus it builds loyalty to the brand or service in use by the customer. This is a sort of affiliate marketing between three brands viz a payment service franchiser (MasterCard, VISA), a bank and a product or service. Value Endorsement Co-branding This is the second level in the co-branding hierarchy wherein the shared value creation and the strength of relationship is such as to have endorsement of one brand values to the other with a strong affinity towards the other. The most appropriate example here would be of the companies getting involved with a cause with some non-government organization.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising The co branding exercise between P&G and National Association for Blind in the form of Project Drishti where one rupee per pack of Whisper purchased by the customer was diverted towards the cause of a blind female child. Thus, here one of the brands gives a small proportion of its transaction revenue to charity and the brand comes to be associated in the public mind with a worthy cause and with a good citizen brand values. The essence of this type of branding is that the two participants cooperate because they have, or want to achieve an alignment of their brand values in the customer’s mind. Also endorsement of Ariel by Vimal. Ingredient Co-branding Intel Inside on a Compaq personal Computer explains the basis of ingredient co-branding. In this form there is a physical identifiable ingredient brand which has a high brand value for the customer and with it the value of the final product greatly increases. Here one of the strong brands is an ingredient to another strong brand adding value to the final product. The potential of value created in this cooperation is tremendous and without it the value of the product will be diminished significantly. Also Nutrasweet as an ingredient in Diet Coke is a good example of ingredient co-branding Complementary Competence Co-branding This is the highest layer in the hierarchy of co-branding. In terms of value creation it is just next to the Joint ventures. Here the two powerful and complementary brands come together and combine for a product or service that is more than sum of its parts i.e. has a synergic effect. The examples for this type would be Coke at McDonalds or tie up of retail brands like Ebony and Crosswords, or Planet M and Shoppers’ Stop. Thus, tie up with Shoppers’ Stop provides Planet M more purchases and it adds value significantly to the Shoppers’ top positioning of one stop Shopping experience. The success of such a co-branding exercise, however relies on both parties contributing a high proportion of their competencies and operations’ advantages to it on an ongoing basis and not just in designing and launching the concept. The value creation in this type is also very high. But also there is a word of caution here in terms of synergies of the two brands, which they bring together. If the two brands are such that the brand values are difficult to be shared, the success of a co-branding exercise between two such brands would be a remote hope.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Brand Positioning:Positioning is the art of creating a distinct image for a product in the minds of the customer. There is no such thing as a product or service, which exists by itself in space, independent of the consumer. For a product to exist, it must find a place in an individual consumer’s perception of the world of products around him. This perception is subjective, governed by the individual consumer values, beliefs, needs experience & environment. Brand positioning is the idea that each brand (if at all noticed) occupies a particular point or space in the individual consumer’s mind. The point is determined by that consumer’s perception of brand in question & in its relation to other brands. The spatial distance between the points in that consumer’s mind reflects the subject’s perception of similarity or dissimilarity between products & brands. Thus, “ Positioning is the battle for a place in the consumer’s mind”. According to Rosser Reeves, “ Positioning is the art of selecting, out of a number of unique selling propositions, the one which will get you maximum sales”. For instance, the first thing that comes to one’s mind when somebody says ‘ATM’ is Automated Teller Machine. This is a product. But the consumer’s question would be what does ATM mean to me? The answer is Any Time Money. That makes sense to the consumer because it means instant cash. The concept shows the benefit of ready cash & thus puts it in the mind of customer. Thus Automated Teller Machine is the ‘ product’, & Any Time Money is the positioning.

Types of positioning strategies 1) Attribute Positioning: In attribute positioning, a company positions itself on an attribute, like size or number of years in existence. Raymond positions itself as “ Raymonds since 1925” since it started its operation long back in 1925. Company wants its existing and prospective customers to know that it has lots of experience in textile industry. It also shows that it earns the trust of its customers since 1925. 2) Benefit Positioning: In benefit positioning, the product is positioned as a leader in a certain benefit. A consumer always interested to know, “What is in it for me? ”. A product class consists of substitutes having same features. so it becomes necessary to differentiate your products based on special benefits provided by your product.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Cadburys say that Bournvita gives children extra energy to stay mentally alert and physically fit. HLL with its new product variant fair and lovely anti marks positions it as a proven ayurvedic solution for fair clear skin. 3) Use Positioning: Positioning the product as best for some use or application. Milkmaid first positioned itself as “Rich and Creamy”. It was advertised as a creamer or whitener for tea and coffee. So people first used it as a mixer in tea or coffee to make it creamy or white, when there was a brush milk shortage in east of India. Second time milkmaid positioned itself as “The tastiest milk made.”. This recommends the use of milkmaid as milk by diluting it with water. Third time milkmaid positioned itself as a topper on fruits and puddings. Fourth time milkmaid positioned itself to establish a long run position. It positioned itself as “Milkmaid for Desert Recipes”. Thus this shows the use of milkmaid in various ways. Pedilite positioned its brand “Feviquick” as “Chutki mein chikpai”. Here in the advertisement they showed that the most difficult task of sticking of slimy fish in water and thus gave the consumers the use of feviquick that they can stick anything.

4) User Positioning : Positioning the product as best for some user group. Mountain dew positions itself for young, active softdrink consumers who like to be adventurous and take challenges in life. There positioning statement is “ Do the Dew”. A bank offers loans against fixed deposits made by its customers, but with few minor formalities. Some customers often need to apply for loans. Citibank hit upon the idea of reducing the formalities to something as simple as signing a cheque. The chequebook facility created an immediate perception of easy liquidity. This created perceptual distance between their fixed deposit scheme & FD schemes of other banks. Thus Citibank’s ‘ Un-Fixed’ deposit had a distinct position of high returns + liquidity in consumer’s perceptual space. Thus they focus upon a consumer who needs high returns and liquidity. 5) Product category positioning – The product is positioned as a leader in certain product category. 7–up was previously considered as a mixer with hard drinks & had a steady volume. It was no where seen & perceived as a soft drink, compared to the colas of the world. Pepsi decided to position 7-up as a ‘Un-Cola’ soft drink & carve out a niche in the consumer’s mind, which was already dominated by the Colas – Coke & Pepsi. Using

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Colas as a frame of reference, 7-Up advertised itself as an Uncola drink. It thus related the unfamiliar to the familiar & enabled the consumer to give 7-up a position in his mind which was at once 1. As a softdrink, 2. Different from colas, & 3. Intriguing (What’s an Un-Cola?) The result was that the ‘Un-Cola’ position of 7-Up gave a sales increase of 10% in the very first year. It became the third last largest selling soft drink after Coke & Pepsi. According to Trout & Ries a unique position is not found inside yourself or the product, but it is found inside the prospect’s mind. Thus, you won’t find an ‘un-cola’ idea inside a 7-up can, but can find it inside the cola drinker’s head. Maruti Udyog in 1980’s decided to launch one more vehicle in addition to Maruti 800 car. It came out with a vehicle much more spacious than the Maruti 800 car. It had, looks of a van and was comfortably a 6-seater car. It had 5 doors, substantial luggage space and taller ruff & it worked on petrol. Maruti decided to position the new vehicle as a van and named it ‘Maruti omni’. But Maruti omni could not acquire a dominant position viz a viz the competing brands. The major competing brands were more spacious, though high priced. Maruti decided to take a fresh look at the positioning of omni they positioned it as “the most spacious family car at the lowest price”. Thus in the new positioning, Maruti omni was in the product category of cars competing with brands like ambassador, Fiat, Maruti 800. 6) Competitor positioning : The product claims to be better in some way than the name competitor. Mahindra & Mahindra while positioning Scorpio says that now other cars will suffer from low self esteem. Kinetic zing is positioned as “sabki hawa nikal de“. 7) Quality or price positioning : The product is positioned as offering the best value. Parle came up with price based positioning for its product mineral water ‘Bisleri’. The one litre Bisleri bottle with 20% more in it and positioned it as ‘Bada Bisleri. So they were offering more quantity at the same price. HLL positioned a product vim bar as “ Zara sa vim bar”. Thus saying that instead of using kgs. of detergents and wasting your money use zara sa vim bar and get clean utensils with economy. Cadbury’s did a quality based positing for their Dairy milk saying new dairy milk is richer, smoother and tastier. What is Brand Equity?

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Brand equity is what a brand is worth. It is the asset, which the marketer is building. In fact, brand equity is the asset itself, in the same way that a house is for a person. A brand's value is the capital worth of the premium it achieves over the equivalent generic product i.e. same thing without the brand name. The premium arises from four factors: • Higher price paid by customers • Greater volume sales • Market share In his book, 'Building Strong Brands' David Aaker suggests the brand is a 'mental box' and gives a definition of brand equity as: "a set of assets (or liabilities) linked to a brand's name and symbol that adds to (or subtracts from) the value provided by a product or service…". This is an important point, brands are not necessarily positive! Kotler defines Brand equity as the positive differential effect that knowing the brand name has on customer response to the product or service. Brand equity results in customers showing a preference for one product over the other when they are basically identical. The extent to which customers are willing to pay more for the particular brand is a measure of brand equity We believe & define brand equity as a brand’s valuation based on the totality of the brand’s perception, including the relative quality of products & services, financial performance, customer loyalty , satisfaction & overall esteem toward the brand. It’s all about how customers, employees & all stakeholders feel about a brand. It’s everyone’s job to build an organization’s brand equity, from the voicemail recording to the CEO. Need for increasing brand equity:It is important to grow the brand of a company & its products, goods or services in order expected to keep the company growing, retain the loyal following of the investment community, and keep shareholders happy. This also serves to build consumer and investor confidence in and loyalty to the company. A strong brand acts as a promise, leading faithful customers to pay a premium over competitive products. Likewise, the stocks of highly reputable companies trade at premiums to others in their respective industries. In the last decade, managers desperate for short-term financial results have often unwittingly damaged their brands through price promotions and unwise brand extensions, causing irreversible deterioration of the value of the brand name. It is very important to understand the concept of brand equity and how it must be implemented. In today's environment, building strong brands and establishing brand equity is becoming more and more challenging. Increased pressures to compete on price, increased competition through product introductions and store brands, and the

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising fragmentation of advertising and market segments are few of the pressures being faced by companies in today's highly competitive environment. How Can One Use Brand Equity to His/Her Advantage? Brand Equity can provide strategic advantages to your company in many ways: Allows you to charge a price premium compared to competitors with less brand equity. Strong brand names simplify the decision process for low-cost and non-essential products. Brand name can give comfort to buyers unsure of their decision by reducing their perceived risk.
• • • •

Maintain higher awareness of your products. Use as leverage when introducing new products. Often interpreted as an indicator of quality. High Brand Equity makes sure your products are included in most consumers' consideration set. Your brand can be linked to a quality image that buyers want to be associated with. Can lead to greater loyalty from customers. Offer a strong defense against new products and new competitors. Can lead to higher rates of product trial and repeat purchasing due to buyers' awareness of your brand, approval of its image/reputation and trust in its quality.

Brand names are company assets that must be invested in, protected and nurtured to maximize their long-term value to your company. Brands have many of the same implications as capital assets (like equipment and plant purchases) on a company's bottom line, including the ability to be bought and sold and the ability to provide strategic advantages. Segregation of brands depends on the customer’s ability of classifying the important drivers in the brand.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising BRAND DRIVERS There are many ways for a brand to communicate its benefits. In Managing Brand equity David Aaker summarizes them well as

Perceived quality Brand awareness Brand associations

Customer loyalty

Proprietary assets

BRAND EQUITY
Name Symbol

Brand Equity provides value to the customers by enhancing their: • Interpretation/ Processing • Confidence in the purchase decision • Use satisfaction

Value maximization for the firm by  Proving efficiency & efficacy  Enhanced brand loyalty  Trade leverage  Brand extensions  Competitive advantage.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Brand Loyalty: is a measure of attachment that a customer has to a brand and reflects the likelihood of a customer switching to another brand in case of change in that brand, either in price or in product features. It is the starting point in understanding brand equity. It is important to discriminate between habitual buying and brand loyalty. For example, a housewife who repeatedly buys brand X of detergent powder may not necessarily be loyal to it. She might be buying either because competitor brand are not available or she does not find parity between brand X and competitions or she may be buying just because of a habit. Many a times such kind of repeat purchase are mistaken as brand loyalty. The real issue in brand loyalty is whether the customer is a committed one and the test is if he or she will walk up a mile to get it. Will the customer go to another shop and ask for it; will he or she leave the substitute being offered to him or her by the shopkeeper or the vendor? If the customer is indifferent to the brand and buys for features, price or convenience, there is little equity in brand. In today’s market where no brand can distinctively claim differentiation on features and invariably all brands are in all market-even in remotest area price becomes the reason to buy and that’s where price war begins. It is important for the firm to assess its committed customer base. Customer can be grouped under five categories depending on the attitude towards the brand. Customers can be grouped under five categories depending on the attitude towards the brand. They are:

High Brand Equity
Committed Buyer

Clear brand assets Vulnerable Equity

Likes the brand Satisfied buyer with switching costs Satisfied/Habitual Buyer NO REASON TO CHANGE Brand switchers

Diffused Equity

No Equity

NO LOYALTY
The Pyramid Of Brand Loyalty

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising How to measure Brand Loyalty. There are different approaches for measuring brand Loyalty. 1. Observational i.e. considering actual buyer behaviour 2. Creating Economic & Psychological barriers to brand switching

BRAND AWARENES Name awareness or familiarity is a driver of overall brand equity; however, the more differentiated the better. Awareness without differentiation produces well-known commodity brand names that can become marginally profitable, exhibit little loyalty & become vulnerable to extinction. It is the ability of the potential buyer to recognize or recall that a brand is a part of a product category i.e. the customer should be able to identify firm’s product in retail stores or able to recall its brand wherever he or she thinks of the product class. May be spontaneous or prompted. Popular brands would only be measured spontaneously, lesser known brands would be measured prompted. Brand awareness has to be thought of as “a continuous range from an uncertain feeling that a brand is recognized to belief that is the only one in the product class”. At the top end of thesis continuum is the brand that exists at the top of the customer mind. This is a happy and most desired condition, which any marketer seeks. The next level is of all the other brands that are recalled by the customer in an unaided form. The customer is asked to recall as many brands as he/she is able to think whenever he thinks about the product. Brand recognition is the third level & perhaps the lowest level. Here customers are aided in recalling or recognizing brands or associating brands with a product class. This is important at point of purchase. The contribution of awareness to building up an equity for the brand can be gauged by the fact that high awareness creates association in customer’s mind. He/she is able to associate different images with the brand and this in turn can help generate customer’s liking for it. It can also lead to a large base of committed customers and all these benefit in turn will help the firm have more leverage in the market place. A strong name anchored by high recognition in an enormous asset to the firm. Further the assets gets stronger over a period of time as the number of exposure and customer experience grows. Hence a challenger brand may have a tough task ahead to position itself effective.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising High Top of the mind Brand recall Brand recognition Low Unaware of brand Brand equity high Vulnerable equity Diffused equity No equity

The awareness Continuum & Brand Equity

To achieve high awareness, Aaker suggests the following communication tasks: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Be different and memorable Involve a slogan or jingle Expose the brand symbol Get into the press as a news item i.e. is publicity Sponsor major events Consider extending brand to other products Use cues of either the product class, the brand or both and Repeat yourself constantly.

BRAND ASSOCIATION: is defined as the linkage that a consumer makes with a brand that might include product attributes, celebrity spokesperson or even a particular symbol. Invariably all brands come to acquire meaning in the mind of customer. Customer associate different dimensions of the product including its use and use situations to the brand. Brand association therefore is anything linked to the memory of a brand. Thus a jingle like “happy days are here again’ has been associated in the customer’s mind with THUMPS UP. SURF is linked with the economic minded middle class housewife “Lalitha ji” in the ads. It is important to not only know the association that exists with a brand but also know the strength of these associations. For example the name “TATA” is associated with quality. It is important to know how strong this association is and for the family name like this, which are the products where this association is strongest.

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Based on this association (which are also developed as a result of customers experience and exposure with and to the brand) customers form an image of the brand. This should generally support the positioning platform which marketer has taken. A well-positioned brand can help in creating appropriate brand image. Brand Association helps build brand equity by:      Helping a customer to process & quickly retrieve product information . Differentiate the brand from competitor’s. Provides to the customer a reason to buy. Help in creating positive attitudes or feelings towards the brand. It provides the basis for product line extensions.

The different type of associations, a brand may develop are:  Product attributes like a herbal beauty cream & toothpaste or tooth powder associated with the VICCO brand.  Intangibles like image of prompt after sales service or customer service with international banks viz Hongkong Bank.  Celebrity or person- “ The beauty soap of the film stars.”- Lux.

PERCEIVED QUALITY One of the desired associations a firm seeks for its brand is customer’s perception of high quality. For if the brand is perceived to be premium quality the customer will be willing to pay a premium for it. The firm will have greater trade leverage and channel members are going to have greater interest in dealing in such brands. A high quality brand also provides an adequate reason for the customer to buy it. It is important to note that perceived quality is not necessarily same as manufacturing quality or product based quality. Perceived quality is how the customer evaluates different brands on quality and hence need not be as objective to other two are. High-perceived quality means higher return on investments. OTHER PROPRIETARY ASSETS Other proprietary assets of a brand include its name patents, trademarks, channel relationship & unique attributes can be very helpful as well when consumers must shift through the clutter of choices that exist in today’s marketplace. A good and cordial relationship with channel members can always help enhance the brand equity. That’s because of the interest channel members will have in the firm’s brand. Developing exclusive relationship, dealer counsels and creating rewards for high performing dealers are some of the ways by which these relationship can be strengthened. One reason why Coca-Cola is often ranked as the world’s top brand is its incredible worldwide distribution (the company states it wants to be “within an arm’s reach of desire” anywhere. 59

_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising How to measure Brand Equity: To be of strategic value, brand equity must be measurable, and most importantly, we must know how to affect it by our actions. Many companies have tried to acquire brands at a premium over their historical cost. Hindustan Levers Limited is a prime example of this. The product portfolio of HLL has been built up over time using this strategy Brand valuation as an exercise essentially produces a tradable value of the brand (in terms of Rupees or USD). This figure can ultimately be transferred on to the balance sheets of companies or as a base figure for brand acquisition negotiation. Various methods of brand equity measurement.

The various models fall into the following categories: Brand equity

Cost based

Price based

Consumer Based

Historical cost Replacement Cost Market value method Discounted cash flow Cost based Methods method Brand Contribution Historical costs: method Interbrand method

Price Premium Equalization price Indifferent price

Brand Knowledge Attribute rating Blind Test

This is the money that has been spent on the brand till date. Suppose Rs.100 million have been spent so far in creating brand ‘X’. The value at which the brand can be sold to another organization should be Rs.100 million.

Disadvantage:

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising   The fact that 100 million was spent on brand ‘X’ does not guarantee the realization of even a fraction of that amount in future sales. Costs incurred in brands are no measure of the efficiency with which the money was spent. Even though the R & D expenses of GM, Siemens, Philips are much more than their respective Japanese competitors viz Honda, Sony etc. Thus, poorly spent finance hardly get translated into Brand Equity.

Replacement Cost Consider a brand, say Colgate. How much would it cost to create a brand with similar turnover, profitability, distribution, reach, brand loyalty, etc? This cost is Brand Equity. Replacement Cost = Launch cost + production & administrative costs incurred over the years + brand premium over the years due to brand loyalty, distribution etc.

Disadvantage: Procedurally this is not very simple. But is better than the historical cost since it considers today’s costs. Other drawbacks similar to previous method. Market value method The brand value for a particular brand is obtained by comparing it, with the value that had been realized in a comparable, current merger or acquisition.

For instance, Colgate bought Cibaca for Rs. 1310 million, which is Cibaca’s equity. Now, we can calculate Colgate’s equity in the following way: Colgate has about 17 times as much turnover as Cibaca. Colgate’s Equity= 1310 X 17 = Rs.222710 million.
•17= Ratio of market shares of the two companies. Instead of the market share ratios, other multipliers like P/E value of the respective equity shares can be used to get the suitable value. P/E= Price of a company’s share in industry Average earnings per share for that industry

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Discounted cash flow method It consists of: 1. Estimating the cash flows that would accrue to a brand in future 2. Converting these to present value using the time value of money. Consider Usha fans. If the estimate of sales for the next 10 years is S 1 , S 2 ……..S 10 & a discount of 15% is applicable to these amounts, the present value of cash flows is as follows: P = S 1 + S 2 + S 3 +……….S 10 (1.5) (1.15)2 (1.5)3 (1.15)10 P= value at which the brand can be sold off to another organization. It is the measure of brand equity. Disadvantages: Estimating the sales of the product several years down the line is difficult. Competitors might outperform Usha. The nature of industry might change. Then, “Usha” may or may not retain its premier status. So, this is used only when the industry & the company’s turnovers are stable & predictable. Interbrand method: Developed by Interbrand Co., UK. The Interbrand model seeks to estimate the risk and inflation-adjusted benefits – the current and future earnings or cash flows – flowing from brand ownership. Under this model the value of a brand is a function of two factors: its earnings and its strength. While the brand’s earnings are a measure of potential profitability, the brand’s strength is the measure of its reliability of its future earnings. The greater the brand’s strength, greater is the reliability of its future earnings and lesser the risk. Since it is difficult to attribute all the earnings to the brand per se, adjustments need to be made to the earnings estimates. These include elimination of unbranded profits, i.e. earnings that would have accrued on a basic unbranded version of the product, a deduction of returns on other assets employed, etc. The steps used in this method are: 1. The weighted average of the last three years’ profits of the brand are computed. 2. This is multiplied with a number gives the value of brand equity. The number is arrived at by multiplying the P/E of the company or industry in which the company operates & a factor called brand strength. Brand Equity = weighted average of brand profits * P/E of industry * Brand Strength Consider a hypothetical Brand ‘X’. Year Profits in million (Rs) Weightage 2000 15 1 2001 20 2 2002 30 3

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Average Profit = (15*1) + ( 20*2) + ( 30*3) 1+2+3 = Rs.24.2 million.

Similarly, a brand’s strength is a composite. It comprises seven variables; these are: • Leadership: This is the ability of the brand to influence the market. • Stability: This is the characteristic that has made the brand the inherent "fabric" of the market. • Market: This is the structural attractiveness of the market, its projected growth. • Geographic: This is the brand’s attractiveness and appeal in a multiplicity of markets with a view to distinguish between regional, national and international brands. • Trend: This is the brand’s ability to remain contemporary and relevant to consumers. • Support: This is the quantity and quality of investments made to support the brand. • Protection: This is the protection received from the legal system, patents, trademarks, etc . Factors Leadership Stability Internationality Support Protection Market Trend Total Maximum Score 25 15 15 15 5 5 20 100 Score for brand X 13 7 1 8 2 2 10 43

Brand strength score= 43/100= 0.43 Assume, P/E value is 15. Brand equity =0.43 * 15 * 24.2 = Rs.156.09 million.

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Element of subjectivity due to brand strength computation Difficulty to estimate the price due to the eagerness of the company buying the brand, & the potential benefits it sees.
Price based methodology

Price Premium. It uses the retail price of the brand for computing brand equity This is done by comparing the difference between the retail price of the ‘brand’ & the retail price of an unbranded product in the same category. The difference will give an indication of brand equity. This measure will also give us an indication of ‘ Brand Strength’ only. Higher the retailer premium that a brand can charge, greater is its equity in the mind of the customer. Disadvantage: Less useful. Consider toothpaste market, there are brands at different prices. Comparing Colgate Total ( most expensive ) with a n unbranded product will give it a high brand equity as compared to Colgate Dental Cream. But for a common man Colgate means Colgate Dental Cream, so we cannot accept a higher equity for Coalgate Total as compared to Colgate Dental. Also toothpastes, viz Babool are priced low to penetrate markets. So, it would not be right to say that Babool enjoys less equity than Promise. Such low priced brands, Nirma & Lifebuoy will have their brand equity close to zero, according to this method. Consumer based Brand Equity Makes the customer’s knowledge of the brand the focus. Brand Knowledge It can be expressed as a sum of brand awareness & image. Each of the parameters i.e. brand recall, brand strength of brand associations / attitudes/user image can be measured on a 1 to 10 scale. A weighted sum of these parameters will be the measure of brand equity. Live cases : Brand Equity Measurement In 1998, ITC estimated the value of its brand as follows: The equity capital of ITC was then Rs.116.73 crore. Based on the stock market quotation of Rs.458 per share, market capitalization of the company was Rs.5,253 crore If the net current assets of Rs.1,043 crore were deducted out of the above, the balance of Rs.4,210 crore represented the premium for all its brands or the corporate brand ITC. ITC thus estimated the value of its brands at Rs.4,210 crore.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Brand Equity- Infosys Infosys Technologies, the computer software major ahs taken to brand accounting. Its brand is “Infosys’. It is among the few non FMCG , non consumer product companies to have built up a powerful brand name & brand equity. Infosys is the first company in India to value its brand & provide it in the annual report as part of additional shareholders’ information. Infosys is valuing its brand as well as its human resources. It ahs adopted the brand earnings multiple model to value its brand . It valued its brand at Rs.173 crores during 1996-1997, which was 1.5 times the value of its total tangible assets , which then stood at Rs.113 crore. It placed its brand value at Rs.503 crore in 1997-98 & Rs. 1,726 crore in ’98-99.

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 Brand Valuation:  Brand value It is the feeling consumers take away from their experience with a brand. Commodities generally don’t have any distinct point of difference except price. Consumers looking for the lowest price tend to loyal to the price & not to the brand. Consumers perceive that they pay in three important ways: time, money, and feeling. Brands that understand this concept are careful to develop and deliver promises that reflect what customers value. As a result genuine brand enjoys increased profitability, more customer loyalty & increased brand equity, when customer perceive that a brand consistently delivers value. Brand Equity needs to be distinguished from Brand Valuation, which is the job of estimating the total financial value of the brand. Certain companies base their growth on acquiring and building rich brand portfolio. Coco cola acquired Thumps up Thus, brand’s total equity comprises of two different kinds of equity, viz. Valuation equity which focuses on the financial valuation of the brand, and Identity equity which is similar to Aaker’s concept of brand equity comprising of five dimensions, viz. Brand loyalty, name awareness, perceived quality, brand association and other proprietary brand assets Need for brand valuation  Due to recent Mergers and Acquisitions, it is seen that it is the stupendous valuation that acquired brands command (e.g. Parle Soft Drink by Coke, Indiaworld by Satyam, Lakme by HLL ) does not justify their intrinsic value or their current earning capacity. Therefore it becomes important to assess the value of a brand.  Valuation of a brand is also desirable from the point of view of providing objectivity to the "value" of the brand, which otherwise tend to become subjective and less useful as a guide for marketing decision making. Methods of Brand Valuation The value of a brand stems from the underlying brand equity and Aaker’s definition of brand equity holds great relevance in this context. There are several techniques for brand valuation, already covered in brand equity calculation.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Latest ranking :RANK 03’ 02’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TOTAL

BRAND COCA COLA MICROSOFT IBM GE INTEL NOKIA DISNEY MCDONALDS MARLBORO MERCEDES

VALUE (IN DOLLAR) 70.5 65.2 51.8 42.3 31.1 29.4 28.0 24.7 22.2 21.4 386.6

BN

SOURCE:- INTER BRAND –BUSINESS WEEK BEST GLOBAL BRAND SURVEY 03’. Economic Times 28th July, Monday

 Brand Building Building a brand takes time and money, and maintaining it takes patience and discipline. Market unfortunately, causes many executives to lose focus and abandon forward-thinking stewardship in favor of short-term profits. The evidence clearly shows, however, that brand building is an investment rather than a cost, a necessity rather than a luxury, and a priority shared by the most successful corporations. So, when considering where to trim the fat in order to meet short-term shareholder expectations, managers should remember that the bottom line is only as strong as the brand. Brand building tools: Advertising and especially TV advertising is an effective brand building tool but the marketers have developed other tools for this activity viz: • Public relations and press releases • Sponsorships • Clubs and consumer communities. • Factory visits. • Trade shows • Event marketing • Public facilities • Social cause marketing. • High value for money. • Founders or a celebrity personality • Mobile phone marketing 67

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Branding Promotions Developing a promotion as a brand can provide a powerful tool for building additional brand awareness and positive associations. An excellent method to achieve this is through linking the promotion to the actual brand. For example, consider a promotion to win a trip to Disney World for a product with no link to Disney World or travel. The actual product associated with the prize will most likely be forgotten except by the contest participants. Compare this with a company's Brand promotion that builds directly on the associations of the product thus enhancing the power of the brand. A promotion such as this affects nonparticipants as well as those involved, creating a platform to be built on each year. Furthermore, developing a tight link between the promotion and the brand (or its primary associations) avoids the possibility of promoting other brands. In effect, it is recommended to brand a promotion so that it cannot be linked to another brand. BRANDING AN EVENT Brand building is possible through creation of a property that reinforces and image. One such example is the Guinness book of records, which is today almost an independent brand. so is our own filmfare awards. In a country that worships cricket there existed no official awards (where in film arena there were numerous awards, filmfare, national awards, screen etc.) ceat, India’s premier tyre brand latched on the opportunity offered by cricket. Ceat cricket was born. With the help of professional cricket agency, rating methodologies were developed. Tie-ups with sports channels started giving ceat cricket rating the exposure it needed to become the legitimate cricket rating system. This was then followed by the selection of the ceat cricket of the year—who was crowned at the glittering function of Mumbai. The event has now become a brand and this brand is further strengthening the brand salience of ceat tyres.

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Copywriting
CONCEPT OF COPY
If you can define copy in one concise sentence, you will have succeeded where most people fail. Usually, the definitions of the word simply reflect the standpoint of the persons offering the definition. Consider for example the following. A critic: "Copy is composed of that cause people to buy what they don't need". A printer: " Copy is the word we use to describe the whole ad printed message, artwork, headlines, etc." A print advertisement writer: "Copy is the printed message whatever the medium in which it appears." A television advertising writer: " Copy consists of the words (audio) that accompany the pictures in television commercials." Go beyond these workers in the field and the copy could simply be defined as "salesmanship in print". Opposing the "salesmanship in print" adherents are those who say that advertising copy that does not present a product to the public for purchase and does not offer reasons why the reader or viewer should buy is not salesmanship but subtle persuasion and an impression builder. Those who thus define copy say that the salesmanship-in-print definition is too narrow-that it reduces the advertising person to the role of merchandise peddler. They point to advertising's place in the total marketing process. Advertising properly used is, they assert, a force for mass consumer education and a tool for effecting social change. It is almost insulting to copy- writers, they add, to assume that their only interest in writing copy is to sell something or somebody. This latter group would probably accept one definition of advertising as any paid-for communication that stirs a person to think or to do something. Many advertisements, for example, that appear in print media or in broadcast media are written to build a feeling of goodwill, to strengthen public opinion, or to break down a possible negative public opinion. Such advertisements, often called "institutional advertisements,' normally do not offer products or services for sale. Much More than Salesmanship In "print" Can we, accordingly, agree that copy is merely salesman-ship in print? Is that as far as the definition goes? No it isn't half-defined especially as far as the copywriters, are concerned.

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Copy can be the voice of the advertiser, boasting about the product, shouting its merits in bald, unlovely terms, damning the competition, gaining attention through sheer weight of words and extravagant claims, making the most noise. Or Copy can be the voice of a friend, a trusted adviser offering help to the consumer in purchasing problems, clear, arresting, interesting, and honest. Copy can be the enthusiasm of salespeople echoing their words, reflecting their pride in their products, opening doors for them, and easing their jobs. It can be your contribution to the merchant who knows what he wants to say but doesn't know how to say it. It can he a primer for the dealer, the jobber, and the distributor-a means of preconditioning their selling. Copy can be an instrument of better living, easier living, and happier living. Through copy that stimulates mass sales, the whole economy of a field of enterprise may be improved. To newspaper reporters Copy is simply the text of a story. This text is usually their sole responsibility. They needn't worry about headlines, subheads, typography, and illustrations. Advertising copywriters consider everything that appears in an advertisement as copy. When you are asked to prepare copy for an advertisement, you are expected to write everything required for the complete advertisement. If you are asked, 'Is the copy ready?' it is expected that you have completed headline, subheads, body text, captions, blurbs, signatures, and even copyright notices. To the copywriters, copy means every word appearing in your finished advertisement, depending upon its format. In an informal working session, however, sometimes "copy" will mean nothing more than the headline, main body text, and possibly a subhead.

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HISTORY OF COPYWRITING
The history of copywriting goes back a few thousand years, one of the earliest being recorded being the offer of a reward for the recapture of an Egyptian slave. Modern copywriting probably began in Britain when advertising agencies such as Reynell and Son (1812) and White’s (1836)- were founded, but the old coffee house newspapers of Stuart times were full of extraordinary advertisements for magical cures, tobacco and coffee. Really creative copy emerged when two things happened: a variety of type sizes became available in newspaper writing and (with the introduction of the means of reproducing illustrations) the brokers of ads space began to compete with each other by offering advertisers creative services. The very early 19th century copywriters existed authors and poets, who were employed by advertising agents. In contrast to these were literary efforts there were the cruder advertisements, usually very repetitive, written by tradesmen. If you look over a file of old newspapers published during the past fifty years it will be seen that ads mirror the changing lifestyles of society over the decades. Another change over the years, encouraged by the television commercial, has been a new role for the slogan. While one may still use the slogan type of headline the slogan nowadays either derives from a television commercial jingle or is introduced at the close of the press advertisement. It becomes the strap line or the signature slogan, and it sets the corporate image of the organization. An example is BMW’s The Ultimate Driving Machine. But as with all such revolutions, changes do not utterly destroy the old. The gramophone did not kill the piano, nor did the television destroy radio. Copy writing with the changing times will survive although the copywriter will now have to adapt himself to also writing cryptic information for pages that appear on the television screen.

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3. ELEMENTS OF A COPY
Occasionally you will find one advertisement that contains all the different elements of copy. Normally, the advertisements will be made up of two or three of the common copy elements. There is certainly no rule of thumb by which you can predetermine exactly which elements you'll use and which you'll not need. When preparing a campaign for a client or a prospective client, a copywriter may often need but two elements of the complete advertisement in order to convey the basic campaign idea or approach. These elements are the headline and the illustration. A number of layouts may be prepared that show the client different headlines and illustrations. If the client approves the campaign idea, as demonstrated in these layouts, the copywriter will then supply the body copy for the advertisements, plus the subheads, or captions, or other elements needed to complete the advertisements.

The elements of a Copy are:

3.1 Main Headline Headlines are important because they are the initial attention-grabbers. Any reader of news stories or magazine material is aware of headlines that use larger type than any of the material underneath. Often the reader sees these headlines tied up with illustrations, the combination attracting maximum reader attention. In advertisements headlines are used in the same manner as the story editors use it. Normally, the headline of an advertisement will present a selling idea or will otherwise serve to intrigue the prospective purchaser into a further and more exhaustive reading of your advertisement. Headlines can and do fall into many varied patterns. It is not necessary, for instance, for a headline to be big. Some headlines, notably in newspaper advertisements, are set in very large type and in general resemble regular newspaper headlines. Others, however, may be quite small in type size and qualify as headlines by their leading position in the advertisement. Still another common form of headline is the blurb or balloon, in which a character is supposed to be speaking. Headlines do not even have to say anything. A company name, for instance, might be used as a headline. So might a familiar brand or signature. But practically all advertisements have headlines of one sort or another, and their primary function is to attract immediately the attention of the reader. Tips for creating attention-grabbing headlines: 1. Play on words. This technique is popular because it's one of the most arresting. You start with a common phrase or saying, and then add a slight twist. But beware of cleverness for its own sake. Make sure the "play" is relevant to your product or service. Your job here is to sell, not to entertain or amuse.  Beech party this Sunday. (Furniture store sale)  Waist not, want not. (Diet/nutrition center) 2. Ask a question. 72

_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Formulate your question from the reader's point of view. You want the readers to have asked themselves the question already; you're about to provide the answer! Or to at least empathize with the idea. Avoid asking questions that readers can answer with "yes" or "no": if they answer "no," you've lost them.  When an employee gets sick, how long does it take your company to recover? (Insurance company) 3. Issue a challenge or command. Challenges or commands are effective because: a) They confront the readers, involving them instantly in your message, or b) Tell the readers to do something, provoking the first action towards an eventual sale.  I dare you to burn this coupon. (Chemical company)  Put a tiger in your tank. (Gasoline company)  See what it takes to reach the sky. (Air Force) 4. Explain how to, or why. Headlines that explain "why" or "how to" are sure winners because they promise the reader solutions, solid information, or sound advice.  How to stop smoking in 30 days. (Addiction program)  How to turn your next party into a Royal ball. (Crown Royal Whiskey) 5. Extend an invitation. This is the more polite side to the above. Rather than commanding, you "invite" readers to take the first step towards the sale. This can be a more appropriate approach for many types of products and services whose "personality" is elite, refined, elegant or expensive. This can also be an effective technique to spotlight your audience.  Homeowners: Invite me over to trash your house. (Disposal service)  Come to our place for a little peace and quiet. (Oceanfront motel)  Join us for tee. (Golf & tennis club) 6. Announce big news. News can be anything from a new product or service to a new application of an existing product or service. You can also announce a special event or sale. Shout out your news using words like "Finally," "Introducing," "Announcing" or The first."  Suddenly the world's cup is half full again. (Volkswagen Beetle)  Finally, a Caribbean cruise as good as its brochure. (Norwegian American Line)  Introducing the amazing soap for weight loss and skin health. (Premium Seaweed Soap)

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7. Use a testimonial. Testimonials are powerful because they come from real people; people just like the prospect who is reading your ad, brochure, mailer or web site.

"I lost 60 pounds in six months." (Diet/weight loss center)

8. Make an offer. This type of headline is especially appropriate for retail stores. But other types of businesses use it, too.  Pure silk blouse: 30% off! (Women's clothing store)  5 will get you 8 right now. (Bank: deposit to open a savings account paying __%). 9. Boost headline power with proven words. Here are some tried-and-true, attention-grabbing words you can incorporate into your headlines - as long as they are relevant to your offer or idea: Quick, Easy, New, At last!, How to, Why, Last chance, See, Save, Guarantee(d), Proven, Yes 3.2 Over line In some instances, you'll see an advertisement that is topped by a combination that looks like the following: Refreshing. (This is an overline. It is usually set in smaller type than the main headline that follows.) Hot Drink (This is the main headline.) For Grace Tea. As you see, the over line, often called a "lead-in,' is placed over the main headline and is almost always in smaller type. In the foregoing example the copywriter may have found that putting the two lines together would have forced the use of smaller type in order to fit the headline in the space. In smaller type the attention-getting value of the headline would have been lessened. Thus, the first line was made an overline. Then big type could be used for the words required for the main head- line. 3.3 Subheads  In writing an advertisement you will often have some important facts you wish to telegraph to your reader, but which require more space than you care to use in the display of the headline. Possibly, these facts are not quite so appealing as attention attracts. When such information is displayed in type smaller than that of the headline, yet larger than the body text of the advertisement, it is known as a "subhead.' Subheads may be three or four lines of copy underneath the head- line, It tells the readers quickly what is coming in the copy and enables them to judge whether they want to continue. A subhead, on the other hand, will normally lure readers into the following copy. In the case of very long copy, it will break up type masses and make the advertisement look easier to read. This is 74

_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising especially true of advertisements that do not sell products but instead talk about the company or its point of view. These institutional advertisements, or 'corporate' advertisements, usually obtain low readership. Well-written subheads can help make the advertisements look more interesting. In some places, particularly in department store and other retail advertising operations, subheads are also known as 'captions.' This is not usually the case, however. Caption normally has a meaning all its own, as will be discussed next. Captions
Captions are the small units of type used with illustrations, coupons, and special offers. They are generally less important to the main selling points of

the advertisement than body copy and are usually set in type sizes smaller than the body text. Now and then you will want to plan an entire advertisement in picture-and-caption style, presenting your sales points by illustrating them and explaining them at the same time, much the way a magazine handles news stories. Here, of course, the caption assumes far greater importance and must be considered as body text. 3.5 Blurbs A 'blurb,' or 'balloon,' is the advertising profession's term for copy set up so that it seems to be coming from the mouth of one of the characters illustrated in the advertisement. It is most often used, as is the caption, to punch across some secondary feature in the story you  Subhead: To Indian housewives, our salt always come first. Tata salt are telling, but sometimes it too can constitute the complete body text, as in the comicstrip style. Blurbs are often used as headlines. When so employed, they are not changed in any way except to be displayed in larger-size type and placed at the head of the advertisement. They are still known as blurbs or balloons. 3.6 Body Copy Sometimes 'body copy' is called "body text.' Either way, it is the main message of your advertisement. Your selling is done in the body copy. Here is where you reason with the reader and show how persuasive you can be. Your body copy, if you structure your writing properly, is an extension of the idea conveyed initially by the headline and the illustration. You have probably heard salespeople talk about "getting a foot in the door. Well, your headline is your foot. The body copy is the follow-through on that foot. Some advertisements actually have no body copy, from a technical standpoint. That is, they contain no major unit of type. Advertisements built around a comic-strip style, pictureand-caption advertisements, and others fall into Boxes and Panels. You'll hear copywriters and artists referring regularly to 'boxes' or 'panels.' These, as their names imply, are simply captions, which obtain greater attention value by being placed in special display positions. A "box" is a caption around which a rule has been lined, singling it out from other copy. A 'panel" is a solid rectangle of black or color, in the center of which is the caption, either in 75

_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising white or 're-verse' type, or centered in white space. Boxes and panels are usually used in advertisements using such features as coupons, special offers, and contest rules. These will often be set apart from the rest of the advertisement by means of such devices. Boxes should be used sparingly. In a television commercial, "body copy' is normally a powerful combination of video and audio, although sometimes all of the selling can be done by video, or by video with a minor contribution by audio. Copy direction and the type of copy will be set by the direction of the headline and illustration. Once you have decided upon a good headline and illustrative device, the selection of the body copy style will not require much planning. For example, if you use a direct selling, factual headline, your body text will usually be most effective if it is also factual. Types of Body Copy Body copy can be categorized in six types. Each has its own advantages and difficulties. You decide which will do best in helping you reach your sales objectives and copy platform objectives. Straight-line copy: In this the body text begins immediately to develop the headline and/or illustration idea in direct selling of the product, using its sales points in the order of their importance. Narrative copy: In this the establishment of a story or specific situation which, by its nature, will logically lead into a discussion of a product's selling points. ‘Institutional' advertising copy: In this the copy sells an idea, point of view, service, or company instead of presenting the selling features. Dialogue and monologue copy: In this the characters illustrated in your advertisement do the selling in their own words (testimonials, quasi testimonials, comic strip, and continuity panel). Picture-and-caption copy: In this the story is told by a series of illustrations and captions rather than by use of a copy block alone. Offbeat copy: In this the unclassified effects in which the selling power depends upon like humor, poetry, foreign words, great exaggeration, gags, and other devices are used. In many advertisements you will be able to discover more than one type of copy. Pictures and captions, for instance, very often are used as an amplification of the selling ideas, although the main block of copy is straight line and factual. The sale is true of all other classifications. Although occasionally you may find some advertisement that defies classification, almost always the six preceding listings can be used for classification purposes.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Slogans, Logotypes and Signatures At times you may write copy for a company that insists on the use of its slogan in every advertisement. Almost all advertisers logically demand that their company name be displayed in its familiar form. This display of the company name, seal, or trademark is called a 'logotype' and is a common part of most advertisements. Copyrights notices are often required for legal reasons and must be in. One way to make sure of including the various elements is to set up the copy neatly and logically on the copy sheet by labeling the different elements on the side. Many copywriters are sloppy in their execution.

 Slogan: Thanda Matlab Coco Cola.

Headline: BHOOKH
Subhead: A Toast Story! Baseline: The Taste of India

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4. GRAMMER IN COPYWIRTING
What you read, hear or see in ads, brochures, catalogs, sales letters, product sheets and web sites does not strictly follow those grammar rules. How do you know when you can ignore the rules? You can break grammar rules every day when you’re writing to sell. Think of your sales message as a one-to-one, face-to-face conversation between you and the prospect or customer. Since you rarely speak in 100% grammatically correct English, it’s okay to write that way in marketing materials. 1. Write incomplete sentences. Do you speak only in complete sentences? Probably not. Most people don’t. That’s why it’s okay to write advertising copy with incomplete sentences. Remember, you’re not writing an essay. You’re attempting to convey benefits and features in a persuasive way. Incomplete sentences can very effectively emphasize a point, move your story along and make your copy flow smoothly. 2. Use prepositions at the end of a sentence. Often a preposition at the end of a sentence sounds awkward, if not downright ugly. When it does, try to re-phrase around the awkwardness. For example: "Things are looking up!" or "Prices are coming down!" or "Where is this money coming from?" 3. Include contractions. Nothing makes your copy sound more priggish, pompous, stilted, wilted and unfriendly than writing without contractions. So go ahead, use "you’re," "don’t," "it’s" and "that’s" and other contractions! 4. Use commas on purpose. Should you include a comma before the last "and" in a series? Conversely, should you include a comma where grammar does not strictly call for one? It depends on what you mean to convey. Consider this example: • The woods are lovely, dark and deep. • The woods are lovely, dark, and deep. In the first, "dark and deep" describes "lovely." In the second, the words "lovely, dark, and deep" describe how the woods are themselves. Granted, this is a subtle distinction, but it’s an important one when every word counts, as it generally does in advertising. 5. Begin sentences with "and," "but" and "or." In advertising copy, starting a sentence with "and," "but," or "or" is a tried-and-true way to make a smooth transition. 6. Use jargon – but cautiously. I know, most of us use jargon. Every industry has its own special meanings for otherwise ordinary words, or uses special words as a shorthand way of conveying ideas. Should you

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising use jargon? Consider your audience. It’s okay to use jargon when your audience is among the initiated. But you’ll only confuse outsiders with it.. 7. Write around gender words. It’s high time we put everyone on an equal footing in our writing. But the cure can be worse than the disease when replacing "he" results in clumsy language. "When an investor wants more information, he can go to our web site," you can: • Make references plural: "When investors want detailed research, they can visit our web site." • Choose "you:" "When you want detailed research, you can visit our web site." Remember that advertising is not art. It’s salesmanship. That requires persuasiveness. Use every trick in the book to achieve that; even if it means bending those entrenched rules of grammar!

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5. COPYWRITING for Different Media:
Different types of ads require different copy guidelines. An effective newspaper ad won't necessarily work in local Yellow Pages. The approach in radio commercials may differ significantly from that in a magazine ad. These tips are designed to help create ads that work. Types of copy for different media.  Print ads (newspapers and magazines)  Radio  Television  Yellow Pages  Classifieds  Brochures 5.1 Prints Ads (newspapers and magazines) Whether you're advertising in your local community newspaper or in People Magazine, your print ads should look and feel professional. Use strong copy and eye-catching graphics to focus the reader on what sets your product or service apart from the competition - your Unique Selling Proposition (USP). Tips to help you get your message across effectively.  The headline is the most important part of any print ad. It must inspire action. It is what will convince the reader to read more. If your headline is in the form of a question...ARE YOU UNDERPAID? Make sure that the answer will always be YES!!! • When possible, use color. The response rate to color ads is significantly higher than that for black & white. • The length of your ad copy should be appropriate to your product or message. Long ad copy looks informative, and may be useful for technical products. Short copy leaves plenty of room for graphics and is a quicker read; use it if you're advertising an image. • Keep your message concise. You can't expect a reader to spend a lot of time with your ad. Keep it simple. Stress benefits. Emphasize your USP. Don't beat around the bush or be too cute. Get to the point. And be very careful with humor. Not every reader will get your joke. • Don't use complicated language or jargon. To prevent yourself from slipping into the jargon habit, think of this...if you're advertising in newspaper with a circulation of 100,000, and just 5% of the readers don't understand a word in your ad, you've alienated 5,000 potential customers. • Your ad should talk to your potential customer, so don't forget about them. Use "you" instead of "we" in your copy." In other words, the ad should inspire the reader on a personal level. • Remember the call to action. What do you want the reader to do once he/she finishes reading the ad? Don't let them guess...spell it out - Write or call for more information;

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Come in for a free check-up; Come in today, Sale ends Saturday. Think of this as how you close the sale. • Strong graphics make a strong statement. Keep them focused on your message. Some ad experts recommend advertisers follow the "rule of thirds" - one third of an ad should be a graphic element, one third should be copy, and one third should be white space (no copy, no graphic). Too much in your ad makes it look too busy. You will appear unfocused. Readers will avoid your message. Very often, less is more. Keep the look of your ads consistent. If you change the copy on a regular basis, don't change the look. You can create an effective image by providing continuity and consistency to the reader. Whatever you do, don't let your ads look like your competitors' ads. You need to create a distinct personality for your company. If your ad looks like one from your competitor, whose ad do you think the reader will think he/she is reading?

• • •

5.2 Radio • When you place a radio ad, you're speaking to a captive audience - the listener has to take an action (actively change the station) to pass by your ad. Because listeners are often sitting alone (frequently in their cars), speak to them like your having a one-onone conversation. Address them directly, and your message will get across. • Tips to learn more about what it takes to use radio successfully. • A good radio ad doesn't differ greatly in structure from any other type of ad. Begin with a headline - in this case, a strong opening line that tells the listener what you're going to tell them. Then tell them. Then finish by telling them what you've already told them. End your ad with a call to action - buy our product, read our magazine, call now, etc. • On radio, you need to keep your message simple and focused. Choose one theme and stick to it. Remember that it takes longer to say something out loud than it does to read it. The average 30-second radio spot contains only about 70 words. Mention your company name at least three times in those 30 seconds. • Different radio stations require different types of ads. "Background" stations are on in the background and are typically music stations that are listened to passively. "Foreground" stations require active listening. They would include talk radio, all-news radio, call-in shows, and the like. Make your ad sensitive to the format to keep the listener's attention - don't use a "voice-only" ad on a music station; don't put a country and western jingle on a classical music station; and don't use a music-driven ad on talk radio. • Repetition is very important in radio, because it takes several airings for the listener to become familiar with your name and product or service. Frequency helps you break through the clutter. Consider running your spots at the same time every day for a week. Take a week off and then run it for another week.

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5.3 Television • You might think of television as a bastion for big company advertising. But with the growth of cable and the ability to broadcast to a specific region, it can be used effectively by small businesses too. TV must be utilized carefully, because it can be easily misused. A bad ad not only makes you look silly, but can actually make you lose your customers. • These tips can help you use advertising correctly. • Television is a visual medium. You need to communicate your message visually. The viewer should be able to tell what the ad is about with the sound off. Therefore, your visuals should be the most important part of your ad. Your script, the actual words used during the commercial is the least important part. • Successful television advertising sells through emotions. Television viewer rarely remembers the details of an ad, but they can recall how the ad made them feel. Make sure they feel motivated after viewing yours. • Get to the point. You have about two seconds to grab the television viewer's attention, so use a strong opening image, the visual equivalent of a strong headline. You then have a total of maybe five seconds to say what the ad is about and if it’s not clear you’ve lost the viewer for the entire ad. • Keep your message simple. Stress on your benefits. And remember to stress them visually. You can do this by "showing" what they are, rather than just "telling" what they are. • Be sure to tell the viewer your name visually. Put it right there up on the screen, along with your logo, your address and your phone number. Better yet, hit them twice by having the voice-over announcer read it aloud at the same time. • Don't forget your call to action. Tell the viewer what to do - Call now! Visit your local dealer; Compare the value; Come see us; etc. 5.4 Brochures • When potential customers request additional information about your company, your product or your service, you need to have a professional-looking brochure to send them. Your brochure should be designed to sell or help sell your product or service to the customer. • Use these tips to help guide you through the process. • The cover of a brochure, whether it carries a headline or just a title, must do a strong selling job. The job of the cover is to get the reader to open it to learn more. If it’s not catchy, the rest of the copy won't get read. • Be aware that some people will only skim your brochure. You can make sure they get key information by using descriptive headlines, and dividing your brochure into shorteasy-to-read sections. Separate each section with a subhead; a secondary headline that describes the copy that follows. • A brochure is an information tool, it needs to support your image, but it also needs to have substance. Stress the benefits of your product or service. Talk about its features. If you're writing about a product, show how a typical customer would use it. Describe

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising how your product or service has solved a problem for a specific client. Think about including testimonials from satisfied customers. Tell readers what action to take. Don't leave them hanging. Ask for the order. Give them a mechanism for buying your product or service. And don't forget these important details (as applicable):

Contents of a Brochure  Your company's name and address  Your phone number, toll-free phone number, fax number, and Web address  Distributors, sales reps, dealers  Directions, prices, branch locations  Shipping and service terms  Guarantee or warranty information If you're mailing out your brochure in response to a request, you want to make sure the envelope gets opened. Put something like "Here's the free information you requested" on the outside of the envelope. And don't just send out the brochure; include a motivating sales letter with it.

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6. COPY RESEARCH
Other factors, such as the size of an advertisement, the media vehicle selected, date/time of appearance, position on a certain page or specific place in a page depending on the editorial matter, presentation and, possibly, colour, also have an important bearing on the effectiveness of the copy. An effective copy is usually a combination of description, narration, exposition and persuasion. Copywriters have to draw upon experience, judgement, and intuitive sensitivity, knowledge of research endings and methods to judge whether a piece of copy would be effective. There has never been any real certainty regarding the elect of the copy upon its target audience, prior to its actual publication. There have been many uncertainties mainly due to the fact that audience reactions to advertisements are variable. Copy research is concerned with development of methodology for measuring the copy's effectiveness. This may be done as a pre- test, before its appearance in print, in radio commercials or as a post-test for analyzing the extent of its impact after its appearance. There are many techniques for measuring the effectiveness of a copy. Copy research techniques may be applied before publication or after publication. The following prepublication techniques are commonly used. Consumer Jury: The jury consist of a sample of the target market segment for the product and the jury's rating of an advertise will meet helps in determining possible reader-reaction before the publication. The jury can also rank various versions of the copy for the same. Split Run: Split run refers to the practice of testing advertisements by running either two copy alternatives designed for an advertisement or a new advertisement against an existing advertisement on the same press run. Each version, say in the case of a newspaper, will appear the same day, in the same position, in the paper, to be distributed in two selected areas from where matching samples of the potential audience may be drawn. From study of responses to the advertisement, which can also be in the form of sales result for consumables, the advertiser can know which of the two versions was more effective. Flesh Formula: Dr Rudolph Flesh, former Vienna lawyer, developed a readability formula based on average sentence length, average number of syllables and proportions of personal sentences and personal words. He has expressed mathematically, in a simple manner, that short words and short sentences, i.e. up to 14 words, make for easier reading. The commonly acceptable syllable count per sentence was 139. An interesting facet of the Flesch formula is the stress on the use of personal words and personal sentence in order to build in a high interest factor. Words such as people, folks and personal names and pronouns were classified by him as personal words. Personal sentences were those set off by quotation marks, questions, commands and other sentences addressed directly to the readers, as well as incomplete sentences. The application of the Gestalt principle may be seen in the use of incomplete sentences. Eye Camera: An eye camera measures the attention value of different elements of an advertisement, through recordings made on film of eye movements, when exposed to a person. This will indicate, for instance, whether a subject is merely a headline reader or a

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising body-copy reader too. The greatest use ' of the eye camera is in determining the correct layout of the advertisement, its balance and the right degree of emphasis on the various components of an advertisement. Portfolio Test: Several advertisements for different products are assembled and two identical portfolios, including typical editorial matter, are prepared. Each portfolio will contain one of the test advertisements. By obtaining the responses of matched samples to the two portfolios, regarding all advertisements, it is possible to get an, indication of the confirmative advantage between the two advertisements being studied. Motivation Research: Motivation research draws on psychological techniques and seeks to in find out the underlying motives of the potential consumer/audience. The emphasis here is on the in-depth enquiries from a few respondents. Motivation research concentrates more on the, 'why' of actual and possibly contemplated actions. It is interpretive rather than descriptive. Dichter, the well-known, pioneer in the field, points out that a major task of any properly conducted motivation research is to and out what the cognitive maps of a particular product area are and what position the brand has on the map. Such a map usually consists of the relative prices, types, places of availability, company images and use patterns which together give the consumer the ‘lay of the land' for a particular product.

Use of Research
The utilization of research findings by the creative team is an important step and often subject to doubt and skepticism. This may arise from inappropriate or incomprehensible research. Traditionally, research and creative work were considered almost antagonistic. In recent years, the acceptance of research output by creative personnel and its use in devising or modifying campaigns has increased considerably. In fact, the creative team itself may ask for research to be undertaken to test its own hypotheses and hunches

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STEPS FOR A COPY WRITER
7.1 Creativity Agencies and clients must focus on EFFECTIVE CREATIVITY or creativity that meets the objectives established for the ad. Too much creative energy is being devoted to awareness and interest stages and not enough is being focused on the desire and action stages. In addition, it’s important never to lose sight of the fact that at the heart of every successful advertising effort is a strong product that has something to offer customers. Good advertising can’t save a bad product. The magic is in the product. The secret of success in advertising is to use creativity to communicate the product magic to the target audience effectively STEPS IN THE CREATIVE PROCESS 1. Orientation: The creative process starts when you clearly identify the problem you’re trying to solve or the opportunity you’re trying to capitalize on with your advertising. May be the key fact is that you have an exciting new product that competitors are sure to imitate soon after you hit the market and you need to establish your product as the leader as quick as possible. Preparation: This means learning everything you possibly can about the product, the company, the competition and the target customers. The more facts, notes and you have rattling around in your brain, the greater the chance you will stumble across one of those unprecedented connections that define creative thought. Analysis: Organize the facts and figures you have collected and take inventory of what you’ve got. Make sure you understand the technical details, market dynamics, competitive trends and other forces that may affect the success of the advertising you’re about to create. In short, because as much of an expert as you can in the time available. Ideation: Ideation involves right-brain thinking. Your right brain doesn’t have any hang-ups about rules and regulations and is perfectly happy to toss around bits and pieces of ideas, looking for meaningful patterns. Ad people use a variety of personal tricks to get ideas flowing. For instance, David Ogilvy listened to music or read the oxford dictionary of quotations to get creative inspiration. 5. Incubation: Give your conscious mind a break the action, while your subconscious mind plays around with various ideas, looking for connections and insights.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising 6. Synthesis: The next challenge is to catalog and organize your ideas, all the while trying to synthesis those fragments, or fit the pieces together to create the BIG IDEA, that ingenious whole that makes sense out of the separate fragments. Evaluation: As you begin to synthesize idea, fragments, you need to start evaluating them to help separate the good ideas from those that aren’t so good. Three general criteria apply here. a) b) c) Ideas should be relevant to the context of your current advertising task. Ideas should be original enough to generate surprise and interest. Ideas should be rich enough to generate new variations over the life of the advertising campaign.

7.

7.2

The creative Brief

The creative brief is like a road map. A good brief leads to imaginative and persuasive ads. And gets you there quickly. Bad brief starts you off in the wrong direction. So you have to stop, figure out where you’re going, and start again. Most briefs are simply a list of questions. The people writing the brief, answer the questions based on the ad or the campaign to be constructed. Always include the two most basic questions: “Who are we talking to, and what do we want to say?” But you should have the flexibility to select questions appropriate to any type of ad or campaign; direct response or brand building or integrated campaigns that blend the two or questions for highly detailed new business pitches and even quick turn-around newspaper ads.

The creative brief is one of the most important documents for a copywriter and the client who instructs a creative team. A problem creative brief is a necessity for both advertiser and copywriter. Without it, the facts are vague. This may result in misinformation, misinterpretation and missing the point of why something if being produced in the first place. All too often you may find that clients may not want to take the time to commit an instruction to paper. The easy way to overcome this is to design a briefing form that is as easy to complete, as it is to understand.

Copywriting Briefs

Client Brief

Creative Brief

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All-embracing brief

Aide-memoire

Three stages of briefing Ideally, there are three stages to effective briefing. Client brief: This is a management tool that then doesn't directly affect the creative team, but helps the client to define who will be responsible for what. Informal Brief: Next there is the informal pre-brief. This is usually no more than a casual meeting that prepares for a forthcoming full creative brief. This may entail considering research or ensuring you have enough available time get the job done.

Creative Brief: The third stage is the creative brief. The quicker an advertiser produces a creative brief, the more time there will be for the creative person, to do a good job. Creative briefs should be submitted before any work gets underway. If that means leaving out some facts, it doesn't matter as long as those gaps can be filled at a later stage. After all, having something to think about is better than having nothing.
Indisputably a creative brief should contain everything a person needs to produce effective creative work. However, you should bear in mind that the job as a writer is to communicate with an audience. Clarify your understanding of what is required. Even disagree with something. Now is the chance to question the brief before committing anything to paper. Types of Creative Briefs There are two kinds of typical creative brief. The first, the all-embracing brief, assumes you know nothing or very little about a product or service. The second, an aide-memoire brief, assumes you know something or a lot about a product or service. The first is meant to educate and inspire. The second is meant to clarify and inspire. The All-embracing brief

This brief document is self-contained and provides all the information a writer needs. Components of All-embracing brief

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Company name only. It can also include a company report, attached separately under the heading of “'Background”.
2. What does the company do? It could be a general heading, like 'Publishing', or perhaps “medical book publishing”. 3. What is required? A one-line description, such as ‘TV commercial’. No specific media details at this stage. 4. What is the format? Far example, if you have to write a brochure, the length, black and white or colour, any illustrations (essential if you want to make advantage of captioning), etc. If it is a direct mail letter, is there a specific length required and so forth. 5. What do you specifically expect the creative work to achieve? Again, something precise. For example, you might want 75 people to call and ask for more details. 6. What about marketing objectives and your corporate objectives? To summarize each marketing objective in one line. For example, it could be; an increase market share by 15 per cent, and to be recognized as the leader in the field 7. What's the story so far? This is relevant background detail. It tells where the company stands in its market place; where it would like to be; where the creative work will appear; what will support the work; for example, other ads? 8. Describe the product Include any previous leaflets, advertisements, etc. What is it? How is it used? How does it work? 9. Why should someone want it? List the USPs. Why buy this one rather than those offered by a competitor? A classic misunderstanding is that the copywriter is responsible for creating the USPs. This is, in fact, the role of the marketing department or in smaller companies, the salesperson or managing director. It is up to the writer to communicate those benefits.

10. Who wants it? Who would want to buy this product/service? Where do they live? How old are they? Discuss their social economic groupings. What kind of jobs do
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they have? If the audience is a type of business, what sort of business is it? How big is it? Describe its business sector. Who makes the buying decisions? How does the buying process work?
11. Are there any special offers? For example, do you need to write about a special discount or free gifts? lf so, what is it? What is its value? What do you have to do to get it and why should anyone want it. 12. How do you see yourself? Based on your company’s image, what style should the copy adopt? Serious? Casual? Caring…? 13. Tests This is often used in direct marketing briefs. However, it could also refer to tests of advertisements by size, frequency, colour and media. 14. What media will you use? For example, national newspapers, trade press. Sometimes samples are included. 15. Why did you choose this media? This is a very probing question. However, a very useful one if you are to ‘get a firm grip' on your target audience and the advertiser's marketing rationale. 16. What is your budget? No one likes to discuss money. lf, for instance, you intend to feature photography, it's less shocking for an advertiser if you announce from the start your intention to shoot your pictures in Mauritius, (Because the sun has a certain hue in that part of the world'. Wherever possible, it is shrewd to agree available budgets with everyone, including, if you work in an agency, the production department. You can always base costs on previous projects. 17. What is taboo?

Advertisers are invariably keen to list every USP under the sun. Just as important are the unmentionables. Advertisers may also have to refer to corporate restrictions and trade legislation within copy. This may include financial services' rules, as regulated by bodies such as the Personal Investment Authority, which reports to the Securities Investment Board (S1B), the Investment Management Regulatory Organization (IMR0) which deals with issues such as Unit Trusts, or the Securities and Futures Authority (SFA), which deals with stockbrokers, also controlled by SIB. Membership to any of these regulators will require acknowledgement within the copy. If applicable, credit examples may also have to be shown. Other restrictions could be dictated by database protection laws and, of course, limitations as described by specific advertising codes of practice.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising 18. How will you keep a tab of things? All advertisers should monitor the effectiveness of their advertising. If this includes Coupons, you will need to know if you should include any special details. 19. Who can tell me more? However detailed the brief may be, you may still have further questions. Who can answer those questions and where can you find that person, phone numbers, e-mail numbers, fax members. 20. What do you expect to see? Does the advertiser expect to see a finished creative job, all the way to artwork? Perhaps a rough visual will do? How about the copy without any visuals or even just some headlines? 21. When do you expect to see it? When does the advertiser want to see your presentation and when does he expect to see the finished work? Again, try to involve everyone connected to the production side of things. This way you can account for printing times, filming schedules, publication dates, etc. Whenever possible, get the advertiser to sign off the creative brief. Other details that may be included are internal project or ‘job' numbers. The aide-memoire brief This kind of creative brief is designed for the copywriter who is already quite familiar with a particular product or service. It lists the main questions that always need to be addressed: Components 1. What is the big message? 2. What’s needed? 3. What’s on Sale? 4. What’s the USP? 5. Who wants it? 6. What do you want the folks to do? 7. What do they get out of it? 8. When and where is the communication going to appear? 9. What’s the budget? 10. What's taboo? 11. What’s the format? 12. What’s the background? 13. What’s next and when do you want it?

Once you have constructed the aide-memoire brief, you may go on to deep the ultimate creative copy brief called ’the copy platform'. Here, in just a few sentences you describe the product or service. Next, you provide a clear statement outlining your objectives. This is followed by a short note about your target audience, and no more than six leading benefits. Finally, you can include two other statements. One that describes your product

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Target Audience: A statement that reveals the relevant demographic and psychographic profile of your desired target audience(s) for a given campaign. Buyer Behavior: Beliefs and attitudes held by the target audience that is relevant to the communication objective of the client. Advertising Pyramid: Describes where the target audience is in the advertising pyramid and the influence on the campaign of that stage. Learn-Feel-Do Sequencing: Describes the sequence of the target audience relative to the decision stage in the advertising pyramid Involvement: Describes the level of target audience involvement in the decision described. Advertising Problem: A restatement of the specific perceptual screen(s) that that will be addressed by this particular campaign. This statement is always from the perspective of the target audience. Advertising Task: This describes what the advertising is supposed to accomplish in relation to the above advertising problem. This is usually phrased as something you want to convince the target audience to believe about the advertiser. Distinctive Features: This is a bullet listing of facts and their related functional and psychological benefits that relate to the above advertising problem and advertising task. Target Competition: This refers to the organizations, products, services that are most likely to receive target audiences attention in decision making for the particular problem under discussion. Positioning Statement: You describe the positioning scheme, and then summarize the position the client currently holds in the mind of the target audience. This is a summary of your positioning analysis conclusion and it remains consistent from copy platform to copy platform. Personality Statement: Here you describe the client using human-like adjectives. This is a summary of your personality analysis conclusion and it remains consistent from copy platform to copy platform. Message Strategy

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Communication Objective: What distinctive feature (and possibly its associated benefit) must the advertising communicate to the target audience in order to achieve the advertising task. This statement comes directly from the first element on the distinctive feature list, the order of the phrase (fact followed by benefit or benefit followed by fact, indicates the level of the campaign: awareness, comprehension, or conviction). Action Objective: This describes any specific action(s) the target audience needs to take to achieve the advertising task. In some instances, for example awareness level campaigns, you campaign may not have an action objective. All persuasion and conviction level campaigns need action objective. Big Idea: This is the statement of the creative foundation of the campaign summarized in a single sentence. Execution & Rationale: The statements herein describe the creative foundation beneath the headline, visualization strategy, visual choice, specific copy points, mandatories within the ad, etc. Campaign Objective and Assessment: This statement describes how you want your client to assess the effectiveness of the campaign. What do you want them to measure? When do you want them to measure? How do you want them to measure?

EXAMPLE COPY PLATFORM Ad Subject: General Motors Spinout Ad Problem: This new model needs to gain some identity and find its place in the market.

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Product Characteristics: Reasonably priced against competing models Dependably built (Experts say it should have an excellent maintenance record) Advertising Objective: Help model establish itself by building on brand loyalty to General Motors. Target Market: Young, single people who are just graduating from college, 21-24. These folks have just taken their first job and need reliable, yet stylish transportation. Competition: Toyota Tercel, Honda Civic, Ford Escort Statement of Benefit or Appeal: 1) Spinout is reasonably priced. 2) Spinout is a member of the GM family. 3) Spinout is dependable. Creative Theme: Take the spin - Spinout! Supportive Selling Points: 1) Depreciation in 3 years expected to be only about 30%. 2) Part of GM, so it's built in America. 3) Priced so that someone starting out can afford it.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising 7.4 The Creation and Production Process of Copywriting What are the basic tasks involved in creating and producing an advertisement? Who does what at which stage? What are the important ways of generating ideas and carrying them forward into final production? What must the decision-maker know about the creation and production process? Model of the Creation and Production Process Note that two basic stages are involved, creation and production. The distinction is somewhat artificial because creative activities can take place at any point throughout the entire process, but it is a convenient distinction for several reasons. First, the activities associated with the creation stage take place largely within the confines of the advertising agency. Those associated with production are usually done by outside suppliers to the agency. Second, creation activities are in many ways similar for either print or broadcast advertising. In most cases the generation of words (copywriting) and the generation of pictures (illustrating) are involved whether the end result is a print advertisement or a broadcast commercial. A preliminary print advertisement ready to be stepped out for production is called a layout. In the case of a prospective television commercial, the layout is called a storyboard, but the creative activities involved in the generation of each are in many ways similar. Finally, production activities by external suppliers do differ in significant respects for print production or broadcast production. Print production involves the graphic arts and specialists in typography, engraving, printing, and so on. Broadcast production, particularly in television, involves audiovisual studios, production houses, and the basic tasks of filming and editing, which are very similar to the production of a movie. In sum, different types of external suppliers are involved for print and broadcast at the production stage. The important input to the generation of advertising is referred to as the creative process in the model. Much attention has been given to ways of improving this process and generating ideas. Following the generation of a layout, the creative director and the agency account executive will next seek the client's approval for the layout and the general nature of the advertising to be produced. An important decision at this point is the selection of supplier’s to actually produce the finished advertisements. These tasks are noted in the model as client approval and supplier selection. Following production, the final print advertisements or broadcast commercials are distributed to the appropriate newspapers, magazines, radio or broadcast productions for printing or airing. This step completes the copy decision aspects of advertising. Copy testing research can be done at the layout stage or on the final print advertisement or commercial generated by the suppliers.

The creation stage
The creation stage encompasses the creative process, the generation of written copy (copywriting), artwork of various kinds (illustrating), and a preliminary or comprehensive version of the advertisement (layout). The mode l\ client approval and supplier selection are also important activities that must be done before final production can begin. First, we consider the creative process

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The creative process consist the following
1. Fact-finding a. Problem-definition: picking out and pointing up the problem. b. Preparation: gathering and analyzing the pertinent data. 2. Idea-finding a. Idea-production: thinking up tentative ideas as possible leads. b. Idea-development: selecting from resultant ideas, adding others, and re-processing by means of modification, combination, et cetera.

The process begins with fact-finding--picking out and identifying the problem and gathering and analyzing pertinent data. The raw material for ideas is informationinformation from all sources. Some information is more useful than others. In particular, the creative team should become Immersed m as much factual Information about the company, the product, competition, and the target audience (their language, needs, motivations, and desires) as possible. Obviously, they should have access to the all the available consumer research. Sometimes it is worthwhile to get firsthand knowledge of the consumer. Information stimulates creativity. Philip Ward Burton writes that is essential for a copywriter to know the 3 P’s P for Product: 1. How does a product fill a definite need or desire? 2. Are most users satisfied with the product? 3. Does the product possess any unique feature that will appeal to the buyers? 4. Is the product or service positioned correctly? P for Prospects 1. Are the prospects men or women? 2. Are they young, middle aged or old? 3. Are your prospects rich, poor or average? 4. Where do most of the prospects live? 5. What are your prospects tastes in reading, in television, in radio and in movies? 6. What are your prospect’s attitudes and opinions and what is his life style? 7. How much do your prospects already know about your product? P for Purchases 1. Where do customers buy the product? 2. Are purchases primarily seasonal or for special occasions 3. Is purchase pre-meditative or impulsive 4. How does the price of the product compare with prices charged by competitors?

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Focus group interviewing is another approach that tends to generate useful ideas and appropriate words and phrases for useful developing copy) Fact-finding should include a careful discussion of the advertising objectives. The objectives provide the point of departure for the creative process while, at the same time, constraining it. Some solutions to tough problems come only when the focus of the problem is broadened. Thus, the objective, need not be viewed as a unilateral, rigid set of constraints, but rather as a flexible, dynamic guide that is the result of creativity as well as empirical research and managerial experience. • Information can also be obtained from:

Idea generation, after the information has been digested is the heart of the creative process. The key is to generate a large quantity of ideas-to avoid inhibiting the process. Evaluating a set of alternatives is a relatively trivial problem next to that of obtaining good alternatives to evaluate it. For some, idea generation comes easier in a group, where more information and associations are collectively available One technique to encourage the free flow of ideas is brainstorming. It features a group of six to ten people who focus on a problem. The cardinal rule is that criticism is prohibited. All evaluation is withheld until later. The wilder the idea that survives, the better, for it may stimulate a new association that will trigger a more useful idea. The participants are encouraged to build on ideas that appear, combining and improving them. The atmosphere is positive. The objective is quantity A related technique is called synectics. It differs from brainstorming that it does not focus on a, clearly specified problem. Rather, a discussion is stimulated around a general idea that is related to the ultimate specific problem. Instead of being concerned with marketing a citrus beverage, the group might discuss drinking. When a variety of ideas are exposed, the leader starts directing the discussion toward the specific problem. The sessions tend to last longer than the 60 or 90 minute brainstorming sessions, based on a belief that fatigue tends to remove inhibitions.

Creative Process
The creative process culminates in the specific activities of writing copy, illustrating, and layout. Copywriting: Copywriting, illustrating, and layout are different activities associated with the creative stage of advertising development and are usually done by different people who specialize in one or the other. Copywriting in print is the activity of actually putting words to paper, particularly those contained in the main body of the text (the main arguments and appeals used), but also including attendant by-lines and headlines. In broadcast, the copywriter is in effect a “script” writer who develops the scenario or script to be used in a radio or television medium. Illustrating is usually the work of an artist incase of a print and is the job of the commercial director and film crew in the case of television. Layout generally refers to the activity of bringing all the pieces together and, as will be seen, differs in the case of print and broad- cast.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Illustrating: The activity of illustrating is of crucial importance for many consumer nondurable products where pictures or photographs are used to convey a central idea, and there is little or no need for long explanations or a recitation of copy points. Normally, an artist will be involved in selecting materials, or will actually draw original pictures for the advertising Artwork is equally if not more important than writing copy, particularly where the goals of the advertising are attention getting or 'building awareness. Illustrating also involves decisions as to what "identification marks" to include. These fall into one of three categories: company name, brand name, and trademark The decision regarding brand name will probably have been made prior to actual copywriting, but it may not. A great deal of time and research effort may be required to arrive at the right brand name. Trademarks, service marks, and certification marks like the Good Housekeeping seat of approval must. Also be considered for inclusion in the visual materials. Often a caricature or identifying symbol such as the Pillsbury dough boy, the Green Giant, or Mr. Peanut will be included, and decisions as to how they will be positioned will be required. The visual content, color, artwork, and identification mark decisions are a crucial aspect of print advertising, and choices will heavily determine the effectiveness of the final result. Layout: The layout activity involves bringing all the pieces together before the advertising is sent out for production. A layout can be in relatively unfinished form, a preliminary layout, or can be a very detailed specification of all aspects of the production requirements, a comprehensive layout. The decision as to how detailed the layout is to be will rest on agency's trust in the supplier firms. Many agencies choose to send on only preliminary layouts to allow room for a significant amount of creativity in the production process. Layout involves decisions as to how the various components of headline, illustration, copy, and identification marks are to be arranged and positioned on the page. The size of the advertisement will obviously have an effect on this decision.

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CHECK LIST FOR PRODUCING EXCELLENT COPY
1. 2. 3. 4. Create fresh, original phrases that vividly convey your message. Make sure you don’t use inappropriate copy or graphics since they can steal the show from your basic sales message. Be sure nothing draws attention from your message. Don’t boost. Be sure the ads purpose is not merely to put the advertiser on the back. Make it personal, informal and relevant. Connect with the audience in a way that is personal and comfortable, pompous, stiff and overly businesslike copy tends to turn people away. Avoid copy that sound like it belongs in an ad, with too many overblown objectives and unsupported claims of superiority. Keep it simple, specific and concise. Make your case quickly and stick to the point. Avoid copy that is confusing, too long or too detailed. Give the audience a reason to read, listen or watch. Offer a solution to your audience’s problem. Entertain your audience. Consider any possible means to get your audience to pay attention long enough to get your sales message across.

5. 6.

Describe benefits People don’t buy products, they buy benefits. People don’t buy vacuum cleaners; they buy a way to make cleaning the house quicker and easier. People don’t buy air conditioners because they want a big box sticking out of their window they buy air conditioners to be more comfortable during the hot summer months. Suppose you wanted to sell a folding table. It has four legs, is 45 inch long and 31 and half inch wide when completely opened, 6 inch wide when both leaves are folded, is made of wood and tapped with Formica. These are the table’s features. I may buy the table if you tell me. It is perfect for small spaces, since it folds down to only 6 inch wide. When folded out completely, it comfortably seats six. The wooden construction makes it incredibly sturdy and Formica top makes it extremely easy to clean. The power of words Never underestimate the power of words. Or, even a single word. Doubleday books ran headline successfully for years. ‘Buy these four books for 99/-‘ until someone come up with same offer but different headline that worked much better. ‘Buy three books for 99/get one free’. One word doubled the business of a shampoo. The instruction read – “Wet hair. Apply lather. Rinse thoroughly.” And then, a bright copywriter added one word that doubled the business – “Repeat”.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising In Britain, the term used is life assurance companies, in America and India, it is life insurance companies. In the former case, the customer perceives that he is paying money to ’assure’ he keeps on living. Whereas American and Indian insurance companies tell the customer he wins only if he dies. Daring to defy conventional wisdom Somebody ones said, “A successful person learns all the rules and follows them to the latter. A super successful person learns the rules and then breaks them one by one”.
A visionary is not afraid to sail on uncharted waters. To be innovative, you must be willing to do things differently.

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PROTECTING YOUR COPY
Every copywriter or art director should know some basics about the copyright law. Just because you write the copy or design the look of an advertisement does not guarantee that you will continue to own that ad.

If you create a work for yourself, you need to protect it. Only those who take the necessary steps can be confident their ownership is secure. Although copyright law is far too complex to fully discuss here, the following information should provide you with enough of the fundamental principles to help you protect your work.
What is a copyright? Copyright is a legal protection for owners of literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and other intellectual material (called the "work"). This includes advertising copy, art, and/or layout. Copyright guarantees the owner of that works certain exclusive rights. They include the rights:


   

To make copies of the work
To distribute, transfer, or sell those copies To create variations ("derivative works") To display the work, and To perform the work

If you own the copyright for a work, you can assign or sell all or part of your rights to another person or company. But, anyone who makes copies of your work, distributes those copies, etc. without you giving them that right, violates the law. You can sue them for violating your copyright. What can be copyrighted? To be copyrighted, a work must have all of the following:


 

Creativity
Originality Fixation in a Tangible Medium

This doesn't require tremendous creativity, but simply some minimal artistic quality. Nor is great originality needed, so long as it isn't a copy of someone else's work. Unfortunately, ideas and concepts are not copyrightable. Only works that are fixed in a tangible medium fall within the protections of the Copyright Act. This includes art on paper or canvas, photographs on film or paper, computer art on disks, songs on CD or sheet music, sculpture on rock, and so forth. So long as you can touch the work, even if it requires a machine to see or hear it, the work can be copyrighted. Suppose you create an ad using a Di Vinci painting as the primary visual. The painting is a copy, so does this prevent your copyright of the ad? No. You are not copying a copyrighted work -- even if the painting had originally been copyrighted, the copyright would have expired by now -- and you are adding new elements (e.g., the copy for the ad). Your copyright of the ad would not include the painting, but all of the new elements that you added to it would be copyrightable. But imagine that you developed a campaign based upon a terrific concept. If someone stole your concept, but their ads were different from yours, did they violate your copyright? No. Your ads are copyrightable, but a concept cannot be copyrighted, no matter how thoroughly and carefully you document that concept.

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Therefore to protect your work you need to register your copy Registering your copyright In addition to helping you prove your ownership, registration of the copyright has a couple of benefits. While registration is not mandatory, you can't file a suit until you register it. And, if you register the work within 3 months after it is published (or before any infringement occurs), you can get more money when you win your lawsuit. However, you can register your work at any time within the life of the copyright. Registration is a simple, and relatively inexpensive, process. You simply fill out a form and send it, along with the filing fee and one copy of the work (or 2 copies, if it's been published), to the Register of Copyrights. Thus it is advisable to always protect the copy.

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Advertising budgets & Media Planning

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FIVE M’s OF ADVERTISING
Advertising is an important promotional tool for any marketing campaign. So much so that whenever we think of marketing we think of advertising although it is just one of the marketing tools. Hitherto only companies with a profit motive went in for advertising. But today government bodies as well as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) go for high profile advertising campaigns. The purpose here is not to increase the sales figure but to increase the awareness of people regarding the relevant topics. Today the marketing manager has a range of advertising options to choose from, from interpersonal communication to Internet. Deciding on a correct option, calls for a detailed analysis on aspects like objective behind advertising (Mission), company’s earmarked budget (Money), content of communication through advertising (Message), advertising vehicle (Media) and impact of advertising (Measurement). These can be broadly classified in as the five Ms of advertising. MISSION First of all the marketing manager must be clear on the company’s purpose for advertising. "Increase in sales figure" will be a very broad and to a certain extent a vague objective. According to Mr. Philip Kotler, a renowned authority in this field, there can be three possible objectives behind advertising: i. Information- When a new product is launched, the purpose should only be to inform people about the product. ii. Persuasion- Persuading people to actually go out and buy the product. This objective is of paramount importance because of cutthroat competition. Any advertisement must be persuasive in nature, attracting consumers towards the brand. iii. Reminder - This objective is relevant for well-established companies. These types of advertisements only try to remind the consumer of the brand existence. For instance whenever we hear or read “yeh dil mange more”, we tend to think about Pepsi. Same way we tend to associate "two minutes" with Maggie noodles. The marketing manager should establish a clear goal as on the purpose of advertising information, persuasion or reminder. MONEY After the objective has been decided upon, the next step is to decide upon the budget. There are several methods for deciding on the advertising budget. The most common among them is percentage of sales method. Under this method, a certain percentage of sales are allotted for advertising expenditure. Though this method is used widely, there are some problems with this method. The first issue is what percentage the company should take? Even if a company somehow decides a percentage figure, this would mean increase in advertising 104

_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising expenditure when sales are up and less spending when sales are down. This in some ways is quite paradoxical, because logically the reverse should happen. The company needs to spend more on advertising when sales are down. But this method uses circular reasoning and views sales as cause for promotion! In fact sales are a result of promotion. Another method suggests that a company should spend as much as its competitors are spending. This method claims that it would prevent promotional wars. But then like each individual each company is also different. It may not make any sense in spending like your competitor because competitor might be on a different footing. MESSAGE As a common experience, we love some advertisements, while the others just irritate us. An appealing ad will win consumers and will consequently induce them to purchase the product. On the other hand, irritating ads will create an adverse effect. This is why many companies hand over this task to advertising agencies, which has professionals to make impact-making ads. The message, that company wants to convey, should be put in a manner that will arouse interest. Moreover it should convincingly highlight upon the product’s USP. What is said is definitely important but what is more important is how it is said. The tone should be appealing. Words used should be catchy and retentive (memorable). These days both electronic as well as print media are overflowing with ads. People have no time to read or see them, and therefore they have to be attractive enough to catch the target audience’s attention. This is the job of message. MEDIA Selecting the proper media vehicle for communicating the message goes a long way in the success of any kind of advertising. Each media vehicle has its positive and negative points, with a different reach and impact. Therefore, a company has to be very clear about its target audience. Choices available are Internet, television, newspapers, magazines, direct mails, radio and hoardings. Every one of this has its advantages and disadvantages. Companies often go in for a media mix, i.e. they select more than one of the available choices. Timing is of greatest significance here. Many industries face seasonal fluctuations and pass through cycles. Therefore advertising should be timed that way to take care of these fluctuations. A limited budget should be prudently allocated among these media vehicles.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising MEASUREMENT It is necessary that effectiveness of any advertising be judged. Only on the basis of this measurement, can further decisions regarding continuation or termination of the particular advertising campaign be taken. An ad can be judged on the basis of its reach and impact on sales. Good advertising is one that generates brand awareness and consequently brand preference. How much of sales can be attributed to advertising, is a difficult question to answer. Sales are influenced by many factors besides advertising. It is not easy to isolate the impact of advertising on sales. Nonetheless there are some advanced statistical techniques available that can be used with the help of computer softwares like SPSS. Thus a systematic and balanced understanding of these five Ms of advertising (Mission, Money, Message, Media, and Measurement) will help in designing better advertising campaigns that create a favorable impact on the target audience.

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Factors to consider when setting the Advertising Budgets

1) Stage in product Life cycle: New Products typically receive large advertising budgets to build awareness and gain consumer trail. Establish brands usually are supported with lower advertising budgets as a ratio of sales. 2) Market share and consumer base: High market share brands usually require less advertising expenditure as a percentage of sales to maintain share. To build share by increasing market size requires larger expenditure. On a cost-per-impression basis, it is less expensive to reach consumer on a widely used brand then to reach consumer of low share brands. 3) Competition and Clutter: In a market with a large no of competitors and high advertising spending, a brand must advertise more heavily to be heard. Even simple clutter from advertisements not directly competitive to the brands creates a need of heavier advertising. 4) Advertising frequency : The Number of repetitions needed to put across the brands message to consumers has important impact on the advertising budget. 5) Product Substitutability: Brands in a commodity class (cigarettes, Beer, Soft Drinks) require heavy advertising to establish a differential image. Advertising is also important when a brand can offer unique physical benefits or feature.

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Methods of calculating Advertising Budgets
Before we start, there are four stipulations you should consider: First, the best methods of determining advertising budgets are meant to be guidelines, rather than inflexible rules. Second, once established, the advertising budget should be considered a fixed cost during the year and should not be abandoned at the first sign of either business slowdowns or upswings. Third, the best ways of determining a budget do not rely solely upon simple arithmetic equations; they require an understanding of constantly changing business factors, like customer behavior, sales trends, competitive activity, and many more that can make simple equations meaningless. Four, the advertising budget should not be seen as a cost of doing business but rather as an investment in your business. Seen this way, you're more likely to expect (and therefore plan) a return from your advertising expenditures the same as you would expect a return from a piece of equipment you bought. Of course, advertising also helps build up intangible values called good will (or brand equity). Fixed Sum Method The ad budget is determined by multiplying the target number of units to be sold by a dollar amount allocated for each. if 1,000 units are to be sold and $50 is allocated for advertising to sell each one, then the advertising budget is $50,000. Percent of Sales Method The ad budget is set as a fixed percentage of actual or projected gross sales, or a combination of the two. While this method is defensible, it does not allocate advertising funds according to a product or service's profitability. Furthermore, it assumes advertising should be based on sales volume -- and does not allow for changes in the market, competition, and advertising costs. Perhaps most important of all, just where will you get that "fixed percentage" number that will be accurate for your companies unique situation? Advertising to Sales (%): Company H.L.L Colgate & Palmolive ITC Dabur India Nestle India Bajaj Auto Mc Dowell Britannia India Reckitt& Mahindra & Mahindra %of sales(01-02) 7.51 20.75 3.56 13.99 8.47 3.21 13.53 6.45 16.48 2.90 % change over previous year 18.3 8.0 (1.8) 5.7 20.1 (11.1) 5.1 6.27 48.6 17.1

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising The Affordable Method The ad budget equals the available funds after all other expenses have been budgeted. And while this method prevents a drain on cash flow, it disregards the correlation between advertising expenditures and sales results. Furthermore, it is usually self-defeating, since during slow periods there are few, if any, funds available for advertising, and insufficient advertising lowers future sales. Although this is probably the method of choice for many small companies, the results are neither predictable nor sustainable. It's often little more than a knee jerk reaction to a perceived need that happened at the right economic time. "Let's do something… (create a brochure…website…ad or hire a telemarketer or new sales person)," becomes the battle cry. And while here's nothing wrong with any of those actions, the decision to advertise is based on financial opportunity only, with results that are usually not as productive as they might be. And that can sometimes result in the production of the wrong tool at the right time. Like buying a knife to go to a gunfight. The Competitive Method The ad budget is determined by what competitors are spending, based on the theory that the advertising budget should reflect your expected market share. But this allows competition to dictate the ad budget, without regard to a company's current plans, abilities, needs, product mixes, markets, rate of growth, etc. Profit Margin Method There are two types of profit-margin advertising budgets. One uses an "earned-maintenance approach" -- the budget equals the previous year's gross profit multiplied by the average advertising-to-gross-profit ratio in the industry. The second uses an "investment-matching approach" -- the budget equals the projected sales multiplied by the gross margin percentage (gross profit divided by sales), multiplied by the average advertising-to-grossprofit ratio in the industry. Sales-Force to Advertising Method The ad budget is based on the amount of sales generated by the sales force. If ABC spends Rs.800,000 on its sales force to generate 80% of sales, then it should be willing to spend Rs. 200,000 on advertising to generate the remaining 20% of sales. If sales are generated from advertising leads, the budget is determined by calculating how much advertising will be needed to keep the sales force working at the optimum level.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising The most efficacious method of determining ad budgets is: Budgeting by Objectives With this method, the advertising budget equals the amount needed to produce the desired results. The only caveat is, while it may be the best, budgeting by Objectives necessitates some thinking and a little work. It requires 5 steps: 1) Analyze your situation 2) Create Objectives (that are achievable and measurable over time) 3) Establish a Strategy to achieve objectives 4) Implement an action 5) Control your efforts in order to stay on track, on time and on budget. Example:

 Potential users : 100 customers  Target objective : 8% market share o i.e. 8 customers.  Advertising reach : 80 customers.  % of aware to try : 25% of 80 i.e. 20 customers.  Loyalty % : 40% i.e. 40% of 20 cust. = 8 cust.  No of advt exposure Per 1 % to make them try the product is 40 impressions.  GRP: 40*80 = 3200 GRP’s  Cost of 1 GRP = Rs.10  therefore total budget = 3200*10= Rs.32000

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Advertising Budgets of Indian companies: Advertisers : H.L.L P&G India Paras Parma Coca-Cola India Samsung India Colgate Palmolive Bajaj auto Pepsi foods Nestle India 2002 (Rs in crs.) 729 176 169 156 136 122 122 121 114

Advertising is like dieting; it only works when you do it all the time and manage it well. The effectiveness of POP/trade promotion, especially during economic slowdown During economic slowdown, promotion is often preferred over advertising as it gives you the desired short-term results. According to Piyush Pandey, there is nothing wrong with this approach. As long as the agency does not take the path that dilutes the brand, it is perfectly fine to do so. A good agency would always recommend strategies that serve the client's best interests. He reiterated that agencies should always look for ways to eliminate redundant and unyielding campaigns, not just during recession but during boom time also. Advertising budgets must be used effectively to accomplish the bottom line objectives of the marketing plan - which media vehicle is used, which channel of communication is used - is irrelevant, as long as these objectives are met. So, yes, it is extremely important to focus on issues that augment the clients' position in the marketplace. If that requires the agency to focus on sales promotions instead of advertising, so be it. The Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) segment is the largest advertiser in the Indian advertising industry, closely followed by the consumer durable segment and the automobile industry. With 80 percent of all billings, newspaper and television remain The two most popular forms of advertising. Indian advertising companies with foreign collaborations control 75 percent of the Indian advertising market. Indian politics is emerging as a major client for the advertising sector.

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Selection of an agency Once again, what's important is that an agency must keep the client's best interest in mind, and not just its own profitability. Client-agency relationships are based on mutual trust and evolve over a long term period. An agency's long term prospects are directly linked to their clients' performance. With performance-based incentives becoming the norm, it follows that an agency that works closely with the client and makes a positive difference in the client business will grow with the client. So agencies must always strive to work at helping the client accomplish the short-term and long-term objectives. It’s been said that the most wasted dollar in American business is that spent on advertising…a pretty dramatic statement considering how much we depend on that means of communication. Consumers would have no idea of the products available to them without advertising. If consumers aren’t aware of what we have to offer, they won’t buy from us and our companies would succeed only by sheer accident or blind luck. But even when we produce great ads we don’t always spend our ad money well. We should be spending our money wisely by building a comprehensive advertising plan. But before we can go too far down that road, we must have a budget. Without a budget we don’t know how much money we’re going to spend…and we can’t very well get started on designing an ad campaign without that in mind. There are a number of ways to build an ad budget that managers have come up with over the years. They fall into the two general camps of “objective” and “subjective” budgets. Different means of budgeting work better for some firms than for others, but there are some constants worth looking at before starting to build an ad budget of your own.

Objective methods of planning a budget are normally superior in results to the subjective ones, but they do take more time and expense to develop. Larger firms sometimes allow their advertising agencies to guide them, making use of sophisticated quantitative mathematical models. These models will take into account a lot of company financial data and sales history and will make use of certain assumptions and forecasts. The problem with this method is that a lot of decision making is taken out of the manager’s hands and put into the hands of the agency. Of course the agency wants you to succeed, so that you will continue to use them, but they also want to sell you as much advertising as they can. There is a definite conflict of interest here. Left to their own devices they may well skew your entire promotion plan until its heavy in advertising at the expense of everything else. Probably the most successful method of planning is the “objective/task” budget. This method first takes into account the actual goals you want to reach and the outcomes desired. You then decide what advertising can do to bring you closer to those goals and how it should be combined with other promotion efforts, such as sales or public relations,

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising for maximum affect. You choose what kinds of ads you need to reach those goals and the types of media that will be the most useful. Then you can begin building your plan, determining the costs of the various ads and promotions as you do so. When that’s done, you’ll have a budget that may look far different than anything produced by subjective methods. Adjustments may have to be made at that point, but the final budget will be directly tied to expected results, not pulled from thin air. It takes time and effort to put together an advertising budget, whether you do it subjectively or objectively. The end result should be to make advertising a more valuable part of your overall marketing effort. In the end, a good budget, one that makes sense to you, will make dollars for your company. What this industry does is that it sells an image and not a product. To this effect, advertising is a major force in defining and reinforcing that image in the minds of the target audience. In today’s era the company has the option to choose between Online media – Internet, e-commerce,etc. The strategy used in this case is "Target, deliver message, wait and interact" Offline media – print, radio, T.V billboards, demos, free samples. The strategy followed is "Target, Deliver message and wait". Companies should keep in mind that the narrower the media focus & target market size, greater the influence of the advertising medium and vice versa. Depending upon the target market the company can decide its strategy. For mass marketing, content is important and for niche marketing, media itself is important.

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FACTORS INFLUENCING APPROPRIATION OF BUDGETS
1. ADVERTISING PLAN: The advertising objectives, strategies and programmes determine the total amount of expenditure to be incurred by the company for advertising purposes. The objectives refer to advertising opportunities which can be exploited by the company. The implementation of sophisticated strategies requires more money for the purpose of advertising. 2. MARKETING OPPORTUNITIES: Advertisements should exploit the potential of the market. Marketing opportunities are different in different markets, so the level of advertising appropriation has to be differently determined to arrive at a specific budget. Seasonal demand advertising triggers a longer expenditure than the off-season demands. The market may be regularized by off-season discounts and sales promotion for which advertisements are given in newspapers, TV, radio, etc. Product opportunities are also taken into account while determining market opportunities. The strategies of emotional appeal, fear appeal and others factor determine the size of funds to be allocated to exploit the existing as well as potential marketing opportunities. 3. COMPETITION: The nature and the pressure of competition influence the size of appropriation. A greater intensity of competition calls for larger funds. Competitive advertising expand demand. Domination of media and markets by the competition may call for a larger fund. The cost and the efficiency of each medium have to be taken into consideration for appropriation. An imaginative advertising theme and the unique selling proposition may perform a suitable job for competitive advertising. 4. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE: The PLC is also an important determinant of the size of the total budget. Consumer awareness and the increased usage are taken into account to determine the level of advertising and costs. Knowledge of life cycle of several products of the company is helpful in determining the size of the appropriation and the budget. The need of advertisements decrease as the age of the product increases. It is possible to rejuvenate the product by injecting more funds to build its image. Efforts should be made to know which life cycle demands how much funds.

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5. COSTS OF ADVERTISING: The total costs of advertising are decided for appropriation. The advertisement costs include the expenses incurred on developing and preparing advertisements, designing the message and selecting the media. The fees for action, direction, building sets and traveling to locations, expenses on print media and the broadcast media, etc are included in the costs. Contingency funds are also included in advertising.

6. TYPE OF PRODUCT: The type of product to be marketed determines the size of appropriation. Consumer products require a larger ad appropriation than the industrial product. If the opportunities of product differentiation are higher, the returns on advertising will be higher than those of undifferentiated products. The qualities of the product/brand is essential in selecting a particular media, advertising is more effective in non-price competition and less effective in price competition situation. People buy those items which are heavily advertised. Primary products need more advertising.

7. RETAILING: Advertisement will be less in demand if retailing is co-operative and effective. If retailers do not communicate product attributes to the consumers, advertising becomes essential. Advertisements and retailing create a demand for the product in the market.

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Allocating Advertising Budget:
The next step in fixing the advertising budget is the allocation of appropriation to different tasks and media of advertising .The avenues of budget-utilization are determined for an effective and economical use of the expenditure. The advertising process is broken into several units and each unit is assigned adequate funds for completion of the tasks. The size of the allocated funds is revised from time to time to find out their effectiveness .The revision process begins at the bottom of the activity to find out whether the size of the budget is adequate or inadequate. The advertising budget is allocated according to objectives, the media used, the message transmitted and the geographic regions to be covered. (1) Allocation by objectives: Advertising objectives have been useful guidelines to the allocation of funds. The objectives are broken down into campaign objectives .The month, year and other time factors are the basis of campaign objectives. The length of the campaign determines the amount of funds required. Media goals and other short term functions are determined. The results of previous advertising objectives determine the level of funds required for the purpose .The objectives of media, message and competitive approach determine the size of the appropriate funds required to meet the task. The advertising objectives are revised and supporting budgets are allocated for each component of the objective. Appropriate and experimental campaigns are formulated and the cost per campaign is determined .Some contingency reserve funds are set apart to meet any unforeseen requirements of the campaign .The campaigns with budgeted funds are submitted to the marketing management which determines the size of the budget for each campaign .If, in its opinion ,the budget is higher, it is pruned for each campaign or the campaign itself is curtailed by the management .The allocation process continues to determine the budget for each component of the objective s of the advertiser. (2) Allocation by media : The budget appropriation is allocated amongst the different media according to their contribution ,the administrative overheads , media copy development and reproduction and research .The media requires significant funds for coverage, generally 80% of the total budget which is allocated to the media .Of the several media ,television accounts for 60% of the total budget .Small firms spent more money on newspaper and magazine advertising .They spend about 90% of their budget on print media .Some tiny industries may spend 100% only on vehicles and loudspeaker advertising .The allocation depends on the industry, the size, need and objectives of the firm. Reach, frequency and continuity also determine the size of funds required. (3) MARKET:

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising The market is divided into several segments. The development of each segment requires allocation of funds. The management decides how much money should be spent on a particular market segment. The push and pull theory is used for distribution purposes. According to the push theory, the development of the middlemen in the channel at distribution is essential. The longer the distributionchannel, the higher is the cost of advertisements. The pull theory lays emphasis on the need for communication with the final user of the product. (4) ALLOCATION BY PRODUCTS: The budget is generally allocated on the basis of the sales of each product lines. If the manufacturer is producing different articles than budget is allocated on the basis of the value of sales each product. A product contributing a significantly higher share of profit is allocated a higher budget. A product in the initial stage of marketing requires a larger advertising fund than the product in the maturity stage. (5) ALLOCATION BY GEOGRAPHICAL AREA: Budget is allocated according to the geographical area covered by advertising. To some areas, larger budgeted funds are assigned to harness the potential marketing opportunities. Ad in local newspapers and media receive a larger share than that on national scale, so as to exploit the local marketing options. In some markets a sustained spending is essential to prevent deterioration in the brands competitive edge. Larger funds are required to develop poor market and slightly lower funds are required for developed markets.

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Media Planning & Media Research
Media Planning & Selection Objectives: To show how communication media help advertisers achieve marketing and advertising objectives. To get their messages to the right people in the right place in a highly fragmented, complex, global market place, media planners follow the same procedures as marketing and advertising planners. The Purpose of media planning is to conceive, analyze and select channel of communication that will direct the advertising message to the right people in the right place at the right time. It involves many decisions:      Where to advertise (in what countries, regions, cities, or parts of town)? Which media vehicle we should use? When during the year should we concentrate our advertising? How often should we run the advertising? What opportunities are there for integrating other communications?

The objectives and strategies of an advertising plan unfold from the marketing plan. But advertising objectives focus on communication goal for example  Increasing brand preference by 8% in the south during the next year.  Increasing intent to purchase the brand among men ages 18-24 by 10% within the next year. To accomplish this objective, companies device advertising strategies that employ the element of creative mix- the product concept, the target audience, the advertising message, and communication media. The media department makes sure the advertising message (developed by the creative department) gets the correct target audience (established by the marketing managers and accounts executives) effectively (as measured by the research department). Media planners go through the same process of setting objectives, devising strategies and defining tactics. Media objective translate the advertising strategy into goals that media can accomplish.

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The People who plan media Strategy Media Planners work in several kinds of department structures. The 3 most common include: 1) Advertising agency media department: Full service ad agencies have departments that perform various media functions for their client. Many Large agencies separate the media planning function from the media buying function. Media Planners play more strategic role, deciding where and how often ads will run. Media buyers execute the plan, negotiating price and placement and buying space and time from print and electronic media. Today these traditional roles are evolving into planner/ buyer general lists who may occur on a particular area such as print. 2) Independent media buying services: Volume media specialist often buy advertising space and time at lower bulk rates and then sell it, at a higher rate or for a handling commission, to advertisers or ad agencies that don’t have a fully staffed media department. 3) In-House Media Departments: Some advertisers have departments that plan and buy for the company or supervise the media work of an ad agencies or independent media buying service. What is making media planning so much more complicated then it was just 5 or 10 yrs ago? Increasing Media options For One thing, there are more media to choose from today, and each medium offers an increasing no of choices. TV is now fragmented into network, syndicated, and local television, as well as network and local cable. Specialized magazines now aim at every possible population segment. Even national magazines publish editions for particular regions and demographic groups. In addition, non traditional media from video-tape and theater screen advertising to blimps, balloons and shopping cards widen the scope of choices.

Increasing fragmentation of the audience:

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Audience fragmentation also complicates the media planners job. Readers and viewers now choose from many media options, essentially acting like programmers, selectively reading only parts of magazines or newspapers, watching only segments of programmes, and listening to many different radio stations. This makes it very difficult to find the consumer in the market place. Increasing Cost: Costs are increasing for almost all Medias. In the last decade the cost of exposing thousand people to each of the major media (called cost per thousand and abbreviated as CPM) rose faster then inflation. Rising cost make media planning more challenging then ever, especially for advertisers with small budgets. Advertisers today demand more proof that their money is wisely spend and put more pressure on media planners to justify each decision. Increasing complexity in the way media buys are made. Buying and selling media is not a straight forward process it once was. In the battle of additional sales, many print and broadcast media companies develop “ Value Added” programmes to provide additional benefits. In additions to selling space or time at rate card prices this companies also offer reprint, special sections, even sponsorships, mailing list. To get a bigger share of advertisers budget, larger companies now bundle the various stations, publications or properties they own and offer them together as future incentives. To some advertising people the term value added is a nebulous euphemism for discounts. But as cost conscious clients try to squeeze each ounce of impact from their advertising rupees, media planners must learn how to evaluate and execute this complex deals. Media Planners develop a basic plan; devise strategies to carry out the plan and schedule media buys.

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Media Planning The consumer target audience is often determined from the marketers past research or through studies conducted to identify present and future users. Media planners also rely on secondary research such as Indian Readership Survey (IRS), Tam Report, Advertisers Handbook, this syndicated reports give demographic profiles of heavy and light users of various products and enable products to define the target audience. The report also specify which kinds of TV Programmes or magazines heavy and light users watch and read, which help planners select media with large audiences of heavy users. Planners select media vehicles, particular magazines, newspapers or broadcast programmes according to how well they deliver or expose the message to an audience that closely parallels the desired target audience.

Scope Of Media Planning Activities

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Elements of the media mix:
To develop an effective media strategy, media planners use the 4 M’s of the media mixmarkets, money, media and methodology. Markets: As the elements of the media mix, markets refer to the various possible targets of the media plan. The media plan may have to reach both trade and consumer audiences, global, national or regional audiences or certain ethnic or socioeconomic groups. Money: The media planner will have to decide how much to budget and where to allocate funds, how much for print media, how much in TV, how much to each geographical area. The media planner recommends spending more here and less there, using a combination of marketing savvy and analytical skills. Media: In this context, media includes all communication vehicles available to a marketer, including broad media classes and sub-classes such as radio, TV, newspaper, Magazines, outdoor, direct mail as well as various supplemental media and ancillary activities such as sales promotion, direct marketing, public relations and publicity, special events and collateral material. Media Planners should encourage companies to integrate all their marketing communications. They should look at the media element, not just analytically but creatively to achieve the companies objectives. Methodology: Methodology includes mechanical considerations (size of time or space units, color, B/W, position in the media etc.) and overall scheduling strategy to achieve the reach, frequency. and continuity objectives. Here again, the media planner faces the host of options and trade off’s within a limited budgets. Influencing factors in media strategy decisions. The 4 M’s are elements within the media planner’s control. However, media decisions are greatly influenced by a variety of factors outside the media planners control. These include; the scope of the media plan, the sales potential of different markets, competitive strategies and budget considerations the availability of different media vehicles, the nature of the medium and the mood of the message, message size & length and the consumers purchase pattern.

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Criteria for selecting individual media vehicles In evaluating specific media vehicles, the planner considers several factors:  Overall campaign objectives and strategies; size and characteristics of each mediums audience, exposure, and motivational value of each medium; and cost efficiency.  After choosing the message, the advertiser’s next task is to choose media to carry it. The steps here are deciding on desired reach, frequency& impact; choosing among major media types; selecting specific media vehicles; deciding on media timings & deciding on geographical media allocation. The results of these decisions need to be evaluated.  Deciding on Reach, Frequency & Impact. Media selection is finding the most cost –effective media to deliver the desired number & types of exposure to the target audience. The effect of exposures on audience awareness depends on the exposure’s reach, frequency & impact: • • • Reach (R): The number of persons or households exposed to a particular media schedule at least once during a specified time period. Frequency (F): The number of time within a specified time period than an average person or household is exposed to the message. Impact (I): The qualitative value of an exposure through a given medium.

The relationship between Reach, Frequency & Impact is captured in the following concepts: • • Total number of exposures (E): This is the reach times the average frequency; that is, E = R * F. This measure is referred to as the gross rating points (GRP) Weighted number of exposures (WE): This is the reach times average frequency times advertising impact, WE = R* F *I.

The media planner has to figure out the most cost effective combination of reach ,frequency & impact .Reach is most important when launching new products, flanker brands, extensions of well-known brands ,or frequently purchased brands ,or going after an undefined target market . Frequency is most important where there are strong competitors, a complex story to tell, high consumer resistance or a frequent purchase cycle. Many advertisers believe that a target audience needs a large number of exposures for the advertising to work .Others doubt the value of high frequency .They believe that after people see the same ad a few times, they either act on it, get irritated by it or stop noticing it. 123

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Media planner has to know the capacity of major media types to deliver reach, frequency & impact .The media planner has to decide the media taking into account their cost, advantages & limitations.

Media vehicles TYPES OF MEDIA NEWSPAPER ADVANTAGES
1.Almost any size available. 2.local emphasis 3. quick response and easy accountability 1. 2. 3. 4. High quality reproduction prestige factor accurate demographic information available Graphic opportunity possible Combination of sight, sound, movement. A single message at a time Viewer empathy Opportunity to demonstrate the product Opportunity to explore sound Ability to change message quickly

DISADVANTAGES
1. 2. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. Loss of fidelity, especially in halftone illustration. Difficulty controlling ad position on page. Not as large as newspaper or posters. Possible difficulty securing favorable position. Lack of immediacy No time to convey a lot of information Intrusiveness

MAGAZINES

TELEVISION

1. 2. 3. 4.

RADIO

1. 2.

1.

DIRECT MAIL OUTDOOR/TRANSIT

2. 1. 2. 3.

Graphic, flexible production. highly personal Graphic opportunity with color and large size. High fidelity reproduction Simple, direct approach

Lack of visual excitement 2. Wavering attention span 3. Inadequate data on listening habits (when is the listener really listening). 4. Fleeting nature of message 1. State, federal and postal regulations affect creativity. 2. Censorship unpredictable. 1.A one line medium with limited opportunity to expand on the message. 2.Limited audience research.

1.

POINT OF SALE

1. Opportunity of 3-D effects, movement, sound, new production techniques

1. Difficulty pinpointing audience.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Deciding Media Timings In choosing media, the advertiser faces both a macro scheduling and a micro scheduling problem. The macro-scheduling problem involves scheduling the advertising in relation to seasons and the business cycles. Suppose 70 % occur between June and September. The firm can vary its advertising expenditure to follow the seasonal pattern, to oppose the seasonal pattern, or to be constant throughout the year .Most firms pursue a seasonal policy. Industrial dynamics methodology is being used to test cyclical advertising policies .It is believed that advertising has a delayed impact on consumer awareness, awareness has a delayed impact on factory sales, and the factory sales have a delayed impact on advertising expenditures. These time-lag relationships can be studied and formulated mathematically into computer simulation model. The model can stimulate alternative timing strategies to assess varying impacts on company sales, profit and costs. Alfred kuehn developed a model to explore how advertising should be timed for frequently purchased, highly seasonal, low cost grocery products .He showed that the appropriate timing pattern depends on the degree of advertising carryover and the amount of habitual behavior in customer brand choice .Carryover refers to the rate at which the effect of an advertising expenditure wears out with the passage of time. Habitual behavior indicates how much brand holdover occurs independent of the level of advertising. It is found that when there is no advertising carryover or habitual purchasing, the decision maker is justified in using a percentage of sales rule to budget advertising. The optimal timing pattern for advertising expenditure coincides with the pattern of the industry sales .But if there is advertising carryover or habitual purchasing ,it would be better to time advertising to lead sales .Advertising expenditures should peak before sales peak. The micro scheduling problem calls for allocating advertising expenditures within a short period to obtain maximum impact. The most effective pattern depends on communication objective in relation to nature of product, target customers, distribution channels, and other marketing factors. The timing pattern should consider three factors. Buyer turnover expresses the rate at which new buyers enter the market, the higher this rate the more continuous the advertising should be. Purchase frequency is the number of times during the period that the average buyer buys the product, the higher the purchase frequency, the more continuous the advertising should be. The forgetting rate, is the rate at which the buyer forgets the brands, the higher the forgetting rate, the more continuous the advertising should be.

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Timing Pattern for newly launch Product

Continuity Continuity is achieved by scheduling exposures evenly throughout a given period. Generally, advertisers use continuous advertising in expanding market situation, with frequently purchased items, & in tightly defined buyer categories.

Concentration / Bursting Concentration calls for spending all the advertising dollars in a single period. This makes sense for products with one selling season or holiday.

Flighting Flighting calls for advertising for some period ,followed by a hiatus with no advertising., followed by a second period of advertising activity .it is used when the funding is limited, the purchase cycle is relatively infrequent,& with seasonal items .

Pulsing Pulsing is continuous advertising at low weight levels reinforced periodically by waves of heavier activity .pulsing draws on the strength of continuous advertising & flights to create a compromise scheduling strategy.

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A Special Emphasis –Media Plan
1) “Say hello to JLO contest” contest About the contest…. Contest : Chance to meet JLO in Hong Kong. Promos starts : 25th jan 2001, ends 16th feb’01 Contest open only to MSN hotmail users. TV Campaign Plan  30 sec promo spots created based on “ My Love don’t cost a thing”  Vehicle: Youth Centric Channels  Channel V : 10 spots/day * 10 days.  StarWorld : 7 spots/day * 10 days.  Total : 170 spots. TV Media Plan  Campaign Period : 3/2/01 to 12/2/01 : Schedule : 10 spots/day * 10 days = 100 spots 30% Primetime 70% off primetime.

:
Schedule :

7 spots/day * 10 days. = 70 spots 30% Primetime 70% off primetime.

Web Media Plan Created 10 different creatives  Hotmail :- 500 K impressions/ day - 10 days.  Messenger :- 500 K impressions/ day - 10 days.  MSN India :- 100K impressions/day - 10 days.  3rd party youth centric Sites :- 50 k impressions / day - 10 days Caber Café Promotions  Poster campaign in cyber café’s 127

_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising  100+ outlet covered primarily in Bangalore. Music store Promotions  4 feet cut outs – planned in 10 key music outlet across country  200 posters in major music stores.

2) Outdoor advertising: Budgeting and Media Planning We contacted Sovereign advertising agency which operates at national level in outdoor advertising in order to elicit information about how the budget amount is allocated to different vehicles of outdoor advertising. Major clients: IDBI, UTI, GTB, HPCL, Orange, BPL Amul, Alembic ( Glycodin), HLL etc.. How it operates: Sovereign advertising operates on 2 levels 1) Direct clients 2) Sovereign also receives contracts from other major advertising agencies that have got overall contracts for advertising from clients which then pass on the contract for outdoor advertising to sovereign. Budget allocation and media planning for Glycodin. Objective: Increasing Brand awareness. Location : Mumbai, Thane and Navi Mumbai. Period: June & July Advertising media vehicle used and its Distribution: Bus Panels Bus shelters Hoardings Wallpainting Trains 40% 20% 20% 5% 15%

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EVALUATION OF ADVERTISEMENT EFFECTIVENESS The amount of fundamental research on effectiveness is appallingly small. It is said that probably no more than 1/5 th of 1% of total advertisement budget is used to achieve an enduring understanding on of how to spend the other 99.8%. Many advertisers try to measure the communication effectiveness of the advertisements, that is, it measures the advertisement on the basis of NCP ( Noticeability, Comprehension and Persuasion). They would also measure the effectiveness through the increase in sales. 1. COMMUNICATION –EFFECT RESEARCH COMMUNICATIN-EFFECT RESEARCH determines whether the ad is communicating effectively. It is also referred to as copy-testing, which can either be done before an ad is put into media or after the ad is printed or broadcast called pre-testing or post-testing respectively. There are three major types of pre-testing. They are consumer feedback research, portfolio tests and laboratory tests. Consumer feedback research ask the consumer for their reaction to the proposed ad. Here the consumer respond to such questions such as:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What is the main message you get from the ad? What do you think they want you to know, believe or do? How likely is it that this ad will influence you to undertake the implied action? What works well in the ad and what works poorly? How does the ad make you feel? Where is the best place to reach you with this message? Where would you be most likely to notice it and pay attention to it? Where are you when you make decisions about this action?

Portfolio tests ask consumer to view or listen to a portfolio of advertisements, taking as much time as they need. Consumer are then asked to recall all the ads and their content aided or unaided. Recall level indicate an ad’s ability to stand out and to have its message understood and remembered. Laboratory tests use equipment to measure physiological reactions like heartbeat, pupil dilations blood pressure perspiration to an ad. These tests measure the attention drawing power of the ad.

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2. SALES-EFFECT RESEARCH Advertising sales effect is generally harder to measure than its communication effect. Sales are influenced by many factors such as products features, price and availability as well as competitions action. The sales effect is easier to measure in direct marketing situation and the hardest to measure in corporate image building advertisement. A companies share of advertisement expenditure produces a share of voice (i.e. the percentage of the companies advertising of that products to all the advertising of that product) that earns a share of consumers mind and heart and ultimately a share of market.

FORMULA FOR MEASURING SALES IMPACT OF ADVERTISING
SHARE OF EXPENDITURE

SHARE OF VOICE

SHARE OF MIND AND HEART

SHARE OF MARKET

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SALES PROMOTION PUBLIC RELATION MEDIA RESEARCH & INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON ADVERTISING PLANNING

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SALES PROMOTION
Sales promotions are activities that shape buying patterns attract new audiences or increase sales. It is a grab bag of a world that encompasses everything that falls outside advertising, publicity and direct marketing. Promotion decisions are taken with other marketing mix decisions. Sales promotion aims directly at inducing purchases to by a product. Sales promotion activities are designed to encourage resellers and sales people to sell the product. Sales promotion is non- current in nature and is for a short period. CONCEPT Sales promotion increases the volume of sales. Sales promotion consists of wide variety of promotional tools designed to stimulate earlier and or stronger market response. It includes tools for consumer promotions. OBJECTIVE OF SALES PROMOTION A) InformingIt is to educate the consumers about the product. The consumers must have some knowledge about the product offered by the producer. Free sample are distributed and telling the consumer about the new product which will work similarly as the old one. B) Persuading – Sales person persuade consumers to buy a product. They develop or reinforce favorable set of attitude and influence their behavior. C) RemindingLeads the firms to reinforce the preciously satisfactory behavior of the customer .It provides suitable knowledge for recollection of the product. Reminding the consumer of the past satisfaction will persuade them to stay with the product. SIGNIFICANCE Sales promotion has been accepted as an effective tool. Sales promotion has been both economical and effective. Personal selling has a limited scope. Sales promotion stimulates the primary demand for the company’s products. It persuades the buyers for the competitor’s product to shift to the product of the company. It helps to develop brand loyalty.

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Consumer promotion (PULL STRATEGY) It includes:1. Sample:—samples are free distribution of a product for the purpose of obtaining consumer acceptance. Door to Door via demonstration or by mail for a new product. • TIDE is an HLL’S detergent product. They distributed samples at an initial Stage of promotions.

2. Coupons: — It offers a discount on new purchases of a product. • HENKO is an HENKEL’S detergent product. They distributed in-pack coupons for future purchases.

3. Money refund offers— It is a grant given to cash purchases. FAIREVER cream had an offer of money return.. 4. Sweepstakes: - It is a type of lucky pick in which winners are selected by draw. 4. Contest: It is a type of contest in which a contestant must use his skill and talent to win the Contest.  write your slogan, complete the sentence in 10 words etc.

5. Contest— Firms may offer contest to attract customers by offering Substantial cash or Merchandise price cuts.  SURF detergent has launched a new ad campaign for kids.i.e ; “paint your sapna ”

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Trade promotion (PUSH STRATEGY) - It includes:It encourages buyers to buy a larger quantity of the product. It is also known as buying allowance because it is an offer of some discount on each item of purchase above a minimum quantity. 1. Free Goods:-are offered to public and dealers after the purchase of certain items. They boost the sales of a commodity by offering some additional commodity free of cost. When retailers buy in bulk they get some goods as free goods 2. Merchandise:-Allowance is offered to compensate dealers for disposing of the Manufacturer’s product. 3. Advertisement allowance: - Compensate dealers for an advertising the product. 4. Sales competitions:-These are arranged or special offers are made on the sale of new product. 5. Push money:-It is offered to purchaser or agents to increase the sale of product.

SALES FORCE PROMOTION 1. Bonus: - Bonus given salesman to increase sales above minimum level. Sales contest is to increase the sales through retailers or sales person. Off-season sales can be motivated by such contest. 2. Contest prizes: - may be cash awards, merchandize prizes, travel and special honors 3.Sales rally: It encourages open participation by retailers and salesman. They are publicly honored at the winning positions. Sales rallies should be designed in such a way as to ensure that every participant has a fair chance of winning the award. Young energetic sales personal are tempted by travel award.

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PROMOTION ADS
• WHISTLE & WIN

The TV commercial for TTK PRESTIGE “WHISTLE & WIN ”.It was an 30 seconds ad on TV in Hindi, Bengali & four south Indian languages .Women runs on a football field and takes the whistle from the football coach and blows it. In the same way a women takes a whistle from the traffic police and blows the whistle and same is repeated for a bus conductor. It was to create in customers mind to create excitement around the brands GOLDEN JUBILEE .The agency wanted to link the promos closely with the brand characteristic as generations have grown up with prestige and it has been strongly linked with safety, trust & durability. Millions of customers across the country have pressure cooker as part of their life routine. Thursday, SEPTEMBER 19, 2002 CATALYST, THE HINDU • THE HOME STORE

THE HOME STORE has announced a “STEAL- A DEAL” promotion for your bed room. Targeted at any one planning to give a new trendy look to their bed room & specifically young couples. The deal entitles the customer a 20 piece bed room wrought iron & glass furniture for RS 14999/-against the original cost of RS 27000/-. BUSINESS STANDARD MUMBAI MONDAY 4 MARCH 2002 • BRITANNIA- BRITANNIA KHAO WORLD CUP JAO

Client’s Brief: Let us do something different that should get an increase of 15% in sales and get people talking. The Promotion: • • • •

Each Britannia wrapper had runs on it. Consumer had to collect 100 runs and visit a Prize Centre. There was also an option of mailing in wrappers to the main centre. Prize Centre checked the wrappers and gave a World Cup book in exchange for 100 runs (From a series of 9 books) 135

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• • • • • •

Consumer scratched the "Scratch off portion" to reveal "Try again" or a prize. Total Prize - 5,11,200 Chances of winning - 1 in 25! If prize was "Checkers" or "Tiger Cashew Badam ", it was given instantly. If prize was a watch, TV, Cricket bat or the World Cup ticket, then the prize coupon was sent to the main centre for verification and dispatch of prize. Began the process of winners' travel abroad.

Trade: Britannia khao, World

Cup Jao Contest

Incentives: 100 people from trade also joined the world cup group based upon: • •

Sales off take during promo. Co-operation during promo

Value additions: • • • •

Press Conference Main Center for prize coordination Helpline in 7 cities Direct activities 1. Bike brigade 2. Youth Brigade 3. Branded cars Building credibility by using the winners in advertising.

The Result: • • • •

17 million redemption 85 crore in sales Started the 'Scratch Card' promo fever. Mind and massive press coverage.

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Samsung's "Phod ke Dekho offer" - Consumer Promotion
Duration:October15-November20th2001 Cities Covered: All India Product Category: CTVs & Home Appliances
Objective: • Optimize and stimulate sales during Festive season • Create excitement around the brand

The Promotion: Gifts, worth Rs. 10 crore, were allocated for consumers during the period of the promotion. The 'Phod ke Dekho' offer had all the excitement packaged in the tamper proof plastic coconut, which was handed over to the customer after the purchase of a Samsung product. The coconut contained two silver coins, one with Goddess Lakshmi and the other with Lord Ganesha and a third coin (which was placed in 1 amongst 10 coconuts) contained the name of the gift, which ranged from Samsung Air conditioners, Frost- free Refrigerators, Plano TVs, Samsung Karisma Washing Machine, Samsung Mobile phones to Braun Hand blenders.

Result: The Company had targeted total sales of Rs. 220 crore and achieved a figure of Rs. 276 crores by selling 2.51 lakh units (CTVs and home appliances).

HLL’S “EK DIN KA RAJA OFFER”
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• • • • • • •

DURATION: - MID MARCH- MAY END (2002). CITIES COVERED: - 6 MAIN CITIES (WHERE 60%OF MARKET EXISTS). OBJECT: - ENHANCE PENETRATION OF BRAND & INCREASE DOMESTIC MARKET SIZE. PROMOTION:RESULT: - IN JUNE 2001 THERE WAS A NEGATIVE PROFIT OF 2.91 CRORES. IN JUNE 2002 THERE WAS AN INCREASE IN PROFIT IT WAS 4.94 CRORES.

“BANO TOONSTAR WITH SCOOBY-DOO & MAX”BY HLL’S
• • • • • • DURATION: - MID MARCH- MAY END (2003). CITY COVERED:CATEGORY: - ICE-CREAM. OBJECT: - STREGTHEN POSITION OF THE PRODUCT. PROMOTION:RESULT:-Awaited

PUBLIC RELATION
Public relations practice is the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organization and its publics. 138

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It is a deliberate, carefully thought –out process. It also requires ongoing activity that is not haphazard. The activity is concerned with initiating, establishing and maintaining a process of mutual understanding. It involves a dialogue where an organization and its various publics seek to listen to each other and understand each other. Public relations practitioners carefully consider how programmes need to begin, and continue in a structured way to the benefit both of their organization and to the ‘publics’ with which organization interacts. Public relations are about reputation- the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you. Public relations practice is the way by which a company looks after reputation with the aim of earning understanding and support and influencing opinion and behaviors. The efforts in selling the company before selling its products and services are known as public relations advertising. Now a days it has become very important for the company to make image in the minds of the customer, consumer. There is close alliance between advertising and public relations as both have the same objective of public favorable impression. The term ‘public relations’ is an expression of public relations opinion. It is the art and science of developing reciprocal understanding and goodwill.” Through this management sets up policies designed to serve both in the company and public’s interests. It is the basis of communication techniques which management employs to achieve good relations with the public and these techniques include publicity, promotion, exploitation and advertising, among others. It is basically “to establish and maintain a mutual understanding between an organization and its publics, to communicate a company’s views, objectives and purposes, while at at the same time monitoring feedback and correcting the publics’ attitude and reaction”. According to the Institute of Public Relations of America, ‘Public relations’ is “the deliberate plan and sustained effort to institute and maintain good relation between a company and its public.

PUBLICS OF THE COMPANY

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising The publics of the company are the financial community, local community, the government, suppliers, stockholders, customers, employees and the press. These relations are two-way. The Press The Employees The Financial Community

The Customers

The Company Proper

The Local Community

The Stockholders

The Government The Suppliers

1. THE PRESS As company is the part and parcel of the community, the press media opens lines of communication with it for fair and honest treatment. It the press that gives fair and equitable coverage in the news given and the golden opportunity to present company view points to its publics. Through publicity and advertising, it projects and corrects company image in the eyes and minds of its publics.

2. THE FINANCIAL COMMUNITY The financial community of the company gives adequate and authentic information about the enterprise with a view to advise the investors on the corporate’s record in terms of its capabilities and performance.

3. THE LOCAL COMMUNITY

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising The community in which a company operates and maintains its plants and offices expects the company to pay its fair share of taxes, provide gainful jobs, support local charities, schools and colleges and participate in community affairs. In return the company expects a good business climate, essential utilities, adequate labour supply and security through full cooperation. • MCDONALD’S, they recruit local people in their restaurant 4. THE GOVERNMENT The three tier composition of the government, like local, state and central, expects the company to respect the laws, and regulations, pay taxes in time, work within the limits set in the public interests and realize its social responsibility. In return, the company can very well expect fair taxation, agreeable laws, rules and regulations and necessary infrastructural facilities and services for its smooth working. • RELIANCE, BIRLA 5. THE SUPPLIERS The suppliers are the parties that supply all the inputs to the company. The suppliers of the company naturally expect fair dealings, attractive margins, better treatment and lasting business relations. In return, the suppliers are ready to deliver the inputs in required quantity and reasonable prices, grant credit facilities. 6. THE STOCKHOLDERS The stockholders expect decent and regular dividends, the growth in the net worth of the company. In return they are ready and willing to provide the risk capital, support at every step. • STOCKHOLDERS OF RELIANCE 7. THE CUSTOMERS The customer expects quality products and services at reasonable rates in sufficient quantities at opportune times. If the company delivers the goods, the customers are ready to buy more goods and services, promote sales and support the company and its policies in the areas of production and marketing. 8. THE EMPLOYEES

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Employees are the partners in the industry and have very close relations with the company. The employees expect from their company fair wages, better working conditions, assured employment, promotional opportunities, long range benefits and participation in the company management. In return, the company is assured of a loyal and stable work-force sound employer-employee relations and improved productivity. EMPLOYEES OF RELIANCE ARE HAPPY

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BUILDING A PERFECT PUBLIC RELATIONS PROGRAMME
It is impossible to gain good pubic relations over a short period of time. A company image is build over a number of years. Therefore, it is a long term time -bound long standing public relations programme. This is maintained by the following six (6) steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Public Relations Audit Correction of Public Relations Weaknesses Setting of Public Relations Objectives Formulation of the Public Relations Programme Carrying out the Programme Determine Programme Effectiveness

1. The Public Relations Audit- It implies human relations between the company and its Publics. It is the task of determining the current opinions of those who come in contact with it. It seeks answers to the basic question- how is the company perceived by its Publics? To get answer to this question there can be a questionnaire. It may consists questions like: Is the company able to deliver the medicines and drugs in terms of required quality, quantity and price? What steps has it taken to arrest air and water pollution? Coca Cola Plant In Kerala Spewing The Harmful Waste 2. Correction of Public Relations Weaknesses- Appraisal reveals the flaws, if any, in the company’s treating the publics. Poor products, inadequate and costly services, unjust policies etc. Such faults, laxities are to be corrected with immediate effect. 3. Setting of Public Objectives-Any activity to be undertaken should have pre-set goals to get the best results. Much depends on the individual company- its resources and philosophy. Objectives can be: To bring about 15% rise in company shares;

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising  To absorb and train 30 technical persons for middle order positions  To keep the company employees satisfied to minimize union activities  Undertaking the construction of a community hall for multipurpose activities  Installation of anti-pollution equipment for preventing air and water pollution; 4. Formulation of the Public Relations Programme- Mere setting attractive objective would not lead to their attainment. Hence, the company must devise the programme that initiates and impels the necessary action. To achieve this public relations programme might use: Publicity releases and institutional advertising to provide significant background information about the company to its financial community and employees- of the company’ growth potentials. Designed booklets or the pamphlets may be given to the employees, stockholders and the other publics giving full information. 5.Carrying out the Programme- To fulfill the objective specification action or set of actions are required.

    

Stockholders can be approached by direct mail or personal contracts. At the time of sending dividend or checks, a brochure may be send also Press conference, plant tours etc Visit to the technical schools , donations Participation in training proramme to win public hearts. Regarding community development plans, give publicity through editorials, feature articles, exhibits and films.

6. Determing Programme EffectivenessAfter some time-interval objectives are measured.  Whether the company has succeeded in raising the stock prices by 15%  Has it been anti-pollution equipment?

OTHER EXAMPLES• Mayfair Banquet Hall- Venue of Sunil Gavaskar son’s Rohan Gavaskar. They invited lot of media and press people to cover the entire marriage.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising • Star Pariwar Award of Star Plus- They have started from this year the awards like best bahu, beti,maa,dewar,pati,nanad,bahan etc awards to involve viewers emotionally. In this the viewers has to cast his vote and send to the Star Plus. Even for giving awards, Star Plus calling the viewers on the stage to hand over the award to the winner.

TOOLS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
1. 2. 3. 4. Press Media Visits and Tours Audio-visuals Treatment Extended

Public relations has a job of work to do
If a company has a good reputation the evidence is that people are more likely to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. try its new products; buy its shares; believe its advertising; want to work for it; do business with it when all other things are equal; support it in difficult times; give it higher financial value.

Media Research
It is an useful tactical tool to know about the medium which is best for the target consumer. Through this company get the information that which is the best possible medium available for him to reach the target audience within the available budget. It gives the company the important data for knowing the media habits of the consumers. Following are the media tools: Media: Medium: Media Vehicle: Media: Medium: Media Vehicle: Print Newspaper Times of India TV Star Plus “Kahani Ghar Ghar Ki” 145

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Factors to Consider
Reach: Number of households or individuals reached by a given medium. % of total households or individual in the target market. The target audience may be reached by 2 media news Paper and TV TV For main ad, Radio for brand recall Frequency: Average number of times different households or individuals are reached by a medium in a given period of time. Coverage: How much target audience, the medium cover. Readership or Viewership Full audience of those media. Size of Readership (Print), Size of Viewership National Readership Survey (NRS) Sample Size: 2,13,000 individual Dailies: 25 Magazine: 289 Indian Readership Survey The sample is Urban-centric Village Sample: 30% Excluding - Jammu& Kashmir, Goa, A&N

National Readership Survey:
Here is a brief background of national readership survey: The first national readership survey (NRS) came as fresh breath in 1970. It was conducted by ORG and was a major effort of assessing press reading habits in India. The second NRS was conducted by IMRB and ORG jointly in 1978, and covered media measurement of press, radio, cinema, and TV in its scope. The survey restricted itself to urban India, considering the level of literacy in rural India. The third NRS came relatively quickly in 1983. The fourth NRS was getting delayed, ORG conducted NRS in 1989. It was published jointly by IMRB and MARG in 1991.Whereas fifth NRS is conducted by MARG, MODE, IMRB, and MRAS. This survey was conducted in 1994.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising The National Readership Study is commissioned with the objective to provide the marketing and advertising industry with accurate, reliable and credible data for media planning & marketing. Apart from the readership of various publications, the NRS also covers information on basic demographics, life-style, product ownership / usage, exposure and other detailed information of different media (Press, TV, Radio, Cinema and Internet). The National Readership Study defines its target population as consumers The NRS in India is one of the largest in the world, with a reporting sample size of over 2, 13,000 individuals to track media exposure and changing consumer trends in both urban and rural India. The study covers 514 publications (25 dailies and 289 magazines). A useful guide for media analysts and marketing strategists, the NRS is conducted annually by three research agencies - the Indian Market Research Bureau (IMRB), TNS Mode and AC Nielsen. It is one of two readership surveys conducted in India.

* * * * * *

Readership of publications – Dailies and Magazines by: Language of publications; Periodicity Cumulative reach of publications Duplication and Sole readership Place of reading and Source of copy Press readership frequency

THE UNIVERSE
The universe of the NRS 2002 is defined as the resident population of India aged 15 years and above.

The NRS 2002 has covered entire Urban and Rural India excluding: * All off-shore territories (Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep ) * Jammu and Kashmir * The readership figures for Goa based publications have not been reported since in round 3 fieldwork was not done in Goa.

* The states of Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh and Himachal Pradesh have been constituted as a group.

The new states of Uttaranchal, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh are not reported separately but are constituents of the original states.

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SAMPLE DESIGN
A stratified multi-stage sampling procedure is used for the survey. Broadly there are three levels of stratification:

i. ii. iii.

Socio-Cultural Regions (SCRs) Town / Village class for Urban and Rural sampling respectively Random selection of respondents within a town / village.

SOCIO-CULTURAL REGIONS (SCRs)
India has been primarily divided in 58 SCRs. However, some of the larger SCRs are divided into two regions to ensure that each SCR used for town / village selection is not so large as to make the number of towns selected from it too small, and that no SCR is spread across two states. This resulted in a total of 90 distinct regions. The NRS 2002 uses these 90 regions as the primary stratum of sampling.

SELECTION OF FIELDWORK CENTRES i. ii. iii. All 300 towns with a population of over 1 lakh are purposively included in the survey. In the urban strata of less than 1 lakh population, towns that are publication centres, or are district headquarters, are purposively taken as fieldwork centres. The other towns, i.e. those below 1 lakh population and non-publications centres / non-district headquarters, are selected randomly within each SCR.

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MEASUREMENT OF READERSHIP
Readership of publications is traditionally ascertained using the Masthead Method. This method, which has been used in successive National Readership Surveys, uses a Masthead Booklet to aid respondents’ recall of exposure to various publications. The booklet contains black - and - white photographic reproductions of mastheads of newspapers and magazines covered in the survey. The Average Issue Readership (A.I.R.) of a publication is estimated by determining the number who has read an issue within a specified time interval, which is equal to the publishing interval of the publication. This is known as the Recent Reading Method. Thus, for a daily, the estimated number of readers is equal to the number that has looked at any issue of that daily ‘yesterday’. Similarly, the time interval for a weekly publication is the ‘last 7 days’; for a fortnightly publication it is the ‘last 15 days’ while, for a monthly publication it is the ‘last 30 days’. In the NRS 2002, the estimation of ‘average-issue readership’ for both Urban and Rural India is based on the Recent Reading Method. However, there is evidence that distribution of publications in some villages is infrequent and irregular. If this is so, then the Recent Reading Model needs to be reviewed for assessing A.I.R. in rural markets.

INDIAN READERSHIP SURVEY: The other is the Indian readership survey. The sample is urban- centric, with only 30 percent of it is based on people living in villages. Jummu and Kashmir, Goa and offshore territories (Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep) are excluded. The difference between IRS and NRS is discussed in the latter part on the project. TAM
Television Audience Measurement Media Research (TAM India), a 50:50 joint venture between Nielsen Media Research (NMR)/AC Nielsen and Kantar Media Research (KMR) / IMRB, is planning to launch a Television Innovation Monitor (TIM).

TAM India is already providing the Press Innovation Monitor (PIM) to ad agencies and corporates.
TAM India has compiled exhaustive information on the various options available for 'creating innovations on print' on a single CD. The CD provides information (annual basis) on 'innovations' in nearly 700 Indian publications; and is a one-stop shop available to media planners and buyers.

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Metering people's television viewing

With the merging of INTAM and TAM, the end of the problems plaguing television audience measurement in the country is in sight - or so many practitioners of advertising, marketing and media believe. The overwhelming faith placed on the peoplemeter system is heartening on the one hand, frightening on the other. Peoplemeters made a formal entry in the country in early 1995 after almost a decade of debate, controversy and testing. Two systems were available - through IMRB and Marg. Since then, the organizations offering these systems have gone through many avatars; the basic system has remained relatively the same. Of course, coverage for both systems went up dramatically - geographically as well as in terms of the channels covered. While most users of peoplemeters were confused about the relative merits of the different systems, everyone believed that peoplemeters are the most accurate system of measuring TV audiences. This article discusses some of the issues involving peoplemeter systems in general, without going into a detailed analysis of the proposed merged system. Peoplemeters are conventionally described as "measuring minute by minute audiences viewing TV". This raises issues of the meaning of 'viewing', the definition of a minute audience and the type of audiences to be measured. It involves reviewing operations in terms of the ability to monitor the reception hardware; achieving representative samples; and data requirements by type of measurement, type of station and audience sub-groups. Metering people's television viewing Domestic reception: Given the nature of electronic developments, problems will appear before solutions. The solution will cost money in development, will raise the cost of the meter and shorten the life of the previous meters. So any system selected must not only tackle current complexities, but also be economically adjustable to handle future developments. Current complexities include effectively monitoring, second by second, the ever increasing number of channels; being able to provide estimates of live audience and total audience (live plus delayed viewing through VCR recordings); being able to recognise and monitor stations which the cable operator keeps switching; being able to recognise and monitor stations which the cable operator rotates on a single channel; and taking into account settop converters. The future complexities involve accommodating interactive and digital television; accounting for the anticipated growth of direct broadcasting systems and convergence.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Much of the development in electronics might not be accommodated in current peoplemeters. The limitations must be recognised and its implications studied. In other words, the costs of the peoplemeter system recommended and the number of years of amortisation; and experimental work on emerging technologies and their importance in aggregate viewing habits, have to be factored in. Extra domestic reception: People watch TV not only at home, but also in other people's homes, bars, hotels and elsewhere on portable sets. Peoplemeters have to account for viewing in other people's homes by measuring the viewing of visitors in the peoplemeter panel homes. Future generations of TV sets may offer much more convenient portability. This could massively increase viewing on the move and in open air. Out-of-home viewing may no longer be ignored. Peoplemeters will then need an additional form of data entry that would introduce a diary style of data in broader time units. Alternatively, out-of-home viewing would have to be measured separately and subsequently integrated with the meter data. While this is not prevalent in India at this stage, technology developments will have to be monitored. Current measurement systems: Current peoplemeter or TV meters generally operate in one of the following ways. They monitor each item of the equipment involved, like the TV, satellite receiver or cable box; in each case the signal is traced back to its source. Or, they duplicate the reception capabilities of the panel member's TV set and take over control of what is being displayed. This technique is sometimes referred to as 'tuning meter'. A recommendation on the appropriate system is a must, taking into account the realities of transmission in different parts of the country; and the dire imperative of not changing the panel member's viewing patterns in any way. The respondent tasks The case of whether a technique is valid lies in the willingness and ability of the respondents to carry out the task. The human element in peoplemeters is the requirement to press the button when viewing begins or is stopped. Definition of viewing: What is viewing? Conventions vary from 'in room' to 'in room and able to watch' to 'in room and watching'. The main objective of these is the first ('in room'); although in some situations the concept of 'the room' may not be straightforward. It is also likely that instructions to the respondents are largely academic, in that respondents will establish their own routine and concept for at-home viewing.

Accuracy of performance: Coincidental surveys on experimental show that few people who had to leave the room when viewing to answer the phone pressed their buttons before doing

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising so. Respondents described a frame of reference that made them record a planned brief or expected lengthy absences but did not see brief of unexpected lengthy absences as relevant to record. Even when the importance of recording brief absences was explained, they could not see how they could possibly do this every time. Analysis conventions and time units Peoplemeters can record as accurately as a clock, subject to mechanical constraints of pressing buttons and switching channels with remote controls, within a few seconds. To limit the amount of data to be stored, various conventions are adopted. Also, there are rules governing 'persistence' and attribution. Persistence relates to how long the set has to be in a particular state to register. A further set of rules applies to the calculation of audiences for advertisements. These can range across ratings, based upon the spot duration, minute, a commercial break and a five-minute span. The choice of definition does make a difference. Some experimental work may need to be done before adopting appropriate conventions for India. Measuring audience reaction Peoplemeters can indicate to respondents that they should give appreciation ratings for a programme and record the answer.. The peoplemeter principle can be extended to include more extensive interaction with the respondent. More lengthy questions can be put forth by the meter for push button response or responses to paper questionnaires recorded. The merits of such a system, along with cost implications, need to be assessed. Data requirements While broadcasters need programme ratings within which the exact switching times are of interest, it is advertising that sets the most stringent data requirements. Types of data required across the industry are: station reach, station total viewing and share, minute by minute ratings, programme ratings and commercial ratings; continuous analysis over weeks giving reach, frequency and GRPs for advertising schedules and special analysis for programmes. The last word As is evident, peoplemeters are not necessarily the most accurate method of measuring TV audiences. Trade-offs between cost and accuracy must find general industry acceptance. Also, all the issues involved must be debated before settling on a system. Only in such a situation will an evaluation of what is gained and lost be possible. And ultimately, it is the users who must decide upon such issues.

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NRS: • • • IRS: • • • It takes into consideration urban population. It recently used 2000 census as its sample. It has fair representation because of recent data NRS takes into consideration urban and rural population. It excludes Jammu and Kashmir, off-shore territories (Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshwadeep islands, Goa. It recently used 1991 census as its sample.

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INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON ADVERTIMENT PLANNING
Planning is a pre-requisite of any management activity. It is a blue print for future action. Plans appropriately formulated guide the action successfully. The objectives should be set after a thorough analysis of opportunities and the limitations of advertising. Effective actions and strategy are formulated to attain the targets of advertising. Planning decides the measurement standards to be used to judge the effectiveness of the performance of advertising. Marketing planners generally formulate advertising plans. Advertisers formulate suitable plans for their principals. Research techniques are used to analyze several opportunities available to the advertisers and the threats that might be posed. An analysis of the environment is the first step in advertising planning. The environment may be internal or external. Internal and external factors are analyzed by research. The marketing research has been a very useful toll in environment analysis.
An organizations operating environment can be analyzed by looking at: • •

External forces (those factors that an organization has no control over), Internal forces (factors that an organization has direct control over)

INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT a) Product: The product is an essential ingredient of advertising planning. Superior products also need advertising to make the target population aware of the qualities and attributes of the product. Consumers are interested in the product which satisfies their want. Usage and brand loyalty, and the attitudes and preferences of consumers are also analyzed with a view to advertising to product’s attributes. The development and planning of the product on the basis of consumer characteristics are analyzed and modified to attain marketing objectives. The product features, newness, acceptability and life are evaluated to formulate suitable plans. The packaging is also a part of a product policy which bears directly on advertising. Packaging stimulates self selection and self realization. The inferior products are extensively sold because of appropriate packaging; the physical appearance exerts greater influence than product quality in the short period. If people appreciate the attributes of the product, its life cycle is increased. If the quality is inferior, consumers may discard the product. Therefore, the packaging should be attractive. If it mentions the method of use, its utility increases. Many new products are wrapped in attractive packages.

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TETRA PACK FOR FROOTI and COOKING OIL

b) Price: The fixing of the price of a product is a complex process. Product quality, price and consumer behavior are the interacting forces. They are considered when preparing advertising plans. The price policy affects several decisions: the media, the amount, gross profit, the cost of advertising, etc. are influenced by the price of the product. Higher price brands are consistently advertise because they generate higher income and attract the educated and upper class sections of the population LUX INTERNATIONAL SOAP and DOVE SOAP c) Place: Distribution is an internal factor which includes channels of distributions. It involves manufactures, wholesalers, retailers and consumers. The retailers are assisted in achieving sales by the quality of the product and by the pricing and advertising policy. If the product is intensively and extensively advertised, retailers are induced to achieve higher sales. On the other hand, some manufacture lay greater emphasis on retailing than on advertising. The grant of a higher commission to retailers motivates them to sell the product. Manufactures in many cases advertise the names of the retailers and places where they operate. By attaching a particular brand of the product with the retailer’s name, the image of brand as well as the retailer is enhanced.
ADVERTISEMENT OF FORD CAR

d) Promotion: It includes personal selling and sales promotion. Advertising planning is governed by promotional activities. If personal selling is given greater importance, advertising is not extensive. Heavily advertised products generally involve less personal selling and sales promotion. The promotion mix depends on the nature of the product, the attitude of the management and other components of marketing. Personal selling is a dominant tool in the sales of industrial products. Quality products are sold generally by personal sales efforts. Sales promotion supplements advertising and personal selling. Sales promotion includes premium, contest, coupon etc.

EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT The external environment of an organization can be analyzed by conducting a P.E.S.T analysis. This is a simple analysis of an organization Political, Economical Social and Technological environment.

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Political Political factors can have a direct impact on the way business operates. Decisions made by government affect our every day lives and can come in the form of policy or legislation. The government’s introduction of a statutory minimum wage affects all businesses, as do consumer and health and safety laws and so on. Marketing decisions are strongly affected by developments in the political and legal environment. This environment is composed of laws, government agencies, and pressure groups that influence and limit various organizations and individuals. Sometimes these laws also create new opportunities for business. “Manikchand and Kingfisher” Manikchand is a specialized brand for gutkha . The famous advertisement which was shown on television wherein gokulashtami scene was shown and the advertisement showed that people who ate this “manikchand” were able to climb up and successfully hit the matka. But now this product is legally banned. Nobody is permitted to sell gutkha. Therefore, this has directly hampered the advertising planning. Now this Manikchand company has come up with Manikchand mineral water. The strategy behind this was only to retain the brand image of Manikchand in the target customers mind. Similar is the case with “Kingfisher”. When we say kingfisher the first thing which comes in mind is “Beer”. But this product is also legally banned. The kingfisher company has come up with the mineral water to retain the image of kingfisher in the target customers mind. Therefore, political or legal environment has directly or indirectly shown its influence on advertising planning. Social/Cultural Within society forces such as family, friends and media affect our attitude, interest and opinions. These forces shape who we are as people and the way we behave and what we ultimately purchase. For example - within the UK peoples attitudes are changing towards their diet and health. As a result the UK is seeing an increase in the number of people joining fitness clubs and a massive growth for the demand of organic food. On the other end of the spectrum the UK is worried about the lack of exercise its youngster are obtaining. These ‘fast food games console’ children are more likely to experience health problems in their future because of the lifestyle they are living now. Population changes also have a direct impact on all organizations. Changes in the structure of a population will affect the supply and demand of goods and services within an economy. As society changes, as behaviors change organizations must be able to offer products and services that aim to complement and benefit people’s lifestyle and behavior. “Close-up” Toothpaste The recent TV commercial for toothpaste brand Close-up is perhaps one of the more creative pieces of communication to have emerged from Hindustan Lever (HLL) lately. Yet, the Information and Broadcasting (I&B) ministry believes that the ad is in bad taste. The result is that the “offensive”

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ad has been yanked off both DD and other C&S channels with immediate effect. The commercial in question shows a prisoner who is about to be executed asking his lady jailor for a kiss… as his ‘last wish’. The honor-bound lady agrees, paving the way for a hearty smooch session. The obvious takeout for the consumer is the prisoner’s Close-up-brushed breath – which makes him confident enough to ask for a kiss. And get a rousing one, at that. Of course, this takeout seems to have been totally lost on the I&B ministry, with Minister Sushma Swaraj terming the ad “quite vulgar”. Ms Swaraj’s objection appears to stem from the fact that a uniformed officer is kissing a prisoner. Gosh! One look at the ad and you know it’s not an Indian officer in the first place. In fact, the entire film is very un-Indian, very spaghetti Western. And what about all those Bollywood movie songs where uniformed army officers cavort with wet saris in the rain?

Technological Changes in technology are changing the way business operates. The Internet is having a profound impact on the marketing mix strategy of organizations. Consumers can now shop 24 hours a day comfortably from their homes. The challenge these organization faces is to ensure that they can deliver on their promise. Those businesses, which are slow to react, will fall at the first few hurdles. This technological revolution means a faster exchange of information beneficial for businesses as they can react quickly to changes within their operating environment. There is renewed interest by many governments to encourage investment in research and development and develop technology that will give their country the competitive edge. The pace of technological change is so fast that in the computer industry the average life of a computer chip is approximately 6 months. In the name of progression technology will continue to evolve organizations that continue to ignore this will face extinction.

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ADVERTISING ON INTERNET AND ADVERTISEMENTS OF NGO’S
ADVERTISING ON INTERNET
INTRODUCTION  The chambers twentieth century dictionary defines advertising as; To draw attention to; to give public the information about the merits claimed for.  Advertising exists for a very simple purpose to increase the number of sales of the advertised product by supporting an established, articulated marketing program.  Advantages of ad on net:• Web design, • Credit card transaction capabilities, • Good for B2B, • Integrated email, etc.  Disadvantages of ad on the net:• Expensive, • As on date, not so popular in India, • Not credible.

TYPES OF ADS
 1) 2) 3) 4) The different types of advertising on the internet are; Banner advertising Direct E-Mailers Screen savers Push broadcasting

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1)BANNER ADVERTISING:
 It’s a small graphics link, sometimes called a hot link, placed on a web page.  The banner is linked to the advertisers’ web page, so that clicking on it transports the browser into the advertisers’ lair.  The banner advertisement was first introduced on the pages of a web published magazine-Hot Wired (Oct 1994)  Some surveys have rated the number of people who look at the banner advertisement as high as 45%.  A banner ad can be placed anywhere on a web page and can be any one of mixture of sizes and shapes.

Banner payment models:
 The earliest of the ad payment model was based on a simple, flat rate fee with little or no association between the actual, or even the expected no of visitors to the site and the cost.  Also, advertising rates were calculated on the number of web users assessing the web page holding the banner.  By comparison to the more traditional media, the problems with this method of payment were;  It is a very expensive form of advertising.  Magazine and other ad is priced on the basis of impressions, purely and simply because this is the best that can be achieved in that medium.  In the web, however, impressions are not the best for two reasons; 1 Impressions are in fact difficult to assess precisely, and 2 A more precise measure is actually available--the click through.

Click Throughs:
 In this model, the advertisers pay to the publishers based on the clicks on the particular banner.  For the advertisers, this means that they are paying by results.  For the publishers, they are likely to receive lower ad revenues and they are being rewarded on the web user activity over which they have no control.

Click-through rates:

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising  The number of Web browsers who visit a Web page and subsequently click on the advertiser’s banner is called “click-through rates”.

E.g. Current Statistics of a Site: Statistics
Hits Entire Site (Successful) Average Per Day Home Page Page Views Page Views (Impressions) Average Per Day Document Views Visitor Sessions Average Per Day Average Visitor Session Length International Visitor Sessions Visitor Sessions of Unknown Origin Visitors Visitor Sessions from United States Unique Visitors Visitors Who Visited Once Visitors Who Visited More Than Once

1st Quarter, 2003
2,889,656 32,107 160,786 363,894 2,822 254,048 157,594 1,751 00:07:04 1.84% 22.56% 75.58% 45,398 36,869 8,529

Visitor Sessions

Banner Location:
 An obvious impact on the advertisement of any advertisement – be it a Web banner or a roadside poster is “Its location”.  On the Web, there are 2 aspects to this question;  On which pages is the banner placed?  Where on the page is it?

a) Choosing a page:
 The actual page on which the banner is placed is quite obviously going to be one of the major determining factors for how successful it is going to be.  A wellfocused web page, i.e. one that is attracting the audience appropriate for the ad, is clearly worth buying, even at very high ad rates.  Unless the prospects see the banner, they are certainly not going to click on it. Received wisdom, therefore, is that in the web pages of search engines, ‘deeper’ pages are worth more than ‘higher’ pages, i.e. the web users specifies ever more precise search requirements, the web pages reflect an ever more improved reflection of their interests and can therefore be expected to be more successful. Search engines therefore

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b) Banner positioning:
 As well as web sites and pages, the position of the banner on the page itself is also important.  A web page need not necessarily fit comfortably into a single screenful -and in fact in many cases pages run to several screenfuls.  To read the whole page, users must therefore ‘page down’ through the text. Research has found a mark difference of click through rates for banners placed in the first screenful versus those in subsequent screens.  This observation has interesting implication for the banner placement in many online publications, most particularly for newspapers. in traditional media, the majority of broadsheets carry almost no front page advertising, and what they do carry is well away from the master head itself.  Many of the quality broadsheets, e.g. carry a front page adverts only at the very bottom right or left hand sides of the sheets.  The success rates for web banners imply that this placement is clearly not appropriate for online newspapers and in fact, that the banner ad should be granted equal prominence with the master head itself. Because the reader know the name of the newspaper already; attention to the sponsors ad is perhaps more important.

 Following are the types of the advertise under the head of banner advertising; A) Top banner: Spread across the top of the main page, this ad has the highest visibility. People immediately see it when they visit the site. They literally can't miss it. B) Floating banner: This ad "floats" prominently among each day's news items. Its variable position attracts the eye. C) Side ad: This ad is visible on each page of the site—the main page and the much-visited links pages. D) Ticker ad: The ad keeps on scrolling across the page where it is placed. This gives dynamism to the message to be conveyed. The ticker can have hot link on it clicking on which takes the surfer to the site of the product whose advertise is given.

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2) DIRECT E-MAILERS:
 The most interactive and self-focused choice is direct e-mail.  This method of advertising is rapidly proving to be one of the most successful methods of advertising on, or off, the Internet and is claimed to have phenomenally successful response rates.  This is hard to verify as the companies operating these schemes closely guard the evidence supporting the success rates claimed.  There is no doubt though that many of the companies pioneering this style of ‘push’ advertising have very large database that they regularly mail and that their target audiences are well profiled at the time they subscribe or opt in to the service.

3) SCREEN SAVERS:
 By far the most popular of competition devices in the home and in the office is the near universal PC, most usually running one or other of Microsoft windows operating system.  A feature of PC obvious to any user is that an ideal monitor almost inevitably begins to display a screensaver image.  There are a wide variety of these: simulation of stars flowing past a speeding spaceship; bouncing balls, rapidly spinning shapes etc.  The screensaver displays a long sequence of images along with the advertisements music. It acts exactly like a TV Style commercial break.

4) PUSH BROADCASTING:
 Towards the end of 1996, a wholly novel from of web dissemination became available: ‘push’ broadcasting.  In the normal operation of the web, users select and download content themselves: i.e. they ‘opt in’. Their choice of material is entirely their own.  Many users, however, visit web sites and fill out an update from, providing an email address so that they can be regularly informed of any updates to the sites and can then revisit it.  Others are frequent visitors to online newspapers or other news publications, browsing not the complete set of pages, but only those of relevance to their interests.  Several web-media producers have recognized the importance of this phenomenon that users like to select their own choice of material – particularly news – but to be informed as often as possible about changes and updates to the material.  The notion of ‘push’ broadcasting was formed, with organization such as PointCast showing the way by providing a wide variety of information ‘channels’ for users to select.

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 The way such systems work is ingenious. An Internet-connected PC is periodically loaded with updated information from the PointCast (Entry Point) server. This is not, strictly speaking, a ‘push’ technology, but rather a pre-programmed and regular ‘pull’ from the PointCast client running in the background on the PC. When the PC stands idle, instead of a screensaver operating, the PointCast client runs, displaying constantly updated and timely information. For online merchants, Entry Point can customize a program to include tenancy, advertising and promotional elements.

ADVERTISING RATES
 Advertising rates depends on following factors: • Pixal Space required • Populrity of the site • Click throughs of the site • Banner position • Number of times the ad is appearing on the banner. Most popular websites www.bazee.com www.yahoomail.com www.google.com

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ADVERTISING FOR NGOs
INTRODUCTION
 Non – Governmental Organisations (NGO’s) are the non – profit organizations devoted to the public services.  They create awareness among the people and help them on social issues like child labour, literacy, health and family welfare, diseases like aids; cancer etc.  Some of the NGOs working in India are; • Cancer Patients Aid Association (CPAA) • National Association for Blinds (NAB) • Children Relief and You (CRY), etc. • Salaam Bombay • Rotary International • Sambhavana Trust • Indian Cancer Society  The general objective of an NGO can be any one of the following; • Creating awareness among the people about the social issues, • Persuading people for donation (Cash and Non – cash) to help the social cause, e.g. Gujrat Earthquake Relief • Persuading peoples to actively participate in the social service • Raising funds for social service by providing employment to the people, e.g. CRY Greetings and Calendars  The ad agency deal with both the accounts (Commercial and NGOs) in the same professional way as far as production procedure is concern.  The only difference is in the billing – ad agency does not charge their agency commission to NGOs, which otherwise is almost 15 %. They charge only the production cost. TYPES OF ADVERTISING FOR NGOs The main thrust of the NGO advertising is on ; • Use of Non – traditional media to attract attention, e.g. Puppetry, Road shows, etc. • Celebrity endorsement to gain acceptance of the people • Seasonal promotional activities for consistent awareness efforts, e.g. Leaflets, Brochures, Carry outs, etc. • Use of teasers for arousing curiosity, Balbir Paasha ad. • Billboards and Huge banners • Displaying relevant fact to educate people • Use of cultures, traditions and events, e.g. Woman’s Day, World Health Day, etc.

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Leaflets :
POPULATION SERVICES INTERNATIONAL (PSI) :

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BILLBOARD :
SALAAM BOMBAY BILLBOARD :

POLIO PREVENTION BILLBOARD :

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CREATIVE AWARENESS ADS:

Subhead: Sir salamat to pagri pachaas AGENCY: Mudra

Indian Cancer Society

Bodycopy: After you drink, don't drive. AGENCY: Saatchi & Saatchi

USE OF EVENTS FOR ADVERTISING:

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Headline: Subhead: First her clothes began dissolving. Soon even her breasts melted.
Bodycopy: It happened one balmy april afternoon in Lahore. after having suffered physical abuse from her husband for five long days, fakhra had returned to her mother's home to rest her wounds. that afternoon, she was roused from her sleep by her husband. he pushed her head and poured a liquid on her face. unaware, fakhra assumed that he was forcing her to drink something. the fact was that he had just poured hydrochloric acid on her face. as she wiped her eye, she observed her husband run. she followed him only to see her clothes dissolve. soon, she was naked. within seconds, the acid burnt the hair off fakhra's head, fused her lips, blinded one eye, obliterated her left ear and melted her breasts. the choice of hydrochloric acid was indeed a smart one. for starters, it is very cheap. more significantly. surviving an acid attack is any day more gruesome than dying in one. if you survive an acid attack, you die every day for the rest of your life. indeed, violence at home is truly universal. according to world bank at least 20% of women have been physically or sexually assualted. official reports in the u.s. say a woman is battered every 15 seconds and 700,000 are raped each year. in india more than 48% of married women reported being kicked, slapped or sexually abused for reasons such as their husbands' dissatisfaction with their cooking or cleaning, jealousy or other motives.

Baseline: happy women's day. AGENCY: Equus

Advertise for Persuasion:
Bodycopy: Quit smoking. Call +91 44 2235 0131 for a healthier future. A Mahesh Memorial Trust Initiative AGENCY: 1pointsize

Celebrity Endorsement:

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Celebrity: Jagjit Singh Subhead: I quit AGENCY: Ogilvy & Mather

Celebrity: Vivek Oberai Subhead: I quit AGENCY: Ogilvy & Mather

Display of Facts:

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Bodycopy: Nature can destroy human lives. But not the human spirit. Help life rise out of the debris. AGENCY: Ushak Kaal

ADVERTISING AGENCIES: CURRENT SCENARIO
 The Government of India has opened up the entertainment sector and has accorded it industry status..  100% foreign direct investments are possible in almost all areas of this sector except print media and DTH broadcasting. This has resulted in an increased interest among large corporate houses to invest in this sector.  Leading chambers of commerce such as the FICCI and CII have identified this sector as a fast-growth sector and have drawn up strategic plans to facilitate its growth and development.  In addition, the Indian film, music and TV industry are actively attempting to strengthen and expand their overseas markets. All these are creating new opportunities for creative and business collaborations.  Estimated to grow at 12%,  Ad-spends, mostly in the FMCG sector- the total media expenditure in 2002 was £1.27 bn,  900 accredited agencies with the top 10% influencing and probably controlling 80% of the total ad spend; Print media (50%) TV (30%), Outdoor (16%) Radio (2%) Internet (2%)

ACHIEVEMENTS OF INDIAN ADS IN CANNES FESTIVAL 2002

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising 1 . Cancer Patients Aid Association O&M 3 (1 Gold, 2 silver) 2. Coca cola for print ad McCann 1 (Gold) 3. Business world for direct marketing O&M 1 (Gold) 4. Hutch for direct marketing O&M 1 (Bronze) 5. Public service Leo Burnett 2 (Finalist for TV ads) 6. Birla sun life Concept 1 (Finalist for TV ads)

WHO’S WHO IN TOP AGENCIES
O & M India Ltd. 1928 Miles Young - Chairman (Asia-Pacific) Rajat Kapoor replaced by three; John Goodman (CEO) Piyush Pandey (Executive Chairman) N S Rane (COO) Mike Khanna (Chairman). R Balakrishnan (National Creative Director) Arvind Sharma (Chairman & CEO) Prasoon Joshi (National Creative Director) Syeda Zmam (Creative Director) Bedi (Ceative director) Sam Balsara (CMD)

J W T (HTA) LOWE (LINTAS) Leo Burnett McCann Erickson Contract Advt. REDIFFUSION DY&R Madison Advt.

1929 1939 -----------

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THE PROCESS OF ADVERTISING AGENCY

 When the client comes in, it deals with the strategic dept, where the strategy of the product is shared with the ad agency. This includes the discussion about the budget also.  Once the objective of the ad is clear it is forwarded to planning and services department. Here they decide on which kind of media, what kind of ad etc. and make a blue print of the project.  Then creative dept works on the idea, develops 4-5 ideas and present in front of the client (rough draft). The client decides on 1 / 2 and gives approval for film making.  Then film dept works out on the production of ad; simultaneously media dept works on schedule.  Under media again there are two heads one is planning and other is operational.  The media dept. gives suggestion about which slot to choose on which channel at what time depending upon the product and target people.  For the ads on internet there is a different dept. called as INTERACTIVE DEPT.  The ratio of expenses involved in media and production is 5 : 1.  It takes almost 2 – 3 weeks to prepare the ad after execution of the idea.  Agency commission is between 15 to 20 %.  Big clients pay on retainship basiis i.e. on monthly basis.

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MILESTONES OF THE INDIAN INDUSTRY
1980

 - Mudra Communications Ltd. Was set up.  - name of 'Charms'.  - Network, associate of UTV, pioneers cable television in India.  - television turned to colour transmission.  - Bombay Dyeing becomes the first colour TV ad.  - 13th Asian Advertising Congress in New Delhi.  - Media planning gets a boost.  - Maggi Noodles launched to become an overnight success.  - Canco Advertising Pvt. Ltd. Founded.  - come alive.
The biggest milestone in television was the Asiad '82 when King-sized Virginia filter cigarette enters market with brand

1981 1982

1983

Manohar Shyam Joshi's Hum Log makes commercial television Mudra sponsors first commercial telecast of a major sporting Hum Log, Doordarshan's first soap opera in the colour Viewers still remember the sponsor (Vicco) of Yeh Jo Hai

 - event with the India-West Indies series.
1984

 - era is born.

1985 198586 1986

 - Zindagi!  - Mudra makes India's first telefilm, Janam.  - Indian market.

915 new brands of products and services appearing on the Sananda is born on July 31. The Bengali magazine stupefies

 - India by selling 75,000 copies within three hours of appearing 

1988 1989 1990

  - AAAI's Premnarayan Award instituted.
 -

on the newsstands. Mudra Communications creates India's first folk-history - TV serial Buniyaad. Shown on DD, it becomes the first of the mega soaps. - Price quality positioning of Nirma detergent cakes boost sales. Advertising Club Bombay begins a biennial seminar called 'Advertising that Works'. - Advertising & Marketing (A&M) magazine launched


1991 1992

1993

-Marks the beginning of new medium Internet. Agencies open new media shops; go virtual with websites and  Internet advertising.  -Brand Equity (magazine) of The Economic Times is born. First India-targetted satellite channel, Zee TV starts  - broadcast. Spectrum, publisher of A&M, constitutes its own award  - known as 'A&M Awards'. Scribes and media planners credit The Bold And The  - Beautiful serial on STAR Plus channel as a soap that started the cultural invasion. India's only advertising school, MICA (Mudra Institute of  - Communications Ahmedabad), is born.

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1996 Tara on Zee TV becomes India's first female-centric

1995

Country's first brand consulting firm, SABRE (Strategic

 

1997

          

The ad fraternity hits big time for the first time by bagging - three awards at the 43rd International Advertising Festival, Cannes. Sun TV becomes the first regional TV channel to go live 24 hours a day on all days of the week. Media boom with the growth of cable and satellite; print - medium sees an increase in titles, especially in specialised areas. Government turns towards professional advertising in the - private sector for its VDIS campaigns. - Advertising on the Internet gains popularity. Equitor Consulting becomes the only independent brand - consultancy company in the country. - Several exercises in changing corporate identity. For the first time ever, Indians stand the chance of winning - the $ 1- million booty being offered by Gillette as part of its Football World Cup promo 1998. - Events assume important role in marketing mix.

1998 1999 2000

- Reinventing of cinema -advertising through cinema begins. - Lintas becomes Ammirati Puri Lintas (APL). - B2B site agencyfaqs.com launched on September 28, 1999. - The Advertising Club Bombay announces the AdWorks Trophy
Mudra launches magindia.com - India's first advertising and Lintas merges with Lowe Group to become Lowe Lintas and bigideasunlimited.com - a portal offering free and fee ideas Game shows like Kaun Banega Crorepati become a rage; Kyunki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi marks the return of French advertising major Publicis acquires Maadhyam Bharti's Rs 2.75-crore corporate TV commercial, where a

 - marketing gallery.  - Partners (LLP).

 - for money launched by Alyque Padamsee and Sam Mathews.  - media buying.

 - family- oriented soap on TV.

 - Trikaya Grey becomes Grey Worldwide.

 - baby girl is born in a football stadium, becomes the most
2002 expensive campaign of the year. Lowe Lintas & Partners rechristened Lowe Worldwide For the first time in the history of HTA, a new post of - president is created. Kamal Oberoi is appointed as the first president of HTA.

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SURF
1. BUSINESS BACKGROUND Surf, the first detergent powder of India, has been synonymous with superlative washing results. Till today, it is readily accepted by most housewives that surface the best washing powder. Two important ‘event’ change the consumer position significantly in early 80’s. First, the emergence of cheap washing powder offering an acceptable but not superlative whiteness, and 2nd, the steep increase in surf price. As a result, the consumer had a choice between acceptable cleanness/whiteness at Rs. 7 /- per kg superlative whiteness at Rs. 21/- per kg. Face with this choice, the house wifes was increasingly willing to trade off high quality of wash for economy. In volume terms, surf was face with stagnancy due to ‘fringe’ surf user to cheaper powders. The impact on market share was more dramatic-surf share declined from 40 % in 1975 to 9 % in 1984. the dramatic growth achieved by cheaper powder was, however, mainly due to an upgradation of laundry soap user. 2. MARKETING OBJETIVE Achieve long term growth on surf volumes which had been stagnating in the lates 70s – early 80s. 3. ADVERTISING OBJECTIVE To present surf as a better value product to cheaper powder. 4. THE CAMPAIGN The creative strategy was developed around the fundamentals fact that the bulk density of surf was half that of cheap powders. That the bulk density of surf was half that of cheap powders. . That is1/2 kg of surf and 1kg of cheap powders. This was a due to two factors The manufacturing process that surf used. b) Surf contained very little fillers like soda ash. Therefore, to achieve the same level of detergency, the consumers had to use half the weight of surf compared with cheap powders. The advertising strategy therefore, was to: a) Explain clearly the ½=1 volume story(and not just talk of surf superlative performance) b) Focus on the ½ kg pack of surf (as the price difference between it and the 1 kg pack of cheap powders which much smaller.

a)

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SALES 1500 1530 1600 1660 1850

LONGEVITY OF CAMPAIGN Of all the marketing mix elements, the only change made in advertising. With in month, the monthly of take of surf improved dramatically. With doubt, the Lalitaji’ campaign had worked. The campaign has contuned to yield results even four years after it’s launch.

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ONIDA
When ONIDA walked into Avenues for the first time in 1984, the colour TV market in India was basking in the post-Asiad warmth. There was a frightening number of big brands ruling the market nationally, extending their success, as it were, from their own Black and White brands to Colour. ONIDA was a rank outsider and had to gatecrash. Being simplistic, this could explain away all the arrogance, the ‘risk’ and the ‘negative’ route adopted by Avenues to make ONIDA stand out in the jungle of completion. In fact, that’s precisely how the ONIDA campaign’s overwhelming success has been grudgingly acknowledged and even analyzed by the advocated of rational and ‘safe’ advertising. ONIDA had nothing to lose, so they took the ‘risk’.. While the heart-breaking impact of the cracked TV set is what hits you at first glance, let your mind retrace the steps that would have eventually led to this climax (or, anti-climax, if you please), and soon a second impact will hit you hard on the rational side of your head. The impact of the sheer logic of it all! How would a typical consumer react if he were shown the most exquisite Colour TV? Think. He’d want to possess it” Sure. Would he buy it? Possibly. If he had the money. Good . If he didn’t buy it, what could be the reasons? Can’t afford it? Already saddled with some other brand? Sad. What happens to the desire, then? Desire that is directly proportional to the perceived worth of the product? Well, it gives way to envy. A very negative emotion, yes, but a rather dramatic emotion to project. It disturbs you. But it emphasizes the desire that caused it, and thereby, the desirability of the product. Isn’t that what advertising is supposed to do? So envy, Avenues decided, was the key emotion. But was it socially relevant? Yes it was, because the Colour TV was soon replacing the radiogram and the refrigerator as the status symbol in the middle class drawing room. Was it credible? Yes, again. One look at the majestic set (India’s first vertical, monitor look), and there was no question. Still, would the client bear to see their darling product mutilated in the very first ad? Of course they would; didn’t they see the logic! Now to answer the question that you’re about to ask. But how did the Devil come in? Well the art Director thought of him, and he appeared. Quite literally in the form of David White bread. Knocking out, once and for all, every other conceivable contestant to symbolize envy: the green serpent, the green dragon, and the green… This, is of course, was initiated by a bold and path- breaking media decision. After the single- medium print campaign ran for about two years, and established ONIDA as the name to watch, it was felt that many more people deserved to watch it after all. To widen reach, therefore, it was decided to choose TV as this second medium.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising Sell TV on TV? How absurd, said conventional wisdom, when the viewer already has his TV- whatever brand that may be- what’s the point in impressing him with the ONIDA ad, and at what cost? By then, ONIDA had already tasted the power of the unconventional. Answers came gushing with great reasoning and conviction. Media domination, second TV in the family, graduation from Black and White to Colour TV friends and neighbors. Above all, wasn’t it our task to make people wish they owned an ONIDA? Any brand of TV maybe sitting in your drawing room for whatever reason, but the throne in your mind should always be occupied by ONIDA. So Avenues went ahead and shot the ONIDA commercial. After the stone was hurled to crack the TV screen, the Devil made his first historic appearance from behind the TV set. Personifying envy, and, yet telling you how to conquer it. Simply, by buying the object of your desire. In retrospect, while the storyteller’s pen can make past decisions appear to be steeped in foresight and wisdom, it is still a fact that neither the client nor the agency ever had reason to regret the ONIDA advertising strategy. Product decisions, marketing decisions, even corporate decisions, have always been in perfect harmony with the stance dictated by the advertising breakthrough, lending strength and momentum to the spectacular growth of ONIDA into a multi- product, multi-company empire that it is today. It’s all in the fitness of things that the advertising of every new ONIDA product often displays the blue-blooded legacy of eerie arrogance that grabs you by the throat.

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KELLOGS In September 1994 Kellogg Co. based in Battle Creek Michigan launched Kellogg’s cornflakes in India. With an investment of $65 million it dreamed of 250 million cereal eaters in India. It failed to turn its dream into a reality. Communication objective The entire focus of the marketing communication would be on promoting Kellogg’s as a healthy breakfast serial. Positioning Kellogg’s positioned itself as a healthy option to the traditional Indian breakfast. Let us analyse the Kellogg’s ad campaign to shed some light on the brand’s failure. The Kellogg’s commercial showcased an Indian family having a very heavy breakfast. A male voice in the background said that the breakfast looked tasty but is it healthy? Then the family switched over to Kellogg’s, which was 99% fat, free and contained 5 vitamins and iron. A product window showed milk being poured over the cornflakes. The family was very happy to switch over to Kellogg’s. There were many places in this ad, which go totally against the Indian consumer’s food habits. Indians love their food hot and fresh. Here was a product, which was not hot and used cold milk. A cold breakfast is just not an Indian's cup of tea. Indians thrive on the variety in their food. Everyday calls for a new menu. You don’t eat the same meal for two consecutive days. Having cold cornflakes every morning was too much to ask from them. Milk is generally a diet for kids in the household. Pouring milk over cornflakes meant an additional cost. Not many consumers were ready to bear this extra cost. The general emphasis in an Indian home is to eat homemade food. Ready to eat food items are not always welcome. Ready to eat cornflakes received the same treatment. A mother would not be very happy with the idea that her kid is having readymade food everyday. The ad pictured the entire family comprising the parents, kids and the grandfather having the same breakfast. It was a little difficult to believe that one product would be equally nutritious to all the age groups. In addition Kellogg’s also was an expensive product. The price was just not worth it for the consumer.

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What the ad also lacked was a focus. A product can’t be everything to everyone. It is better to narrow down your focus. Maybe the one advantage of Kellogg’s would have been was its quick to make nature. But in the entire commercial there is no mention of this. Kellogg’s seemed to forget about its features. Initially after its launch Kellogg’s did take off but that was purely due to the novelty of the product. After some time the sales did come plummeting down. Kellogg’s also came out with rice flakes and wheat flakes which too failed to create an impact. The dream of 250 million cereal eaters remained a dream. Kellogg’s is a classic example of clumsy cultural homework.

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MARUTI VERSA Maruti Udyog Ltd launched the 1.3-litre `Versa', a multi-purpose vehicle (MPV) Sporting a price of over Rs 5 lakh, the car was targeted at families and corporate buyers. The Versa was being launched in three variants, including two deluxe eight seater versions and a super deluxe 7-seater version. Versa is expected to woo customers who would have otherwise planned to buy a sedan like the Maruti Esteem or a utility vehicle like the Sumo, the Bolero and the Toyota Qualis. The first luxury MPV in the Indian market-- will also impact the evolution of this category of the passenger vehicle market and the business plans of competition. Communication objective: As such, the marketing communication will focus equally on the MPV category as on highlighting the luxury and space of Versa itself," a Maruti Executive said. According to analysts the MPVs in the West have come as a response to changing lifestyles. People in the West want their cars to offer luxury along with space and flexibility of usage. Competition: Mahindra Bolero,Toyota Qualis and Tata Sumo. Having said that, when a product is designed to contribute in creating a new market or redefining the category it becomes extremely essential that the product is believable to its consumers. There lies a trap in such situations to sound too larger than life to announce arrival and in the bargain alienate the consumer. Maruti Versa’s entry in the market is a classic example of a culmination of various reasons out of which the prime being faulty positioning. Let us try to analyse the campaign to shed further light on this aspect. Firstly you can’t imagine the Big B endorsing a multiutility vehicle.that is just not his persona. Even the naivest of consumers cannot buy the fable that Bachchan and his son fighting over a car which looks like a station wagon. The incredulity of it all leaves you without any proper image of the brand, which is so important to have especially when you are opening up a new category. Where Amitabh Bachchan ‘s mansion is treated as a tourist spot and a generation of Indians swears by his opulence here you have him feeling ecstatic that his wagon is “two cars into one.” Lets now try to analyse the positioning vis-à-vis competition. Brand Positioning Target Group Mahindra Bolero As a sporty, robust Men who have an and outdoor vehicle affinity towards the meant for long rough wild side of life, who terrain. demand class with a tinge of ruggedness. Toyota Qualis As a family vehicle, High income large can accommodate the families. entire family for an outing. While Bolero and Qualis don’t tread in to each other’s territory maintaining their own distinct identity, Versa is left with an identity crisis. On one hand Versa speaks about two cars in one car but Qualis anytime is more spacious than it while on the other hand it tries to speak about class (by roping in Bachchan & sons Pvt. Ltd) but it fails to make an impact on the crucial heart share of the consumer.

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What is remembered is Bachchan and not the car. Nobody is going to buy a car just because it has a twin AC system or double luggage space. While it claims to be the perfect car for the whole family with a double luggage space-this claim is made vis-à-vis a Santro or a Zen but in actuality it is competing with the Sumos and Qualises of the world. Besides lets face it, as far as looks are concerned it leaves a lot to be desired. It almost looks ugly. Posed with a challenge of making an almost ugly car desirable and successful one needs to concentrate on offering some serious logic to lure the consumer into buying the product. After all, at the end of the day it is a high involvement product involving a complex buying behaviour. Any likelihood of dissonance that may creep in to the decision making process may result into the consumer preferring to stay away from such a product. Again if you are being a first entrant in a new category the rulebook says that you need to educate the consumer. Even if you don’t play by the rules it is mandatory for you as a seller to convey the essence of the category unambiguously which Versa somewhere fails to do.

When you are introducing a high end product in a new category don’t distract the consumer from the product …involve him.

TVC STORYBOARD - Maruti Versa

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A pristine Maruti Versa glides into the driveway and Abhishek Bachchan jumps out, "Hey Dad! Check out my new car!"

He bundles his father into the vehicle and they go out for a drive, "Two rows of seats, Dad." "Yaani do..." "Twin ACs!" interrupts his excited son.

"Yaani do..." "Yup! Ek aage, ek peeche. Double luggage space, Dad. Double!" "Yaani do..."

...he trails off again as Abhishek adds, "Yaani two luxury cars in one, Dad!"

Product window. MVO: "The all new Maruti Versa. It's two luxury cars in one."

"And Dad, two cars yaani double luxury, yaani..." "Yaani ki gaadi roko!" snaps the annoyed father.

He slips out and slumps in the back seat of the car. "Main doosri gaadi mein aa raha hoon. Tumhaari gaadi mein driver ki awaaz...

...bahut aati hai yaar!" As the Big B gives a throaty laugh, his son joins in. Super: 'Maruti Versa. Two luxury cars. In one."

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KAMASUTRA CONDOMS
Background Gautam Singhania of the JK Chemicals Group came to Lintas one day and said that he has the know how to make a good quality condom. But he did not know anything about the condom industry and was not sure how to go about his product. He wanted Lintas to take the account. The advertising of a condom during those days was a hush hush affair. Sex was the taboo word. No condom ad spoke about sex in spite of the direct connection. There was 80% awareness of the leading brand Nirodh but only 2% usage.

Consumer insight
A detailed consumer research revealed that they were unhappy about the quality of Nirodh and most of the other brands. They felt that the family planning appeal or even protection against AIDS was not strong enough to override their distaste for the product. A condom was perceived to be an obstacle in the process of lovemaking. Consumers were not willing to sacrifice their pleasure for the sake of safety. And besides no product spoke about being pleasurable. They were all portrayed as safety measures and nothing more. They found that most of the current brands available were distasteful. A condom by its very nature is an irksome thing and has to be used at an inconvenient moment. People could not quite get over that barrier and the fact that it destroyed your mood and pleasure. Secondly they did not have a brand that appealed to their life style. Target group The agency assessed that the TG would be in the 18-30-age bracket. People who were thinking of marriage, were newly married, or married with one or two children.

Positioning
Condoms were being sold on the premise that they were good for you. It is a long believed notion that the moment you tell someone that it is good for health it means that it is distasteful. If a condom is good for you then it is not pleasurable. So it obstructs a pleasurable act. The agency’s challenge was to make the product look pleasurable. They had to build a pleasurable condom. Something that would excite people and not be a wet blanket for them. That was the essential positioning difference between this brand and any other brand that had ever been advertised.

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The challenge
The catch was to decide whether to go the safe route or the bold route? But once it was decided that this product would not be like the others in the market the agency decided to take the bold route. They would definitely take the risk of positioning this product as pleasurable.

Creative Execution
The first step was to find a name with a built – in descriptor. After rounds of brainstorming the creative team hit upon ‘Kama Sutra’. What would be better in India than Kama Sutra? It’s universal for sensual pleasure. It meant sex without saying the forbidden word S-E-X. It was culturally acceptable. It had the right status connotations. The next step was to turn this concept into reality. They realized that even though the word “Kama Sutra’ was advantageous, people would hesitate to go up to a shopkeeper and ask for it by name. So the phrase ‘Just ask for KS ’ was coined. Then came the breakthrough slug line. It was the first time that a condom campaign came out and said that condoms are for lovemaking. The line was ‘ For the pleasure of making love’, not for protection. The print ad showcased a fully clothed Pooja Bedi in the arms of Mark Robinson with its line ‘For the pleasure of making love’ bold in its copy. This ad created quite a sensation. There were a lot of mixed reactions. People exclaimed that how could an ad talk about sex and show sensuous pictures. But the fact remains that Pooja Bedi was fully clothed in every ad. Then e 15-second film was created. Pooja Bedi is playing chess with Mark Robinson. She’s looking at him, and he’s looking at her and she’s looking back at him. A lot of glances are exchanged and then he says ‘Check’ and she picks up all the pieces and sweeps everything off the table and says ‘ Mate’. And this is Kama Sutra, for the pleasure of making love.

Results
In spite of all the controversy created by the campaign Kama Sutra’s demand by far exceeded its supply. The brand went out of stock within two months of its launch. That was the proof of its popularity. The distribution problem was sorted later on. Today if you mention Kama Sutra, people will first recall the condom and only secondly think of Vatsayna’s book. Ask anyone to name a brand of condoms and they will immediately hit Kama Sutra and the second choice is Nirodh. Kama Sutra did succeed in creating a pleasurable condom.

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Santoor
Background The Indian soap market is probably the most competitive market in the FMCG arena. For every brand that succeeds in this market, there at least 10-15 brands that fail in this market. The soap market is divided into three broad segments - Premium, Popular and Economy. The total market was estimated at 4,20,000 tonnes per annum or Rs. 27000 million in the year 1995. The market in tonnage terms was growing at a healthy 5 + per cent per annum. The market consisted of over 100 brands from 20 odd companies such as Hindustan Lever, Godrej, Swastik, Colgate Palmolive and Nirma dominated the market. The rural consumer accounted for almost 40 % of the total volume and that segment was growing at a much higher rate. Competition While the market consisted of over 100 brands, a handful of brands dominated the market. Most of them had a long history in the country and were supported by big companies with large promotional budgets. In the economy segment, the giant brand was Lifebuoy. This brand cut across the entire country with its promise of ‘health’. With a strong franchise in rural areas and lower income segments in the urban areas, the brand virtually controlled the economy segment. The other notable brand in this segment Nirma Bath and TOMCO’s OK. Neither of these had been able to make a dent on Lifebuoy. The popular segment consisted of a number of established brands including Lux, Rexona, Hamam, etc. Each of these brands offered a strong benefit to the consumer and had occupied a distinct position in the consumers’ mind. Nirma beauty was making waves with its lower price – better value offering in this segment. The Premium segment consisted of a number of brands with smaller volumes. However, the key players in this segment were Cinthol, Lux International, Palmolive, Margo, Liril and Mysore Sandal. This segment had attracted a lot of interest in the 1980s with a spate of new brand launches from large companies. Many of these brands like Ponds, Lakme and Clearasil failed to make an impact on the Indian premium soap consumer. Santoor was launched in 1985. The brand was launched in the west and other markets in the south priced at Rs.3.00 + local taxes. Consumer and trade acceptance was good. The brand was a success with sales of 1500 tonnes per annum and all India market share of 1.5%. 1987 was a turbulent period for the soap industry in general and Santoor in particular. The cost of vegetable oils that make the total fatty matter which determines the lathering ability

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising spiraled. This was accompanied by an increase in packaging cost and the imposition of excise duties, which made matters worse. The prices of all popular soaps increased by more than a rupee. Santoor was severely affected by the increased prices. Consumers switched from Santoor to the lower priced brands and other new brands introduced at lower price bands. Being a relatively new brand, Santoor had not yet built the required brand loyalty to retain consumers, who felt that the price hikes were unjustified. Wipro felt that Santoor was onto a good thing and that the brand had the potential to grow. The problem, however, was that new consumers were not entering Santoor’s fold. Due to the competitive nature of the market, boredom was setting in, resulting in consumer shifts to other new brands and a decline in trial rate. In 1989, FCB – Ulka was appointed and entrusted with the responsibility of building Santoor as a strong brand. The brief was clear and direct. Double the sales volumes from 2400 tonnes per annum to approximately 5000 tonnes per annum and increase ‘top of the mind’ awareness levels from 0.8% to at least 4.5%. Consumer Insight The agency carried out research to determine the consumers’ attitude to Santoor and beauty soaps in general. Findings indicated that a low correlation existed between the brand name and the ingredient story. There was low excitement around the brand. The brand had a middle class image and no strong benefit was highlighted in the communication. Research also showed that Santoor appealed only to a small set of users who wanted sandalwood based soap. Outside this set it had no ‘brand equity’ whatsoever. Santoor had become a niche brand in a mass market, catering to a very small user base. Other findings regarding consumer expectations revealed that the consumer wanted a soap that was ‘good for the skin’. Fragrance, ‘price’, ‘lathers well’, ‘has a long life’, ‘colour’, ‘shape’, were the other parameters on which Santoor scored very well. The Enigma The soap market being a highly competitive market, Santoor had to retain its traditional users (who accounted for 2400 TPA), while going after new users. The brand had to continue offering the same value to its users while presenting a new face to the non – users. How could it do this? Positioning Santoor as a brand offered two useful ‘ingredients’ (sandal + turmeric) to consumers. It was priced attractively and the soaps’ product characteristics (lathering, fragrance, post bath feel) were well appreciated. The brand, however, offered no ‘benefit’ to the consumer.

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_______________________________________________Quick Revision of Advertising A product ingredient analysis revealed that both sandal and turmeric were proven to be very good skin care ingredients. Indian women have been using sandalwood paste and turmeric as skin care ingredients for many centuries. The question was : can we focus on something more than just ‘good skin’ or ‘skin care’? Here again literature analysis revealed that these ingredients can help in keeping the skin tight and supple, leading to the breakthrough thought, ‘younger looking skin’. Santoor was positioned as a soap that offers ‘younger looking skin’. The ingredient sandal and turmeric were to be used as a strong support for the ‘younger looking’ proposition. In addition to positioning Santoor in a realm that would appeal to the consumer, it was also decided that the brand ha to break away from its middle class lineage and start moving, at least a bit, into a more modern milieu. The creative team was given the challenge to break out the soap advertising clutter and create a unique property for Santoor, that would built sales and brand equity over time. Creative Execution The creative team hit upon a breakthrough idea of ‘mistaken identity’. It was found that the most identifiable way of executing the younger looking skin promise was by using a ‘mistaken identity’ route. While Indian women felt they should look young and receive compliments from others, the other best representation was when a married woman with a child (the ultimate proof of womanhood!) gets mistaken for a younger woman – by a group of women! Eureka The first film that went on the floors had a group of college girls accosting our Santoor woman in a bookshop, asking her in which college she studies…….only to be surprised when her daughter runs up screaming ‘Mummy !’ Santoor was on a roll. The format of ‘mistaken identity’ soon got extended into a number of situations: Bookshop Wedding Bangle shop Aerobics Over the years the brand has undergone some changes but its advertising remains very much rooted on the discovery made in 1989. Results Santoor was a hit. Against the time limit of 2 years, Santoor achieved its targeted volume of 5000 TPA in only 18 months. Wipro with its focused efforts and advertising that worked in the market was able to build a brand and create enduring brand value.

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