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Driver Drowsiness Detection

Driver Drowsiness Detection

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Published by: Laveen Prabhu S on Aug 28, 2012
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Driver Drowsiness Detection

Laveen Prabhu Selvaraj (Im No. 303657)

Abstract Sleep disorders and various common acute directly or indirectly affect the quality and quantity of one‘s sleep or otherwise cause excessive daytime fatigue. About 29 600 Norwegian accident-involved drivers received a questionnaire about the last accident reported to their insurance company. About 9200 drivers (31%) returned the questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about sleep or fatigue as contributing factors to the accident. In addition, the drivers reported whether or not they had fallen asleep some time whilst driving, and what the consequences had been. Sleep or drowsiness was a contributing factor in 3.9% of all accidents, as reported by drivers who were at fault for the accident. This factor was strongly over-represented in night-time accidents (18.6%), in running-off-the-road accidents (8.3%), accidents after driving more than 150 km on one trip (8.1%), and personal injury accidents (7.3%).The most frequent consequence of falling asleep—amounting to more than 40% of the reported incidents—was crossing of the right edge-line before awaking, whereas crossing of the centre line was reported by 16%. Drivers‘ lack of awareness of important precursors of falling asleep—like highway hypnosis, driving without awareness, and similar phenomena—as well as a reluctance to discontinue driving despite feeling tired are pointed out as likely contributors to sleep-related accidents. The envisioned vehicle-based driver drowsiness detection system would continuously and unobtrusively monitor driver performance (and ―micro-performance‖ such as minute steering movements) and driver psychophysiological status (in particular eye closure). The system may be programmed to provide an immediate warning signal when drowsiness is detected with high certainty, or, alternatively, to present a verbal secondary task via recorded voice as a second-stage probe of driver status in situations of possible drowsiness. The key requirements and R&D challenges for a successful countermeasure include low countermeasure cost, true unobtrusiveness, an acceptably-low false alarm rate, nondisruption of the primary driving task, compatibility and synergy with other IVHS crash avoidance countermeasures, and a warning strategy that truly sustains driver wakefulness or convinces him/her to stop for rest. 1. Introduction Fatigued or drowsy drivers have long been acknowledged to constitute a potential traffic safety hazard, and several research studies have addressed various aspects of the problem. Brown (1994) has presented a comprehensive review and discussion of the research literature on the nature of fatigue and its effects on driver behavior and traffic accidents, on the basis of which he concluded that ‗fatigue is insufficiently recognized and reported as a cause of road accidents‘. In discussing the effects of fatigue, Brown further points out that the main effect is ‗a progressive withdrawal of attention from road and traffic demands‘. A most extreme form of withdrawal of attention is obviously the closing of eyes due to sleepiness. To prevent accidents

related to drowsiness and sleeping behind the wheel, it is important to acquire precise knowledge about the extent of the problem as well as its preconditions and consequences. The following issues, all of which are investigated empirically in the present study, are considered relevant for a better understanding of sleep-related accidents. 1. What is the proportion of accidents caused by fatigue or sleep behind the wheel, and what are the most likely types of accidents to occur under these conditions? 2. How prevalent is the problem of actually falling asleep while driving? 3. What are the most frequent consequences of falling asleep while driving? 4. To what extent is sleeping behind the wheel related to characteristics of the driver, the road and traffic conditions, and the trip? These drowsiness detection methods can be categorized into three major approaches: • Active driving or on-board detection: Preventing accidents caused by drowsiness behind the steering wheel is highly desirable but requires techniques for continuously estimating driver‘s abilities of perception, recognition and vehicle control abilities. This paper proposes methods for drowsiness estimation that combine the electroencephalogram (EEG) log subband power spectrum, correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and linear regression models to indirectly estimate driver‘s drowsiness level in a virtualreality-based driving simulator. Results show that it is feasible to quantitatively monitor driver‘s alertness with concurrent changes in driving performance in a realistic driving simulator.

• Imaging processing techniques: this approach analyzes the images captured by cameras to detect physical changes of drivers, such as eyelid movement, eye gaze, yawn, and head nodding. For example, the PERCLOS system developed by W. W. Wierwile et. al. used camera and imaging processing techniques to measure the percentage of eyelid closure over the pupil over time. The three-in-one vehicle operator sensor developed by Northrop Grumman Co. also used the similar techniques. Although this vision based method is not intrusive and will not cause annoyance to drivers, the drowsiness detection is not so accurate, which is severely affected by the environmental backgrounds, driving conditions, and driver activities (such as turning around, talking, and picking up beverage). In addition, this approach requires the camera to focus on a relative small area (around the driver‘s eyes). It thus requires relative precise camera focus adjustment for every driver. • Physiological signal detection techniques: this approach is to measure the physiological changes of drivers from biosignals, such as the electroencephalogram (EEG), electrooculograph (EOG), and electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). Since the sleep rhythm is strongly correlated with brain and heart activities, these physiological biosignals can give accurate drowsiness/sleepiness detection. However, all the researches up to date in this approach need electrode contacts on drivers‘ head, face, or chest. Wiring is another problem for this approach. The electrode contacts and wires will annoy the drivers, and are difficult to be implemented in real applications.

2. Active Driving or On board Detection Basic Concepts As indicated earlier, the basic idea behind vehicle-based detection is to monitor the driver unobtrusively by means of an onboard system that can detect when the driver is materially impaired by drowsiness. The concept involves sensing various drivers related and driving related variables. Computing measures from these variables online and then using the measures in a combined manner to detect when drowsiness is occurring. Measures are combined because no single unobtrusive operational measure appears adequate in reliably detecting drowsiness. The most promising approach uses mathematical optimization procedures to develop algorithms with the highest potential detection accuracy. Techniques normally employed include multiple regression and linear discriminated analyses. More exotic techniques could also be employed in the future, including neural networks, pattern recognition and fuzzy logic. Optimization of algorithms for detection of drowsiness requires a definitional measure of ―actual‖ drowsiness. Such a measure may be based on physiological, performance, or subjective attributes and need not be obtainable operationally. However, the measure must be available in experiments so that operational detection algorithms can be ―trained‖ to indicate the value of the definitional measure. This concept is depicted in Figure 1.

Figure 1. concept of using operational measures to predict definitional measures of drowsiness On the left are measures that can be obtained in the driving environment. These measures (with the exception of secondary task measures) are obtainable operationally from the vehicle without disturbing the driver. They can be used in various combinations for algorithm development. On the right are various candidate definitional measures. AVEOBS is an observer rating measure, EYEMEAS and PERCLOS are measures of slow eyeclosure, and NEWDEF is a measure composed of slow eye-closure, various EEG waveform amplitudes (Alpha, Beta, and Theta), and mean heart rate. A given algorithm would be directed at indicating the level of only one definitional measure, or possibly a linear combination of them. In any case, operationally available measures (on the left) are used to detect the level of the definitional measure of drowsiness (on the right), with thresholds set to indicate when drowsiness has exceeded a pre-specified level.

Figure 2: Application detection in Mercedes




On-Board Detection System

Figure 3: Block Diagram of on board detection

The on-board drowsiness detection system would gather signals from sensors on the vehicle, process these signals into measures, and then compute the algorithm (or algorithms) to determine if the drowsiness threshold has been exceeded. Figure 3 shows a block diagram of the envisioned system. Aspects of the envisioned system already determined through research efforts include the following:  Signals input to the microcomputer will include:  Steering-related signals o A lateral accelerometer-

related signal and o A lane position signal (assumes availability of machine vision technology for optical tracking of existing highway lane markings).  Measures will be computed using six-minute running averages (which provide the best prediction accuracy).  An adjustable drowsiness threshold feature will allow sensitivity to be set according to conditions. . A step-up/step-down routine will ensure that, when all incoming signals are valid, the best algorithm is used. When one or more of the incoming signals is invalid (for example, inability to establish a lane track), then the best algorithm excluding the invalid signal(s) would be used. This procedure will ensure that at least one detection algorithm is always capable of being computed. A ―baselining‖ procedure will be used to tailor detection algorithms to the individual driver. It will record each driver‘s performance measures on-line initially and then subtract such values from all subsequent values. Accordingly, measures obtained are actually deviations from the driver‘s own baseline. Domain of Application On-board drowsiness detection systems will be applicable primarily to driving on rural and other ―open‖ highways, such as limited-access highways, at speeds at or above 50 mph. There are two reasons for limiting the drowsiness detection system to this domain. First, as discussed earlier, most drowsiness-related crashes occur on these roads at these speeds. Second, it

appears that this domain is the one in which feasibility is maximized. The influences of stop-and-go traffic, traffic signals, turning maneuvers, etc., would probably introduce sufficient ―noise‖ into the detection process that unobtrusive detection would be unfeasible. As we can see, we have the fortuitous circumstance of ―feasibility in the most needed domain,‖ or in other words ―the coin we are searching for was lost under the streetlamp, where the light gives us the best chance of finding it.‖ Nature and Accuracy of Algorithms To provide a better idea of what a typical algorithm looks like and what its anticipated level of accuracy would be, a specific algorithm will be described. It is one of perhaps 120 that were recently derived in a major, moving-base driving simulator experiment using sleep deprived drivers (Wreggit, Kim, and Wierwille, 1993). The algorithm was derived using multiple regression analysis with PERCLOS (the proportion of total time that the driver‘s eyelids are closed 80% or more) as the definitional measure. Figure 4 shows the actual values of PERCLOS (open circles) and the algorithm-predicted values (closed triangles) for 12 driver subjects. Each interval on the abscissa corresponds to a six-minute average, with 25 intervals per driver-subject. Increasing values of the ordinate represent increasing drowsiness levels. The algorithm generally does an excellent job of mimicking the values of PERCLOS, particularly in the intermediate ranges of PERCLOS where the threshold would most likely be set Figure 4 shows the specific thresholds used on the definitional measure (PERCLOS) for the determination of prediction accuracy. The data in Figure 4 correspond to ―circle‖ values in Figure 4. . Figure 4 algorithm-predicted values (closed triangles) for 12 driver subjects As can be seen, two thresholds have been specified, thus breaking the plot into three regions: alert, questionable, and drowsy. When these thresholds are applied to the output of the detection algorithm, which provides an assessment of accuracy. In the table, the boldface diagonal values show the number of correct classifications. The off-diagonal elements represent errors, and in particular, the upper-left and lower-right cells represent large errors. As can be seen, three intervals were classified (predicted) as drowsy when the driver was observed as alert (false alarms), and another three intervals were classified as alert when the driver was observed as drowsy (failure to detect). Since there were 300 intervals, two percent were seriously misclassified, resulting in an apparent accuracy rate of 0.98 (for large errors).Of course there were smaller classification errors as well, but these are not as serious -- for example, the 16 intervals in which the system diagnosed a drowsy driver when the driver‘s actual status was ―questionable‖ (i.e., somewhat drowsy).

Overcoming the False Alarm Problem As already indicated, a major research objective will be to overcome the false alarm problem inherent to the identification/diagnosis of low-probability events. Since drowsiness is infrequent in relation to all time spent driving, false alarm rates must be very low. If not, the number of false alarms will greatly outnumber correct detections (―hits‖), even if drowsiness is correctly detected with 100% accuracy (Knipling, 1993). This problem may be overcome through refinements to the performance measurement algorithms, addition of qualitatively different measures (i.e., direct psychophysiological measures and/or secondary tasks), and the use of graded alarm intensities for different degrees of drowsiness or levels of certainty. In particular, the false alarm problem appears less daunting from the perspective of multiple degrees of alertness and intensities of warnings/advisories. Figure 5, which is similar in concept to the two-threshold algorithm concept, shows a theoretical relation between ―actual‖ drowsiness level (and thus actual risk of loss-of-alertness) and ―operational‖ drowsiness level as measured/derived by a detection system.

variable represents a continuum without qualitative breakpoints. Since the system is not perfect, its data points would form an ellipse rather than a straight line. Within this scheme, zones G, E, and C represent‘ perfect classification, zones D, B, H, and F represent small is classifications (or ―half right‖ classifications), and zones A and I represent large misclassifications. Drowsy driver detection algorithms must be refined to a point where zones A and I are very small or non-existent. The effects of small misclassifications (Zones D, B, H, and F) on crash prevention, driver performance, and driver acceptance must be determined through further research. For example, the ―half-false alarm‖ zones D and B may be a source of irritation to drivers or, on the other hand, they may have the positive effect of reassuring the driver that the system is functioning continuously. Another way to increase detection and reduce false alarms might be to consider not just the current measurement time interval but also trends evident from preceding intervals. Were there early signs of developing drowsiness based either on the overall operational measure or among specific indicators? Fuzzy logic may be employed to further enhance the accuracy of diagnosis by considering the driver‘s recent time-history of drowsiness.

3. Image processing Image processing is a method to convert an image into digital form and perform some operations on it, in order to get an enhanced image or to extract some useful information from it. It is a type of signal dispensation in which input is image, like video frame or photograph and output may be image or characteristics associated with that image. Usually Image Processing system includes treating images as two dimensional signals while

Figure 5. Three-level detection matrix Three levels of ―actual‖ and ―operational‖ drowsiness are shown in the figure, but note that dashed lines are used for the three ―actual‖ drowsiness levels since the

applying already set signal processing methods to them. It is among rapidly growing technologies today, with its applications in various aspects of a business. Image Processing forms core research area within engineering and computer science disciplines too. Image processing basically includes the following three steps. · Importing the image with optical scanner or by digital photography. · Analyzing and manipulating the image which includes data compression and image enhancement and spotting patterns that are not to human eyes like satellite photographs. · Output is the last stage in which result can be altered image or report that is based on image analysis. Purpose of Image processing The purpose of image processing is divided into 5 groups. They are: 1. Visualization - Observe the objects that are not visible. 2. Image sharpening and restoration To create a better image. 3. Image retrieval - Seek for the image of interest. 4. Measurement of pattern – Measures various objects in an image. 5. Image Recognition – Distinguish the objects in an image. Each application that benefit from smart video processing has different needs, thus requires different treatment. However, they have something in common moving objects. Thus, detecting regions that correspond to moving objects such as people and vehicles in video is the first basic step of almost every vision system since it provides a focus of attention and simplifies the processing on subsequent

analysis steps. Due to dynamic changes in natural scenes such as sudden illumination and weather changes, repetitive motions that cause clutter (tree leaves moving in blowing wind), motion detection is a difficult problem to process reliably. Frequently used techniques for moving object detection are background subtraction, statistical methods, temporal differencing and optical flow.

Figure6. A generic framework for smart video processing algorithms. There are various techniques for moving object detection and tracking like optical flow, low change of illumination, segmentation, background subtraction, frame difference, etc. The problem is formulated in a sequential manner. It has different step with different set of operation will take place at each step and the output of that step will be used as the input to the other step .Each step is in charge of specific function which it will perform on each frame of the video sequence and the final result of that step will be used in the another step and each step will follow the same things. The last step will give the final output in the form of a video in a well structured way. The formulation of step are defined as follows1. Take video from Vision System. 2. Read 1st image to avi read that is reference image 3. Read other image 4. Take subtraction of them and set Thresholding 5. Applied Gaussian filter for noise remove

6. Applied morphological operation like dilation and erosion for small noise removes 7. Fill holes in resulted image 8. Take label connected component with its properties like bounding box, centroid and area of all no of object move in this scene. 9. For i=1:n % n is no of object move A=(length of object) Find(L==1) % find white pixel whose length is A If (A>100 && A<8000) Then draw rectangle plot centroid of that rectangle end to end 10. Take distance of centroid to reference point 11. Take velocity estimation by ratio of distance to time per Frame. 12. Take acceleration estimation by ratio of velocity to time per Frame Head movement measures Head movement was measured using an accelerometer that has 3 degrees of freedom. This three dimensional accelerometer has three one dimensional accelerometers mounted at right angles measuring accelerations in the range of 5g to +5g where g represents earth gravitational force. Facial Action Classifiers The facial action coding system (FACS) [12] is arguably the most widely used method for coding facial expressions in the behavioral sciences. The system describes facial expressions in terms of 46 component movements, which roughly correspond to the individual facial muscle movements. An example is shown in Figure 7. FACS provides an objective and comprehensive way to analyze expressions into elementary components, analogous to decomposition of speech into phonemes. Because it is comprehensive, FACS has proven useful

for discovering facial movements that are indicative of cognitive and affective states. In this paper we investigate whether there are Action units (AUs) such as chin raises (AU17), nasolabial furrow deepeners(AU11), outer(AU2) and inner brow raises (AU1) that are predictive of the levels of drowsiness observed prior to the subjects falling sleep.

Figure 7. Example facial action decomposition from the Facial Action Coding System. In previous work we presented a system, named CERT, for fully automated detection of facial actions from the facial action coding system [10]. The workflow of the system is based is summarized in Figure 3. We previously reported detection of 20 facial action units, with a mean of 93% correct detection under controlled posed conditions, and 75% correct for less controlled spontaneous expressions with head movements and speech. For this project we used an improved version of CERT which was retrained on a larger dataset of spontaneous as well as posed examples. In addition, the system was trained to detect an additional 11 facial actions for a total of 31 (Table 1). The facial action set includes blink (action unit 45), as well as facial actions involved in yawning (action units 26 and 27). The selection of this set of 31 out of 46 total facial actions was based on the availability of labeled training data. The facial action

detection system was designed as follows: First faces and eyes are detected in real time using a system that employs boosting techniques in a generative framework [13]. The automatically detected faces are aligned based on the detected eye positions, cropped and scaled to a size of 96 × 96 pixels and then passed through a bank of Gabor filters. The system employs 72 Gabor spanning 9 spatial scales and 8 orientations. The outputs of these filters are normalized and then passed to a standard classifier. For this paper we employed support vector machines. One SVM was trained for each of the 31 facial actions, and it was trained to detect the facial action regardless of whether it occurred alone or in combination with other facial actions. The system output consists of a continuous value which is the distance to the separating hyper plane for each test frame of video. The system operates at about 6 frames per second on a Mac G5 dual processor with 2.5 ghz processing speed.

Table 1. Full set of action units used for predicting drowsiness

Figure 8. Overview of fully automated facial action coding system. Drowsiness prediction The facial action outputs were passed to a classifier for predicting drowsiness based on the automatically detected facial behavior. Two learning-based classifiers, Adaboost and multinomial ridge regression are compared. Within-subject prediction of drowsiness and acrosssubject (subject independent) prediction of drowsiness were both tested.

Within subject drowsiness prediction. For the within-subject prediction, 80% of the alert and non-alert episodes were used for training and the other 20% were reserved for testing. This resulted in a mean of 19 non-alert and 11 alert episodes for training, and 5 non-alert and 3 alert episodes for testing per subject. The weak learners for the Adaboost classifier consisted of each of the 30 Facial Action detectors. The classifier was trained to predict alert or non-alert from each frame of video. There was a mean of 43,200 training samples, (24+11)×60×30, and 1440 testing samples, (5 + 3) × 60 ×

30, for each subject. On each training iteration, Adaboost selected the facial action detector that minimized prediction error given the previously selected detectors. Adaboost obtained 92% correct accuracy for predicting driver drowsiness based on the facial behavior. Classification with Adaboost was compared to that using multinomial ridge regression (MLR). Performance with MLR was similar, obtaining 94% correct prediction of drowsy states. The facial actions that were most highly weighted by MLR also tended to be the facial actions selected by Adaboost. 85% of the top ten facial actions as weighted by MLR were among the first 10 facial actions to be selected by Adaboost. Table 2. The top 5 most discriminant action units for discriminating alert from nonalert states for each of the four subjects. A‘ is area under the ROC curve.

Table 3. Performance for drowsiness prediction, within subjects. Means and standarddeviations are shown across subjects.

The data for each subject was first normalized to zero-mean and unit standard deviation before training the classifier. MLR was trained to predict drowsiness from the AU outputs several ways. Performance was evaluated in terms of area under the ROC. For all of the novel subject analysis, the MLR output for each feature was summed over a temporal window of 12 seconds (360 frames) before computing A‘. MLR trained on all features obtained an A‘ of .90 for predicting drowsiness in novel subjects. Table 4. MLR model for predicting drowsiness across subjects. Predictive performance of each facial action individually is shown.

Across subject drowsiness prediction. The ability to predict drowsiness in novel subjects was tested by using a leave oneout cross validation procedure.

the correlations shown in Fig. 9, we believe it is adequate to use 2-channel EEG signals having the highest correlation coefficients to assess the alertness level of drivers.

Brain Waves Relationship between the Spectrum and Subject Alertness EEG Figure 9: Scalp topographies for the correlations between EEG power and driving performance at dominant frequencies 7, 12, 16, and 20 Hz, computed separately for 40 EEG frequencies between 1 and 40 Hz. Next, we compared correlation spectra for individual sessions to examine the stability of this relationship over time and subjects. The time interval between the training and testing sessions of the lane-keeping experiments distributes over one day to one week long for the selected five subjects. Fig. 10 plots correlation spectra at cites Fz, Cz, Pz and Oz, of two separate driving sessions with respect to subjects A. The relationship between EEG power spectrum and driving performance is stable within the subjects, especially the spectrum below 20 Hz. These analyses provide strong and converging evidence that change in subject alertness level indexed by driving performance during a driving task are strongly correlated with the changes in the EEG power spectrum at several frequencies at central and posterior cites. This relationship is relatively variable between subjects, but stable within subjects. It is consistent with

To investigate the fluctuations in driving performance to concurrent changes in the EEG spectrum, correlations between changes in the EEG power spectrum and driving performance to form a correlation spectrum is measured. The spatial distributions of these positive correlation spectra on the scalp at dominant frequency bins are investigated 7, 12, 16 and 20Hz, separately, as shown in Fig. 9. The correlations are particularly strong at central and posterior channels, which are similar to the results of previous studies in the drowsy experiments. The relatively high correlation coefficients of EEG log power spectrum with driving performance suggests that using EEG log power spectrum may be suitable for drowsiness (micro-sleep) estimation, where the subject‘s cognitive state might fall into the first stage of the non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep. To be practical for routine use during driving or in other occupations, EEG-based cognitive assessment systems should use as few EEG sensors as possible to reduce the preparation time for wiring drivers and the computational load for estimating continuously the level of alertness in near real time. According to

the findings from a simple auditory target detection task. These findings suggest that information available in the EEG can be used for real time estimation of changes in alertness of human operators. However, to achieve maximal accuracy, the estimation algorithm should be capable of adapting to individual differences in the mapping between EEG and alertness.

trained with and tested against the same session, i.e. within-session testing. As can been seen, the estimated driving performance matched extremely well with the actual driving performance (r = 0.91).

Figure 10. Correlation spectra between the EEG power spectrum and the driving performance at Fz, Cz, Pz, and Oz channels in two separate driving sessions with respect to subject A. Note that the relationship between EEG power spectrum and driving performance is stable within this subject. EEG-based Driving Estimation/Prediction Performance

Figure 11. Driving performance estimates for a session with respect to subject A, based on a linear regression (red line) of PCA-reduced EEG log spectra at two scalp sites, over plotted against actual driving performance time series for the session (solid line). The correlation coefficient between the two time series is r = 0.91. When the model was tested against a separate test session with respect to the same subject, the correlation between the actual and estimated driving performance though decreased but remained high (r = 0.87) as shown in Fig. 12. Across 10 sessions, the mean correlation coefficient between actual driving performance time series for within session estimation is 0.85 ± 0.11, whereas the mean correlation coefficient for cross-session estimation is 0.82 ± 0.07. These results suggest that continuous EEG-based driving performance estimation using a small number of data channels is feasible, and can give accurate information about minute-to-minute changes in operator alertness.

In order to estimate/predict the subject‘s driving performance based on the information available in the EEG power spectrum, a 50-order linear regression models with a least-square-error cost function is used. We used only two EEG channels with the highest correlation coefficients in place of using all 33 channels to avoid introducing more unexpected noise. Fig. 11 plots the estimated and actual driving performance of a session with respect to subject A. The linear regression model in this figure is

Figure. 12. Driving performance estimates for a test session, based on a linear regression (red line) of PCA-reduced EEG log spectra trained from a separate training session with respect to the same subject, over plotted against actual driving performance time series of the test session (solid line). The correlation coefficient between the two time series is r = 0.87. Note that the training and testing data in this study were completely disjoined. Conclusion This paper presented a system for automatic detection of driver drowsiness from video. Previous approaches focused on assumptions about behaviors that might be predictive of drowsiness. Here, a system for automatically measuring brain waves, facial expressions and vehicle monitoring was employed to datamine spontaneous behavior during real drowsiness episodes. This is the first work to our knowledge to reveal significant associations between facial expression and fatigue beyond eye blinks. The project also revealed a potential association between head roll and driver drowsiness, and the coupling of head roll with steering motion during drowsiness. Of note is that a behavior that is often assumed to be predictive of drowsiness, yawn, was in fact a negative predictor of the 60-second window prior to a crash. It appears that in

the moments before falling asleep, drivers yawn less, not more, often. This highlights the importance of using examples of fatigue and drowsiness conditions in which subjects actually fall sleep. The real advantages of these following techniques are, these can be combined into one system and integration without affection or interrupting each other detection and function. This helps to give a exact alert level to avoid the accidents due to the driver drowsiness. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I like to thank Prof. Dr.-Ing. Olfa Kanoun, Head of the Chair for Measurement and sensor technology, TU Chemnitz for organizing this course and giving an opportunity to develop our presentation and report writing skills. References [1] Knipling, R., & Wang, J, Crashes and fatalities related to driver drowsiness/fatigue. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (1994). [2] Fridulv Sagberg, Road accidents caused by drivers falling asleep, Norway, 23 December 1998. [3] S. F. Liang, C. T. Lin, R. C. Wu, Y. C. Chen, T. Y. Huang and T. P. Jung, Monitoring Driver‘s Alertness Based on the Driving Performance Estimation and the EEG Power Spectrum Analysis, Engineering in Medicine and Biology 27th Annual Conference Shanghai, China, September 1-4, 2005. [4] Yi˘githan Dedeo glu, Moving object detection, tracking and classification for smart video surveillance, August, 2004 [5] Esra Vural, Mujdat Cetin, Aytul Ercil, Gwen Littlewort, Marian Bartlett and Javier Movellan, Drowsy Driver Detection Through Facial Movement Analysis, Grenoble, France (2000).

[6] Lawrence Barr, Heidi Howarth, Stephen Popkin, Robert J. Carrol, A review and evaluation of emerging driver fatigue detection measures and technologies, Washington, DC. [7] Jiyan Pan, Quanfu Fan, Sharath Pankanti, Robust abandoned object detection using region-level analysis, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Hawthorne, NY, U.S.A. [8]Kalpesh R Jadav, Prof. M.A. Lokhandwala,Prof.A.P.Gharge,Vision based moving object detection and tracking,Limda,vadodara,India 13-14 May 2011. [9] Smith, P.,& Shah, M.,& da Vitoria Lobo, N. ,―Determining driver visual attention with one camera‖ Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE Transactions, Dec, 2003. [10] Bergasa, L.M.,& Nuevo, J.,& Sotelo, M.A.,& Barea, R.,& Lopez, M.E., ―Realtime system for monitoring driver vigilance‖ Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE Transactions, March, 2006. [11] Qiang Ji,& Zhiwei Zhu,& Lan, P., ―Real-time nonintrusive monitoring and prediction of driver fatigue‖ Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions, July, 2004.

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