You are on page 1of 156

.

fw;w ghlq;fSk; ey;ypzf;fKk; gw;wpa Mizf;FOtpd; gupe;Jiufs; (LLRC)

gjpg;ghrpupau;:

rl;lj;juzp v];.[P.GQ;rpN`th

nkhopngau;g;G:

jpU. v];. rptFUehjd;

khw;W f; nfhs; iffSf;fhd epiyak;

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf; f hd epiyak;

fw;w ghlq;fSk; * ey;ypzf;fKk; gw;wpa Mizf;FOtpd; gupe;Jiufs; (LLRC)

ISBN

Kjw; gjpg;G mr;Rg; gjpg;G ntspaPL

: : : :

978-955-1655-88-4

Mf];l; 2012 f;Nshg; gpupd;bq; Ntu;f;]; njh.Ng: 011-2689259 khw;Wf; nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

khw;W f;nfhs ;iffSf;f hd epiyankd;g J RahjPd> murpay; fl;rp Ngjkw;w mikg;ghFk;. mJgpu jhdkhf Ml;rp Kuz;ghLfisj; jPu ;j ;jy; kw; W k; mjDld; ,ize;j gpu r ;rpidfs; kPJ mtjhdk; nrYj;Jk;. nghJ kf;f s pd; nfhs;if njhlu; ghdrk;gh\idf;F rpt py ;r%fj;j pd; Neubxj;Jiog;G Njitg; gLtjhYk;> mijg; gyg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ njhlu;ghf kpFe;j ek;gpf ;if fhuzkhfTk;> 1996 ,y;khw;W f; nfhs;iffSf;f hd epiyak; mikf;f g;gl;lJ. nghJ kf;f s; kPj hd nfhs; iffs; tpk u;rd uPj pahf jpwdha;T nra;ag;gly; k hw;W topf is ,dq;f hzy; > mij tpu pt hf;f y; njhlu ;ghd Ma;T > mOj;j k ; nfhLf ;Fk; epf o;r;rpj;j pl;lq;f s; vd;gtw;wpw;F khw;W f; nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; jd;id mu;g;gzpj ; Js;sJ. tpyhrk; njhiyNgrp /gf; ] ; ,izajsk; kpd; mQ;ry; : 24{2>28tJ xOq;if> g;/stu; tPj p> nfhOk;G - 07 : +94(11) 2565304/5/6 : +94(11) 4714460 : www.cpalanka.org : info@cpalanka.org

* Lessons Learnt vd;gJ f w;w ghlq;fs; vd;Nw Nkw;gb Mizf;FO mjd; Muk;gk; Kjy; gad;gLj;jpajhy; ehKk; mg;gpuNahfj;ijg; gad;gLj;j pAs;Nshk; Mdhy; jkpopy; ,g;gjg; gpuNahfk; gbg;g pid jUk; nra;jp fs; vd;Nw mika Ntz;Lk;.

ii

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf; f hd epiyak;

Kd; Diu
2009 Mk; Mz;by; Aj;jk; epiwTngw; w gpd;du; ntspaplg;gl;l Mi z f ; F O m wp f; iff s p y; fw ; w g h l q ; fS k; ey;ypzf;fKk; gw;wpa Mizf;F O mwpf;if (LLRC) kpf Kf; fpakh d mwpf;ifahFk;. mNj rkak;> ,t;twpf ;if 1990fspy; ,isQu; tptfh u Mizf;F O mwpf;ifNahL xg;gpLifapy;> Rje;jpu j;jpd; gpd;du;> ,d; iwa ,yq;ifiag; gw;wp ntspapl g;gl;l kpf Kf;fpa mwpf;i f ,Jntd xUtu; $wy h k; . M d h y; > J u jpu ; \ ; l tr kh f , t; t wpf ; i f ghuhSkd;wj;jpy ; rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;L 7 khjq; fs; fle;Jtpl;l epiyapY k>; ,yq; i fapd ; m u r fU k n kh opfs h d r pq ; f s j ; j pN yh m y; yJ j kp op N y h KO ik ah f ntspaplg;gltpy;iy. khw;Wf;n fhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; (CPA) ,t; t wpf ; i fapd ; gu pe;J iu fis cs; s l f;f pa xd; gjh tJ mj;j pah aj; ij Vw;f d Nt rpq; f sj; jpYk; jkpo pYk; nkhopn gau ;j;J nts papl;lJ . jw;NghJ LL RC gupe;Jiufisg; gw;wpa Ma;TiuNahL> thrpg;gjw;F trjpahd ,yF nkhopapy; ,jid ntspapl;L itf;fpd;Nwhk;. LLRC mwpf;ifapd; cs;slf;fj;ij mwpA k; cupi k ,e;ehl;Lg; gpu i[fSf;F cz;L vd;w ek; gpf;ifA lNdNa ,jid ,yF n kh opapy ; n ts pap L fpN wh k; . m N j rk ak; > ,yq ;ifiag; NghyNt n tspe hLfs pYk; thO k; jkJ Mju ths HfisA k; tpk u; r fu ; fisA k; N eh f;f p kdpj cupikfs; mwpf;ifAk;> mtw;wpd; kPwy;fSk; FiwghLfSk; gw; wp el tb f; iffis N kw; n fhs ;t jw; F > m u Rf;F upa m u ; ; g ; g z p g; Gg ; gw ; w pa rf y re ; N jf q ; fS f; F k ; gpu r;rpidfSf;F k; tpku;rdq;fSf;F k; LLRC mwpf;if %yk; tpil fpil g;gjhf ,yq; if m urh q;fk; cs ;eh l;bY k; n t s p eh L fs p Y K s ; s jk J Mju th s u ; fS f ; F k; cjtpahsu;fSf; F k; tpku;rfu;fSf;F k; cWjpahff; $wpaJ.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf; f hd epiyak; iii

m urhq ; fj; jpd; kd pj cu pikfs ; m wpf;i fAk; m jd ;


FiwghLfs;> kPwy;fs; vd;gtw;wpw;F vjpuhf eltbf;if vLg;gjw;F LLRC mwpf;if tpilaspf;fpd;wJ.

LLRC mwpf;ifiaAk; mjd; gupe; JiufisAk; mKy; gLj;JtJ kpf Kf;f paj;J tk; tha;e ; jJ vd ;g J F wpj;J e hL g+uhTk; X u; fye;Jiuahliy Vw;gLj;JtJ ey;ypzf;fr; nraw; ghl;bw;Fk; . ehl; bd; If;fpaj;jpw;Fk; ngupJk; cjTk;; . rpU\; bfukhdJk; mwpTg+u;tkhdJkhd Xu; fye; Jiuahliy ehL g+uhTk; cUthf;Ftjhapd;> mwpf;ifiaAk; mjd; gupe; Jiufisg; gw;wpAk; ehl;bd; gpui[fSf;F mwpt+l;l Ntz; Lk;. LLRC mwpf;ifapd; xd;gjhtJ mj; jpahaj; ij kpfr; ruskhd nkhopapy; rpq;fsj;jpy; rl;lj;juzp v];.[P GQ;r pN`th nkhopngau;j;jNjhL> mJ jkpo; nkhopapy; v];. rptFUehjdhy; jkpohf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. mj;NjhL ,e ;E}ypd; tiuTg; gpujpia thrpj;J jkJ fUj;Jf;fis toq;fpa midtUf;Fk; ehk; ed;wpAilNahk;. LLRC gupe;Jiufis ruskhfg; Gupe;Jnfhs;tjw; F ,t;ntspaPL cjTk; vd khw;W f;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; vjpu;ghu;f;fpd;wJ.
fyhe pjp ghf;f paNr hjp r utz Kj;J epiwNtw;W g; gzpg;ghsu; khw;W f; nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

iv

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf; f hd epiyak;

cs;s lf;f k;
M izf;F O gw ;w p a jfty;f s ; 1 fw ;w ghl q ;f Sk; ey;y p zf;f K k; gw ;w p a M izf;F O mw p f;i f kw ;W k; mjd ; c s ;s l f;f k; n jhl u;g hd Fw p g;G fs ; 5 fw ;w ghl q ;f Sk; ey;y p zf;f K k; gw ;w p a M izf;F Otp d ; (LLRC) gup e;J iufSk; mtjhd p g;G fSk; 15 Kf;fpa mtjhdp g;GfspdJk; gupe;JiufspdJ k; rhuhk;rk; mj;j p a ha k; 02 Aj;j epWj;jk; kPj hd mtjhdpg;Gfs;

15

mj;j p a ha k; 03 ele;Njwpa epfo;r;rpf spd; tpguk; kl;Lk; 16 mj;j p a ha k; 04 Nkhjy;fspd; ,Wjpf; fl;lk; njhlu;ghf ru;t Njr kdpjhgpkhd rl;lg; gpur;ridfspd; mtjhdpg;Gfs; kw;Wk; gupe;Jiufs;. 16 gilg;gFjp ePf;fk; ngw;w tuk;ngy;iy (No Fire Zones) 17 nghJkf;fspd; c apu; ,og;Gfs; my;yJ fhaq;fs; Vw;gl;l tpNrl re;ju;g;gq;fs; 18 itj;jparhiyfs;{jw;fhypf itj;jpa rhiyfs; 19 Nkhjy; gFjpfs py; nghJkf;fSf;F czT> kUe;Jfs; Nghd;w kdpjhgpkhd epthuzq; fspd; tpepNahfk; 20 kUj;Jt Nrit toq;fy;fs; 22 ruzil e; j { ifjhd kf; fs ; gpd ;d u; fhzhky; Nghd jhf Kd;itf;fg;gLk; Fw ;w r;rhl;Lf;fs; 23 vy;.uP.uP.<. ,dupd; elj;ij 2 4

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf; f hd epiyak;

cs;ehl;L Nkhjy;fSf;F ru;tNjr kdpjhgpkhdr; rl;lq;fspd; gpuNahfq;fs; kP jhd mtjhdpg;G 26 ghjpf;fg;gl;ltu;fis cs ;slf;fpa gupe;Jiufs; 28 rdy; 4 tPbNah fhl;rp Ak; mjid cs;slf;fpa gupe;JiufSk; 3 0 mj;j p aha k; 5 kdpj cupikfs; gw; w pa gupe;Jiufs; 32 fhzkw; Nghjy;> Ml;flj;jy; njhlu;ghd Fw;w r;rhl;Lf;fs; 33 jLj;J itf;fg;gl;bUg; gtu;fSf;fhd ftdpg;G rl;l tpNuhj MA jf; FOf;fs; 42 rpWtu;fspd; fl;l ha Ml;Nru;g;G 43 mgha tha;g;G epiynfhz;l FOtpdu; 45 ngz;fs; 46 rpWtu;fs; 49 KjpNahu;fs; 50 cs;sf ,lk;ngau;e;j kf;fs; 51 tlf;F kw;Wk; fpof;fpy; K];ypk; r%fk; njhlu;ghd fuprizfs; 54 Ngr;Rr; Rje;jpuk; kw;Wk; jfty;fSf;fhd cupik 55 kj topghl;Lr; Rje;jpuk; > xd;W $Lk; Rje;jpuk;> elkhLk; Rje;jpuk; 57 fle;j fhy tp rhuiz Mizf;FO mwpf;iffs; njhlu;ghd gpw ;njhlu;;r;rp eltbf;iffs; 58 mj;j p a ha k; 06

39

vi

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf; f hd epiyak;

fhzpg;gpur;rp idfs; kPjhd mtjhdpg;Gfs;. jkJ fhzpfSf;F kPsj; jpUk;GjYk; kPs; FbNaw;w Kk; 58 mj;j p a ha k; - 07 kP s; msp g;G ,og;g Pl; L epthuzq; fs; kP jhd mtjhd pg; GfSk; gupe;JiufSk; 7 0 mj;j p a ha k; -08 ey;ypzf;fk; gpupT - I NghUf;Fg; gpd;duhd ey;ypzf;fk; kPJ jhf;fq;fis Vw ;gLj;Jk; tplaq;fs; kPjhd mtjhdpg;Gfs; 75 mj;j p a ha k; - 08 ey;ypzf;fk; gpupT II ey;ypzf;f k; kPjhd mtjhdpg;G fs; kw;Wk; gupe;Jiufs; 79 jkpo; r%fj;jpd ; kdf;Fiwfs; 83 ,yq;ifapd ; ngUk;ghd;ik { rpWghd;ik ,dq;fSf; fpilapyhd cwTfs; njhlu;ghd tuyhw;Wg; gpd;dzp 83 K];ypk; r%fj;jpd ; kdf; Fiwfs; 85 Nghu; ele;j gpuNjrq;f Sf;F mz; ikapy; mike;j fpuhkq;fspy; tho;e;j rpq;fs kf;fspd; kdf; Fiwfs; ,e;jpa tk;rhtspj; jkpo u;fspd; kdf; Fiwfs; 87 kdf;Fiwfs; kPJ ftdk; nrYj;Jjy; kw;Wk; ey;ypzf;fj;jpid Kd;N dw;Wjy; njhl u;ghd gpur;rp idfs; rl;lj;jpd; Ml;rpia eilKiwg;gLj;jhik 88 Ml;rp njhlu;ghd gpur;rpidfs; 94 gpui[fspd; kdf;Fiwfis ifahs;tjw;fhd xU tpNrl epWtdk; 94 Vida eilKiwfs; 96
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf; f hd epiyak;

86

vii

mjpfhug;gfpu;t pw ;fhd Njit 9 8 nkhopf;nfhs;if

103

fy;tp f;fhd rktha;g;Gf;fs; 106 rkhjhdf; fy;tp 108 Gyk;ngau;e ;jtu;fs; 109 ru;tkj eltbf;iffSk; ey;y pzf;fj;jpw ;fhd kjq;fspd; gq;fspg;Gk; 112 fiyAk; fyhrhuKk; ey;ypz f;fjij Nkk;gLj; Jtjw;fhd fUtpfshf nkhopf Sf;Fk; fyhrhuq;fSf;Fkpi lapyhd cwT epiy 114 Njrpa ,dq;fSf;fpil Na gu];gu cwTfs; 117 murpay; ,zf;fg;g hl;bd; mtrpak; 11 9
LLRC gup e;J iufs p d ; m z;k p j;j tuyhW

123

If;fpa ehLfs pd; nrayhsu; ehafj;jpd; epGzu; FO jU];khd; mwpf;ifapy; Kd;itf;fg;gl;l Fw;w r;r hl;Lf;fs;

125

Njrg;gw;Wk; Vfhjpg j;jpa vjpu;g;Gk; 127 INuhg;gpa Mizf;FOtpd; gupe;Jiufs; (GSP+). 129 n[dPthg; gp Nuuizfs; 132 mjpfhuj;ij Ftpikag;gLj;Jk; murpay; 13 4

viii

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf; f hd epiyak;

Mizf;FO mwpf;ifia [dhjpgjpaplk; rku;g;gpj;jy;...

Mizf;FO gw;wpa jfty;fs;


ngau; : fw;w ghlq;fSk; ey;ypzf;fKk; gw;wpa [dhjpgjp tprhuiz Mizf;FO (Commission of Inquiry on Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation LLRC) rl;lk; : tprhuiz Mizf;FOr; rl;lj;jpd; cWg;Giu 2 epakdj; jpfjp : 2010 Nk 15k; jpfjp NkjF [dhjpgjp mtu;fshy; epakpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,ilf; f hy mwpf; i f rku; g ; g pf; f g; g l; l jpfjp : 2010 etk;gu; 11 Mizf; F O ,Wjp mwpf; i f [dhjpgjpaplk; rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;l jpfjp : 2011 etk;gu; 15
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Frontline India

Photo source: Dreamstime.com

mwpf; i f ghuhSkd; w j; j py; rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;l jpfjp : 2011 brk;gu; 17 fw; w ghlq; f Sk; ey; y pzf; f Kk; gw; w pa Mizf; F Otpd; rhl; r pfs; : 1. fpilj;j gpujpepjpj;Jtq;fspd; vz;zpf;if 266 (gpw;Nru;f;if 1.2) 2. tha;nkhop %y rhl;rpfSf;fhf miof;fg;gl;Nlhupd; vz;zpf;if - 49 (gpw;Nru;f;if 1.3) 3. vOj;J %y Nfhupf;if tpLf;fg;gl;L nghOk;gpy; tha;nkhop %y rhl;rp toq;fpNahu; vz;zpfif 138 (gpwNru;fif 1.3) ; ; ; 4. Mizf;FO nfhOk;gpw;F ntspNa elj;jpa $l;lj;njhlu;fspd; vz;zpf;if 47 (gpw;Nru;f;if 1.4) tprhuizf; F cl; g l; l fhy vy; i y : 2002 ngg;utup 21 Kjy; 2009 Nk 19k; jpfjp tiuapyhd rk;gtq;fs; xg;gilf;fg;gl;l flikfs; : 2002 -02-21 Kjy; 2009-05-19k; jpfjp tiuapyhd gpdtUk; tplaq;fs; ; gw;wpa tprhuiz elj;jp mwpf;if rku;g;gpj;jy;. tplaq; f s; : I. 2002-02-21k; jpfjp mKyhf; f g; g l; l Nghu; e pWj; j xg; g e; j k; Njhy; t p mile; j ikf; f hd fhuzpfSk; mjd;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Mizf;FO cWg;gpdu;fs;

gpd; d u; 2009-05-19 tiu ,lk; n gw; w rk;gtq;fSk; II. Nkw;gb rk;gtq;fs; njhlu;ghf xU egNuh my; y J FOkNkh kiwKfkhf nghWg;Gf;$w Ntz;Lkh? ,r;rk;gtq;fs; %yk; ehk; fw;f Ntz;ba ghlq;fSk; ,j;jifa rk;gtq;fs; vjpu; fhyj;jpy; ,lk;ngwhkYk; ,Uf;fj;jf;fjhf ehk; fz;lwpa Ntz;ba tplaq;fs;. Nkw; g b rk; g tq; f s; fhuzkhf ghjpg;Gf;Fs;shd jdp egu; my;yJ jq;fp tho; N thu; my; y J cupj; j hsu; ,ay; G epiyf;F cl;gLj;j vLf;f Ntz;ba top Kiwfs; ,j; j ifa rk; g tq; f s; vjpu; f hyj; j py; ,lk; n gwhj tifapy; rfy
3

III.

IV.

V.

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Daily Mirror / Photo Courtesy of Sri Lanka Guardian Website

r%fq;fspilNa xw;WikiaAk; Njrpa ey;ypzf;fj;ijAk; Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;F ,t; Mizg; g j; j puj; j pd; fP o ; tprhuizf; F cl; g Lj; j Ntz; b a tplaq; f s; gw; w p Nkw; n fhs; s Ntz; b a gupe; J iufspd; nghUl;L Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;ba epWtd epu;thf rl;l eltbf;iffs; ahit? Mizf; F Otpd; cWg; g pdu; f s; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. jpU. rP.Mu;.B. rpyth - [dhjpgjp rl;lj;juzp> ; jtprhsu; fyhepjp jpU. V. nuh`hd; ngNuuh Nguhrpupau; jpU. fUzhuj;d `q;ftj;j jpU. rP. rz;Kfk; jpU. vr;.vk;.[P. rpupghy gy;yp`f;fhu jpUkjp. kNdh`up ,uhkehjd; jpU. vk;. guhf;fpuk guzfk (nrayhsu;) jpU. vr;.uP.vk;. g/gPf;

rpf; f yhd jd; i k fhuzkhf Ntz; L nkd; N w rl;lq;fs; kPwg;gltpy;iy (9.27 Kjy; 9.37 tiu

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

LLRC

Kd;dpiyapy; rhl;rp $wg;gLk; xU re;ju;g;gk;

mj; j pahak; I

fw; w ghlq; f Sk; ey; y pzf; f Kk; gw; w pa Mizf; F O mwpf; i f kw; W k; mjd; cs; s lf; f k; njhlu; g hd Fwpg; G fs;
mwpKfKk; KiwikAk; Mizf; F Otplk; xg; g ilf; f g; g l; l flikfs; (gpwpNjhu; ,lj; j py; tpgupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ) vOj; J %yKk; tha; n khop %yKk; rhl; r pfis ngw; W f; n fhs; t J gw; w pa Kiwia eilKiwg;gLj;JtJ gw;wp jhk; tpUk;gpa nkhopapy; rhl;rp $w KbAk;. Mdhy; ,Wjp mwpf; i f Mq; f pyj; j py; ntspaplg;gLk; epGzj;Jt mwpTilatu;fs; Mizf;FO Kd;Nd miof;fg;gLtu;. tpNrl mwpTila egu;fs; Mizf;FO Kd; rhl;rp $w miof;fg;gLtu;.

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Ceylon-Ananda Blog

gz;lhuehaf;f - nry;tehafk; cld;gbf;ifia ifr;rhj;jpl;l gpd;du;....

mj; j pahak; II

Nghu; epWj; j xg; g e; j k;


i. ii. 2002-02-21 Kjy; 2009-05-19 tiuapyhd Nghu; epWj;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; jhf;fk; Nghu; Vw;gLtjw;fhd fhuzq;fs; rhl;rpfs; %yk; rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;lik nghUshjhu rPu;FioT fhuzkhf Vw;gl;l mjpUg;jp ghugl;rkhd ftdpg;G m). fy; t pj; JiwapYk; njhopy; tha;g;Gf;fspYk; ghugl;rk; Vw;gl;lik M). nkhopf;nfhs;if nraw;gLj;jg;glhik ,). mjpfhuj;ijg; gfpu;fpd;w NghJ tlf;F fpof;F khfhzq;fSf;F Nghjpa msT mjpfhuq;fs; toq;fg;glhik.

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Lanka Standard website / Courtesy of The Hindu

,lk;ngau epu;g;ge;jpf;fg;gl;l K];yPk; kf;fs;

<).

1950 fspypUe; J jP u ; T fhz; g jw; F Nkw; n fhz; l Kaw; r pfs; ntw;wpaspf;fhik.

c). xg;ge;jk; mKyhf;Fk; NghJ murpay; uPjpahfTk; Aj;j uPjpahfTk; gytPdkhd Xu; Ml;rp epytpaik C). K]; y pk; kf; f s; gw; w pf; ftdk; nrYj;jg;glhik v). trjp nra; g tupd; (Facilitator) eltbf;iffs; Njhy;tp fhZjy; V). murpaw; fl;rpfspilNa fhzg;gl;l xw;WikaPdk; I) vy;uPuP< ,r;re;ju;ggj;ij gad;gLj;Jjy; ;

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Associated Press Photo by Gurinder Osan

vy;.uP.uP.<. Nghuhspfshf gps;isfis ,izj;jy;

mj; j pahak; III

ghJfhg; G g; gilfspd; eltbf; i ffs; gw; w pa Ma; T


Nghu; epWj;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; gpd;G murpay; jPu;tpw;F ,Ue;j re;ju;g;gk; kl;Lg;gLj;jg; gly; fpof;F khfhz ,uhZt eltbf;iffs; %yk; khtpy; - MW kP z ; L k; ifg; g w; w pf; nfhs;sy; 2007 ngg; u tupapy; td; d papy; eltbf;iffspd; Muk;gk; Nghu;

tTdpah> kd;dhu;> gpuNjrq;fSf;Fg; gpd;du; 2009-04-05 GJf; F bapUg; G g; gpuNjrk; tpLtpf;fg;gly;

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Ministry of Defence

kdpj Nea rl;lq;fs; kPwg;gLjy;

2006 Kjy; 2009 tiu ,uhZtj;jpypUe;J 5>556 NgUk; vy; u P u P < jug; g pypUe; J 22>247 ,we;Js;sik.

mj; j pahak; IV

kdpj Near; rl; l k; gw; w pa gpur; r pidfs;


ru; t Njr kdpjNea Nfhl;ghLfs; rl; l q; f spd;

1949,y; ifr; r hj; j plg; g l; l 4 n[dP t h rkthaq;fs;. 1977 ,y; ifr;rhj;jplg;gl;l ,uz; L tpNrl rkthaq; f s; > 2000Mk; Mz;by; rpWtu;fis gilfspy; ,izj;Jf; nfhs;sy; gw;wpa rkthak;.

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Jananibarathy.wordpress.com

Photo source: riyasewana.com

nts;is Ntd; gaq;fuj;jpw;F Kw;Wg;Gs;sp itg;Nghkh?

cs; e hl; L Nkhjy; f s; gw; w pa nghJ cWg;Giu-(03) ru; t Njr kdpjNear; rl; l j; j pd; fP o ; Nghuhspfis nghJ kf;fsplkpUe;J Ntwhf milahsk; fhZjy; (2000 I.eh jPu;khdk;) nghJkf; f s; thOk; ,lq; f Sk; ,uhZtj; j pdJk; Fwpf; N fhs; f is ntt;Ntwhf milahsk; fhZjy;. tpfpjhrhu Nfhl; g hLfis mDrupj; j y; mjhtJ vjpu;ghu;f;ff;$ba jhf;Fjy;fis kP w p nghJkf; f Sf; F g; ghjpg; i g Vw; g Lj; j f; $ ba MAjg; gpuNahfk; jil nra;ag;gl;Ls;sik. Aj; j #dpa gpuhe; j paq; f is gpufldg;gLj;Jjy; Jg;ghf;fpg; gpuNahfq;fspd; NghJ nfhiy nra;ag;gLjy; itj; j parhiyfs; { jw; f hypf itj; j pa rhiyfs; vd;gtw;iwj; jhf;Fjy;. czT> kUe; J cl; g l kdpj Nea cjtpfis toq;Fjy; 2009 [dtup Kjy; epyik ,lk;ngau;e;j kf;fs; gw;wpa vz;zpf;ifAk; juTfSk; itj;jpa trjpfis toq;Fjy; kdpj Near; rl;lq;fs; kPwg;gly; gw;wpa Ma;T tpLtpf; f g; g l; l gpuNjrq; f Sf; F nghJ kf;fSk; NghuhspfSk; tUif jUk; NghJ ghJfhg;Gg; gilfspd; elj;ij
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

10

kdpj cupikfs;
,yq;ifapd; murpay; mikg;G - epiwNtw;W epu;thf Vw;ghLfs; 7 ru; t Njr rkthaq; f spd; fP o ; kdpj cupikfisg; ghJfhg;gjw;F murhq;fk; flg;ghL nfhz;Ls;sJ. Nkhjy; fhuzkhf Vw;gl;l kdpj cupikg; gpur; r pidfs; - flj; j y; f s; > fhzhkw; Nghjy;fs;> ruzile;Njhu; nts;is Ntd; gpur;rpid rl;ltpNuhjkhd MAjf; FOf;fs; ngz;fs;> rpWtu;fs; kw;Wk; tNahjpgu;fs; vjpu;Nehf;Fk; gpur;rpidfs; tyJ Fiwe; N jhu; > cs; e hl; b y; ,lk;ngau;e;Njhu; gw;wpa gpur;rpidfs; tlf; F fpof; F khfhzq; f spd; K]; y pk; kf;fs; njhlu;ghd gpur;rpidfs; fUj; J r; Rje; j puk; kw; W k; jfty; f isg; ngWk; Rje;jpuk; topghl;Lr; Rje;jpuk;> elkhLk; Rje;jpuk;> xd;W$Lk; Rje;jpuk;

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

11

Photo source: Centre for Human Rights

mj; j pahak; V

mj; j pahak; VI

fhzpg; gpur; r pidfs; > kP s ; tUif> kP s ; FbNaw; w k;


Nkhjy; fhuzkhf fhzpfis ,oe;Njhu; kdpjf; Nflaj; j pw; F ,iuahNdhu; > aho;g;ghzj;jpypUe;J td;dpf;Fr; nry;y epu;g;ge;jpf;fg;gl;Nlhu; fpof;F khfhzj;jpd; fhzpfis gwpKjy; nra; j ikahy; jkJ trpg; g plq; f is ,oe;Njhu;. fpof;F khfhzj;jpy; tho;e;j rpq;fs kf;fs; jkJ tptrhaf; fhzpfis ,oj;jy; tlkhfhzj;jpypUe;J tpul;babf;fg;gl;l K];ypk; kf;fs; kPs; tUifAk; kPs; FbNaw;wKk; mjp cau; ghJfhg; G tisaq; f spy; fhzpfis ,oe;Njhu;. fhzp cupik njhlu; g hd Mtzq; f is ,oe; N jhu; > Nghyp Mtzq; f s; %yk; fhzpfis cupj;jhf;fpf; nfhs;sy;.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

12

Photo source: Website of the Ministry of Resettement

mj; j pahak; VII

,ay; G epiyia Vw; g Lj; J jYk; e\; l <L epthuzk; toq; f Yk;
epu;thf Vw;ghLfs; mj; j pahak; VIII

ey; y pzf; f k;
Aj; j j; j pd; gpd; d u; mDrupf; f Ntz; b a mbg;gilf; Nfhl;ghLfs; kPs; FbNaw;wk;> tPlikg;G trjpfs;> tho;thjhuk; tlf; F fpof; F khfhzq; f spd; fy; t pj; Njitfs; kPd;gpb> tptrha trjpfs; itj;jpa trjpfs; fpof; F khfhz K]; y pk; kf; f is kP s f; Fbaku;j;jy;
13

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Courtesy of CPA

kpjp ntbfis mfw;Wjy;

cau; ghJfhg;G tyaq;fSk; ghJfhg;Gg; gilapdu; fhuzkhf Vw;gLk; jilfis ePf;FjYk; kpjp ntbfis mfw;Wjy; Aj;jj;jpd; gpd;du; Gyk;ngau; r%fj;jpd; (diaspora) gpur;rpidfs; jkpo; kf; f spd; kdf; F iwfisg; gw; w pa $Uzu;T mjpfhuj;ijg; gfpu;e;Jnfhs;Sk; mtrpak; nkhopf;nfhs;ifia eilKiwg;gLj;jy;. rk re;ju;g;gKk; rk fy;tpAk;

mj; j pahak; IX 285 gupe; J iufs; Nkw;$wpa mj;jpahaq;fspy; Fwpg;gplg;gLk; tplaq; f Sf; F Vw; G ila gupe; J iufs; ,t;tj;jpahaj;jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gLfpd;wd.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

14

Photo source: IRIN News

fw;w ghlq;fSk; ey;ypzf;fKk; gw;wpa Mizf;FOtpd; (LLRC) gupe;JiufSk; mtjhdpg;GfSk;


Kf;fpakhd mtjhdpg;GfspdJk; gupe;JiufspdJk; rhuhk;rk;
(fw; W f; n fhz; l ghlq; f s; kw; W k; ey; y pzf; f Mizf;FO mwpfifapd; xt;nthU mj;jpahaj;jpd; ; ,Wjpapy; Fwpg; g plg; g l; l mtjhdpg; G fSk; gupe;JiufSk; ,q;F jug;gl;Ls;sd. ,uz;lhk; mj; j pahaj; j pypUe; J vl; l hk; mj; j pahak; tiuapyhd mtjhdpgGfspdJk; gupeJiufspdJk; ; ; nkhj;j vz;zpf;if 285. mit midj;Jk; 9Mk; mj; j pahakhff; Fwpg; g plg; g l; L s; s J. Nkw; g b mtjhdpg;G fspdJk; gupeJiufspdJk; rhuhk;rk; ; fPNo jug;gl;Ls;sd.

Aj;j epWj;jk; kPjhd mtjhdpg;Gfs;


9.1 vt;tsT ];jpukw;wjhfTk; gaDWjpaw;w jhfTk; ,Ue; j NghjpYk; > Aj; j epWj; j xg; g e; j k; rk; g e; j g; g l; l jug; G fs; midj;Jk; Ngr;Rthu;j;ij %ykhdnjhU jP u ; T f; F ,l; L r; nry; y f; $ banjhU nray; K iwf; F Xu; mj; j pthuk; ,l; l J. Mdhy;> mJ ntw;wp mspf;ftpy;iy. Gupe; J zu; T kw; W k; nraw; g hLfspd; FiwghL fhuzkhfTk; > rkhjhd nrad;Kiwfspd; mDruizahsuhfTk; fz; f hzpg; G f; FOtpd; jiyikj; Jtj; i jAk; nghWg; N gw; W nraw; g l; l Nehu; N tapd; gytP d khd ,ul; i l

mj; j pahak; 02

9.2

Gupe;Jzu;T kw;Wk; nraw;ghLfspd; FiwghL fhuzkhfTk;> rkhjhd nrad;Kiwfspd; mDruizahsuhfTk; fz;fhzpg;Gf; FOtpd; jiyikj; Jtj;ijAk; nghWg;Ngw;W nraw;gl;l Nehu;Ntapd; gytPdkhd ,ul;il eilKiw fhuzkhf mur kw;Wk; mur rhu;gw;w ,U jug;gpdupilNa epiyNgwhd rkhjhdj;ij Vw;gLj;Jtjw;fhd xU ntw;wpfukhd khjpupnad mJ ep&gpffg;gltpyiy. ; ;

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

15

Photo source: AsiaTribune Website

eilKiw fhuzkhf mur kw;Wk; mur rhu;gw;w ,U jug;gpdupilNa epiyNgwhd rkhjhdj; i j Vw; g Lj; J tjw; f hd xU ntw; w pfukhd khjpupnad mJ ep&gpf;fg;gltpy;iy. 9.3 Aj;j epWj;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; fUj;jpay; kw;Wk; mjd; cWg;Giufspd; fhuzkhf vy;.uP.uP.<. mtw;iw ed;F gad;gLj;jpf;nfhz;lJld;> rl;ltpNuhj MAjq;fis ifaspf;fhky; njhlu;e;Jk; MAjq;fis ntspehLfspy; ,Ue;J nfhz;L te;jJ. kdpj cupikfs; flg;ghLfis kPwpaNjhL rpWtu;fis jdJ gilfspy; <LgLj;jpaJ.

uzpy; tpf;fpukrpq;f mtu;fs; Nghu; epWj;j xg;ge;jj;ijf; ifrhj;jpl;l gpd;du;...

mj; j pahak; 03

ele;Njwpa epfo;r;rpfspd; tpguk;


mj; j pahak; 04

mit midj;Jk; 9Mk; mj;jpahakhff; Fwpggplg;gl;Ls;sJ. ; Nkw;gb mtjhdpg;G fspdJk; gupeJiufspdJk; ; rhuhk;rk; fPNo jug;gl;Ls;sd.

Nkhjy;fspd; ,Wjpf; fl;lk; njhlu;ghf ru;tNjr kdpjhgpkhd rl;lg; gpur;ridfspd; mtjhdpg;Gfs; kw;Wk; gupe; J iufs; .
9.4 ru; t Njr kdpjhgpkhdr; rl; l q; f spd; kP w y; f s; njhlu;ghd Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fis Muha;ifapy; Mizf; F O jpUg; j p milfpwJ. nghJkf;fspd; ghJfhg;Gf;F ,uhZtk; cr; r fl; l Kd; D upik mspj;Js;sJ. nghJ kf;fspd; ghjpg;igj; jtpu; g ; g jw; F my; y J mtw; i wf; Fiwg; g jw; F ,Wjpf; fl; l q; f spy; ghJfhg; G g; gilfspd; efu; T fs; jpl; l kplg;gl;l ke;j fjpiaf; nfhz;bUe;jd.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

16

vy;.uP.uP.< jiytu; Nghu; epWj;j xg;ge;jj;jpy; ifnag;gkpLfpwhu;.

gilg;gFjp ePf;fk; ngw;w tuk;ngy;iy


(No Fire Zones)

9.6

Nkw;gb tplaq;fSf;Fk; rhl;rpfSf;Fk; mika> Nkhjy;fSf;F ,ileLtpy; rpffpg; ; nghJ kf;fs; capupoe;Js;sdu;. Mdhy;> nghJkf; f is ghJfhg; G g; gilfs; jpl;lkpl;L ,yf;F itf;ftpy;iy vd;gJ Mizf; F Otpd; KbthFk; . Nkhjy; gFjpfspypUe;J jg;gpNahl Kaw;rpjjNghJ ; nfhiy nra; a g; g Ljy; > kpjpntbfs; > ee;jpffliyf; flg;gjpy; Vw;gl;l mghaq;fs; ; vd;gd $l;lhfg; nghJ kf;fs; ghjpgGfSf;Fg; ; gq; f spj; j d. vy; . uP . uP . <. ,d; MAjq; f s; kPjhd jhf;Fjy;fs; Aj;jj;jpd; tpfpjhrhuf; Nfhl;ghLfSf;F KuzhdJ my;y.

Nkhjy;fSf;F ,ileLtpy; rpf;fpg; nghJ kf;fs; capupoe;Js;sdu;.

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

17

Photo source: AFP

9.5.

,uhZt eltbf; i ffis Nkw; nfhs; t jw; f hd nfhs; i f xd; w pd; cUthf; f j; j py; nghJkf; f spd; capu; ghJfhg;G Kf;fpa mk;rkhFk;. mj;jpahak; 4 ,d; IIMk; gpuptpd; 04.106 Kjy; 4.111 tiuahd rhl;rpfspd; %yk; jpl;lkpl;Nl nghJkf;fs; ,yf;fhff; nfhs;sg;gl;ldu; vd;gJ cWjpg;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy. (4.106 Kjy; 4.111 tiu nghJkf; f spd; rhl; r pfs; Fwpg; g plg; g l; L s; s d. flw; gilapdupd; jhf; F jy; %yKk; NtW gilg; g puptpdupd; jhf; F jy; f s; %yKk; xU rpyu; ,we; j jhff; $wg; g LfpwJ. ,t; t plq; f spy; vy; . uP . uP . <. cWg; g pdu; f s; ,Ue; j jhfTk; fhakile; N jhUf; F k; mtu;fSf;Fk; mur gil ftdpj;jjhfTk; Nkw;gb rhl;rpfspy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUe;jd)

9.7

Nkw;gb eltbf;iffs; vj;jifa re;ju;ggq;fspd; ; fPo; eil ngw;wpUf;fyhk; vd;gijf; fz;lwptJ mur jug;gpdupd; flikahFk;. vdNt Fw;wk; Gupe;jtu;fSf;Fj; jz;lid toq;FtJk;> ,og;Gfs; Vw;gl;l FLk;gq;fSf;F e\;l <L toq;FtJ gw;wpAk; ftdk; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

Nkw;gb jPu;khdq;fis vl;bagpd; #o;epiy tpfpjhrhu Nfhl;ghl;il tpQ;rp ,Ue;jjh? vdf; fz; l wptJk; Mizf; F Otplk; xg;gilf;fg;gl;lJ. vdpDk;> epiyikapd; rpf; f yhd jd; i kia fUj; j pw; n fhz; L eilKiwr; rhj;jpakhd rfy ghJfhg;G eltbf;iffisAk; ghJfhg;Gg; gilfs; Nkw;nfhz;Ls;sd. ,ijtpl eilKiwapy; xd; i wAk; nra; j pUf; f KbahJ vd; W k; Mizf;FO mgpg;gpuhag;gLfpwJ. ru;tNjr ePjpkd;wk; Rl;bf;fhl;bAs;s xU tplaj;ij ,q;F Qhgf%l;l tpUk;GfpdNwhk;. ; ,uhZt eltbf;iffspd; NghJ Vw;gLk; kuzq; f s; > fhaq; f s; > nrhj; j opTfs; vd;gd Vw;gl;l Kiwia ePjpkd;wk; Kd;Nd kPs; cUtfg;gLj;jy; mrhj;jpakhFk; vd tpgupjjij ,r;re;ju;ggj;jpy; epidT $u;jy; ; ; nghUj;jkhdjhFk;.

9.8

nghJkf; f spd; capu; ,og; G fs; my; y J fhaq; f s; Vw; g l; l tpNrl re; j u; g ; g q; f s; 9.9 NkNy FwpggpllthW 4.106 - 4.111 tiuapyhd ; ; rhl;rpfSf;fika nghJ kf;fsp;d capu; ,og;Gf;fs; Vw;gl;l re;ju;g;gq;fis kPs; cUtfg; g Lj; j Yf; f hd rpukq; f is Mizf;FO vjpu;nfhz;lJ. ghJfhg;Gg; gilfs; jpl;lkpl;L ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;jhj NghJk;> Nkw;gb eltbf;iffs; vj;jifa re;ju;g;gq;fspd; fPo; eil ngw;wpUf;fyhk; vd; g ijf; fz; l wptJ mur jug; g pdupd; flikahFk; . vdNt Fw; w k; Gupe;jtu;fSf;Fj; jz;lid toq;FtJk;> ,og;Gfs; Vw;gl;l FLk;gq;fSf;F e\;l
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

18

vy;.uP.uP.< fl;Lg;ghl;Lg; gpuNjrj;jpypUe;J ,uhZtf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lg; gpuNjrq;fSf;F tUif jUk; nghJ kf;fs;

<L toq;FtJ gw;wpAk; ftdk; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

itj; j parhiyfs; { jw; f hypf itj; j pa rhiyfs;


9.10 capufSf;Fk; fl;blq;fSf;Fk; Nrjq;fis ; tpistpjjthW n\y; tPrRf;fs; Vw;gl;Ls;sij ; ; Mizf;FO Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpd;wJ. Mdhy:> Mizf; F Otpd; Kd; rku; g ; g pf; f g; g l; l rhd;Wfs;> n\y; tPrg;gl;l jpir> rupahd ,ltikT vd; g d gw; w p xU Fog; g khd Njhw;wj;ijNa Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wd. 9.11 cWjpahd rhl; r paj; j pd; mbg; g ilapy; mjw;Fg; nghWg;ghdtu;fisj; jPu;khdpg;gJ Mizf;FO vjpu;nfhz;l rthyhFk;. 9.12 Mizf; F O vjpu; N ehf; f pa rpukq; f s; : Nkhjypd; miktplq;fs; Nkhjpypd; cf;fpuj; jd;ikf;F Vw;g cldbg;Gyd; tprhuiz ,lk; n gwhik kw; W k; Kd; i tf; f g; g l; l
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; 19

Photo source: inaccnet.com

murhq;fk;> mj;jpahtrpa Nritfs; Mizahsu; ru;tNjr epWtdq;fs; njhz;lu; epWtdq;fs; vd;gd Mw;wpa Nritfs; ghuhl;Lf;Fupait

rhd;Wfspd;gb ve;jj; jug;gpypUe;J n\y; tP r ; R ,lk; n gw; w J vd; g jpy; Fog; g khd epiyNa cs;sJ. ,U jug;gpdUk; n\y; tPr;Rf;fspy; <Lgl;likf;F rhl;rpfs; cz;L. 9.13 cupa Kjy;epiyr; rhd;;W ,y;yhjjpdhy; nghWg; g hd jug; G gw; w p jP u ; k hdpf; f KbahJs;sJ> 9.14 vdpDk;> n\y; tPr;Rf; fhuzkhf Vw;gl;l capu; ,og;Gf;fs;> cilik ,og;Gf;fs; rhu; g py; kdpjhgpkhd rkpf; i QahfTk; ey;ypzf;f eltbf;ifahfTk; nghUj;jkhd e\;l <L toq;f Ntz;Lk;. Nkhjy; gFjpfspy; nghJkf; f Sf; F czT kw; W k; kUe; J fs; cl; g l kdpjhgpkhd epthuzq; f spd; tpepNahfk; 9.15 vy;.uP.uP.< ,d; fl;Lg;ghl;Lg; gpuNjrq;fspy; tho; e ; j nghJ kf; f Sf; F 2009 [dtup tiuapyhd czT tpepNahfk; jiu khu; f ; f khf toq; f g; g l; l J. Nkhjy; f s; jP t pukila fly; khu; f ; f k; gad; gLj;jg;gl;lJ. vdpDk;> 2009 ngg;utup Kjy; Nk khj eLg; g Fjp tiu tpepNahfk; Fiwe;jJ> kdpjhgpkhd tpepNahfq;fs; ghupa rpukq;fSf;F kj;jpapy; ,lk;ngw;wik Mizf;FOtpw;Fg; GydhfpaJ. 9.16 Nkhjy; jPtpukile;j epiyikfspd; fPo; toq; f Ntz; b a czTj; njhif fly; k hu; f ; f khfNt mDg; g g; g l; l J. ,jw;fhf murhq;f mjpgu;fs;> ghJfhg;Gg; gilapdu; nrQ; r pYitr; rq; f k; > cyf

20

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Nghupd; ,Wjpf; fl;lj;jpy; xU re;ju;g;gk;

9.17

9.18

czTj; jpl; l k; kw; W k; njhz; l u; epWtdq;fs; jkJ capiug; gzak; itj;J gzpahw; w paij Mizf; F O Vw; W f; nfhs;fpdwJ. ; Nkhjypd; jP t puj; jd; i k fhuzkhf kl; L g; g Lj; j g; g l; l toq; f y; f isf; $l epahakhd Kiwapy; tpepNahfpg; g jw; F vy;.uP.uP.<. ,lkpUe;J Vw;gl;l jilfisAk; nghUl; g Lj; j hky; Nkw; g b ,Wjpf; fl; l j; j py; > murhq; f k; > mj; j pahtrpa Nritfs; Mizahsu; ru; t Njr epWtdq;fs; njhz;lu; epWtdq;fs; vd;gd Mw;wpa Nritfs; ghuhl;Lf;Fupait ,j; j ifa fLikahd Kaw; r pfs; ,ilNaAk; nghJkf; f s; NghJkhd czitg; ngw Kbahikahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sdu;.

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

21

Photo source: REUTERS

9.19

Ml;fs; ,uhZtg; ghJfhg;gpw;fhf ruziltij Neubahff; fz;ljhf $wg;gl;l rhl;rpfSf;F mika mtu;fs; fhzhkw; Nghfr; nra;ag;gl;Ls;sduhapd>; Nkw;gb eltbf;iffs; jz;lid ngwf;$ba xU Fw;wkhFk;. ,J rk;ge;jkhf Gyd; tprhuiz nra;J Fw;wthspfSf;F jz;lid toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd Mizf;FO typAWj;JfpwJ.

rpf;Fz;L ,Ue;j nghJkf;fSf;F> czT> kUe;J tiffs; kw;Wk; mj;jpahtrpag; nghUl; f is toq; F tjw; F ru; t Njr r%fKk; gy; N tW epWtdq; f Sk; rhj;jpakhd eltbf;iffis vLj;jJ vd Mizf;FO fUJfpd;wJ. gilg;gFjp ePf;fk; ngw;w tuk;ngy;iyapy; vy; . uP . uP . < ,duhy; gzaf; ifjpfshfg; gpbj;J itf;fg;gl;bUe;j nghJ kf;fspd; vz; z pf; i f njhlu; g hf jpl; l tl; l khd rhl;rpfs; ngw Kbatpyiy. vt;thwhapDk; ; Xu; Aj; j je; j pukhf nghJkf; f is gl; b dpNghLk; Nehf; f j; j pw; f hf nghJkf; f spd; njhifia Fiwj; J f; fhz; g pg; g jw; F murhq; f k; eltbf; i f vLj; j J vd; g ij Mizf; F O Vw;Wf;nfhs;s KbahJ. mj;jpahak; 4 gpupT II ,y; tpgupffg;gl;lthW ; kUe; J fSk; itj; j pa NritfSk; NghjpasT toq; f g; g ltpy; i y vd Njhd;WfpwJ. vdpDk; Nkhjypd; jPtpuj; jd;ik fhuzkhfTk; Nkhjy; ,lk;ngw;w miktplj; j pw; F mz; i kapy; itj; j pa rhiyfs; mike;jpUe;jijAk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. nghJkf; f Sf; F itj; j pa trjpfis toq;FtJ njhlu;ghf Mizf;FO Kd; rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;l jfty;fs; NghJkhdjhf mikatpy;iy. vdpDk; mit kdpjNea fhuzpfshy; NkYk; tprhuiz nra; a
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.20

kUj; J t Nrit toq; f y; f s; 9.21

9.22

22

nghJ kf;fSf;F itj;jpa trjpfs; toq;fpaik njhlu;ghf Mizf;FO Kd;dpiyapy; rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;l tplaq;fs; NghjhJ

Ntz;ba xU tplakhf mike;Js;sJ. mj; j ifa re; j u; g ; g j; j py; fhakile; j nghJkf;fspd; vz;zpf;if fhaq;fspd; ,ay;G> rpfpr;ir mspg;gjw;fhd Mw;wy; rpfpr;ir ngw;w vy;.uP.uP.<. cWg;gpdu;fspd; vz; z pf; i f Mfpatw; i w ftdj; j pw; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ruziljy; { ifjhjy; vd; g tw; w pd; gpd; d u; fhzhky; Nghdjhf Kd; i tf; f g; g Lk; Fw; w r; r hl; L f; f s; 9.23 mj;jpahak; 4 gpupT II ,d; 4.242 Kjy; 4.258 tiu Fwpg; g pl; l thW Fwpg; g pl; l Ml; f s; ,uhZtg; ghJfhg;gpw;fhf ruziltij Neubahff; fz; l jhf $wg; g l; l rhl;rpfSf;F mika mtu;fs; fhzhkw;
23

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: UN Photo/Eskinder Debebe

ru;tNjr kdpj cupikr; rl;lq;fis jPtpukhf kPwpa vy;.uP.uP.<. cWg;gpdu;fSf;F vjpuhf cupa Kiwapy; Fw;wq;fisr; rhl;Ltjw;F mtrpakhd mwpf;iffisg; ngw Ntz;Lk;.

Nghfr; nra;ag;gl;Ls;sduhapd;> Nkw;gb eltbf;iffs; jz;lid ngwf;$ba xU Fw; w khFk; . ,J rk; g e; j khf Gyd; tprhuiz nra; J Fw; w thspfSf; F jz; l id toq; f g; g l Ntz; L k; vd Mizf;FO typAWj;JfpwJ. ruzilAk; eltbf; i ffspd; NghJ ,uhZtk; ngw; W s; s ew; n gaUf; F xU rpyupd; eltbf; i ffs; fhuzkhf fyq; f k; tpistpf;f ,lkspf;f KbahJ. vy; . uP . uP . <. ,dupd; elj; i j 9.24 vy;.uP.uP.< ,duhy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l ghupa kdpj cupik kPwy;fs; kdpj cupikfs; mj; j pahaj; j pYk; tpgukhf Fwpg; g plg; gl;Ls;sd. vy; . uP . uP . <. ru; t Njr kdpjhgpdkhdr; rl;lq;fspd; %yf;Nfhl;ghLfspd; ghupa kPwy;fs; mj;jpahak; 4,d; gpupT II ,y; tpgukhff; Fwpggplg;gl;Ls;sJ. vt;thwhapDk; ; ,Wjp mtjhdpgGfspy; xU rpy gpdtUkhW: ; ; m. nghJkf;fis kdpjf; Nflaq;fshf cgNahfpj;jik M. nghJkf;fs; kj;jpa epiyaq;fspy; ,uhZt cgfuzq;fis mikj;jy; ,. ghJfhg;ghd gFjpfSf;F jg;gpr; nry;tjw;F vj;jdpj;j nghJkf;fs; kPJ Jg;ghf;fpg; gpuNahfk; elhj;jpaik <. Nkhjy;fspd; ,Wjpf;fl;lq;fspYk; ,sk; rpWtu;fis fl;lhakhf jkJ gilazpfspy; Nru;j;jik.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.25

24

tNahjpgg; ngz; xUtiu J}f;fpf;nfhz;L tUk; ,uhZt tPuu;...

9.26

Nkhjy; tyaq;fSf;F ntspNaAk; kpjp ntbfs; kw; W k; jpBnud ntbf;Fk; nghUl;fis Gijj;jik. C. Nkhjypy; nghJkf;fis gyte;jkhf cgNahfpj; j ik mjd; %yk; nghJkf; f s; kw; W k; Nghuhspfs; vd; g tw; W f; f pilapy; NtWgLj; j p milahsg;gLj;Jtij rhj;jpakw;w jhf;fpaik. v. jw; n fhiyj; jhf; F jy; f s; Nkw; nfhs;tij njhlu;e;J cgNahfpj;J mg;ghtpg; nghJkf;fspd; capufSf;F ; ,og;G Vw;gLj;jpaik. ru; t Njr kdpj cupikr; rl; l q; f is jPtpukhf kPwpa vy;.uP.uP.<. cWg;gpdu;fSf;F vjpuhf cupa Kiwapy; Fw;wq;fisr; rhl;Ltjw;F mtrpakhd mwpfiffisg; ; ngw Ntz;Lk;.
25

c.

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Daily News File Photo

ehLfSf;F ,ilapyhd Nkhjy;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; ru;tNjrr; rl;lj;jpd; nghJf;Nfhl;ghLfspy; cs;sthW Vw;fdNt mur jug;gy;yhj MAjf; FOf;fSf;Fk; Vw;GilajhFk;.

cs;ehl;L Nkhjy;fSf;F ru;tNjr kdpjhgpkhdr; rl;lq;fspd; gpuNahfq;fs; kP j hd mtjhdpg; G


9.27 cs;ehl;L Nkhjy;fspd; NghJ mur jug;G my; y hj MAjf; FOf; f s; njhlu; g hd rl;lq;fspy; cupa Kiwapy; tiutpyf;fzk; nra; a g; g lhj fhuzj; j pdhy; > Nkw; g b MAjf; FOf; f s; nghJkf; f spd; ghJfhg; i gg; nghUl; g Lj; j hky; nraw; gLfpd; w du; . ghJfhg; G tyaq; f is Nkhjy; f Sf; F g; gad; g Lj; J jy; > nghJkf; f is kdpjf; N flaq; f shf cgNahfpf; f pd; w ikahy; > vjpu; eltbf; i ffis Nkw; n fhs; i fapy; nghJkf; f Sf; F Mgj; J Vw; g Ltij jtpu;g;gJ f\;lkhFk;. 9.28 Kd; d nug; N ghJk; ,y; y hj tifapy; nghJkf; f spd; ghJfhg; G Nkw; g b tyaq; f is xJf; F tjw; F Fwpg; g pl; l MAjf; FOf; f s; cld; g lkhl; l h. mj; j ifa #o; e piyapy; xUjiyg; gl;rkhf gpufldg;gLj;Jkplj;J mtu;fis Nghuhl; l q; f Sf; f hf <LgLj; J tJk; kdpjf; Nflaq; f shf cUthf; f paik fhuzkhf ,uhZtk; ,q;F nghJkf;fisg; ghJfhg;gjw;Fk; vjpupiaj; jhf;FtJkhfpa ,f;fl;lhd epiyia vjpu;Nehf;Ffpd;wdu;. 9.29 xUjiyg;gl;rkhd xU Aj;j #d;a tyag; gpufldj; j pd; %yk; > nghJkf; f s; #o;e;Js;s gFjpapd; kj;jpapy; vy;.uP.uP.<. ,du; tUtjw;F re;ju;ggk; toq;fpduh vd;w ; re;Njfk; Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ.

26

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

vy;.uP.uP.<. Nghuhspfs; rpWtu;fSld;....

9.30 Aj;j #d;a tyaq;fs; gw;wpa kdpj Near; rl; l q; f is ghJfhf; F k; NghJ MAjf; FOf; f spDila nraw; g hLfs; gw; w p fz;lwptJk;> cs;ehl;L Nkhjy;fspd; NghJ Nkw; g b rl; l q; f s; vjpu; N ehf; F k; rthy; f Sf; F jP u ; T fhz; g jw; F k; nghUj; j khd ju epakq; f s; kw; W k; eilKiwfspd; cUthf;fk; Nkk;gLj;jg; gl Ntz;Lk;. 9.31 ehLfSf; f pilapyhd Nkhjy; f isf; fl; L g; g Lj; J k; ru; t Njrr; rl; l j; j pd; nghJf; N fhl; g hLfspy; cs; s thW Vw; f dNt mur jug; g y; y hj MAjf; FOf;fSf;Fk; Vw;GilajhFk;. Mdhy;> Nkw; g bf; FOf; f s; kdpjhgpkhdr; rl; l j; j pw; F $Ljy; ,zf; f g; g hl; i l cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd gjpiy toq;ff; $Lk;. Mdhy; ,f;FOf;fs; kdpjhgpkhdr; rl; l j; j pw; F $Ljy; ,zf; f g; g hl; i lg;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; 27

Photo source: Guardian.co.uk

,we;jtu;fis my;yJ fhakile;jtu;fisg; gw;wp cz;ikahd Gs;sp tpguq;fNsh juTfNsh my;yJ ve;jnthU cj;jpNahf g+u;t mwpf;ifapYk; ,y;yhik ftiyf;FupaJ.

ngWtjw; F k; Nkw; g b rl; l q; f is Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; If;fpa ehLfs; cl;gl Vida epWtdq; f s; NkYk; ftdk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. 9.32 Nkhjy;fspdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltu;fisapl;L ru; t Njr r%fj; j plk; xg; g ilf; f g; g Lk; jpl; l tl; l khd nghWg; G > Nkw; g b rl; l tuk; i g cUthf; F tjhFk; . ,jd; nghUl;L ,yq;ifapy; Kg;gJ Mz;L fhyk; mg; g htp kf; f spd; capupog; G f; f s; xU rpwe;j gbg;gpidahFk;. ghjpf; f g; g l; l tu; f s; kP j hd mtjhdpg; G fs; kw; W k; gupe; J iufs; 9.33 Mizf;FO ngw;w NeubahdJk; ek;gfj; jd; i k tha; e ; j Jkhd jfty; f Sf; F mika ,uhZt ghJfhg;ig kPwp Aj;j gilg; g Fjp eP f ; f k; ngw; w tuk; n gy; i yfSf; F Nky; Jg; g hf; f pr; rku;fs; Vw;gl;likapdhy; nghJkf;fs; capupoe; J s; s du; . my; y J fhakile;Js;sdu; vd;gJ njspT. 9.34 xU kdpjf; Nflaj; j pd; gpd; d hy; ghJfhg;igj; NjLk; jw;nfhiyf; fyhrhu mbg; g iliaf; nfhz; l MAjj; jug;gpdUf;F vjpuhf ghJfhg;Gg; gilapdu; Xu; rpffyhd gy rthy;fis vjpuNehf;fpdu;. ; ; mNj rkak; gpNujq;fisf; fzf;nfLg;gij tpl capufisg; fhg;ghw;WtNj ghJfhg;Gg; ; gilapdupd; nfhs;ifahf ,Ue;jikia ehk; ghuhl;Lfpd;Nwhk;. Mdhy; Nkhjypy; ,we;jtu;fis my;yJ fhakile;j tu;fisg;

28

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

gw; w p cz; i kahd Gs; s p tpguq;fNsh juTfNsh my;yJ ve;jnthU cj;jpNahf g+u;t mwpf; i fapYk; ,y;yhik gy; N tW ftiyf;FupaJ. epWtdq; f s; gy;NtW Gs;sp tpguq;fis toq;fpAs;sd.
9.35 ghjpf; f g; g l; l tu; f Sila vz;zpf;if gw;wpa jtWfis jpUj; J tjw; f hd eilKiw ,y; y hikahy; ,Jgw; w p cWjpg;gLj;jg;glhj Cfq;fNs cs;sd. 9.36 Neupy; fz; l rhl; r paq; f Sf; F mika> Nkhjypd; ,Wjpf; f l; l j; j py; > rhjhuz kf;fspy;. Fwpg;gpl;l vz;zpf;ifapdUf;F ghjpgGf;fs; Vw;gl;Ls;sikia Mizf;FO ; Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpwJ. vy;.uP.uP.<. nghJkf;fisg; gw;wpf; ftiyg;glhJ Nkhjypy; <Lgl;ljhYk; Jg;ghf;fpg; gpuNahfq;fs; fhuzkhfTk; ,g;ghjpg;Gf;fs; Vw;gl;Ls;sd. 9.37 ,Jgw; w pa Mizf; F O gupe;Jiufis nra;fpwJ. m. gpd; t Uk;

nghJ kf;fs; vjpu;Nehf;fpa gpur;rpidfisg; gw;wp cupa tprhuizfis Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

nghJkf; f is Ntz; L nkd; N w jhf;fpaik gw;wpg; Gyd; tprhuizfis Nkw; n fhz; L Fw; w thspfSf; F j; jz;lid toq;f Ntz;Lk;.

M. nghJkf;fSf;F Vw;gl;l capupog;G kw;Wk; fhaq;fs; nrhj;jf;fspd; Nrjk; vd;git gw;wp njhopy;rhu; Kiwapy; Ma;nthd;iw elhj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; 29

Photo source: Associated Press

Photo source: Web Capture from Killing Fields documentary

rdy; 4 tP b Nah fhl; r p kP j hd iufs; mtjhdpg; G fs; kw; W k; gupe; J iufs 9.38 m.) cz;ikahdit my;yJ muq;Nfw;wg; gl; l it vd vt; t ifapyhditahf ,Ug;gpDk; tPbNahtpy; fhz;gpf;fg;gl;l rk;gtq;fs; nfh^ukhdit mjpurrpaspggit. ; ; ; ,J nraw;ifahf cUthf;fg; gl;lJ vd murhq; f k; $WfpwJ. Mdhy; If; f pa ehLfspd; njhopy; E l; g epGzu; f s; ,t;tPbNahf; fhl;rpahdJ ifjpfshfg; gpbf; f g; g l; l tu; f s; gLnfhiy nra; a g; gl;likiaAk;. ghypay; ,k;irfSf;F cs; s hf; f g; g l; l ik njhlu; g hfTk; rhd; W fs; cz; L vdf; $Wfpd; w du; . ,t; t P b Nahf; fhl; r papy; njhopy; E l; g g; gpur;rpidfs; cz;nld ,U jug;gpdUk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpd;wdu;. njhopy;El;g epGzu;fs; ,jd; cz;ikj; jd;ik gw;wp gy re;Njfq;fis vOg;gpAs;sdu;. ,t;tPbNahtpy; njhopy;El;g kw;Wk; rl;l itj; j pa gpur; r pidfs; ,Ug; g jhf Mizf;FO Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpd;wJ. Mdhy; ahNuh xUtu; jahupj;J xg;gilj;Js;sdu; vd;Wk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;stpy;iy. tpupthd jfty; f is toq; F tjw; F xspgug; g hsu; rhjfkhd Kiwapy; gjpyspfftpyiy. ; ; ,Uf; f pd; w rhd; W fspd; mbg; g ilapy; cz;ikia epiyehl;Ltjw;F murhq;fk; xU RahjPd Gyd; tprhuizia Kd;ndLg; gjw;Fk; Mizf;FO gupe;Jiuf;fpd;wJ.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

nrdy; 4 miytupirapy; xspgug;gg;gl;l tptuzj; jpiug;glj;jpd; xU fhl;rp

M.

,. <.

c.

9.39

30

m.

Fwpg;ghf epGzu;fspd; fUj;Jg;gb ifJ nra; a g; g l; l tu; f s; gLnfhiy nra;ag;gLtjw;Fk; ngz;fs; kPJ ghypay; gyhj;fhuk; Nkw;nfhs;tjw;Fk; rhj;jpak; cz; L vd; g ij Rl; b f; f hl; L fpwJ. mt; t hwhapd; Gyd; tprhuizfis Nkw; n fhz; L Fw; w k; ,ioj; N jhUf; F jz;lid toq;f Ntz;Lk;. gilapdupd; njhopy; r hu; ew; n gaiug; ghJfhg; g Jk; Mapuf; f zf; f py; jkJ capu; f is mu;g;gzpj;j gilapdupd; nfsutj;ijg; NgZtJk; mtrpak; . vdNt ,J murhq;fj;jpd; tifg;nghWg;ghFk;. NtW epGzu;fSf;F mika ,f;fhl;rpfs; nraw; i fahf cUthf; f g; g l; b Ue; j hy; Ntz; L nkd; N w ghuJ}ukhd ngha; g ; gpurhuq;fis nra;jtu;fis xspgug;gpatu;fs; tifg;nghWg;gpw;F cl;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. ,J ,yq;if kf;fs; kPJk; ,uhZtk; kPJk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l ghuJ}ukhd mePjpahFk;. fUj; J r; Rje; j puj; j pd; Njhy; t pf; F k; ey; y pzf; f j; i jf; fl; b naOg; G tjw; F ngUk; jilahdJkhFk;. Mifahy; cz; i kia epiyehl; L k; Nehf; f py; my; y J Fw; w q; f Sf; F Vw; g rl;lj;jpd; %yk; eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjw;F ,yq; i f murhq; f k; RahjP d khd tprhuizia Nkw; n fhs; s Ntz; L k; . jfty;fis toq;FNthupd; ghJfhg;ig

nrdy; 4 ,yq;ifapd; nfhiyf; fsq;fs; vd;w tptuzj; jpiug;glj;jpd; newpahsu; nfyk; kf;wp

M.

9.41

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

31

Photo source: www.tamilvoice.dk

9.40

,uz;L fhuzq;fSf;fhf ,e;j eltbf;if mtrpakhdJ

,lk;ngau;eNjhupd; ; cupikfs;> ,yFthf mgha tha;gGf;F ; cs;shff; $ba ngz;fs;> gps;isfs;> tyJ Fiwe;jtu;fs; gw;wpAk; jfty;fs; Kd;itf;fg;gl;ld.

cj; j uthjg; g Lj; j Ntz; L k; . NkYk; xj;Jiog;G toq;FkhWk; xspgug;Gr; nra;j ]; j hgdj; i j Mizf; F O typAWj; j p Ntz;bf;nfhs;fpwJ. mj; j pahak; 5

kdpj cupikfs; kPjhd mtjhdpg;Gfs; kw;Wk; gupe;Jiufs;


nghJthdit 9.42 Nkhjy; f s; fhuzkhf nghJ kf; f spd; mbg;gil cupikfSk; Rje;jpuq;fSk; kP w g; g l; L s; s d vd ngUe; njhifahd KiwaP L fs; Mizf; F Otpd; Kd; rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;ld. flj;jy;fs; my;yJ jd;dpr;irapy;yhj fhzhkw; Nghjy;fs; vNjr; r hjpfhukhf jLj; J itj; j y; f s; > rpWtu;fs; gil eltbf;iffspy; ,izj;Jf; nfhs;Sjy;> rl;lj;jpwF Kuzhd tifapy; ; kuz jz;lid tpjpjjy;> Ngr;Rr; Rje;jpuk;> ; elkhLk; Rje;jpuk;> xd;W$Lk; Rje;jpuk;> topghl; L r; Rje; j puk; > Clfr; Rje; j puk; kP w g; g l; L s; s ik> Fwpj; J epiwa Kiwg; g hLfs; Mizf; F OTf; F Kd; itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,lk;ngau;e;Njhupd; cupikfs;> ,yFthf mgha tha;g;Gf;F cs;shff; $ba ngz;fs;> gps;isfs;> tyJ Fiwe;jtu;fs; gw;wpAk; jfty;fs; Kd;itf;fg;gl;ld. vdNt kdpj cupikfs; njhlu;ghd ,g;gupe;Jiufs; ey;ypzf;f eltbf;iffSf;F kpfTk; Vw;Gilait vd Mizf;FO fUJfpwJ.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

32

fhzkw; Nghjy; kw;Wk; Ml;flj;jy; njhlu;ghd Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fs;


9.43 mbg; g il cupikfs; Rje; j puq; f s; vd;gtw;wpd; kPwy;fis Fw;wQ;rhl;b mjpf msT vz;zpf;ifapyhd KiwaPLfshy; Mizf;FO mjpu;r;rpaile;jJ. Mdhy; vy; . uP . uP . <. Nkw; n fhz; l fhzhkw; Nghjy;fSk; flj;jy;fSk; kpf mjpfk;. rpy rkaq; f spy; gy; y hz; L fshf ,t; t hW fhzhkw; NghtJ gw; w p Kiwg; g hLfs; nra;ag;gl;Ls;sd. 9.44 ,j; j ifa Fw; w q; f is jLg; g J ey;ypzf;fj;jpw;fhd mtrpak; vd gyu; vLj;Jf;$wpdu;. ,jd; %yk; ghlq;fisf; fw;wij cWjpg;gLj;Jjy; mtrpankd Mizf;FO typAWj;JfpwJ.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; 33

Photo source: Sri Lankan Guardian website

9.45

Ml;rp mjpfhuj;jpw;F te;j ve;jnthU murhq;fKk; mtw;iw nraw;gLj;jhj fhuzj;jpdhy; murhq;fk; epakpf;Fk; Mizf;FOf;fs; tpku;rdq;fSf;Fk; re;Njfj;jpw;Fk; MshfpAs;sd. fw;w ghlq;fSk; ey;ypzf;fKk; gw;wpa Mizf;FOTk; ,r;re;Njfj;jpypUe;J kPs KbahJ.

nghJkf; f spd; rhl; r pfs; %yk; xd; W njspthfpaJ. murpay; jiyaP L fs; fhuzkhf Fw; w g; Gydha; T fs; rl; l k; nraw; g Lj; j g; g Ljy; nghyp]; epu; t hfk; vd;gd gytPdkile;Js;sd. mg;NghJ Fw;wq;fs; ePjp vd;gd gw;wpa ek;gpf;if cile;njupfpwJ. fhzhkw; Nghfr; nra;jy; flj;jy; jLj;J itj;jy; vd;gd gw;wp nghyp]hUf;Fk; kdpj cupikfs; Mizf;FOtpwFk; nrQ;rpYitr; ; rq;fj;jpw;Fk; mwptpj;Js;sik gw;wp gy rhd;whjhuq;fs; cz;L. Vw;fdNt tprhuiz Mizf;FOTf;F nra;ag;gl;l Kiwg;ghLfs; kPsf; $wg;gl;ld. Mdhy; Nkw;gb Mw;wy; ,d;Wk; fz;Lgpbf;fg; gltpy;iy. ,k;Kiwg;ghLfisg; gw;wp Gyd;tprhuiz nra; J Fw; w k; ,ioj; j tu; f Sf; F jz;lid toq;f muR flg;ghLilaJ. ruziljy; my;yJ ifJ %yk; murhq;f mjpfhupfshy; fl;Lf;fhtYf;F vLf;fg;gl;l egu; xUtupd; ghJfhg;G kw;Wk; gj;jpukhd jd; i k. murpd; tifg; n ghWg; G vd MNyhrizf;FO typAWj;JfpwJ. fhzhkw; N ghd Ml; f spd; gpur; r pid ve; j nthU ey; y pzf; f eltbf; i fapd; NghJk; ghuJ}ukhd jilahFk;. ,j;jifa rk;gtq;fs; gw;wp Kd;ida Mizf; FOf;fs; gy jP u ; T fis Kd; i tj; j NghjpYk; Ml; r p mjpfhuj; j pw; F te; j ve; j nthU murhq; f Kk; mtw; i w nraw;gLj;jhj fhuzj;jpdhy; murhq;fk;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.46

9.47

9.48

34

nghJ kf;fSf;F cjTk; nrQ;rpYitr; rq;fk;

epakpf; F k; Mizf; F Of; f s; tpku; r dq; f Sf; F k; re; N jfj; j pw; F k; MshfpAs; s d. fw; w ghlq; f Sk; ey; y pzf; f Kk; gw; w pa Mizf; F OTk; ,r;re;Njfj;jpypUe;J kPs KbahJ.
9.49 gilapdupd; my; y J vy; . uP . uP . <. ,dupd; eltbf;iffSf;F ,iuahd> fz;Lgpbf;f Kbahj Ml;fisg; gw;wpa jfty;fis mtutu; f spd; FLk; g q; f Sf; F toq;FtJk; e\;l<L ngWtJk; xU rl;l uPjpahd cupikahf mikfpwJ. tpNrlkhf ru; t Njr nrQ; r pYitr; rq;fj;jpd; xj;Jiog;Gld; rl;l epWdq;fs; rfy Kaw; r pfisAk; Nkw; n fhs; s Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j tplak; njhlu;gpy; Vw;gLk; Kd; N dw; w q; f s; Fwpj; J Nkw; g b FLk;gq;fSf;F mwptpffg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. ;
35

9.50

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Agence France Presse

9.51

rl;lj;ij mKy;gLj;Jk; mjpfhupfs; Ml;fis mtu;fsJ fl;Lf;fhtYf;F vLf;Fk; nghOJ ifJ njhlu;ghd xU cj;jpNahfg+u;t gw;Wr;rPlil ; toq;Fjy; Ntz;Lk;. jLj;J itf;fg;gLk; ,lj;jpd; tpguq;fisAk; toq;Fjy; Ntz;Lk;.

fhzhkw; Nghjy; vd;w gpur;rpid kpfTk; rpf; f yhdJ vdpDk; mJ gw; w p Gyd; tprhuiz nra; J rl; l kh mjpgUf; F Njitahd jfty; f is toq; F tjw; F Gyd; t prhuiz kw; W k; tof; f eltbf; i ffs; gw; w p mDgtk; tha; e ; j mjpfhupfs; epakpffg;gl Ntz;Lk;. gy;NtW ; epWtdq;fspy; Vw;fdNt cs;s jfty;fs; Xuplj;jpy; Nru;f;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,wg;Gr; rhd;wpjo;fs; epjp uPjpahd ,og;G vd;gd gw;wp ftdk; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,wg; G f; f is gjpT nra; A k; rl; l k; jpUj;jg;gl;L mJ gw;wp gfpuq;fg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. cj;jpNahfg+utg; gjpTfs; vJTkpdwp ifJ ; ; nra;ag;gLtJ gw;wpa gy Kiwg;ghLfis rl; l j; i j Mizf; F O ngw; w J. mKy; g Lj; J k; mjpfhupfs; Ml; f is mtu; f sJ fl; L f; f htYf; F vLf; F k; nghOJ ifJ njhlu; g hd xU cj;jpNahfg+u;t gw;Wr;rPl;il toq;Fjy; Ntz;Lk;. jLj;J itf;fg;gLk; ,lj;jpd; tpguq;fisAk; toq;Fjy; Ntz;Lk;. kdpj cupikfs; rl;lj;jpd; flg;ghl;bw;F mika m. ifJ nra;ag;gl;l XUtu; cldbahf xU eP j thd; Kd; d piyapy; jhkjkpd; w p Kd; epWj; j g; g ly; Ntz;Lk;. jLj; J itf; f g; g l; b Uf; F k; ,lj;jpyhd VNjDk; khw;wk; ifJ
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.52

9.53

9.54

M.

36

ifJ nra;jYk; jhf;Fjy; elj;JtJk; tlf;ifg; NghyNt njw;fpYk; ,lk;ngWfpwJ.....

nra;ag;gl;l egupd; cwtpdu;fSf;Fk; ,yq; i f kdpj cupikfs; Mizf; F Otpw; F k; jhkjkpd; w p mwptpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,. jLj; J itf; f g; g l; b Uf; F k; ,lj; j pw; F eP j thd; xt; n thU khjKk; tp[ak; nra;jy; Ntz;Lk;. jLj; J itf; f g; g l; b Uj; j ypy; ,Ue;J tpLjiyfs; ePjpkd;wj;jpd; Clhf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.

<.

9.55

nghyp]hupdhy; xU ifJ> jLj;J itj;jy; kw; W k; ,lk; k hw; W jy; vd; g d mwpf; i faplhik> flj; j y; gw; w pa Kiwg;ghLfis gjpTnra;Jnfhs;shik> Gyd; tprhuiz Nkw; n fhs; s hik xU jtwhFk; . mj; j ifa jtwpiog; g tu; fSf; F vjpuhf rl; l j; j pd; %yk; eltbf;if vLf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.
37

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Lanka Standard website

9.56

gy;yhz;Lfshf FLk;gj;jpd; tUkhdk; <l;Lgtiu ,oe;jikf;fhd ngUk; ftiyia Mw;Wtjw;F Nkw;gbf; FLk;gq;fSf;F epjp %yKk;> rl;l %yKk; cjtpaspf;f Ntz;Lk;.

9.57

9.58

9.59

9.60

fhuzkpdwp ifJnra;ag;gly; mtrufhyr; ; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; jLj;J itj;jy; vd;gd gw;wp Mizf; F Otpw; F Kiwg; g hLfs; fpilj; J s; s d. rl; l j; j pd; Ml; r p> ey;ypzf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jjy; vd;gtw;wpwF ; mtrufhyr; rl;lj;ij ePf;Fjy; ey;yNjhu; eltbf; i fahFk; . ,jd; ed; i kfis kf; f Sf; F toq; f Ntz; L k; . Gjpa rl;lq;fs; %yk;. ,e;ed;ikfSf;F jil tpjpf; f khl; l hu; f s; vd Mizf; F O vjpu;ghu;f;fpd;wJ. ePzlfhyk; Ml;fs; jLj;J itf;fpdwikia ; ; vjpu; j ; J gy Kiwg; g hLfs; cs; s d. gaq;futhjr; jilr;rl;lk;> nghJkf;fs; ghJfhg; G r; rl; l j; j pd; fP o ; gpufldg; gLj;jg;gLk; rl;lq;fSf;F mika Vw;gLk; mtjhdpg; G f; f Sf; F RahjP d khd MNyhrizf; F O xd; W epakpf; f g; g l Ntz;Lk;. gy;yhz;Lfshf FLk;gj;jpd; tUkhdk; <l; L gtiu ,oe; j ikf; f hd ngUk; ftiyia Mw; W tjw; F Nkw; g bf; FLk;gq;fSf;F epjp %yKk;> rl;l %yKk; cjtpaspf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,j;jifa fhzhkw; Nghjy;fs; kPz;Lk; epfohj tifapy; Vw;fdNt mKypy; cs;s rl;lq;fs; kPs jpUj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd Mizf; F O typAWj; j p gupe; J iu nra;fpwJ. fle;j rk;gtq;fspy; ,Ue;J ghlq;fisf; fw;Wf;nfhz;likia cWjpg;gLj;JtJ kpf mtrpakhFk;. mit kPs ,lk;ngwhj
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

38

tifapy; ehL g+uhTk; ghlrhiyg; gpsisfs;> ghJfhg;Gg; gilfs;> nghyp]hu; ; MfpNahUf;F mwpt+l;Lk; kdpj cupikfs; fy; t p epfo; r ; r pj; j pl; l q; f Sf; f hd NjitiaAk; Mizf;FO typAWj;JfpdwJ. ;
Photo source: Photobucket.com

jLj;J itf;fg;gl;bUg;gtu;fSf;fhd ftdpg; G


9.61 gy; N tW Gdu; t ho; T epiyaq; f spy; elj; j g; g l; l epfo; ; r pj; j pl; l q; f s; kpfj; jpUg; j pfukhf mike; j d. ,jd; %yk; Vw; g Lk; kd czu; T fs; re; N jfj; j pw; F ,lkpd;wp ey;ypzf;fj;jpw;F cjTk;. g+]] jLg;G Kfhkpy; jLj;J itf;fg;gl;Ls;s ; ,isQu;fspd; gpufldj;jpw;F mika mtu; f s; gyte; j khf vy; . uP . uP . < Ald; ,izj; J f; n fhs; s g; g l; l tu; f s; Mtu; . Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fs; vJTkpd;wp rpyu; jLj;J itf; f g; g l; L s; s du; . ,r; r k; g tq; f is tprhuiz nra;J cupa eltbf;iffis Nkw; n fhs; t jw; f hd tpNrl Ntiyj; jpl; l j; j pd; mtrpak; ,ilf; f hy gupe;JiufspYk; Kd; itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. jLj; J itf; f g; g l; L s; s tu; f spd; jfty;fis mwpAk; cupik mtu;fsJ FLk; g cwtpdu; f spd; cupikahFk; . mtu;fisg; gw;wpa jfty;fis ,yFtpy; ngwf; $ ba Kiwik xd; W ,Uj; j y; Ntz;Lk;. jLj; J itf; f g; g l; l tu; f s; njhlu; g hd ,ilf;fhyg; gupe;Jiufspd; KOikahd mKy; g Lj; j iy cWjpg; g Lj; J khW murhq;fj;ij Mizf;FO typAWj;JfpwJ.

9.62

rl;lKk; ePjpAk; kpFe;j ePjpAlNd nraw;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.

9.63

9.64

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

39

9.65

jLj;J itf;fg;gl;Nlhupd; eyd;Gup NritfSf;F ,j;jifa Nritfs; kpf mtrpakhdJ.

9.66

9.67

9.68

jLj; J itf; f g; g l; L s; s tu; f is re; j pg; g jw; f hd cupikia neUq; f pa FLk;g cWg;gpdu;fs; nfhz;Ls;sdu;. rpy jfty; f s; Nghjpajhf mikahj re; j u; g ; g q; f s; gy cz; L . kpf eP z ; l J}uq; f spy; ,Ue; J cwTfs; tUif je;jNghJk; mtu;fis re;jpff Kbahj gy ; re; j u; g ; g q; f s; Vw; g l; L s; s d. ru; t Njrr; nrQ; r pYitr; rq; f k; kw; W k; njhz; l u; ]; j hgdq; f s; ,f; F Lk; g j; j pdu; tUif jUtjw; f hd gaz trjpfis Vw;gLj;JtJ crpjkhdJ g+];] kw;Wk; Xke;ij mjp cau; ghJfhg;G tyaq; f spy; jLj; J itf; f g; gl;bUe;Njhiu re;jpg;gjw;F nrQ;rpYitr; rq; f k; trjpfis nra; J nfhLg; g jw; F xj; J iog; G ey; f g; g l; l J. ,j; j ifa Mf; f g+u; t khd eltbf; i ffis Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;F Mizf;FO tYthfg; gupeJiuf;fpdwJ. jLj;J itf;fg;gl;Nlhupd; ; ; eyd; G up NritfSf; F ,j; j ifa Nritfs; kpf mtrpakhdJ. jLj;J itj;jpUf;Fk; midj;J ,lq;fSk; Kiwahf mDkjpf;fg;gl;l ,lq;fshf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ifJ nra;J jLg;Gf; fhtypy; itf;Fk;NghJ cj;jpNahfg+u;t gw;Wr;rPl;L toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. jLj;J itf; f g; g Lk; ,lj; j pd; tpguq; f is toq;Fjy; Nghd;w rl;lq;fis mDrupjjy; ; Ntz;Lk;. jLj;J itf;fg;gl;Ls;s ,isQu;fspd; fy; t p ghjpf; f g; g l; L s; s ikahy; mtu;fSf;fhd tpNrl epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

40

vy;.uP.uP.<. NghuhspfSf;F Gdu;tho;T toq;fg;gLfpwJ.

9.69

9.70

mKyhf; f g; g l Ntz; L k; . ,j; j ifa ,isQu; f s; Njrpa guP l ; i rfSf; F Njhw; W tjw; f hd Gdu; t ho; T eltbf;iffs; ghuhl;Ltjw;FupaJ. ,sk; gps; i sfs; > cly; CdKw; N whu; > fhaq; f spypUe; J FzkilNthu; MfpNahUf; F kUj; J tr; rpfpr; i rfs; Njitg;gLk; NghJ mtw;iw ,dk; fz;L guprPyid nra;a Ntz;Lk;. rpyUf;F cs Mw;Wg;gLj;jy; NritfSk; mtrpakhfpdwd. ; Mizf;FOtpd; ,ilf;fhyg; gupeJiufspd; ; mbg; g ilapy; jLj; J itf; f g; g l; L s; s fzprkhNdhu; njhlu; g py; tof; F fis Jupjg; g Lj; j muR Nkw; n fhz; l eltbf;iffis Mizf;FO ghuhl;LfpwJ. mt; t hwhapDk; eP z ; l fhykhf jLj; J itf; f g; g l; N lhu; kP J Fw; w r; r hl; L f; f s; ,Ug;gpd; tof;Fj; njhlu Ntz;Lk;. my;yJ tpLtpf; f g; g l Ntz; L k; vd; g ij Mizf;FO kPz;Lk; typAWj;JfpwJ.
41

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Lankapuvath

9.71

rfy rl;ltpNuhj MAjf; FOf;fspd; MAjq;fisf; fisa Ntz;Lk; vd Mizf;FO Kd;itj;j ,ilf;fhy gupe;Jiufis Qhgf%l;LfpdNwhk;. ;

Gdu;tho;T mopf;fg;gl;ltu;fs; njhlu;gpy;> mtu; f s; nghJ tho; f ; i fapd; gpujhd eP N uhl; l j; j py; xd; w pizf; f g; g l; l ij cWjpnra;tjw;F epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fis mKy; g Lj; J jy; Ntz; L k; . ,e; j Nehf; f j; j pw; f hf rptpy; r%f mikg; G f; f spd; %yk; ghupa epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fis Nkw;nfhs;s KbAk;.

rl; l tpNuhj MAjf; FOf; f s; 9.72 guprP y izf; F l; g l; l fhyj; j pd; NghJ rl; l tpNuhj MAjf; FOf; f spd; eltbf; i f fhuzkhf nghJ kf; f s; mr; r kile; j pUe; j du; . Fw; w j; j pw; F jz;lid ngwhj xU #oikT ,Ue;jJ. Nkw;gbf; FOf;fs; Nkw;nfhz;Ls;s rl;l tpNuhj eltbf;iffs; mbg;gil kdpj cupikfis kPWtdthFk;. 9.73 NghJkhd rhl;rpaq;fs; fhzg;gLkplj;J Fw;wkpioj;jtu;fSf;F vjpuhf Fw;wtpay; eltbf; i ffis Nkw; n fhs; t jw; F Kiwahd Gyd; tprhuizfs; elj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. 9.74 rfy rl; l tpNuhj MAjf; FOf; f spd; MAjq; f isf; fisa Ntz; L k; vd Mizf; F O Kd; i tj; j ,ilf; f hy gupe;Jiufis Qhgf%l;Lfpd;Nwhk;. ,J njhlu; g hf vJtpjkhd eltbf; i fAk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;glhjijapl;L Mizf;FO ftiy njuptpf;fpd;wJ. mt;thW cupa eltbf; i ffs; vLf; f g; g l; b Ue; j hy; cjad; nra;jpg; gj;jpupif Mrpupau; kPjhd mz;ika jhf;Fjy;fs; Nghd;w Nkhrkhd
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

42

rk;gtq;fs; jtpu;f;fg;gl;bUf;fyhk; vd;gJ Mizf; F Otpd; fUj; j hFk; . ey;ypzf;fj;jpw;F,e;j eltbf;iffs; kpf mtrpakhFk;. rpWtu; f spd; fl; l ha Ml; N ru; g ; G 9.75 ngw;Nwhu;fspd; $w;Wg;gb gyte;jkhf Aj;j eltbf; i ffSf; n fd Nru; f ; f g; g l; l gps; i sfspy; mNefkhNdhupd; ,Ug; g plq; f s; ,Jtiu njupahJs; s J. Nkhjy; fhyq;fspd; NghJ vy;.uP.uP.<. Gupe;j kpf Nkhrkhd Fw; w q; f spy; ,J xU tifahFk;. 9.76 vy;.uP.uP.<. jtpuej Vida FOf;fshy; taJ ; ; Fiwe;j rpWtu;fspd; Ml;Nru;g;G gw;wpa fuprid njuptpf;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; T.M.V.P Gdu; t ho; T Mizahsu; Adpnr/g; MfpNahUf;fpilNa Nkw;gb rpWtu;fis tpLtpg; g jw; f hd Xu; xg; g e; j k; ifnahg;gkplg;gl;lJ vd;gij Mizf; FO Fwpg;gpl tpUk;GfpwJ.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; 43

Photo source: Photo from BBC

9.77

rpWtu;fis fl;lha Ml;Nru;gGf;F ; Mshf;fp Nghuhspfshf ,izj;jik gw;wp rhd;whjhuq;fs; ,Uf;Fkplj;J Nkw;gb Fw;wkpioj;jtu;fSf;F vjpuhf rl;lk; nraw;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

9.78

9.79

9.80

9.81

Kd;dhs; rpWtu; Nghuhspfspd; Gdu;tho;T Aj; j j; j pw; F g; gpd; d uhd murhq; f j; j pd; Kd;Dupikf;Fupa eltbf;ifahf mikjy; Ntz;Lk;. murhq;fk; ,e;eltbf;ifia jpUg; j pfukhfr; nra; J s; s J. ,ijj; njhlu; t jw; F gy; N tW mur rhu; g w; w epWtdq; f spd; xj; J iog; N ghL r%f kl; l j; j pyhd epfo; r ; r pj; j pl; l q; f is nraw;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. Gdu; t ho; T epfo; r ; r pj; jpl; l q; f s; KbTw; w Tld; ,r; r pWtu; f s; jkJ FLk;gj;jpdUld; tho;tjw;F trjpaspf;f Ntz;Lk;. mNj rkak; xU [PtNdhgha khu;f;fj;ij toq;Ftjw;Fk; Kiwrhuhf; fy; t piaj; njhlu; t jw; F k; trjpfs; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. rpWtu; f is fl; l ha Ml; N ru; g ; G f; F Mshf;fp Nghuhspfshf ,izj;jik gw;wp rhd; w hjhuq; f s; ,Uf; F kplj; J Nkw; g b Fw; w kpioj; j tu; f Sf; F vjpuhf rl; l k; nraw; g Lj; j g; g l Ntz; L k; . ,j; j ifa eilKiwfs; vjpu; f hyj; j py; Vw; g lh tz;zk; rl;luPjpahd eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. Kd;dhs; rpWtu; NghuhspfSf;F njhopy; tha;g;Gf;fis toq;fj; jdpahu; Jiwapd; xj; J iog; i gg; ngw Ntz; L k; . njhopy; nra;Ak; mNj Neuj;jpy; fy;tp trjpfSk; toq;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. MAj Nkhjy;fspy; <Lgl;l rpWtu;fis kP z ; L k; mtu; f spd; FLk; g q; f Sld; ,izg; g jw; f hd epfo; r ; r pj; j pl; l j; i j cUthf;Ftjw;F ru;tNjr epWtdq;fspdJk;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

44

9.82

cs;ehl;L epWtdq;fspdJk; cjtpfis ngw;Wf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. vy;.uP.uP.< tajpy; Fiwe;j re;Njf egu;fs; gw;wp jdpj;jdpahd guprPyid nra;ag;gl;L jhkjpf;fhJ rl;lj;jpd; %yk; eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. my;yJ Gdu;tho;T mopj;J tpLtpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

mgha tha; g ; G epiynfhz; l FOtpdu; (nghJthdit)


9.83 ngz;fs; rpWtu;fs; ,lk;ngau;e;j kf;fs; kw;Wk; CdKw;wtu;fs; MfpNahu; Aj;jk; fhuzkhf gy; N tW Jd; g q; f isAk; Jauq; f isAk; mDgtpj; J s; s du; . Aj;jj;jpd; gpddu; ,g;gpuptpdupd; mbg;gilj; ; Njitfisg; g+u; j ; j p nra; t NjhL mtrpakhd jPu;Tfis Nkw;nfhs;tjw;Fk; murhq;fk; Kd;Dupik toq;f Ntz;Lk;. ,jidr; nra; a hJ epiyNgwhd ey;ypzf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;j KbahJ.
45

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Global Peace Support Website

9.84

mtu;fs; jkJ tNahjpgg; ngw;Nwhu;fisAk; guhkupj;J tUfpd;wdu;. ,tu;fspd; ghJfhg;igAk; khDl nfsutj;ijAk; cWjp nra;tjw;F eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

9.85

Nkhjypd; KOj; jhf; f j; i jAk; vjpunfhz;ltu;fs; ngz;fSk; rpWtu;fSk; ; KjpNahUk; Mtu;. ngUk;ghyhd ngz;fs; jkJ fztd;khiu ,oe;Js;sdu;. ,j;jifa f\;lq;fSf;F kj;jpapy; mtu;fs; jkJ tNahjpgg; ngw;Nwhu;fisAk; guhkupj; J tUfpd;wdu;. ,tu;fspd; ghJfhg;igAk; khDl nfsutj;ijAk; cWjp nra;tjw;F eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. jq; f sJ md; G f; F upatu; f s; xd; w py; capUld; ,Uf; f pwhu; f sh my; y J ,we;Jtpl;lhu;fsh vd;w cWjpg;ghl;il ngw ,tu; f s; tpUk; G fpd; w hu; f s; . ,we;Jtpllhuhapd; kj uPjpahd fpupiafis ; Nkw; n fhz; L jq; f s; tho; f ; i fia Kd; n dLf; f tpUk; G fpd; w du; . ,ij epiwNtw; W tjd; %yk; mu; j ; j Ks; s ey;ypzf;fj;jpwF xU fhuzpahf mikAk;. ; murhq;fj;jfty; %yq;fspd; gb 59>000 ,w;Fk; mjpfkhd ngz;fs; FLk;gj;jpd; jiyikg; nghWg; i g Vw; f epu; g ; g e; j pf; f g; g l; L s; s du; . ,tu; f spd; ey; t ho; t pid cWjpg; g Lj; J tJk; ey; y pzf; f j; j pw; f hd eltbf; i ffis Nkw;nfhs;tJk; kpf Kf;fpakhFk;. mNefkhd ngz;fs; jkJ fztd;khiu ,oe;Js;sdu;. my;yJ mtu;fs; ,Uf;Fk; ,lk; njupahjpUf; f pd; w du; . rpyu; Kfhk;fspy; jLj;J itf;fg;gl;Ls;sdu;. ,j; j ifa kd Ntjidfs; ,Uf; f j; jf;fjhf Nkw;gb FLk;gq;fspd; rpWtu;fisAk; KjpNahu;fisAk; guhkupff ;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

ngz; f s;
9.86

9.87

46

9.88

9.89

Ntz;baJ ,g;ngz;fspd; nghWg;ghFk;. vdNt mtu;fSf;fhd xU [PtNdhgha khu; f ; f j; i jAk; tUkhdk; <l; b j; jUk; KiwiaAk; mKy;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. ,e;jg; gzpapy; cjtpaspg;gjw;F ru;tNjr r%fq; f Sk; ru; t Njr ]; j hgdq; f Sk; rptpy; mikg;Gf;fSk; jkJ mwpitAk; toq; f iyAk; toq; F k; tifapy; murhq;fk; Kd;dpd;W nraw;gl Ntz;Lk;. cs; @ uhl; r p epWtdq; f s; > murpay; jiyikfs; kw; W k; rptpy; r%f mikg;Gf;fs; vd;Nghu; ghjpf;fg;gl;Nlhupd; kdeyk; fUjp eltbf; i ffisAk; jPu;TfisAk; Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F murhq;fk; trjpfis Vw;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. Nkhjypd; eP b j; j Aj; j k; fhuzkhfTk; FLk; g j; j pd; Mz; f is ,oe; j fhuzj;jpdhYk; fy;tp njhlu KbahJ gy ngz; f s; ,Uf; f pd; w du; . mtu; f Sf; F Kiwrhu; my; y J Kiwrhuh fy; t p trjpfis Vw; g Lj; j pAk; njhopy; g apw; r p
47

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: International Crisis Group website

ngz;fs; jkJ ghJfhg;ig cWjp nra;af;$ba tifapYk; jkJ kdpj nfsutk; ghJfhf;ff; $ba tifapYk; murhq;fk; eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

9.90

9.91

9.92

my; y J tho; t hjhu Kiw vd; g tw; i w jahupf;fTk; cjt Ntz;Lk;. ,g; n gz; f s; jkJ ghJfhg; i g cWjp nra; a f; $ ba tifapYk; jkJ kdpj nfsutk; ghJfhf;ff; $ba tifapYk; murhq;fk; eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz; L k; . ey; y pzf; f j; j pw; f hd Kd; epge; j idahf ,j; j ifa #oiy cUthf;FtJ murhq;fj;jpd; nghWg;ghFk; vd Mizf;FO fUJfpwJ. fhzhkw; Nghdtu;fs;> flj;jg;gl;ltu;fs;> vNjr; r jpfhukhf eP z ; l fhyk; jLj; J itj;jy;> fhzhkw; Nghfr; nra;jy; vd;gd ngz; f is Neubahfg; ghjpf; F k; tplaq; f shFk; . Nkw; g b ghjpg; G f; F cs; s hdtu; jkJ fztuhfNth je; i jahfNth kfd; k huhfNth rNfhjuu; f shfNth ,Uf; f yhk; . jkJ md; G f; F upatu; f s; ,Uf; F k; ,lk; mwpahtpl; l hy; cz; i kiaAk; rl; l uP j pahd ghJfhg; i gAk; ngWk; cupik mtu; f sJ [dehaf cupikahFk; . ey; y pzf; f Kaw; r pf; F ,J Kd; epge;jidahFk;. ,g; g pur; r pidfSf; F epiyNgwhd jPu;Tfisf; fhz;gjhapd; epWtdq;fSf; fpilapyhd Kaw;rpfSk; xUq;fpize;j Kaw;rpapdhy; kl;LNk mij vjpu;nfhs;s KbAk; vd Mizf; F O fUJfpwJ. Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;l ghjpg;Gf;Fs;shd midtu; gw; w pa jP u ; T fisf; fhz; g jw; F k; Njitahd epthuzq;fis toq;Ftjw;Fk; xU nrayzp jhkjkpdwp ];jhgpffg;gLjy; ; ; Ntz;Lk;.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

48

rpWtu; f s;
9.93 rpWtu; f Sf; F fy; t p trjpfis toq; F tij Mizf; F O typAWj; j pg; gupe; J iu nra; f pwJ. ghlrhiyfs; Mrpupaupd; Nritfs; ghlrhiy cgfuzq; f s; epjp trjpfs; Nghd; N w Gyikg; guprpy;fis Vw;gLj;JtJk; kpf Kf; f pakhFk; . midj; J rpWtu; ,y;yq;fSf;Fk; ,t;trjpfSld; Rfhjhu epjpAjtpAk; mj;jpahtrpakhFk;. td;Kiw Nkhjy;fspd; NghJ jdJ jhia my;yJ je;ijia ,oe;j rpWtu;fs; ghupa cs uP j pahd mjpu; r ; r pia vjpu;Nehf;fpAs;sdu;. mtu;fspd; fy;tpAk; rP u ; F iye; J s; s J. rptpy; r%fq; f spd; xj;Jiog;igg; ngw;W Nkw;gb rpWtu;fis milahsk; fhzTk; jPu;Tfisf; fhzTk; Mu;tk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. ghlrhiyfSf;fhd Rfhjhu Nritfs; nghOJNghf; F epfo; r ; r pfs; cl; g l rpWtu; f Sf; F rhjfkhd xU #oiy
49

9.94

9.95

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Photo by Campana.cz

mtu;fspd; FLk;g epiyikfis Nkk;gLj;jp tNahjpgu;fspd; Rikiaf; Fiwg;gjw;Fk; gy;NtW Rfhjhug; gpur;rpidfisj; jPuggjw;Fk; ;; ftdk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;.

cUthf; F tjw; F murhq; f j; j pw; F k; > cs; @ uhl; r p kd; w q; f Sf; F k; rptpy; r%fq;fSf;Fk; gupe;Jiu nra;fpNwhk;. KjpNahu; f s; 9.96 Nkhjy; f spdhy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l gFjpfspYs; s tNahjpgu; f s; ngupJk; Jd;gg;gLfpd;wdu;. jkJ gps;isfisAk; Ngug; gps; i sfisAk; ,oe; j ikahy; vQ; r pAs; s FLk; g mq; f j; j pdu; f is guhkupf; F k; nghWg; G mtu; f s; kP J Rkj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. mtu;fsJ cly; cs f\;lq;fis milahsk; fhz Ntz;Lk;. mtu; f spd; FLk; g epiyikfis Nkk; g Lj; j p tNahjpgu; f spd; Rikiaf; Fiwg; g jw; F k; gy; N tW Rfhjhug; gpur; r pidfisj; jP u ; g ; g jw; F k; ftdk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. mtu; f spd; kdf; fhaq; f Sf; F k; mjpu;r;rpf;Fk; jPu;T fhz;gjw;F Mj;kPf fyhrhu epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fis gad;gLj;j Ntz; L k; . ,J njhlu; g hf rptpy; r%f mikg;Gf;fSf;Fk; kj epWtdq;fSf;Fk; ghupa gq; f spg; i gr; nra; a KbAk; . murhq;fk; ,jw;fhd trjpfis Vw;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. FLk;gq;fspy; tUkhdj;ij <l;ba mNefu; jw;NghJ CzKw;Nwhu;fshf ,Uf;fpdwdu;. ; mtu; f Sf; F cjTtJ cldb NjitahFk;. ru;tNjr epWtdq;fspypUe;J ,jw;fhd xj;Jiog;igg; ngw Ntz;Lk;. ,tu;fspd; nghUshjhuj; Njitfs; kPJ
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.97

9.98

50

$ba ftdj; i jr; nrYj; j Ntz; L k; . fyhrhu Mj;kPf Njitfisapl;Lk; ftdk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. 9.99 mtu;fs; rdr%f FOf;fshf xOq;fikj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;F Cf;fg;gLj;Jjy; Ntz;Lk;.

9.100 CdKw; w tu; f spy; cupikfs; gw; w pa If;fpa ehLfspd; rkthaq;fSf;F Vw;g Njrpar; rl;lq;fs; cUthf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd Mizf;FO gupe;Jiu nra;fpwJ. cs; s f ,lk; n gau; e ; j kf; f s; 9.101 Nkhjypd; ,Wjpf; fl; l j; j py; ngWk; vz;zpf;ifapyhNdhu; ,lk;ngau;e;jdu;. mtu; f spy; mNdfkhNdhu; kP s f; FbNaw;wg;gl;lij mwptjpy; Mizf;FO kfpo; r ; r pailfpwJ. kP s f; F bNaw; w g; gl; l tu; f spd; Njitfs; njhlu; e ; J k; epyTfpdwd. mtu;fspd; tho;fifia kPsf; ; ; fl; b naOg; G tJ gw; w p ftdk; nrYj; j Ntz;Lk;.

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

51

Photo source: Ngaire Lawson

Nghjpa tPjpfs;> ghlrhiyfs;> itj;jparhiyfs; Nghd;w cl;fl;Lkhdj; Njitfs; Nkk;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. njhz;lu; mur rhu;gw;w ];jhgdq;fs; kw;Wk; njhz;lu; epWtdq;fs; ,J njhlu;ghf Cf;Ftpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;

9.102 ,lk; n gau; e ; j kf; f spd; kP s ; jpUk; G jy; nrad; K iwfs; ngUkstpy; g+u; j ; j p nra;ag;gl;likf;fhf murhq;fk; kw;Wk; mf; f iw nfhz; l midj; J r; nraw;ghl;lhsu;fs; ghuhl;lg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. vt; t hwhapDk; kP s f; Fbaku; j ; j g; g l; l kf;fspd; njhlu;r;rpahd NjitfSf;F ftdk; nrYj;jg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. 9.103 kPs; jpUk;gpatu;fspy; gyUk; jw;fhypff; nfhl;by;fspNyNa ,d;dKk; trpg;gjhy; jq;fs; tPLfisj; jpUj;Jtjw;F cjtpfs; mspf;fg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. ,J njhlu;gpy; rpukjhdk; Nghd;w Ntiyj; jpl;lq;fs; Cf;Ftpffg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. Nghjpa tPjpfs;> ; ghlrhiyfs;> itj;jparhiyfs; Nghd;w cl;fl;Lkhdj; Njitfs; Nkk;gLj;jg;gl Ntz; L k; . njhz; l u; mur rhu; g w; w ];jhgdq;fs; kw;Wk; njhz;lu; epWtdq;fs; ,J njhlu;ghf Cf;Ftpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; 9.104 kPs; Fbaku;e;jtu;fSf;F rl;l uPjpahd epy cupikia mspg; g jw; f hd xU Njit cs;sJ. 9.105 jq;fsJ tho;it kPsf; fl;baikg;gjw;fhf fP o ; kl; l j; j pypUe; J r%f mgptpUj; j p Ntiyfs; Cf;Ftpf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. 9.106 jq; f spd; nrhe; j ,lq; f spy; kP s ; Fbaku;j;Jtjw;F ru;tNjr nfhs;iffSf;Nfw;g Rje;jpukhd elkhl;lk; cWjpg; g Lj; j g; g l Ntz; L k; . ,J gw; w p murhq;fj;jpd; nfhs;ifia tpsf;Ftjd; %yk; jtwhd nfhs; i ffis eP f ; f Tk; KbAk;.

52

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Nghupd; gpd;du; Gjpa ghlrhiyfs; Muk;gpf;fg;gLfpd;wd.

9.107 ghJfhg; G cl; g l nghJkf; f spd; Njitfis g+u;j;jp nra;tjhapd; mr;rk; ek;gpf;ifaPdk; ,y;yhj xU #oikit Vw; g Lj; j Ntz; L k; . ,j; j ifa xU #o; e piyapNyNa cz; i kahd ey;ypzf;fk; Vw;gLk;. 9.108 ,e;jpahtpy; ,lk;ngau;e;J tho;Nthu; jkJ nrhe; j tpUg; g pd; Ngupy; ,yq; i ff; F j; jpUk; g p kP s ; FbNaw rfy trjpfSk; Vw; g Lj; j pf; nfhLf; f Ntz; L k; . cs; e hl; b y; ,lk; ngau;e;jtu;fSf;Fk; mtu;fSf;FkpilNa vJtpj ghugl;rKk; ,Uf; f f; $lhJ. ,yq; i ff; F kP s j; jpUk; G tjw; F ,e; j pahTld; ,U jug; G ,zf; f g; g hl; i l Vw; g Lj; j pf; n fhs; s Ntz;Lk;.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; 53

Photo source: Opportunity for All website

tlf;F kw;Wk; fpof;fpy; K];ypk; r%fk; njhlu;ghd fuprizfs; ,lk;ngau;eNjhu; ; gw;wpa gpur;rpid kPsf; Fbaku;jJtJ ; gw;wpa epiyahd mur nfhs;if %yk; jPuffg;gl ;; Ntz;Lk;.
9.109 vy;.uP.uP.< mr;RWj;jy; fhuzkhf 1990k; Mz;L xf;Nlhgupy; aho;g;ghzk;> kd;dhu;> fpspnehr;rp> Ky;iyj;jPT> tTdpah Mfpa 5 khtl; l q; f spypUe; J ,lk; n gau; e ; j K];ypk; r%fj;jpd; gy;NtW gpur;rpidfs; kpFe; j rthy; kpFe; j jhFk; . mJ ey;ypzf;fj;jpd; kPJk; ghupa jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ. ,g; g pur; r pid kP J ftdk; nrYj; j g; glhtpl; l hy; mikjpapd; i kf; F k; ,zf;fg;ghl;bd;ikf;Fkhd fhuzpahf mJ mikayhk;. eP b j; j Aj; j j; j pd; ngWNgwhf ,lk; n gau; e ; N jhu; gw; w pa gpur; r pid kPsf;Fbaku;j;JtJ gw;wpa epiyahd mur nfhs; i f %yk; jP u ; f ; f g; g l Ntz;Lk;. Gfyplk; mspj;j r%fj;jpy; my;yJ jkJ nrhe;j ,lq;fspy; mtu;fs; kP s ; FbNaWtjw; F trjpaspj; j y; Ntz;Lk;. mj; j ifa mur nfhs; i ffs; epjp cjtpfs; nghUSjtpfs; cl; g l; l cjtpg; nghwpKiwfisf; nfhz;bUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. cs; s f ,lk; n gau; e ; j kf; f spdJk; Gfyplk; toq; f pa r%fq; f spdJk; tpupthd fye; J iuahlypd; %yk; nraw; g Ltjw; F xU tpNrlf; F O epakpf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.110

9.111

9.112

9.113

54

cjad; gj;jpupif Mrpupau; jhf;fg;gl;likia vjpu;j;J elj;jg;gLk; Mu;g;ghl;lk;

Ngr;Rr; Rje;jpuk; kw;Wk; jfty;fSf;fhd cupik


9.114 gj;jpupifahsu;fs; kPjhd jhf;Fjy;fs;> nfhiyfs;> Clf epWtdq;fis mopjjy; ; Nghd;w rk;gtq;fis ,l;L Gyd; tprhuiz nra;J Fw;wkpioj;jtu;fSf;F jz;lid toq;f Ntz;Lk;. ,e;epi yik njhlu; tijaplL Mizf;FO Mo;e;j ftiy ; milfpwJ. Mizf;FOtpd; mku;Tfs; eilngw;Wf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; NtisapNyNa cjad; gj;jpupifapd; gj;jpupif Mrpupau; kPjhd Nkhrkhd jhf;Fjypdhy; Mizf; FO mjpu; r ; r pailtNjhL mjid td;ikahff; fz;bf;fpwJ. ,J gw;wp Gyd;tprhuiz nra;J Fw;wkpioj;jtu; fSf;F vjpuhf tof;Fj; njhlu;tjd; %yNk ey;ypzf;fj;ijAk; rl;lj;jpd; Ml;rpiaAk; epiyehl;l KbAk;.

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Eelanatham.info website

55

9.115

Clftpayhsu;fs; kw;Wk; Clf epWtdq;fs; kPjhd jhf;Fjy;fis jtpu;ggjw;F ; eltbf;if vLj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

Ngr; R r; Rje; j puk; vj; j ifa xU ey;ypzf;fj;jpwFk; kpf mj;jpahtrpakhFk;. ; mbg;gil cupikfSf;fhd flg;ghLfis mbg; g ilahff; nfhz; L Clfr; Rje;jpuj;ij Nkk;gLj;j KbAk;. ,jw;F kl; L g; g hLfis Vw; g Lj; J tjd; %yk; ,dq; f Sf; f pilNa ek; g pf; i faP d k; Vw;gLk;. ey;ypzf;f nrad;KiwfSf;F jil tpjpf; F k; ,r; n raw; g hLfs; jw;NghJk; ,lk;ngw;W tUfpd;wd. vdNt Mizf; F O gpd; t Utdtw; i w gupe;Jiuf;fpd;wJ. m. Clftpayhsu;fs; kw;Wk; Clf epWtdq;fs; kPjhd jhf;Fjy;fis jtpu;g;gjw;F eltbf;if vLj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. M. Fw; w tpay; eP j p Kiwfspy; nghJkf; f spd; ek; g pf; i fiaf; fl; b naOg; G tjw; f hf Nkw; g b Fw; w q; f isg; GupNthUf; F k; vjpuhf rl; l k; mKy; g Lj; j g; g l Ntz;Lk;. ,. jhkjkpd;wp Gyd;tprhuizfis epiwT nra;a Ntz;Lk;. <. tlf;F fpof;F khfhzq;fSf;F Clftpayhsu; Rje; j pukhf elkhLtij cWjp nra; a Ntz;Lk; c. jfty; f Sf; f hd cupikia cWjpg; g Lj; J tjw; F rl; l q; f s; cUthf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;

56

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

kjr; Rje;jpuj;jpw;F ,uhZtg; ghJfhg;G

kj topghl;Lr; Rje;jpuk;> xd;W $Lk; Rje;jpuk;> elkhLk; Rje;jpuk;


9.116 epiy NgwhdJk; ek;gfukhdJkhd ve;j ey; y pzf; f r; nray; K iwfSf; F k; topghl;Lr; Rje;jpuk;> xd;W $Lk; Rje;jpuk;> elkhLk; Rje;jpuk; mtrpakhFk;. ve;j xU mur epWtdKk; ghJfhg; G g; gilapdUk; nghyP ] hUk; ,tw; i w kl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;F eltbf;if vLf;ff; $lhJ vd;gij cWjpg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd Mizf;FO typAWj;JfpwJ. cau; ghJfhg;G tyak; cl;gl vy;yhg; gpuNjrq;fspYk; mike;Js;s tzf;f ];jyq;fSf;fhd elkhLk; Rje;jpuj;ij kpjpntb mfw; W k; eltbf; i ffspd; NghJ jtpu tzf; f ]; j yq; f Sf; f hd fl;Lg;ghLfis tpjpf;ff;$lhJ. fl; L g; g hLfs; ,d; w p tpohf; f isAk; $l; l q; f isAk; Vw; g hL nra; t w; F Rje;jpuk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
57

9.117

9.118

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Global Peace Support Website Photo Courtesy of Steve Chao

9.119

,yq;ifapd; ve;jnthU gpui[Ak; ehl;bd; rl;ljpllq;fSf;F ; mika fhzpfis cupj;jhf;fpf; nfhs;sTk; jhk; jdJ tpUg;gj;jpw;Fupa ve;jnthU gFjpapYk; mOj;jkpd;wp trpg;gjw;Fk; cs;s cupikia ePff ; KbahJ.

fl; L g; g hLfs; ,d; w p kP s f; F bNawpa gFjpfspy; jkJ cwtpdu; f isAk; ez; g u; f isAk; re; j pg; g jw; F mDkjp mspf;f Ntz;Lk;.

fle;j fhy tprhuiz Mizf;FO mwpf;iffs; njhlu;ghd gpw;njhlu;;r;rp eltbf;iffs;


9.120 jpUNfhzkiyapy; 2006 ,y; Ie; J khztu;fs; gLnfhiy nra;ag;gl;ldu;. mNj Mz;by; mur rhu;gw;w epWtdk; xd; w pd; 17 Copau; f s; gLnfhiy nra;ag;gl;ldu;. ,r;rk;gtq;fs; njhlu;ghf epakpf; f g; g l; l Mizf; F Of; f spd; gupe;JiufSf;F mika Fw;wkpioj; NjhUf;F vjpuhf rl; l g+u; t khd eltbf; i f vLf; f Ntz; L k; vd Mizf;FO typAWj;jp gupeJiu nra;fpwJ. ; ey; y pzf; f j; j pw; F ,r; n raw; g hL Cf;Ftpg;G toq;Fk;.

mj; j pahak; 06

fhzpg;gpur;rpidfs; kPjhd mtjhdpg;Gfs;. jkJ fhzpfSf;F kPsj; jpUk;GjYk; kPs; FbNaw;wKk;


9.121 ePzlfhy Aj;jj;jpd; gpdG ehl;il ,ay;G ; ; epiyf;Ff; nfhz;L tUtJ ,yFthd gzpay;y. rl;ltpNuhjkhf fhzpfis mgfupj; j y; > rl; l tpNuhj fhzp khw;wq;fs;> mtw;iw epWtd kakhf;fy; vd;gtw;iw jLg;gJ Kf;fpakhFk;. ,J jPu;f;fg;glhtpl;lhy; kPz;Lk; Nkhjy;fis
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

58

cUthf; F k; Gs; s pfshf cUkhw; w k; milAk;. 9.122 NkhjYf; F g; gpd; d u; kP s ; F bNaw; w k; mKyhf; f g; g Lifapy; fhzpg; gpur;rpidfs; Kf;fpa ,lj;ij vLf;Fk;. kdpju; f s; fhzpfSf; F cupik nfhz;lhLtJk; mtw;iw nrhe;jkhf;fpf; nfhs; s Kaw; r pj; j Yk; xU rpf; f yhd gpur; r pidahFk; . vdNt NkhjYf; F Kd; i da epiyia cUthf; F tJ fbdkhdJ. Nkw;$wpa epiyikia vjpuNehf;fpAs;sJ. ; Mizf;FOtpd; gupe;Jiufs; ,e;epi yikapd; mbg; g ilapNyNa mike;Js;sJ.

9.123

9.124

,yq; i fapd; ve; j nthU gpui[Ak; ehl; b d; rl; l jpl; l q; f Sf; F mika fhzpfis cupjjhf;fpf; nfhs;sTk; jhk; ;
59

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: TamilNewsNetwork Website

xU Fwpg;gpl;l khfhzj;jpd; kf;fl; guk;gy; khjpupia ,aw;iff;F Kuzhd tifapy; khw;WtJ murhq;fj;jpd; fhzpfnfhs;ifahf ; mikaf; $lhJ.

9.125

9.126

9.127

jdJ tpUg; g j; j pw; F upa ve; j nthU gFjpapYk; mOj;jkpd;wp trpg;gjw;Fk; cs;s cupikia ePf;f KbahJ. Mdhy; xU Fwpg; g pl; l khfhzj; j pd; kf; f l; guk;gy; khjpupia ,aw;iff;F Kuzhd tifapy; khw; W tJ murhq; f j; j pd; fhzpf;nfhs;ifahf mikaf; $lhJ. ,yq; i fapd; murpay; mikg; g pw; F Vw;Gila tifapNyNa fhzpg;gfpu;T ,lk;ngw Ntz;Lk;. ,lk;ngau;e;j kf;fspd; kPs; jpUk;Gjy; kw; W k; kP s ; FbNaw; w k; njhlu; g hf ,yq; i f murhq; f k; mDrupj; j fhzpf;nfhs;ifiag; ghuhl;LfpNwhk;. fhzpfis Mtzg;gLj;jpg; gpzf;Ffisj; jPu;g;gjw;F cgNahfpf;Fk; 2011 [_iy epfo; r ; r pj; j pl; l j; i jAk; Mizf; F O ghuhl;LfpwJ. mYtyf kw;Wk; ePjpkd;w f\; l q; f spypUe; J tpLgl; l xU nghwpKiwia <LgLj;Jk; Kaw;rpfspypUe;J tpLtpf; f g; g l; l xU nghwpKiwiag; gad;gLj;JtJk; crpjkhdJ. vt;thwhapDk; ,e;epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk; fhzp cWjpapyyhj ,lk;ngau;ejtu;fSf;fhdJ ; ; vd; g ijapl; L kf; f Sf; F mwpTWj; j Ntz;Lk;. ,J Vw;fdNt eilKiwapYs;s fhzp cWjpia uj;J nra;Ak; Kiwahf mikaTk; $lhJ. mKy;gLj;jiy gaDWjpj; jd;ikia kw;Wk; ngWNgWfis cWjpggLj;Jtjw;F ; Mizf;FO gpd;tUk; gupe;Jiufisr; nra;fpdwJ. ;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

60

9.128

9.129

9.130

jpl; l kplg; g l; l thW ve; j gpur;rpidahf ,Ug;gpDk; ntw;wpfukhd KiwapYk; jhkjpf; f hj KiwapYk; gpur;rpidfisj; jPu;j;Jf; nfhs; t jw; F murpay; jiyaPL ,y;yhj Mdhy; cWjpahd murpay; JzpT ,Uj; j y; Ntz; L k; . mtrpakhd kdpj tsq; f isAk; epjp tsq;fisAk; murhq;fk; toq;f Ntz;Lk;. ,e; e pfo; r ; r pj; j pl; l j; j pd; ghugl;rkw;w jd;ikiaAk; epahakhd jd;ikiaAk; cWjpg; gLj;Jtjw;Fg;; gyk; tha; e ; j epu; t hf mu; g ; g zpg; G mtrpak;. vdNt> ,jidf; Fwpg;gpl;l murhq; f mjpgu; f spdJk; > mjd; juq; f isAk; Fzhk; r q; f isAk; mtjhdpj; J fhzp gw; w pa MizahsUf;F xg;gilf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,g; n ghwpKiwia re; N jfj; j pw; F ,lkpd; w p Gupe; J nfhs; t jd; %yNk epfo; r ; r p epuypd; ntw; w p jq; f pAs; s J. murpay;thjpfs;> nraw;ghl;lhsu;fs;> mur mjpfhupfs;> r%fj; jiytu;fs; kw;Wk; gadhspfs; mjd; FwpfNfhisAk; ; topKiwfisAk; re;Njfj;jpw;fplkpd;wp GupeJnfhs;s KbAk;. ey;y Nehf;fj;NjhL ; nra; j ,Jtiu ntspahfpAs; s jfty;fSf;F mika Fwpf;NfhSk; top
61

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Courtesy of CPA

murpay; epiyg;ghL vJTk; ,d;wp Gjpa epfo;rrpj; ; jpl;lj;ijg; gw;wp rupahd fUj;ij ntspapLtjw;F fhzpfs; Mizahsu; ehafj;jpd; jpizf;fsk; Xu; Clff; fUj;juq;if elj;JtJ crpjkhdJ

KiwAk; njspthf; f g; g l Ntz; L k; . ClfKk; murpay; t hjpfSk; rupahd jfty; f is ntspaplhikahYk; > jw;NghJ mKyhf;fg;gLk; NtW fhzp eltbf;iffs; fhuzkhfTk; jtwhd jfty;fs; gpugy;akhf ntspaplg;gl;Ls;sd. 9.131

murpay; epiyg;ghL vJTk; ,d;wp Gjpa epfo; r ; r pj; j pl; l j; i jg; gw; w p rupahd fUj; i j ntspapLtjw; F fhzpfs; Mizahsu; ehafj;jpd; jpizf;fsk; Xu; Clff; fUj; j uq; i f elj; J tJ crpjkhdJ.
fhzp Mizahsu; jpizf; f sKk; murhq; f mjpgu; f Sk; $l; l hf mur cj; j pNahfj; j u; f Sf; F k; r%fj; jiytu; f Sf; F k; jpl; l kplg; g l; l gapw; r pia toq; f Ntz; L k; . gpur; r pidfSf; F j; jP u ; T fhZjy; rk; g tf; fw; i ffs; > gapw; r p Kiwfs; vd; g d cs; s lf; f pa ifE}y; xd; i w mbg; g ilahff; nfhz; L gapw; r p E}y; mika Ntz; L k; . ,jw; F epGzj; J t epWtdq;fisAk; gad;gLj;j KbAk;. xU epfo; r ; r pj; jpl; l j; j pd; %yk; toq;fg;gLk; Nritfisg; gw;wp ,lk; ngau;e;jtu;fSf;F tpsf;fkspg;gjw;F mtu;fs; vjid vg;gbr; nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;gij rpqfsk; kw;Wk; jkpo; nkhopfspy; ; njhlu; g hly; nra; A k; xU Ntiyj; jpllj;ij cs;slf;fp ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ; mjd; %yk; ngWNgWfisg; ngWtjw;F ,J mtu;fSf;F cjTk;.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.132

9.133

62

ghJfhg;Gg; gilapdu; rptpy; epu;thf eltbf;iffspypUe;J tpyf Ntz;Lk; vd Mizf;FO gupe;Jiuf;fpwJ.

9.134

ghJfhg; G g; gilapdu; rptpy; epu; t hf eltbf;iffspypUe;J tpyf Ntz;Lk; vd Mizf;FO gupe;Jiuf;fpwJ. rpy fhzpfs; ghJfhg; G g; gilapdupd; gad; g hl; b w; f hfTk; ghJfhg; G j; NjitfSf;F mtrpakhf ,Ug;gpDk;> nghJ kf;fs; FbapUg;gjw;F ,lkspfFk; ; nfhs; i fia Kd; n dLf; f Ntz; L k; . Nkw; g b fhzpfs; ,ad; w sT tpLtpg;gijj; Jupjg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. ,e; e pfo; r ; r pj; j pl; l q; f spy; r%f MNyhridiag; ngWtjw; f hd re;ju;g;gk; ,Ug;gJ ghuhl;Ljw;FupaJ. gpuNjrr; nrayhsu;fs; gpuNjrq;fspy; Ma;Tf; FOf;fis cUthf;Ftjw;F
63

9.135

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Colombo Telegraph.com

fhzp Mizahu; jpizf;fsk; epGzj;JtKila Xa;t+jpak; ngWNthiu gad;gLj;j KbAk;.


9.136 9.137

Kd;du; r%f MNyhrid tprhuizf; $l;lq;fis elj;j Ntz;Lk;. kPs tUif je; J FbNawpa kf; f s; jkJ gpur; r pidfis Kd; i tj; J Gyd; tprhuizia Kd;Ndw;w KbAk;. fhzpg; gpur;rpidfis jPufFk; Kiwapy>; jkf;F ; ; nrtpkLg;gJ gw;wpAk; ek;gpf;if Vw;gLk;. MNyhrid NfhUk; $l;lq;fspy; $l;lhf fhzpf; fr;Nrup Kiwiag; gad;gLj;j KbAk;. r%fj;jpd; Nahridfis ftdpg;gjw;F xU nghwpKiwia mikf;f Ntz;Lk;. epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lj;ij tpidj; jpwDlDk; gaDWjp tha;ej KiwapYk; miktjw;F ; fhzp Mizahu; jpizf; f sk; epGzj; J tKila Xa; t +jpak; ngWNthiu gad;gLj;j KbAk;. Nkw;gb gupe;Jiufis mKyhf;Ftjw;F Nkyjpf epjpAk; fhyKk; Njit. Mdhy; mjd; %yk; epfo; r ; r pj; j pl; l k; gyk; tha; e ; j jhf miktNjhL kf; f s; ed;ikfisg; ngWfpd;wdu;. tlf; F fpof; F khfhzq; f spy; cz;ikahfNt fhzpaw;w FLk;gq;fSf;F fhzpfis toq;Ftjw;F ,e;epfo;r;rp vjpu; g hu; f ; f pd; w J. ,uz; l htjhf Vw; f dNt FbapUg; N ghu; Kd; d Dkjp ngw; w pUg; g pd; khj; j puk; fhzpia toq;FtJ jtW. Mdhy; Nkhrbahd Kiwapy; fhzpfisg; ngWtjw; F
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.138

9.139

64

Mizf;FO Kd;dpiyapy; rhl;rpaspf;Fk; re;ju;g;gk; - jpUNfhzkiy

9.140

9.141

,uz;lhtJ trpggplj;ij gad;gLtijj; ; jLg;gjw;F tprhuiz Mizf;FOtpd; %yk; cz; i kapNyNa mtu; f Sf; F fhzpfs; ,y;iyah vd Njbg; ghu;f;f Ntz;Lk;. epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk; nraw;gLj;jg;gLk; tiu> cs; s f ,lk; n gau; T xd; W > mur Njitfisj; jtpu;j;J> mur fhzpfis gpwuJ cupikahf;FtJ gw;wpf; fLikahd fl;Lg;ghLfs; mika Ntz;Lk;. Nghypf; fhzp cWjpfs; %yk; fhzpfs; toq;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,J njhlu;ghd mur cj; j pNahfj; j u; f s; > rl; l j; j uzpfs; > nehj; j hup]; k hu; vd; N ghUf; F vjpuhf rl; l j; j pd; %yk; eltbf; i f vLf; f Ntz;Lk;. ,e;epfo;rrpj; jpllj;ij mKyhf;Ftjw;F ; ; ru;tNjr epjp cjtpiag; ngwyhk;. Mdhy; fhzpg; g pupT ke; j fjpapy; gzj; i jr;
65

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Centre for Human Rights

ghJfhg;G eltbf;iffSf;fhfg; ngwg;gl;l jdpahu; fhzpfs;> ghJfhg;Gj; NjitfisAk; fUj;jpw;nfhz;L> kpf tpiutpy; tpLtpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,jdhy; fhzp ,oe;jtu;fSf;F khw;Wf; fhzpfis my;yJ jpl;ltl;lkhd fhyfl;lj;jpw;Fs; e\;l <L toq;FtijAk; gupeJiuf;fpdNwhk;. ; ;

nrytpLtijj; jLg;gjw;F ,e;epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lj;jpy; nfhs;ifj; jPu;khdk; vLj;jy; kw;Wk; nraw;gLj;jy; murhq;fj;jpd; fPo; cs;sikiag; Gupe;Jnfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. 9.142 gyhyp kw;Wk; jpUNfhzkiy> rhk;g+u; Mfpa gpuNjrq;fspd; cau; ghJfhg;G tyaq;fs; Fiwf;fg;gl;L Rkhu; miu thrpg; Ngu;> jkJ nrhe;j fpuhkq;fSf;F mDg;gg;gl;ldu;. Mdhy; NkYk; xU gFjp njhlu; e ; J k; cau; ghJfhg; G tyaq; f shf ,Ue; J tUfpd; w d. ghJfhg; G eltbf; i ffSf; f hfg; ngwg;gl;l jdpahu; fhzpfs;> ghJfhg;Gj; NjitfisAk; fUj;jpw;nfhz;L> kpf tpiutpy; tpLtpffg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,jdhy; ; fhzp ,oe; j tu; f Sf; F khw; W f; fhzpfis my; y J jpl; l tl; l khd fhyfl; l j; j pw; F s; e\; l <L toq;FtijAk; gupe;Jiuf;fpd;Nwhk;. Gjpjhf ,lk;ngau;e;j FLk;gq;fSf;F; tho; t hjhu cjtp toq; F tjw; f hd fhyj; i j eP b f; f Ntz; L k; . tl khfhzj; j pd; rpy gpuNjrq; f spy; ,J eP b j; j ikiaapl; L ghuhl; L fpNwhk; . ,jid mgptpUj; j pg; gq; f hsu; f spd; cjtpNahL nra; a KbAk; . tptrhapfSf;F rpW fld; toq;Fjy;> tptrhaf; $l; L wTr; rq; f q; f Sf; F l;nuf;uu; toq;Fjy; cl;gl tho;thjhu cjtpia NkYk; tpupthf;f Ntz;Lk;. eP u ; g ; g hrd eP u ; j ; jpl; l k; njhlu; r ; r pahf guhkupg;gJk; ey;yJ.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.143

66

fpof;F khfhzj;jpd; tptrhaf; fhzpfspy; ,Ue;J vy;.uP.uP.< tpul;babj;j K];ypk; FLk;gq;fSf;F Jupjkhf epthuzk; toq;f Ntz;Lk;.

9.144

9.145

fpof; F khfhzj; j pd; tptrhaf; fhzpfspy; ,Ue;J vy;.uP.uP.<. tpul;babj;j K]; y pk; FLk; g q; f spd; gpur; r pidia Jupjkhfj; jP u ; f ; f Ntz; L k; . Aj; j k; KbTw;wpUe;jhYk;> Fwpgghf kl;lf;fsg;Gg; ; gpuNjrj;jpd; Kd;Ndw;wk; ntw;wpfukhf ,y;iy. aho; khtl;lj;jpypUe;J tpul;b mbf;fg;gl;l rpq;fsf; FLk;gq;fs; gw;wpa jfty;fs; KOikahdjy; y . ,dj; J t czu; T fisj; J}z; l hj tifapy; Kiwrhu; Ma;it Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. jkJ nrhe;jf; fhzpfSf;F Nghf tpUk;Ggtu;fs; mjw; F ,lkspf; f Ntz;Lk;.

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

67

Photo source:

9.146

jkJ nrhe;jf; fhzpfSf;F Nghf tpUk;Ggtu;fs; mjw;F ,lkspf;f Ntz;Lk;.


9.147

tlkhfhzj;jpypUe;J tpul;babf;fg;gl;l K];ypk; kf;fspd; kPs; tUifAk; kPs; FbNaw;wj;jpYk; xU Kd;Ndw;wk; cz;L vd aho;g;ghzk;> kd;dhu;> Ky;iyj;jPT murhq; f mjpgu; f s; jfty; f is toq; f pAs; s du; . vQ; r pNahUk; mq; F nry; y tpUk; g pdhy; jhk; tpUk; g pa fpuhkq; f Sf; F r; nry; y trjpaspj; J mjidj; Jupjg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. vy; . uP . uP . < jhf; F jy; f s; fhuzkhf FLk; g j; j py; tUkhdk; <l; L gtu; f s; nfhiyAz; l FLk; g q; f s; kw; W k; FLk; g g; ghJfhg; G f; f hf ,uT Ntisfspy; ,lk; n gau; t jw; F fl;lhag;gLj;jg;gl;l rpy FLk;gq;fspd; fhzpg; gpur;rpidfs; kw;Wk; tho;thjhug; gpur; r pidfs; ngupJk; kWf; f g; g l; N lh my;yJ ftdk; nrYj;jg;glhjpUg;gij Mizf; F O ftdj; j py; n fhs; f pwJ. ,tu; f spy; fzprkhNdhu; ngz; f s; . ,tu;fsJ ,d;iwa gpur;rpidfSf;F jPu;T fhz;gjw;F tpNrl nghwpKiw xd;W jahupf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd Mizf;FO gupe;Jiuf;fpwJ. tlf; F fpof; F khfhzq; f spYs; s jdpahu; fhzpfspypUe; J Fbkf; f s; gyte;jkhf tpul;babf;fg;gl;Ls;sdu;. mNj rkak; mtu; f s; FbapUg; g ij rl;lg+u;tkhf;Ftijj; jLg;gjw;F Ml;rp cupik njhlu; g hd rl; l q; f s; jpUj;jg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.148

68

9.149

Vg; u y; 2008f; F Kd; d uhf ,lk; ngau; e ; j tu; f s; gioa ,lk; n gau; e ; j kf; f s; gw; w p Mizf; F Otpd; ftdk; <u;f;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. muR my;yJ NtW jug; g pdupd; nraw; g lhik fhuzkhf my;yJ ke;jkhf nraw;gLjy; fhuzkhf mtu; f s; ghugl; r g; g Lj; j g; g l; l jhf czu;fpdwdu;. ,g;gpur;rpidf;F gpdtUk; ; ; gupe;Jiufs; Vw;Gilad. mtu;fSila gpur; r pidfis Ma; T nra; J kP s ; FbNaw;wk; gw;wpa Ntiyj;jpl;lj;ij jahupggJ ey;ypzf;fj;jpwF gpuNahrdkhFk;. ; ; midj;J ,lk; ngau;e;jtu;fSf;Fk; xNu cupikNa ,Uf;fpwJ. jFjpahd Njrpa fhzpf;nfhs;iff;F topfhl;Lk; Kfkhf murhq;fk; Jupjkhf Njrpa fhzp Mizf; F O xd; i w mikf; f Ntz; L k; . mur fhzpfis epahakhd Kiwapy; gfpueJ nfhLg;gjw;fhf ; ; ,jd; %yk; XU nfhs;if jahupf;fg;gl Ntz; L k; . murpayikg; g pw; f hd 13k; jpUj;jj;jpd; fPo; ,J Xu; NjitahFk;. Mdhy; ,Jtiu mJ eilKiwg; gLj;jhik ftiyf;FupaJ. tlf; F fpof; F khfhzq; f Sf; F cupj; j hd fhzpg; ghtid gw; w pa
69

9.150

9.151

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Land Commissioners Dept Website

Nkw;gb gpur;rpidfs; Njrpa gpur;rpidfshf milahsk; fhzg;gl Ntz;Lk;. murhq;fj;jpdJk; vjpufl;rpapdJk; ; FWfpa murpay; ed;ikf;fhf 9.152 mtw;iw gad;gLj;j Ntz;lhk; vdTk; Mizf;FO gupe;Jiuf;fpwJ.

jpl; l nkhd; W jahupf; f g; g l Ntz; L k; . epfo; f hy vjpu; f hyg; guk; g iuapd; tho; f ; i fia Fzhk; r uP j pahd Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;fhf Rw;whly;> capupay; gd;ikj;Jtk;> nghUshjhu mgptpUj;jp> Xa;T nghOJ Nghf;F> tzf;fj; jyq;fs; fyhrhu Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;j ,lq;fs; njhy; n ghUs; Kf; f paj; J tk; tha; e ; j gpuNjrq;fs; vd;gtw;iwg; ghJfhg;gjw;F epGzu; f spd; gq; N fw; G ld; Nkw; g bj; jpl;lk; jahupf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

Nkw; g b gpur; r pidfs; Njrpa gpur;rpidfshf milahsk; fhzg;gl Ntz;Lk;. murhq;fj;jpdJk; vjpufl;rpapdJk; ; FWfpa murpay; ed;ikf;fhf mtw;iw gad; g Lj; j Ntz; l hk; vdTk; Mizf;FO gupe;Jiuf;fpwJ. Njrpa ,d If;fpaj;jpw;fhf ,j;jifa gpuNtrj;ij Vw;gLj;jpf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

mj; j pahak; - 07 kP s ; mspg; G ,og; g P l ; L epthuzq; f s; kP j hd mtjhdpg; G fSk; gupe; J iufSk; 9.153 Xu; rl;luPjpapyhd Nfhl;ghlhf kPs; mspgG ; Kjy; epiyia mDgtpfifapy; ,og;gPL ; kl;Lk; epjp uPjpapyhd epthuzk; Nghd;w Vida tbtpyhd epthuzq;fs; nghJthf ehlg;gLtJ ed;F Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sJ. nfhLg;gdTfSf;F jFjpahdtu;fs; xU epahakhd fhy vy;iyf;Fs; mtw;iw ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;fhd toptiffisf; nfhz; b Ug; g ij cWjp nra; t jw; F Mizf;FOtpd; gupeJiufs; Kay;fpdwd. ; ;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

70

nfhLg;gdTfisg; ngwj; jFjpAs;NshUf;F epahakhd fhy tuk;gpw;Fs; mit toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

9.154

Ml; f s; > nrhj; J f; f s; kw; W k; ifj; njhopy;fspd; GdUj;jhuz mjpfhu rig (REPPIA) vd; g J gaq; f uthjpfspd; td;Kiw kw;Wk; murhq;fg; ghJfhg;Gg; gilfspd; eltbf; i f fhuzkhf ,og;Gfs; { Nrjq;fshy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l Ml;fSf;fhd ,og;gPl;L epthuzq;fs; kPJ ,yq;if murhq;fj;jpd; nfhs;if mKy; g Lj; j Yf; F nghWg; g hd tpNrl epWtdkhFk;. e\;l <l;L epthuzq;fs; rk;ge;jg;gl;l newpKiwfis Mizf;FO ftdj;jpwF ; vLj;jJ. Nkhjy;fspd; gpddu; Njitfisg; ; g+u; j ; j p nra; t jw; F Nugpah (REPPIA) epWtdj;jpwF cs;s flg;ghLk; Mw;wYk; ; murpdhy; kPsha;T nra;a Ntz;Lk;. ghjpf; f g; g l; l tu; f Sf; F jFjpahd nfhLg; g dTfis Nkw; nfhs;tjw;F epjpapdikNa kpf Kf;fpa gpur;rpidahFk;. ; epu;thf uPjpapyhd jilfis rkhspf;f KbAk; . Mdhy; epjpg; gpur;rpidiaj;
71

9.155

9.156

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Centre for Human Rights

cupa Neuj;jpy; KOikahd nfhLg;gdTfis toq;FtJ murpd; nghWg;ghFk;. jhkjq;fs; kw;Wk; nfhLg;gdtpd;ikf;fhd fhuzk; epjp ,d;ikiaj; jtpu;fFk; ; eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

9.157

9.158

9.159

9.160

9.161

jPuffhky; ve;jnthU Kd;Ndw;wj;ijAk; ; ; fhz KbahJ. cupa Neuj; j py; KOikahd nfhLg; g dTfis toq; F tJ murpd; nghWg; g hFk; . jhkjq; f s; kw; W k; nfhLg;gdtpdikf;fhd epjp ,d;ikiaj; ; jtpu;f;Fk; eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. rfy cupikfisAk; toq;Ftij cWjp nra; A k; Nugpah (REPPIA) xU fhy ,yf;if epu;zapj;Jf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,Wjp Nkhjy;fspy; Vw;gl;l ,og;gPlLf;fhd ; nfhLg;gdTfis g+u;j;jp nra;tjw;fhd xU fhy vy;iy epuzapffg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ; ; epjpf;fhd Njit jPtpukhf ,Uf;ifapy; nfhLg; g dTfSf; F cupj; j hdtu; f s; mij ngw;Wf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. Nugpah (REPPIA) epWtdk; mjd; nghWg;Gf;fis KOikahf g+u;j;jp nra;a Ntz;Lk;. fhy vy; i yia epu; z apf; F k; NghJ tpz;zg;gq;fis Nkw;nfhs;NthUf;F epahakhd fhy mtfhrk; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. vy;.uP.uP.< ,d; Ml;rpf;Fl;gl;l fhyj; j py; ,Ue; J ,lk; n gau; e ; N jhiu ftdj; j py; vLf; f Ntz; L k; . mjw; F Nghjpa gpurhuq;fisAk; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. ,k; k f; f spd; Njitfis g+u; j ; j p nra; t jw; F fy; t p [P t Ndhgha epfo; r ; r pj; j pl; l q; f s; jP u ; f ; f khdit. Mdhy; e\; l <L> epthuzk; vd; g d toq; F tNj Nugpah (REPPIA) epWtdj;jpd; nghWg;ghFk;.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

72

kPsf; FbNaWk; ,lk;ngau;e;NjhUf;F tPl;L trjpfs; gpur;rpidf;F e\;l <L toq;f Ntz;Lk;.

9.162

nghJkf;fs; kw;Wk; mur Copau;fspd; ,wg; G > fhak; kw; W k; tP l ; L cupj; J f; f Sf; f hd nfhLg; g dTfis Nugpah (REPPIA) mtrukhf Kd; D upikg; g Lj; j y; Ntz; L k; . mur rhu;gw;w epWtdq;fspd; cjtp epfo;r;rpj; jpl; l q; f spypUe; J mur Copau; f s; jFjpaw;wtu;fshf Mf;fg;gLtJ kPs; guprPypf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,og; g P l ; L j; njhiffis mjpfupg; g jw; f hd Ntz; L Nfhs; f s; Nugpah (REPPIA) epWtdj; j plk; Nfhug; g l; L s; s d. vdpDk; Njf; f kile; J s; s nfhLg; g dTfs; kw;Wk; epYitapYs;s tpz;zg;gq;fs; vd;gtw;wpw;F mika mtw;iw jPu;j;J itf; f KbAnkd Mizf; F O fUjtpy;iy. kPs; FbNaw;wk; kw;wk; kPs;
73

9.163

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: World Bank website

kPsf;FbNaw;wk; mgptpUj;jp eltbf;iffs; mgptpUj;jpj; jpl;lq;fs; vd;gtw;NwhL Rfhjhuk;> fy;tp> czT> ePu; kw;Wk; tptrhak;> cl;fl;likg;G trjpfs; vd;gd gw;wpAk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

fl; b naOg; G jy; vd; g tw; i w cWjpg; g Lj; J tjw; F <L nra; A k; jpl;lq;fis toq;f Ntz;Lk;. 9.164 vy;.uP.uP.< mikg;Gld; rk;ge;jg;gl;ltu;fspd; ,wg; G kw; W k; fhak; vd; g tw; w pw; f hd ,og;gPl;L epthuzk; gue;j ey;ypzf;f fz; N zhl; l j; j pypUe; N j vLf; f g; g ly; Ntz; L k; . Nugpah (REPPIA) epWtdk; ghjpg; G f; F s; s hd nghJkf; f spd; gpur;rpidfSf;Nf Kd;Dupik toq;f Ntz;Lk;. kPs tUk; cs;ehl;L ,lk;ngau;ejtu;fspd; ; tP l ; L g; gpur; r pidAk; epthuzq; f Sk; Nugpah (REPPIA) epWtdj; j pd; mjpfhuq; f Sf; F mg; g hy; nry; Y k; tplaq; f s; MFk; . vdNt Njrpa uP j pahfTk; ru; t Njr uP j pahfTk; muR tsq;fisj; Njl Ntz;Lk;. ,og; g P l ; L epthuzq; f is Vida epthuzq; f spypUe; J NtWgLj; j p Nehf; f f; $ lhJ kP s f; F bNaw; w k; mgptpUj;jp eltbf;iffs; mgptpUj;jpj; jpl;lq;fs; vd;gtw;NwhL Rfhjhuk;> fy;tp> czT> eP u ; kw; W k; tptrhak; > cl;fl;likg;G trjpfs; vd;gd gw;wpAk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

9.165

9.166

74

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

mj; j pahak; -08

ey;ypzf;fk; gpupT - I NghUf;Fg; gpd;duhd ey;ypzf;fk; kPJ jhf;fq;fis Vw;gLj;Jk; tplaq;fs; kPjhd mtjhdpg;Gfs;
9.167 Nkhjy; f s; fhuzkhf NeubahfNth my;yJ kiwKfkhfNth ghjpf;fg;glhj Ml; f spd; rhl; r pfs; nfhOk; g py; ,lk; n gw; w mku; T fspy; gjpT nra;ag;gl;ld. Mizf; F O gpd; t Uk; mwpf; i ffis ftdj;jpwnfhz;lJ. 2011 kPs; FbNaw;wk; ; (tlkhfhzk; ) mgptpUj; j p kw; W k; ghJfhg;Gg; gw;wp [dhjpgjp nrayzpapd; mwpf; i f> kj; j pa tq; f p mwpf; i f> nghUshjhu mgptpUj; j p mikr; r pd; mwpfif> kw;Wk; kdpjNea eltbf;iffis ; xUq;fpizg;gjw;fhd mYtyfj;jpd; mwpfif ;
75

9.168

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Adaderana

9.169

mtu;fsJ KOikahd rf;jpia ehl;L kf;fspd; ed;ikf;fhf gad;gLj;Jtjw;F Mf;f g+u;tkhd ,zf;fg;ghLila epfo;rrpj; jpl;lk; ; mtrpak; vd Mizf;FO fUJfpwJ>

kPs; FbNaw;wk;> [PtNdhghak;> fy;tp> itj;jpa> Nghf;Ftuj;J kw;Wk; epue;ju tPl;Lg; gpur;rpidfs; (epjp kw;Wk; Vida cjtpg; nghjpfspd; toq; f y; f s; ) jP u ; T f; f hd $l; L Kaw; r pfspy; ghupa Kd; N dw; w k; Vw; g l; L s; s J. tptrhak; kw; W k; kP d ; g pb cw; g j; j p kw; W k; cl; f l; l ikg; G trjpfs; Kd; N dw; w k; fz;Ls;sd. vt;thwhapDk; ,d;dKk; ftdpf;fg;glhj gy gpur;rpidfs; cz;L. rpy kPd; gpbf;Fk; ,lq;fs; mZfg;gl KbahjitahfTk; flw; g ilapd; mDkjpg; gj; j puk; Njitg; g Lk; gpuNjrq; f shfTk; ,Uf; f pd; w d. ePu;g;ghrdf; Fsq;fspd; GdUj;jhuzk; g+u; j ; j p nra; a g; g l Ntz; L k; . rpy ,lq; f spy; kP s ; FbNaw; w j; j pw; f hd jP u ; k hdq; f is vLf; f mtrpakhd Mtzq; f is toq; F tJ rpukkhf cs;sJ. Mrpupau;fSf;fhd tpLjpfis toq;FtJk; xU nghJg; gpur;rpidahf cs;sJ. fhzp rk;ge;jg;gl;l gpur;rpidfs; epue;juf; FbapUg;Gj; Njitg;ghLfs; xU ghupa gpur;rpidahFk;. ; mgha tha;gGf;F cl;gl;l kf;fspd; Njitfisapl; L tpNrlkhf ftdpf;f Ntz;Lk;. rptpy; epu; t hfk; njhlu; e ; J k; ke; j fjpapy; ,aq;Ffpd;wd. Njitahd fpuhk cj;jpNahfj;ju;fs; epakdk; ngwtpyiy. ;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

76

mgha tha;g;Gf;F cl;gl;l kf;fspd; Njitfisapl;L tpNrlkhff; ftdpj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

9.170

9.171

30 tUl mopT Aj; j j; j pd; gpd; G gpur; r pidfisj; jP u ; g ; g jw; F fhyKk; epjpAk; tsq;fSk; Njit. tlf;F fpof;F rk;ge;jg;gl;l Nkw;gb mu;g;gzpg;Gfis cs; e hl; L ntspehl; L mgptpUj; j pg; gq; f hsu; f spd; xj; J iog; G ld; mKy; gLj;jpAs;sJ. mtu;fsJ KOikahd rf;jpia ehl;L kf;fspd; ed;ikf;fhf gad; g Lj; J tjw; F Mf; f g+u; t khd ,zf; f g; g hLila epfo; r ; r pj; jpl; l k; mtrpak; vd Mizf;FO fUJfpwJ> kP s ; fl; b naOg; G jy; kw; W k; mgptpUj;jpf;fhd gq;fspg;G ,lk;ngWk; mNjNtis ghJfhg; G g; gilfs; rpy Ntisfspy; rpW tpahghu Kaw;rpfspYk; tptrha Kaw;rpfspYk; <LgLfpd;wd. rpy ,lq; f spy; tP l ; L trjpfSf; f hd gadhspfisj; njupT nra; t jpYk;

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

77

Photo source: The Sunday Leader

mgha tha;gGf;F ; cl;gl;l kf;fspd; Njitfisapl;L tpNrlkhf ftdpf;f Ntz;Lk;.


9.172

,uhZtk; jiyapLfpwJ. tlf; F fpof; f pYs; s rpy mur fl; b lq; f s; jdpahu; fl; b lq; f s; vd; g tw; i w ,uhZtk; gad; g Lj; j p tUfpwJ. gilapdu; rptpy; eltbf; i ffspy; <LgLjy; > jdpahu; fhzpfis cgNahfpj; j y; vd; g tw; w pypUe; J gilapdu; tpyf Ntz; L nkd Mizf;FO gupe;Jiuf;fpd;wJ. rptpy; epu;thfpfs; juTfisg; gFg;gha;T nra;Ak; NghJ Nkw;gb khtl;lq;fspd; Kd; N dw; w j; i jAk; gpur; r pidfis mwpf; i fapLtjw; F xNu khjpupahd ntspg; g ilj; jd; i k nfhz; l Kiwfisg; gad; g Lj; j Ntz; L k; . FiwghLfisAk; Kd;Ndw;wq;fisAk; xg; G Nehf; f Ntz; L k; . Mdhy; rk; g e; j g; g l; l gpur; r pidfspd; gd; K fj; j d; i kiaf; ftdj; j py; nfhs; S k; NghJ ,J xU fbdkhd gzpahf ,Uf; f yhk; . MdhYk; mJ ,d;dKk; ftdk; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;ba Kf;fpakhd xU tplakhFk;. ,J gue;j Gupe;Jzu;Tf;F cjTk;.

78

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

re;Njh\k;> mr;rk;> ek;gpf;ifaPdk; td;Kiw Mfpa fyhrhuq;fis ePf;f Ntz;Lk;.

mj; j pahak; - 08

ey; y pzf; f k; gpupT II ey; y pzf; f k; kP j hd mtjhdpg;Gfs; kw;Wk; gupe;Jiufs;


9.173 30 Mz;Lfhyk; ,uj;jk; rpe;jpaikahy; gy; N tW r%fq; f Sf; f pilNa xU ey; y pzf; f j; i j Vw; g Lj; J tjw; f hd re;ju;g;gj;ij cUthf;fpAs;sJ. vdNt epahakhd fl; r p rhu; g w; w jpwe; j gd;ikj;Jtk; nfhz;l r%f Nehf;fk;> ,og; G f; f s; Jd; g q; f s; > Jauq; f s; vd; g tw; i w Vw; W e\; l <Lk; r%f ePjpiaAk; xj;Jiog;igAk; gpufldg;gLj;j Ntz;ba Njit Vw;gl;Ls;sJ. nghJf; Fzhk;rq;fisAk; khw;wq;fisAk; Vw;f Ntz;Lk;. ek;gpf;ifaPdk; NtWghLfis Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; vd;gd ey;ypzf;fj;jpwF ; ,d;wpaikahjJ MFk;. re;Njfk;> mr;rk;> mtek;gpf;if kw;Wk; td;Kiw vd;gtw;wpw;fhd fyhrhuj;ij ePfFtjw;F xUtiunahUtu; Nfl;gjw;Fk; ; Nfl; f g; g Ltjw; F khd tha; g ; G f; f Sk; ,ilntspfSk; jpwf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.
79

9.174

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: w3lanka.blogspot

9.175

rfy murpay; fl;rpfSk; tpNuhj murpaiyf; iftpl;L Njrpa gpur;rpidfs; FwpjJ ; fUj;njhUkpj;j jPukhdq;fis ; Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,jw;F ,tu;fs; midtUf;Fk; murpay; cWjpAk; JzpTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

Mizf; F Otpd; Kd; Njhd; w p fUj;Jf;fisg; gupkhwpf;nfhz;l gyu; kpfj; njspthd ,uz; L tifr; nra;jpfisj; njuptpj;Js;sdu;. Kjyhtjhf Jd;gq;fs; epiwe;j ePbj;j Nkhjypd; gpdG rfy ,dq;fs; kj;jpapYk; ; epiyNgwhd rkhjhdk; > ghJfhg; G > el;GwT> xw;Wik vd;gtw;iw gpuhu;j;jpf; fpd;wdu;. murpay; jiyikj;Jtj;jpw;F jPu;T fhz Kbahj> jPu;T fhz tpUk;ghj gpur;rpidfSf;Fj; jPu;T fhZk; nghUl;L ,g;Gz;zpa g+kpapy; kPz;Lk; ,uj;j MW XlhJ ,Uf; f nra; a f; $ ba rfytw;iwAk; rfyUk; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. vd mtu;fs; Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpd;wdu;. ,uz;lhtJ> gaq;futhjj;ij KbTf;Ff; nfhz; L te; j hYk; . kpfr; rf; j ptha; e ; j epiwNtw; W [dhjpgjp fhuzkhfTk; midj;J kf;fs; kj;jpapy; ey;ypzf;fj; ijAk; el; i gAk; xj; J iog; i gAk; Nkk;gLj;jg;gl KbAk;. rfy gpui[fspdJk; cupikfis cWjpg; g Lj; J tjw; F re; j u; g ; g q; f s; toq;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ey;ypzf;fk; kw;Wk; Njrj; i jf; fl; b naOg; G tjw; F muR rpWghd; i kapdq; f is mz; k pj; j y; Ntz;Lk;. rpWghd;ikapdu; muR kw;Wk; ehL rk;ge;jkhd jkJ flikfis kPs epiyg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;Sjy; Ntz;Lk;.

9.176

9.177

9.178

9.179

rfy murpay; fl; r pfSk; tpNuhj murpaiyf; iftplL Njrpa gpur;rpidfs; ; Fwpj;J fUj;njhUkpj;j jPu;khdq;fis
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

80

Nghu; KbTw;W %d;W Mz;Lfs; fle;Jtpl;ld. Mdhy; td;Kiw ek;gpf;ifaPdk; ghugl;rk; vd;gd njhlu;fpd;wd.

Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,jw;F ,tu;fs; midtUf; F k; murpay; cWjpAk; JzpTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
9.180 Mizf;FOtpd; Kd; Njhd;wpa gyUk; ghJfhg;Gg; gilfspdhy; milag;gl;l ,e; j ntw; w pahdJ Njrj; j pw; f hd epiyahd rkhjhdk; > ghJfhg; G > ,U r%fq; f Sf; f pilapy; epiyNgwhd ey;nyz;zk; el;GwT kw;Wk; xw;Wik vd; g tw; w pw; f hd xU jrhg; j j; j pw; F ,l;Lr;nry;tjw;fhf KjyPL nra;ag;gly; Ntz; L k; vd typAWj; j pdu; . Ml; G y xUikg; g hL kw; W k; ehl; b d; ,iwahz; i k vd; g tw; i wg; Ngzp [dehafk; rfpg; G j; jd; i k mjpfhug; gfpu; T vd; g tw; i wg; ghJfhf; F k; tpOkpaq;fSld; tho Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; $wpdu;.
81

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

81 Photo source: Colombo Telegraph

9.181

vt;thwhapDk; ,e;jr; nrad;Kiwia Kf;fpakhf Kd;ndLf;Fk; nghWg;G Kw;wpYk; murhq;fj;jpNyNa jq;fpAs;sJ.

Nkhjy;fs; KbTw;W ,uz;L tUlq;fs; fope;j gpd;dUk; $l td;Kiw re;Njfk; kw;Wk; ghugl;r czu;T vd;gd ,d;dKk; r%f murpay; tho;f;ifapy; epyTfpwJ. NghUf; F g; gpd; d u; rkhjhdj; i jf; fl;bnaOg;Gk; epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;jpw;fhd jhkjk; ,Jthf ,Uf;fyhk;. vdNt Mizf;FOtpd; ,g;gupe;Jiufs; kw;Wk; mtjhdpg;Gfs; Mizf;FOtpd; Kd; Njhd;wpa gyuhYk; njuptpf;fg;gl;l njspthd jw; N ghija Mgj; J f; f s; tha;g;Gf;fs; vd;gtw;wpypUe;J ngwg;gl;l fz; N zhl; l q; f s; MFk; . %d; W kl;lq;fspy; ,jw;fhd Kaw;rp Njit. mjhtJ murpay; kl;lj;jpy;> rptpy; r%f kl; l q; f spy; > xt; n thU gpui[fs; kl;lj;jpy;

9.182

9.183

vt;thwhapDk; ,e;jr; nrad;Kiwia Kf; f pakhf Kd; n dLf; F k; nghWg; G Kw;wpYk; murhq;fj;jpNyNa jq;fpAs;sJ. ey; y pzf; f k; vd; g J njhlu; r ; r pahf ,Uf; f Ntz; b a xU nray; K iwNa xopa xU Kiw ,lk; n gWk; epfo; r ; r p my;y. kf;fshy; njupTnra;ag;gl;l xU murhq; f k; njhlu; r ; r pahf ,e; j eltbf;iffspy; gue;Jgl;l mbg;gilapy; <LglNtz;Lk;.
jkpo; kf; f spd; cz; i kahd kdf; Fiwfs; kP J mLj; J gjtpf; F te; j murhq; f q; f s; ftdk; nrYj; j j; jtwpaikNa ,dg; g pur; r pidf; f hd mbg;gilf; fhuzkhFk; vd Mizf;FO fUJfpwJ.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.184

82

jkpo; r%fj; j pd; kdf; F iwfs; 9.186 jkpo; r%fj; j pd; kdf; F iwfs; ,dNkhjy;fs; kw;Wk; mjw;fhd fhuzq;fs; kPjhd tpsf;fq;fspy; ntspg; g ilahfNt cUtfg; gLj;jg;gl;ld. ,k;kdf;Fiwfs; rpq;fsj; jkpo; njhlu;Gfspd; NghJ njhlu;e;Jk; ntspggLj;jg;gl;Ls;sd. Nkhjypd; ; gpddu; ey;ypzf;fj;ijAk; rkhjhd ; rftho; i tAk; fl; b naOg; G tJ Kjy; eltbf;ifahFk;.

9.187

jkpo; kf;fspd; kdf; Fiwfs;

,yq; i fapd; ngUk; g hd; i k { rpWghd; i k ,dq; f Sf; f pilapyhd cwTfs; njhlu; g hd tuyhw; W g; gpd; d zp 9.188 Nrhy; g up Mizf; F O mwpf; i f rpWghd;ig ,dj;jpd; FiwghLfs; vd miof; f g; g Lgtw; w pw; F f; fzprkhd ,lj;ij xJf;fpAs;sJ. gpur; r pidfisj; jP u ; g ; g jw; F epu; t hf uPjpahdJk; murpayikg;G uPjpahdJkhd ghJfhg;Gfs; mtrpag;gl;ld. mNjNtis ngUk;ghd;ik ,dk; rpWghd;ik ,dk; Mfpa ,uz; L k; xd; W f; n fhd; W
83

9.189

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: srilanka.warcrimes.blogspot.com

9.185

Nkhjy;fspd; %y fhuzq;fs; kPJ ftdk; nrYj;Jk; xU murpay; jPuT ; Kf; f pakhdjhFk; . mJ gw; w p midtUk; NgRfpd; w du; . ,Ue;jhYk; mjid Ma;eJzu;eJ ; ; jP u ; j ; J itg; g jpy; ,d; d Kk; ,zf;fg;ghL ,y;iy.

md;iwa murhq;fk; jkpo; kf;fSf;F ghJfhg;ig toq;Ftjw;F Nkhrkhfj; jtwptpl;lJ.

nfhz; L s; s Kr; r hu; G epiyapy; Xu; mbg; g il khw; w kpd; w p ,it vJTk; NghJkhdjhf ,Uf;fhJ vd Nrhy;gup Mizf; F O fUjpaJ. NkhjYf;fhd fhuzq; f is Muha; i fapy; ,e; j mtjhdpg;G vkf;F Vw;GilajhFk; vd ey;ypzf;f Mizf;FOTk; fUJfpwJ. 9.190 Fiwfs; kP J ftdk; nrYj; J k; nrad; K iwfs; ,d; i wa murpay; jiytu; f shy; RKfkhfTk; ed; N dhf; F lDk; nraw; g Lj; j g; gltpy;iy. mD$ykw;w epiyapyhd rpWghd; i kapdu; nfsutj; J ld; elj; j g; g l; l xU topKiw ,Uf; f Tk; ,y;iy. jkpo; kf;fspd; Ntjid kpF kd czu; T fs; ,e; j meP j pfspypUe; J vOe;jitahFk;. ,dq;fSf;fpilapyhd jPu;f;fkhd gpsT 1958 ,y; Njhd;wpaJ. kPzLk; 1977 ,y; mJ ; Njhd; w p 1983,y; cr; r fl; l j; i j mile;jJ. md;iwa murhq;fk; jkpo; kf;fSf;F ghJfhg;ig toq;Ftjw;F Nkhrkhfj; jtwptpl;lJ. rpq;fs jkpo; kf; f spilNa epytpa cwTfis ehrg;gLj;jpa ,e;j td;Kiwf; fyhrhuk; gw; w p xU Gupe; J zu; t py; y hky; jkpo; kf;fspd; kdf;FiwfSf;Fj; jPu;T fhz KbahJ. jkpo; kf;fspdJk;> NghUf;Fg; gpd;du; midj;Jr; r%fq;fspdJk; Fiwfs; Kf; f pakhd mtjhdpg; G fs; 9.200 ge;jpapy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ.

9.191

84

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

K]; y pk; r%fj; j pd; kdf; Fiwfs; 9.192 K];ypk; r%fk; 1990 xf;Nlhgu; 30k; jpfjp tl khfhzj;jpy; trpj;j K];ypk; kf;fs; vy; . uP . uP . <. Jg; g hf; f p Kidapy; tYf; fl; l hakhf ntspNaw; w g; g l; l du; . tlf;fpYk; fpof;fpYk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l ,dr; Rj;jpfupg;gpdhy; K];ypk; kf;fs; ghjpf;fg;gl;ldu;. ,t; t hwhf ntspNaw; w g; g l; l gpd; d u; murhq; f Kk; Njrpa ru; t Njrpa mur rhu; g w; w epWtdq; f spdJk; ru; t Njr r%fj; j pdJk; Kd; D upikf; f hd gl; b aypy; mtu; f s; fP o ; kl; l j; j pNy ,Ug;gjhf ek;Gfpd;wdu;. ,lk; n gau; e ; j K]; y pk; f s; tl khfhzj;jpy; jq;fsJ nrhe;j ,lq;fSf;F tpiuthf kPsj; jpUk;Gtjw;F murhq;fk; trjpaspj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. vy; . uP . uP . < mikg; g pdhy; mopf; f g; g l; l my;yJ Nrjkhf;fg;gl;l gs;spthry;fs;>
85

9.193

9.194

9.195

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Refugee -Agath Blog

,lk;ngau;ej ; K];ypk;fs; tl khfhzj;jpy; jq;fsJ nrhe;j ,lq;fSf;F tpiuthf kPsj; jpUk;Gtjw;F murhq;fk; trjpaspj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

tPLfs; kw;Wk; ghlrhiyfs; vd;gtw;iw kPsf; fl;Ltjw;F cjTtjw;fhd cldb eltbf; i ffis murhq; f k; vLj; j y; Ntz;Lk;. 9.196 cs;sf ,lk;ngau;e;j kf;fs; eyd;Gupj; jpl;lq;fis mKy;gLj;Jk; Njrpa kw;Wk; ru;tNjr Kftu; mikg;Gf;fs; gioa ,lk; n gau; e ; j kf; f s; njhlu; g hf ghugl;rkhf ele;Jnfhs;fpd;wdu; vd;w czu;T epyTfpwJ. murhq;fk; ifr;rhj;jpll ; midj; J kdpj cupikfSf; f hd Mtzq;fspdJk; mbg;gil rkePjpAk; ghugl;rkhf elj;jg;glhikAk; MFk;. gioa ,lk; ngau; e ; N jhu; > Gjpa ,lk;ngau;e ;Njhu; vd NtWgLj; jhky; mgptpUj;jpg; gq;fhsu;fSf;F czu;j;j Ntz;baJ murhq;fj;jpd; nghWg;ghFk;.

Nghu; ele;j gpuNjrq;fSf;F mz;ikapy; mike;j fpuhkq;fspy; tho;e;j rpq;fs kf;fspd; kdf; Fiwfs;
9.197 vy;.uP.uP.<. gaq;futhjj;jpy; ,Ue;J rpqfs ; Fbkf;fspd; capiug; ghJfhf;f murhq;fk; kwe;Jtpl;l J vd; g Nj Nkw; g b rpq;fs kf; f spd; fUj; j hFk; . ghJfhg; g hd gpuNjrq;fSf;F ,lk;ngauhJ mghafukhd mr; R Wj; j y; f Sf; F kj; j papy; ,f; fpuhkq;fspy; mtu;fs; njhlu;eJ trpjjdu;. ; ; ,jw; F Nkyjpfkhf fy; t p> njhopy; tha;g;G gw;wpa gy;NtW gpur;rpidfSf;F mtu; f s; Kfq; nfhLj; j du; . rkkhf elhj; j g; g Ltjw; f hd Njitia ,f;fpuhkj;jtu;fs; vLj;Jf; $wpdu;.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

86

9.199 ,f;fpuhkq;fSf;F rkkhd ts xJf;fPL kw;Wk; mgptpUj;jp vd;gtw;iw murhq;fk; cWjp nra;ahtpl;lhy;> Fwpg;ghf fpof;F khfhzj;jpy; gy;NtW ,dq;fs; thOk; kf;fspilNa Gjpa gpur;rpidfs; Vw;glyhk;.

Njhl;lj; njhopyhsu;fspd; tho;fifia ; Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;F muR eltbf;if vLj;jy; Ntz;Lk;

,e;jpa tk;rhtopj; jkpou;fspd; kdf; Fiwfs;


9.200 Njhl; l g; gFjpfspy; fy; t p Rfhjhu trjpfs; njhlu;ghfTk; mtu;fSila tho;f;ifg; gpur;rpidfs; gw; w pAk; Mizf;FOtplk; njuptpf; f g; g l; l d. trjpfisAk; rpwe; j tho; f ; i f epiyiaAk; Vw;gLj;Jtjw;F murhq;fk; eltbf; i f vLf; f Ntz; L k; vd Mizf;FO gupe;Jiuf;fpwJ.

9.201

Aj; j j; j pd; gpd; d u; xU ghupa mgptpUj;jpf;fhd epfo;r;rp epuy; kw;Wk; ey;ypzf;fj;jpw;fhd epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lq;fs; vd;gd ,e;jpa tk;rhtspj; jkpou;fspd; mj;jpahtrpaj; NjitfisAk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs; s Ntz; L k; vd Mizf; F O gupe;Jiuf;fpwJ.
87

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: tl.bestpicturesof.com

9.198

,k;kf;fSf;F epthuzk; toq;Ftjw;F murhq;fk; jdJ ftdj;ijr; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;.

Aj;jj;jpd; gpd;du; xU ghupa mgptpUj;jpf;fhd epfo;rrp epuy; ; kw;Wk; ey;ypzf;fj;jpwfhd ; epfo;rrpj; ; jpl;lq;fs; vd;gd ,e;jpa tk;rhtspj; jkpou;fspd; mj;jpahtrpaj; NjitfisAk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd Mizf;FO gupe;Jiuf;fpwJ.

kdf;Fiwfs; kPJ ftdk; nrYj;Jjy; kw;Wk; ey;ypzf;fj;jpid Kd;Ndw;Wjy; njhlu;ghd gpur;rpidfs; - rl;lj;jpd; Ml; r pia eilKiwg; g Lj; j hik
9.202 Mizf;FO Kd; KiwaPLfisr; nra;j gyUk;> murpay; MjuT nfhz;l xU ngUk; vz;zpf;ifapyhNdhNu Fw;wq;fisg; Gupe;jdu;. MdhYk; rl;lj;ij mKy;gLj;JNthu;; kPJ gpuNahfpf;fg;gl;l murpay; mOj; j q; f s; fhuzkhf rl; l j; j pd; eP z ; l fuq; f s; mtu; f is vl; l tpy; i y vdj; njuptpj; j du; . mu; j ; j Ks; s ey; y pzf; f k; Vw; g l Ntz;Lkhapd; ePjpj;JiwNahL rl;lj;jpd; Ml;rpia fLikahff; filg;gpbf;Fk; Xu; xopT kiwtw; w rl; l r; nrad; K iw mtrpakhdnjhd;whFk;. mu;jjKs;s Xu; ; mjpfhug; gfpu; t pd; i kNahL ,ize; j jhfNt ey; y hl; r papd; i k> rl;lj;jpd; Ml;rpia kjpf;fhik kw;Wk; ey;yhl;rpapd;ik vd;gd r%fq;fSf; fpilapy; gjl; l q; f s; Vw; g Ltjw; F f; fhuzkhf mikfpd;wd. Mizf;FOtpd; jPu;f;fhNyhridapd; NghJ Njhd;wpa tplaq;fs; gpd;tUkhW: murpay; njhlu;Gfs; nfhz;l egu;fshy; Fw;wq;fs; Gupag;gl;ltplj;J> Fw;wq;fisg; Gyd; tprhupj;J Fw;wkpioj;jtu;fis rl; l j; j pd; Kd; nfhz; L tUtjw; F rl;lj;ij mKy;gLj;Jk; cj;jpNahfj;ju; fs; jug;gpyhd ,ayhik.

9.203 m.

88

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Jtf;F murpay; rl;lg+u;tkhd gpui[fSf;Fg; ghupa gpur;rpidfis cUthf;fp cs;sJ.

M.

Nkhjy;fs; Kbtile;Js;s NghjpYk; rl; l Kk; xOq; F k; njhlu; g pyhd Kf; f pakhd gpur; r pidfs; njhlu; e ; J ,d;dKk; cs;sd. MAjf; FOf;fshy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; gzk; gwpj;jy;> fg;gk; thq;Fjy;> Ml;flj;jy;fs;> fhzhkw; Nghjy;fs;> nfhs;isabj;jy; Nghd;w Vida Fw;wtpay; eltbf;iffshy; tlf;F kw; W k; fpof; f py; tho; f pd; w kf; f spd; kdq; f spy; mr; r czu; T cs; s J. vz;zw;w murpay; thjpfs; rl;lj;jpd; tpspk;gpypUe;J nraw;gLtjhf Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gLfpwJ. nghyp]hu; kPJ Kiwaw;w nry; t hf; i fg; gpuNahfpg; g jd; %yk; eP j papd; Nghf; i fNa rP u ; n flr; nra;Js;sdu;. RLfyd;fspd; ghtidAld; ,ize;j murpay; td; K iwfs; ,e; j ehl; b d; rl;lj;jpw;Ff; fl;Lg;gl;l kf;fs; kj;jpapy; ngUk; fupridfis Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ.
89

,.

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Daily News Pix By Nalin Hewapathirana

rl;l tpNuhj MAjq;fis itj;jpUg; gtu;fspd; MAjq;fisf; fiya Ntz;Lk; vdTk; mj;jifa Fw;wk; ,ioj;jtu;fs; kPJ rl;l eltbf;ifia murhq;fk; cldbahf Nkw;nfhs;Sjy; Ntz;Lk; vdTk; Mizf;FO fz;bg;ghfg; gupeJiuf;fpdwJ. ; ;

murpay; td; K iwfspd; mjpfupg; G > murpay; t hjpfs; kw; W k; mtu; f sJ Mjuthsu;fshy; rl;l tpNuhj MAjq;fs; ghtid nra; t ij Mizf; F O fupridAld; Nehf;Ffpd;wJ. 9.204

rl; l tpNuhj MAjq; f is itj; j pUg; gtu; f spd; MAjq; f isf; fiya Ntz; L k; vdTk; mj; j ifa Fw; w k; ,ioj;jtu;fs; kPJ rl;l eltbf;ifia murhq;fk; cldbahf Nkw;nfhs;Sjy; Ntz;Lk; vdTk; Mizf;FO fz;bg;ghfg; gupe;Jiuf;fpd;wJ.
,e;j mwpf;ifia vOJk; rkaj;jpy;> mz;ikapy; Kbtile;j cs;@uhl;rp kd;wj; Nju;jy;fisj; njhlu;e;J> xU njhif capupog;Gf;fs; ,lk;ngw;Ws;sd. xNu murpay; fl;rpiar; Nru;e;j ,uz;L murpay; t hjpfs; rk; g e; j g; g l; l xU Nkhrkhd Jg;ghf;fpr; #l;Lr; rk;gtk; gw;wp mwpa Neu; e ; j J. murpay; t hjpfshy; gu];guk; jtwpaJk;> gpur;rpidfisj; jP u ; g ; g jw; F ,j; j ifa mg; g l; l khd td;Kiwfis ehLfpd;w rk;gtq;fs;> ,e;jj; Njrpa ey;ypzf;fr; nrad;Kiw eltbf;iffspd; NghJ kf;fl; gpujpepjp fsplkpUe; J vjpu; g hu; f ; f g; g Ltjw; F vjpuhf Xu; Nkhrkhd vLj;Jf;fhl;lhfNt mikfpdwJ. ; Mizf; F Otplk; KiwaP L nra; j gyupdhYk; mjd; ftdj; j pw; F f; nfhz;Ltug;gl;l gpd;tUk; rk;gtq;fis Rl;bf;fhl;l tpUk;Gfpd;Nwhk;.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.205

9.206

90

mWE}W nghyprhu; epuhAjghzpfshf;fg;gl;L nfhiy nra;ag;gLtjw;F fpof;F khfhzj;jpd; md;iwa vy;.uP.uP.< jiytu; tifg; nghWg;Gf; $w Ntz;Lk;. ,d;W mtu; ,f;Fw;wr;rhl;il kWf;fpd;whu;.

KiwaPl;lhsu;fshy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fis mDrupj;J Mizf; FO fUzhtplk; tpdtpaJ. nfhiyfs; njhlu; g hd Fw; w r; r hl; L f; f is mtu; kWj;jhu;. Vt;thwhapDk; nfhy;yg;gl;l 600 nghyp]; cj; j pNahfj; j u; f s; njhlu; g hf Gyd; tprhuizfs; elhj; j g; g ltpy; i y. Fw; w q; f spd; ghuJ}uj; jd; i k kw; W k; ey;ypzf;fj;jpy; mJ nfhz;Ls;s jhf;fk; vd;git fhuzkhf ,e;j tplaj;jpy; Xu; KOikahd Gyd; tprhuiz Njit vd;gJ Mizf;FOtpd; fUj;jhFk;.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; 91

Photo source: AFP /Getty Images Pix by Sena Widanagama

9.207

fpof;F khfhzj;jpd; ghujp vdg;gLk; xU egu; Ml;flj;jy;> gzk; gwpjjy;> nfhs;is ; Nghd; w gy Fw; w q; f isg; Gupe; j jhf Fw; w Q; r hl; l g; g l; l hu; . ,e; j tplak; njhlu;ghf rk;ge;jg;gl;l mjpfhupfspd; ftdj;jpwF Mizf;FO nfhz;L te;jJ. ; Fw;wQ;rhl;lg;gl;l Fw;wk; ,ioj;jtUf; nfjpuhf ve;jnthU mu; j ; j Ks; s eltbf;ifiaAk; vLf;fhik Fwpj;J Mizf;FO jd; ftiyia njuptpffpdwJ. ; ; Rkhu; 600 nghyp]; cj;jpNah fj;ju;fSld; Ml;flj;jy;fSf;F cs; s hfpa Xa; T ngw; w ,uz; L rpNu\; l nghyp]; mjpfhupfs; kw; W k; KiwaP L fis Nkw; n fhz; l ,Utu; > MAjq; f is iftpl;L vy;.uP.uP.< ,lk; ruzil tjw;F fl; l isaplg; g l; L gpd; d u; nfhiy nra;ag;gl;l nghyp]; cj;jpNahfj;ju;fs; njhlu; g hf mg; N ghija vy; . uP . uP . <. jiytuhf ,Ue; j fUzhtpd; <LghL njhlu;ghf Fw;wQ;rhl;bf; Fwpggplldu;. ; ;

9.208

nfhy;yg;gl;l 600 nghyp]; cj;jpNahfj;ju;fs; njhlu;ghf Gyd; tprhuizfs; elhj;jg;gltpyiy. ; Fw;wq;fspd; ghuJ}uj; jd;ik kw;Wk; ey;ypzf;fj;jpy; mJ nfhz;Ls;s jhf;fk; vd;git fhuzkhf ,e;j tplaj;jpy; Xu; KOikahd Gyd; tprhuiz Njit vd;gJ Mizf;FOtpd; fUj;jhFk;.

9.209

9.210

9.211

<o kf;fs; [dehaff; fl;rpapd; xU rpy cWg; g pdu; f s; gyte; j khfg; gzk; gwpj; j du; vd gy Kiwg; g hLfs; nra; a g; g l; l d. ,f; F w; w r; r hl; L f; f s; njhlu; g hf xU KOikahd Gyd; tprhuiz Nkw; nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ Mizf; FOtpd; fUj;jhFk;. Gyd; tprhuizapdik Fw;w tpyf;fspg;Gf;fhd ; Xu; czu;it cUthf;Fk;. Nk[u; rPyd; vdg;gLk; egu; xUtupdhy; jiyik jhq; f g; g Lk; xU FOtpd; rl; l tpNuhj eltbf; i ffis gyu; Mizf;FOtpd; ftdj;jpw;Ff; nfhz;L te;jdu;. ghJfhg;Gg; gilfis gad;gLj;jp Ml;flj;jy;fs;> gzk; gwpjjy;fs; kw;Wk; ; nfhs;isfs; ,lk;ngw;wjhf Mizf; FOtplk; Kiwg; g hL nra; a g; g l; l J. Mizf;FO ,t;tplaj;ij gpuNjrj;jpwFg; ; nghWg;ghd gpujpg; nghyp]; kh mjpgupd; ftdj;jpw;Ff; nfhz;L te;jJ. ,jd; gadhf Nk[u; rPydpd; Xu; cjtpahsu; ifJ nra;ag;gl;Ls;shu;. vt;thwhapDk; gpujhd egu; ,d; D k; ifJ nra; a g; glhkNyNa cs;shu;. ,J njhlu; g py; rl; l tpNuhj MAjf; FOf; f s; gw; w pa Mizf; F Otpd; ,ilf; f hyg; gupe; J iufis mKyhf; F khW Mizf; F O kP s typAWj; J fpd; w J. Mizf; F Otpd; ,ilf; f hyg; gupe;JiufSf;F KOikahd gaDWjp ,d; d Kk; toq; f g; g lhik Fwpj; J Mizf;FO tUj;jk; njuptpf;fpwJ.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

92

9.213

rl;lj;ijAk; xOq;ifAk; NgZk; nghWg;Gf; nfhz;l nghyp]; jpizf;fsk; Xu; rptpy; epWtdkhFk;

9.214

9.215

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

93

Photo source: SLTJ web.com

9.212

khfhzq;fspy; Nritahw;Wk; nghyp]; cj; j pNahfj; j u; f s; Fw; w g; Gyd; tprhuizfs; kw; W k; tof; F j; njhlu;jiy Nkw;nfhs;Sjy; njhlu;ghf NghJkhd rl; l epGzj; J tj; j pw; f hd toptiffisf; nfhz;bUf;ftpy;iy vd Mizf;FO mtjhdpf;fpwJ. vdNt ,tu; f Sf; F topfhl; L tjw; F k; MNyhriz toq; F tjw; F k; rl; l kh mjpgu; jpizf; f sj; j pd; gpupTfis khfhzq; f spy; ]; j hgpg; g jw; F Mizf; F O gupe; J iuf; f pwJ. eP j p epu; t hfj; j py; kf; f s; kj; j papy; ek;gpf;ifia Vw;gLj;Jtjw;fhf> Fw;wk; nra;jtu;fspd; murpay; njhlu;Gfisf; ftdj;jpy;nfhs;shJ Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fs; midj;ijAk; Gyd; tprhuiz nra;J jtwpioj;jtu;fs; kPJ rl;l eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;L jz;lid mspffg;gly; ; Ntz;Lk; vd Mizf;FO typAWj;JfpwJ. nghyp]; jpizf;fsk; vd;gJ rl;lj;ijAk; xOq;ifAk; NgZtjw;fhd nghWg;ig xg; g ilj; j xU rptpy; epWtdkhFk; . Mjyhy; > ehl; b d; ghJfhg; g pw; F g; nghWj;jkhd ghJfhg;Gg; gilfSld; njhlu; G nfhz; l epWtdq; f spypUe; J nghyp]; jpizf;fsk; tpLtpf;fg;gLtJ tpUk;gj;jf;fjhFk;. nghyp]hupd; flikfis cupa Kiwapy; nra;aTk; nghJ kf;fspd; ek;gpf;ifia ntd; n wLf; f Tk; RahjP d khd epue; j u nghyp]; Mizf;FO mikf;fg;gLjy; Ntz; L k; . nghyp]; Nritfspd;

ehl;bd; ghJfhg;gpw;Fg; nghWj;jkhd ghJfhg;Gg; gilfSld; njhlu;Gnfhz;l epWtdq;fspypUe;J nghyp]; jpizf;fsk; tpLtpf;fg;gLtJ tpUk;gj;jf;fjhFk;.

nraw; g hLfisf; fz; f hzpg; g jw; F k; RahjP d khfr; nraw; g l; L Xu; cau; juj; j pyhd njhopy; r hu; elj; i jiag; NgZtij cWjpg; g Lj; J tjw; F k; Nkw; g b nghyp]; Mizf; F Otpw; F mjpfhuk; mspf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.

Ml; r p njhlu; g hd gpur; r pidfs;


9.216 epu; t hf Kiwfspyhd FiwghLfs; > ey; y hl; r papd; i k vd; g tw; w pypUe; N j rpWghd;ikapdupd; rpy kdf;Fiwfs; cUthdjhf Mizf; F O Kd; gyu; rku; g ; g zq; f is Kd; i tj; j du; . ,f; FiwghLfisj; jPu;f;f mf;fiw nfhz;l midj;Jr; nraw;ghl;lhsu;fspdhYk; xd; w pize; j eltbf; i ffs; Njitg; gLj; J fpd; w J. Fwpg; g hf rpWghd; i k ,dq;fSf;F ghjfkhfr; nraw;gLkplj;J Fwpjj eltbf;iffs; Njitahf cs;sd. ; ehl; b d; murpay; fyhrhukhdJ> jq;fSf;F cupjjhd gy NritfisAk; ; trjpfisAk; ngw; W f; n fhs; t jw; F murpay; t hjpfspy; jq; f papUf; F k; tpjj; j py; nghJkf; f is mjpfhu kw; w tu; f shfTk; gadw;wtu;fshfTk; Mf;fpAs;sJ.

9.217

gpui[fspd; kdf; F iwfis ifahs; t jw; f hd xU tpNrl epWtdk;


9.218 kf; f spd; kDf; f s; eilKiwia Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhf 1994k; Mz;L 26k; ,yf; f r; rl; l j; j pd; %yk; jpUj; j k;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

94

9.219

mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l NghjpYk;> murpd; eltbf;iffspypUe;J vOk; gpui[fspd; kdf;Fiwfis gaDWjpahd Kiwapy; ifahs;tjw;F epu;thfj;jpw;fhd ghuhS kd; w Mizahsupd; (xk; G l; ] ; k d; ) mYtyfj;Jld; rk;ge;jg;gl;l jw;Nghija rl;lk; NghJkhdjy;y. MfNt epiwNtw;W epu; t hf eltbf; i ffs; fhuzkhf Fwpgghf rpWghd;ikapdupd; kdf;Fiwfs; ; kPJ ftdk; nrYj;Jtjw;F Xu; RahjPd epWtdj; i j murhq; f k; ]; j hgpj; j y; Ntz;Lk; vd Mizf;FO gupeJiuf;fpwJ. ; mjw;nfd Xu; tYthd Gyd; tprhuiz mq;fj;ijAk; nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. VNjDk; epiwNtw; W my; y J epu; t hf eltbf;iffs; fhuzkhf Fwpg;ghf kjk; my;yJ ,dj;Jtj;ij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L vOfpd;w kdf;Fiwf;F gupfhuk; fhZk; tifapy; ,r;RahjPd epWtdk; mika Ntz;Lk;. ,e; j epWtdj; j pd; jP u ; k hdq; f Sf; F g; gaDWjpia mspggjw;fhd Vw;ghLfSk; ; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. NkYk; cj;Njrpf;fg; gl;l epWtdj;ijg; gaDWjpahdjhf;Fk; tifapy;> mjpfhuj;ij J\;gpuNahfpj;j egu;fs; njhlu;gpy; jilfis tpjpggjw;Fk; ; rl;lk; Vw;ghlspj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.
95

9.220

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Kobeita.Interna.pl

Photo source: Daily Mirror

9.221

epiwNtw;W epu;thf eltbf;iffs; fhuzkhf Fwpgghf ; rpWghd;ikapdupd; kdf;Fiwfs; kPJ ftdk; nrYj;Jtjw;F Xu; RahjPd epWtdj;ij murhq;fk; ];jhgpj;jy; Ntz;Lk; vd Mizf;FO gupeJiuf;fpwJ. ; mjw;nfd Xu; tYthd Gyd; tprhuiz mq;fj;ijAk; nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

,t;tpNrl epWtdj;jpd; nraw;ghLfSf;F cjtp mspf; F k; Xu; Cl; L k; nghwp Kiwahf nraw; g lf; $ba tifapy; khtl; l kw; W k; khfhz kl; l q; f spy; ey;ypzf;f ek;gpf;if kw;Wk; rkhjhdf; FOf;fs; ];jhgpf;fg;glyhk; . midj; J g; gpui[fspdJk; Fwpg; g hf rpWghd;ik ,dq;fspdJ fupridfSf;Fk; mr;rq;fSf;Fk; $u; czu;Tnfhz;ljhf mur Nritapyhd eilKiwfs; > newpKiwfs;> tpjpfs; kw;Wk; elj;ijf; Nfhitfs; vd;gtw;why; topfhl;lg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. NkYk; mit xopT kiwtw;wjhf jfty;fs; fpilf;Fk; tifapy; mikjy; Ntz;Lk;. cs; @ u; kf; f spd; gq; N fw; G ldhd fye; j hNyhridAld; mgptpUj; j p eltbf;iffs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLtij murhq;fk; cWjpg;gLj;Jjy; Ntz;Lk;. epu; t hfj; j py; mj; j ifanjhU xopT kiwtw; w mZFKiw> mgptpUj; j p eltbf;iffspy; Xu; nrhe;j czu;Tf;fhd czu;itAk; Njrj;ijf; fl;bnaOg;Gtjpy; jhk; gq;Nfw;Fk; czu;itAk; mtu;fSf;F mspj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. mur Nritfspd; gzpfs; njhlu;ghd xOf; f tpaiy Nkk; g Lj; J tjw; f hd gapw; r pj; jpl; l q; f s; Clhf kdg; ghq;Ffspyhd khw;wq;fisf; nfhz;L tUtjw;F xU Fwpj;j epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk; cUthf;fg;gl;L mKy;gLj;jg;gLtjw;F Mizf; FO gupe;Jiuf;fpd;wJ.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Vida eilKiwfs;
9.222

9.223

9.224

96

9.226

9.227

9.228

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

97

Photo source: devwijewardane.blogspot. Pix by Dev Wijewardane

9.225

mur cj;jpNahfj;ju;fspd; epakdq;fs;> ,lkhw;wq;fs; njhlu;ghf MSk; fl;rp murpay; thjpfshy; mjpfupj;j kl;lq; fspyhd jiyaPLfs; gw;wpa Xu; mjpu;r;rp jUfpd;w epiyg;ghLk; Mizf;FOtpd; ftdj;jpw;Ff; nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ. mur Jiwapy; murpay; jiyaP L fs; ,y;yhjpUg;gij cWjpg;gLj;J tjw;Fk;> nghJr; Nritfspyhd epakdq;fs; gjtp cau;Tfspd; NghJk;> murpayikg;gpd; rkj;Jt Vw;ghLfSld; ,zq;Ftij cWjpg; g Lj; J tjw; F jhkjkpd; w p Xu; nghJr; Nritfs; Mizf; FOit ];jhgpg;gjw;F ey;ypzf;f Mizf;FO gupe;Jiuf;fpd;wJ. tlkhfhzj;jpd; rptpy; eputhfk; kf;fspd; ; ehshe;j tho;f;if njhlu;ghd> Fwpg;ghf tptrhak; > kP d ; g pb ,lq; f s; Nghd; w nghUshjhu eltbf;iffs; rk;ge;jg;gl;l tplaq;fs; njhlu;ghf kPsr; nraw;gLtJ Kf; f pakhFk; . toikahd rptpy; tho;f;iff;F kPsj; jpUk;gp rkhjhdj;jpd; ed;ikfis mDgtpg;gjw;F ,aYkhd gpd; d zpapy; ,uhZtg; gpurd; d k; gbg;gbahff; Fiwj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. rl;lthf;fq;fspd; ePjp Kiwapyhd kPs; guprPyidf;fhf murpayikg;G uPjpapyhd Vw; g hLfs; ,d; i k njhlu; g hd Nkw;

mur Nritfspd; gzpfs; njhlu;ghd xOf;ftpaiy Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhd gapw;rpj; jpl;lq;fs; Clhf kdg; ghq;Ffspyhd khw;wq;fisf; nfhz;L tUtjw;F xU Fwpjj ; epfo;rrpj;jpl;lk; ; cUthf;fg;gl;L mKy;gLj;jg;gLtjw;F Mizf;FO gupeJiuf;fpdwJ. ; ;

nfhs;sg;gl;l KiwaPLfis Mizf;FO ftdj;jpw;nfhs;fpwJ. cj;Njrpf;fg;gl;l ve; j nthU rl; l thf; f j; j pdJk; murpayikg;G uPjpapyhd jd;ikia cau; eP j pkd; w j; j pd; Kd; g hf gaDWjpahd tifapy; Muha;tjw;Fg; NghJkhd rl;l Vw; g hLfs; ,Uf; f Ntz;Lk;. Fwpg;ghf mtru rl;l %yq;fis cau; ePjpkd;wj;jpd; Kd; Muha; t jw; F murpayikg; g py; toq;fg;gl;Ls;s fhy mtfhrk; Kw;wpYk; NghJkhdjy;y.

mjpfhug; g fpu; t pw; f hd Njit


9.229 kpf eP z ; l fhykhf murpay; uP j pahd fUj; n jhUkpj; j iy vl; L tjw; F g; gpujhdj; jilahf ,Ue; j vy; . uP . uP . <. gaq; f uthjk; KbTw; w jd; gpd; d u; > ey;ypzf;fr; nrad;Kiwfis NkYk; Kd; n fhz; L nry; t jw; f hd mjpfhug; gfpu; t pw; F trjpaspf; F k; Xu; murpay; fUj;njhw;Wikia vl;LtJ Kf;fpak;. vd Mizf;FO Kd; Njhd;wpa gyUk; njuptpj;jdu;. NghUf; F g; gpd; d uhd xU #oiktpy; epiyahd rkhjhdk; > ghJfhg; G vd;gtw;iw cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd xU fl;likg;ig ];jhgpfFk; Nehf;fj;jpwfhf ; ; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;ba xU murpay; nray;Kiwf;fhd jiyikj;Jtj;ij murhq; f k; toq; f Ntz; L k; vd; g J Kf; f pakhdjhFk; . ,jw; F mjpfhug; gfpu; i t mbg; g ilahff; nfhz; l Xu; murpay; jP u ; T k; > ,dg; gpur; r pid>
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.230

98

[dehafj;jpw;F mr;RWj;jyhd Vida gpur; r pidfs; vd; g d kP J ftdk; nrYj;Jjy; Ntz;Lk;. ,r; nray;Kiw %yk; r%f{nghUshjhuf; nfhs;iffspd; mKy;gLj;jy; vd;gtw;iw toq;Fk; Xu; murpayikg; G uP j pahd fl; l ikg; G kw;Wk; nghwpKiwfs; Kw;Wg; ngWjy; Ntz;Lk;.
9.231 mjpfhug; gfpu;T ,ay;ghfNt kf;fis ikakhff; nfhz; b Uf; f Ntz; L k; vd;gNjhL gpdtUk; fupridfis kdjpy; ; nfhz;bUj;jy; Ntz;Lk; (m) mjpfhug; gfpu; T ehl; b d; kf; f s; kj;jpapy; $Ljyhd ,zf;fg;ghL kw;Wk; xw;Wikia Kd;Ndw;Wjy; Ntz;LNkad;wp ,zf;fg;ghbd;ik xw;Wikapd;ikia Nkk;gLj;jf; $lhJ. tskhd gd;ikj; Jtj;ijg; ghJfhj; J ghuhl; L k; mNj
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; 99

Photo source: The Hindu

mur Nritfspd; gzpfs; njhlu;ghd xOf;ftpaiy Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhd gapw;rpj; jpl;lq;fs; Clhf kdg; ghq;Ffspyhd khw;wq;fisf; nfhz;L tUtjw;F xU Fwpjj ; epfo;rrpj;jpl;lk; ; cUthf;fg;gl;L mKy;gLj;jg;gLtjw;F Mizf;FO gupeJiuf;fpdwJ. ; ;

Ntis ,e; j If; f pak; xU nghJ milahskhf Kd;Ndw;WtNj mjpfhug; gfpu; t pd; ve; j nthU tbtj; j pdJk; Kf;fpa ,yf;fhf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. (M) mjpfhug; gfpu;T ve;jnthU ,dr; r%fj;ijAk; mD$yj;jpw;F my;yJ gpujp$yj;jpwF cl;gLj;Jtjhf ,Uj;jy; ; $lhJ. ,e;jf; fUj;jpy;> mJ> ehl;bYs;s ve;jnthU ,dr; r%fj;ijr; rhu;e;jtu; fSf; F k; ghugl; r khdjhf ,Uj; j y; $lhJ my;yJ mtu;fshy; ghugl;rkhdjhf fhzg;gly; $lhJ. (,) kdpj cupikfis Nkk;gLj;jYk; ghJfhj;jYk; vd;gJ murpayikg;G ehL jd;dhu;tj;Jld; nghWg;Ngw;Wf; nfhz;l rkthaq;fs; flg;ghLfs; vd;gtw;wpd; Fwpj; j Vw; g hLfSf; F mikthf ,Uj; j y; Ntz; L k; . mit Nju;e;njLf;fg;gl;l murhq;fj;jpd; Xu; mbg;gilf; flg;ghlhfTk; Mfpd;wJ. (<) mjpfhug; gfpu;T njhlu;ghf ftdk; nrYj;Jk; nghOJ ,uz;L tplaq;fs; Fwpj;J murhq;fj;jpd; ftdk; <u;f;fg;gl Ntz; L k; . KjyhtJ> fP o ; kl; l j; j py; $Ljyhd kf; f spd; gq; F gw; W jiy cWjpg; g Lj; J tjw; F cs; @ uhl; r p kd; w q; f is tYthf; f k; nra; j y; . ,uz;lhtJ khfhz rigfs; Kiwapd; nraw;ghl;bYs;s FiwghLfspypUe;J fw;Wf;nfhz;l ghlq;fis ftdj;jpy; vLj;Jf;nfhs;tJk; Kf;fpakhdjhFk;. gd;ikj;Jtj;jpd; tsj;ijg; NgZk; mNj rkak; ,yq;ifapd; Ml;Gy xUikg;ghL
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

100

9.232

9.233

9.234

kw;Wk; If;fpak; vd;gtw;wpw;F xUq;Nf ghJfhg;igAk; mspj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. khfhzg; gpujpepjpfis cs;slf;fpajhd Xu; ,uz;lhtJ rigia ];jhgpg;gjd; rhj;jpak; Xu; Nkyjpf nghwpKiwahf ftdj;jpy;nfhs;sg;glyhk;. mj;jifa njhU nghwpKiw> khfhzq;fs; njhlu;gpy; Fwpg;gpl;l rk;ge;jq;fisf; nfhz;Ls;s rl;lthf;f Kiwfis Muha;tjD}lhf> rl; l thf; f j; jP u ; k hdk; Nkw; n fhs; S k; nra; K iwfspy; jhq; f Sk; $l xU Kf; f pakhd ghj; j puj; i j tfpg; g jw; F cs;sJ vDk; ek;gpf;ifia jiyikj; Jtq;fs; kj;jpapYk; khfhzj;jpd; kf;fs; kj;jpapYk; cUthf;Fk;. mjpfhug; gfpu;T %yk; murpaw; fl;rpj; jiytu;fs; kf;fSf;Fg; nghWg;Gf;$w Ntz;Lk;. ,jid midj;Jf; fl;rpfSk; Vw;f Ntz;Lk;. ,jd; %yNk rpq;fsk;> jkpo;> K];ypk; kw;Wk; Vida midj;Jr; r%fq;fspdJk; gpui[fspd; Njitfis cs; s lf; F k; [dehaf Kiw mKyhf;fg;gl KbAk;. jPu;Tfis cs;sfthupahff; fhz;gjw;F midj; J j; jug; G fSk; jq; f is mu; g ; g zpj; J f; n fhs; S jy; Ntz; L k; . ,dg;gpur;rpidapd; Njitaw;w ru;tNjr kag;gLj;jiyAk; Gyk;ngau;ejtu;fshy; ; gpuNahfpffg;gLk; ntsp mOj;jq;fisAk; ; Xu; murpay; jPuTf;fhd Ngr;Rthu;jijfs; ; ; kP j hd mjd; jhf; f j; i jAk; murpay; jiytu; f s; ftdj; j py; n fhs; S jy; Ntz;Lk;.

[dhjpgjp k`pe;j uh[gf;\

K];ypk; fhq;fpu]; jiytu; `f;fPk;

mjpfhug; gfpu;T %yk; murpaw; fl;rpj; jiytu;fs; kf;fSf;Fg; nghWg;Gf;$w Ntz;Lk;. ,jid midj;Jf; fl;rpfSk; Vw;f vjpu;,jd; Ntz;Lk;. fl;rpj; %yNk jiytu; uzpy; rpq;fsk;> ujkpo;> tpf; krpq;` K];ypk; kw;Wk; Vida midj;Jr; r%fq;fspdJk; gpui[fspd; Njitfis cs;slf;Fk; [dehaf Kiw mKyhf;fg;gl KbAk;. N[.tP.gP. jiytu;
Nrhktq;r mkurpq;`

jkpo; Njrpaf; $l;likg;gpd; jiytu; Mu;. rk;ge;jd;

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;
Photo Sources : Lanka Polity Blog / Sinhala24News.com/Lankapuvath.lk DM Online/ Pix by V.V.Krishnana/SriLankan Locos website

101

9.235

9.236

9.237

mjpfhug; gfpu; T g; nghwpKiwAk; Xu; ,iwahz;ik> murpay; RahjPdk; kw;Wk; gy; y pd ,yq; i f ehL vd; w gue; j fl;likg;gpDs; gad;ngWjy; Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ fl;lhakhdnjd Mizf;FO fUJfpwJ. murpd; kj; j pa nghWg; G f; fspypUe;J rpy Kf;fpa mjpfhuq;fis gfpu KbahJ. ve; j nthU mjpfhug; gfpu;tpw;fhd Vw;ghLfSk; gpuptpidthjg; Nghf;Ffis gaDWjpahd tifapy;ftdk; nrYj;jp ehl;bd; ,iwahz; ikiaAk; xUikg; g hl; i lAk; ghJfhf; F k; cl;fl;likf;fg;gl;l nghwpKiwfis nfhz;bUg;gij cWjpg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. epiyNgwhd ey; y pzf; f j; j pd; ve; j r; nrad;Kiwfspd; ntw;wpiaAk; cWjpg; gLj;JKfkhf> mjpfhug; gfpu;T tplak; kP J njspthd Kd; N dw; w q; f is Vw;gLj;Jtjd; Kf;fpaj;ij Nfhbl;Lf; fhl;Ltjw;F Mizf;FO tpUk;GfpdwJ> ; tpNrlkhf fPo; kl;lq;fspyhd mjp$ba mjpfhug; gfpuT> mNj Nghd;W kj;jpapyhd ; mjpfhug; gfpu;T. Mfpa ,uz;bYk; cs;s tplaq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; vl;lg;gl;ljhd mjpfhug; gfpuT kPJ xU fUj;njhw;Wikia ; cUthf; F tjw; f hd ek; g pf; i fia Muk;gpggjw;F jw;Nghija re;ju;ggq;fisg; ; ; gad;gLj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. Nkw; g bg; ngWNgWfis miltjw; F Neu;ikahd jpl;lkpl;l Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;F murhq;fk; Kd;ndLg;Gf;fisr; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. vjpughu;fFk; Ngr;Rthu;jijf;Fk; ; ; ; cs; s lf; f j; j pw; F k; murhq; f j; j pd;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

102

fUj; J f; f s; mbg; g ilahf mika Ntz;Lk;. rpWghd;ikf; fl;rpfs; cl;gl rfy murpaw; fl;rpfSk; cau; kl;lj;jpy; Ngr;Rthu;j;ijfspy; <Lgl Ntz;Lk;. nkhopf; n fhs; i f 9.238 mLj; j Lj; J Ml; r pf; F te; j murhq;fq;fspdhy; nkhopf;nfhs;ifia mKy; g Lj; J tjpyhd FiwghLfs; fhuzkhf njuptpffg;gl;l Xuq;fl;lg;gl;l ; czu;Tfis Mizf;FO ftdj;jpw; nfhz; l Jld; mJ Fwpj; J gy jkpo; kf;fsplkpUe;Jk; mwpe;Jnfhz;lJ. 9.239 ,d; W k; $l> rpWghd; i kapdj; i jr; Nru; e ; j gyUk; jq; f sJ fhupaq; f is mtu; f sJ njuptpw; F upa nkhopapy; ,y;yhky; epiwNtw;Wtjw;F epugge;jpffg; ; ; ; gLtij ghjpf;fg;gl;l gFjpfSf;fhd tp[aq; f spd; NghJ Mizf; F O Neubahff; fz;Lnfhz;lJ. 9.240 jkpo; NgRk; nghyp]; cj;jpNahfj;ju;fis Ml;Nru;ggjw;fhd Kaw;rpfs; Kd;ndLf;fg; ; gLtij mq; f P f upf; F k; mNjNtis> [dhjpgjpf; f hd mjd; ,ilf; f hy njhlu;ghly;fspy; mtrukhd tplaq;fs; njhlu; g py; Mizf; F Otpdhy;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

103

Photo source: Pix by Dena Jayaman

rpWghd;ikf; fl;rpfs; cl;gl rfy murpaw; fl;rpfSk; cau; kl;lj;jpy; Ngr;Rthu;jijfspy; ; <Lgl Ntz;Lk;.

9.241

9.242

Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l gupe;Jiufs; ,d;dKk; mKy;gLj;jg;glhjpUg;gij Mizf;FO tUj;jj;Jld; mtjhdpf;fpd;wJ. nkhopf;nfhs;iffis epiwNtw;WjYk; nraw;ghLfisf; fz;fhzpjjYk; gw;wpa ; cj; j pNahfg+u; t mikg; G f; f s; jkpo; nkhop NgRNthu;fs; kw;Wk; jkpo; nkhop NgRk; gpuNjrq; f spy; NghJkhd gpujpepjpj; J tj; i jf; nfhz; b Uj; j y; Ntz;Lk;. njhlu;ghlypyhd jilfspd; fhuzj;jhy; tlf;F fpof;fpYs;s kf;fs; njw;fpYs;s kf;fspypUe;J NtwhfpAs;sdu;. midj;Jg; gpui[fspilNaAk; mtu; f sJ rhjp> rkak; my; y J r%f me; j ]; J vd; g tw; i wf; ftdj; j pw; n fhs; s hJ> ehl; b w; F cupatuhf ,Uf; F k; Xu; czu;it cUthf;Ftjw;F midj;J Kaw;rpfSk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;. xt;nthUtUk; kw;wtu;fspd; nkhopfisf; fw;gJ ghlrhiyg; ghl tpjhdj;jpd; xU fl;lhag; gFjpahf;fg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. ,J ,uz; L r%fq; f spilNaAk; kdg;ghq;fpy; khw;wj;ij cWjpg;gLj;J tjw; f hd xU Kjd; i kr; rhjdkhf mikAk;. vjpu;fhyr; re;jjpapdUf;F Kk;nkhopj; Nju;r;rpia toq;FtJ kpf Kf;fpakhFk;. ,yq; i fia 2020Mk; Mz; L Xu; Kk; n khopj; Njrkhf; F tjw; f hd murhq; f j; j pd; Kd; n dLg; i g Mizf;FO tuNtw;fpwJ.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.243

9.244 9.245

104

9.246

ve; j nthU khtl; l Kk; my; y J khfhzKk; nkhopfspd; mbg;gilapy; tifg; g Lj; j g; g Ljy; $lhJ. mur cj; j pNahfj; j u; f s; ehlbd; ve; j g; ghfj; j pYk; Nritahw; W tjw; f hd nkhopj; Nju; r ; r piaf; nfhz; b Uj; j y; Ntz;Lk;. midj; J murhq; f mYtyfq; f Sk; jkpo; NgRk; cj;jpNahfj;ju;fis vy;yhr; re; j u; ; g q; f spy; nfhz; b Ug; g ijf; fl; l hakhf; F jy; Ntz; L k; . nghyp]; epiyaq;fisg; nghUj;jtiu mit> ,Wnkhopj; Nju; r ; r p ngw; w cj;jpNahfj;ju;fis 24 kzpj;jpahyKk; nfhz;bUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. Kiwg;ghl;lhsu; jhd; tpUk;gpa nkhopapy; jdJ thf;F %yj;ij gjpT nr;atjw;fhd cupikiaf; nfhz;bUj;jy; Nt;zLk;. mur fUk nkhopfs; Mizf; F O nfhOk; i g jskhff; nfhz; L mike;Js;sjhy; fpuhkg;Gu kf;fshy; ,yFthf mZf KbahJs; s J.
105

9.247

9.248

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: CPA

nkhopf; nfhs;iffis epiwNtw;WjYk; nraw;ghLfisf; fz;fhzpj;jYk; gw;wpa cj;jpNahfg+u;t mikg;Gf;fs; jkpo; nkhop NgRNthu;fs; kw;Wk; jkpo; nkhop NgRk; gpuNjrq;fspy; NghJkhd gpujpepjpjJtj;ijf; ; nfhz;bUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

,t;thizf;FO jdJ jPu;khdq;fis nraw; g Lj; j f; $ ba mjpfhuq; f isf; nfhz;bUg;gNjhL> midj;J khfhzq; fspYk; fpisfisf; nfhz; b Uj; j y; Ntz;Lk;. 9.249 nkhop uPjpahd gpur;rpidfisj; jPuggjw;F ; ; etP d njhopy; E l; g j; i jg; gad; g Lj; j KbAk;. ePz;lfhyj; jPu;T ngWk; tiu nkhopngau;gGr; nra;tjw;fhd nkd;nghUs; ; nra;epuy;fs; gad;gLj;jg;glyhk;. nghyp]; epiyaq;fspy; ,Unkhopj; Nju;rrp ; nfhz;l Xa;T ngw;w cj;jpNahfj;ju;fis nghyp]; epiya ciungau;g;ghsuhf cgNahfpg; g jw; f hd Mizf; F Otpd; ,ilf;fhyg; gupeJiufis ,l;L kPzLk; ; ; ftdj;ij <u;f;f tpUk;GfpwJ.

9.250

fy;tp f;fhd rktha;g;Gf;fs;


9.251 Xu; If;fpa ,yq;iff;Fs; jkpou;fSf;Fk; rpq; f stu; f Sf; F k; ,ilapyhd ey;ypzf;fj;jpw;F ghugl;r czu;Tfspd; ePf;fk; Xu; Kd; epge;jidahFk;. fy;tpj; Jiwapy; jug;gLj;jiy mwpKfg;gLjjpa gpd;du; gy;NtW mePjpfs; Vw;gl;Ls;sd. xU RahjP d khd fy; t p> epGzu; f spd; FOtpdhy; epahakhd gq; f P l ; L Kiw mwpKfg; g Lj; j Mizf; F O gupe;Jiuf;fpd;wJ. fy; t p trjpfs; epahakhd Kiwapy; gq; f P L nra; t jw; f hd xU Ntiyj; jpllj;ij murhq;fk; cUthf;f Ntz;Lk;. ; 2011,y; cj;Njrpf;fg;gl;l ehL KOtJk;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.252

106

,uz; l hk; epiy ghlrhiyfshf juKau; j ; J tjw; F Nkw; n fhs; s g; g l; l Kaw;rpfs; rkj;Jtk; ,d;ikia XusT Fiwf;Fk;. r%fj;jpy; gpsTfs; Vw;glhj tifapy; ,f;nfhs;if mKy;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. 9.253 gy; N tWgl; l ,d kw; W k; kjg; gpd;dzpfisf; nfhz;l gps;isfSf;F Nritahw;Wk; fytd; ghlrhiyfis Cf; F tpg; g jw; f hd xU nfhs; i fia murhq; f k; nfhz; b Uf; f Ntz; L k; . ghlrhiyfSf; f hd mDkjpfisg; nghUj; j tiu> ,d> kw; W k; kj mbg;gilapy; jFjp ngwhj khztu;fs; vd tifg;gLj;JtJ ey;ypzf;fj;jpw;F ed;ik gaf;fkhl;lhJ. gy;NtWgl;l ,dq;fspd; ngWkjpkpf;f gd;ikj;Jt fyhrhuq;fis kjpg;gjw;F gps; i sfis gapw; W tpf; f Ntz; L k; . khfhzq;fSf;fpilapyhd mg;ghlrhiy fSf; f pilNa gupkhw; w epfo; r ; r pj; jpl; l q; f is Cf; F tpg; g jd; %yk;

fy;tp trjpfs; epahakhd Kiwapy; gfpug;gLk; Ntiyj; jpl;lj;ij murhq;fk; cUthf;f Ntz;Lk;

9.254

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

107

Photo source: My Global Networker Blog

ey;ypzf;fj;ij Nkk;gLj;jyhk;. Njrpa ,isQu; Nrit rigia tpl gue;Jgl;l gupkhw;w epfo;r;rpfis Kd;ndLf;fyhk;.

mjpfhug; gfpu;T kw;Wk; Vida kdf;Fiwfis ,l;L rpWghd;ikf; fl;rpfspd; kf;fs; gpujpepjpfSld; gaDWjptha;ej ; murpay; fye;Jiuahliy elj;j Ntz;Lk;.

rkhjhdf; fy; t p
9.255 ru; t Njr uP j pahf epGzj; J tk; ngw; w rl; l j; j uzp xUtu; Mizf; F O Kd;dpiyapy; rhl;rpak; mspf;ifapy;> ehl;bd; If;fpaj;jpwFk; ey;ypzf;fj;jpwFk; ; ; rkhjhdf; fy;tpapd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij typAWj;jpdhu;. mtw;wpwfhd gupeJiufs; ; ; ,t; t wpf; i fapd; cs; s lf; f j; j py; gpujpgypf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. Kk;nkhopf; nfhs;ifia eilKiwg; gLj; J k; NghJ gy; N tW ,dq; f Sf; fpilapyhd gps;isfs; kj;jpapy; ,ilr; nraw;ghLfis elj;Jtjw;F tFg;giwfspy; Cf; F tpf; f Ntz; L k; . ntt; N twhd nkhopfspy; ghlq;fisf; fw;gpg;gjw;F trjpfs; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. midj; J gy; f iyf; f ofq; f Sk; Kk;nkhopfisf; nfhz;ljhfTk; vy;yh ,dq; f Sk; fye; J fw; g jw; F upa xU #oiyAk; Vw;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. jw;NghJ mjpfg;gbahd jkpo; khztu;fs; tlf;F fpof; F g; gy; f iyf; f ofq; f Sf; F k; rpq; f s khztu; f s; njd; d pyq; i fg; gy;fiyf;fofq;fSf;Fk; kl;Lg;gLj;jg; gl;Ls;sdu;. tpisahl; L f; f s; %yk; jdpg; g l; l njhlu; G fis tYg; g Lj; j KbAnkd Mizf; F O fUJfpwJ. ,J
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.256

9.257

9.258

108

Gyk;ngau; r%fq;fspd; gyj;ijg; gad;gLj;jf;$ba gpuNtrk; mtrpak;

ey;ypzf;fj;jpw;F mj;jpahtrpakhFk;. khfhzq; f Sf; f pilNaahd Njrpa tpisahl; L g; Nghl; b fis Fwpg; g hf tlf; F fpof; F khfhzq; f spy; elj; j Ntz;Lnkd Mizf;FO gupeJiuf;fpwJ. ;

Gyk; n gau; e ; j tu; f s;


9.259 ntspehLfspy; thOk; ,uz; L Gyk; ngau;e;j FOf;fisg; gw;wp (Diaspora) ey;ypzf;f Mizf;FOtpw;F jfty; fpilj;Js;sd. xd;W ey;ypzf;fjjpw;F gq; f spg; G r; nra; a j; jahuhfTs; s J. kw;iwaJ vy;.uP.uP.< Mjuthsu;fs; vdf; $Wk; xU ghjfkhd mDFKiwiaf; nfhz;ltu;fs;. ,e;j tpNuhjg; Nghf;Ff; nfhz;l Gyk; ngau;e;jtu;fs; ,yq;ifapd; ey;ypzf;f Kaw;rpfSf;Fg; ghjfkhfr; nraw;glyhk;. vdNt ,tu;fsJ rf;jpia gad;gLj;jf; $ba gaDWjptha;ej mZFKiwiaf; ; ifahs Ntz;Lk;.
109

9.260

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Global Peace Support Website

9.261

,yq;ifapy; KjyPL nra;a tpUk;GNthUf;fhf xU nefpo;rrpahd ; eilKiwAk; kdg;ghq;Fk; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

mj; j ifanjhU mZFKiwapd; gpujhd mk;rq;fs; gpd;tUkhW mikjy; Ntz;Lk; :


m.

M.

mjpfhug; gfpu; T kw; W k; Vida kdf;Fiwfis ,l;L rpWghd;ikf; fl;rpfspd; kf;fs; gpujpepjpfSld; gaDWjptha; e ; j murpay; fye;Jiuahliy elj;j Ntz;Lk;. Njrpa rkhjhd ey;ypzf;fj;jpw;Fk; mgptpUj;jpfFk; tpNuhjf; FOf;fspd; ; gq; f spg; i gg; ngWtjw; f hd tha;g;Gf;fis Vw;gLj;Jjy;.
Gyk; ngau; e ; j ,yq; i fau; thOk; ehLfspy; ,uh[je; j pu uP j pahd Kaw; r pfis Muk; g pj; J ,dg; g pur; r pidiaj; jP u ; g ; g jw; F Mizf; F Otpd; gupe; J iufs; eilKiwg; g Lj; j g; g Ltij cWjp nra;a Ntz;Lk;. mNj rkak; vy;.uP.uP<. ,d; td; K iwfisAk; gpuptpid thjf; fz; N zhl; l j; i jAk; mq;fPfupf;fhj Gyk;ngau; r%fj;jpd; eltbf; i ffSf; F xj; J iog; G toq;f Ntz;Lk;. ehl; b y; ,Ue; J ntspNawpa mNjrkak; ,yq; i fapy; KjyP L nra; a tpUk; G NthUf; f hf xU nefpo; r ; r pahd eilKiwAk; kdg; g hq; F k; ,Uj; j y; Ntz; L k; . ,ul; i lf; FbAupik me; j ]; i jg; ngWtij ,yFthf;Fjy; Ntz;Lk;. gzk; mDg;Gjy;fs; ,yFgLj;jpj; Njitaw; w fl; L g; g hLfspd; w p ehL g+uhTk; elkhLtjw;fhdtrjpfis Vw;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

,.

<.

110

,yq;if kw;Wk; ntspehl;L mgptpUj;jpg; gq;fhsu;fis ,izg;gjw;F murhq;fk; eltbf;if vLj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

c.

,e;eltbf;iffSf;fhf ftdkhfj; jpl;lkpl;l Ntiyj;jpl;lk; ,Uj;jy; Ntz; L k; . ,jw; F mur J}Jtu;fspDila nraw;gzpiaAk; cs; e hl; L ntspehl; L rptpy; r%f Kd;dzpapdJk; xj;Jiog;igg; ngw Ntz;Lk;.

9.262

td; d pg; gpuNjrj; j pd; tP L fs; ghlrhiyfs;> Rfhjhuk; kw;Wk; njhopy; tha;gGf;fs; vd;gtw;iw cUthf;Ftjw;F ; ,yq;ifapd; Gyk;ngau; r%fk; ,yq;if murhq;fj;jpw;F cjt KbAk;. ,yq;if kw; W k; ntspehl; L g; gq; f hsu; f is njhlu; G nfhs; t jw; F murhq; f k; Kd;ndLg;Gf;fisr; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. ey; Nehf;Fld; ey;ypzf;fj;jpw;fhf ,J xU mtrpakhd eltbf;if vd;gij cWjp nra;a Ntz;Lk;
111

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: MichaelDesign.Com.Au

Mokhd Gupe;Jzu;Tld; NkhjiyAk; mjd; tpisTfisAk; Nehf;Fjy; mtw;iw gu];guk; nghWg;Ngw;gJ vd;gd rfy kf;fSf;Fk; topfhl;Ljy; %yk; kjj; jiytu;fs; Kd;Djhuzkhfj; jpfo Ntz;Lk;.

ntspehLfspy; cs; s ,yq; i fau; fsplkpUe; J gaidg; ngWtjw; F k; tpNuhjg; Gyk;ngau; r%fk; vdf;NfhUk; r%fj; N jhL cwTnfhs; t jw; F k; > mtu; f is ey; y pzf; f nraw; g hl; b d; gq; f hsu; f shf; F tjw; F k; murhq; f k; eltbf; i f vLf; f Ntz; L k; . ,jw; F murJiw> jdpahu; Jiw fy;tpapayhsu;fs; MfpNahupd; xj;Jiog;igg; ngWtNjhL ey;ypzf;fj;ij fl;bnaOg;g Ntz;Lk;. ,j;jifa eltbf;iffis vLf;fhJtpbd; ntspehl;L tpNuhjq;fs; tsu;r;rpailaf; $Lk;. mNj rkak; ,yq;iff;Ff; fpilf;Fk; xj;Jiog;Gk; gytPdkilaf; $Lk;. ru; t kj eltbf; i ffSk; k; ey; y pzf; f j; j pw; f hd kjq; f spd; gq; f spg; G k ; 9.264 kjf; FOkq; f s; Mizf; F Otplk; $wpathW ,yq;ifapy; ehd;F gpujhd kjq;fshd ngsj;jk;> ,e;J> ,];yhk;> fpwp]jtk; vd;git Ngh\pffg;gl;Ls;sd. ; ; 9.265 eP z ; l fhy Nkhjypd; gpd; d u; FWfpa fhyj; j py; ey; y pzf; f j; i j Vw; g Lj; j KbahJ. mJTk; eP z ; l fhykhf cUthf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. r%f If;fpaj;ij mspf; F k; Nghf; F fis Kd; $l; b Na fz;lwpe;J mit Mgj;jhd epiyf;F tsu tplhky; xOFtjw; F epWtd uPjpahd Ntiyj;jpl;lk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. 9.266 milahsk; fhzhj td;Kiwahsu;fs; tzf; f ]; j yq; f is mopg; g ijf; Nfs; t pAw; W Mizf; F O Ngujpu; r ; r p mile;jJ.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

9.263

112

kjq;fSf;fpilNa ey;ypzf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jtjpy; ru;t kjj;jiytu;fs; ghupa gq;fspg;igr; nra;a KbAk; vd Mizf;FO typAWj;Jfpd;wJ.

9.267

,j; j ifa rk; g tq; f s; njhlu; r ; r pahf Vw; g bd; mJ ey; y pzf; f j; j pw; F ghjfkhfNt mikAk; . ,j; j ifa eltbf; i ffisj; jtpu; g ; g jw; F fLikahd eltbf; i ffis vLf; f Ntz; L k; . vdpDk; ,tw; W f; F g; nghWg; G ilatu; f is ,dk; f z; L Gydha;T nra;J rl;luPjpahf eltbf;if vLf;f Kbahikiaapl;L Mizf;FO kdk; tUe; J fpwJ. ,j; j ifa eltbf; i ffis jLg; g jw; F vLf; F k; Kaw; r p ghjpg; G f; F s; s hNdhu; kP J ek; g pf; i fia Vw; g Lj; J tjw; F f; fhuzkhf mikAk;.

9.268

Mokhd Gupe;Jzu;Tld; NkhjiyAk; mjd; tpisTfisAk; Nehf; F jy; mtw;iw gu];guk; nghWg;Ngw;gJ vd;gd rfy kf;fSf;Fk; topfhl;Ljy; %yk; kjj; jiytu; f s; Kd; D jhuzkhfj;
113

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: www.ucanews.com

gd;ikj;Jt ,dq;fspd; nkhop kw;Wk; fyhrhu cwTfisg; gw;wpa mwpit Nkk;gLj;JtJ gue;Jgl;l $l;lzpf;Ff; fhuzkhFk; vd Mizf;FO fUJfpwJ.

jpfo Ntz; L k; . kjq; f spd; nghJf; Fzhk; r q; f s; Clhf If; f pa nraw;ghl;il Nehf;fp kf;fis top elj;j Ntz;Lk;.
9.269 If; f pa $l; L eltbf; i ffs; %yk; ,dq;fSf;Fk; kjq;fSf;Fk; ,ilNa xU RKf cwit Vw; g Lj; J tjw; F ru;tkjf; FOf;fs; nraw;gl Ntz;Lk; vd; g ij Mizf; F O kP z ; L k; typAWj;Jfpd;wJ. rl;lj;jpw;Fk; xOq;fpw;Fk; ghjfq;fis Vw;gLj;jf;$ba Nkhjy;fs; Vw;gLtij Kd; $l; b Na mgha mwptpg; G r; nra;af;$ba nghwpKiw ,jw;F cjt KbAk; vd Mizf;FO Kd;dpiyapy; rhl; r p $wpa xU rpyu; Fwpg; g pl; l du; . mtu;fspd; xj;Jiog;NghL ,j;jifa xU fl;likg;ig cUthf;f Ntz;Lk; vd Mizf;FO gupe;Jiuf;fpwJ.

9.270

fiyAk; fyhrhuKk; ey; y pzf; f j; i j Nkk; g Lj; J tjw; f hd fUtpfshf

nkhopfSf; F k; fyhrhuq; f Sf; F kpilapyhd cwT epiy.


9.271 Mizf; F O Kd; d piyapy; ,t; t hW $wg; g l; l J: ,yq; i fapd; milahsj;jpwfhf nkhop kw;Wk; fyhrhu ; nghJf; F zhk; r q; f is milahsk; fhz;gJ mtrpakhFk;. Mdhy;> r%f ed;ikf;fhf fiyg; gilg;Gf;fsplkpUe;J gad; ngWtjw;F murhq;fKk; kf;fSk;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

114

jtwpAs; s du; . fiy ,jid rhjpf; f KbAk; vd;gij Gupe;Jnfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. 9.272

9.273

9.274

gd;ikj;Jt ,dq;fspd; nkhop kw;Wk; fyhrhu cwTfisg; gw; w pa mwpit Nkk;gLj;JtJ gue;Jgl;l $l;lzpf;Ff; fhuzkhFk; vd Mizf; F O fUJfpwJ. mjw;fhd mur nfhs;ifAk; ,jw; F mj; j pahtrpakhd gFjpahf khw; W tjw; F Kd; D upik toq; f Ntz;Lk;.
115

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Divinologue.com

Mizf;FO kfpo;r;rpaile;j xU tplak; ,Ue; j J. kjj; jiytu; f splKk; fiyQu;fsplKk; gpui[fsplKk; xU nghJthd fUj; J epiy epytpaJ. vdpDk; ,g; nghJf; Fzhk; r q; f s; rkhjhdj;jpw;fhf gad;gl Ntz;Lkhapd; rfy murpay; jiytu; f Sk; FWfpa kdg; g hd; i kfis iftpl; L xNu Nehf;Fld; jiyikj;Jtj;ij toq;f Ntz;Lk;.

Photo source: Himalayan Academy

Njrpa If; f paj; j pw; f hd eltbf; i f fSf; f hf fyhrhu cwTfs; kpf Kf;fpakhdit vdg; gy gpujpepjpfs; Mizf; F O Kd; d piyapy; vLj; J f; $wpdu; . rpq; f sk; kw; W k; jkpo; fyhrhuq; f s; kpfTk; nrOikahd Ntu;fisf; nfhz;Ls;sd vd mtu;fs; $wpdu;. 1956 ,y; ,lk;ngw;wijg; Nghy fiy> ehlfk;> ,ir Mfpa Jiwfspy; kWkyu; r ; r p Vw; g l Ntz; L k; vdTk; Fwpg;gpl;ldu;.

Photo source: Nruthyanjalee.com

9.275

Njrpa fPjj;ij xNu ,irAld; ,U nkhopfspy; njhlu;rrpahfg; ; ghLtij Cf;Ftpf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,e;eilKiwia khw;wpaikj;jhy; ey;ypzf;fk; gOjilAk;.

jkpo; rpq;fs ,yf;fpa E}y;fs; gu];gu nkhopfspNy gpuRupf; f g; g l Ntz; L k; . ghlrhiyg; gps;isfs; kj;jpapy; gu];gu fhyhrhuq;fisg; gw;wpa $u; czu;it Vw;gLj;jy; kpf Kf;fpakhFk;. gy; N tW ,dq; f Sf; f pilapNy fhzg; g Lk; nghJg; gz; G fisAk; Gupe;Jnfhz;L rpdpkh> njhiyf;fhl;rp Nkil ehlfk; vd;gtw;wpw;F Cf;Ftpg;G toq;f Ntz;Lk;.

9.276

9.277

Njrpa fP j j; i j xNu ,irAld; ,U nkhopfspy; njhlu;r;rpahfg; ghLtij Cf;Ftpf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,e;eilKiwia khw;wpaikj;jhy; ey;ypzf;fk; gOjilAk;.

116

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Njrpa ,dq;fSf;fpilNa gu];gu cwTfs ;


9.278 Mizf;FOtpd; gpuhe;jpaf; $l;lq;fspd; NghJ midj;J ,dq;fisAk; rhu;e;j gyu; ,dq; f Sf; f pilapyhd gu]; g u cwTfspd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ijg; gw;wpf; $wpdu; . xUtiunahUtu; re; j pj; J fUj;njhUkpj;jiyf; fl;bnaOg;GtJ kpfTk; rpwe; j fUtpahFk; vd Mizf;FO mq;fPfupf;fpwJ. Nkhjy; f spd; kpff; nfh^ukhd tpisTfSf;F midj;J ,dq;fisAk; rhu;e;j ,isQu;fNs Kfk; nfhLj;jdu;.
117

9.279

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Sunday Times website

Njrpa If;fpaj;jpw;fhd eltbf;if fSf;fhf fyhrhu cwTfs; kpf Kf;fpakhdit vdg; gy gpujpepjpfs; Mizf;FO Kd;dpiyapy; vLj;Jf; $wpdu;.

vdNt mtu; f Sf; F tpNrl eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;s KbAk;. ,uj; j k; rpe; J tjw; F mtu; f s; xUtiunahUtu; re; j pf; f tpy; i y. ru;tNjrg; Gupe;Jzu;it Vw;gLj;Jtjw;F mtu; f Sf; F mtfhrNkh NeuNkh fpilf;ftpyiy. ; 9.280 ,J rk; g e; j khf ,sk; ghuhSkd;wj;jpwFk;> gde;Njhg;gpypUe;J ; njd; d e; Njhg; g pw; F vd; w gupkhw; w epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;ij Muk;gpj;jJ Fwpj;J rptpy; r%fj;jpw;Fk; murhq;fj;jpw;Fk; Mizf;FO kfporrpiaj; njuptpffpdwJ. ; ; ; ; jkJ tifg;nghWg;gpd; Kiwikf;F Vw;g midj;J mikr;Rf;fshy; ,j;jifa epfo;r;rp epuiy Muk;gpf;fyhk;. gupkhw;w epfo; r ; r pj; j pl; l q; f is gue; J gl; l Kiwapy; nra; t jw; F rptpy; r%ff; FOf;fspd; xj;Jiog;ig ehlNtz;Lk;. Mdhy; ,U Njrpa ,dq;fspd; fyhr;rhu kw;Wk; nkhop gw;wpa $u; czu;TfSf;F cupa kjpg;gspj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

9.281

118

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

murpay; ,zf;fg;ghl;bd; mtrpak;


9.282 If;fpa ey;ypzf;fj;jpw;Fj; jilahf ,Uf;Fk; Kf;fpa fhuzp mjpfhug; gfpu;T Nghd; w murpay; ,zf; f g; g hL kw; W k; gy;fl;rpg; gpuNtrk; ,y;yhikNa MDk;. fle;j ehd;F-Ie;J jrhg;jq;fspd; NghJ FNuhj ciufs; ,d-kj uP j pahd gjl;lq;fisj; J}z;btplTk; xw;Wik apd; i kf; F k; fhuzkhf mike; j J. ,j;jifa eilKiwfisj; jLg;gjw;F fLikahd rl;lq;fs; cUthf;fg;gl;L fz;bg;Gld; mKy;gLj;jg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. Nkhjy; xU Jauk; vd; g ij murpay; jiyikj;JtKk;> rpq;fsj; jkpo; rptpy; r%fq;fSk; $l;lhf Vw;W Ntjidg;gLjy; Xu; ey; y pzf; f j; j pw; F mtrpahFk; . njd; d pyq; i fapd; Kf; f pa fl; r pj; jiytu;fs; jkpo; kf;fspd; gpur;rpidf;F jPu;T fhz cld;gl;bUe;jhy; Nkhjiy
119

9.283

9.284

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Colombopage

ehl;by; ,j;jifa njhU ,uj;jk; rpe;Jk; Nkhjy; kPzLk; ; xU NghJk; Vw;glhjpUg;gij cWjpg; gLj;Jtjw;Fkhd $l;Lg; gw;WWjpia cWjp mspg;gjw;fhd xU jdpahd epfo;Tf;F Mizf;FO gupe;Jiuf;fpwJ.
9.285

jtpu; j ; j pUf; f yhk; . ,J gw; w p mtu;fSf;Fk; rkkhd tifg;nghWg;G cz;L. ,j;Jauk; njhlu;ghf ve;jnthU jug; g pdUk; rkkhd Kiwapy; Jauk; milatpy;iy. ,J gw;wp newpKiw rhu; kjpg; g ha; T ,Uj; j y; Ntz; L k; . kd;dpg;gjd; %yk; fUiz fhl;Ltjd; %yKNk. ,J rk;ge;jkhf xUq;fpize;j gpufldj; i j rptpy; r%fKk; kjj; jiytu;fSk; mtu;fSf;F topfhl;l Ntz; L k; . rfy jug; i gAk; rhu; e ; j jiytu;fs; ,k;Nkhjiyj; jLg;gjw;F jk; k hy; Kbatpy; i ynad; W ghjpg; G f; F s; s hd rptpy; r%fq; f spd; jiyik Nfl; f Ntz; L k; . ,jw; F xUq; f pize; j gpufldj; i jr; nra; t jw; F k; rptpy; r%f kjj; jiytu;fSk; mtu;fSf;F topfhl;l Ntz; L k; . ,J ey; y pzf; f epfo; r ; r pj; jpl;lj;jpy; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jk;. vkJ Njrpa jpdj;jd;W> Jau; nfhz;l Nkhjypy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l midtUf;Fk; xj; J zu; T njuptpg; g jw; F k; ; > ehl; b y; ,j;jifa njhU ,uj;jk; rpe;Jk; Nkhjy; kP z ; L k; xU NghJk; Vw; g lhjpUg; g ij cWjpg; g Lj; J tjw; F khd $l; L g; gw;WWjpia cWjp mspg;gjw;fhd xU jdpahd epfo; T f; F Mizf; F O gupe;Jiuf;fpwJ. mj;jifanjhU rpwg;G epfo; t py; ,e; j Qhgfhu; j ; j czu; T ey;ypzf;fr; nrad;Kiwf;F mtrpakhd cj;Ntfj;ij toq;Fnkd Mizf;FO czu;fpdwJ. ;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

120

,f;fl;Liuapd; %yk; Mizf;FOtpd; gupe;Jiufs; njhlu;ghd xU RUf;fkhd Ma;T rku;g;gfpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ; ; ,izg;G 1 LLRC gupeJiufspd; mz;kpjj tuyhW ,izg;G 2 LLRC gupeJiufs; njhlu;ghd> khw;Wf; ; nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyaj;jpd; Clf ntspaPL

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

121

LLRC Mizf;FOtpd;

mq;fj;jtu;fs;
Photo source: chrsrilanka.com

LLRC Mizf;FO

Kd;dpiyapy; rhl;rpaspf;Fk; xU re;ju;g;gk;

122

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Website of Champika Ranawaka

I.eh. nrayhsu; ehafKk; jU\;khd; cl;gl epGzu; FOTk;

LLRC gupe; J iufspd; mz; k pj; j tuyhW


vkJ ehl;L murpay; gazj;jpy; nghJkf;fs; jkJ mjpfhuj;ij gbg;gbahff; iftpl;lik my;yJ [dehafj;ij ,y;yhnjhopg;gjw;F ,lkspj;jy;> ,jd; Muk;g tuyhwhFk;. ,jdhy; [dehafk; rpW vz; z pf; i fapdupd; nrhj; j hf khwpaikahy; Nkhjy;fs; cf;fpukile;jd. murpayikg; G uP j pahd mjpfhuk; 1977 Kjy; ,d;Wtiu Xuplj;jpy; Ftpe;jik ,jd; mz;kpj;j tuyhwhFk; . ,jd; fhuzkhf rl; l j; i j tpl jdpegu; NkNyhq;fpaik> GSP+ tupr;rYifia ngWtjhapd; INuhg; g pa xd; w paj; j pd; (EU) gupe;Jiufs;> jU];khd; mwpf;if> n[dPthtpy; kdpj cupikfs; Nguit ,yq;if murhq;fj;jpwF ;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; 123

Photo source: Sri Lanka Guardian Website

vjpuhf mq;fPfupj;j gpNuuiz vd;gdTk; LLRC gupe;JiufSf;Ff; fhuzkhf mike;jd. ru;tNjr kdpjNear; rl;lj;ijAk; (International Humanitarian Law)> ru;tNjr kdpj cupikfs; rl;lKk; (International Human Rights Law) vd;gd kPwg;gl;lik ,yq;iff;F vjpuhfj; njhlu;e;J epyTk; Fw; w r; r hl; L f; f s; MFk; . ru; t Njr rkthaq; f spy; ,yq; i f ifnahg; g kpl; l jd; %yk; Nkw; g b rl; l q; f isg; ghJfhg; g jw; F ,yq;if flg;ghL nfhz;Ls;sJ. 30 Mz;L fhy Aj;jj;ij KbTf;Ff; nfhz;L te; j ,Wjpf; f l; l Aj; j j; j pd; NghJ Nkw; g b ve; j nthU rl; l j; i jAk; kP w tpy; i y vd njhlu;r;rpahf ,yq;if murhq;fk; $wp te;jJ. If; f pa ehLfs; rig ,Jgw; w p tprhuiz nra; t jw; F xU J}Jf; F Oit ,yq; i ff; F mDg; g j; jahuhdJ. mjw; F ,lkspf; f Kbahnjd ,yq;if murhq;fk; $wpaJ. vdNt> If;fpa ehLfs; rigapd; nrayhsu; ehafk; %tu; mlq;fpa epGzu; FOit epakpj;jhu;. nrayhsu; ehafj; j pw; F MNyhriz toq; f Nth ele; j rk;gtq;fis Ma;T nra;aNth my;yJ ele;j rk; g tq; f is tprhuiz nra; a Nth ,f; F O mikf;fg;gltpy;iy. vdNt> Nkw;gb epGzu; FO ,yq; i ff; F tuNtz; b a mtrpaKk; ,Uf; f tpy; i y. ,e; j epGzu; FOtpd; %d; W cWg; g pdu; f Sk; ,yq; i fiag; gw; w pa jfty; f is mwpe; j pUe; j du; . ,tu; f Sf; F f; fpilj;j jfty;fisAk; jfty; %yq;fisAk; gad; g Lj; j p gupe; J iufs; Kd; i tf; f g; g l; l d. ,g; g upe; J iufs; jU\; k hd; mwpf; i f vd mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.
124 khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Aj;j ntw;wpapdhy; FJ}fykile;j njd;dpyq;if kf;fs;

,t; t wpf; i fapy; ,yq; i ff; F vjpuhf Ie; J Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fs; Rkj;jg;gl;bUe;jd. 2012-03-22k; jpfjp n[dP t h efupy; mq; f P f upf; f g; g l; l gpNuuizfSf;F ,e;j Nahridfs; mbg;gilahf mike;Js;sd. ,t;twpfifia If;fpa ehLfspd; ; nghJr;rig guprPyid nra;J> If;fpa ehLfspd; kdpj cupikg; Nguitf;F rku;g;gpf;f Ntz;Lk; vdTk; $wg;gl;lJ.

If;fpa ehLfspd; nrayhsu; ehafj;jpd; epGzu; FO - jU];khd; mwpf;ifapy; Kd;itf;fg;gl;l Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fs; gpd; t UkhW:
i. ii. nfhj;Jf; Fz;Lfs; (Cluster Bombs) %yk; nghJkf;fs; nfhiy nra;ag;gLjy; itj;jparhiyfSf;Fk; jilnra;ag;gl;l ,lq;fSf;Fk; n\y; tPrRf;fis elj;Jjy; ;
125

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: ibnlive.in.com

aho;g;ghzj;jpy; Aj;j ntw;wpapd; gpd;dUk; mur gilfs;

iii.

kdpjNea cjtpfisAk; NritfisAk; Gwf;fzpj;jy; iv. ,lk;ngau;e;jtu;fSf;Fk; vy;.uP.uP.<. re;Njf egu; f Sf; F k; Nkhjypd; NghJ capu; gpioj;NjhUf;Fk; ,k;ir nra;jy;. v. Clfq; f isAk; > muRf; n fjpuhf tpku; r dq; f is Kd; i tj; j tu; f isAk; Nkhjy; tyaj;jpw;F ntspNa ,k;rpj;jy;> Jd;GWj;jy;> nfhiy nra;jy;. ,t;ite;J Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fspy; Kjy; ehd;Fk; ru;tNjr kdpjNear; rl;lq;fis kPwpaitahFk;. Ie;jhtJ ru;tNjr kdpj cupikfs; rl;lj;ij> mjhtJ rptpy; kw;Wk; murpay; cupikfs; gw;wpa rkthaj;ij> kPWjyhFk;. vy;.uP.uP.< f;F vjpuhf 6 Fw; w r; r hl; L f; f s; jU]; k hd; mwpf; i fapy; Fwpg; g plg; g l; b Ue; j d. mtw; i w tprhupj; J
126 khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Lanka Express Website

Njrg; g w; W k; Vfhjpgj; j pa vjpu; g ; G k;


If;fpa ehLfs; rigapd; tprhuizf;F vjpu;g;Gj; njuptpf; F Kfkhf ehL g+uhTk; Njrg; g w; W k; Vfhjpgj;jpa vjpu;g;Gk; gw;wp ghupa gpurhuj;ij murhq;fk; Muk;gpj;jJ. vdNt> jU];khd; epGzu; FOtpw;F> vjpuhf ghupa vjpu;g;G njuptpf;fg;gl;lJ. ntspehl; L tprhuizfs; vkf; F Ntz; l hk; > vk;khy; mijr; nra;a KbAk;. vd;w fUj;Jf;fika cs; e hl; L tprhuizfs; Mizf; F O xd; W [dhjpgjpapdhy; epakpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,JNt fw; w ghlq; f Sk; ey; y pzf; f Mizf;FOTk; vd miof;fg;gl;lJ (LLRC). ehk; Nkw; g b Mizf; F O Kd; i tj; j 285 mtjhdpgGfisAk; gupeJiufisANk thrpffg; ; ; ; NghfpdNwhk;. jU];khd; mwpfifapy; gpdtUkhW ; ; ; mtjhdpg; G fs; nra; a g; g l; L s; s d. Aj; j ntw; w piaf; fhuzkhf itj; J msTfle; j kfpo;r;rpia murhq;fk; gpufldg;gLj;jpaJ %yk; Aj; j j; j pdhy; Vw; g l; l kdpj mopTfis epuhfupj;Js;sJ> jkpo; kf;fisg; Gwf;fzpf;Fk; eltbf;iffs; njhlu;e;Jk; ,lk;ngWfpd;wd. mlf; F Kiwr; rl; l q; f s; khj; j puky; y hJ> mr;RWj;jy;fs;> td;Kiwfs; ,lk;ngWtNjhL Aj;j epyikia tlf;fpNy njhlu;eJ Kd;ndLj;J ; tUfpwJ. Clfq; f Sf; F k; gpui[fspd;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; 127

Photo source: Sndeyaz Website

Fw;wthspfSf;F jz;lid toq;Fk; Muk;gg; nghWg;Gk; murhq;fj;ijNa rhUk;. ,f;Fw;wr; rhl; L f; f is fz; l wpe; j NghJ murhq; f k; gaq; f uthjj; j pw; F vjpuhfg; NghuhbaijNah vy;.uP.uP.< jdpNahu; muir epWTtjw;F elj;jpa Nghuhl;lNkh fUj;jpw;nfhs;sg;gltpy;iy.

vdNt> mnkupf;fhtpd; gpNuuiziaj; jahupg;gjw;F ,yq;if murhq;fNk $ba xj;Jiog;ig toq;fpAs;sJ.

cupikfSf; F k; njhlu; e ; J k; kl; L g; g hLfs; tpjpf; f g; g Lfpd; w d ,g; g upe; J iufis LLRC gupe; J iufNshLk; mtjhdpg; G fNshLk; xg; G Nehf;Ftjd; %ykhf ,t;tpuz;Lk; xd;W vd Gupaf;$bajhf cs;sJ. vdNt> vkJ murhq;fk; fl;lhakhfr; nra;a Ntz;baijj; jhd; ,e;j mwpf;ifapd; %yKk; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. ,it vJTNk ntspehl; l tu; f Sf; f hfNth my; y J ntspehl;ltu;fspd; rhu;gpNyh nra;ag;gLgit my; y . vkJ ehl; L kf; f s; rhu; g py; mKyhf;Ftjw;F flg;ghLila tplaq;fshFk;. ,e;j ,uz;L mwpf;iffSf;Fk; Kd;G INuhg;gpa xd; w pak; vkJ Vw; W kjp nghUl; f Sf; f hd tupr; r Yifia njhluNtz; L khdhy; kdpj cupikfisg; ghJfhf; F k; epakq; f is ftdj; j py; vLj; j J. INuhg; g pa xd; w pak; Kd; i tj; j 15 gupe; J iufNshL> jU]; k hd; mwpf; i fapdJk; > LLRC mwpf; i fapdJk; gupe; J iufis xg; G Nehf; f pdhy; INuhg; g pa xd; w paj; j pd; gupe; J iufSf; F ,it khWgl;litAky;y. njhlu;e;J rl;lKk; kdpj cupikfSk; kPwg;gl;likf;fhd Fw;wr;rhl;LfNs ,yq;if kPJ Kd;itf;fg;gl;lJ. n[dPth kdpj cupikfs; Nguitapy; ,yq;iff;F vjpuhf mq; f P f upf; f g; g l; l gpNuuiz jpBnud cUthf;fg;gl;lJ my;y. ,f;Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fs; ,uz; L %d; W Mz; L fSf; F Kd; g pUe; N j jahupf;fg;gl;ld. ,jid mnkupf;fh rku;;g;gpj;jJ. ,e; j pah cl; g l 24 ehLfs; ,g; g pNuuizia mq;fPfupj;jd.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

128

GSP+

tupr; r Yifia eP f ; f ptplhjpUf; f Ntz;Lkhapd; ,yq;if muR 15 epge;jidfis ; mDrupf;f Ntz;Lk; vd 2011 Mf];l; 15k; jpfjp INuhg;gpa xd;wpaj;jpd; Mizf;FO ,yq;iff;F mwptpj; j J. 2007k; Mz; L JiwKfj; njhopw;rq;fq;fSf;F vjpuhf Xu; jil cj;juit Nkw; n fhs; t jd; %yk; ru; t Njr njhopyhsu; ];jhgdj;jpd; njhopyhsu; cupikfs; rk;ge;jkhd rkthaq;fis ,yq;if murhq;fk; kPwpAs;sik gw; w pAk; mwptpf; f g; g l; b Ue; j J. murhq; f k; flg; g hL nfhz; L s; s ru; t Njr njhopyhsu; rkthaq; f Sf; F k; murhq; f j; j pd; epiyg; g hL KuzhdJ vd;Wk; jPu;khdpf;fg;gl;lJ. vdNt> mnkupf; f htpd; gpNuuiziaj; jahupg; g jw; F ,yq; i f murhq; f Nk $ba xj; J iog; i g toq; f pAs; s J. INuhg; g pa xd; w paj; j pd; 15 epge;jidfs; gpd;tUkhW: 1. rptpy; kw; W k; murpay; cupikfs; gw; w pa ru;tNjr rkthaj;ij kPWk; tplaq;fs; 2. midj;J r%fq;fisAk; gpujpepjpj;Jtg; gLj;jf;$ba murpayikg;G nraw;FOit epakpjJ murpayikg;gpd; 17tJ jpUj;jj;jpwF ; ; mika RahjPd Mizf;FOf;fis epakdk; nra;jy;. 3. tof;F tprhuizapdwp jLj;J itj;jpUj;jiy ; eP f ; f ptpl; L murpay; cupikfs; gw; w pa rkthaq; f Sf; F k; rpj; j putij gw; w pa rkthaq; f Sf; F k; Vw; G ila tifapy; Fw;wtpay; rl;lj;ijj; jahupj;jy;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; 129

Photo source: EU Website

INuhg; g pa Mizf; F Otpd; gupe;Jiufs; (GSP+).

Photo source: Maroelamedia.Co.Za

Clftpayhsu;fs; jkJ njhopiy vJtpjj; jilAkpd;wp Rje;jpukhfr; nra;tij cWjpg;gLj;Jjy;

4. rptpy; kw; W k; murpay; cupikfs; gw; w pa rkthaj; j pw; N fw; g gaq; f uthjj; jilr; rl;lj;jpd; cWg;Giufis kPs; cUthf;fk; nra;jy; my;yJ ePf;Fjy;. 5. Nkw; g b rkthaq; f Sf; F Kuzhfhj tifapy; kf; f s; ghJfhg; G r; rl; l j; j pd; tpjpfisj; jahupj;jy;. 6. xU re;Njf egiu ifJ nra;jhy; me;egUf;F rl;lj;juzpapd; cjtpiag; ngWtjw;fhd tha;g;ig cWjpg;gLj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. 7. rptpy; > murpay; cupikfs; gw; w pa rkthaj; N jhL njhlu; G ila KjyhtJ Nkyjpf xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; xU ehl;Lg; gpui[ If;fpa ehLfs; rigapd; kdpj cupikfs; nraw; F Otpw; F Kiwg; g hL nra; A k; cupikia cWjpg;gLj;Jjy; 8. If;fpa ehLfs; rigapd; kdpj cupikfs; gw; w pa nraw; F Otpd; jP u ; k hdq; f is eilKiwg;gLj;Jjy;. 9. fhzhkw; Nghfr; nra; j y; gw; w pa If; f pa ehLfs; rigapd; FOTk;> rpj;jputijfs; gw; w pa If; f pa ehLfspd; tpNrl mwpf; i fahsUk; > ntspaP l ; L r; Rje; j puk; gw; w pa If; f pa ehLfspd; tpNrl mwpf; i fahsUk; > eP j thd; f spdJk; rl;lj;juzpfspdJk; RahjPdk; gw;wpa tpNrl mwpf;ifahsUk; ,yq;iff;F tUtjw;F Kd;itj;Js;s Nfhupf;iff;F ,lkspj;jy;. 10. fhzhkw; Nghjy; gw;wpa If;fpa ehLfspd; eltbf;iff; FO Kd;dpiyapy; guprPyid

130

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

n[dPthtpy; 22tJ $l;lj;njhlupy; gq;Fgw;wpa mikr;ru; k`pe;j rkurpq;fTk; FOtpdUk;

nra;ag;gLk; Kiwg;ghLfs; gw;wp jdpjjdpahf ; gjpy; mspj;jy; 11. tprhuiz Mizf; F Otpd; (2008) mwpf;ifiag; gpuRupj;J ntspapLjy;. 12. jw;NghJ jLg;Gf; fhtypy; ,Uf;Fk; vy;uPuP< re; N jf egu; f spd; ngau; g ; g l; b aiy gfpuq;fg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. Nkw;gb re;Njf egu;fspd; FLk;gq;fisr; rhu;e;jtu;fSf;F Nkw; g bj; jfty; f is ngWtjw; f hd trjpfis Vw;gLj;Jjy;. ,tu;fSf;nfjpuhf tof;Fj; njhlu;jy; my;yJ tpLjiy nra;jy;. 13. ru; t Njr nrQ; r pYitr; rq; f k; Nghd; w epWtdq;fs; mtjhdpgGfisr; nra;tjw;fhf ; mDkjp mspj;jy;. 14. kdpj cupikfs; gw;wpa Njrpaj; jpl;lj;ij mq;fPfupj;J nraw;gLj;Jjy;.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; 131

Photo source: Jean-Marc Ferre

vy;.uP.uP.< Kd;dhs; Nghuhspfs; Gdu;tho;T ngwy;

15. Clftpayhsu;fs; jkJ njhopiy vJtpjj; jilAkpd; w p Rje; j pukhfr; nra; t ij cWjpg;gLj;Jjy; Nkw; $ wpa gupe; J iufSf; F k; > Vw; f dNt Fwpg; g plg; g l; l jU]; k hd; mwpf; i f LLRC mwpf; i fapd; gupe; J iufSf; F kpilapy; NtWghLfs; ,y; i y vd; g J jw; N ghJ cq;fSf;Fg; GupAk;.

n[dP t hg; gpNuuizfs;


mnkupf; f htpd; gpNuuiz ,d; W k; nry;YgbahdjhFk;. vdNt If;fpa ehLfspd; kdpj cupikfs; NguitAk; > Nkiyj; N ja ehLfSk; vjpu; f hyj; j py; ,jdbg; g ilapy; nraw;gl ,lKz;L. mnkupf;fg; gpNuuizapd; rhuhk;rk; gpd;tUkhW:
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

132

Photo source: Peace in Sri Lanka website

1972 murpayikg;Gg; Nguitapd; Xu; mku;T

1. 2.

LLRC gupe;Jiufis eilKiwg;gLj;jy; kdpj Near; rl;lq;fisAk; kdpj cupikfs; rkthaq;fisAk; kPwpaik gw;wp fz;lwpjy; 3. ,tw;wpd; mKyhf;fk; gw;wpa eilKiwj; jpl;lj;ij Kd;itj;jy;. ,J rk;ge;jkhd MNyhridfisAk; njhopy; E l; g cjtpiaAk; If; f pa ehLfspd; kdpj cupikfs; NguitapypUe;J ngw;Wf;nfhs;s KbAk; . 22k; $l; l j; n jhlUf; F Xu; mwpf;ifia rku;g;gpj;jy;. murhq;fj;jpd; rhu;gpy; ,Jtiu Nkw;nfhz;l eltbf;iffisg; gw;wpa jfty;fs; murhq;fj;jpd; rhu;gpy; Kd;itf;fg; gl;Ls;sd. mit gpd;tUkhW: 1. 2. ,lk;ngau;e;Njhiu kPs; FbNaw;wk; nra;jy; kpjpntbfis mfw;Wjy;.
133

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

Photo source: Pact.lk / Courtesy of Sahajeevana Centre

Photo source:J R Jayawardene Centre

3.

1978 murpayikg;G %yk; epiwNtw;W [dhjpgjp Kiwia mwpKfg;gLj;jpa jpU. N[.Mu;. [atu;jd

vy;uPuP< ,d; Kd;dhs; NghuhspfSf;F Gdu; tho;tspj;jy;. 4. mur fUk nkhopf;nfhs;ifia mKyhf;fk; nra;jy;. 5. jkpo; nkhop NgRk; nghyp]; cj; j pNahfj; j u; f is nghyp Nritapy; ,izj;Jf;nfhs;sy;. 6. tlf;fpy; ,uhZt epu;thfj;ij gbg;gbahf ePf;Fjy; 7. ,uhZt epu; t hfj; j pypUe; J fhzpfis tpLtpj;jy; 8. tlf;F fpof;F khfhzq;fspd; rdj;njhif Gs;sptpgu Mtzj;ijj; jahupj;jy; Nkw; $ wpa tplaq; f s; xl; L nkhj; j khf g+u; j ; j p ailahtpbDk; XusT mit nraw; g Lj; j g; gl;Ls;sd vd;gJ cz;ik. mtw;NwhL midj;Jg; gupe;JiufisAk; KOikahf nraw;gLj;jpdhy; ,f;Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fspypUe;J ehk; tpLtpf;fg;gl KbAk;. kPzLk; Xu; ,uj;j MW XLtij ehk; jLf;f ; KbAk;. ehL gpsTgLtij jLg;gjw;Fk; ,it mKy;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

mjpfhuj; i j Ftpikag; g Lj; J k; murpay;


1947 Kjy; mjpfhuk; xU gpuptpdupd; ifapy; Ftpikag;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. gpd;du; 1977 Kjy; xU jdpeguplk; ,J Ftpikag; g Lj; j g; g l; L s; s J. Aj;jk; tiu ,e;j murpaNy njhlu;e;jJ. ,jd; fhuzkhf ehL gQ;rkile;jJ. kdpjj; jd;ikaw;w xU ehlhf khWtjw;F ,e;j murpay; Jiz epdwJ. ; ,jw;F tifg;nghWg;Gf;$w Ntz;batu;fs; ahu;?
134 khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

,d;iwa [dhjpgjp k`pe;j uh[gf;\ LLRC mwpf;ifia thrpf;fpd;whu;.

1947 murpayikg;gpy; rpWghd;ik ,dq;fspd; ghJfhg;gpw;fhf ,Ue;j 29tJ cWg;Giu> 1972 FbauR murpayikg;G %yk; ePf;fg;gl;lJ. 1948 ,y; ,e;jpa tk;rhtsp kf;fspd; gpu[h cupik ePf;fg;gLtjw;F rl;lq;fs; nfhz;Ltug;gl;ld. Njrpa td; K iwf; F mtrpakhd xU kNdhepiyNa cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. FbauR murpayikg;gpd; 6k; 7k; cWg;Giufs; %yk; Njrpa> kj> nkhop NtWghLfs; mq;fPfupffg; ; gltpy; i y. ,it 1978 murpayikg; G %yk; kPz;Lk; cWjp nra;ag;gl;ld> 1978 murpayikg; g py; cs; s lf; f g; g l; l 18 jpUj;jq;fspy; 13k; 17k; jpUj;jq;fisj; jtpu Vida midj; J Nk xU jdp kdpjdpd; mjpfhuj; i j Ftpikag; g Lj; J tjw; f hfNt mq; f P f upf; f g; g l; l d. ,jd; %yk; mjpfhuk; Ftpikag; g Lj; j g; g l; l NjhL [dehaff;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; 135

Photo source: Sunday Leader website

fl;likg;ig Vw;gLj;jf;$ba ,uz;L jpUj;jq;fSk;> N[.Mu;. Kjy; midj;J [dhjpgjpfSk; nraw;gLj;jtpyiy. ,J ; njspthf Xu; murpayikg;G kPwyhFk;. ,jw;F murpay; nraw;ghLfs; %yKk; eP j pj; J iwapdJk; ghupa xj; J iog; G fpilj;jJ. murpayikg;gpw;fhd 17tJ jpUj;jj;ij ePf;fp 18tJ jpUj;jj;ij mKy; g Lj; j paJ %yk; > xU vkJ gpw;isfs; rpupf;ff;$ba ehis....? jdpkdpjdplk; Mff;$ba mjpfhuq;fs; Ftpikag;gLj;jg;gl;ld. mjpfhuk; ,t;thW Ftpikag;gLj;Jk; murpay; fhuzkhfNt ntspehLfSf;F mbtUbfshf khWtJk; ntspehl; L j; jiyaP L fs; mjpf mstpy; ,lk;ngWtJk; epfo;fpd;wd. mjpfhu murpay; fhuzkhfNt ntspehLfs; Fw; w r; rhl; L f; f is Rkj; j f; $ ba xU #o; e piy Vw; g l; L s; s J. ru; t Njr rl; l q; f s; kP w g; g Lk; epiyAk; ,jd; fhuzkhfNt cUthfpAs;sd. cs; e hl; L rl; l jpl; l q; f Sk; murpayikg; G k; kPwg;gLfpd;wikahNyNa ru;tNjr rl;lq;fSk; kPwg;gLtjw;fhd top rikf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,jw;F rpq;fsk;> jkpo;> K];ypk; Mfpa midj;J r%fq;fSk; murpaw; fl;rpfSk; nghWg;Gf; $w Ntz;Lk;. jw;NghJ ,g;gpur;rpidiaj; jPuggjhapd; ; ; rfy fl; r pfspdJk; kf; f spdJk; xj; J iog; g p D}lhfNt mjid rhj;jpakhf;f Ntz;Lk;. ru;tNjrr; rl;lq;fis kPWk; Fw;wr; rhl;LfspypUe;J jg;gpjJf;nfhs;tjw;fhfNt murhq;fk; ey;ypzf;f ; Mizf; F Oit epakpj; j J. mjhtJ Nghupd; rpf; f yhd jd; i k fhuzkhf Ntz; L nkd; N w rl;lq;fs; kPwg;gltpy;iy (9.27 Kjy; 9.37 tiu ghu;f;fTk;) cz; i k ,t; t hwhapd; ru; t Njr
Photo source: Ft.lk

136

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

r%fj; j pw; F mg; g bahd Nehf; f k; ,Ue; j ij ep&gpf;f KbahJ Ngha;tpLk;. Mdhy; ru;tNjr r%fj;ij ,yq;iff;F tp[ak; nra;a tplhky; jLg;gjd; %yk; re;Njfk; tYtilfpwJ. ru;tNjr rl;lq;fis kPWtJ gw;wpa gpur;rpid ve; j tifapYk; jP u ; f ; f g; g lyhk; . Mdhy; cs;ehl;Lr; rl;lq;fs; 1948 Kjy; kPwg;gLfpdwd. ; ehl;by; [dehafj;ij epiy ehl;LtJ njhlu;ghf ru;tNjr jiyaPLfs; vkf;Fj; Njitapy;iy. vkJ ehl;bd; rl;lq;fis Ml;rpahsu;fs; kPWk; NghJ mjw;F thf;fhsu;fshfpa ehk; jz;lid toq; f KbAk; . Mdhy; mJ mt; t hW epfo; t jpy; i y. [dehaf tpNuhj elj;ijfisaplL ehk; nghWj;Jf; nfhs;fpdNwhk;. ; ; ehk; FWfpafhy fdTfis edthf;Ftjw;F xNu tifiar; rhu; e ; j murpay; thjpfSf; F ehk; mjpfhuk; toq; F fpd; N whk; . ,J Fwpj; J thf;fhsu;fs; nghWg;Gf;$w Ntz;Lk;. njhlu;eJk; ; ,e; e pyikia ,y; y hnjhopj; J xU ehl; i lf; fl; b naOg; G tjhapd; > Fiwe; j gl; r k; LLRC gupe;Jiufis mKyhf;FkhW Ml;rpahsu;fis epu; g ; g e; j pf; f Ntz; L k; . ,r; n raw; g hl; b y; ehk; gq;fspg;Gr; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. elf;ff; $lhjitfs; njhlu;eJ ,lk;ngWifapy; ; mij Ngrh kle; i jfshf mtjhdpj; J f; nfhz;bUe;jhy; tpisT gaq;fukhfNt mikAk; vd; g ij ehk; Gupe; J nfhs; s Ntz; L k; . vkJ vjpu;fhy re;jjpapdiu ,j;jifa Jd;gpay; eltbf;iffspy; ,Ue;J fhg;ghw;w Ntz;Lkhdhy; ,k; i riaAk; xLf; F KiwiaAk; jLg; g jhf ,Ue; j hy; kf; f spd; flikfis vtUf; F k; Vkhwhky; ehk; epiwNtw;w Ntz;Lk;. ,jid ehk; ehis my;y ,d;Nw Muk;gpf;f Ntz;Lk;.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; 137

fw; W f; n fhz; l ghlq; f s; kw; W k; ey; y pzf; f Mizf; F O (LLRC)ntspapl;l mwpf; i f ntspapl;

2012> [dthp 04> nfhOk; G > ,yq; i f. khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; fw;Wf;nfhz;l ghlq;fs; kw;Wk; ey;ypzf;f Mizf;FO (LLRC) ntspapl; l mwpf; i fiaAk; > Kuz; g hl; L Nkhjypd ; %yfhuzq;fs; rk;ge;jkhd mjd; gFg;gha;itAk;> vy; . hp.hp.<. mikg; g pd; nfhLikfs; rk; g e; j khd vLj; J iug; G fisAk; > Ml; r pKiw rk; g e; j khd gupe; J iug; G fisAk; - tpNrlkhf> jw; N ghJs; s epWtdq; f spd; murpay; k ag; g Lj; j iy ,y; y h njhopg; g J Fwpj; J k; > jfty; chpikf; f hd rl;lthf;fj;ij mwpKfQ;nra;tJ Fwpj;Jk;> nkhop chpikfs; kw; W k; ey; y pzf; f k; Fwpj; J k; > ,uhZtkakhf; f y; > fUj; J ntspapLjy; Rje; j puj; J f; n fjpuhd jhf; F jy; f s; Fwpj; J k; > xspaiy ehd; F (Channel four) Mtzj; j pYs; s Fw; w r; r hl; L fis tprhuiz nra; t J Fwpj; J k; > Ml;fs; fhzhkw; Nghdik kw;Wk; rptpypad; kf;fspd; kuzq; f Sf; F f; fhuzkhdtu; f is tprhuiz nra; J > mtu; f Sf; n fjpuhf tof; F j; njhlUtJ Fwpj; J k; nra; a g; g l; L s; s gupe; J iufisAk; tuNtw;fpd;wJ. murhq;fj;Jld; ,izg;Gs;s ngau; Fwpg;gplg;gl;l jdpegu;fSk;> mikg;GfSk; kdpj chpik kPwy;fs; kw;Wk; xl;Lg;gil eltbf;iffs; rk;ge;jkhf tprhhpf;fg;glNtz;Lnkd;Wk;> vy;.hp.hp.<. mikg;gpdhy; ntspNaw;wg;gl;l tlgFjp K];ypk;fs; rk; g e; j khfTk; > kiyehl; L j; jkpo; kf; f s; rk;ge;jkhfTk; chpa> nghUj;jkhd eltbf;iffs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lnkd;Wk; Mizf;FOtpdhy; nra; a g; g l; L s; s gupe; J iufisAk; ehk; tuNtw; f pd; N whk; . ,e; j ,U rdr%fq; f spdJk; epiyikf;F ,e;j Mizf;FO toq;fpAs;s ftdk;
138 khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

,yq; i f kf; f Sf; F ey; y pzf; f k; vd; D k; eLehafkhd gpur; r pidFwpj; j mwpf; i fapd; mu; j ; j g; n ghjpit tYg; g Lj; J fpd; w J. Mizf; FOtpd; Kd;ghf mwpf;ifaplg;gl;l rhl;rpaq;fSk;> tprhuiz eltbf; i ffspd; gjpNtLfSk; vjpHfhyr; re;jjpapdhpd; ed;ikf;fhfg; ghJfhj;J itf; f g; g l Ntz; L nkd; W ehk; jP t pukhf typAWj;Jfpd;Nwhk;. Mizf; F Otpd; gzpg; g hiz kw; W k; mjd; mq; f j; j tu; f s; rk; g e; j khfTk; > [dhjpgjp Mizf; F Of; f spd; fle; j fhy tuyhWfs; fhuzkhfTk;> tpNrlkhf mtw;wpd; gupe;Jiufs; ,e;j LLRC Mizf; F Otpd; mwpf; i fapYk; Fwpg; g plg; g l; L s; s thW ntspaplg; g lhik kw; W k; ; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;glhik fhuzkhfTk; CPA ,e;j Mizf; F Otpd; Kd; g hfr; rhl; r pakspf; f r; nry; y tpy; i y. vt; t hwhapDk; > LLRC apdhy; nra;ag;gl;l gy mtjhdpg;GiufSk;> gupe;JiufSk; khw; W f; nfhs; i ffSf; f hd epiyaj; j pdhYk; > Vida rptpy; r%fr; nraw; g hl; l hsu; f spdhYk; Ml; r pKiwapd; epiy> ,yq; i fapy; jz; l idg; gakpd;ik Fwpj;j fyhrhuk; kw;Wk; Fwpg;ghf> kdpj chpikfs; ghJfhg; G r; rk; g e; j khf Nkw; n fhz; l gupe; J iufis NkYk; typAWj; J tdthfNt mike;Js;sij ehk; mtjhdpf;fpd;Nwhk;. [dhjpgjp Mizf; F O ,f; f Uj; J fis mq; f P f hpj; J s; s ik rptpy; r%fj; j pd; ,e; j tpku; r dj; i j NkYk; tYg;gLj;jpAs;sNjhL> kpfTk; mtrukhd Njrpa Kd; D hpik tplakhf NkNy Fwpg; g plg; g l; L s; s tplag; g ug; G fspyhd LLRC apd; gupe; J iufis ek; g j; j f; f topapYk; > gaDWjpAs; s topapYk; eilKiwg; g Lj; J tjd; Kf; f paj; J tj; i jAk; typAWj;Jfpd;wJ. ,J> LLRC vLj;Jiuj;Js;sJ Nghd;W> Mizf;FOtpd; ,ilf;fhy gupe;Jiufis ,yq; i f murhq; f k; g+uzkhf eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjw;Fj; jtwpaik fhuzj;jhYk; NkYk; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngWfpd;wJ.
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; 139

I.eh. nrayhsu; ehafj; j pd; kjpAiuf; F Otpd; mwpf;if ntspahfpaijj; njhlu;e;Jk;> vy;.hp.hp.<. mikg;Gf;Fk; ,yq;if murhq;fj;Jf;Fk; vjpuhfr; nra; a g; g l; l Aj; j f; Fw; w q; f s; kw; W k; ru; t Njr kdpjhgpkhdr; rl; l (IHL) kP w y; f s; Fwpj; j Fw;wr;rhl;Lfs; rk;ge;jkhfr; ru;tNjr tprhuizfs; mtrpankd;W Fuy;fs; xypf;fj; njhlq;fpa gpd;dUk; ,yq; i f murhq; f k; LLRC apd; mwpf; i f mij tpku; r pg; g tu; f Sf; F chpa gjpiy toq; F nkd; W $wpte;Js;sJ. ,e;;j tplaj;Jf;F eLehafkhf cs;s tplak; Kuz; g hl; L Nkhjypd; ,Wjpf; fl; l j; j py; cz;ikapy; vd;d ele;jJ vd;gijj; jPu;khdpg;gJk;> tifg; n ghWg; G rk; g e; j khd gpur; r pidAkhFk; . Muk;gj;jpNyNa LLRCf;F kdpj chpikfs; my;yJ ru;tNjr kdpjhgpkhdr; rl;l kPwy;fs; rk;ge;jkhf tprhuiz Nkw; n fhs; S k; gzpg; g hiz toq;fg;gltpy;iy vd;gijAk;> 2001Mk; Mz;by; Nghu; epWj; j cld; g bf; i f Vd; nraypoe; ; j J vd; g ijg; ghprP y idnra; A k; gzpNa mjw; F toq;fg;gl;lJ vd;gijAk; ftdpg;gJ mtrpakhFk;. LLRC jdf;Fr; rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;l jfty;fspd; gpufhuk; cz;ikia epu;zak; nra;tJ mNdfkhf Kbahj tplakhf cs;snjd;Wk;> NkYk; Kf;fpakhf> ,e;j Neuj;jpy; ngwf;$ba jfty;fspd; gpufhuk; epiyik mt;thNw cs;snjd;Wk; KbTnra;Js;sJ. Mizf; F OTf; F f; fpilf; f f; $ ba jfty; f s; rk; g e; j khd kl; L g; g hLfs; ,Ue; j NtisapYk; > Mizf; F O rptpypad; f is ve; j NtisapYk; ,yf; F itg; g J ,yq; i f murpd; Nehf; f khf ,Uf; f tpy; i y vd; W njspthff; $Wfpd; w J. rpy tpla epfo;Tfspy; rptpypad;fspd; kuzq;fs;> Aj;jf; Fw; w q; f s; kw; W k; ru; t Njr kdpjhgpkhdr; rl; l kPwy;fSf;fhd nghWg;igj; jPu;khdpg;gjw;F NkYk; tprhuizfs; mtrpankd;W $wpAs;sNghjpYk;> ,J jP q ; F tpistpf; f Ntz; L nkd; w Nehf; f j; J ld; nra; a g; g lhj tplakhf ,Uf; f yhk; vd; W k; $Wfpd; w J. ,J murpay; kw; W k; ghJfhg; G mikg;GfspYs;s rpNu\;l cj;jpNahfj;;ju;fs; kw;Wk;
140 khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

mjpfhhpfspd; rhl; r paq; f is vjpnuhypf; F k; xU KbthfNt cs;sJ. ,e;j KbT Nkyjpf rptpypad; thf; F %yq; f isg; ngw; W f; n fhs; s tifnra; A k; rhl;rp kw;Wk; ghjpffg;gl;ltu; ghJfhg;G topKiwaikg;G ; vJTk; ,y;yhj epiyapy;> Aj;jj;jpd; ,Wjpf;fl;lj;jpy; vd; d ele; j J vd; g J rk; g e; j khd xU g+uzkhd tpsf; f j; i jg; ngw; W f; n fhs; s Kbahj epiyapy; Nkw; n fhs; s g; g l; l xU nray; K iwapD}lhfNt nra; a g; g l; L s; s J. ,J njhlu; g py; Mizf; F O Kd;ghfr; rhl;rpakspj;j rptpypad;fSf;F Vw;gl;l f\;lq;fs; kw;Wk; gpd;du; ,lk;ngw;w njhy;iyfs; kw;Wk; Mizf;FOTf;F tha;%y rhl;rpaq;fisr; nra;tjw;Fr; rptpypad;fSf;F toq;fg;gl;l Neuk; Nghjhik vd; g tw; i wAk; mtjhdpg; g J Kf;fpakhdjhFk;. NkYk; Kf;fpakhf fhzhkw;Nghd kw;Wk; nfhy;yg;gl;l Ml;fspd; FLk;gq;fisr; Nru;e;j gyu; jhk; vjpuNehf;fpa ,lu;fs; kw;Wk; Mgj;Jf;fisg; ; nghUl; g Lj; j hJ Mizf; F O Kd; te; J rhl; r pa kspj;jik ghjpf;fg;gl;l [dr%fj;jpd; fUj;Jfs; nrtpkLf; f g; g l Ntz; L k; vd; g jw; f hd jP t pu NjitiaAk; > r%f kl; l j; j py; eP j pf; F k; > tifg; n ghWg; G f; F khd mtruj; NjitiaAk; typAWj;JtjhfNt cs;sJ. khw; W f; n fhs; i ffSf; f hd epiyak; MAjg; gilfspd; Nehf; f q; f s; rk; g e; j khd KbT Vkhw;wkspg;gjhfNt cs;snjd;W vz;Zfpd;wJ. mJ tprhhpj; J tpl; L mtw; i w mg; g bNa fplg; g py; NghLtjw; F g; ; gjpyhf> xU ru; t Njr tprhuiz mtrpankd; w Nfhhpf; i ffis NkYk; gyg;gLj;JtjhfNt mikfpd;wnjd;W ehk; jPtpukhf ek; G fpd; N whk; . Ml; r pKiw kw; W k; rl; l j; j pd; Ml; r pFwpj; j jw; N ghija epiyik> nghyp]; giliag;; ghJfhg;Gj; JiwapypUe;J gphpg;gjw;fhd Njit kw;Wk; gaDWjpiag; nghWj;jtiuapy; 17tJ jpUj;jj;ijAk;> Vidatw;Wld; Nru;j;J nghyp]; kw; W k; nghJr; Nritf; f hd RahjP d Mizf;FOf;fis Vw;gLj;JtJk; Fwpj;j LLRCapd;
khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; 141

tpku; r dq; f Sk; ,f; N fhhpf; i ffis NkYk; tYg; g Lj; J fpd; w d. LLRC apdhy; tpghpf; f g; g Lk; Ml; r pKiw epiyikAk; > rl; l j; j pd; Ml; r pAk; > tprhuizfspy; <LgLk; epWtdq;fspd; Neu;ikj;jpwd; kpfTk; ghjpg; G w; w epiyapy; Mizf; F O tpje;Jiuf;Fk; Njrpa mstpyhd tprhuizfis vt; t hW rhj; j pakhf; F k; vd; g J Ghpahj tplakhfTs;sJ. LLRC gupe;Jiuf;Fk; ,e;j RahjPd kw; W k; Kiwahd tprhuizfs; Fwpj; j ntspg;gilahd topfhl;ly;fs; ,Ue;jpUg;gpd;> mit ,e;j gupe;Jiufis NkYk; tYTs;sitahfTk;> mu;j;jKs;sitahfTk; Mf;fpapUf;Fk;. Aj;jj;jpd; ,Wjpf; fl;lj;jpd;NghJ td;dpapy; ,Ue;j rptpypad; f spd; nkhj; j vz; z pf; i f kw; W k; mtu; f Sf; f hd czT kw; W k; itj; j pa trjpfs; toq; f g; g l; l ikFwpj; j gpur; r pidia ,e; j Mizf; F O ifahz; l tpjk; vkf; F Vkhw; w kspg; g jhfTs; s J. ,e; j tplaj; j py; me; j Ntisapy; ghjpg; G w; w rptpypad; f Sld; Neubj; njhlu;igf; nfhz;bUe;j ru;tNjr> murhq;f kw;Wk; mur rhu; g w; w epWtdq; f spd; nraw; g hl; l hsu; f s; toq; f pa jfty; f s; NghjpasT rhpahd %yq;fspypUe;J ngwg;gltpy;iynad;gJ vkf;Ff; ftiyaspg; g jhfTs; s J. ,f; f tiy ,g;gpuhe;jpaj;jpYs;s rptpypad; epu;thfj;jpypUe;J fpilj; j juTfisAk; cs; s lf; F tjhfTs; s J. ruzila te;;j vy;.hp.hp.<. mjpfhhpfisf; nfhd;wJ rk; g e; j khd nts; i sf; n fhb tptfhuk; > cau; ghJfhg; G tyaq; f spd; rl; l epiyj; j fT kw; W k; mtu;fspd; mbg;gil chpikfis kPWk;tifapy; Vwf; F iwa 300>000 rptpypad; f is nkdpf; ghk; KfhkpYk; Vida ,lq;fspYk; milj;Jitj;jik vd; g itAk; > rkP g j; j py; ntspaplg; g l; l fhzpr; Rw;wwpf;ifAk; ey;ypzf;fj;jpd; kPJk; kw;Wk; Aj;jf; Fw;wq;fs; rk;ge;jkhd Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fs; kPJk; mit nfhz; L s; s jhf; f q; f s; fhuzkhfg; g+uzkhf tprhhpf;fg;gl;bUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.
142 khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

,e; j tplaq; f s; rk; g e; j khd ek; g pf; i faP d q; f s; xUGwkpUf;f> jhkjkpd;wp LLRC apd; gupe;Jiufis Neu;ikNahLk;> cz;ikapy; gd;ikj;Jtk; nfhz;l If; f pa ,yq; i f vd; D k; mgpyhi\f; F hpa Fwpapyf;Ff;fhd mu;g;gzpg;Gzu;TlDk; jhkjkpd;wp eilKiwg;gLj;JkhW ehk; ,yq;if murhq;fj;ij Ntz;bf;nfhs;Sfpd;Nwhk;. LLRC apd; mwpf;if xU ey;ypzf;fr; nray;Kiwapd; Muk;gnkd;Wk;> mjd; KbT my; ; y ntd; W k; ehk; ek; G fpd; N whk; . NkYk; > ,yq; i f murhq; f Nk ,r; n ray; K iwapy; Kd; eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lnkd;W> Fwpg;ghf mjpfhug;gfpu;T mbg;gilapyhd Xu; murpay; kw;Wk; murpayikg;Gj; jPu;it vl;lNtz;Lnkd;Wk;> ,J ,dg;gpur;rpid kw;Wk; [dehaf epWtdq;fSf;F mr; R Wj; j y; tpLf; F k; Vida ghuJ}ukhd gpur;rpidfSf;Fk; jPu;thf mika Ntz;Lnkd;Wk; ,e;j Mizf;FO kpfj;njspthf vLj;Jiuf;fpd;wJ. Vida tplaq;fisg; NghyNt ,J tplaj;jpYk; LLRC apd; gupe;Jiufis eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjpy; ,yq;if murhq;fj;jpd; cWjp cjhuz epiyapy; xU ghhpa khw;wj;ij mtrpag;gLj;Jfpd;wJ vd;gijAk; ehk; vLj;Jiuf;fpd;Nwhk;. ,e; ; j tplak; xU Njrpa Kd; D hpik tplakhf Nkw; n fhs; s g; g lNtz; L nkd; W ehk; gykhf typAWj; J tNjhL> 2012,Yk; mjw; F mg; g hYk; fhj;jpukhd> vLj;Jf; fhl;lf;$ba Kd;Ndw;wj;ijf; nfhz; l kP s pzf; f Kk; > tifg; n ghWg; G k; > kdpj chpikfs; ghJfhg; G k; ,lk; n gWnkd; W vjpu;ghu;f;fpd;Nwhk;. ,J Aj;jj;Jf;Fg; gpd;du; vd;w epiyapypUe;J Kuz;ghl;L NkhjYf;Fg; gpd;duhd epiyik vd; D k; xU epiykhw; w j; J f; F k; > mit FwpggpLk; epiyahd rkhjhdj;Jf;Fk;> If;fpaj;Jf;Fk; ; jPu;khdfukhdjhFk;.
............................................. tiyaikg; g pD}lhf Gifg; g lq; f is vLf; F k; NghJ mjd; cs;slf;fj;ij mspg;gjw;F ,aYkhdtiu Kaw;rp nra;Js;Nshk;. ,Ug;gpDk; jtWfs; Vw;gl;bUg;gpd; mJ njhlu;ghf tUe;JfpNwhk;.

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

143

144

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;