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BUBBLES

Team
Taiwan
So Much | More To Clean up
1

Problem
Is it possible to float on water when there are
a large number of bubbles present? Study how
the buoyancy of an object depends on the
presence of bubbles.

2

Observation

Floating
object

Generating more
bubbles

Object
sinking
3

Observation
β€’ Total volume of water
increases (water
surface rises)
β€’ Floating object sinks
β†’ decreased
buoyancy?

4

Theory 1
When there are no bubbles,
Density of water = πœŒπ‘€ π‘˜π‘” πœŒπ‘€

= 1000 π‘š
3
When there are bubbles, π‘˜π‘” πœŒπ‘

= 1.28~1.3 𝑉𝑏
πœŒπ‘ + 𝑉𝑀 πœŒπ‘€ π‘š
3
β€² πœŒπ‘€
= 𝝆𝒃
β‰ͺ π†π’˜ 𝑉𝑏
+ 𝑉𝑀
(𝑉𝑏 = 𝑑𝑕𝑒 π‘£π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘šπ‘’ π‘œπ‘“ π‘Žπ‘™π‘™ π‘œπ‘“ 𝑑𝑕𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑏𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑠) 𝑉𝑏
Γ— 1.29 + 𝑉𝑀 Γ— 1000 𝑉𝑀 Γ— 1000
=
≓ 𝑉𝑏
+ 𝑉𝑀 𝑉𝑏
+ 𝑉𝑀 𝝆
β€²π’˜ < π†π’˜
When there are enough bubbles present 𝝆
′𝒍 < 𝝆𝒐 < π†π’˜ 𝐁
β€² = 𝑽𝝆′𝒍 π’ˆ < π’Žπ’ˆ

β€² πœŒπ‘€

5

Experiment 1
β€’ Purpose

β€’ The amount of bubbles
VS
buoyancy
Air stone

Hydrometer(s)

6

Experiment 1

7

Experiment 1
Density-Height

1.00
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
(π‘”β„π’„π’ŽπŸ‘ ) 0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50

ρ

0

5

10

βˆ†π’‰π‘Ύ (cm)

15

20

25

8

Experiment 1
β€’ Conclusion
– Bubbles cause the effective density of the fluid
to decrease
β†’ buoyancy of object decreases

9

Experiment 2

10

Experiment 2 πœŒπ‘
= 1.28~1.3

B

mg π‘˜π‘” π‘š

3 𝐹𝑏

11

Experiment 2

12

Experiment 2

13

Experiment 2
Plastic beads float
around randomly

No evident water flow
14

Experiment 2
β€’ What we know
β€’ Characteristics of system

B

β€’ Confined
β€’ Unconfined

β€’ Large scale water flow
β€’ Unconfined system: Yes
β€’ Confined system: No

β€’ Water flow provides upward lift force
β€’ Possible to float in the presence of
many bubbles

mg 𝐹𝑀 𝐹𝑏

15

Theory 2 π‘Šπ‘•π‘’π‘›
𝑏𝑒𝑏𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑠 π‘Ÿπ‘–π‘ π‘’π‘ , 𝑑𝑕𝑒
𝑏𝑒𝑏𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑠 π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘ π‘€π‘Žπ‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿ π‘“π‘™π‘œπ‘€ 𝑒π‘₯π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘‘ π‘Žπ‘›
π‘’π‘π‘€π‘Žπ‘Ÿπ‘‘ π‘“π‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘π‘’ π‘œπ‘› 𝑑𝑕𝑒 π‘π‘œπ‘‘π‘‘π‘œπ‘š π‘œπ‘“ 𝑑𝑕𝑒 π‘œπ‘π‘—π‘’π‘π‘‘. πœŸπ’Žπ’˜ π›₯π‘šπ‘ 𝐹

= π‘­π’˜π’‡ + 𝐹𝑏 =
Γ— πœŸπ’— +
Γ— π›₯𝑣′ πœŸπ’• π›₯𝑑

16

Experiment 3
β€’ Purpose
β€’ Quantify the force caused by bubbles and
water flow

17

Experiment 3

Coach 6

Tank
Force Sensor

Hydrometer

Air Pump

18

Experiment 3
Amount
of
Bubbles

Impulse
Force

Water
Flow
Speed

Effective
Density

19

Experiment 3
Impulse Force & Water Flow
Speed

Effective Density

20

Experiment 3
Effective density―Water flow
speed

Effective density―Impulse force
1.16

1.14

1.14

1.12

1.12

1.10

1.1

ρ

ρ πŸ‘

1.08 πŸ‘

(π‘”β„π’„π’Ž )1.08

(π‘”β„π’„π’Ž )

1.06
1.06
1.04

1.04
1.02

1.02

1

1.00
0

0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

F (N)

0

10

20

V (cm/s)

30

21

Experiment 3 𝐡
β€² = π‘‰πœŒπ‘” 𝐹

= πœŒπ΄π‘£ 2 𝐡

β€² + 𝐹 = π‘šπ‘” π‘šπ‘”
= 𝜌𝐸 𝑉𝑔 π‘‰πœŒπ‘”
+ πœŒπ΄π‘£ 2 = 𝜌𝐸 𝑉𝑔 𝑉

= 𝐴𝑕 π΄π‘•πœŒπ‘”

+ πœŒπ΄π‘£ 2 = 𝜌𝐸 𝐴𝑕𝑔 π’—πŸ π’—πŸ 𝝆𝑬

= 𝝆 + 𝝆
= 𝝆(𝟏 +
) π’‰π’ˆ π’‰π’ˆ

22

Experiment 3
β€’ Conclusion
B

β€’ Unconfined system
β€’ Bubbles lower effective
density
β€’ Water flow (flow speed,
impulse force)
increases effective
density

mg 𝐹𝑏 𝐹𝑀

23

Conclusion
β€’ Presence of bubbles lower average density of
water
β€’ Buoyancy is decreased
β€’ Confined system
β€’ No evident water flow
β€’ Unconfined system
β€’ Significant impulse force
β€’ Effective density can be raised
β€’ Possible to float in the midst of bubbles

24

THANK
Y O U
V E R Y
M U C H
f
o
r
listening

25

Experiment 1
βˆ†π‘•π‘Š
45.3
(cm)

20.5
(cm)

βˆ†π‘•π»π‘‚
Note: βˆ†π‘•π» = βˆ†π‘•π»π‘‚ + βˆ†π‘•π‘Š

Using βˆ†π‘•π‘Š , we can calculate the theoretical density of the fluid.

Initial
conditions
Area:
42.25(cm2)
Height of
water surface
(π‘•π‘Š0 ):
45.3(cm)
Height of
hydrometer
(𝑕𝐻0 ): 20.5
(cm)
Specific
Water: 1.00
Hydrometer:
0.85~1.00
26

Experiment 1 𝑕
2 𝑕
0 𝑕

1 𝝆

= 𝑨𝒉𝒐 𝑨

π’‰πŸ βˆ’ π’‰πŸ βˆ’π’‰π’ π†π’˜

→𝝆𝑻

Hydrometer reading→𝝆𝑬

27

Experiment 1
βˆ†π‘•π‘Š (cm)

βˆ†π‘•π» (cm)

0.7
1.1
1.3
2.0
3.7
3.7
4.1
5.1
7.8
8.8

1.2
2.1
2.0
3.4
6.8
6.5
7.1
9.3
13.5
14.3

ρ′T ( 𝑔 π‘π‘š

3

0.9846
0.9763
0.9721
0.9571
0.9245
0.9234
0.9170
0.8976
0.8511
0.8373

)

ρ′E (𝑔 π‘π‘š

3 )

0.9854
0.9743
0.9756
0.9585
0.9170
0.9207
0.9134
0.8866
0.8354
0.8256

0.1
2.1
4.1
6.1
8.1
10.1
12.1
14.1
16.1
18.1
20.1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

28

Things to further investigate
β€’ Besides the impulse force of water and bubbles, what other
forces would act upon the floating object? (Drag? Viscosity?
How will surfactants affect the phenomenon?)
β€’ The final physics of the bubble
β€’ What happens after the floating object sinks for a certain
depth? Is there an absence of bubbles on the top of the object?

29

Experiment 2

Bubble
generator
Huge bubble

30

ρ′E

Experiment 1

ρ′H

Output of air small

βˆ†π‘•π‘Š (cm) βˆ†π‘•π» (cm)

ρ′E

Output of air large

ρ′H

βˆ†π‘•π‘Š (cm) βˆ†π‘•π» (cm)

ρ′E

ρ′H

0.5

1.2

0.9846 0.9854

4.8

9.1

0.9030 0.8890

1.0

1.6

0.9571 0.9805

5.8

11.5

0.8849 0.8598

1.5

1.0

0.9675 0.9695

6.8

13.6

0.8677 0.8341

ρ

ρ
0.9900

0.9200

0.9850

0.9000

0.9800

0.8800

0.9750

0.8600

0.9700

0.8400

0.9650

0.8200

0.9600

31

0.8000

0.9550
0.5

1.0

1.5

0.7800
βˆ†π‘•π‘Š (cm)

4.8

5.8

6.8 βˆ† π‘•π‘Š (cm)

Application 1
β€’ Explain the phenomenon
β€’ Bubbles vs. floating object

32

Application 1 π‘Šπ‘•π‘’π‘›
π‘‘π‘•π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘’ 𝑖𝑠 𝒏𝒐 π’π’ƒπ’—π’Šπ’π’–π’” π‘€π‘Žπ‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿ π‘“π‘™π‘œπ‘€, 𝐹𝑀𝑓
𝑖𝑠 π’”π’Žπ’‚π’π’, π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘
𝐹𝑏 𝑖𝑠 π‘Žπ‘™π‘ π‘œ π‘ π‘šπ‘Žπ‘™π‘™. 𝑭
= 𝐹𝑀𝑓 + 𝐹𝑏 < 𝑩 βˆ’ 𝑩′
β†’ 𝐡′ + 𝐹 < π‘šπ‘” π‘“π‘™π‘œπ‘Žπ‘‘π‘–π‘›π‘”
π‘œπ‘π‘—π‘’π‘π‘‘ π’”π’Šπ’π’Œπ’”.

33

Application 1
βˆ†π‘•π‘Š (cm) βˆ†π‘•π» (cm)

1.0000
0.9800
0.9600
0.9400
0.9200
0.9000
0.8800
0.8600
0.8400
0.8200
0.8000
0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

0.7
1.1
1.3
2.0
3.7
3.7
4.1
5.1
7.8
8.8

1.2
2.1
2.0
3.4
6.8
6.5
7.1
9.3
13.5
14.3

(𝑔

ρ′T π‘π‘š
3

) (𝑔

0.9846
0.9763
0.9721
0.9571
0.9245
0.9234
0.9170
0.8976
0.8511
0.8373

ρ′E π‘π‘š

3 )

0.9854
0.9743
0.9756
0.9585
0.9170
0.9207
0.9134
0.8866
34
0.8354
0.8256

Application 2
β€’ Explain the phenomenon
β€’ Water flow vs. sinking object

35

Application 2 𝐼𝑛
π‘Žπ‘› π‘œπ‘π‘’π‘› π‘ π‘¦π‘ π‘‘π‘’π‘š, 𝑀𝑕𝑒𝑛 π‘‘π‘•π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘’ 𝑖𝑠 π‘Žπ‘› π’π’ƒπ’—π’Šπ’π’–π’” π‘€π‘Žπ‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿ π‘“π‘™π‘œπ‘€, π‘­π’˜π’‡
π‘–π‘›π‘π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘Žπ‘ π‘’π‘  π‘”π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘Žπ‘‘π‘™π‘¦. 𝑭
= 𝐹𝑀𝑓 + 𝐹𝑏 > 𝑩 βˆ’ 𝑩′
β†’ 𝐡′ + 𝐹 > π‘šπ‘” π‘ π‘–π‘›π‘˜π‘–π‘›π‘”
π‘œπ‘π‘—π‘’π‘π‘‘ 𝒇𝒍𝒐𝒂𝒕𝒔.

36

confined system

Application 2

unconfined
system

37

Experiment 3
log(Impulse Force) ―log(Water
Flow Speed)
0
0

0.5

1

1.5

2

Explanation

β€’ Frank Go!

-0.5

y = 2.1234x - 3.8632
-1

-1.5

-2

-2.5

-3

38

Experiment 3
β€’ Experimental Setup

Force gauge
Plastic boards

Tank

Bubble generator

39

Experiment 3
Bubbles

confined system

0.05

0.25

Convection
Water flow

40

unconfined system

Experiment 3
0.3

Unconfined system πΉπ‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘π‘’

(𝑁)

0.25

0.2
0.15
0.1

Confined system

0.05
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120 π΄π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘Ž

(π‘π‘š2)
41