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BUBBLES

Team
Taiwan
So Much | More To Clean up
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Problem
Is it possible to float on water when there are
a large number of bubbles present? Study how
the buoyancy of an object depends on the
presence of bubbles.

Observation

Floating
object

Generating more
bubbles

Object
sinking
3

Observation
Total volume of water
increases (water
surface rises)
Floating object sinks
decreased
buoyancy?

Theory 1
When there are no bubbles,
Density of water =

= 1000
3
When there are bubbles,

= 1.28~1.3
+
3

=

+
( = )
1.29 + 1000 1000
=

+
+
<
When there are enough bubbles present
< <
= <

Experiment 1
Purpose

The amount of bubbles


VS
buoyancy
Air stone

Hydrometer(s)

Experiment 1

Experiment 1
Density-Height

1.00
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
( ) 0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50

10

(cm)

15

20

25

Experiment 1
Conclusion
Bubbles cause the effective density of the fluid
to decrease
buoyancy of object decreases

Experiment 2

10

Experiment 2
= 1.28~1.3

mg

11

Experiment 2

12

Experiment 2

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Experiment 2
Plastic beads float
around randomly

No evident water flow


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Experiment 2
What we know
Characteristics of system

Confined
Unconfined

Large scale water flow


Unconfined system: Yes
Confined system: No

Water flow provides upward lift force


Possible to float in the presence of
many bubbles

mg

15

Theory 2
,

.

= + =
+

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Experiment 3
Purpose
Quantify the force caused by bubbles and
water flow

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Experiment 3

Coach 6

Tank
Force Sensor

Hydrometer

Air Pump

18

Experiment 3
Amount
of
Bubbles

Impulse
Force

Water
Flow
Speed

Effective
Density

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Experiment 3
Impulse Force & Water Flow
Speed

Effective Density

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Experiment 3
Effective densityWater flow
speed

Effective densityImpulse force


1.16

1.14

1.14

1.12

1.12

1.10

1.1

1.08

( )1.08

( )

1.06
1.06
1.04

1.04
1.02

1.02

1.00
0

0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

F (N)

10

20

V (cm/s)

30

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Experiment 3
=

= 2

+ =
=
+ 2 =

+ 2 =

= +
= ( +
)

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Experiment 3
Conclusion
B

Unconfined system
Bubbles lower effective
density
Water flow (flow speed,
impulse force)
increases effective
density

mg

23

Conclusion
Presence of bubbles lower average density of
water
Buoyancy is decreased
Confined system
No evident water flow
Unconfined system
Significant impulse force
Effective density can be raised
Possible to float in the midst of bubbles

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THANK
Y O U
V E R Y
M U C H
f
o
r
listening

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Experiment 1

45.3
(cm)

20.5
(cm)

Note: = +

Using , we can calculate the theoretical density of the fluid.

Initial
conditions
Area:
42.25(cm2)
Height of
water surface
(0 ):
45.3(cm)
Height of
hydrometer
(0 ): 20.5
(cm)
Specific
Water: 1.00
Hydrometer:
0.85~1.00
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Experiment 1
2
0

Hydrometer reading

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Experiment 1
(cm)

(cm)

0.7
1.1
1.3
2.0
3.7
3.7
4.1
5.1
7.8
8.8

1.2
2.1
2.0
3.4
6.8
6.5
7.1
9.3
13.5
14.3

T (

0.9846
0.9763
0.9721
0.9571
0.9245
0.9234
0.9170
0.8976
0.8511
0.8373

E (

3 )

0.9854
0.9743
0.9756
0.9585
0.9170
0.9207
0.9134
0.8866
0.8354
0.8256

0.1
2.1
4.1
6.1
8.1
10.1
12.1
14.1
16.1
18.1
20.1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

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Things to further investigate


Besides the impulse force of water and bubbles, what other
forces would act upon the floating object? (Drag? Viscosity?
How will surfactants affect the phenomenon?)
The final physics of the bubble
What happens after the floating object sinks for a certain
depth? Is there an absence of bubbles on the top of the object?

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Experiment 2

Bubble
generator
Huge bubble

30

Experiment 1

Output of air small

(cm) (cm)

Output of air large

(cm) (cm)

0.5

1.2

0.9846 0.9854

4.8

9.1

0.9030 0.8890

1.0

1.6

0.9571 0.9805

5.8

11.5

0.8849 0.8598

1.5

1.0

0.9675 0.9695

6.8

13.6

0.8677 0.8341

0.9900

0.9200

0.9850

0.9000

0.9800

0.8800

0.9750

0.8600

0.9700

0.8400

0.9650

0.8200

0.9600

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0.8000

0.9550
0.5

1.0

1.5

0.7800
(cm)

4.8

5.8

6.8 (cm)

Application 1
Explain the phenomenon
Bubbles vs. floating object

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Application 1
,
,
.
= + <
+ <
.

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Application 1
(cm) (cm)

1.0000
0.9800
0.9600
0.9400
0.9200
0.9000
0.8800
0.8600
0.8400
0.8200
0.8000
0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

0.7
1.1
1.3
2.0
3.7
3.7
4.1
5.1
7.8
8.8

1.2
2.1
2.0
3.4
6.8
6.5
7.1
9.3
13.5
14.3

T
3

) (

0.9846
0.9763
0.9721
0.9571
0.9245
0.9234
0.9170
0.8976
0.8511
0.8373

3 )

0.9854
0.9743
0.9756
0.9585
0.9170
0.9207
0.9134
0.8866
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0.8354
0.8256

Application 2
Explain the phenomenon
Water flow vs. sinking object

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Application 2
, ,
.
= + >
+ >
.

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confined system

Application 2

unconfined
system

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Experiment 3
log(Impulse Force) log(Water
Flow Speed)
0
0

0.5

1.5

Explanation

Frank Go!

-0.5

y = 2.1234x - 3.8632
-1

-1.5

-2

-2.5

-3

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Experiment 3
Experimental Setup

Force gauge
Plastic boards

Tank

Bubble generator

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Experiment 3
Bubbles

confined system

0.05

0.25

Convection
Water flow

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unconfined system

Experiment 3
0.3

Unconfined system

()

0.25

0.2
0.15
0.1

Confined system

0.05
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

(2)
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