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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 3(26).

2008

NGHIN CU SN XUT FRIT V MEN FRIT


TRNG LN TM P LT CERAMIC
PRODUCING FRIT AND FRIT GLAZE FOR CERAMIC TILE
NGUYN VN DNG
Trng i hc Bch khoa ai hc Nng
TM TT
Hin nay trn th trng nhu cu tiu dng gch men rt ln, ko theo nhu cu v
men frit trng ln tm p lt ceramic rt cao. ti tm ra cc bi cp phi frit
(trong, c, m) c c sn phm men frit cht lng tt, t tm ra c
khong hm lng cc xyt thch hp i vi phi liu sn xut frit dng cho
gch men theo cng ngh nung nhanh hai ln hay mt ln.
ABSTRACT
The need of ceramic tile is rising enormously. In this paper, the mixture
compositions for gloss, opaque and mat frit and the conditions for producing frit
glaze are presented. The optimal intervals of oxide content in frit chemical
compositions for achieving the best frit for ceramic tile (with single or double firing)
are also proposed.

1. M u
Hin nay, trn th trng nhu cu men frit trng ln tm p lt ceramic rt
cao. Lp men ph thnh mt mng thy tinh mng lm tng bn c hc, ha
hc ca sn phm ng thi bo v cho sn phm khi b xm nhp ca cht lng
v kh, lm cho b mt nhn bng v c nh p, nng cao cht lng ca sn
phm. Ngoi ra, thng c thm mt lp mu trang tr cng vi lp men nng
cao tnh thm m ca b mt men.
Theo cng ngh hin nay, gch men c nung nhanh trong l rollic, nhit
nung khong 1080 11600C, chu k nung 35 45 pht. Vi l rollic, nhit
nung c khng ch rt chnh xc v ng u. Yu cu nung nhanh - nhit
nung thp i hi phi thay i thnh phn xng cho ph hp v phi s dng
men frit. Frit l mt dng thu tinh nn men frit d chy khi nung, to iu kin c
th h thp nhit nung men, men s nhanh chy do s p ng tt nhu cu
nung nhanh tit kim nng lng.
Frit nghin cu c dng lm men trng ln xng hay mc tm p lt
ca nh my gch men Dacera Nng. Trong trng hp tm lt, men s c
trng ln mc, i vi tm p, men s c trng ln xng nung ln mt.
ti quan tm n ba loi frit thng dng nht l frit trong, frit c, frit matt sn
xut men trong, men c v men matt (m), cc loi frit ny phi c nhit nng
chy trung bnh v thp (100011900C), h s dn n nhit t 5,07,2.10-6.K-1
ph hp vi mc v xng ca nh my gch men Dacera.

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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 3(26).2008

2. Th nghim
2.1. Nguyn liu
Nguyn liu nu frit gm ct Ho Khnh (l nguyn liu ch yu to
thu tinh) v cc nguyn liu tr dung khc nh axit boric (M), sa, kali
cacbnat, bari cacbnat, xyt km (Trung Quc), trng thch (n ), vi,
lmit (Thanh Ho). Nguyn liu to c dng zircon silicat (Ty Ban Nha).
Ngoi ra cn dng xyt nhm (Italia) trong trng hp cn thit ci thin
cng ca men. Khi nghin men c cho thm cht in gii STPP v cht bo v
keo CMC ci thin tnh cht lu bin ca men.
2.2. Th nghim
Da trn thnh phn ho xc nh thnh phn phi liu ca tng loi
frit, tin hnh nu frit, sn xut men v trng men ln xng nung ln mt (i
vi tm p) hay ln mc (i vi tm lt), a bn thnh phm i nung v sau
nh gi cc tnh cht k thut ca men frit t so snh, la chn ra nhng bi
frit ti u. Trong kt qu nghin cu, thi gian chy ca men xc nh bng dng
c Ford cup, khi lng th tch xc nh bng dng c o khi lng th tch ca
men s dng ti nh my. Cc ch tiu cht lng b mt men nh trong - c,
bng - m, phng, cc vt nt rn hay khuyt tt khc c nh gi bng
cch so snh trc quan vin gch th nghim vi mu gch s dng frit ti nh my
v rt ra nhn xt. H s dn n nhit ca men c xc nh trn my
Dilatometer L75/N1 (hng LINSEIS, c).
Khi sn xut frit, nguyn liu ct, vi, lmit, trng thch, cao lanh
c gia cng bng my nghin bi gin on sao cho t thnh phn c ht cho
trong bng 2.1.
Bng 2.1. Thnh phn c ht ca nguyn liu
Lng nguyn liu trn sng, %
Nguyn liu
63 m
200 m
Ct
40
2,7
lmit
45
10
Trng thch
50
5
0
Frit c nu nhit 12501400 C trong l gas th nghim. Thi gian
nu t 1,53 h. Sau khi frit nng chy hon ton th m l, dng kp gp cc ra
v frit vo chu nc lnh. Do cht lng nng chy c lm lnh t ngt nn
frit v thnh ht, gip cho qu trnh nghin men sau ny d dng hn.
Men frit c cp phi t frit v cao lanh. Bi cp phi men cho xng
tm p hay mc tm lt, i vi tng loi men trong, men c, men m s khc
nhau. Men sau s c nghin trong my nghin bi gin on sao cho t cc
yu cu v nht, khi lng th tch, lng st sng.
t khun ko ln xng p, mc lt. men nghin vo hai ngn ca
thit b ko ri ko u tay trng u lp men ln vin gch trng engobe,

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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 3(26).2008

xong ghi k hiu hai bn. Bn thnh phm trng men sau khi sy c cho
vo l nung.
Cc thng s khi sn xut v nung men frit c tng hp li trong bng
2.2.
Bng 2.2. Cc thng s khi sn xut v nung men frit
Thng s
Tm p
Tm lt
Men trong,
83% frit+12% cao lanh+5% trng
94% frit + 6% cao lanh
men c
thch
5083% frit + 5017%
5065% frit + 5035%
Men matt
nguyn liu khc
nguyn liu khc
Cht in gii
1% STPP ; 0,6% CMC
1% STPP ; 2% CMC
m
32%
32%
nht
3545
4045
Khi lng
183188g/100ml
181184g/100ml
th tch
St sng
35%
46%
63m
1068 1090oC
Nhit nung
1150 1167oC
1125 1138oC
3542 pht
Chu k nung
40 43 pht
3240 pht
3. Kt qu v tho lun
nghin cu c 23 loi frit gm 7 loi frit trong (k hiu t T1 n
T7), 7 loi frit c (k hiu t 1 n 7) v 9 loi frit matt (k hiu t M1 n
M9). Thnh phn ho ca cc loi frit trong, c v matt cho trong bng 3.1.
T 7 loi frit trong sn xut ra 14 bi men frit trng ln tm p v lt
theo cng thc cp phi bng 2.2. Tm lt c nung nhit 11501167oC,
ring tm p sau khi trng men c nung hai nhit : nhit nung thp
10681090oC v nhit nung cao 11251138oC.
Bng 3.1. Thnh phn ho ca 14 loi frit trong v c
Loi
frit
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7

SiO2 B2O3 Al2O3 CaO BaO MgO ZnO K2O Na2O ZrO2 PbO Fe2O3 TiO2
59,08
57,08
58,35
55,23
56,07
64,65
66,05

4,09
6,20
7,33
4,00
4,00
0
0

7,34
5,70
8,04
8,50
8,51
4,63
5,62

15,11
10,00
11,12
11,50
12,01
15,49
14,17

0,72
1,50
0,96
1,40
1,00
0
0

1,46
1,80
0,10
1,60
1,60
0,91
1,60

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6,07 4,91
12,80 4,00
9,08 3,85
12,00 4,75
11,01 4,76
9,82 4,01
8,18 3,74

1,18
0,90
1,15
1,00
1,00
0,47
0,63

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0,03
0,02
0,02
0,02
0,02
0,02
0,02

0,02
0,01
0,01
0,01
0,01
0,01
0,01

TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 3(26).2008

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
M1
M2
M3
M4
M5
M6
M7
M8
M9

57,58 4,00
51,04 7,68
55,94 3,99
55,86 3,99
55,44 4,75
54,25 5,19
58,52 2,36
50,13 4,05
56,50 0
51,98 0
54,00 2,00
52,00 0
45,39 3,83
51,00 0
45,50 10,00
59,09 4,08

7,04
7,11
4,24
4,74
3,88
4,40
4,74
4,63
8,50
7,92
8,30
15,28
10,00
17,00
10,00
7,34

14,20 0,74
8,00 0,88
8,97 0,69
9,48 0
8,32 0
8,09 0,49
8,26 0
13,62 0
7,00 8,00
7,92 7,92
15,00 1,80
4,64 16,00
10,00 0
25,00 0
21,00 0
16,36 0,71

1,40
2,75
2,39
3,39
1,83
1,97
1,87
4,20
0,50
1,49
4,30
0,68
1,28
2,00
2,00
2,32

4,00
9,29
10,97
9,28
12,55
12,35
11,62
11,49
15,00
14.85
7,60
0
25,00
0
0
3,98

4,29
5,45
3,99
3,99
4,40
4,14
4,00
3,05
3,50
3,96
4,00
4,00
3,50
4,00
3,50
4,90

1,03
0,92
0,80
0,80
0,57
0,69
0,54
2,25
0,50
0,99
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,17

5,67 0 0,03 0,02


6,83 0 0,03 0,01
7,98 0 0,02 0,01
8,48 0
0
0
8,23 0 0,02 0,01
8,38 0 0,02 0,01
8,06 0,02 0,01 0
6,54 0 0,03 0,01
0,50 0
0
0
2,97 0
0
0
2,00 0
0
0
6,40 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7,00 0
0
0
0
0 0,03 0,02

Bi T1-O1 men c bng khng tt lm khi nhit nung thp. Nguyn


nhn c th do frit T1 c hm lng SiO2 cao (59,08%), hm lng ZnO thp
(6,07%) nn cha chy hon ton. V vy khi nng nhit nung ln cao th men
T1-OC chy hon ton v c bng tt, tuy nhin li b nt, c th do hm lng
Na2O + K2O hi cao (6,09%), xem bng 3.2.
T2-OT c bng khng tt lm do frit T2 c hm lng SiO2 cao (57%).
Khi nung nhit cao hn (T2-OC) men c bng tt tuy nhin li c khuyt
tt l kim c th do qu nhit.
Tng t, T3-OT cng c bng khng tt do frit T3 c hm lng SiO 2
cao (58%). Khi nng nhit nung cao hn (T3-OC) men c bng, trong,
phng tt tuy nhin li b nt.
Bi T4-OT, T5-OT nung nhit thp u t do c trong, bng,
phng tt. Tuy nhin khng th dng cho tm p c nhit nung cao (T4-OC,
T5-OC) v men u b nt.
Hai loi frit T6 v T7 u khng dng c cho tm p, d nhit nung
thp hay cao (cc bi T6-OT, T7-OT, T6-OC, T7-OC u khng t), nhng li
dng c khi trng ln tm lt (cc bi T6-L, T7-L tuy c khuyt tt l kim
nhng mc chp nhn c).
Nh vy c 4 loi frit trong t yu cu l cc loi T4, T5, T6, T7. Frit T4,
T5 dng sn xut men T4-OT, T5-OT trng ln tm p c nhit nung thp;
frit T6, T7 dng sn xut men T6-L, T7-L trng ln tm lt.

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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 3(26).2008

Bng 3.2. Kt qu nh gi cc bi men frit trong

Thng s

Thng s

Thng s

K hiu men frit trng ln tm p


nhit nung thp
Nhit nung (0C)
Chu k nung (min)
trong
bng
phng
Khuyt tt (l kim)
NH GI CHUNG
K hiu men frit trng ln tm p
nhit nung cao
Nhit nung (0C)
Chu k nung (min)
trong
bng
phng
Khuyt tt (l kim)
NH GI CHUNG
K hiu men frit trng ln tm lt
Nhit nung (0C)
Chu k nung (min)
trong
bng
phng
Khuyt tt (l kim)
NH GI CHUNG

T1-O1

T2-O1

T3-O1 T4-O1 T5-O1 T6-O1 T7-O1

1090
1072
1080
1067
1069
1072
1080
37
35
35
40
42
35
35
Tt
Tt
Tt
Tt
Tt
Km
Km
Km
Km
Km
Tt
Tt
Km
Km
Km
Tt
Tt
Tt
Tt
Km
Km
Nt
Khng
t
Khng Khng Khng Khng
KT KT KT T
T KT KT
T1-OC T2-OC T3-OC T4-OC T5-OC T6-OC T7-OC
1132
1133
1138
1130
1126
1133
1138
32
34
35
43
32
34
35
Tt
Tt
Tt
Tt
Tt
Km
Km
Tt
Tt
Tt
Tt
Tt
Km
Km
Tt
Tt
Tt
Tt
Tt
Km
Km
Nt
t
Nt
Nt
Nt Khng
t
KT KT KT KT KT KT KT
T1-L
T2-L
T3-L
T4-L
T5-L
T6-L
T7-L
1158
1149
1155
1162
1153
1149
1155
40
40
42
42
42
40
42
Tt
Tt
Tt
Tt
B si men do nhit nung cao
Tt
Tt
t
t
KT
T
T

V frit c, kt qu c 5 loi t yu cu l 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Frit 5,


6 dng c cho c ba loi gch, frit 4 dng cho gch p nung nhit thp v
cao, frit 7 dng cho gch p nhit cao v lt, frit 3 ch dng c cho gch
p c nhit nung thp, xem bng 3.3.
V frit matt, cc loi men matt u t yu cu ph thuc vo s la chn
cp phi frit + cao lanh v nhit nung thch hp.
Nhn xt v hm lng cc xyt trong thnh phn ho ca cc loi frit
thc hin c (bng 3.1), thy rng men s rt p, chy tt khi hm lng cc
xyt ca frit nm trong gii hn c cho theo bng 3.4. nh hng ca tng xyt
n tnh cht ca men c ni r trong phn ghi ch.
Bng 3.3. Kt qu nh gi cc bi men frit c

Thng
s

Men frit cho tm p nhit


nung thp
Nhit nung (0C)
Chu k nung (min)
trong
bng

1-O1 2-O1 3-O1 4-O1 5-O1 6-O1 7-O1


1090
37
Km
Tt

1080
35
Tt
Km

29

1067
40
Tt
Tt

1085
42
Tt
Km

1072
35
Tt
Km

1080
35
Tt
Tt

1067
40
Tt
Km

TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 3(26).2008

Thng s

Thng s

phng
Khuyt tt (l kim)
NH GI CHUNG
Men frit cho tm p nhit
nung cao
Nhit nung (0C)
Chu k nung (min)
trong
bng
phng
Khuyt tt (l kim)
NH GI CHUNG
Men frit cho tm lt
Nhit nung (0C)
Chu k nung (min)
trong
bng
phng
Khuyt tt (l kim)
NH GI CHUNG

Km
Km
Tt
Khng
t
Khng
KT KT T

Tt
Khng
T

Tt
t
T

Tt
t
T

Km
It
KT

1-OC 2-OC 3-OC 4-OC 5-OC 6-OC 7-OC


1132
1138
1138
1138
32
35
43
42
Km
Tt
Tt
Tt
Km
Tt
Tt
Tt
Tt
Km
Tt
Tt
Nt
Nt
Nt
Khng
KT KT KT T
1-L
2-L
3-L
4-L
1158
1155
1162
1160
40
42
42
42
B si men do nhit nung cao

1133
34
Tt
Tt
Tt
t
T
5-L
1149
40
Tt
Tt
Tt
t

KT

1138
35
Tt
Tt
Tt
t
T
6-L
1155
42
Tt
Tt
Tt
t
T

1138
43
Tt
Tt
Tt
t
T
7-L
1162
42
Tt
Tt
Tt
t
T

Bng 3.4. Gii hn hm lng cc oxyt ca frit


Thnh Frit trong cho Frit c cho
phn ho
gch p lt
gch p lt

Frit matt cho


gch p lt

SiO2

55,2-66

51-59

45-59

B 2O 3

0-4

4-5

0-4

Al2O3

4,6-8,5

3,9-7,1

5-17

CaO

11,5-14,2

8-14,2

4-25

MgO

0,9-1,6

1,4-3,4

0,5-4

ZnO

8-12

4-12,3

0-25

K 2O

3,7-4,8

4-5,5

3-4,9

Na2O

0,5-1

0,5-1

0,5-2,25

ZrO2

5,6-8,5

0-7

30

Ghi ch
Hm lng cng cao th nhit
chy ca men cng cao
Hm lng cng cao th b mt men
b m, hm lng cng thp th men
kh chy
Hm lng cng cao th nhit
chy ca men cng cao
Hm lng cng cao th tng
trong v bng trong gii hn cho
php
Hm lng cng cao th c cng
tng
Hm lng cng cao th nhit
chy ca men cng thp, v cng
tng bng. Tuy nhin khi
ZnO>15% th s lm men m
Hm lng cng cao th nhit
nng chy cng thp, tng bng
v d gy nt men
Hm lng cng cao th nhit
nng chy cng thp, tng bng
v d gy nt men
Hm lng cng cao th c cng
cao

TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 3(26).2008

4. Kt lun
Sau mt thi gian nghin cu c nhng kt qu sau:
- nghin cu thnh cng 18 bi frit (trong 23 bi nghin cu) t yu cu
s dng cho cc loi men trong, c v matt.
- nghin cu c cc bi men tng ng ca cc loi frit trn.
- thm d khong gii hn ca hm lng mt s loi xyt c c
frit tnh cht tt. Khong gii hn ny hp hn rt nhiu so vi cc ti liu
tham kho nc ngoi a ra.
c bit nhn thy i vi xng tm p ca nh my Cosevco (xng
c s dng nghin cu) th khi frit c h s dn n nhit 7,6. 10-6K-1 th
men s b nt.
TI LIU THAM KHO
[1] inh Quang Huy, Bc pht trin mi ca ngnh gm s xy dng Vit nam,
Tp ch Gm s xy dng, 44, 3-6, 2007.
[2] Nguyn Th Vn Thanh, Th trng xut, nhp khu VLXD nm 2006, Tp
ch Vt liu xy dng ng i, 3, 18-9, 2007
[3] Hng Sacmi, From Technology Through Machinery To Kilns For Sacmi Tile Techological Notes On The Manufacture Of Ceramic Tiles, Ti liu chuyn
giao cng ngh.
[4] Nh my gch men COSEVCO, Hng dn cc phng php th nghim
trong sn xut gch men Ceramic.
[5] Cenek Mikes, Technologicke vypocty pro 4. rocnik SPS sklarskych, SNTL,
Praha 1978.
[6] J. Hlavac, Zklady technologie siliktu, SNTL/ALFA, Praha 1988.
[7] Nh my gch men COSEVCO, Ti liu Phng cng ngh.

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