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Hng dn p dng H thng Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim (TPLCS)

Thng 4/2011 Vn phng Qun l Mi trng cc Vng ven bin Khp kn B phn Mi trng Nc Cc Qun l Mi trng B Mi trng Nht Bn

Khi qut cu trc H thng Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim (TPLCS)
Chng 1 Tnh cn thit ca TPLCS
1.1 Tng quan v TPLCS
nhim nc xy ra khi s cn bng t nhin b mt i do ti lng cht nhim thi ra t cc hot ng ca con ngi tng ln.Mt cch i ph vi vn ny l phi gim ti lng nhim. H thng Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim (TPLCS) l mt phng n hiu qu cho mc ch .

1.2 Cu trc ca TPLCS


(1) Cc loi nhim nc nhim nc c th c chia thnh bn loi chnh: c hi cho sc khe do cc hp cht c hi, cc vn v sinh cng cng gy ra bi cc vi khun, nhim hu c v hin tng ph dng. TPLCS ch yu i ph vi nhim hu c v hin tng ph dng. (2) Bin php bo v mi trng nc Cc bin php bo v mi trng nc c phn loi thnh bin php ngun pht thi, hng ti vic gim ti lng pht thi cht nhim t cc ngun pht thi, v bin php lm sch trc tip, hng ti vic lm sch trc tip trong vng nc. TPLCS tp trung vo cc bin php ngun pht thi. (3) Cc bin php chnh sch do cc c quan qun l thc hin v cu trc ca TPLCS Cc bin php ngun pht thi khng th thc hin ch da vo s t gic ca cc c nhn hay t chc gy ra ngun pht thi, m cn phi c s tham gia ca cc c quan qun l. TPLCS tm cch iu chnh ti lng nc thi t cc ngun pht thi, ng thi thc hin cc bin php ton din nh xy dng h thng nc thi v a ra cc hng dn iu hnh. .

1.3 Kinh nghim v bi hc t Nht Bn


Cng vi s tng trng kinh t cao , Nht Bn chng kin s gia tng ti lng nhim, pht sinh h sinh thi trn cn v thi vo h thng nc. Nht Bn cng tng phi i mt vi vn nhim nc nghim trng v khc phc c thng qua cc bin php m tiu biu l TPLCS. iu quan trng l p dng nhanh chng cc bin php bt u t nhng ni c kh nng thc hin nht.

1.4 Tnh cn thit ca vic p dng TPLCS


Ti cc vng nc khp kn, lng nc trao i vi bn ngoi b gii hn v d tch t ti lng nhim, do cn phi gim v kim sot tng ti lng nhim. TPLCS c th p dng nh l bin php gim nhim hiu qu cho nhng vng nc b nhim nghim trng, hay l phng php kim sot ti lng nhim trong nhng khu vc d nh pht trin trong tng lai. Tnh cn thit ca vic p dng h thng ny nh mt bin php bo v cht lng nc ang ngy cng tng ln nhng quc gia ang y mnh pht trin kinh t.

1.5 Cc nguyn tc c bn ca TPLCS


(1) Cc nguyn tc c bn ca TPLCS nm bt mt cch nh lng tt c ti lng nhim chy vo vng nc, phn tch mi quan h ca n vi cht lng nc trong vng, t ra mc tiu gim ti mang tnh nh lng, lp k hoch kim sot v tng bc trin khai cc bin php. (2) Cc nhn t cn thit cho s hot ng hiu qu ca TPLCS iu quan trng l kim sot mt cch nh lng v gim ti lng pht thi cht nhim, ra k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim cho tt c cc ngun pht thi vi mt quan im ton din, v trin khai cc bin php gim ti v kim sot.

Chng 2

Quy trnh tin hnh TPLCS

2.1 nh ngha ti lng nhim


Trong qu trnh chy t ngun pht thi ra sng, ao h, bin, ti nhim chu nh hng ca vic t lm sch v ng cn trong t nhin, dn n s thay i trong ti lng nhim. Cn phi tm hiu v tho lun v ti lng nhim ti mi giai on ny.

2.2 Khi qut quy trnh tin hnh


Mc ny trnh by khi qut v quy trnh tin hnh TPLCS.

2.3 Quy trnh tin hnh TPLCS


1) Xc nh nhng vng nc l i tng ca TPLCS (1)

Quyt nh p dng TPLCS


Thit lp mc tiu cht lng nc

(2)

2) Thit lp mc tiu cht lng nc

Tnh tng ti lng nhim

3) Thu thp d liu v cht lng nc thi v (3) cc d liu lin quan 4) Tnh ti lng pht (4) thi 5) Nm c dng chy ca ti (5)nhim trong lu vc 6) Thit lp mc tiu gim ti lng (6) pht thi

Tho lun v cc mc tiu gim ti

Tho lun v cc bin php gim ti

(7) (8)

7) Tho lun v cc bin php gim ti lng pht thi 8) Tnh gp tng ti lng pht thi c th gim

Lp chng trnh hnh ng

9) ra k hoch kim sot tng (9) ti lng nhim

(10)

10) Thc hin k hoch kim sot tng lng ti nhim

Thc hin k hoch v theo di 11) Xc nhn tnh hnh ci thin cht lng nc v tnh (11) tnh hnh thc hin hnh gim ti lng pht thi

(12) ti lng nhim

12) Xc nhn li v iu chnh k hoch kim sot tng

2.4 p dng h thng ty theo tnh hnh v nhu cu ca a phng


TPLCS cn phi p dng ph hp vi tnh hnh, nhu cu ca tng a phng, quc gia c th. nhng ni b nhim nc nghim trng, th cn u tin nhanh chng thc hin cc bin php cn thit i vi cc ngun pht thi gy nhim nhiu hn. nhng khu vc d nh s pht trin kinh t, ti lng pht thi cht nhim phi c kim sot mt cch ton din, bao gm c nhng nhn t gia tng ti lng nhim.

Chng 3

Xy dng h thng v c cu nhm p dng hiu qu TPLCS

Cn phi nm bt c thc trng ca vic iu tra cht lng nc, c cu cc ngnh cng nghip, c im khu vc. Thm vo , cc ngun pht thi c phm vi rt rng trn nhiu lnh vc, do cn phi thit lp quan h hp tc, phi hp vi cc ban ngnh qun l lin quan. Tuy nhin, nhng ni nhim nc trm trng, vic quan trng trc ht l p dng TPLCS.

3.1 o lng cht lng nc


Yu cu thc hin nh k o lng cht lng nc v lng nc sng, ao h v bin, v nm c bin ng ca cht lng nc v ti lng nhim chy vo vng nc.

3.2 Hp tc vi cc ban ngnh, t chc lin quan


Yu cu phi m bo phi hp v hp tc vi cc ban ngnh qun l c lin quan, ng thi vic m bo s phi

hp v lin kt vi nhiu bn lin quan khc nh cc doanh nghip, ngi dn v cng ng a phng cng rt quan trng.

3.3 Xy dng h thng v c cu qun l gim st ca cc c quan qun l i vi cc nh my, c s kinh doanh
Cn phi xy dng h thng v c cu v vic yu cu cc nh my v c s kinh doanh phi o lng cht lng nc v lng nc thi ra v lu gi nhng d liu lin quan.

3.4 Thc y cc nh my v c s kinh doanh n lc gim ti lng pht thi


thc y vic tun th cc tiu chun quy nh, ngoi gim st ca cc c quan qun l, cn cn phi kt hp v trin khai chnh sch mt cch ton din ph hp vi iu kin ca mi quc gia, v d nh cc chnh sch thit lp gi tr ti lng tiu chun c th tun th thc hin trong thc t, h tr ti chnh v k thut, nng cao thc tun th quy nh ca x hi, iu chnh c cu cc ngnh cng nghip v b tr li cc c s kinh doanh.

3.5 Thc hin cc bin php i vi nc thi sinh hot


Cn la chn phng php ti u cho cc bin php da trn cc yu t dn s v mt dn s, mt nh v h thng thot nc/b t hoi, v trin khai xy dng cc c s x l nc thi sinh hot mt cch hiu qu. Trong qu trnh ny, cn phi ra k hoch x l nc thi sinh hot v thc hin k hoch mt cch c h thng.

3.6 Mt s vn lin quan khc


Ngoi thc y iu tra nghin cu hiu r c ch gy nhim, pht trin k thut x l nc thi, v.v cn phi c gng bo m ngun vn cn thit, bi dng ngun nhn lc, v nng cao thc ca cc bn c lin quan thng qua tuyn truyn v gio dc, trau di kin thc.

Ti liu tham kho:

1. Ti liu tham kho 1: Kinh nghim ca Nht Bn v nhim nc v bin php i

ph
2. Ti liu tham kho 2: Phng php tnh ti lng nhim 3. Ti liu tham kho 3: Tng quan v Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim ca Nht Bn v mt s phng php thit lp cc gi tr tiu chun 4. Ti liu tham kho 4: Phng php o cht lng cc vng nc Nht Bn 5. Ti liu tham kho 5: Tnh hnh x l bn thi ti cc nh my x l nc thi

Nht Bn
6. Ti liu tham kho 6: Tnh trng cht lng nc cc nc ng

Mc lc Gii thiu ..............................................................................................................................................1 Chng 1 Nhu cu v TPLCS ...........................................................................................................3 1.1 Tng quan v TPLCS ..................................................................................................................3 1.2 Cu trc ca TPLCS ...................................................................................................................6 (1) Cc dng nhim nc ...............................................................................................................6 (2) Cc bin php bo tn mi trng nc .....................................................................................9 (3) Cc chnh sch bin php thc hin bi chnh ph ...................................................................10 (4) Cu trc ca TPLCS ..................................................................................................................13 1.3 Kinh nghim v bi hc ca Nht Bn .....................................................................................15 1.4 Nhu cu v s p dng TPLCS .................................................................................................17 1.5 Nhng nguyn tc c bn ca TPLCS ......................................................................................18 Chng 2 Quy trnh thc hin TPLCS ............................................................................................21 2.1 nh ngha lu ti lng nhim .............................................................................................21 2.2 Tng quan v quy trnh thc hin .............................................................................................24 2.3 Quy trnh thc hin TPLCS ......................................................................................................25 (1) Xc nh vng nc i tng cho TPLCS ..............................................................................26 (2) Thit lp nhng mc tiu cht lng nc................................................................................27 (3) Thu thp d liu cht lng nc thi v d liu c lin quan .................................................30 (4) Tnh ton lng ti thi ra .........................................................................................................32 (5) Hiu bit v dng chy ca ti nhim trong cc khu vc u ngun .....................................34 (6) Thit lp mc tiu gim ti lu lng .......................................................................................37 (7) Thn trng trong cc bin php gim ti lu lng ..................................................................38 (8) Tnh ton tng hp lng kh quy ............................................................................................40 (9) Xy dng cc k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim ........................................................40 (10) Thc hin cc k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim .....................................................42 (11) Xc nhn tnh trng cht lng nc c ci thin v ti lu lng gim thiu .........43 (12) Ti kim tra v cp nht tnh hnh tin trin ca cc k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim ..............................................................................................................................................43 2.4 p dng h thng ph hp vi nhu cu v tnh trng ca a phng .....................................44 (1) V d 1: nhim nc trong khu vc ang xu i v phi gim ti thi ra ngay lp tc .........44 (2) V d 2: Nhng lo ngi v kh nng nhim nc do s gia tng dn s v pht trin cng nghip .............................................................................................................................................45

Chng 3 Pht trin t chc v c cu t chc cho hot ng hiu qu ca TPLCS ......................47 3.1 o cht lng nc...................................................................................................................48 3.2 Hp tc vi cc cng ty v nhng t chc c lin quan ...........................................................49 3.3 Pht trin cc t chc v c cu t chc cho vic gim st hnh chnh i vi cc nh my v c s kinh doanh. .......................................................................................................................50 3.4 Thc y cc n lc ca cc nh my v c s kinh doanh gim ti thi ra ........................53 (1) Thit lp tiu chun kim sot tng ti nhim cho lng thi ra ca ti nhim ..................53 (2) Thc y n lc t nguyn ca cc nh my v c s kinh doanh ...........................................54 (3) S dng cc chnh sch iu chnh c cu cng nghip............................................................55 3.5 Thc hin cc bin php chng li nc thi sinh hot ............................................................55 3.6 Nhng vn c lin quan khc ...............................................................................................57 (1) Thc y vic kim tra cht lng nc v nghin cu trong nhng khu vc nc ................57 (2) Chi ph .......................................................................................................................................57 (3) Pht trin v bo v ngun nhn lc .........................................................................................58 (4) Cc hot ng quan h cng chng v gio dc thc cng ng ...........................................58 Ct 1: Quy nh v vic x nc thi Nht Bn ..............................................................................14 Ct 2: X l trong trng hp cn p dng TPLCS khn cp ............................................................27 Ct 3: Tng quan gia Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc (COD, tng nit v tng pht pho) v mc ch s dng nc Nht Bn.......................................................................27 Ct 4: V d v x l khi gi tr o thc t do cc nh my v c s kinh doanh khai bo thiu tin cy .......................................................................................................................................................33 Ct 5 : o cht lng nc v cc h thng khi TPLCS c p dng Nht Bn ..........................49 Ct 6: Gim st qun l cc nh my v c s kinh doanh Nht Bn .............................................51 Ct 7: V d v cc bin php thc y cc nh my v c s kinh doanh t gic n lc gim ti Nht Bn .............................................................................................................................................54 Ti liu tham kho 1: Kinh nghim ca Nht Bn v nhim nc v bin php i ph ................60 Ti liu tham kho 2: Phng php tnh ti lng nhim ................................................................69 Ti liu tham kho 3: Tng quan v Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim ca Nht Bn v mt s phng php thit lp cc gi tr tiu chun............................................................................81 Ti liu tham kho 4: Phng php o cht lng cc vng nc Nht Bn ..................................85 Ti liu tham kho 5: Tnh hnh x l bn thi ti cc nh my x l nc thi Nht Bn ............88 Ti liu tham kho 6: Tnh trng cht lng nc cc nc ng ..............................................92 Mc lc hnh v bng..........................................................................................................................95

Li ni u
Trong nhng nm gn y, ti cc nc ang pht trin, nn kinh t pht trin ngy cng nhanh, v i cng vi s pht trin kinh t l mi lo ngi v vic ph hy mi trng cng ngy cng cao. Kinh t pht trin mang li ca ci vt cht d d cho cuc sng con ngi, nhng mt khc li cng lm tng gnh nng cho mi trng. Vo thp nin 1960, Nht Bn t t l tng trng kinh t hng nm l 9%, nhng trong qu trnh Nht Bn khng th i ph c vi s gia tng ng k ca gnh nng nhim i vi mi trng, cho nhim khng kh v nc xy ra, dn n cc vn nhim mi trng nghim trng, nh mi trng sng b suy thoi, ng nghip b thit hi, sc khe con ngi b nguy him, v.v... Do , Nht Bn phi ci tin h thng php lut v thit lp c cu thc hin gii quyt vn nhim mi trng, khuyn khch cc doanh nghip v cc t chc khc n lc ngn chn nhim, xy dng h thng thot nc v nng cao nhn thc cng ng. Mt trong nhng bin php i ph vi nhim ca chnh ph Nht Bn chnh l thc hin TPLCS da trn Lut kim sot nhim nc v Lut v cc bin php c bit nhm bo v mi trng Bin ni a Seto. TPLCS l mt h thng hng n mc tiu gim tng ti lng nhim chy vo vng nc, trong ly i tng l nhng vng nc khp kn tip nhn mt lng ln nc thi t cc h gia nh v cc hot ng kinh doanh do tp trung ng dn c v khu cng nghip, v nhng vng nc kh c th t c cht lng nc mong mun v duy tr Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc nu ch da vo kim sot nc thi theo nng . Kt qu ca nhng n lc ny l Nht Bn c th t c thnh tu nht nh trong vic kim sot nhim v ci thin mi trng. Trong nhng nm gn y, ti cc nc tng trng kinh t mnh m cng xut hin nhng khu vc bin b ph dng nghim trng do vic pht sinh ti lng nhim ln ging nh Nht Bn trc y. i ph vi vn ny c th vic TPLCS p dng s mang li hiu qu, tuy nhin cng c nhng trng hp khng kin thc k thut v h thng p dng TPLCS. gip nhng quc gia ang pht trin c quan h thn thit vi Nht Bn, ch yu ng , m bo s tng trng kinh t bn vng, Nht Bn thc hin h tr cho nhng nc ny p dng TPLCS, tn dng nhng kinh nghim ca Nht Bn i vi chng trnh TPLCS c pht trin ny. K t thng 4/2009, Nht Bn hp tc nghin cu vi Cng ha Nhn dn Trung Hoa v vic kim sot lng nit v pht pho trong tng ti lng nhim. Cng da vo sng kin hp tc ny, nit amoni c a vo lm mt ch tiu i tng mi trong TPLCS ti Trung Quc. Nht Bn bin son tp hng dn p dng TPLCS (gi l tp hng dn p dng). Tp hng dn p dng ny cung cp nhng kin thc v thng tin c ch trong vic p dng TPLCS. Kinh nghim v kin thc ca Nht Bn v kinh nghim t nghin cu hp tc vi Trung Quc cung cp cho Nht Bn kin thc chuyn mn trong tp hng dn p dng ny. Mc tiu ca Nht

Bn l m bo vic s dng hiu qu ca TPLCS c a vo p dng. Ngi s dng i tng ca tp hng dn p dng ny l cc cn b c lin quan n vic qun l mi trng nc chnh quyn trung ng v a phng, cng nh cc nh nghin cu v k s tham gia vo vic bo v v ci thin cht lng nc. Chng ti tin rng nhng hiu bit ca cc quc gia tin phong tng i mt vi vn nhim nc nghim trng v i ph vi vn ny l ngun kin thc tham kho quan trng cho nhng quc gia ang pht trin c th rt kinh nghim v ci thin mi trng nc. Chng ti hy vng rng tp hng dn p dng ny s c s dng hiu qu nhng quc gia ang pht trin ang gp phi vn ph dng nghim trng, gip ch cho vic ci thin cht lng nc. Chng ti cng hy vng rng vic qun l mi trng Nht Bn v nhng nc khc s cng pht trin hn na thng qua nhng dp trao i giao lu quc t nh th ny.

Chng 1

Tnh cn thit ca TPLCS

1.1 Khi qut v TPLCS nhim nc pht sinh t s gia tng ti lng nhim do s tng trng dn s, pht trin cng nghip v tng trng kinh t. Th gii t nhin vn tn ti nh mt h thng v c kh nng t lm sch mc nht nh, nhng khi ti lng nhim ch yu l do con ngi gia tng, s cn bng ca t nhin b ph v, dn n nhim nc. iu ny gy nguy him cho sc khe con ngi, gim cht lng mi trng sng, v nh hng n h sinh thi. Do , khi xy ra nhim nc, cn phi gim tng ti lng nhim tip nhn, v sau khi mi trng nc c ci thin mt mc nht nh th phi thc hin kim sot ti lng tip nhn. Nhng hot ng ny c gi l kim sot tng ti lng nhim, v h thng nhm thc hin hot ng ny chnh l TPLCS. Gim ti lng nhim c th bao gm rt nhiu bin php ring bit nh quy nh nc thi i vi cc nh my, xy dng h thng thot nc, x l phn, v ti u ha vic tr cht thi vt nui, v.v... thc hin hiu qu nhng bin php ny v t c mc ch ci thin cht lng nc, cng vi nhng n lc m bo mi trng nc, cn phi phn tch nh lng hiu qu ca nhng bin php ny trong vic gim ti lng nhim, v trin khai gim lu ti lng nhim mt cch h thng t mt quan im ton din. TPLCS l mt h thng hng ti vic thc hin n lc ny. Vo nm 1973, TPLCS ln u tin c p dng ti Nht Bn. Lc , tnh trng nhim nc tr nn nghim trng n mc gy thit hi cho ngnh ng nghip Bin ni a Seto, ni phng php kim sot tng ti lng nhim ln u tin c trin khai theo Lut v cc bin php tm thi nhm bo v mi trng Bin ni a Seto. Vic trin khai ny gip gim 50% ti lng pht thi COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand Nhu cu oxy ha hc) c lin quan ti nc thi cng nghip. Vo nm 1978, Lut kim sot nhim nc v Lut v cc bin php tm thi nhm bo v mi trng Bin ni a Seto c sa i mt phn, v TPLCS c a vo p dng. TPLCS hng n vic gim tng ti lng nhim khng ch ca nc thi cng nghip m cn nhng dng chy mang ti nhim khc bao gm c nc thi sinh hot. Hin ti Nht Bn, TPLCS ch c p dng cho nhng vng nc c gi l bin khp kn (nh ngha bin khp kn xem Hnh 1.2), ni tip nhn mt lng ln nc thi sinh hot v nc thi t cc hot ng cng nghip t cc khu tp trung dn c v cc khu cng nghip, v nhng ni kh c th t c Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc nu ch da vo tiu chun nc thi (quy nh nng nc thi). Ngoi khu vc Bin ni a Seto, TPLCS cn c p dng cho vnh Tokyo v vnh Ise, ni m nhim nc cng rt nghim trng. Ban u, ch tiu i tng ca TPLCS ch gii hn l COD, nhng vo nm 2001 ch tiu i tng c m rng ra bao gm c tng nit v tng pht pho, nhng cht gy ra hin tng ph dng. Nh c cc quy nh v ti lng nhim trong nc thi t cc nh my v c s kinh doanh, v nh thc hin mt cch trng im cc chng trnh pht trin ngun vn u t c s h tng nhm x l nc thi sinh hot, v d nh xy dng h thng thot nc, s suy thoi ca cht lng nc nhng vng nc ny

c hn ch. Cht lng nc dn c ci thin, dn n cht lng nc mt vi khu vc ca Bin ni a Seto c ci thin. Nht Bn c hn 30 nm kinh nghim trong vic p dng TPLCS. Trong sut nhng nm , Nht Bn tin hnh xy dng nhng h thng v c cu c lin quan, ng thi cng t c nhng thnh qu nht nh trong vic ci thin v bo v mi trng nc. Khi qut v quy trnh thc hin TPLCS Nht Bn c th hin trong Hnh 1.1. TPLCS l mt h thng mang li hiu qu cao trong vic ci thin v bo v mi trng nc da vo cu trc h thng ny. Mt khc, TPLCS c th thay i cu trc h thng ty theo tnh thng nht vi cc h thng v t chc sn c bao gm cc bin php bo v cht lng nc, tnh trng tin , v mc ch ca vic p dng TPLCS mi nc.
nh gi tnh hnh cht tng ng

lng nc vng nc

Xc nh cc vng nc s thc hin TPLCS

nh gi ti lng nhim m vng nc tip nhn Xc nh thi im hon thnh mc tiu v ti lng gim mc tiu cho ti thi im Ch nh ti lng gim mc tiu cho tng ngun gy nhim

* ti Thc hin gim tng ti lng nhim nhng khu vc lin quan n cht lng nc ca vng nc (c quy nh da trn lu vc ca mi vng nc)

lng nc vng nc tng ng

nh gi tnh hnh cht

Quy nh ti lng nhim i vi nc thi t cc nh my v c s kinh doanh (phng php quy nh hiu qu cao)

Xem xt cc phng n gim ti

Pht trin vn u t c s h tng phc v cho vic gim ti lng nhim thng qua xy dng h thng thot nc Thc hin cc bin php lin quan khc

ti lng
nh gi tnh hnh cht tng ng

Lp bn k hoch kim sot tng

lng nc vng nc

(Xc nhn khi cn thit)

Xc nhn tnh trng thc hin

lng nc vng nc tng ng

nh gi tnh hnh cht

mc tiu gim v ci thin cht lng nc

Xc nhn tnh hnh hon thnh

tng ti lng nhim

Xem xt li k hoch kim sot

Hnh 1.1 Khi qut quy trnh thc hin TPLCS TPLCS ca Nht c xem l mt phng php hiu qu gim ti nhim ti nhng vng bin khp kn b nhim nc nghim trng. Tuy nhin, mc ch ca vic kim sot tng ti lng

nhim l gim thiu v kim sot tng ti lng nhim m vng nc tip nhn. Do , TPLCS khng ch c th c p dng nhng ni cn gim ti lng nhim hn ch nhim pht trin, m cn c th c s dng nh l mt bin php bo v cht lng nc ngay giai on m cht lng nc vn cha suy thoi. Bn hng dn p dng c son ra nhm c s dng nh bn hng dn khi p dng TPLCS hoc khi mun nng cao hiu qu ca h thng TPLCS ang s dng. Da trn nhng kinh nghim ca Nht Bn trong kim sot tng ti lng nhim, chng ti tng hp nhng ni dung c bn v nguyn tc ca TPLCS, ng thi nu nhng im cn lu khi s dng h thng nhng quc gia khc nhau vi nhng iu kin khc nhau, v tm cch nhng ni dung c bn v nguyn tc ca TPLCS ph hp vi nhu cu ca cc quc gia. Gii thch cc thut ng c s dng trong bn hng dn p dng Vng nc khp kn: Cc vng nc c chia thnh sng, ao h v bin, trong nhng vng m nc kh trao i vi bn ngoi c gi l vng nc khp kn. Vng nc khp kn bao gm ao h v vng bin khp kn. nh ngha ca Nht Bn v vng bin khp kn c th hin trong Hnh 1.2.2. Trong vng nc khp kn, ti nhim thng hay tch t li, v khi ti lng nhim t hot ng ca con ngi m vng nc phi tip nhn tng ln, th s tch t ny s dn n nhim nc, gy kh khn cho vic bo v v ci thin cht lng nc.
vng bin khp kn 1.0
Vng bin bn ngoi iu kin ca S = Din tch ca vng bin ang xt S= D1 = su ti ni su nht D

Vng bin ang xt

W = di ng ranh gii W= D2 = su ti ni su nht dc theo D = 2 ng ranh gii

Hnh 1.2 nh ngha ca Nht Bn v vng bin khp kn Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc: Cc tiu chun c thit lp bo v cc c im nn c ca vng nc (sng, ao h, vng bin). V d nh Nht, cc ch s lin quan n mi trng sng (COD, nit, pht pho, v.v) c phn thnh tng nhm tng ng vi mc ch s dng nc v c thit lp cc gi tr tiu chun. Ti nhim: Nhng cht v vt th gy nhim vng nc. Cc ti nhim c ni n trong bn hng dn p dng ch yu l COD, nit v pht pho. S lng ca ti nhim c gi l ti lng nhim.

Ngun pht thi: Ngun pht sinh ti nhim. Chi tit c th hin Bng 1.1. Ngun nhim: Ngun ti nhim tng ng Ti lng nhim: S lng ca ti nhim sinh ra Ti lng pht thi: Ti lng nhim thi vo vng nc. y l thut ng xut pht t quan im v ngun nhim. Ti lng tip nhn: Ti lng nhim thi m vng nc tip nhn. y l thut ng xut pht t quan im v vng nc. S ph dng: Mt dng nhim nc, khi c s thm nhp t lu vc ca mt lng qu mc cc cht dinh dng, ch yu l cc hp cht ha hc ca nit v pht pho. Tnh trng ny dn ti mt s sinh si mnh m ca cc sinh vt ph du v rong to, dn n nhiu mi nguy hi khc nhau, nh cc sinh vt di nc b tiu dit, v cc him ha i vi nc ung. 1.2 Cu trc ca TPLCS Mc ny trnh by v vai tr ca TPLCS trong nhiu hot ng khc nhau bo v mi trng nc. (1) Cc loi nhim nc nhim nc gy ra bi s pht trin v tp trung ha trong cng nghip, th ha, v s tng nhanh v tp trung dn s khi pht trin kinh t. Mc d thin nhin c kh nng t lm sch, khi lng cht nhim thi ra tng ln do dn s pht trin v nc thi cng nghip tng ln, vt qu kh nng t lm sch ca t nhin, nhim nc s xy ra. Ngoi ra, cc hot ng tc ng n t nhin trong qu trnh khai thc pht trin, nh chn lp cc khu vc ven bin hoc ph hy thm thc vt v t ly bn b sng, cng c th gy tn hi cho kh nng t lm sch ca t nhin. nhim nc c th c phn thnh nhiu loi khc nhau theo nh hng v c ch ca nhim. Loi nhim u tin l loi nh hng trc tip n sc khe con ngi t cc kim loi nng v cc cht ha hc nguy hi c thi trc tip vo cc vng nc. Loi nhim u tin ny cng nh hng n cc sinh vt di nc, v d nh khin cho cc loi c b d tt, suy yu v b cht. C rt nhiu kim loi nng v cc cht ha hc nguy hi gy ra nhng tc hi , tiu biu l cadimi, ch, crm ha tr su, thy ngn, thch tn, biphenyl polyclua ha (PCB), v xyanua. Nhng cht ny c thi ra t ngnh cng nghip khai thc v ch bin khong sn, hay c s dng lm ha cht bo v thc vt v thuc dit c, tuy nhin chng c a vo danh sch cc i tng chu s quy nh ca Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc cc quc gia, v b hn ch hoc b cm da trn cc c tnh c hi ca chng. Ngoi ra, cn c nhng cht nhim c ngun gc t nhin thot ra t mch nc ngm, v.v... Loi nhim th hai l loi gy ra cc vn v mt sc khe cng ng do vi khun d gy ra

cc bnh truyn nhim nh bnh t, kit l. Cc bnh truyn nhim gy nguy him cho sc khe con ngi khi vic x l nc thi gia nh nh x l nc thi en (phn v nc tiu) khng thch hp, thi ra m khng h qua x l, hoc khi ha ln vi nc ung. Do , cn thc hin mt phng php x l ton din nc thi en v tch hon ton h thng cp nc v thot nc ca thnh ph. Nht, lut php yu cu nc thi en phi c x l bng mt trong 3 cch sau: thi vo h thng thot nc, thi ra sng sau khi c x l trong b t hoi (Johkasou1), hoc c thu gom t nh v sinh dng x nc v x l tp trung. Loi th ba l nhim hu c. Mc nhim hu c c th hin bng cc ch s nh nhu cu oxy ha hc (COD), nhu cu oxy sinh ha (BOD), v tng carbon hu c (TOC). Mt phn cc cht hu c chy vo t t nhin do n mn hay t xc ng vt, tuy nhin cc cht hu c cng c tm thy trong nc thi sinh hot v nc thi cng nghip t cc nh my thuc nhiu lnh vc khc nhau. nhim nc xy ra ch yu do s gia tng ca ti lng thi ra t nhng hot ng ny ca con ngi. Cc cht hu c trong vng nc b phn hy bi cc sinh vt sng trong nc v nh mi trng nc c duy tr. Nu lng cht hu c chy vo vt qu kh nng phn hy, nhim tin trin v cht lng nc dn b suy thoi. ng thi, nc dn gim i trong sut, ta ra mi hi v chuyn t mu t nhin sang mu xanh lc, nu, hoc nu . Theo , xut hin cc vn trong s dng nc nh nhim nc ung hay ng nghip b thit hi, v mi trng sng dn dn suy thoi. Thm vo , nhng cht hu c khng tan tch t thnh bn cn di y h, sng, bin. gim ti cht hu c chy vo t nc thi nh th ny, cc nc thc hin iu chnh thng qua lut. Loi th t l hin tng ph dng, c lin quan n nhim cht hu c c trnh by trn trong loi nhim th ba. S ph dng xut hin bi cc cht dinh dng l hp cht ca nit v pht pho, chy vo t lu vc. Sinh vt ph du v rong to sinh si mnh m khc thng v tiu th oxy ha tan trong nc. Thiu xy khin cc sinh vt trong nc cht v gy ra nhiu vn trong s dng nc nh mi trng sng suy thoi, nh hng n ng nghip, nhim nc ung, v.v... Sinh vt ph du v rong to c th sinh ra cc cht c hi. S xut hin bt thng ca cc sinh vt ph du gy ra thy triu , lm c suy yu v b cht, xc ca chng sau s tch t di y, hnh thnh khi nc thiu oxy lp y. Khi nc thiu oxy ny tip tc gy ra nhng nh hng nghim trng dn n cc sinh vt di y nh cc loi gip xc b suy yu v cht i. V c bn, cc cht dinh dng l hp cht ca nit v pht pho rt cn thit duy tr h sinh thi, nhng khi s cn bng gia lng cung cp v tiu th dinh dng b mt i, cht dinh dng tr nn d tha th s dn n hin tng ph dng. c bit trong nhng vng nc c thi gian Johkasou l mt h thng x l ti ch cho nc thi sinh hot, c lp t mi h gia nh ch yu khu vc nng thn vi mt dn s thp. Nc thi sau khi c x l (BOD 20mg/l) c thi ra vng nc cng cng gn nht, v bn thi c thu gom bi xe ht s c x l v ti ch c s x l phn.
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lu gi nc di, v d nh ni c, dng chy chm v nc c khuynh hng lu gi trong thi gian di, c gi l vng bin, ao h, sng khp kn (sau y gi l vng nc khp kn), cht dinh dng hay tch t li, mi trng nc tr nn d b suy thoi do ph dng. Do cn phi kim sot hay iu chnh tng lng cht dinh dng vng nc khp kn tip nhn, cn phi gim v qun l tng lng. Cht nhim chnh cn c x l bi TPLCS l cc cht hu c gy ra nhim hu c v cc cht dinh dng gy ra s ph dng. Cc loi cht hu c v cht dinh dng c thi t nhiu ngun pht thi vo vng nc. Cc ngun chnh c th hin Bng 1.1. Bng 1.1 Cc ngun chnh ca ti nhim Cc ngun chnh ca ti nhim (1) Cng nghip Cc nh my v c s kinh doanh bao gm bnh vin, khch sn v qun tr, cn tin, tim git i, nh tm, trm xng, xng sa t, v l m gia cm, v.v (2) Sinh hot Sinh hot ca con ngi (Nc thi sinh hot c phn loi thnh phn v nc tiu (nc thi en) v cc nc thi khc (nc thi xm). Nc thi xm pht sinh t qu trnh nu n, tm ra, git gi, v.v) Ti lng nhim tng ln cng vi s tng trng dn s v s tp trung dn c cc th. Ti lng ny cng thay i ty theo li sng, mc sng v thi quen sng nh dng nh v sinh (bn x nc, bn ngi xm), tn sut tm, v.v (3) Chn nui Cht bi tit t gia sc, nga, heo, gia cm, v cc ng vt khc Nc ra chung tri (4) t nng nghip Phn bn v cc ha cht bo v thc vt khng c hp th vo trong hoa mu, v nhng cht hu c t cc nhnh cy cht, l rng cn li trn t nng nghip (5) Khu vc nh ca san st (6) Rng (7) Nui trng thy sn Thc vt phn hy Thc n nui trng thy sn cn st li, c cht Bi, l rng, rc tch t Ti lng nhim tng ln theo lng phn ha hc c s dng. Ti nhim chy ra vng nc bi nhng trn ma, v.v... Ti nhim chy ra vng nc bi nhng trn ma, v.v... Ti nhim chy ra vng nc bi nhng trn ma, v.v... Ti lng nhim tng ln theo s lng gia sc chn nui. c im Ti lng nhim tng ln cng vi s m rng ca cc hot ng kinh t, sn xut cng nghip.

Ngoi ra, cc ngun pht sinh ti nhim hin c phn loi ty theo vic c xc nh c a im pht sinh hay khng. Ngun c th xc nh c gi l ngun im, v ngun khng xc nh c v nhim xy ra trn mt mt phng c gi l ngun mt (cn c gi l ngun khng im). Nhng thut ng ny c s dng trong tp hng dn p dng ny. Ngun im v ngun mt c hng tip cn sch lc gim ti lng nhim khc nhau. Bi v a im pht sinh nhim ca nhng ngun im c th xc nh c, do c th tnh c ti lng pht thi, t c th tin hnh quy nh nc thi. i vi ngun mt, a im pht sinh khng c xc nh nn khng th p dng phng php ny. Nhng ngun im bao gm: (i) ngun cng nghip quy m ln, (ii) ngun sinh hot c h thng x l nc sinh hot, v (iii) ngun chn nui quy m ln. Trong khi , cc ngun mt bao gm: (iv) ngun cng nghip/sinh hot/chn nui quy m nh khng thuc ngun im, (v) t nng nghip, (vi) khu vc nh ca san st, (vii) rng v (viii) nui trng thy sn. Nh c th hin trong Bng 1.1, ti nhim cng xy ra th gii t nhin v thi vo vng nc, ni din ra chu k sinh thi, thc y qu trnh t lm sch ca t nhin v tiu ha bi sinh vt, to ra s cn bng trong th gii t nhin. Tuy nhin, nu ti lng nhim sinh ra t hot ng ca con ngi gia tng, nh gia tng dn s, m rng sn xut cng nghip, tng cng chn nui, v tng u vo phn ha hc, v.v nu c tnh trng gia tng nh th tip tc din ra, n mt lc no s vt qu kh nng tip nhn ca mi trng t nhin. iu ny s dn ti s suy gim ca mi trng nc, gy ra nhim nc. Khi kinh t pht trin v sc sn xut m rng, th phi tin hnh cc i sch ph hp, nhm hng n m bo c hai mt pht trin kinh t - x hi v bo v mi trng. TPLCS l mt h thng hng ti vic m bo c pht trin v bo v mi trng bng cch thc hin cc bin php gim ti pht thi mt cch hiu qu. (2) Cc bin php bo v mi trng nc Cc bin php ci thin cht lng nc c th c phn thnh hai loi: mt l nhng bin php gim lng pht thi ti lng nhim ti vng nc no (bin php ngun pht thi), hai l nhng bin php lc ngay ti vng nc nhim nc ang tin trin, v lc ti nhim c thi ra trong vng nc i tng (bin php lc trc tip). Thc hin bin php ngun pht thi bao gm x l nc thi gim ti nhim v gim lng s dng nguyn liu, vt liu cha ti nhim, v.v... Thc hin bin php x l nc thi v d nh l x l nc thi ti c s x l nc thi xy trong mt nh my, hay thu gom nc thi sinh hot nh vo h thng thot nc v x l ti cc c s x l nc thi tp trung2. Ngoi ra, c th s
Cn phi x l nc thi khng ch trong trng hp thi nc thi vo trong cc vng nc nh sng, bin, v.v m cn c trong trng hp cho nc thi xm nhp xung di t. Nu cho nc thi c cha nhiu ti nhim xm nhp xung di t, chng s lm nc ngm b nhim, v ti nhim s
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dng x bng bt v cht ty ra khng c pht pho thay cho cht ty ra c pht pho gim vic s dng nguyn liu, vt liu cha ti nhim.... Nhng bin php lm sch trc tip c th thc hin gm c no vt (trc tip loi b ti nhim tch t y vng nc), s dng t ly v bi triu, sc kh (sc oxy hoc khng kh vo trong vng nc), v bm nc vo lc (nc c bm vo t mt h thng nc khc cha b nhim). Bin php lc trc tip x l cc ti nhim pht thi, do c xem l bin php chng nhim nc c vai tr ph. TPLCS hng n vic gim tng ti lng nhim v tp trung vo bin php ngun pht thi. (3) Cc bin php chnh sch thc hin bi c quan qun l Vic thc hin cc bin php ngun pht thi s pht sinh ra cc loi chi ph nh ph lp t, ph vn hnh c s x l nc thi. Do , nu ch da vo thc t gic, ch ng thc hin ca cc ngun gy nhim th c th s khng thc hin c y nhng bin php cn thit. V vy, cn phi c s tham gia ca cc chnh sch, php lut, v cc bin php ca cc c quan qun l c trin khai nh trong Hnh 1.3. K hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim cn tm cch thc hin cc bin php ny mt cch ton din, cng nh thc hin kim sot tng ti lng nhim pht thi mt cch c hiu qu, tin hnh ci thin cht lng nc vng nc i tng mt cch hiu qu v hiu nng. Di y l khi qut v cc bin php chnh sch ca c quan qun l lin quan n kim sot tng lng v mi quan h gia cc bin php chnh sch ny vi TPLCS, tp trung ch yu vo nhng phn c lin quan n cc bin php ngun pht thi.

chy vo ao h, bin thng qua nc ngm trong mt thi gian di. Sau c th dn n nhim nc trong mt thi gian di.

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Kim sot nc thi Hng dn gim ti Cng nghip

Xy dng h thng thot nc

Kim sot nc thi X l cht bi tit

Xy dng nh my x l cht bi tit Thu gom cht bi tit

Nh my
< Bin php gim ti lng nhim> Lp t thit b x l nc thi Gim lng s dng nguyn liu cha ti nhim Sn xut xanh Kim sot nc thi

Kim sot nc thi C s x l nc thi Johkasou

Nc thi sinh hot ca con ngi


Phn ti Khc (nu n, tm ra, git gi v.v)

Sinh hot

Kim sot nc thi

Ph bin v xc tin s dng Johkasou Thit lp Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim Nc

Chn nui Chung tri chn nui Bin php gim ti lng nhim Ngn nga thot phn gia sc X l phn gia sc X l nc thi t chung tri

Hng dn gim ti

Vng nc
S dng nc
Nc ung Nc phc v cng nghip Nc phc v nng nghip Ti nguyn ng nghip Mi trng sng m bo Ti nguyn du lch

Hnh 1.3 Cu trc thc hin cc bin php ngun pht thi i) Thit lp Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc Nhng tiu chun ny a ra ch tiu cho cht lng nc cc khu vc nc (sng, ao h, bin). Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc l mt mc tiu qun l nh nc. Trong trng hp cc tiu chun u c th yu cu thc hin cc hot ng duy tr mi trng nc, cn trng hp khng p ng th yu cu thc hin cc hot ng duy tr mi trng nc; cn trong trng hp cha p ng y th yu cu thc hin cc hot ng p ng y . Ti Nht Bn, Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc bao gm tng cng 37 ch tiu. Nhng ch tiu ny c phn thnh tiu chun cht lng mi trng nc lin quan n bo v sc khe con ngi (27 ch tiu: i tng l cc kim loi nng v cht ha hc nguy hi nh cadimi, xyanua) v tiu chun cht lng mi trng nc lin quan n bo v mi trng sng (10 ch tiu: trong c COD, BOD, oxy ha tan, tng nit, tng pht pho, cc nhm coli). Tiu chun cht lng mi trng nc lin quan n bo v sc khe con ngi c quy nh p dng ng b cho tt c mi ngun nc cng cng Nht Bn. Tiu chun cht lng mi trng nc lin quan n bo v mi trng sng c chia thnh nhiu nhm ty theo mc tiu s dng ca mi vng nc. Mi nhm c thit lp nhng gi tr tiu chun khc nhau. TPLCS ch yu x l nhim hu c v s ph dng, v cc ch tiu i tng trong TPLCS Nht Bn l COD, tng nit v tng pht pho. Cc ch tiu ny tng ng vi cc tiu chun cht lng mi trng nc lin quan n bo v mi trng sng, m Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc c thit lp ph hp vi mc ch s dng nc ca cc vng nc.

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Theo , mc ch ca kim sot tng ti lng nhim l bo v cht lng nc tng ng vi tnh hnh s dng nc ca vng nc. ii) Quy nh v vic x nc thi Nc thi cng nghip t cc nh my, c s kinh doanh hay cc tri chn nui quy m ln c quy nh bi quy ch kim sot nc thi nhm gim ti lng pht thi. Cc nh my v c s kinh doanh thuc i tng quy nh c yu cu thc hin cc bin php p ng cc tiu chun nc thi, v thng qua ti lng pht thi c mong i s gim xung. Ngoi cc nh my v c s kinh doanh, quy ch kim sot nc thi cng c thc hin i vi cc tri chn nui quy m ln, khu dn c, nh my x l nc thi, v.v... Mt trong nhng bin php kim sot nc thi thng dng nht chnh l t ra quy ch nng pht thi m trong c quy nh v nng ca ti nhim cha trong nc thi. Ch cn o nng nc thi ca mt c s kinh doanh l c th xc nh ngay c s c tun th quy ch hay khng. Do , cn tng i t cng sc thc hin quy ch. Tuy nhin, trong trng hp d on c rng nc thi s tng mt lng ng k do xy dng v m rng nh my, nu ch da vo quy nh v nng nc thi th c th khng ngn chn vic tng tng ti lng nhim vng nc tip nhn. Trong trng hp ny, cn phi c quy ch kim sot tng ti lng gim lng ti nhim (sau y, tiu chun v ti lng nhim cho quy ch kim sot tng ti lng c gi l Tiu chun kim sot tng ti lng nhim). Nguyn tc c bn trong TPLCS l thit lp tiu chun cho ti lng nhim v thc hin quy ch kim sot tng ti lng nhim. C th tnh ti lng nhim ca nc thi bng cch nhn nng vi lng nc thi, do thc hin quy ch kim sot tng ti lng, ngoi nng nc thi cn cn phi kt hp vi o lng nc thi. Kim sot tng ti lng nhim cn nhiu cng sc hn so vi kim sot nng nc thi, nhng y l mt phng php bo m v hiu qu trong trng hp cn phi kim sot v qun l cht ch ti lng nhim. iii) Khuyn khch x l nc thi sinh hot Cc h gia nh l ngun pht sinh ti nhim thi ra nc thi sinh hot, v d nh nc thi en, do cn phi thc hin cc bin php x l nc thi sinh hot. Xut pht t quan im ngn nga cc bnh truyn nhim, Nht Bn cm thi nc thi en cha x l vo ngun nc, nhng khng t ra quy nh trc tip i vi cc nc thi sinh hot khc nh nc thi t nu n, tm ra, git gi, v.v (sau y gi l nc thi xm). Cc bin php x l nc thi sinh hot c th k n nh xy dng h thng thot nc do chnh quyn a phng thc hin, x l tp trung ti cc khu dn c, v lp t Johkasou cho cc h gia nh. Tt c nhng phng php ny u s dng h thng x l hiu kh gp c nc thi en v nc thi xm.

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H thng thot nc ch yu c xy dng nhng vng thnh th vi mt dn s cao, v h thng thot nc quy m nh c xy dng nhng khu dn c v cc lng nng nghip tp trung dn c theo tng khu dn c hay lng x. nhng vng c mt dn s thp th thc hin lp t Johkasou tng h hoc nhiu h. H thng thot nc thng c xem l kt cu h tng x hi, v vic xy dng chng c tin hnh vi cc c quan nh nc chu trch nhim chnh. Tuy nhin i vi h thng thot nc cho mi h gia nh, vic lp t thng do cc c nhn chu trch nhim thc hin. Trong nhng trng hp ny, cn phi thc hin cc chnh sch nh hng dn k thut v h tr kinh ph mt cch thch hp khuyn khch vic lp t. Nht Bn, chnh quyn a phng lp t Johkasou cho mi h gia nh, ng thi cng thc hin cc hot ng nhm bo tr v qun l h thng. TPLCS tnh ton nh hng gim ti lng nhim ca nhng chnh sch ny, v tin hnh thc hin nhng chnh sch c tnh hiu qu cao. iv) Thc hin hng dn gim ti nhim Cc c quan qun l hng dn k thut gim ti lng nhim cho cc ngun pht sinh ti nhim. y l mt cch hiu qu p dng cho cc ngun pht sinh ti nhim kh a vo i tng quy nh. V d nh hng dn cch bn phn ha hc gim ti lng nhim t cc khu vc t nng nghip, hng dn k thut gim ti lng nhim cho cc c s kinh doanh quy m nh nh cc h sn xut kinh doanh ti nh. Trong TPLCS, vi vic hp tc vi nhng b ngnh qun l lin quan, hng dn gim ti c trin khai cho nhiu ngun pht sinh ti nhim khc nhau. v) Nhng chnh sch lin quan khc nhm khuyn khch bin php ngun pht thi Nhm khuyn khch cc nh my lp t h thng x l nc thi, cc chnh sch khuyn khch nh cho vay chnh sch, tr cp, u i thu c a vo thc hin. Ngoi ra, vic ph bin kin thc v nng cao thc v mi trng c trin khai thng qua gio dc v hot ng tuyn truyn. (4) Cu trc ca TPLCS TPLCS l h thng iu chnh ti lng nhim i vi cc ngun pht sinh ti nhim c th kim sot nc thi, ng thi trin khai mt cch tng hp cc chnh sch, phng php gim nhim khc. TPLCS yu cu cn c s phi hp vi cc ban ngnh qun l c lin quan, v th c th chia s cc kin thc trong qu trnh phi hp ny. Bn cnh h thng ny cn c th xc tin thc hin nhng k hoch hiu qu thng qua vic xem xt mt cch ton din v tnh kh thi, chi ph thc hin, thi gian cn thit thc hin, hiu qu gim ti lng nhim ca nhiu chnh sch khc nhau.

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S cu trc ca TPLCS Nht Bn c th hin Hnh 1.4.


ng li c bn cho kim sot tng ti lng nhim ( trn din rng (B trng B Mi trng) Nm ti chnh mc tiu, lng gim mc tiu, cc ni dung c bn lin quan gim ti K hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim () (Tnh trng, th trng)
Phng php v mc tiu gim cho tng ngun pht thi tng ng

Kim sot tng ti lng nhim i vi ti lng pht thi


50m3 Quy nh ti lng nhim t nh my/c s kinh doanh vi lng nc thi trung bnh khng di 50m3/ngy (Ti nhim = Nng Lng nc thi)

Hng dn gim ti

Thc hin d n

nghip quy m nh Bin php cho doanh Bin php cho cc doanh nghip cha quy nh nui Nng nghip, chn H gia nh

Xy dng h thng thot nc x l Nng cao x l nc thi ti cc nh my nc thi Khuyn khch lp t Johkasou

Hnh 1.4 S cu trc ca TPLCS Nht Bn Ct 1: Quy nh v vic x nc thi Nht Bn Nht Bn, tiu chun nc thi thng nht ton quc (tiu chun nng ) c thit lp cho tt c cc nh my v c s kinh doanh, v nhng c s c lin quan c quy nh theo . Trng hp nhn thy tiu chun thng nht ton quc khng bo v mi trng nc mt cch y , mi a phng c quyn thit lp cc quy nh vi cc tiu chun cht ch hn tiu chun thng nht ton quc. i vi nhng vng bin khp kn kh c th t c Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng cho nhim nc ngay c vi nhng quy nh ny, th p dng TPLCS v mt phng php kim sot nc thi c gi l kim sot tng ti lng nhim. y l, quy ch v lng pht thi ca ti nhim. Ti Nht Bn, v mt h thng, TPLCS c xem l mt phng php dnh cho nhng vng bin khp kn b nhim nc nghim trng. Ngay c khi cc a phng b sung cc tiu chun nghim ngt hn, nhng tr s tiu chun cho tiu chun b tr c quyt nh da trn quan nim hn ch ti nhim thi vo ngun nc trong mt phm vi nht nh nhm mc ch bo v mi trng nc. Quan nim ny kt hp cht ch vi quan nim kim sot tng ti lng nhim. Hnh 1.5 th hin h thng Lut Kim sot nhim nc v v tr ca TPLCS trong Lut ny. H thng ca Nht Bn c miu t nh di y, tuy nhin cng c mt s nc quy nh ti lng nhim trn ton quc v tin hnh gim ti lng nhim.

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Lut c bn v mi trng

Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc Quy nh d kin Xy dng cc c s ch nh, thng bo thay i

Quy nh v nc thi Tiu chun nc thi (tiu chun nng ) Tiu chun nc thi thng nht ton quc
Trong trng hp tiu chun ng b quc gia khng th bo tn mi trng nc y

Quy nh cho nh my v c s kinh doanh

Quy nh thng thng

Tiu chun nc thi b sung ca tnh thnh

Ch nh vng nc
Gim tng ti lng nhim ca vng bin khp kn ra ng li c bn cho kim sot tng ti lng nhim trn din rng (Cp quc gia)

ra k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim (Cp tnh)

i vi cc vng bin khp kn ni m tiu chun ng b nc thi v tiu chun thm vo khng th bo tn y tiu chun nc.

Tiu chun kim sot tng lng ti nhim (quy nh ti lng)

Ngha v o v ghi li tnh trng nhim ca nc thi Lut kim sot nhim nc Kim tra hnh chnh ti ch, thu thp bo co. Ngn cc cht nguy him c hi thm thu vo mch nc ngm Yu cu b tr khn cp trong thi gian xy ra hn hn bt thng Bin php khn cp khi c ti nn v thng bo

ng ph trng hp khn cp Ch nh khu vc trng im cho cc bin php i vi nc thi sinh hot (tnh thnh) ra k hoch o lng (tnh thnh)

Bin php i vi nc thi sinh hot Theo di cht lng nc vng nc cng cng, v.v

Xy dng Chng trnh xc tin cc bin php i vi nc thi sinh hot (thnh ph, th trn, lng x)

Hnh 1.5 H thng Lut kim sot nhim nc v v tr ca TPLCS ti Nht Bn


* Nht, Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc c quy nh kt hp vi nhng tiu chun mi trng khc, v d nh tiu chun cho mi trng khng kh. iu ny cng c th hin trong Hnh 1.5.

1.3 Kinh nghim v bi hc ca Nht Bn T cui thp nin 1950 n u thp nin 1970, kinh t Nht Bn pht trin nhanh chng vi vi tc tng trng trung bnh hng nm l 9%. S pht trin nhanh chng ny dn n s gia tng ca sn xut cng nghip v tp trung dn c, ko theo s gia tng ng k ti nhim m khng bin php no c th i ph kp thi, do nhim ngun nc ngy cng nghim trng,

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dn n tnh trng nh ngnh ng nghip chu thit hi do thy triu , mi trng sng b suy thoi vi nc ung c mi v l, mi kh chu3. i mt vi tnh trng nhim mi trng ngy cng nghim trng, d lun cng chng i hi cc bin php ngn chn nhim. Trong hon cnh , t khong nm 1970, h thng php lut c xc tin iu chnh nhanh chng, v cc bin php i ph chuyn su c thc hin. Trong , bo v mi trng ti Bin ni a Seto, ni vo lc y c gi l Bin cht v nhim nc qu nghim trng, ngnh ng nghip chu thit hi nng n do nh hng ca thy triu , vo nm 1973 Lut tm thi v bo v mi trng Bin ni a Seto c ban hnh theo c ch lp php ca ngh s4, theo tin hnh gim tng ti lng nhim lin quan n cng nghip (COD) Bin ni a Seto (n 50%) vo nm 1974. Ngoi ra, TPLCS, h thng ly i tng gim tng ti lng nhim khng ch nc thi cng nghip m c nc thi sinh hot, c p dng vo nm 1978 cho Bin ni a Seto, vnh Tokyo v vnh Ise. Nh vo nhng bin php ny, s suy thoi ca cht lng nc c ngn chn, v tnh trng ngy cng c ci thin hn ( nhim nc Nht Bn v cc bin php i ph c trnh by chi tit trong Ti liu tham kho 2). Cc kinh nghim v bi hc ca Nht Bn c th c tm tt nh sau: i) Thc hin bin php i ph vi nhim mi trng nc t quan im ngn nga Cc bin php bo v cht lng nc cn c tin hnh t quan im ngn nga. Do Nht Bn khng kp thi c nhng bin php i ph vi nhim mi trng trong qu trnh pht trin cng nghip, nn nhim nc tin trin trm trng, cc bin php i ph mang tnh cht theo sau gii quyt hu qu, v vy Nht Bn phi mt nhiu thi gian v kinh ph i ph vi nhim. Nu c th d on trc s gia tng ti nhim do s pht trin kinh t v tng dn s, th cn phi bt u thc hin cc bin php kp thi trn quan im ngn nga. Hin nay, tri thc khoa hc v k thut lin quan n mi trng pht trin hn so vi nhng nm 1960, v c th thc s p dng nhng bin php ngn nga ny. ii) S pht trin ca TPLCS da trn kinh nghim, tri thc khoa hc v thay i trong iu kin x hi iu quan trng l u tin phi bt tay thc hin cc bin php kim sot tng ti lng nhim trong mi phm vi c th thc hin, ngay c khi tt c chc nng v l lun cha c gii thch r rng. Ngoi ra, vic c gng tch ly v vn dng cc kinh nghim v tri thc khoa hc, v pht trin TPLCS da trn nhng thay i trong iu kin x hi cng c ngha rt quan trng. Khi TPLCS ln u tin c p dng Nht Bn vo nhng nm 1970, ngi ta nhn thy rng vn cn rt GDP bnh qun u ngi ca Nht Bn nm 1965 l 3.170 la M ( iu chnh vt gi). Tc tng trng kinh t v giai on pht trin kinh t ca Nht Bn vo thi k cng tng t nh ca Trung Quc v cc quc gia ng Nam hin nay. 4 Nht Bn, c ch lp php ca ngh s l thut ng dng ch vic ban hnh lut do thnh vin ngh vin xut. Lut tm thi v bo v mi trng Bin ni a Seto c ban hnh theo yu cu ca cc khu vc tip gip vi Bin ni a Seto thng qua c ch lp php ny.
3

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nhiu nhng thch thc, nhng nhng iu ny c x l trong qu trnh thc hin cc bin php. Quan im chung gia cc bn lin quan, cho rng trc ht cn phi bt u p dng TPLCS ngn chn nhim tin trin nghim trng hn v ci thin mi trng nc, c cho l mt ng lc thc y ch yu, gip cho h c nhit huyt mnh m gii quyt nhng thch thc cn tn ti. Nht Bn v l nc i tin phong trong lnh vc x l nhim mi trng nn tri qua rt nhiu th nghim v tht bi, nhng ngy nay ngi ta c th hc c t nhng thnh cng v tht bi ca nhng nc i tin phong, v cn phi vn dng nhng kinh nghim ny v tin hnh trin khai mt cch hiu qu. Hin nay, cc kin thc gii thch v c ch nhim ca cc vng nc pht trin hn so vi trc y. Kt hp vi s pht trin ca k thut x l nc thi nh k thut loi b nit v pht pho, mt lot cc bin php a dng c trin khai. Vic s dng nhng kinh nghim, k thut, tri thc khoa hc c tch ly nh th ny v tin hnh cc bin php bo v mi trng nc l rt quan trng. 1.4 Tnh cn thit ca vic p dng TPLCS K t khi bc sang th k XXI, kinh t v dn s cc nc Brazil, Nga, n v Trung Quc (BRIC) v ng , Nam , Trung ng, Chu Phi v Chu M Latinh c s tng trng nhanh chng. nhng nc ny, mt s vng nc khu vc th b nhim nghim trng. Khng ch vy, ti lng nhim c d on s gia tng ng k sau ny, do ngay c nhng khu vc nc cha c vn nghim trng v nhim, ngi ta lo ngi nhim nc c th xy ra hoc tr nn trm trng hn trong tng lai (tnh trng ng c tm tt trong Ti liu tham kho 6). V trn ht, vic bo v cht lng nc l mt vn quan trng i vi nhng vng nc cung cp ngun nc ung v ngun thy sn phong ph. Thc hin cc bin php cng sm cng tt l iu rt quan trng bi v nu nh chm tr i ph, mt khi nhim nc t n mc nghim trng, th s cn nhiu thi gian v chi ph x l nhim nc. Cng vi s pht trin kinh t v x hi, cn phi thc hin mt bin php y nh x l nc thi sinh hot, bao gm c vic lp t h thng x l nc thi ti cc nh my, xy dng h thng thot nc. Khi , vic chia s nhn thc v tm quan trng ca cc bin php i ph vi nhim nc vi cc c quan hnh chnh c lin quan v ton th x hi, cng nh vic sm thc hin cc bin php hiu qu, v tin hnh cc bin php c hiu qu mt cch ng b l rt quan trng. Trong qu trnh thc hin nhng hot ng ny, TPLCS l mt phng php hiu qu, v vic s dng TPLCS l mt la chn ng gi. TPLCS c th c s dng theo nhng cch sau: i) i vi nhng vng nc b nhim mc trm trng, TPLCS c th c s dng nh mt bin

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php hiu qu gim ti nhim. Trong trng hp ny, vic gim ti c ch trng. TPLCS s ci thin cht lng nc mt cch ng tin cy v h thng ny p dng nhng quy nh nh kim sot tng ti nhim i vi ngun pht sinh nhim c th nm r ti lng nhim nh nc thi cng nghip, t thc hin gim ti lng nhim. Hn na, TPLCS tin hnh cc phng php t mt quan im ton din, do cc bin php gim ti c hiu qu c th c thc hin rng ri. ii) i vi nhng khu vc d on s pht trin trong tng lai, TPLCS c th c s dng nh l mt phng php d phng kim sot ti nhim. Trong trng hp ny, vic kim sot c ch trng. Ngay c i vi nhng vng nc cha b nhim n mc nghim trng, nu d on trc c dn s s tng hoc cc nh my cng nghip hnh thnh do pht trin lu vc trong tng lai, nhim nc c d on l s ngy cng nghim trng hn. nhim nc cn phi c gim thiu thng qua cc bin php ngn nga v s mt rt nhiu thi gian v chi ph khi phc li mi trng nc. TPLCS thc hin kim sot tt c cc ngun ti nhim vng nc tip nhn, v c th c s dng nh mt phng php ton din kim sot cc ti lng nhim nhng lu vc ny. Trong nhng vng nc khp kn c dng chy chm v thi gian lu nc di, nh cc vng bin khp kn, ao h v sng, nc khng trao i c vi khu vc bn ngoi, nn ti nhim d tch t. Do khi xem xt cc bin php i ph vi nhim hu c v s ph dng, cn phi gim thiu hoc kim sot tng ti lng nhim. i vi cc bin php mi trng nc trong vng bin khp kn, quan im v kim sot tng ti lng nhim c cho l cn thit, v vic p dng TPLCS l rt quan trng. 1.5 Nhng nguyn tc c bn ca TPLCS Khi a vo p dng TPLCS, cn phi cho h thng c vn hnh mt cch hiu qu. t c mc ch , cn phi thc hin nhng hot ng da trn cc nguyn tc c bn ca kim sot tng ti nhim. TPLCS hng ti bo v hoc ci thin cht lng nc ca cc vng nc i tng bng cch gim thiu v kim sot ti nhim vng nc tip nhn. Nguyn tc c bn ca TPLCS gm cc im sau: i) m bo tt c cc ngun nhim lin quan n cng nghip, sinh hot, chn nui v nng nghip thi vo vng nc u c a vo i tng tnh ton v gim lng pht thi ca ti nhim. ii) Nm bt mt cch nh lng tng ti lng nhim. iii) Xc nh ti lng nhim v thit lp mc tiu gim ti bo v cht lng nc ca mi vng nc thng qua vic o c cht lng nc v lng nc ca vng nc i tng hoc nhng con sng chy vo vng nc i tng. V mc tiu gim ti, thit lp mt mc

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tiu gim ti nh lng ph hp vi thi gian mc tiu xc nh, v nm bt mt cch nh lng kt qu gim ti. Khi thit lp mc tiu gim ti, cn xt n s gia tng d kin ca ti lng nhim do pht trin cng nghip v gia tng dn s. iv) Khi gim ti lng nhim t cc ngun im nh nh my v c s kinh doanh, p dng phng php gim m c th gim ti lng nhim mt cch chc chn. v) Lp k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim vi nhiu bin php c thc hin t c mc tiu gim ti. Mt vi bc c th c b qua trong trng hp cn thc hin cc bin php cp bch i vi cc vng nc ang b nhim nhanh chng, v trng hp vic kim sot nhim c th mt nhiu thi gian v khng kp thi hon thnh mc tiu nu thc hin tt c cc bin php da trn 5 nguyn tc nu trn. V d, trong trng hp cn tn nhiu cng sc x l tt c nhng ngun nhim, c th bt u vi nhng ngun chim t l ln hn trong tng ti lng nhim. (Nh trnh by trong Mc 1.3, phng php kim sot tng ti lng nhim ln u tin c thc hin cho nc thi cng nhip Bin ni a Seto vo nm 1974, v t nm 1979 mt h thng mi c thc hin cho tt c cc ngun nhim. Khong 80% ti lng nhim c pht thi Bin ni a Seto vo nm 1972 c cho l t ngun thi cng nghip.) Tng t, nm bt mt cch nh lng tng ti lng nhim, c nhng trng hp rt kh tnh ton vi chnh xc cao do thiu cc d liu o thc t v thng tin thng k lin quan cn thit cho vic tnh ton vo giai on p dng. Nu mi trng nc ca vng nc b nhim nghim trng, cn phi nhanh chng gim ti nhim, trc ht phi thit lp lng gim mc tiu i vi cc ngun pht thi c th thc hin cc bin php gim ti, t c gng thc hin cc bin php. Khi , trong qu trnh tin hnh cc bin php gim ti, cn phi ng thi thc hin o ti lng pht thi v nm bt mt cch nh lng v ti lng gim thiu. Trong qu trnh thc hin, cn tng cng tp hp cc d liu o thc t v thng tin thng k c lin quan. Ngoi ra cng cn xy dng cc h thng, c cu nhm o c thc t v ghi li kt qu cht lng nc. Thng qua nhng n lc ny c th xc nh c tng ti lng nhim. Nh cp trn, thc hin TPLCS, cn phi nm bt c iu kin thc t ca c cu cng nghip, tnh cht khu vc, v.v thng qua kho st cht lng nc. Bi v vic kim sot tng ti lng c xy dng trn quan im c bn l ly tt c ngun nhim lm i tng, nn cc c quan qun l cng thuc phm vi rng ln vi nhiu lnh vc khc nhau, v vy cn phi phi hp v thit lp mi quan h hp tc vi cc b ngnh lin quan ny. H thng v c cu cn thit thc hin kim sot tng ti lng nhim c trnh by trong chng 3.

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Hai im sau y l yu t quyt nh cho php TPLCS vn hnh hiu qu: i) Qun l v gim thiu ti lng nhim mt cch nh lng
y l quan im cn bn ca TPLCS. TPLCS phi c tin hnh bng bin php nh lng, thng qua ti lng pht thi c gim xung v c kim sot mt cch cht ch, mang li hiu qu bo v hoc ci tin cht lng nc ca vng nc. Nguyn tc l thit lp mc tiu gim ti mt cch nh lng, v nh gi kt qu ca bin php gim ti, v thc hin iu cn phi nm c ti lng nhim ca nc thi v cht lng nc ca vng nc mt cch nh lng, v xy dng h thng v c cu tin hnh.

ii) Lp k hoch qun l tng lng nhim cho tt cc cc ngun nhim t mt quan im ton din, v thc hin kim sot v gim ti.
Trong tnh hung cn c cc bin php gim thiu ti lng pht thi khn cp do mc nhim nghim trng ca cht lng nc, nh ni trn, thay v dng thi gian x l vi tt c cc ngun nhim, c trng hp cn phi u tin ch v thc hin cc bin php cng sm cng tt i vi cc ngun chim t l cao hn trong tng lng ti. Tuy nhin, bo v cht lng ca nhng vng nc, nguyn tc chnh yu nht l cn phi nm bt v qun l tng ti lng nhim vng nc tip nhn, chnh l c s lp ra k hoch kim sot ti lng nhim hp l.

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Chng 2

Quy trnh thc hin TPLCS

Chng ny s trnh by cc quy trnh v phng php thc hin TPLCS, ch yu da trn nhng quy trnh c p dng ti Nht Bn. Vic chn cc quy trnh v phng php ph hp vi iu kin, thng l, cc vn trng im v nhu cu ca tng quc gia hay khu vc, v xem xt cc vn i vi tng quc gia hay khu vc da trn nhng im c bn l rt quan trng i vi TPLCS. Ngoi ra, ti Nht Bn, TPLCS tng bc pht trin qua nhiu nm, trong qu trnh gii quyt, iu chnh ln lt cc vn nh nghin cu kho st v tnh hnh nhim nc, k thut gim thiu ti pht thi, o lng cht lng nc, c ch nhim nc, cc vn v iu kin kinh t, v tnh hnh x hi. Do , TPLCS hin ti khng c thit lp ngay t giai on u. Trong trng hp ln u p dng TPLCS, d cho tt c cc vn trong vic thc hin TPLCS khng th c gii quyt cng mt lc, th iu quan trng l tch ly kin thc v kinh nghim trong qu trnh thc hin TPLCS, tng bc p dng bt u t nhng ni c th tin hnh v xy dng cc h thng v c cu. 2.1 nh ngha ti lng nhim nh ngha v khi nim v ti lng nhim c gii thch nh ni dung di y. Sau khi hnh thnh ti cc ngun nhim, ti lng nhim s c x l ti cc c s x l nc thi ca thnh ph v c thi vo cc vng nc nh sng ngi.... Trong qu trnh chy xui theo cc sng, ti lng nhim thng chu tc dng t lm sch ca t nhin v lng ng, sau chy ra bin, ao h. Thng qua qu trnh ny, ti lng nhim c s thay i. Do , chng ta cn xc nh r ti lng nhim thuc giai on no sau mi tin hnh cng vic xem xt. Di y l nh ngha ca cc thut ng: Ngun nhim: pht sinh ti nhim Ti lng nhim: ti lng nhim sinh ra ti ngun nhim Ti lng pht thi: ti lng nhim thi ra t ngun nhim vo vng nc (sng, bin, ao h). Ngoi ra, nh gi tc dng lm sch cc cht nhim trong qu trnh chy ra sng, ngi ta a ra khi nim t l ti nhim ti mt im. T l ti nhim ti mt im l t s gia ti lng nhim t n mt im nht nh trn h lu vi ti lng nhim c thi vo sng. T l ti nhim ti mt im c xc nh theo tng on sng trong thc t. Hnh di y minh ha qu trnh ny. Hnh 2.1 th hin mt trng hp c ti lng nhim c sinh ra t mt nh my, thi vo sng sau khi c lc ti mt c s x l nc thi thnh ph, v sau thi vo mt vng nc khp kn. Trong trng hp ny, nh my l ngun nhim.

21

Ti lng nhim l ti lng nhim do qu trnh sn xut ti nh my. Ti lng pht thi l ti lng nhim thi vo sng t nh my. Trong trng hp ny, v trong nh my c thit b x l nc thi, ti nhim b loi b y, nn ti lng pht thi nh hn ti lng nhim. Nu nh trong nh my khng c thit b x l nc thi, v ti nhim c th c thi ra, th ti lng nhim s bng vi ti lng pht thi. Ti lng pht thi thi ra c lm sch trong khi chy xui theo sng vo vng nc khp kn, v t s c th hin bi khi nim t l ti nhim ti mt im.
Nh my ( (ngun nhim)

nhim
C s x l nc thi thnh ph Lm sch

Ti lng

Ti lng pht thi

Sng
Lm sch t nhin trong khi sng thi vo
T l ti nhim ti mt im

Ti lng nhim vng bin khp kn tip nhn

khp kn

Vng nc

Hnh 2.1 S lung ca ti nhim v t l nhim ti mt im: v d t mt nh my Ngun nhim khng ch c cc nh my m cn c nc thi sinh hot, chn nui v t nng nghip, tt c u c th hin Hnh 2.2.

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Ngun nhim Nh my/c s kinh doanh


Ti lng nhim

T l loi b

1 Cng nghip

C s x l nc thi

Thi ra sng

Ti lng chy ra

2 Sinh hot

Sinh hot ca con ngi

Ti lng nhim

C s x l nc thi

(H thng thot nc v ( Johkasou)

Thi ra sng

Ti lng chy ra

3 Chn nui (quy m ln)

Chung tri

Ti lng nhim

C s x l nc thi

T l dng chy

Thi ra sng

Ti lng chy ra

Sng

4 Chn nui (quy m nh)

Gia sc

Ti lng nhim

Dng chy do ma

Ti lng chy ra

T l ti nhim ti mt im

Lc t nhin

Dng ti thi vo trong vng nc khp kn

khp kn

Vng nc

5 nghip t nng

Rung la/ Hoa mu/ cy n qu

Ti lng nhim

6 Khu vc nh ca san st/ ng x

Khu vc nh ca san st/ng x

Ti lng nhim

Gim ti lng nhim trc khi thi vo sng

Dng chy do ma

Ti lng chy ra

Dng chy do ma

Ti lng chy ra

7 Rng/ng c

Rng/ng c

Ti lng nhim

Ti lng chy ra

Dng chy do ma

8 Nui trng thy sn

C s nui trng thy sn

Ti lng nhim

Hnh 2.2 S lung cc ngun pht thi v ti nhim Trong hnh 2.2, mc 1 n mc 3 l ngun im v mc 4 n mc 8 l ngun mt. i vi chn nui trn quy m ln, c th kim sot theo n v tng chung tri, v vy chung tri chn nui c th c coi nh l mt ngun nhim. Ngc li, trng hp c quy m nh nh gia sc c nui vi s lng t cc h nng dn, v nhiu gia sc c chn nui tri rng theo mt phng, nhiu khi khng th xc nh v tr ca tng ngun nhim trong thc t, do c xt nh l ngun mt. i vi mc 8, hot ng nui trng thy sn c thit lp bn trong vng bin, do ti lng nhim c gi nh l s c th ho ln vo trong cc vng nc. Khi thc hin nui trng thy sn ti cc khu nui trng ngoi vng nc, ti lng nhim cha trong nc thi t cc ao nui thi vo vng nc c coi l ti lng pht thi. Trong Hnh 2.2, thut ng ti lng pht thi c s dng cho ngun im t mc 1 n mc 3, cn thut ng ti lng chy ra c s dng cho ngun mt t mc 4 ti mc 8. Ti lng dng chy v ti lng pht thi c ngha ging nhau im chng cng l ti lng nhim thi vo sng. S khc nhau nm phng php thi: trong khi t mc 1 n mc 3 h thng thot nc c xy dng x nc thi trc tip, th t mc 4 n mc 8 nc thi thng c thi ra m khng cn h thng thot nc, v lng nc thi ny chy t nhin xung cc dng sng nh vo cc cn ma, v.v.... T phn ny tr i, c hai dng ny u c gi l ti lng pht

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thi nu s khc nhau trn v mt ngha khng c g quan trng. Do ti nhim s thm thu vo t v c lm sch mt cch t nhin trong qu trnh t khi sinh ra n khi thi ra, ti lng chy ra thng nh hn ti lng nhim. T l ca ti lng nhim so vi ti lng chy ra c gi l t l dng chy. Ti lng c quy nh trong TPLCS l ti lng pht thi. 2.2 Khi qut quy trnh thc hin Hnh 2.3 m t quy trnh thc hin TPLCS. Quy trnh thc hin bt u vi kho st cht lng nc ca vng nc v tnh trng nhim, nh gi tnh trng ngun nhim ti vng nc, tnh hnh bin ng trong tng lai do pht trin kinh t quyt nh c cn thit phi thc hin kim sot tng ti lng nhim hay khng. Tip theo l thit lp mc tiu cht lng nc cho vng nc i tng. Sau ti lng pht thi s c tnh ton da vo cc d liu o cht lng nc cn cho vic tnh ton ti lng nhim trong khu vc i tng, d liu lin quan n cng nghip v s dng t.... Sau khi nh thi hn hon thnh mc tiu cht lng nc, xc nh mc tiu qun l ti lng nhim vng nc tip nhn da vo mc tiu cht lng nc. Cn tnh ton lng gim thiu cn thit ca ti lng pht thi t c gi tr mc tiu qun l. Xem xt cc bin php t c lng gim thiu cn thit , v tnh gp tng lng c th gim thiu. Tt c nhng thng tin ny c tp hp v tm tt trong K hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim s dng nh mt k hoch thc hin. Cc bin php c thc hin da trn k hoch kim sot tng ti nhim, v k hoch phi c sa i khi cn thit thng qua vic theo di tnh trng gim thiu ti lng nhim v ci thin cht lng nc. Hnh 2.3 th hin 12 bc theo th t. Tuy nhin, nhng bc ny khng nht thit phi c thc hin ng theo th t trong hnh, m cn tin hnh trong phm vi kh nng thc hin, v d nh khi cn thit c th thc hin nhiu bc cng mt lc.

24

Quyt nh p dng TPLCS

1) Xc nh nhng vng nc i tng ca TPLCS

(1)

Thit lp mc tiu cht lng nc

2) Thit lp mc tiu cht lng nc (2)

3) Thu thp d liu v cht lng nc thi v cc d liu lin (3) quan Tnh ton tng ti lng nhim 4) Tnh ton ti lng pht thi (4)

5) Phn tch dng chy ca ti lng nhim trong lu vc (5) Xem xt cc mc tiu gim ti

6) Thit lp mc tiu gim ti lng (6)

Xem xt cc bin php gim ti

7) Xem xt cc bin php gim ti lng (7)

8) Tnh gp ti lng c th ct gim (8)

Lp k hoch thc hin

9) Lp k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim (9)

10) Thc hin k hoch kim sot tng ti lngi nhim (10)

Thc hin k hoch v theo di 11) Xc nhn tnh hnh ci thin cht lng nc v tnh hnh (11) tnh trng thc hin ct gim ti lng pht thi

12) Xem xt li v pht trin k hoch kim sot ti lng (12) nhim

Hnh 2.3 Cc qu trnh trong TPLCS 2.3 Quy trnh thc hin TPLCS Ni dung v phng php lm vic s c trnh by theo tng bc mi giai on ca quy

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trnh thc hin TPLCS, da trn c s l cc phng php thc hin ti Nht Bn. (1) Xc nh vng nc i tng ca TPLCS Xc nh vng nc cn p dng TPLCS. Cc yu cu v vng nc cn phi p dng TPLCS c th hin Bng 2.1. Bng 2.1 Cc yu cu v vng nc cn p dng TPLCS Cc yu cu v vng nc cn p dng TPLCS: i) Vng nc b nhim nghim trng khin mi trng sng b suy thoi, ph hy h sinh thi v gy ra cc vn trong s dng nc. ii) Vng nc c mi trng nc cn phi c bo tn, v nng cht nhim cng vic xy dng cc nh my c d on s lm suy gim cht lng nc trong tng lai. iii) Vng nc ni m cc bin php c thc hin, bao gm c quy nh v nng nc thi, khng em li c li ch no ng k. xc nh vng nc ph hp vi cc yu cu ny hay khng, cn phi c thng tin sau: i) Tnh trng nhim cht lng nc c da trn d liu o cht lng nc. nh gi so snh vi Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc. ii) Mc ch s dng nc v k hoch s dng nc ca vng nc ang xt. iii) Tnh trng ca cc vn trong s dng nc. C pht sinh tnh trng nc ung c mi v l, ngnh ng nghip b thit hi, gi tr ca ngun ti nguyn du lch gim, v mi trng sng xung quanh b suy thoi hay khng, mc nghim trng, trin vng tng lai. iv) K hoch v trin vng tng lai v s gia tng dn s, xy dng cc nh my v pht trin cng nghip. v) Tnh hnh thc hin quy nh kim sot nc thi v tnh hnh tun th quy nh. Hiu qu ca cc quy nh trong bo v cht lng nc. Sau khi vng nc i tng ca TPLCS c xc nh, TPLCS nn c p dng ti mt khu vc c lin quan vi cht lng nc ca vng nc. Nhng khu vc c lin quan vi cht lng nc ca vng nc thng c chn l lu vc ni nc chy vo.

26

Ct 2: X l trong trng hp cn p dng TPLCS khn cp Trong trng hp nc b nhim nghim trng v vic gim ti lng pht thi tr thnh nhim v cp bch, hoc trng hp c nc u b nhim nc, th ton b cc vng t c nc u c ch nh l khu vc i tng. Ngoi ra, mt s nc, rt kh xc nh lu vc chy vo vng nc i tng do s phc tp ca dng chy ca sng hoc do c im thy vn. Trong nhng trng hp nh vy, c th ch nh n v hnh chnh nm lu vc lm khu vc i tng ca TPLCS. (2) Thit lp mc tiu cht lng nc Cc mc tiu cht lng nc c xc nh theo mc ch s dng nc ca vng nc i tng. Nu Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc c thit lp, th ly tiu chun ny lm mc tiu cht lng nc.

Ct 3: Tng quan gia Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc (COD, tng nit v tng pht pho) v mc ch s dng nc Nht Bn Nh c trnh by mc 1.2 (3), Nht Bn, Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc v cc ch s nhim hu c COD v BOD, cng nh cc ch s v s ph dng l tng nit v tng pht pho, trong TPLCS c t trong Tiu chun cht lng mi trng nc lin quan n bo v mi trng sng, v cc tiu chun mi trng lin quan c thit lp cho tng nhm phn theo mc ch s dng nc. Cc nhm ny c to ra tng ng vi s thch hp dng cho ngun nc my, nc phc v cng nghip, nng nghip, v vi mc x l lc nc a vo s dng, vi nhm loi ti nguyn thy sn, v vi mc ch bi li. Bng 2.2 n Bng 2.4 th hin mt cch gin lc nhm lm r mi lin quan gia mc ch s dng nc vi tiu chun v COD, tng nit v tng pht pho, thng l i tng ca TPLCS, trong cc Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng Nht Bn v nhim nc.

27

Bng 2.2 Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim Nc ti cc vng bin Nht Bn (COD, tng nit v tng pht pho)
Nhm Mc ch s dng nc Tiu chun mi trng Phc v cng nghip A B C Ti nguyn thy sn C trp , c trc sc vng, rong bin nu (wakame) C i mc, rong nori Khc Ngm cnh, tm bin COD 2mg/l tr xung 3mg/l tr xung Khng c cm gic kh chu trong sinh hot hng ngy Mc ch s dng nc Phc v cng nghip Ti nguyn thy sn nh bt trong tnh trng cn bng v n nh cc sinh vt thy sn bao gm c v cc ng vt gip xc di y. nh bt thy sn ch yu l c, ngoi tr mt s loi c v ng vt gip xc di y. Ch yu nh bt cc sinh vt c c trng chng nhim. Khc 8mg/l tr xung

Nhm

Tiu chun mi trng Tng nit Tng pht pho

Ngm cnh, tm bin Tm bin

0.2mg/l tr xung 0.3mg/l tr xung 0.6 mg/l tr xung

0.02 mg/l tr xung 0.03 mg/l tr xung 0.05 mg/l tr xung 0.09 mg/l tr xung

II

III

IV

Gii hn mi trng sng ca sinh vt di y c th sng qua nm

1mg/l tr xung

* Cc nhm ca vng nc lin quan n tng nit v tng pht pho c ch nh cho nhng vng bin lng thc vt ph d ang c xu hng tng mnh, v d nh cc vng bin khp kn. * Gi tr ca COD l gi tr trung bnh ngy, v gi tr ca tng nit v tng pht pho l gi tr trung bnh nm.

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Bng 2.3 Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc ti ao h Nht Bn (COD, tng nit v tng pht pho)
Nh m AA A Mc ch s dng nc Nc my Cc hot ng n gin nh lc Cc hot ng thng thng nh lng ng v lc, cc hot ng mc cao Phc v cng nghip Cc hot ng thng thng nh lng ng Phc v nng nghip Ti nguyn thy sn C hi Kokanee C hi, c hng Khc Ngm cnh, tm bin Tm bin Tiu chun mi trng COD 1mg/l tr xung 3mg/l tr xung

B C

C chp, c dic Cc hot ng mc cao nh tim ha cht Khng cm kh trong hot ngy c gic chu sinh hng

5mg/l tr xung 8mg/l tr xung

Nh m I II

Nc my

III IV V

Cc hot ng n gin, hot ng thng thng, hot ng mc cao Cc hot ng c th

Mc ch s dng nc Phc v Phc v Ti nguyn cng nng thy sn nghip nghip C hi, c hng

Tiu chun mi trng Khc Ngm cnh, tm bin Tm bin Tng nit 0,1mg/l tr xung 0,2mg/l tr xung Tng pht pho 0,005 mg/l tr xung 0.01 mg/l tr xung

C mp ao C chp, c dic Khng c cm gic kh chu trong sinh hot hng ngy

0,4mg/l tr xung 0,6 mg/l tr xung 1mg/l tr xung

0,03 mg/l tr xung 0,05 mg/l tr xung 0,1 mg/l tr xung

* Cc nhm ca vng nc lin quan n tng nit v tng pht pho c ch nh cho nhng vng bin lng thc vt ph du ao h ang c xu hng tng mnh. Tiu chun tng nit c p dng cho cc ao h c tng nit khin cc thc vt ph du ao h tng ln mt cch ng k. * Gi tr ca COD l gi tr trung bnh ngy, v gi tr ca tng nit v tng pht pho l gi tr trung bnh nm.

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Bng 2.4 Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc ti sng ngi Nht Bn (BOD)
Mc AA A Mc ch s dng nc Nc my Cc hot ng n gin nh lc Cc hot ng thng thng nh lng ng/lc Cc hot ng mc cao Phc v cng nghip Phc v nng nghip Ti nguyn thy sn C hi t lin (yamame), c hi ni (iwana) C chp, c dic C chp, c dic Khc Ngm cnh, tm bin Tm bin Tiu chun mi trng COD 1mg/l tr xung 2mg/l tr xung 3mg/l tr xung 5mg/l tr xung 8m/l tr xung

B C D

Cc hot ng thng thng nh lng ng Cc hot ng mc cao nh tim ha cht Cc hot ng c th

Khng cm kh trong hot ngy

c gic chu sinh hng

10mg/l tr xung

* Gi tr ca BOD l gi tr trung bnh ngy. (3) Thu thp d liu cht lng nc thi v cc d liu lin quan TPLCS l mt h thng nh lng, cn c tin hnh da trn cc c s khoa hc cng nhiu cng tt, do cn phi thu thp cc d liu lin quan. Nhng d liu ny c th c chia thnh 2 nhm chnh l d liu lin quan n mi trng nc v d liu lin quan n ngun pht sinh, hai nhm ny c trnh by bn di. Cng c trng hp giai on u ch thu thp c rt t d liu, iu quan trng l phi iu chnh c cu thu thp d liu v tng dn chnh xc trong qu trnh thc hin TPLCS. i) Thu thp d liu lin quan ti mi trng nc nm bt tnh trng nhim nc ca vng nc mt cch nh lng, v phn tch mi quan h gia dng chy ca cc cht nhim, ti lng vng nc tip nhn vi cht lng nc ca vng nc i tng, phi thu thp d liu v lu lng v cht lng ca vng nc i tng v cc sng, ao h c lin quan. Cc ti liu hin c c th khng cung cp d liu, do cht lng nc phi c o cng nhiu cng tt c y cc d liu, v thc hin tnh ton vi nhng d liu thu thp c. phn tch mi trng nc ca vng nc, ngoi d liu v cht lng nc, cn phi thu thp v tham kho nhng d liu sau y:

30

Bn a hnh ca cc khu vc xung quanh. iu kin kh hu (lng ma, bc x mt tri, nhit , hng gi, tc gi, m). Bn ca h thng thot nc, p, v tr cc ca ly nc chnh. Tnh trng ca cc knh dn nc v cng thot nc. Hin trng v xu hng s dng nc trong tng lai (nc ung, nc phc v cng nghip, nc phc v nng nghip). su vng nc, c im a hnh, mc thy triu, cc dng triu, nhit nc, mn. Tnh trng ca h sinh thi nh ng thc vt ii) Thu thp d liu lin quan ti cc ngun pht sinh ti nhim Trong TPLCS, vic tnh ton ti lng pht thi da trn d liu chnh xc nht c th l rt quan trng. Do , phi thu thp d liu lin quan n cc ngun pht sinh ti nhim. Tuy nhin, cc ti liu hin c c th khng cung cp c cc loi d liu, do ly d liu bng cch o cht lng nc thi cng nhiu cng tt, v tnh ton ti lng pht thi gn vi tnh trng thc t chnh xc nht trong phm vi c th. Cng c trng hp giai on u ch thu thp c rt t d liu, iu quan trng l phi iu chnh c cu thu thp d liu v tng dn chnh xc trong qu trnh thc hin TPLCS. Hnh 2.5 tm tt cc d liu cn thu thp. Bng 2.5 Cc d liu cn thu thp tnh ton ti lng pht thi
Ngun pht sinh ti nhim i) Cng nghip Nng nc thi v lng nc thi t cc nh my v c s kinh doanh D liu cn thu thp Trng hp khng c d liu ct bn tri, th iu tra cc mc sau y v tin hnh tnh ton c lng: Lng nc phc v cng nghip tiu th Hng mc sn phm, sn lng v gi tr xut hng S lng nhn vin Chng loi v s lng nguyn vt liu s dng Cc cng on sn xut Cc d liu khc ca mi lnh vc c th C h thng x l nc thi hay khng. Phng thc, cng sut x l v hiu sut hot ng (nu c lp t h thng).

ii) Sinh hot

Nh my x l nc thi

S dn c tr Mc ph bin ca cc h thng x l nc thi sinh hot (s dn lp ni vi h thng thot nc, s dn x l bng Johkansou v s dn c lin quan trng hp nc thi en c thu gom v x l) Lng khch du lch S dn thuc i tng x l ti nh my Nng v lng nc thi c x l

31

sau cng Johkasou

iii) Chn nui

Chung tri quy m ln

Chung tri quy m nh iv) t nng nghip

v) Khu vc nh ca san st

vi) Rng

vii) Nui trng thy sn

Phng php x l bn thi S dn thuc i tng Trng hp khng c d liu ct bn tri, x l th iu tra cc mc sau y v tin hnh Nng v lng nc tnh ton c lng: thi c x l Phng php x l nc thi Phng php x l bn Quy m ca Johkansou (s ngi thuc thi i tng x l) Nng v lng nc Trng hp khng c d liu ct bn tri, thi t cc chung tri th iu tra cc mc sau y v tin hnh tnh ton c lng: Loi gia sc S lng gia sc C h thng x l nc thi hay khng. Phng thc, cng sut x l v hiu sut hot ng (nu c lp t h thng). V nhng ni ny c xem l ngun mt v rt kh o ti ngun nhim, nn iu tra cc mc sau y v tin hnh tnh ton c lng: Loi v s lng gia sc trong khu vc V nhng ni ny c xem l ngun mt v rt kh o ti ngun nhim, nn iu tra cc mc sau y v tin hnh tnh ton c lng: Din tch t nng nghip (din tch theo tng loi nh rung la, ng hoa mu, vn cy n qu, v.v) Lng phn bn ha hc s dng V nhng ni ny c xem l ngun mt v rt kh o ti ngun nhim, nn iu tra cc mc sau y v tin hnh tnh ton c lng: Din tch ca khu vc nh ca san st V nhng ni ny c xem l ngun mt v rt kh o ti ngun nhim, nn iu tra cc mc sau y v tin hnh tnh ton c lng: Din tch ca rng, ng c V nhng ni ny c xem l ngun mt v rt kh o ti ngun nhim, nn iu tra cc mc sau y v tin hnh tnh ton c lng: Loi, s lng v lng xut hng ca cc loi thy sn nui nh c, tm, v.v Lng thc n

(4) Tnh ton ti lng pht thi Tnh ton ti lng nhim cho tng ngun nhim: cng nghip, sinh hot, chn nui, t nng nghip, khu vc nh ca san st, rng v nui trng thy sn. Ti lng ca ngun nhim bt k c tnh ton t d liu v cht lng hoc s lng nc thi da trn nguyn tc o c thc t. Nu khng c nhng d liu lin quan, th thit lp ti lng nhim trn mt n v, v d nh s lng chung tri hay din tch t nng nghip, nh l n v gc v da vo tnh ton (sau y gi l phng php n v gc). Nht Bn, ti nhng khu vc thc hin TPLCS, cc nh my v c s kinh doanh vi lng nc thi 50m3/ngy tr ln c xc nh l i tng ca cc tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng 32

nhim, do nhng nh my v c s kinh doanh ny c yu cu phi o cht lng v s lng nc thi. i vi nhng c s kinh doanh nh vi lng nc nc thi di 50m3/ngy cng nh cc lnh vc kinh doanh khng thuc i tng quy nh, cc thc th kinh doanh khng b yu cu phi o nhng d liu lin quan, do khng c d liu, ti lng pht thi c tnh bng phng php n v gc. i vi nhm nc thi sinh hot, ti lng pht thi phi c o ti cc nh my x l nc thi, Johkasou quy m ln, nh my x l nc thi en. Cc Johkasou quy m nh khng b yu cu phi o, do khng c d liu, ti lng pht thi c tnh bng phng php n v gc. i vi chn nui, cc chung tri quy m ln c xc nh thuc i tng ca cc tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim, do cn phi o ti lng pht thi. Nhng d liu ny khng phi o ti cc chung tri quy m nh, do khng c d liu lin quan, ti lng pht thi c tnh bng phng php n v gc (xem Bng 2.6). Phng php tnh ton chi tit c th hin trong Ti liu tham kho 2. Ct 4: V d v x l khi gi tr o thc t do cc nh my v c s kinh doanh khai bo thiu tin cy Nu d liu o thc t c da theo khai bo ca cc nh my v c s kinh doanh, v d liu thiu tin cy do c quan c thm quyn qun l gim st khng y , vi quan im tnh ton cng chnh xc cng tt, trong thc t cng c trng hp tin hnh thc hin xc nhn tin cy ca d liu o bng cch thc hin song song phng php n v gc. Trong trng hp ny, i vi cc nh my v c s kinh doanh c d liu o thc t khc bit rt nhiu so vi gi tr c tnh ton bng phng php n v gc, th s cn phi kim tra cn thn, v ty tng trng hp c th tin hnh o li. Bng 2.6 Cc phng php tnh ti lng nhim theo tng ngun pht sinh ti Nht Bn
o ti c s kinh doanh Cng nghip Nh my/C s kinh doanh i tng kim sot Lng nc thi 50m3/ngy tr ln tng ti lng nhim Khng thuc i Lng nc thi di 50m3/ngy tng kim sot Lnh vc kinh doanh khng c quy nh tng ti lng nhim Nh my x l nc thi dnh cho nc thi cng nghip Nh my x l nc thi Johkasou X l nc thi sinh Johkasou cho 501 ngi tr ln hot t cc nh my, Johkasou cho Lng nc thi 50m3/ngy c s kinh doanh, 201 ngi tr ln tr ln vn phng Lng nc thi di 50m3/ngy Johkasou cho khng qu 200 ngi X l nc thi sinh Johkasou cho 501 ngi tr ln hot t cc nh Johkasou cho Lng nc thi 50m3/ngy 201 ngi tr ln tr ln Lng nc thi Phng php n v gc

Sinh hot

33

Chn nui

t nng nghip Cc loi t khc Nui trng thy sn

di 50m3/ngy Johkasou cho khng qu 200 ngi Cc nh my x l nc thi en (cc c s thu gom v x l tp trung phn t cc nh v sinh kiu ngi xm) Nc thi sinh hot cha x l 3 Cc chung tri thuc i tng kim Tru Lng nc thi 50m /ngy tr ln v 2 sot tng ti lng nhim b din tch ca chung b 200m tr ln 3 Nga Lng nc thi 50m /ngy tr ln v 2 din tch ca chung nga 500m tr ln Heo Lng nc thi 50m3/ngy tr ln v din tch ca chung heo 50m2 tr ln Khng thuc i tng kim sot tng ti lng nhim Cc nh my x l nc thi t chn nui Rung la ng hoa mu/vn cy n qu Rng Cc loi t khc Mt bin B mt nc ngt

(5) Phn tch ti nhim trong lu vc Ti pht thi c lm sch mt cch t nhin trong qu trnh chy i theo cc con knh hay con sng cho n khi chy vo vng nc, v ti lng ny cng thay i do tc dng t lm sch ti cc vng bin, ao h. Do , mc ny s i vo phn tch ti lng nhim c pht thi ra thay i nh th no trong qu trnh chy i thng qua vic tm hiu ng chy v c ch bin ng, lm sch v tch ly. C cu thay i ca ti nhim trong nhng vng nc nh th ny rt phc tp v kh phn tch chnh xc, trong thc t ngi ta thc hin nhng bc sau: i) Tm hiu khu tp trung nc v h thng sng ngi Tham kho cc bn h thng sng ngi tiu thot nc v lp bn lu vc cho mi khu vc, tm hiu xem nc thi t ngun nhim chy theo ng i nh th no n cc ao h, vng bin. ii) Tnh ton t l ti nhim ti mt im Ti pht thi c lm sch mt cch t nhin trong qu trnh chy vo cc vng nc. nh gi kh nng lm sch , ngi ta tnh ton t l ti nhim ti mt im. Khi nim ca t l ti nhim ti mt im c trnh by trong mc 2.1. T l ti nhim ti mt im l t s gia ti lng pht thi vi ti lng chy vo. Trong mc ny, ti lng pht thi s dng kt qu tnh ton trong mc 2.3 (4), v ti lng chy vo c tnh t d liu o thc t ca lu lng v cht lng nc ca cc con sng. T l ti nhim ti mt im c tnh bng cch chia con sng thnh nhiu on nu sng di hoc iu kin b sng v y sng c thay i ln. Nu h thng sng c cc im s dng nc quan trng nh ca ly nc, th c th ngt on ti cc im . i vi nhng nhnh sng ln th c th ngt ti nhng im khc. Cc v d ny c th hin trong Hnh 2.4, v tt c nhng trng hp ny u cn phi nm c h thng sng ngi tiu thot nc trong lu vc.

34

im chun trung gian Dng chnh

im chun ti ca sng

Vng nc

khp kn

im chun ti A cui nhnh A

Ti lng chy vo

Nhnh A A

im o cht lng v lng nc

Trong v d ny, im o c t ti ca dng chy chnh, v cht lng v lng nc c thc hin o c. Ngoi ra, vic o lng cn c thc hin ti im chun trung gian nm gia im cui nhnh A (im hp dng vi dng chy chnh) v dng chy chnh. Trong trng hp ny, t l ti nhim ti mt im thng lu t im chun trung gian c tnh t tng ti lng pht thi (mi tn nt t) thng lu t im chun trung gian v ti lng pht thi ti im chun trung gian. Tng t nh vy cng tnh c t l ti nhim ti mt im ca nhnh A. i vi dng chy chnh h lu t im chun trung gian, c th tm tng ca ti lng pht thi ti im (mi tn nt lin), ti lng nhim chy t im chun trung gian (o ti im chun trung gian) v ti lng nhim chy t nhnh A (o ti cui nhnh A), v tm t l vi ti lng nhim ti ca sng tnh t l ti nhim ti mt im.

Hnh 2.4 Biu m hnh mt lu vc v cc im o iii) Phn tch s bin i ca ti lng nhim trong vng nc khp kn lm r mi quan h gia ti lng chy vo vng nc khp kn nh vng bin khp kn hoc ao h vi cht lng nc ca vng nc khp kn, bc tip theo l phn tch cc iu kin nh nhn t bin ng sinh ra trong vng bin hay ao h, s dng m hnh th hin Hnh 2.5.

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Hnh trn trng th hin tng ti nhim Hnh trn en th hin gim ti nhim

3 Nc ngng t trong kh quyn (chy vo nh ma, v.v)

nh bt hi sn nh c, s c

Lm sch nh thc vt 5 Lm sch nh t bn v m ly

1 Chy vo t sng

6 Hnh thnh bn trong 6 Phn hy bn trong

Vng nc khp kn
2 Chy vo trc tip t ngun 4 Chy trn 2 Chy ra 5 Ra gii

7 Chy vo t bn ngoi 7 Chy ra bn ngoi

Nc ngm

Kt ta/ lng ng Trm tch y

* C xt n s chy ra sng h lu nu vng nc khp kn l ao h. * C xt n s chy ra vng bin ngoi hoc chy vo t vng bin ngoi nu vng nc khp kn l vng bin khp kn.

Hnh 2.5 Nhng nhn t bin ng chnh ca ti nhim trong vng nc khp kn Vic m hnh ha c th tin hnh theo 2 phng php sau y: a) Phng php m hnh ha mi quan h nhn qu trong c ch bin ng ti nhim mt cch trung thc nht, v lp cng thc phn tch th hin hin tng bng cch kt hp cc m hnh ny. b) Phng php tm mi quan h tng ng gia u vo v u ra ca ti lng nhim mt cch thng k. V d nh tm mi quan h tng ng gia tng ti lng chy vo v ti lng chy ra t vng nc khp kn mt cch thng k. Trong phng php a, s lng cng thc v h s s dng trong m hnh tng ln tng ng vi phc tp ca cc d liu lin quan, do cn phi tin hnh kho st c c cc d liu chnh xc v kho st thm nh m hnh. V cc hin tng xy ra ti vng bin v cc ao h thng phc tp, nn s rt kh m hnh ha mt cch chi tit, v vy quan trng l tin hnh phn tch trong phm vi c th, ch n hin tng c nh hng ln n cht lng nc ca vng nc. Ni chung, u tin l p dng cc m hnh n gin, sau tng bc xem xt cc m hnh phc tp hn nu cn thit. Trong nhng nm gn y ti Nht Bn, nh vo s tin b ca k thut m phng trn my tnh, cng c trng hp thc hin m phng my tnh, v nhng m phng ny c s dng nh mt ngun ti liu tham kho. Vo thi im a vo p dng, trc ht cn phi tm hiu hin trng trong phm vi c th da vo cc d liu c c, v tin hnh cc bc phn tch tip theo. Cn phi tch ly d liu v cht lng nc ca vng nc dn dn c c hiu bit su sc hn trong qu trnh thc hin kim sot tng ti lng nhim.

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Phng php a ph thuc vo vic m hnh c to ra trn phn nh hin tng trung thc nh th no, nhng thng thng a l phng php tng i phc tp. Mc d phng php b tng i n gin, nhng phng php ny suy ra mi tng quan m tm thi khng xt n hiu bit v c ch bn trong vng nc, do trong phm vi c th nn p dng phng php a. (6) Thit lp mc tiu gim ti lng Nn thit lp mc tiu gim tng ti lng pht thi v thi im hon thnh mc tiu. Thi im hon thnh mc tiu nn c quyt nh da trn thi gian cn thit thc hin cc bin php gim ti v mc bc thit ca vic ci thin cht lng nc trong vng nc i tng. V mc tiu gim ti v nhng iu kin tin quyt trong k hoch kim sot tng ti lng s thay i nu c thay i ln ca cc iu kin khch quan, nh s tin b ca k thut, hon cnh kinh t x hi. cho nn cn trnh thit lp thi im mc tiu qu xa trong tng lai. Thng thng, thi gian t 3 n 5 nm c cho l thch hp. Nht, thi im mc tiu thng c thit lp c mi 5 nm, Trung Quc mc tiu gim tng ti lng cng thng c thit lp theo K hoch 5 nm. Ngoi ra, nhng mc tiu trung gian c th c thit lp vo nhng thi im trung gian ch nh m bo s hon thnh mc tiu. V cch thit lp mc tiu gim ti, nn thit lp lng gim cn thit t c mc tiu cht lng nc ra, ch th theo cch thc t trn xung. Nu mc tiu gim ti ny kh c th hon thnh v cc iu kin k thut, kinh t v ti chnh hin ti, th nn thit lp mt mc tiu khc kh thi hn vi cc iu kin ti thi im , v tng dn mc chun gim ti, tng bc hng n mc tiu ci thin cht lng nc. thit lp mc tiu nhm hon thnh mc tiu ci thin cht lng nc theo cch thc t trn xung, bc tip theo l phi tnh ton ti lng chy vo cho php t mc tiu cht lng nc cui cng bng cch s dng t l ti nhim ti mt im c tnh mc (5) v d liu phn tch bin ng ti lng nhim trong vng nc khp kn, v ly ti lng ny lm mc tiu gim ti. Trc khi thit lp mc tiu gim ti, nn lp d on v s tng ti lng nhim cho n thi im hon thnh mc tiu. cc nc c nn cng nghip v kinh t pht trin, do c th d on trc v s xy dng mi cc nh my v s gia tng dn s, nn cn phi tnh n phn ti lng nhim tng ln do s xut hin ca cc ngun nhim mi khi xem xt n lng gim thiu cn thit i vi cc ngun nhim hin ti. Nhng mc tiu kh khi nn c thit lp bng cch tng hp kt qu x l nc thi ti nh my v cc c s kinh doanh, ti lng c th gim thiu v mt k thut nh vo cc x l tin tin v ti lng c th gim thiu nh vo cc k hoch xy dng cc h thng thot nc mi.

37

(7) Xem xt bin php gim ti lng pht thi Cc bin php gim ti nn c xem xt ty vo tng kiu ngun pht thi. i) Cc bin php i vi cc ngun pht thi t cng nghip TPLCS quy nh mc tng lng i vi ti lng pht thi. Cc nh my v c s kinh doanh c gng gim ti lng pht thi bng cch lp t, tng cng cc h thng x l nc thi, thay i cc cng on sn xut v nguyn vt liu nhm p ng c cc tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim. m bo cc nh my v cc c s kinh doanh thc hin cc bin php ny, cc c quan nh nc bn cnh vic a ra cc hng dn k thut c th cn cn phi thc hin nghim x pht hnh chnh v x pht hnh s nu khng p ng c cc tiu chun. Ngoi ra, khi p dng kim sot tng ti lng nhim cho ti lng pht thi, yu cu cn c nhng n lc song song m bo vic tun th cc tiu chun kim sot i vi ti lng pht thi c quy nh. Bn cnh vic hng dn k thut v qun l gim st ca cc c quan hnh chnh c cp, cn c cc bin php h tr b sung nh cho vay ti chnh li thp i vi trng hp huy ng vn lp t h thng x l nc thi, km hm c tnh x hi i vi cc doanh nghip.... Nhiu bin php khc nhau c th c s dng m bo cc nh my v cc c s kinh doanh tun th cc tiu chun. Vic kt hp cc bin php ny cho ph hp vi iu kin ca mi nc, hng n pht trin ton din l iu rt quan trng. Mc 3.3 v 3.4 m t cc hot ng nhm t c mc ch cng nh cc v d in hnh ti Nht Bn. Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim ca Nht Bn c trnh by trong Ti liu tham kho 3. ii) Cc bin php i vi cc ngun pht thi t sinh hot V cc bin php i vi ngun pht thi t sinh hot, tin hnh x l nc thi sinh hot bng cch xy dng cc h thng thot nc v nng cp cc h thng x l nc thi. Cc h thng thot nc ch yu c xy dng nhng khu vc th ng dn c. cc vng nng thn v nhng khu tp trung dn c khc th xy dng cc h thng thot nc quy m nh v x l tp trung nc thi. Vi cc vng dn c tha tht th nn lp t Johkasou cho tng h. Vic y mnh x l nc thi sinh hot cn c trin khai mt cch c k hoch. Nht Bn, i vi h thng thot nc, t nm 1963 trin khai vic lp k hoch 5 nm cho cng tc ci thin h thng thot nc. cp a phng (thnh ph, th trn, lng x), ty thuc vo s phn b dn c m la chn s dng h thng thot nc trn phm vi rng, h thng thot nc quy m nh v h thng Johkasou tng h, v xy dng cc k hoch x l nc thi sinh hot. Cc h thng thot nc tp trung nc thi thng qua cc ng dn v thc hin vic x l tp trung mt cch hiu qu, tuy nhin li khng l la chn kinh t nhng khu vc tha dn c bi v khong cch lp t cc ng dn thng rt di. Do , vic p dng phng php x l nc thi sinh hot ph hp vi

38

iu kin ca tng khu vc s em li hiu qu cao hn, v mi khu vc chn ra mt phng php x l hiu qu, xt n cc yu t dn s, mt dn s v s phn b dn c. Vic lp k hoch x l nc thi sinh hot c trnh by trong mc 3.5. Bn thi hnh thnh trong cc nh my x l nc thi v Johkasou cn phi c x l. Nu bn thi ny c nguyn khng c x l, n c th chy vo cc vng nc khi tri ma, gy ra nhim th cp. Phng php x l bn thi bao gm kh nc/thiu t v phn. Tnh hnh x l bn thi ti Nht Bn c trnh by trong Ti liu tham kho 5. Mc gim ti lng pht thi t sinh hot c tnh ton da trn k hoch ph bin h thng thot nc/Johkasou, k hoch nng cp x l nc thi, cng vi nhng thay i v s dn thuc i tng x l bng h thng thot nc/Johkasou, hiu sut x l ti cc c s x l nc thi. iii) Cc bin php i vi ngun pht thi t chn nui Cc bin php i vi ngun pht thi t chn nui phi ti u ha vic bo qun cc cht thi t vt nui, v y l ngun pht thi chnh. Cc chung tri quy m ln nn c p dng kim sot nc thi theo quy nh v kim sot tng ti lng. i vi cc chung tri quy m nh, hng dn lp t cc h thng lm sch nh l mt bin php ring l t vic xem xt n xu hng tp trung ha v m rng quy m cng vi s pht trin ca kinh t v x hi. iv) Cc bin php i vi t nng nghip Bin php i vi t nng nghip l hng n mc tiu lm gim dng chy vo ca cc cht dinh dng l hp cht ca nit v pht pho, thng qua vic s dng phn bn mt cch thch hp. Tuy nhin, v lng phn bn c nh hng ln n sn lng thu hoch ca cc nng sn, cho nn cn xem xt thn trng lng thch hp va c th gim ti va m bo c sn lng. Phng php ti tiu tun hon c khuyn khch p dng trn cc rung la, v nc thi t rung la vi ti lng nhim cao s c lun chuyn v ti s dng. v) Cc bin php i vi cc khu vc nh ca san st Ti t cc ngun nhim ch yu chy vo cc vng nc cng vi nc ma. Do , cc bin php lin quan bao gm ngn khng cho cc cht nhim tch t trn mt t hay mi nh tri i, loi b cc cht nhim, v kim sot dng nc chy. ngn khng cho cc cht nhim tch t tri i v loi b chng, c th cm vt rc, thc hin thu gom v x l rc, dn sch mt ng v cc rnh tiu hai bn, v.v... kim sot dng nc chy, c th xy dng cc cng trnh thm ht nc ma nh khoang thm nc ma v cng thot nc ma, hoc cc cng trnh cha, x l nc ma.

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vi) Cc bin php i vi rng Cc bin php ny bao gm vic ci thin vn qun l rng, kim sot s xa mn v trm tch, v ngn chn cc hnh vi vt rc, cht thi bt hp php. (8) Tnh gp tng lng c th gim Tnh tng ti lng gim c nh cc phng php gim trnh by mc (7). Sau so snh gi tr tng vi mc tiu gim tng ti lng nhim, xem xt xem c p ng c mc tiu gim ti hay khng. Nu gi tr tng p ng c mc tiu gim ti, th bc tip theo l quyt nh c nn p dng bin php hay khng, u tin thc hin, da vo thi gian thc hin, mc d dng thc hin, v kinh ph ca mi phng php. Nu khng p ng c mc tiu gim ti, th cn phi xem xt li cc bin php gim ti, thm vo cc bin php gim ti khc. Nu cc bin php sa i vn cha p ng c mc tiu gim ti, th cn xem xt li mc tiu gim ti t quan im xy dng mt k hoch kh thi. (9) Lp k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim Sau khi thc hin xem xt nh cc mc trn, kt qu l s nm bt mt cch nh lng v tnh hnh ti lng hin ti, v c c cc mc tiu gim ti (thi im hon thnh mc tiu v tng ti lng pht thi ti thi im ), v cc bin php gim ti. K hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim s c chia s vi cc ban ngnh qun l v cc c quan hnh chnh a phng c lin quan, nn cn phi c ph chun thng qua cc th tc ni b ca khu vc hnh chnh. Ti Nht Bn, B trng B Mi trng ra ng li c bn v kim sot tng ti lng, trn c s , cc tnh trng c ngha v phi lp k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim. Trong trng hp ny, cc th tc cho vic lng nghe kin ca B trng B Mi trng, cc b ngnh v cc c quan hnh chnh a phng s c quy nh. Quy trnh ny c th hin trong Hnh 2.6 bn di.

40

B trng B Mi trng
ng li c bn v kim sot tng ti lng nhim

Tnh trng/th trng

trn din rng

Lng nghe kin ca cc tnh trng/th trng

Thng qua Hi ngh v kim sot nhim mi trng

Ni dung ca ng li c bn v kim sot tng ti lng nhim trn din rng Mc tiu gim ti ca mi ngun pht thi Mc tiu gim ti ca mi tnh thnh

Quyt nh

Thng bo Lng nghe kin ca ngi ng u thnh ph, th trn, lng x

ng thun (S ng thun phi c ( thng qua Hi ngh v kim sot nhim mi trng)

K hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim

* Hi ngh v kim sot nhim mi trng c ch tr bi B trng B Mi trng, bao gm nhng ngi ng u cc c quan hnh chnh c lin quan (cc b trng). Quyt nh

tng lng ti nhim Ni dung ca k hoch kim sot Mc tiu gim ti lng nhim ca mi ngun pht thi Phng php hon thnh mc tiu gim ti Cc ni dung cn thit khc gim tng ti lng nhim
Cng b

Hnh 2.6 Quy trnh lp k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim ti Nht Bn Trong k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim, ngoi cc bin php gim ti, nn a vo cc ni dung lin quan, nh l vic o lng thc t cht lng nc v lu lng ca vng nc, kim tra gim st nc thi nh my, cc bin php h tr lp t h thng x l nc thi ti cc nh my, vic xy dng c cu xc tin k hoch gim ti lng nhim.... Bng 2.7 th hin mt mc lc tiu biu cho k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim ti Nht Bn.

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Bng 2.7 Mc lc tiu biu ca k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim ti Nht Bn K hoch gim tng nhu cu oxy ha hc, nit v pht pho 1. Lng gim mc tiu (Mc mc tiu cho nm ti chnh mc tiu) (1) Nhu cu oxy ha hc (2) Hm lng nit (3) Hm lng pht pho 2. Cc phng php t c lng gim mc tiu 2.1. Cc bin php i vi nc thi sinh hot (1) Xy dng h thng thot nc (2) Xy dng cc cng trnh x l nc thi sinh hot khc (3) Cc bin php dnh cho nc thi sinh hot t cc h gia nh 2.2 Cc bin php i vi nc thi cng nghip (1) Thit lp tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim (2) Cc bin php cho cc c s kinh doanh khng p dng theo tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim 2.3. Cc bin php i vi cc ngun nhim khc (1) Cc bin php gim ti lng nhim t t nng nghip (2) Cc bin php i vi nc thi chn nui (3) Ci thin cc khu nui trng thy sn 3. Cc ni dung cn thit khc lin quan n gim tng ti lng nhim (1) Ti cu trc vng tun hon nc (2) Xc tin cc d n lm sch nc (a) Xc tin cc d n lm sch nc sng ngi, knh nc (b) Xc tin cc d n ci to cn lng (3) Bo tn v phc hi sng ngi, b bin v bi triu (4) Xy dng h thng kim tra (5) Tm hiu v gio dc v mi trng, cc hot ng nng cao nhn thc (a) Tm hiu v gio dc v mi trng (b) Cc hot ng nng cao nhn thc (6) Xy dng h thng nghin cu kho st (7) Cc bin php h tr cho cc doanh nghip va v nh (10) Thc hin k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim Vic kim sot tng ti lng nhim i vi ti lng pht thi t cc nh my v cc c s kinh doanh c thc hin nh mt bin php chnh trong TPLCS. Ngoi ra, cc ngun im nh bnh vin, khu nh , cc nh hng ln, nh bp ln ch bin cm hp v thc n nu sn, xng sa

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cha t, c s git trong ngnh git l, chung tri quy m ln, nh my x l nc thi, Johkasou quy m ln, v nh my x l nc thi en, v.v... cng c xem l cc i tng kim sot tng ti lng i vi ti lng pht thi. Cc hot ng nh hng dn k thut gim nhim nn c tin hnh song song vi cc quy nh lin quan. Cc bin php nh xy dng h thng thot nc, bo qun cht thi t vt nui theo cch thch hp, v xc tin x l cn c thc hin theo cc k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim. Khi thc hin cc bin php gim tng lng nhim nh th ny, th cn thit phi xy dng cc c cu, h thng c lin quan v phi hp, xy dng mi quan h vi cc ban ngnh qun l lin quan, nh trnh by mc 1.5. Vic kim sot tng ti lng nhim c thc hin theo cc c cu v h thng . (11) Xc nhn tnh hnh ci thin cht lng nc v tnh hnh gim ti lng pht thi Thc hin tnh ton tng ti lng pht thi ti thi im mc tiu v xc nh c hon thnh mc tiu hay khng, mc hon thnh nh th no. Ngoi ra, xc nhn tnh hnh ci thin cht lng nc vng nc i tng, xem xt, nh gi hiu qu kim sot tng ti lng nhim. (12) R sot v sa i k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim pht trin k hoch Theo mc (11), cc kt qu v thnh qu ca k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim s c tng kt, xem xt hng i sau ny ca TPLCS, r sot k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim, v tin hnh xem xt k hoch mi. Khi r sot v xem xt k hoch, cn cn nhc cc im sau y: a. Xc nhn mc hon thnh mc tiu gim ti Trng hp mc tiu khng c hon thnh, tin hnh tm hiu l do v bin php i ph, phn nh vo trong k hoch k tip theo. b. Xc nhn tnh trng thay i cht lng nc Cn xc nhn kt qu gim ti lng nhim vng nc tip nhn nh hng th no n cht lng nc. Nu cht lng nc vn cha p ng c cht lng mc tiu, th cn phi tng cng TPLCS. cc vng nc m tnh trng nhim nc tr nn trm trng, c trng hp d thc hin kim sot tng ti lng nhim nhng cng khng th thy cht lng nc c ci thin. Nhng trng hp ny xy ra rt nhiu ti Nht Bn, l do l ti lng nhim tch t trong vng nc v cn lng qu nhiu n mc d cho hn ch lng chy vo cng khng th gim ti lng nhim trong vng nc. Tuy nhin, ngay c trong cc trng hp nh th ny, nu tip tc thc hin TPLCS, cht lng nc s cho thy nhng du hiu ci thin theo thi gian. iu quan trng l phi kin tr thc hin TPLCS. c. Xem xt da trn tnh hnh xy dng c cu thc hin v cc h thng lin quan Bng cch tn dng cc thnh qu t c trong qu trnh thc hin TPLCS, c th tin hnh

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cc hot ng hiu qu hn trong k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim k tip theo. Khi mi bt u p dng, mc d nu nh vn cn nhiu vn cha gii quyt, th cc vn ny s c gii quyt trong qu trnh thc hin TPLCS. V d nh, cng thu thp c nhiu d liu o thc t, th cng c th xem xt lng gim mc tiu v gi tr mc tiu qun l mt cch khoa hc hn. Cc ngun pht thi khng th ly lm i tng xem xt trong giai on p dng TPLCS c th c a lm i tng ca TPLCS bng cch tp trung cc d liu thng k lin quan. Nu nghin cu v c ch nhim ca vng nc tin trin v mang li hiu bit su sc hn v c ch, th c th xem xt k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim da trn nhng c s khoa hc hn. Bng cch ny, vic c gng hon thnh thc hin TPLCS bng cch vn dng cc kinh nghim v thnh qu c c trong qu trnh thc hin kim sot tng ti lng nhim l rt quan trng. 2.4 p dng h thng ph hp vi nhu cu v tnh hnh ca a phng Cc quy trnh v ni dung thc hin TPLCS c trnh by mc 2.3, da trn cc phng php c p dng ti Nht Bn. Khi thc hin TPLCS trong thc t, iu quan trng l phi lm cho TPLCS tng ng vi tnh trng ca vng nc i tng v mc ch p dng, iu chnh cho ph hp vi tnh hnh ca quc gia, khu vc. Ngoi ra, khi p dng TPPLCS ln u tin, thng rt kh thc hin hon ton TPLCS. Do cn phi xem xt cch thc p dng TPLCS da trn tnh hnh v nhu cu ca khu vc lin quan. Mc 2.4 ny a ra 2 v d v trnh by cch thc p dng TPLCS v nhng im cn ch khi p dng TPLCS. Mt v d gi nh tnh trng nhim nc ngy cng nghim trng v phi khn cp gim ti lng pht thi. V d cn li gi nh rng c lo ngi xy ra nhim nc do s gia tng dn s v pht trin cng nghip. C hai v d c th c ch trong vic lm th no c th p dng TPLCS mt cch ph hp vi nhu cu v tnh hnh ca a phng. (1) V d 1: nhim nc trong vng nc ngy cng nghim trng v phi khn cp gim ti lng pht thi Nu tnh hnh cht lng nc ca vng rt nghim trng v c nguy c ngy mt tr nn xu hn, cn phi gp rt gim ti lng pht thi. Trong trng hp , cn phi thc hin nhng bin php chc chn mang li hiu qu, ch ti ngun pht thi c nh hng ln n cht lng nc ca vng nc. Khi p dng TPLCS trong trng hp ny, phi ch trng nhng im di y ph hp vi tng hon cnh: i) Khi tnh ton ti lng pht thi, u tin tin hnh vic xc nh ngun pht thi c nh hng ln n cht lng nc. ii) Khi phn tch lung bin ng ca ti nhim trong vng nc, nn thc hin bng phng php n gin.

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iii) Khi bt u thit lp mc tiu gim ti, nn t mc tiu gim ti ln nht trong kh nng c th thc hin c. iv) i vi cc nh my v c s kinh doanh, cn phi quy nh tng ti lng nhim. Nn thit lp tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim c th chc chn gim c tng lng nhim mt cch hp l, ch xt n vic ti lng nhim tng do cc nh my mi xy dng. Khi ngun thi sinh hot chim t trng ln, cn phi u tin thc hin nhng bin php c th thc hin ngay. Nu nc thi cha c x l chy ra cc vng nc bn ngoi, cn u tin p dng phng php gim nhim chc chn vi gi thnh thp, chng hn nh ht nc thi trc tip, v ng thi kt hp vi bin php x l tp trung. v) Vic ci thin cht lng nc c th khng cho thy ngay kt qu r rng nu nhim nc qu nghim trng, nhng c quan chc nng nn tip tc thc hin TPLCS, v theo di tnh trng thay i ca mi trng nc trong vng nc. (2) V d 2: Lo ngi xy ra nhim nc do s gia tng dn s v pht trin cng nghip Khi s pht trin ca cng nghip v s gia tng dn s do s khai thc trn lu vc c th d on trc c, th mt k hoch qun l ti nhim d phng l cn thit. Nu cn phi bo v cht lng nc v vng nc c s dng lm ngun cung cp nc ung, th cn phi thc hin nhng bin php c bit. Trong trng hp , vic qun l ch xc ti lng pht thi da trn c s mi trng vng nc v ngun ti nhim chy vo, xt n ti lng nhim d on s tng trong tng lai, l rt quan trng. Khi p dng TPLCS trong trng hp ny, iu quan trng l thc hin nhng bin php ch trng nhng im sau y: i) Khi thit lp mc tiu cht lng nc cn xt n mc ch ca vic s dng nc trong vng nc. ii) Thc hin nh gi chnh xc v tnh trng hin ti ca vng nc, thng qua vic o cht lng nc. Khi tnh ti lng pht thi, nn thu thp cng nhiu d liu cng tt v tnh ton mt cch chnh xc. iii) Khi thit lp mc tiu qun l cho ti lng nhim vng nc tip nhn, mc tiu qun l nn c thit lp trong phm vi cn thit m bo mc tiu cht lng nc. iv) D on cc nhn t lm tng ti lng nhim, v d nh s pht trin ca cng nghip hay s gia tng dn s, t thc hin trc ht cc bin php gim ti ti lng nhim khng vt qu sc ti mi trng ca vng nc. v) i vi cc nh my v c s kinh doanh, thc hin kim sot tng ti lng i vi ti lng nhim. i vi nhng nh my v c s kinh doanh mi xy, nn tin hnh cc bin php mi trng ang p dng cho nhng nh my v c s kinh doanh sn c phc v cho s pht trin ca khu vc, v chp nhn mt lng nht nh cc hot ng pht trin mi vi

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iu kin cc hot ng p dng k thut mi trng tin tin nht, c xem xt ti lng chnh lch so vi ti lng mc tiu5. vi) Theo di tnh hnh cht lng nc v tnh hnh bin ng ca ti lng pht thi, r sot li c mc tiu nhm qun l ti lng pht thi v k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim.

iu ny ph thuc vo c ch c p dng i vi vic xy mi nh my v c s kinh doanh. Nht Bn p dng c ch thng bo, khi ni dung thng bo khng t c tiu chun nc thi hoc tiu chun kim sot tng ti lng nhim, cc tnh thnh c lin quan cung cp hng dn hoc cc yu cu thay i k hoch. Trong vng Bin ni a Seto, giy php c cp cho vic xy dng cc nh my v c s kinh doanh theo Lut v cc bin php c bit nhm bo v mi trng Bin ni a Seto.

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Chng 3

Xy dng h thng v c cu p dng hiu qu TPLCS

thc hin TPLCS cn phi tin hnh kho st cht lng nc v nh gi thc trng ca c cu ngnh cng nghip, c im khu vc, v.v... iu quan trng l phi thit k TPLCS v t chc nhiu c cu lin quan bng cch s dng trit cc thng tin c c. Vic kim sot tng ti lng nhim v nguyn tc ly i tng l tt c cc ngun pht thi, v lnh vc qun l ca cc ban ngnh bao ph mt din rng, v vy, vic xy dng mi quan h phi hp v hp tc vi cc ban ngnh lin quan ny cng c ngha rt quan trng. Bng 3.1 tm tt cc h thng v c cu cn c xy dng thc hin TPLCS. Bng 3.1 C cu phi hp hay lin kt vi cc ban ngnh cn thit thc hin TPLCS
Ni dung thc hin Gim tng ti lng nhim C cu phi hp hay lin kt vi cc ban ngnh lin quan iu tra v c im khu vc, c cu ngnh cng nghip, v.v Phi hp, lin kt vi cc ban ngnh qun l lin quan Cc ngun pht sinh ti nhim v ban ngnh qun l lin quan

Cng nghip Sinh hot Chn nui Nng nghip Khu vc nh ca Rngsan st Nui trng thu sn Nm bt nh lng v ti lng nhim Thu thp d liu cn thit tnh ton

Cng nghip Quy hoch th V sinh Nng nghip/Chn nui Bo tn rng Thy sn

o lng pht thi v nng ca nc thi t ngun nhim (ngun im) Lp cng thc cho phng php tnh ti lng nhim

Thit lp mc tiu gim ti bo v cht lng nc ca vng nc

Thit lp mc tiu mi trng nc (Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc) o cht lng nc v lu lng vng nc (sng, ao h, vng bin) Phn tch c ch nhim Kho st c im ca khu vc lu vc (a l t nhin, thy vn, kh tng, v.v)

D on s tng ti lng nhim trong tng lai

Phi hp, hp tc vi b phn quy hoch Thu thp thng tin v k hoch pht trin ca quc gia, khu vc Lp cng thc cho phng php tnh ti lng nhim tng thm

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Kim sot nc thi trong ti lng nhim t cc nh my hoc c s sn xut kinh doanh

o thc t nc thi t cc nh my v c s sn xut kinh doanh, kho st v h thng x l nc thi Kim tra, gim st cc nh my v c s sn xut kinh doanh Lp cng thc cho phng php thit lp tiu chun iu chnh ti lng nhim

Khc

Bo m vn thc hin h thng (phi hp vi b phn ti chnh) S ng thun v hp tc trong thc hin cc bin php ca cc nh my v c s sn xut, cng dn v cng ng a phng Hp tc quc t

Chng 3 trnh by nhng vn cn thit khi thc hin TPLCS. Xy dng h thng v c cu cn phi ph hp vi h thng v t chc hnh chnh hin c mi quc gia, ng thi nhng h thng v c cu ny cn phi tng ng vi tnh hnh ca quc gia . Chng 3 nu v d tham kho v h thng v c cu ti Nht Bn nhm gip pht trin cc h thng mi ti mi quc gia. Nu vic p dng TPLCS qu chm tr do thiu cc c cu lin quan nh trn hoc lng thng tin a phng v cht lng nc, v.v khng y , vn mi trng nc s tr nn ngy cng nghim trng hn. Nu nhim nc tin trin qu nhanh, iu quan trng trc ht l cn p dng TPLCS, sau gii quyt nhng vn ni bt c lin quan n c cu song song vi vic thc hin TPLCS. 3.1 o cht lng nc Khi bt u thc hin TPLCS, cn phi nm bt mt cch nh lng ti lng nhim ca tng ngun pht thi m vng nc i tng tip nhn, cng nh cht lng nc, lu lng chy vo v thot ra, v lng nc lu trong vng nc. Nu c d liu o thc t v ti lng nhim th s dng cc d liu ny. Nu khng c d liu hoc d liu c sn khng y th cn thc hin o thc t thu thp d liu cn thit.

Ngoi ra, thc hin TPLCS th cn phi ch n s bin ng ca cht lng nc trong vng nc v ti lng nhim tip nhn, v nh k o cht lng nc v lu lng ca sng, ao h, v vng bin c th thu c d liu c tnh lin tc v ng tin cy thng qua vic xy dng h thng v c cu.

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Ct 5 : o cht lng nc v cc h thng khi TPLCS c p dng Nht Bn Nht Bn trc khi p dng TPLCS th cng khng c nhng d liu lin quan. vng bin ni a Seto, nh c trnh by Chng 1, 50% tng lng pht thi COD t cng nghip c gim vo nm 1974. Trc , mt cuc kho st cht lng nc ng lot trn quy m ln c tin hnh vo thng 5 nm 1972. S im o lng trong cuc kho st ny l 709 im i vi cht lng nc bin, 203 im i vi sinh vt ph du, 107 im i vi cht lng nc sng, 570 im i vi nc thi nh my v 295 im i vi trm tch bin. o lng c tin hnh ng thi trong cng khong thi gian (chnh lch trong phm vi 2 gi) ca cng mt ngy, c xt n s khc nhau khi thy triu ln v xung. Vo thng 7, thng 10 v thng 1 ca nm tip theo cng tin hnh kho st cht lng nc ng lot, t thu c bn ln d liu theo tng ma. Hin nay, Lut kim sot nhim nc quy nh cc tnh thnh phi thc hin gim st thng xuyn tnh trng nhim ca cc vng nc cng cng nh sng, ao h, vng bin. K hoch o lng c ra bi tnh trng/th trng da trn vic tho lun vi cc c quan hnh chnh nh nc ti a phng, theo cht lng nc v lu lng nc chy c o ng theo k hoch. Cc trng Cc Mi trng Khng kh v Nc B Mi trng ban hnh thng t cho cc tnh trng/th trng v vic nh gi tnh trng ca mi trng nc vng nc i tng v phng php o lng nh k cht lng nc thit lp Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc. Ni dung ca thng t c gii thiu trong Ti liu tham kho 4.

3.2 Hp tc vi cc ban ngnh, t chc lin quan V nguyn tc, TPLCS xem xt v thc hin cc hot ng nhm gim ti lng nhim i vi tt c cc ngun nhim. V th, nhng c quan qun l c lin quan bao ph trn mt din rng, do cn c s phi hp v hp tc vi nhng c quan qun l ny. Ngoi ra cng cn thit lp quan h phi hp, lin kt v hp tc vi cc c quan, t chc di y: TPLCS c mt phm vi i tng rng ln bao gm nhng nh my v cc c s sn xut kinh doanh, nc thi sinh hot, chn nui, t nng nghip, nui trng thu sn, v.v... V vy, cn phi phi hp vi nhng ban ngnh lin quan v cng nghip, nng nghip, pht trin th, v.v... o cht lng nc v lu lng ca vng nc, vic hp tc vi ban ngnh qun l sng, ao h, v vng bin cng rt quan trng. thu c d liu thng k v cc d on v tnh trng vng nc trong tng lai, cn phi hp tc vi ban ngnh lp k hoch v thng k. Khi thu thp thng tin theo cc iu kin nh s a hnh, iu kin kh tng, thu vn, v.v cn hp tc vi ban ngnh qun l t ai, k thut o lng v kh tng. C nhng trng hp TPLCS c thc hin tri rng trn nhiu n v hnh chnh, nh khi

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ly i tng l mt vng nc rng ln. Ngoi ra, i vi nhng n v hnh chnh nm trong t lin khng tip gip vi vng bin no, cng c trng hp cn kim sot tng ti lng nhim. Trong nhng trng hp ny, s hp tc gia cc chnh quyn a phng, s hp tc v phn chia vai tr gia nh nc v chnh quyn a phng cng v cng quan trng. Vic phi hp v hp tc cn phi c thit lp vi cc c quan hnh chnh c lin quan v vi cc bn c lin quan bao gm cc cng ty, c dn v cc t chc cng ng a phng. Nhng s hp tc ny c th c tin hnh theo nhiu cch ty theo hon cnh ca tng nc, chng hn nh ch chnh tr, t chc hnh chnh, h thng chnh quyn a phng, tnh hnh t chc trong ngnh cng nghip nh cc on th thng mi, phng thng mi v cng nghip, v.v mi quan h vi cc c quan hnh chnh, v tnh hnh ca cng ng a phng, v.v... Trong bt k trng hp no, iu quan trng l cc ban ngnh mi trng ng vai tr trung tm trong cc hot ng phi hp, v thng nht mi hot ng nhng bin php gim ti cn thit c thc hin mt cch hiu qu v mt tng th. to iu kin thun li cho nhng hot ng hp tc ny, vic nng cao nhn thc v tnh cn thit ca vic bo v mi trng v kin thc v nhim nc, nng cao nhn thc chung trong cc c quan hnh chnh v thc ca c x hi cng l mt hot ng c ngha quan trng. Vic thit lp mi quan h tin tng ln nhau, gn gi s phi hp v hp tc thng qua nhng n lc phi hp ny l hot ng khng th thiu to iu kin thun li cho vic thc hin TPLCS. 3.3 Xy dng h thng v c cu qun l gim st bi cc c quan qun l i vi cc nh my v c s kinh doanh Cn phi c chng trnh qun l gim st nm c tnh hnh pht thi ti lng nhim v tnh hnh thc hin cc bin php gim ti i vi cc nh my v c s kinh doanh pht thi ti lng nhim vo vng nc. Ngoi ra, theo quy nh da trn Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim, cn phi gim st tnh hnh tun th tiu chun, do cc nh my v c s kinh doanh cn o lng nc thi, ghi chp v bo co, ng thi cn phi thit lp cc h thng v c cu c lin quan.

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Ct 6: Gim st qun l cc nh my v c s kinh doanh Nht Bn Nht, Lut kim sot nhim mi trng nc quy nh nhiu hnh thc gim st v h thng qun l khc nhau i vi cc nh my v c s kinh doanh. C cu theo Lut kim sot nhim nc c trnh by trong Hnh 1.4. Cc c cu chnh ngoi c cu kim sot nc thi c gii thiu di y: (1) Yu cu phi thng bo khi xy dng nh my hay c s kinh doanh c pht thi ti nhim vo cc vng nc cng cng Khi xy dng mt c s c thi ti nhim vo nhng vng nc cng cng ( Nht Bn c gi l c s c nh trong Lut kim sot nhim mi trng nc), yu cu phi gi thng bo n tnh trng/th trng v cc ni dung sau: Tn ,a ch, v tn ngi i din trong trng hp l mt t chc php nhn (ca n v thi nc vo vng nc cng cng t nh my hoc c s kinh doanh) Tn v a ch ca nh my hoc c s kinh doanh Loi c s c nh Cu trc ca c s c nh Phng php s dng c s c nh Phng php x l nc thi Tnh trng nhim v lng nc thi (TPLCS quy nh phi thng bo v tnh trng nhim v lng nc thi theo tng h thng nc thi) Cc h thng nc lin quan n nc thi v h thng nc thi Khi nhn c thng bo, tnh trng/th trng c th ra lnh sa i hoc hy b k hoch, nu tnh trng/th trng nhn thy rng k hoch khng p ng c cc tiu chun nc thi hay tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim. (i vi trng hp Bin ni a Seto th p dng c ch cp php bi tnh trng/th trng. Tnh trng/th trng khng th cp php nu nc thi hoc nc bn t cc c s c th gy nguy hi ln cho mi trng Bin ni a Seto.) (2) o cht lng nc ca nc thi t cc nh my v c s kinh doanh Tun theo tiu chun kim sot tng ti lng nhim, cc nh my v c s kinh doanh phi o v ghi li tnh trng nhim ca nc thi theo quy nh ca Lut kim sot nhim nc. Nht, i tng iu chnh ca tiu chun kim sot tng ti lng nhim l ti lng pht thi mi ngy t cc nh my v c s kinh doanh. Cc nh my v c s kinh doanh c yu cu tnh ti lng pht thi hng ngy. Tn s o lng c quy nh ty theo lng nc thi nh Bng 3.2.

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Bng 3.2 Tn s o ti lng pht thi ti cc nh my v c s kinh doanh Nht Bn Lng nc thi Tn sut o 400m3/ngy tr ln Mi ngy T 200m3/ngy n di 400m3/ngy 7 ngy/ln tr ln T 100m3/ngy n di 200m3/ngy 14 ngy/ln tr ln 30 ngy/ln tr ln T 50m3/ngy n di 100m3/ngy

V vic o v ghi d liu, cc nh my v c s kinh doanh thi ra nc thi vi lng 400m3/ngy tr ln phi ly mu, o, v ghi d liu t ng. (i vi tnh trng nhim (nng ), vic ly mu, vn chuyn mu cht thi n thit b o, o, v ghi li u phi c thc hin t ng. i vi lu lng, lng nc c tnh t ng bng lu lng k hoc lu tc k, kt qu o c t ng ghi li.). Trong trng hp nhn thy vic o bng cc ng h o t ng khng thch hp v mt k thut, th s dng ng gp composit (thit b ly mu theo mt t l c xc nh trc tng ng vi lng nc thi v lu tr mu m khng lm thay i cht lng nc nhm t ng bit c cht lng nc trung bnh mi n v thi gian quy nh) ly mu t ng. D liu phi c phn tch bng tay theo phng php o c quy nh ring bi B trng B Mi trng6. Nhng c s kinh doanh c lng nc thi di 400m3/ngy cng c khuyn khch t ng ha qu trnh o lng. Cc bin bn o phi c lu gi trong 3 nm. Phi thng bo v phng php o cho tnh trng/th trng. Khi thay i phng php o cng yu cu phi thng bo. Nhng hng mc thng bo nh di y: Tnh trng nhim lin quan n COD, hm lng nit v pht pho cha trong nc thi, phng php o cho cc hng mc yu cu tnh lng nc thi v ti lng nhim khc, v cc a im o Phng php tnh ti lng nhim hng ngy trong nc thi Cc hng mc tham kho khc lin quan n phng php o ti lng nhim Cc trng Cc Mi trng Nc v Khng kh B Mi trng ban hnh thng t cho cc tnh trng/th trng v phng php o nc thi nh my thit lp Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc. Cc im chnh ca thng t c trnh by di y: i) Tn sut o cht lng nc
6

Cc phng php o c ch nh l nhng phng php c quy nh theo Tiu chun Cng nghip Nht Bn (JIS).

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Phi ly mu nc v phn tch t nht 4 ngy mi nm. ii) Thi im o Xem xt nc thi t nh my v c s kinh doanh cng vi iu kin hot ng v bin ng theo ma ca nc thi. iii) La chn im ly mu Chn ca x cht thi lm im ly mu. Nu khng th ly mu ti ca x cht thi, th chn ca thot cht thi ca c s x l nc thi cui cng. Ca thot cht thi c chn phi l ni c th thu thpmu nc thi v nhng mu nc thi c ly phi c cng cht lng vi nhng mu c thu thp ti ca x cht thi. tnh hiu sut x l, trng hp c c s x l nc thi x l nc bn, nu cn, phi thc hin kho st ti mt vi im trc khi cht thi i qua h thngx l nc thi. iv) Cc mc c thc hin ti thi im ly mu Phi ghi li ngy ly mu, lng nc thi, v cc sinh vt trong vng ln cn ca ca thot nc. Phi o hoc quan st ti ch nhit nc, c, mi hi v trong sut, v.v... (3) Ch th bo co cc thng tin yu cu bi c quan gim st Tnh trng/th trng c th yu cu cc nh my v c s kinh doanh bo co tnh trng ca cc thit b gy ra ti nhim, phng php x l nc thi, v nhng thng tin cn thit khc. Ngoi ra, tnh trng/th trng c th yu cu cc nh my v c s kinh doanh bo co cc phng php x l nc thi/cht thi lng v nhng thng tin cn thit khc trong TPLCS. Tnh trng/th trng cng c th cho cc cn b tin hnh thanh tra. Trong nhng trng hp , cc nh my v c s kinh doanh phi p ng theo yu cu. 3.4 Thc y cc nh my v c s kinh doanh n lc gim ti pht thi Cc nh my v c s kinh doanh c quy nh tng ti lng pht thi, v v ti pht thi ch c th gim nu quy nh c tun th, do cn phi c nhiu n lc khc nhau thc y cc nh my v c s kinh doanh tun th tiu chun kim sot tng ti lng nhim. Mt phng php quan trng c thc cc nh my v c s kinh doanh l bin php gim st qun l nh c nu mc 3.4, v di y l nhng im ng lu khc: (1) Thit lp tiu chun kim sot tng ti lng nhim cho lng pht thi ti nhim V gi tr ca tiu chun kim sot tng ti lng nhim c thit lp vi mc ch gim lng pht thi ti nhim, do cc gi tr tiu chun ny cn phi c tun th. t c mc ch , vic quan trng l phi thit lp cc gi tr tiu chun hp l, c th c tun th trn thc t v xy dng cc c cu cho php tun th cc gi tr tiu chun c thit lp, c xt ti cc iu kin k thut v iu kin kinh t khi cn thit.

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Nht, tnh trng ca nc thi t cc nh my v c s kinh doanh c iu tra v c tnh khi thit lp tiu chun kim sot tng ti lng nhim, v cc gi tr tiu chun c xc nh da trn tnh trng ny. Do , cc gi tr tiu chun c thit lp mc c th tun th da trn cc tiu chun k thut hin ti. Ngoi ra, thc y vic tun th, nh nc cung cp nhng hng dn k thut, cp nhng khon vay li sut thp cho cc doanh nghip va v nh c nng lc ti chnh yu. Vi nhng n lc ny, tiu chun kim sot tng ti lng nhim gn nh c tun th hon ton, ti lng nhim c gim xung mt cch n nh. (2) Thc y cc nh my v c s kinh doanh t gic n lc gim ti lng pht thi thc y s tun th tiu chun kim sot tng ti lng nhim, mi quc gia nn quy nh mc tin pht v hnh pht nu vi phm tiu chun, nhng iu quan trng l gim ti lng pht thi mt cch n nh bng cch thc y vic tun th tiu chun thay v p t hnh pht, nhng n lc cho mc ch c ngha quan trng. Trong nhng bin php khin cc nh my v c s kinh doanh tun th tiu chun, ngoi vic gim st bi cc c quan qun l ra, cn nhiu bin php khc nh hng dn k thut bi cc c quan qun l, cc bin php h tr nh gip huy ng vn, v nng cao thc tun th quy nh ca x hi. iu quan trng l kt hp nhng hot ng ny cho ph hp vi tnh trng ca tng quc gia hoc khu vc, hng ti s pht trin ton din. Ct 7: V d v cc bin php thc y cc nh my v c s kinh doanh t gic n lc gim ti Nht Bn thc y cc nh my v c s kinh doanh t gic n lc gim ti, cc chnh sch sau c thc hin ti Nht Bn: a. Cc c quan qun l hng dn cho cc nh my v c s kinh doanh: Nhng bin php ny c chng minh c bit c hiu qu i vi cc c s kinh doanh quy m va v nh c nng lc k thut gii hn. Khi tng nit v tng pht pho c a thm vo cc hng mc x l theo TPLCS vo nm 2002, tp sch Hng dn cc bin php v nc thi dnh cho cc c s kinh doanh quy m nh c bin son v xut bn thc y cc doanh nghip va v nh thc hin, v tp sch hng dn ny c cc c quan qun l s dng trong hng dn k thut lin quan. b. H tr hot ng huy ng vn lp t h thng x l nc thi: i vi vic lp t cc thit b kim sot nhim, cc khon vay chnh sch u i nh cho vay li sut thp c cp ch yu cho cc cng ty va v nh. Ngoi ra cn thc hin cc chnh sch u i v thu i vi thu doanh nghip, v.v c. thc tun th quy nh ca x hi: Nht Bn, nhn thc v trch nhim x hi ca doanh nghip rt mnh m, cc doanh nghip b hn ch v mt x hi i vi vic vi phm cc tiu chun lin quan n mi trng, bao gm c tiu chun nc thi. Nu cc doanh nghip vi

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phm cc tiu chun, iu ny s gy nh hng xu n hp ng vay vn vi cc t chc ti chnh, n mi quan h vi khch hng, chnh quyn a phng, ngi dn a phng, ngi tiu dng, v cng c trng hp gy nh hng n c hot ng ca nh my. (3) S dng chnh sch iu chnh c cu ngnh cng nghip Hng dn k thut v h tr huy ng vn, v.v nh trong mc (2) c thc hin i vi cc c s kinh doanh va v nh, chng hn nh cc h sn xut kinh doanh ti nh, nhng ca hng t nhn. Mt khc, i vi nhng nh my ang s dng nhng my mc c k v cng ngh li thi t c kh nng ci tin, cc chnh sch iu chnh c cu ngnh cng nghip, nh khuyn khch ng ca nh my, c th c thc hin. Mt vi quc gia thc hin nhng bin php ny. Nhng chnh sch ny cng c p dng rng ri xy dng nhng khu cng nghip trang b h thng x l nc thi, ti phn b v tr cc nh my v c s kinh doanh. Nhng chnh sch nh iu chnh c cu ngnh cng nghip, di di cc nh my v c s kinh doanh hng ti mc tiu gim ti lng pht thi. Mc d Nht Bn cha bao gi thc hin vic iu chnh c cu ngnh cng nghip, nhng trc y C quan Kim sot nhim Mi trng v nhng t chc khc thc hin cc bin php h tr v thc y vic di di nh my v xy dng khu cng nghip. 3.5 Thc hin cc bin php i vi nc thi sinh hot Khi thc hin TPLCS, vic gim ti lng pht thi lin quan n sinh hot bng cch x l nc thi sinh hot cng c ngha quan trng. Vic lp t cc h thng x l nh l h thng thot nc v Johkasou c tin hnh x l nc thi sinh hot, nhng nhng hot ng ny cn phi c tin hnh mt cch c k hoch v y cng l mt phn ca vic pht trin c s h tng x hi. Nht Bn, theo Lut v x l v dn sch cht thi quy nh rng chnh quyn a phng (thnh ph/th trn/lng x) phi ra k hoch lin quan n vic x l cc cht thi thng thng, v trong xy dng K hoch c bn v x l nc thi sinh hot. y l bn k hoch c s dng lm c s cho vic x l nc thi sinh hot t quan im di hn trong khong 10 n 15 nm, v cung cp ng li c bn lin quan n vic x l nc thi sinh hot, nh phng php v mc x l nc thi sinh hot, v phng php x l bn thi sinh ra trong qu trnh x l nc thi sinh hot, v.v... Bn k hoch ny bao gm nhng ni dung sau: i) Hiu sut x l nc thi mc tiu ii) Khu vc thc hin x l nc thi sinh hot. Xc nh phng php x l cho mi khu vc, biu th trn bn . iii) K hoch xy dng h thng x l nc thi sinh hot iv) Nng cao nhn thc v hng dn cho ngi dn v) K hoch x l nc thi en v bn thi

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Theo Lut kim sot nhim nc, cc khu vc trng im p dng cc bin php x l nc thi sinh hot c quy nh l nhng vng nc b nhim nc ngy cng nghim trng n mc khng th, hoc c nguy c khng th, p ng c Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc, hoc nhng ni m vic bo v cht lng nc l c bit quan trng nu vic thc y thc hin cc bin php i vi nc thi sinh hot c cho l v cng cn thit. Ngi ng u a phng (thnh ph/th trn/lng x) ra k hoch thc y cc bin php x l nc thi sinh hot, trong , quy nh v vic xy dng cc h thng x l nc thi sinh hot, cc hot ng nng cao nhn thc lin quan ti cc bin php nc thi sinh hot, v nhng mc cn thit khc. Vic thc y cc bin php i vi nc thi sinh hot l mt thch thc ti khu vc ng , v yu cu cn phi thc hin mt cch c k hoch, v d nh bt u thc hin t nhng khu vc c u tin cao. Do , cn phi ra k hoch lin quan n vic thc y x l nc thi sinh hot v tng bc xc tin cc bin php v nc thi sinh hot. Khi ra k hoch, cn xem xt nhng im sau: i) Dn s hin ti, hin trng x l nc thi sinh hot, tnh trng xy dng h thng x l nc thi sinh hot nh h thng thot nc v Johkasou, v tnh cp thit ca vic x l nc thi sinh hot, v.v ii) Khi xem xt phng php x l (p dng phng php x l tp trung hay x l ring tng h, v.v) c tnh n iu kin a l v mt dn c ca tng khu vc, cng cn phi xt n mi tng quan gia chi ph v quy m x l ca mi phng php x l, v vn huy ng vn xy dng. v.v iii) kin ca ngi dn a phng cng nh tnh tng thch gia phng php x l truyn thng v mi trng ca a phng. iv) Thi gian cn thit t khi xy dng h thng cho n khi bt u hot ng. v) Cc phng php x l nc thi sinh hot khc nhau v c im ca tng phng php. vi) D on v s pht trin, nh v gia tng dn s, tng mc sng trong tng lai, v.v vii) Cc bin php x l nc thi gm c h thng thot nc, h thng thot nc quy m nh, Johkasou, v.v... Nhng h thng ny nn c phn chia s dng mt cch hp l, ph hp vi cc c im ca mi h thng (ph lp t, ph qun l bo tr/vn hnh, hiu qu gim ti lng nhim, thi gian cn lp t cc thit b). Hnh 3.2 th hin s phn chia s dng cc h thng ny Nht Bn. viii) Vic bt u thc hin cc bin php trn c s u tin nhng vng nc c nhu cu cp thit thc hin, nhng khu vc c ti lng nhim ln, v.v cng v cng quan trng.

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H thng thot nc quy m nh c xy dng ti nhng ni tp trung dn c nh cc lng nng nghip, lng chi v lng min ni, v.v

Johkasou c lp t cho tng h khu vc dn c tha tht.

Lng nng nghip ng dn nc

H thng thot nc c xy dng nhng khu vc nh ca san st tp trung ng dn c.

Hnh 3.1 S dng h thng x l nc thi ph hp vi cc c im ca mi h thng 3.6 Nhng ni dung lin quan khc (1) Xc tin kho st cht lng nc v nghin cu cc vng nc iu tra nh hng ca vic kim sot tng ti lng nhim i vi vic ci thin cht lng nc ca vng nc i tng, iu quan trng l phi xem xt hiu qu ca TPLCS bng cch thc hin kho st cht lng nc. Ti nhim thng c tm thy lng ng lp trm tch, nn lp trm tch cng cn phi c kho st cng vi cht lng nc. Khi thc hin TPLCS, lin quan ti vic tnh ton ti lng nhim lu vc v phn tch mi quan h gia ti lng nhim v cht lng nc ca lu vc, phn ln nghin cu bao gm cc yu t nghin cu hc thut nh thit lp n v gc tnh ti lng chy ra t cc ngun mt nh t nng nghip, nh gi kh nng t lm sch ca t nhin, nm c c ch nhim, v pht trin k thut x l nc thi. v.v Ngoi vic xc tin iu tra v nghin cu, vic phi hp vi cc vin nghin cu c lin quan thc hin TPLCS mt cch khoa hc hn cng rt quan trng. (2) m bo ngun kinh ph Khi thc hin TPLCS s pht sinh nhiu chi ph thc hin o cht lng nc v thc hin nhng kho st c lin quan, do cn phi xem xt n vic m bo ngun kinh ph cho nhng hot ng ny. Cc nh my v c s kinh doanh cn phi xy dng h thng x l nc thi v vn hnh h thng x l mt cch thch hp nhm t c mc tiu gim ti lng nhim. V nguyn tc,

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nhng chi ph ny do cc n v kinh doanh chi tr nh l mt chi ph khng th thiu khi thc hin d n Nht Bn. Cc bin php h tr nh khon vay chnh sch li sut thp c cung cp cho cc nh my v c s kinh doanh, c p dng ch yu cho cc doanh nghip va v nh vi nng lc ti chnh yu. Nht Bn trc y tng ph bin quan im cho rng iu quan trng l hng n s hi ha gia mi trng v tng trng kinh t, nhng sau khi Lut c bn v kim sot nhim mi trng c sa i nm 1970, khi nhim mi trng tr nn nghim trng, th ngi ta chuyn sang quan im u tin bo v mi trng so vi pht trin kinh t7. Do , Nht Bn khng p dng quan im khng thc hin phng chng nhim v l do gp kh khn trong vic huy ng vn. Ngoi ra, x l nc thi sinh hot, nhng d n cng trnh cng cng nh xy dng h thng thot nc, v.v... c thc hin. Nhng d n ny cng cn ngun vn, v trong nhng nm gn y mt vi nc bt u p dng h thng tn dng ngun vn ca khi t nhn cho cc d n cng cng thng qua cc m hnh nh Sng kin Ti chnh T nhn (Private Finance Initiative - PFI), Chuyn giao Hot ng Xy dng (Build Operating Transfer - BOT), v Hp tc Cng T (Public Private Partnership - PPP), v.v (3) Pht trin v bo v ngun nhn lc vic thc hin TPLCS c thun li, cn phi o to ngun nhn lc vi kin thc chuyn mn v bo v mi trng nc v x l nc thi. Nht, php lut quy nh mi nh my gy ra nhim phi xy dng mt h thng phng chng nhim v b tr mt nhn vin qun l kim sot nhim. Nhn vin qun l kim sot nhim l mt k s c kin thc chuyn mn v ng vai tr l ngi thng tho cc h thng lin quan ti bo v cht lng nc trong vic thc hin t gic gim ti nhim ti cc nh my v c s kinh doanh. Ch nhn vin qun l kim sot nhim c trin khai vo nm ti chnh 1971, khi cc vn v mi trng ni ln mt cch r rng Nht, v s lng ngi d thi trong nm u tin t chc k thi quc gia cho nhn vin qun l kim sot nhim l hn 100.000 ngi. (4) Cc hot ng tuyn truyn v gio dc, nng cao thc cng ng xc tin TPLCS, mi ngi dn trong cng ng, doanh nghip v nhng c quan hnh chnh a phng c lin quan cn phi tng thc bo v cht lng nc v thc hin cc hot ng ngn chn nhim nc. Do , cc hot ng tuyn truyn v gio dc, nng cao thc cng ng ng mt vai tr rt quan trng. Nht Bn hin ang tin hnh nhng hot ng sau y: iu 1 ca Lut c bn v kim sot nhim mi trng (tin thn ca Lut c bn v mi trng) c on: Vic bo v mi trng sng c hng n trong s ha hp vi vic pht trin kinh t, do gi l iu khon ha hp v c b i trong bn sa i nm 1970.
7

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i vi cc n v kinh doanh, thng qua cc on th v cc bui hi tho, v.v ph bin ngha v ni dung ca k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim, yu cu s n lc v hp tc nhm p ng tiu chun kim sot ti nhim v gim ti lng nhim. i vi ngi dn, thng qua cc phng php tuyn truyn nh pht t ri v cc din n khc nhau, tuyn truyn v cc bin php x l nc thi sinh hot c th thc hin ti nh v ph bin kin thc v nhim nc.

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Ti liu tham kho 1: Kinh nghim ca Nht Bn v nhim nc v bin php i ph


Nht Bn tng tri qua kinh nghim v vic cht lng mi trng nc b suy gim i cng vi s tng trng kinh t, dn ti vic nhim nc nghim trng, v Nht Bn cng t c mt s thnh qu nht nh trong vic khc phc nhim nc bng cch thc hin cc bin php. Mt vi im c gi tr tham kho trong qu trnh ny s c trnh by ch yu tp trung vo TPLCS. (1) Pht trin kinh t v ny sinh cc vn nhim nc nghim trng Nht, t na cui thp nin 1950, sn xut cng nghip bt u tng ln v kinh t pht trin nhanh chng. T l tng trng kinh t t nm 1956 n 1973 t trung bnh 9,1% mi nm, v sn xut cng nghip tng xp x gp 3 ln v gi tr xut hng t 1960 n 1975 (so snh sau khi iu chnh s chnh lch gi). Ngoi ra, GDP bnh qun u ngi cng tng trng nhanh chng. T l tng trng kinh t v GDP bnh qun u ngi lc by gi ca Nht Bn gn nh tng ng vi Trung Quc v cc nc ng hin nay, v Nht Bn cng c giai on pht trin gn ging vi nhng quc gia ny.
Nht Bn Hn Quc Malaysia Vit Nam n Trung Quc Thi Lan Philippines Indonesia Bangladesh

20 15 10 5 0 1956 -5 -10 -15 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991
Nht Bn: Kinh t tng trng cao Trung Quc: Ci cch v t do ha

1996

2001

2006

C sc19731979 1979 du m nm 1973 v 2008: Khng hong ti chnh 2008 th gii 1998: Khng hong tin t Chu 1998

Hnh A.1 Bin ng v t l tng trng kinh t Nht Bn v cc nc ng

60

(USD) 12000

10000

8000

* Mc d ban u quy nh 1 la M = 360 yn, nhng t sau 1972 ng yn c nh gi ln cao hn so vi la M, n nm 1985, 1 la M = 254 yn

( (Tham kho) GDP bnh qun u ngi cc nc GDP ng ( 2009) (2009

Malaysia

6000 4000
Thi Lan Trung Quc Indonesia Vit Nam

2000

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

Hnh A.2 Bin ng v GDP bnh qun u ngi Nht Bn ( iu chnh gi v ly c s da trn la M) Thi k ny c gi l thi k tng trng kinh t cao Nht Bn. i cng vi thi k thnh vng v kinh t ny l vic ny sinh cc vn nhim trm trng nh nhim nc, nhim khng kh, v.v... Khu vc pht trin kinh t ng k vo giai on ny l Khu vc Vnh ai Thi Bnh Dng, c th hin Hnh A.3. Ngy cng nhiu nh my c xy dng, v dn s cng tp trung ng khu vc ny. Mt dn s ca khu vc thnh th Nht trong nm 1970 l 8.689 ngi/km2. Do s pht trin cng nghip v tp trung dn s nh vy, mt lng ln ti nhim c sinh ra, dn n nhim nc nghim trng nhiu vng trn c nc. Di y l mt s v d.

61

Tokyo H Biwa

Kasumigaura Sng Sumida

Nagoya
Vnh Dokai

Osaka
Vnh Ise

Vnh Tokyo

Fukuoka

Bin ni a Seto

* khu Cc ng nt t th hin vc c gi l Vnh ai Thi Bnh Dng, ni tp trung cc nh my v dn c trong giai on kinh t tng trng cao .

Hnh A.3 Mt s khu vc xy ra nhim nc i) Sng Sumida: Sng Sumida l mt dng sng th, phn nhnh t sng Arakawa chy qua khu vc nh ca san st ca Tokyo vo Vnh Tokyo, vi dn s sng trn lu vc l 4,3 triu ngi. Sng c dc va phi mc 1/10.000, v c tnh ng mnh do chu nh hng ca s ln xung ca thy triu, cn 3-4 ngy dng nc chy mt khong 23,5km t im phn nhnh bt u sng Arakawa n ca sng Sumida. Trc y c th bt c c ngn v hn nc ngt sng, nhng cht lng nc ngy cng xu i do s tng dn s v tng vic xy dng cc

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nh my ha cht v thuc nhum, v.v thng ngun, gy ra vic mt lng ln nc thi sinh hot v nc thi cng nghip thi vo sng m cha qua x l hoc x l khng y . Nm 1962 lng BOD o c khong 63mg/l, v kh c hi sinh ra t dng sng lm bc tng Pht bng ng m vng n Sensoji ni ting gn cng b i mu. Sau , bng cch m rng h thng thot nc th, kim sot nc thi v di di cc nh my ra ngoi , cht lng nc dn c phc hi. Hin nay, lng BOD l 5mg/l, gn nh p ng Tiu chun Cht lng mi trng v nhim nc. ii) Vnh Dokai: Vnh Dokai l mt vnh nh n su vo bn trong t lin, chiu di 13km v chiu su trung bnh 7m. Vnh nm Kitakyushu, mt thnh ph cng nghip tiu biu ca Nht Bn. Vo giai on nh im trong qu kh, tng c n 1032 khu nh my thuc cc ngnh luyn thp, kim loi, c gii, ng tu, ha cht, gm s, xi mng, v thc phm, v.v... tp trung, to thnh mt rng nh my dy c vnh. Nc thi cng nghip cha c x l t nhng nh my ny gy ra nhim nc nghim trng. Theo kt qu kho st c thc hin t nm 1968 n 1969, tnh hnh xu i n mc gi tr cao nht ca COD l 74,6mg/l v lng oxi ha tan l 0, v th m vnh Dokai tng b gi l Bin cht. Thm ch ngi ta ni rng cc cht nhim c th khin cho cc con c ca tu u vnh phi chy. vnh Dokai, phn ln ti lng cht thi chy vo l nc thi t cc nh my. Nc thi t cc nh my chim n 98% tng ti lng COD pht thi. Do do, cng vi s lo ngi v cht lng nc ngy cng gia tng, thc ca cc doanh nghip cng dn tng cao, v nhng h thng x l nc thi ln lt c xy dng. Ngoi ra, vic no vt loi b cc cht nhim ng di y trm tch b nhim cng c thc hin. Nh cc bin php ny m cht lng nc phc hi nhanh chng, n nm 1973, cht lng nc t c hu ht cc gi tr tiu chun mi trng. iii) Bin ni a Seto: Bin ni a Seto c bao xunh quanh bi Honshu, Shikoku v Kyushu, l mt vng bin khp kn tiu biu ca Nht Bn. Din tch 23.203km2, vi lng dn s sng trong lu vc xp x 30 triu ngi. T thi xa xa, quang cnh ti p ca vng bin ny c ca ngi nhiu trong th ca Nht Bn. Khng ch vy, Bin ni a Seto tng c ngun ti nguyn thy sn rt phong ph. Tuy nhin, trong thi k kinh t tng trng cao , cc nh my st thp, ng tu, v cc nh my ha du c xy dng vi s lng ln dc theo cc b bin ca Bin ni a Seto, nc thi cng nghip thi ra t cc nh my khin cho cht lng nc suy gim r rt. Hot ng chn lp xy dng nh my lm gim i cc b bin t nhin. T cui nhng nm 1950 bt u xut hin thy triu v sau dn dn lan rng ra khp vng Bin ni a Seto, gy thit hi ln cho ng nghip. Vo thi im , ngi ta gi Bin ni a Seto l Bin cht. Nm 1972, thy triu khin cho 14 triu c trc sc vng nui b bnh cht. Cc ng dn np n kin i bi thng thit hi v yu cu hn ch nc thi nh my i vi 2 thnh ph nc thi en v 10 cng ty thi nc thi nh my xung Harimanada. Bin ni a Seto, t nm 1973, ti lng nhim COD cha trong nc thi cng nghip gim 50%, dn n s ln xy ra thy triu cng gim i ng k. T nm 1979,

63

tip tc trin khai thc hin TPLCS. Tnh trng suy gim cht lng nc b ngn chn, v cht lng nc dn c ci thin. iv) H Biwa: H Biwa l h ln nht Nht Bn vi din tch 670km2. Cho n khong nhng nm 1930, h Biwa c coi l mt h ngho dinh dng, trong sut h Hokko (H Bc) quan st c l khng di 10m. Tuy nhin, do s tng dn s, pht tin cng nghip v hin i ha cuc sng, t khong cui nhng nm 1960 lng cht nhim chy vo h gia tng r rt. Kt qu l cht lng nc tr nn xu i, n mc m t khong nm 1960 tnh trng khng th lc c nc h cc nh my lc nc bt u xut hin. T khong nm 1970 nc my c mi v l. Ngoi ra, t khong nm 1972 thy triu bt u xut hin, v bng pht mnh vo nm 1977. T nm 1983 bt u xut hin hin tng nc h ph mu xanh ru vng ven b Nanko (H Nam). S suy thoi mi trng ny lm tng thc bo v h Biwa ca ngi dn, v gim lng pht pho, nguyn nhn gy ra thy triu , mt phong tro t nguyn hn ch s dng thuc ty ra t pht pho c pht ng. Trong bi cnh nhng phong tro nh th ngy cng mnh m, Quy nh v vic phng chng hin tng ph dng h Biwa8 c ban hnh vo nm 1980, nghim cm vic kinh doanh v s dng thuc ty ra tng hp dng trong gia nh c cha pht pho. Ngoi ra, bin php kim sot nc thi nh my i vi nit v pht pho bt u c thc hin. Sau vo nm 1984, cc hot ng n lc ton din c trin khai da theo Lut v cc bin php c bit nhm bo v cht lng nc h. n nay, tnh trng suy gim cht lng nc c ngn chn, v cht lng nc ang dn c ci thin. (2) Trin khai v pht trin cc bin php mi trng nc Trong nhng hon cnh nh vy, cc bin php i ph c c th ha vo khong nm 1970, khi thi k kinh t tng trng cao dn i n kt thc. Lut c bn v kim sot nhim mi trng c ban hnh vo nm 1967 v cc Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc c thit lp cho nhng vng nc cng cng trn khp c nc. Lut kim sot nhim mi trng nc c ban hnh vo nm 1970, cc tiu chun nc thi c thit lp cng nh p dng nhng hnh pht trc tip i vi vic vi phm tiu chun trn khp c nc, song song vi nhng quy nh v nc thi cng nghip. ng thi, nh c a ra trong lut v cc quy nh ny, khi xy dng mi hoc m rng nh my, n v thi cng c yu cu phi thng bo v tnh trng lng nc thi, tnh trng nhim ca nc thi v phng php x l nc thi. Nu bin php x l nc thi khng y , tnh trng/th trng c th hng dn hoc yu cu nh my thay i k hoch. Lut tm thi v bo v mi trng Bin ni a Seto c ban hnh vo nm 1973 trc tnh trng cht lng nc Bin ni a Seto tr nn nghim trng n mc b gi l Bin cht, v do li ku gi ca 11 thnh ph ven bin v 3 thnh ph ln i vi chnh ph. Lut ny c ra c
8

Cc iu lut c quy nh bi cc tnh thnh v cc thnh ph/th trn/lng x ca Nht Bn trong phm vi php lut ca nh nc c gi l quy nh.

64

bit cho Bin ni a Seto, trong quy nh gim 50% ti lng COD cha trong nc thi nhim, y c th c coi l quan im m ng cho TPLCS Nht Bn. bo v cht lng nc ca Bin ni a Seto, ngi ta cho rng quan trng l cn phi gim ti lng pht thi mt cch chc chc v kp thi, ly i tng l cc nh my c xc nh l ngun pht thi cc cht nhim chnh. Phng php c p dng gim tng ti lng nhim l n nh ti lng phi gim cho 11 tnh, cc tnh ny sau thit lp cc tiu chun nc thi t c ti lng phi gim c n nh v thc hin cc tiu chun . V cn phi c d liu v lng nc thi t cc nh my v cht lng nc thc hin nhim v ny, chnh quyn 11 tnh ven bin v nhng c quan khc tin hnh o ng lot cht lng nc ti gn 1.900 im kho st trong nc thi t cc nh my, cc dng sng, vng bin. Mt khc, v ti lng nhim ca mi tnh, s liu c s dng nh l c s ca vic gim ti, vn cha c tnh ton, nn s liu ny sau c tnh da trn phng php sau: u tin, tnh lng nc thi ca tng nhm ngnh ngh bng cch nhn gi tr xut hng cng nghip theo tng nhm ngnh ngh ca cc tnh vi lng nc trung bnh phc v cng nghip, v tr i lng tht thot do bay hi. Sau ly lng nc thi ca tng nhm ngnh ngh nhn vi cht lng nc thi trung bnh ca tng nhm ngnh ngh tnh ti lng nhim. Theo , cc bin php gim 50% ti lng COD cha trong nc thi cng nghip bt u c thc hin vo nm 1974, vi mc ch l hon thnh cc mc tiu trong vng 5 nm. Kt qu l cht lng nc thot khi giai on nghim trng nht v dn c ci thin hn.

65

350 300
269 255 299

Tng s ln xut hin thy triu S ln thy triu xut hin gy thit hi cho ng nghip
196 188 171 151 170 172 166 165 130 162 124 117 108107 105 107 100 96 90 135 89 112 105 106 97 118 116 115 106 104 99 94 89

250
210

200
164

150 100 50 0

136

79

1970

1975
COD Gim 50% COD cng nghip 50

1980
Kim sot 1 tng ti lng nhim ln th nht

1985
Th hai 2

1990
Th ba 3

1995
Th t 4

2000
Th nm 5 T-N v T-P T-NT-P c thm vo ch tiu i tng

2005
Th su 6

2009

Hnh A.4 Bin ng v s ln xut hin thy triu Bin ni a Seto Vo thp nin 1970, u t ca cc doanh nghip vo cc thit b phng chng nhim tng nhanh, v c thi k vic thc hin cc bin php i ph c nhiu tin trin trong thc t. iu ny l do, cng vi ni lo s tng cao v cc vn mi trng trong ton x hi, cc doanh nghip, t quan im trch nhim x hi ca mnh, cng c ng lc thc hin cc bin php phng chng nhim ln hn, thm vo , cc ch h tr cng c xy dng, nh cc khon cho vay li sut thp bi cc t chc ti chnh thuc chnh ph, cc u i v thu, v.v x l nc thi sinh hot, vic xy dng cc h thng thot nc c tin hnh mt cch c k hoch. Cc h thng thot nc c s dng cho nhiu mc ch khc nhau nh tiu thot nc ma trong th v v sinh cng cng, nhng thng qua vic sa i Lut v h thng thot nc vo nm 1970, vic bo v cht lng nc ca cc vng nc cng cng c quy nh r l mc ch ca h thng thot nc. Nm 1970, t l xy dng h thng thot nc khng qu 16%. Nh lin tc u t ngun vn xy dng h thng thot nc vi t l trung bnh hng nm t 0,6~0,7% GDP trong sut khong thi gian t nm 1975 n nm 2002, t l ph bin h thng thot nc t 65% vo nm 2002. Hn na, vic lp t h thng thot nc quy m nh c tin hnh ti nhiu khu vc nng thn. Nh vo nhng n lc ny, s suy thoi ca mi trng nc Nht Bn c ngn chn, v cht lng nc bin chuyn theo chiu hng tt hn.

66

(3) p dng quy m y ca TPLCS Ti Nht Bn, vic p dng TPLCS vi quy m y c bt u thc hin theo Lut kim sot nhim nc v s sa i Lut v cc bin php c bit nhm bo v mi trng Bin ni a Seto vo nm 1979. Di y l khi qut v TPLCS: i) Vic kim sot tng ti lng nhim c thc hin cc vng nc cng cng trn mt phm vi rng, nhng ni tip nhn mt lng ln nc thi t sinh hot v cc hot ng kinh doanh do tp trung dn s v cng nghip, nhng vng bin khp kn kh p ng cc Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc nu ch da vo kim sot nc thi (cc i tng c ch nh l 3 vng bin: Bin ni a Seto, vnh Tokyo v vnh Ise). ii) Lng gim mc tiu trong nm ti chnh c thit lp bng cch chia tng ti lng nhim cho tng ngun pht sinh: cng nghip, sinh hot, v nhng ngun khc (nng nghip, chn nui, rng, khu vc nh ca san st, v nui trng thy sn). iii) Lng gim mc tiu l lng ti nhim c nhm n c kh nng gim c trn thc t, trn c s c xem xt n xu hng pht trin ca dn s v cng nghip, trnh k thut x l nc thi hoc cht thi dng lng, v d on v vic xy dng cc h thng thot nc, v.v iv) Khi thc hin TPLCS, B trng B Mi trng ra ng li c bn v kim sot tng ti lng, trong quy nh lng gim mc tiu ca mi tnh thnh (k c th ). Da vo , mi tnh trng/th trng ra k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim ca tng tnh thnh, trong bao gm cc ni dung nh lng gim mc tiu v phng php t c mc tiu cho tng ngun pht thi, v.v... v) Kt hp vi cc iu ny, B trng b Mi trng quy nh phm vi thit lp gi tr C cho cc Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim da trn nhm ngnh ngh i vi cc nh my v c s kinh doanh. vi) Cc tnh thnh (bao gm c th ) quy nh cc Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim da trn nhm ngnh ngh i vi cc nh my v c s kinh doanh cn kim sot, da trn k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim ca tnh thnh, trong gii hn do B trng B Mi trng quy nh. Tuy nhin, vo thi im , vic o lin tc mt cch t ng v trc tip nc thi nh my vn cn gp nhiu kh khn v mt k thut, v h thng quan st v o lng vn cha c thit lp hon chnh. Cc bn lin quan n h thng ny nhn ra cc vn tn ti ny trong qu trnh vn hnh h thng trong thc t. Mc d vy, xt n tnh cp thit ca vic bo v mi trng, vic h thng ha TPLCS vn cn phi c nhanh chng tin hnh, v phi c thc hin tng bc chc chn, song song vi vic gii quyt cc vn tn ti. TPLCS ln th nht c bt u t nm 1980. Cc bin php ng ph vi cc vn tn ti c thc hin trong sut TPLCS ln th nht.

67

Nm ti chnh mc tiu ca TPLCS ln th nht c xc nh l nm 1984 (5 nm sau), v sau , nm mc tiu c xc nh theo mi 5 nm, tip tc cho n hin nay. Ti thi im thc hin TPLCS ln th nht vo nm 1979, hng mc i tng kim sot tng ti lng nhim ch gii hn l COD. Mc d vic kim sot tng ti lng i vi nit v pht pho, nguyn nhn gy ra s ph dng, cng c yu cu bo v mi trng nc ca vng bin khp kn, nhng do kin thc khoa hc v nh hng ca nit v pht pho n cht lng nc lc by gi vn cn hn ch, k thut x l nc thi loi b cht nhim cha pht trin, m nhng yu t ny c loi ra khi i tng kim sot. Tuy nhin, ngi ta nhn ra rng cn phi c bin php gim cht dinh dng. Vic gim c thc hin theo cc ch o nh nc9 i vi cc nh my v c s kinh doanh. Vo thi im , thc bo v mi trng nc ca ngi tiu dng cng c nng cao, vic s dng cc cht ty ra khng c pht pho tr nn ph bin hn, cc nh sn xut cng y mnh pht trin v kinh doanh cc sn phm cht ty ra khng c pht pho, kt hp vi cc ch o nh nc, ti lng pht thi ca nit v pht pho cng dn thay i theo hng gim xung. Nit v pht pho c thm vo hng mc i tng ca TPLCS ln th 5, bt u t nm 2001. Kt qu ca nhng n lc ny l ti lng nhim tng bc c gim xung. Tnh trng suy gim ca mi trng nc bin c ngn chn, v dn c ci thin. Tuy nhin, tc ci thin kh chm v mt nhiu thi gian. L do c cho l do mt lng ln cht dinh dng tch t lp trm tch di y t trc y ha lng v tch ra khi lp trm tch. Ngay c khi ti lng nhim mi chy vo c loi b, cng cn phi mt mt khong thi gian ng k th cht lng nc mi c ci thin. Gn y, cht lng nc c ci thin nhanh chng mt s vng ca Bin ni a Seto, v dn hnh thnh mi lo ngi rng cc vng c th s b thiu cc cht dinh dng vo mt s ma trong nm, gy nh hng xu n vic nui trng rong bin. i vi cc vng bin ny, hin nay ang c cc kin tranh lun v vic c cn thit thay i quan im t vic gim ti lng nhim mt cch n gin sang vic kim sot tng lng m bo dinh dng nht nh.

Chnh ph ban hnh ch o v gim lng pht pho Bin ni a Seto t nm 1980, v nit c thm vo hng mc i tng vo nm 1996. T nm 1982, chnh ph ban hnh ch o v gim lng pht pho vnh Tokyo v vnh Ise.

68

Ti liu tham kho 2: Phng php tnh ti lng nhim


Khi tnh ti lng nhim, cc ngun pht thi c chia thnh 7 mc (cng nghip, sinh hot, chn nui, t nng nghip, khu vc nh ca san st, rng, nui trng thy sn), v ti lng pht thi c tnh cho tng mc. Nn s dng d liu o thc t tnh ti lng pht thi nu c sn. Nu khng c sn d liu, ti lng nhim trn mi n v s lng gia sc hay din tch t nng nghip, v.v s c thit lp lm n v gc s dng cho tnh ton. (1) Phng php tnh ton ti lng pht thi i) Ngun pht thi cng nghip Tm ti lng pht thi ca cc nh my hoc c s kinh doanh (i vi mi nh my hoc c s kinh doanh, tnh Lng nc thi Nng = Ti lng pht thi). Nu trong nh my hoc c s kinh doanh khng c h thng x l nc thi ring, nc thi c thi ra m cha qua x l, th ly ti lng ca mi ti nhim l ti lng pht thi.
Nh my/C s kinh doanh Cng on sn xut (thit b sn xut) () lng Ti nhim H thng x l nc thi

Ra vng nc

Ti lng pht thi

Cc c s kinh doanh ly d liu v lng nc thi v nng : S dng cc d liu tnh ton ti lng pht thi. Cc c s kinh doanh khng c d liu v lng nc thi v nng : Ti lng pht thi nn c tnh bng cc phng php n v gc t nhm ngnh ngh v hng mc sn phm ca c s kinh doanh. p dng cc phng php sau ty vo tng iu kin: Trng hp bit nng nc thi, nhng khng bit lng nc thi: Da vo lng nc phc v cng nghip tiu th suy ra lng nc thi. Trng hp bit lng nc thi, nhng khng bit nng nc thi: Da vo nng nc thi ca mt nh my c nhm ngnh ngh tng t suy ra nng nc thi ca nh my, tnh ti lng nhim. Nu nh my khng c trang b bt k h thng x l nc thi no, ti lng nhim chnh l ti lng pht thi, nhng nu nh my c trang b h thng x l th nhn ti lng pht thi vi t l cht thi b loi b bi cc h thng x l nc thi (gi l t l loi b). T l loi b c suy ra t phng php x l nc

69

thi. Trng hp khng bit c lng nc thi ln nng nc thi: Quy nh ti lng nhim trn mi s lng sn xut hoc gi tr sn xut cho tng nhm ngnh ngh l n v gc v s dng n v gc tnh ton. n v gc cn phi c chn mt cch c c s. Do , cn thu thp d liu nc thi cho cc nh my v c s kinh doanh tiu biu v thit lp n v gc da trn d liu . Nu cn, nn thc hin o thc t nc thi trong kh nng c th. i vi nhm nh my v c s kinh doanh, cn phi xem xt n khng ch cc nh my m cn nhng c s sinh ra ti lng nhim khc. Nhng c s ny bao gm cc qun n, khch sn, ca hng, xng sa xe t, trm xng, tim git i v bnh vin, v.v ii) Ngun pht thi sinh hot Nc thi sinh hot c phn loi thnh nc thi t nh v sinh (gi l nc thi en) v cc loi nc thi sinh hot khc (gi l nc thi xm). Nc thi en c nng cht nhim cao, v c x l t quan im v mt v sinh cng cng. Nc thi xm l nc thi t nu n, tm ra, v.v v c nng cht nhim thp hn nc thi en. Do , trong mt vi trng hp nc thi en c tch ring vi nc thi xm v c x l ring. Nht Bn hin cng ang c nhiu trng hp thc hin theo cch . u tin, nn quy nh n v gc cho ti lng nhim trn u ngi. V n v gc thay i theo s khc bit v thi quen n ung v li sng, nu n v gc cha c quy nh, th tt nht l nn quy nh n v gc da trn vic thc hin o thc t, tuy nhin cng c th tham kho cc n v gc c s dng Nht hoc nhng nc khc. Di y l cc n v gc c s dng Nht Bn: Bng B.1 (Tham kho) Cc n v gc thng dng cho ti lng nhim Nht Bn (g/ngi/ngy) Nc thi en Nc thi xm COD (Mn) 10,1 19,2 Tng nit 9,0 2,8 Tng pht pho 0,77 0,41

Nht, vic x l nc thi sinh hot c phn thnh 4 loi, v ti lng pht thi c tnh da trn dn s i tng ca tng loi. Phng php tnh ti lng pht thi cho tng loi c trnh by nh di y: a) X l ti nh my x l nc thi: Nc thi c vn chuyn qua ng ng ca h thng thot nc n nh my x l nc thi x l.

70

Nc thi en

Ti lng nhim

x l nc thi

H thng

Ra vng nc Ti lng pht thi

Nc thi xm

Ti lng nhim

S dng d liu o c ca nc thi t nh my x l nc thi. Nu khng c sn d liu nc thi, tnh ti lng nhim t dn s thuc i tng x l ca h thng thot nc. Sau khi thit lp t l loi b t phng php x l ca h thng x l nc thi, th c th tnh c ti lng pht thi. b) X l bng h thng x l nc thi kt hp h gia nh: nhng khu vc khng c h thng thot nc th lp t Johkasou cho mi h gia nh hoc tng n v vi h gia nh x l nc thi. Trong s cc loi Johkasou, loi x l kt hp nc thi en v nc thi xm c gi l h thng x l nc thi kt hp h gia nh.
Nc thi en

Ti lng nhim

H thng x l nc thi kt hp h gia nh

Ra vng nc Ti lng pht thi

Nc thi xm

Ti lng nhim

S dng d liu o c ca nc thi t h thng x l nc thi kt hp h gia nh. Nu khng c sn d liu nc thi, nn tnh ton bng phng php n v gc. Khi , sau khi tnh ti lng nhim, suy ra t l loi b da vo phng php x l ca Johkasou v thc hin tnh ton theo phng php n v gc. T l loi b in hnh c s dng Nht Bn l COD = 80%, tng nit = 25%, v tng pht pho = 35%.

71

Bng B.2 (Tham kho) Cc n v gc thng dng cho ti lng pht thi Nht Bn trng hp x l nc thi sinh hot ti h thng x l nc thi kt hp h gia nh (g/ngi/ngy) COD (Mn) Ti lng nhim Cc nc thi sinh hot khc (gi l nc thi xm) Tng T l loi b Ti lng pht thi Tng 19,2 2,8 0,4 Nc thi en 10,1 Tng nit 9,0 Tng pht pho 0,77

29,3 80% 5,86

11,8 25% 8,85

1,18 35% 0,77

Bn cnh , gn y, h thng x l nc thi kt hp h gia nh loi x l tin tin c th loi b nit v pht pho vi t l cao c pht trin, v ang dn tr nn ph bin. Khi s dng h thng x l nc thi kt hp h gia nh loi x l tin tin nh vy, nn nh t l loi b mc gi tr cao hn ty thuc vo hiu nng ca h thng. c) X l ti h thng x l nc thi ring l h gia nh: Trong s cc loi Johkasou, loi ch x l nc thi en c gi l h thng x l nc thi ring l h gia nh. Vi phng php ny, ngoi tr nc thi en, nc thi xm c thi ra cha qua x l. Ti Nht Bn, vic lp t Johkasou c xc tin nhm to iu kin thun li cho vic chuyn i t bn cu ngi xm sang bn cu t hoi nh l mt phn nm trong d n ci thin i sng nng thn, tuy nhin lc y ch yu lp t h thng x l nc thi ring l h gia nh. V h thng x l nc thi ring l h gia nh, ngoi nc thi en, khng th x l nc thi xm, cng nh hiu sut loi b COD, hm lng nit v pht pho trong nc thi en thp, cho nn hin nay cm xy mi thm loi h thng x l ny m chuyn sang x l bng h thng thot nc v h thng x l nc thi kt hp h gia nh.
Nc thi en H thng x l nc thi ring l h gia nh Ra vng nc

Ti lng nhim

Ti lng pht thi


Ra vng nc

Nc thi xm

Khng x l Ti lng nhim

Ti lng pht thi

72

S dng d liu o c ca nc thi t h thng x l nc thi ring l h gia nh. Nu khng c sn d liu nc thi, thc hin tnh bng phng php n v gc. Khi , tnh ti lng nhim, ri nhn ti lng nhim vi t l loi b i vi nc thi en do c x l bng Johkasou; i vi nc thi xm, do khng c x l, nn ly ti lng nhim l ti lng pht thi. T l loi b in hnh c s dng Nht Bn l COD=50%, tng nit = 7%, v tng pht pho = 15%. Bng B.3 (Tham kho) Cc n v gc thng dng cho ti lng pht thi Nht Bn trng hp nc thi en c x l bng h thng x l nc thi ring l h gia nh (g/ngi/ngy) COD (Mn) Nc thi en Ti lng nhim T l loi b Ti lng pht thi Nc thi xm Tng 10,1 50% 5,05 19,2 24,25 Tng nit 9,0 7% 8,37 2,8 11,17 Tng pht pho 0,77 15% 0,65 0,41 1,06

d) Nh v sinh loi bn cu ngi xm: Nc thi en thi xung t nh v sinh loi bn cu ngi xm c xe ht vn chuyn n c s x l nc thi en x l tp trung. Phng php ny c p dng Nht Bn t xa, nhng hin nay vic s dng phng php ny gim i. Vi phng php ny, nc thi xm c thi ra m cha qua x l.
Nc thi en C s x l nc thi en Ra vng nc

Ti lng nhim

Ti lng pht thi


Khng x l Ra vng nc

Nc thi xm

Ti lng nhim

Ti lng pht thi

Trong phng php ny, i vi nc thi en, s dng d liu o c ca nc thi t cc c s x l nc thi en. i vi nc thi xm, ti lng nhim c tnh nh l ti lng pht thi. e) Nu c nc thi en v nc thi xm c thi ra m cha qua x l ( Nht Bn khng c trng hp ny), ti lng nhim c tnh nh ti lng pht thi. Ngoi ra, nu nc thi en c a tr li t nng nghip, ngn nc thi khng chy 73

trc tip vo vng nc, nn thit lp t l dng chy, c xt n hiu qu lc sch ca t nng nghip, sau thc hin tnh ti lng chy ra cc con sng.
Nc thi en (t nng nghip) T l dng chy Khng x l Ti lng nhim Ra vng nc

Ti lng nhim

Ti lng chy ra
Ra vng nc

Nc thi xm

Ti lng chy ra

Bn thi t nh my x l nc thi hoc Johkasou nu khng c x l th c th xem nh l ngun nhim. Do cng cn phi nm bt c lng bn sinh ra, phng php x l bn v lng bn x l. Tnh hnh x l bn thi Nht Bn c tm tt trong Ti liu tham kho 5. iii) Ngun pht thi chn nui Tm gi tr ca ti lng pht thi t cc chung tri (lng nc thi nng (ca ti lng pht thi t chung tri) = ti lng pht thi). Trong mt s trng hp, nu gia sc c nui nhng ni c quy m nh nh sn tri gia nh, hoc nhng ni c quy m ln nhng khng c d liu v ti lng pht thi, th tnh bng phng php n v gc. u tin, nn thit lp n v gc cho ti lng nhim trn mt con vt nui. Do n v gc thay i theo hnh thc cho n v thc n, nu n v gc cha c thit lp, th tt nht l nn quy nh n v gc da trn vic thc hin o thc t, tuy nhin cng c th tham kho cc n v gc c s dng Nht Bn hoc nhng nc khc. Di y l cc n v gc c s dng Nht Bn:

Bng B.4 (Tham kho) Cc n v gc thng dng cho ti lng pht thi t chn nui Nht Bn (g/con/ngy) B Heo Nga COD (Mn) 530 130 530 Tng nit 280 40 170 Tng pht pho 50 25 40

74

Trng hp thi ra sau khi x l ti h thng x l nc thi


Chn nui Ti lng nhim

nc thi

H thng x l

Ra vng nc

Ti lng pht thi

Trng hp thi vo vng nc m cha qua x l


Chn nui Khng x l Ti lng nhim Ti lng pht thi Ra vng nc

Trng hp a tr li t nng nghip m cha qua x l


Chn nui (t nng nghip) Ti lng nhim dng chy T l Ra vng nc

Ti lng chy ra

Nu nc thi c thi ra sau khi x l ti h thng x l nc thi, khi s dng phng php n v gc tnh ton ti lng pht thi, u tin phi tnh ti lng nhim t s lng gia sc, sau nh t l loi b da vo phng php x l ca h thng x l, v tnh ra ti lng pht thi. Nu nc thi c thi vo vng nc m cha qua x l, ti lng nhim l ti lng pht thi. Nu nc thi c a tr li t nng nghip m khng qua x l, hoc nu gia sc c nui trong nhng sn tri nh ca gia nh v cht thi ca gia sc khng trc tip vo vng nc no, th cn phi quy nh t l dng chy. Khi quy nh t l dng chy, nn xt n lng ti s dng lm phn bn, v mc d dng nc thi en vo cc vng nc do quan h v tr gia chung tri v vng nc, v.v iv) Ti ngun mt t t nng nghip Tm gi tr ca ti lng chy ra t t nng nghip.
Rung la ng hoa mu Vn cy n qu

Ti lng chy ra

Ra vng nc

Ti lng ny c tnh bng cch s dng n v gc trn mi din tch t nng nghip. i vi n v gc, cn phi thit lp gi tr ny da trn vic thc hin o thc t v n v gc thay i ty

75

theo mi quc gia v khu vc, nh l v lng phn bn c s dng. Di y l cc n v gc tiu biu c s dng Nht Bn. n v gc cho t nng nghip Nht Bn c s dng lm n v gc tnh ti lng pht thi theo phng php n v gc ti lng pht thi.

Bng B.5 (Tham kho) Cc n v gc thng dng cho ti lng pht thi t t nng nghip Nht Bn (kg/ha/nm) Rung la ng hoa mu Vn cy n qu COD (Mn) 6,4 3,7 3,7 Tng nit 28 28 28 Tng pht pho 0,37 0,37 0,37

v) Ti ngun mt t khu vc nh ca san st Tm gi tr ca ti lng nhim chy ra t khu vc nh ca san st v cc con ng.

Khu vc nh ca san st

Ti lng chy ra

Ra vng nc

Gi tr ny c tnh bng cch s dng n v gc trn mi din tch. n v gc phi c thit lp da trn vic thc hin o thc t v n v gc thay i ty theo mi quc gia v khu vc. n v gc cho cc khu vc xy dng Nht Bn c s dng lm n v gc tnh ti lng pht thi theo phng php n v gc ti lng pht thi.

Bng B.6 (Tham kho) Cc n v gc thng dng cho ti lng pht thi t cc khu vc nh ca san st Nht Bn (g/ha/nm) COD (Mn) 3,7 Tng nit 6,9 Tng pht pho 0,18

Khi quy nh n v gc cho ti ngun mt, cn lu nhng im sau: Rc nu c cht ng m khng thu gom hay x l th s tr thnh ngun nhim. Nu cc qun n v tim git i khng c tnh n khi tnh ti lng nhim cng nghip, th cn phi lu xem xt n ti lng nhim t nhng ngun nhim ny. vi) Ti ngun mt t cc khu rng 76

Tm gi tr ca ti lng nhim chy ra t cc khu rng v ng c.


Rng/ng c

Ti dng chy

Ra vng nc

Gi tr ny c tnh bng cch s dng n v gc trn mi din tch. n v gc phi c thit lp da trn vic thc hin o ti lng thc t v n v gc thay i ty theo tng quc gia v khu vc. Di y l cc n v gc tiu biu c s dng Nht. n v gc cho rng Nht Bn c s dng lm n v gc tnh ti lng pht thi theo phng php n v gc ti lng pht thi.

Bng B.7 (Tham kho) Cc n v gc thng dng cho ti lng pht thi t rng Nht Bn (kg/ha/nm) COD (Mn) 0,91 Tng nit 6,9 Tng pht pho 0,18

vii) Ngun pht thi nui trng thy sn Trong nui trng thy sn, lng thc n cn tha, cht thi, xc c, v.v l nhng yu t chnh to ra ti nhim.

Thc n Thc n cn tha

Tht c

Cht thi Xc c

Ti lng nhim

Ti lng pht thi

n v gc c thit lp bng cch s dng n v gc sinh ra trn mi sn lng nui trng thy sn. n v gc phi c thit lp da trn vic thc hin o ti lng thc t v n v gc thay i ty theo dng c c nui, phng php nui, v nhit ca vng nc dng nui trng thy sn, v.v...

77

Bng B.8 (Tham kho) Mt s n v gc cho ti lng nhim trn 1.000kg sn lng c chp Nht Bn (kg/nm) COD (Mn) 144,9 Tng nit 57,2 Tng pht pho 13,1

Bng cch ny, c th tnh ti lng pht thi cho mi ngun pht thi. Bng cch tnh gp nhng gi tr ny, ta c th tnh c tng ti lng pht thi. Nu c nhiu dng sng chy vo vng nc i tng, s liu tnh ton nn c thc hin cho tng dng sng v sau tnh gp cc s liu ny li. Bng cch tnh gp nh vy, c th bit c tng ti lng nhim. Ngoi ra, cn c th bit c ti lng nhim ca tng ngun pht thi, nn c th xc nh c cc ngun c nh hng ln n vng nc i tng. Nh , c th cung cp cc thng tin nh lng xem xt trng im ca nhng bin php i ph khi xem xt ci thin mi trng nc. Cc phng php thit lp n v gc cho ti nhim t t nng nghip, khu vc nh ca san st, rng c tm tt trong mc (2) bn di. (2) Cc phng php thit lp n v gc tnh ti lng pht thi t ngun mt (t nng nghip, rng, khu nh ca san st) Khi tnh ton ti lng pht thi, i vi cc ngun mt nh t nng nghip, rng, v cc khu vc nh ca san st, vic tnh ton da vo n v gc c p dng rng ri. Do , cn phi quy nh n v gc. Nht, vic tnh ton c thc hin da trn kt qu ca mt lot o lng thc t trong sut giai on u thc hin TPLCS, vo khong 20-30 nm trc y. Do nhng im o khc nhau c th c trng hp cho nhng gi tr khc nhau trong khong gp n trn 10 ln, nn kh c th quy nh mt cch thng nht. Tuy nhin, khi thc hin TPLCS, n v gc l yu t khng th thiu bit c ti lng nhim ca lu vc, v cn phi c thit lp gi tr thch hp nht th hin c tnh trng thc t trong kh nng c th. Nhng n v gc c s dng trong TPLCS Nht Bn c mt qu trnh thit lp lu di, trong la chn s dng cc gi tr tiu chun da trn rt nhiu o lng, tri qua nhiu cuc kim nh s tng thch vi cc gi tr o c ca ti lng nhim ti cc dng sng hoc vng bin, v tri qua nhiu cuc tho lun ca chnh quyn tnh thnh hoc cc bn lin quan khc. n v gc thng c s dng Nht Bn nh l cc n v tiu chun c gi tr cao nht. Di y l cc phng php thit lp n v gc, thm kho t cc sch hng dn c s dng Nht Bn. i) Cc quan nim c bn Phng php n v gc bao gm phng php n v gc ti lng pht thi (phng php tnh 78

ti lng pht thi t kt qu kho st nhng vng nc i tng) v phng php n v gc ti lng nhim (phng php tnh ti lng nhim t cn bng vt cht). Phng php n v gc ti lng pht thi th ch cn o ti pht thi, cn phng php n v gc ti lng nhim th tnh ti lng nhim t cn bng vt cht, nn cn phi thu nhp thng tin trn mt phm vi rng nh cc loi ti liu thng k, bn v, v.v V vy, di y s ch yu trnh by v phng php n v gc ti lng pht thi. Phng php n v gc ti lng pht thi c thc hin da trn c s cc cuc kho st hin trng (v cht lng nc/lu lng) ti nhng im m cht nhim chy t ng bin ca ngun nhim hoc ranh gii lu vc vo vng nc cng cng (v d nh ng thot nc thi), v o trc tip ti lng pht thi. Phng php ny tng i d thc hin. Tuy nhin, v phng php ny c th thnh thong gy ra nh gi vt mc do thc hin o trng lp ti t thng ngun hoc nh gi di mc do khng th o ti thm vo mch nc ngm, v.v.. cn phi cn thn ch khi s dng phng php ny. ii) Kho st tnh n v gc a. Phng php kho st bit n v gc cho ti lng pht thi, cn phi tm ti lng pht thi t cc ngun mt bng cch thc hin kho st v lu lng v lng nc u cui nhng con sng hoc ng thot nc thi tnh ti lng trong nm, sau tr i ti ngun im trong khu tp trung nc. Khi thc hin kho st, cn ch nhng im sau: Kho st v ti lng nn c thc hin trong sut nm k c vo lc mc nc dng bnh thng v vo lc dng l. Thu thp tng hp thng tin u vo (lng chy vo/lng vo ca bi, phn bn, v.v) v u ra (tnh trng dn dp mt ng, sn lng hoa mu thu hoch, v.v) lu vc kim tra tnh thch hp ca a im v thi gian kho st. Khi thc hin kho st o ti ngun mt t khu vc nh ca san st, nn chn phng php cho php nm bt chnh xc dng chy thot b mt u tin vo lc dng l, v cng nn kho st ti chy ra vo lc mc nc dng bnh thng. Khi thc hin kho st o ti ngun mt t t nng nghip, nn chn phng php cho php nm bt chnh xc nh im chy ra ca ti vo lc dng l. i vi ng hoa mu, cn phi xem xt y cc c tnh ca cnh ng nh tnh trng hoa mu, dng hoa mu, a cht (tnh cht t), a hnh, c trng dng chy, v.v... Khi thc hin kho st o ti ngun mt t rng, cn phi xc nhn chc chn rng khng c ti pht thi t loi t khc xm nhp vo nu rng nm ng bng. b. Thit lp cc im kho st

79

Kho st nn c thc hin ti nhiu im lu vc thuc i tng, bao ph mt vng cng rng ln cng tt tng tnh tiu biu v nng cao chnh xc. Cn phi nm chnh xc mc ch s dng t ca lu vc i tng v ranh gii lu vc khng o trng lp ti t loi t khc. c. Thi gian v tn sut kho st Vic thi ra ti t ngun mt b nh hng bi c im ma, bin ng theo ma, cc hot ng kinh t - x hi, v.v do tn sut kho st nn chn l 4-12 ln/nm (mi ma mt ln hoc mi thng mt ln). Cc kho st nn c thc hin vo mi ma c th nm c s bin i theo ma ca ti lng. c bit i vi t nng nghip, thi gian kho st v tn s kho st nn c xem xt da trn k hoch canh tc (thi gian cy xi t, gieo ht, bn phn, phng php ti tiu, c cho ngp nc vo ma ng khng, v.v). i vi ti lng pht thi t ngun mt, lng ma l mt yu t c bit cn phi c xem xt. Do , t nhng ghi chp trc y v lng ma ti lu vc mc tiu, cn phi tm hiu c im ma (tng lng ma, cng ma, thi gian ma, v khong thi gian khng c ma, v.v) t trc, v xc nh mc lng ma, v.v... V c im dng chy ca ti ngun mt c th c gi nh l c khc bit gia khi bt u v kt thc ma, mi trn ma cn phi c kho st mt cch tng th vi tn sut mi gi nm bt s thay i ca ti lng.

80

Ti liu tham kho 3: Tng quan v Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim ca Nht Bn v mt s phng php thit lp cc gi tr tiu chun
(1) Tng quan v Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim ca Nht Bn Nht Bn, Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim c ra kim sot ti lng pht thi, v tng quan v Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim s c trnh by di y. Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim c thit lp nh gii hn cho php ca ti lng nhim cha trong nc thi mi ngy i vi mi c s kinh doanh, c th hin trong bng C.1. Bng C.1 Cng thc tnh Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim Nht Bn L (Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim) = C Q 10-3 L: Ti lng nhim c php thi ra (n v: kg/ngy) C: Gi tr nng c quy nh cho COD, nit v pht pho (n v: mg/l) Q: Lng nc thi c quy nh (n v: m3/ngy) * Nc thi c quy nh l nc s dng cho hot ng kinh doanh hoc cc hot ng khc ca con ngi ti c s kinh doanh c nh, khng bao gm nc s dng cho cc mc ch khng lm tng ti nhim nh nc dng lm lnh, gim p, v.v... Nht, Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim ly i tng l cc nhm ngnh ngh i tng c nh, nh nh my hay c s kinh doanh c lng nc thi 50m3/ngy tr ln, chung tri chn nui ln, nh my x l nc thi, v.v nm trong khu vc ang p dng TPLCS. Lng nc thi c quy nh l gi tr do cc nh my v c s kinh doanh khai bo. ( Nht, khi xy dng mi hoc m rng c s sn xut, th yu cu cn phi thng bo cho chnh quyn v lng nc v cht lng nc thi, phng php x l nc thi, v.v... Nu lng nc thi tng ln do m rng c s, th cn thm mt thng bo khc). Cc tiu chun nng nc thi hin c quy nh chia theo 215 nhm ngnh ngh khi xt n tnh cht nc thi ca tng nhm ngnh ngh nhm thit lp cc gi tr tiu chun nng nc thi cng bng (sau y gi l gi tr C). i vi nhng c s kinh doanh c xy mi hoc m rng, trn tin p dng k thut mi trng tin tin nht ti thi im , p dng gi tr C kht khe. V d, gi tr C cho COD Nht Bn c thit lp cho ba giai on phn chia tng ng vi thi gian xy mi v m rng c s sn

81

xut, cng thc tnh cc Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim nh sau: L = (CoQo + CiQi
p dng i vi lng nc tng trong khong t 1/7/1980 n 30/6/1991.

CjQj) 10-3
p dng i vi lng nc tng t ngy 1/7/1991 tr v sau.

p dng i vi lng nc t ngy 1/7/1980 tr v trc.

Khi xc nh gi tr C, tnh trng/th trng thit lp gi tr da trn vic xem xt ti lng cn phi gim t c ti lng pht thi n nh cho tnh thnh, trong phm vi gii hn trn v gii hn di ca mi nhm ngnh ngh m B trng B Mi trng quy nh. Khi thc hin kim sot nc thi, quan trng l phi m bo tun th tiu chun bng cch thit lp tiu chun mc sao cho c th thc hin thng qua kt qu n lc. Do , yu cu l phi xem xt cc gi tr tiu chun nc thi da trn cc cuc kho st v s liu thi nc trc nay, tnh trng x l nc thi, v.v ch khng nn thit lp ngay cc tiu chun nc thi l tng. Ngoi ra, phng thc sn xut v k thut sn xut ca cc nh my mang nhng c im c tnh khu vc, do cng cn phi cn nhc n im ny, v cng cn lu rng c nhng trng hp khng nht thit phi p dng y nguyn cc tiu chun nc thi ca nhng quc gia v khu vc khc. (2) Phng php xc nh gi tr tiu chun (gi tr C) Sau y l mt v d v phng php xc nh gi tr C khi p dng cc quan nim v Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim trnh by trn kim sot ti lng nhim trong nc thi. y l phng php xc nh gi tr da trn c s kho st thc trng ca cc nh my v c s kinh doanh, v c th c p dng rng ri v phng php ny da trn quan im c thc cc nh my v c s kinh doanh c nng pht thi ti nhim cao thc hin cc bin php ci thin c trng im. u tin, cc nh my c xp theo th t c nng nc thi t thp n cao i vi tng nhm ngnh ngh. Cc nh my thi ra nc thi c nng cht nhim thp c k thut sn xut v c s x l nc thi tin tin, trong khi cc nh my thi ra nc thi c nng cht nhim cao c k thut sn xut v c s x l nc thi lc hu. Nu gi tr C c thit lp, cc nh my v c s kinh doanh thi ra nc thi c cha nng cht nhim cao hn gi tr C s phi thc hin cc bin php h nng n mc tha mn gi tr C. Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim c tnh bng cch nhn gi tr C vi lng nc thi, do , nu gim nng bng cch pha long s dn n tng lng nc thi cho nn khng th thc hin gim nng c. Do , cc nh my v c s kinh doanh phi thc hin cc bin php sao cho c th gim ti lng pht thi, v d nh lp t hoc nng cp h thng x l nc thi, vn hnh n nh, v.v Khi , lng gim i c tnh bng cch tnh tng ca tch ca tng lng nc thi t cc nh

82

my v c s kinh doanh thi ra lng nc thi c nng cht nhim cao hn gi tr C vi hiu ca nng nc thi v gi tr C. Gi tr C c th thit lp ti gi tr sao cho lng ny bng lng gim mc tiu. Hnh C.1 bn di gii thch ni dung gii thch trn.
Gi tr C (tm thi) C(
Cn phi ci thin

A B

D E F

J K

Thp C s kinh doanh vi k thut tin tin

Nng nc thi

Cao C s kinh doanh vi k thut lc hu

Hnh C.1 S khi nim cch xc nh Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim Nu gi tr C tm thi c xc nh nh Hnh C.1, bn c s kinh doanh Q, R, S v T cn phi thc hin ci thin. Nu c s kinh doanh Q c lng nc thi l Q v nng nc thi l q, ti lng nhim c s kinh doanh Q phi gim p ng c gi tr C l Q (q gi tr C). Tng t nh vy, nu lng nc thi c k hiu bng ch hoa v nng nc thi c k hiu bng ch thng i vi cc c s kinh doanh R, S v T, tng Y ca ti lng nhim c gim bi 4 c s kinh doanh trn c th hin bi cng thc sau: Y = Q (q gi tr C) + R (r - gi tr C) + S (s - gi tr C) + T (t - gi tr C) Gi tr Y tm c t phng trnh trn l lng gim ti nhim ng vi gi tr C tm thi. Nu so snh thy gi tr Y bng vi lng gim ti nhim mc tiu ti thi im , c th chn gi tr C tm thi lm gi tr C chnh thc. Nu gi tr ca Y khng bng lng gim mc tiu, nn chn li mt gi tr C tm thi khc. Ngc li, khi xc nh gi tr C, cn phi cn nhc gi tr tiu chun ny c th c thc hin trn thc t. Mt iu kin t c iu l phi thit lp gi tr C sao cho gi tr ny khng vt qu trnh k thut c th s dng vo thi im hin ti. Nh th hin hnh C.1, c s kinh doanh A c nng ti nhim trong nc thi thp nht, v cng c th cho l A c trnh k thut cao nht c th s dng ti thi im . Thit lp mt gi tr C thp hn gi tr ca c s kinh doanh A s khng c tnh kh thi v mt cng ngh. Trng hp ny, nn tho lun xem c th p dng rng ri k thut ca c s kinh doanh A cho cc c s kinh doanh khc hay khng.

83

Ngoi ra, khi thc hin cng tc r sot v sa i k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim, nn xc nhn tnh trng ca cht lng nc vng nc v ti lng nhim pht thi v xem xt li gi tr C nu cn. Khi , cng cn phi iu chnh gi tr C mt cch kht khe hn da trn vic xt n cc tin b trong k thut x l nc thi v tnh trng ph bin ca k thut.

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Ti liu tham kho 4: Phng php o cht lng cc vng nc Nht Bn


Ti liu ny gii thiu khi qut v phng php c bn c dng lm c s khi p dng cc Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim Nc i vi mi dng vng nc v khi tin hnh kho st cht lng nc thit lp cc tiu chun nc thi b sung. i) Tn sut o cht lng nc Vic o lng phi c thc hin t nht 1 ln/thng. Nc phi c ly mu khong 4 ln/ngy vo cc ngy kho st phn tch. nhng im quan trng, nc phi c ly mu khong 1 ln/thng hoc 4 ln/nm ly BOD, COD, nit, pht pho c 2 gi mt ln, tng cng 13 ln mt ngy. ii) Thi im kho st Bng D.1 Cch chn thi im o cht lng nc ca sng, ao h, vng bin Sng Khi lu lng nc thp v thi im s dng nc. Chn ngy ly mu sao cho trc ngy c thi tit tt ko di v cht lng nc tng i n nh. Ao h V cht lng nc c s khc bit ng k gia thi gian ngng ng v lu thng, do ly mu c 2 giai on ny khi tnh. Chn ngy ly mu sao cho trc ngy c thi tit tt ko di v cht lng nc tng i n nh. Vng bin Ly mu c thi im m cht lng nc nh hng xu n vic s dng nc. Nu c d nh kho st dng sng tip nhn, th tt nht l nn kt hp vi thi im kho st. V nguyn tc, chn ngy vo chu k triu cng, t chu nh hng ca gi, ma. iii) Cch chn im ly mu nc Bng D.2 Cch chn im ly mu nc o cht lng nc ca sng, ao h, vng bin Sng im s dng nc im c nc nhim chnh c ha ln hon ton vi nc sch sau khi chy vo sng, v im trc khi chy Ao h Tm ao h im s dng nc im c nc nhim chnh c ha ln hon ton vi nc sch sau khi chy vo ao Vng bin Chn im sao cho c th nm bt c tnh trng nhim ca vng nc mt cch ton din, c xt n a hnh ca vng nc, dng triu, tnh

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vo sng im m nhnh sng ha ln hon ton vi sng chnh sau khi hp lu, v im trc khi nhnh sng vo sng chnh im phn lu dng chy Cc im quan trng khc iv) Phng php ly mu nc

h im c nc ha ln hon ton sau khi sng vo, v im trc khi sng vo im nc ao h chy ra Cc im quan trng khc

hnh s dng nc, v tr ca cc ngun nhim chnh v tnh trng chy vo ca nc sng. Khong cch tiu chun gia cc im ly mu nc l t 500m n 1km.

Bng D.3 Phng php ly mu nc o cht lng nc ca sng, ao h v vng bin Sng Thi im ly mu nc l nhng thi im cht lng nc tr nn xu nht, c xt n thi gian ca hot ng ca con ngi, thi gian hot ng ca cc nh my v c s kinh doanh, v thi gian t n mt im ca cc cht nhim. V nguyn tc, su ly mu quy nh l xp x 20% su tnh t mt nc. Ao h Thi im ly mu nc l nhng thi im cht lng nc tr nn xu nht, c xt n thi gian ca hot ng ca con ngi, thi gian hot ng ca cc nh my v c s kinh doanh, v thi gian t n mt im ca cc cht nhim. Nn ly mu nc t tng mt vo thi gian lu thng. Trong thi gian ng, nn ly mu ti nhiu tng su khc nhau, c phn tng theo mi 5 hoc 10m. Vng bin Thi im ly mu nc bao gm nhng thi im thy triu xung thp vo ban ngy. V nguyn tc, nn ly mu nc ti tng mt (cch mt bin 0,5m) v tng gia (cch mt bin 2m). Nu vng bin su trong khong 5m th nn ly mu ch tng mt, v nu vng bin su hn 10m th ly mu nc t tng y (cch mt nc 10m) nu cn.

v) Cc cng vic cn thc hin trong khi ly mu nc Bng D.4 Cc cng vic cn thc hin trong khi ly mu nc t sng, ao h, vng bin Sng Ao h Vng bin Ghi chp li ngy gi ly mu nc, v tr im ly mu nc, su vng nc, thi gian v mc triu khi thy triu Ghi chp li ngy gi ly mu nc, b rng mt nc, khong cch t b n im ly mu, su vng nc, lu lng, hng dng chy, iu kin ma, a hnh ca im ly mu, tnh trng s dng nc, v cc ngun nhim chnh, v.v

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o hoc quan st nhit nc, nhit khng kh, mu sc, c, mi v sinh vt ti im ly mu.

ln v xung, hng dng chy, iu kin ma, a hnh ca im ly mu, hng gi/vn tc gi (hoc sc gi), tnh trng s dng nc ti im ly mu, v cc ngun nhim chnh, v.v... o hoc quan st nhit nc, nhit khng kh, mu sc, c, mi, trong sut, mn ti im ly mu.

vi) Phng php o lu lng ca sng V lu lng cng vi cht lng nc l nhng d liu khng th thiu tnh ton ti lng nhim, nn thc hin o cng vi lc ly mu nc. Chia mt ct ngang ca dng sng thnh nhiu phn thch hp, ly din tch mt ct ngang thu c khi o su nhn vi vn tc dng chy ca tng mt ct ngang tng ng, tng cc gi tr thu c chnh l lu lng ca sng. V nguyn tc, vn tc dng chy trung bnh nn c o bng cc phng php sau: Nu su ca nc t 1m tr ln: phng php 2 im s dng lu tc k (ly trung bnh vn tc dng chy ti su 20% v 80% t mt nc) Nu su ca nc di 1m: phng php 1 im s dng lu tc k (vn tc dng chy ti su khong 60% t mt nc) Tuy nhin, nu vng nc qu cn v khng th o bng lu tc k, c th p dng nhng phng php khc, nh l phng php o bng cch th g. Hnh D.1 th hin v d minh ha trng hp mt ct ngang ca dng sng c chia thnh 4 phn.

AnAVn dng chy trung : Din tch mt ct, Vn: Tc bnh Lu lng1V1 V1 +V2+A3A3 3+A4VV4 A = A 1+A2 A2 V2 + V V3 + A4 4
A1 V1 A2 V2 A3 V3 A4 V4

Hnh D.1 S mt ct khi o lu lng dng sng

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Ti liu tham kho 5: Tnh hnh x l bn thi ti cc nh my x l nc thi Nht Bn


Bn thi sinh ra khi nc thi c x l bng qu trnh x l sinh hc nh l phng php dng bn hot tnh. Trong qu trnh x l dng bn hot tnh, 50-70% BOD c tiu th cung cp nng lng, v 30-50% c s dng nui t bo vi khun, ngha l mt lng ln cht nhim c tp trung trong bn. Do , nu c nguyn bn nh vy v thi li cht nhim ra vng nc, hiu qu ca vic x l nc thi s b gim i ng k. X l nc thi ch hon thnh khi bn c lu gi v x l thch hp. (1) Tnh hnh x l bn thi Nht Bn Bn cha ch yu l nc, do vic x l bn mt rt nhiu cng sc. Trc y, bn c x l bng cch chn lp, nhng v l do l ngy cng kh bo v bi chn lp qua nhiu nm, vic tn dng bn hiu qu c khuyn khch y mnh. Nht, t l (trng lng) bn c s dng hiu qu so vi tng lng bn vo nm 1990 ch t 16%, nhng t l ny ang tng ln theo mi nm. Ti thi im nm 2004, khong 67% tng lng bn c s dng hiu qu. Ngoi ra, ngay c khi thc hin x l bn bng cch chn lp th cng khng c chn lp nguyn dng m cn phi gim khi lng i bng cch thiu t, v.v... Ti thi im nm 2004, 87% lng bn em chn lp c gim bng cch thiu t hoc x l x nng chy. Qu trnh x l bn bt u vi vic gim lng nc xung cn khong 85% bng cch c c v kh nc. Sau , ty vo phng php x l, bn s tri qua cc qu trnh: sy kh, thiu t, cacbon ha, to x nng chy, phn, v.v... Nht, ngay c nhng nh my x l nc thi quy m nh cng thng lp t thit b c c hoc kh nc bn. Vic c c bn c thc hin bng phng php c c trng lc, yu cu t thit b c kh, ngoi ra cng c thc hin c c ly tm, v.v... Vic kh nc trong bn cng c thc hin bng cch s dng my kh nc kiu p vt, my kh nc ly tm, my lc p dng bng ti, v.v... Nu sy kh hoc thiu t bn, lm bc hi lng nc cn rt nhiu nng lng, do quan trng l phi kh cng nhiu nc cng tt giai on trc. Ngoi ra, qu trnh phn yu cu cn c hm lng nc thch hp ln men bn, v qu trnh x l kh nc trong bn cng hiu qu cho mc ch . Di y l cc phng php ti ch bn: i) Dng cho nng tri xanh phn bn v s dng lm phn bn hu c a bn tr li t di dng tro t, bn kh nc, bn sy kh, v s dng lm phn bn, cht ci to t hoc t nhn to.

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ii) Dng lm vt liu xy dng S dng tro t lm nguyn liu xi mng. Cho bn thnh x nng chy v s dng lm gch, vt liu lm nn ng. S dng bn cho ct liu nh, cht ci to t, gch block chng thm, hoc ct liu b tng. iii) Dng cung cp nng lng S dng kh sinh ra khi x l k kh bn lm ngun nng lng hoc pht in trong nh. Bng E.1 th hin tnh hnh x l v ti ch bn Nht Bn. Bng E.1 Tnh hnh x l v ti ch bn (nm 2006) (Da vo trng lng bn sy kh, n v: tn) Chn lp Dng cho nng tri xanh Bn lng Bn kh nc phn Bn sy kh Bn cacbon ha Tro t X nng chy Tng cng 518.538 237 560.146 25,1% 26.879 3.308 332.093 14,9% 698.896 6.371 802.697 35,9% 302.153 200.722 508.998 22,8% 4 776 20.025 0,9% 10.023 733 11.040 0,5% 592 3.944 21 240.585 31.516 1.733 0 1.992 898 3.318 6 181 0 16.083 0 1 3 102 0 36.816 4 28.072 0 92.923 0 2.618 0 3.161 4 150 4 0,0% 163.764 7,3% 244.496 10,9% 55.160 2,4% 2.934 0,1% 1.556.493 69,6% 212.146 9,5% 2.234.998 100% Ti ch Vt liu xy dng Xi mng Khc Dng lm nhin liu Lu gi trong nh my Tng cng

Trong s nhng cch tn dng hiu qu bn, cch dng lm vt liu xy dng l thng dng nht,

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chim gn 80% tng lng bn c s dng ti ch. Vt liu xy dng lm t bn thng ch yu l t tro t v x nng chy. Bn c dng cho nng tri xanh chim 14% tng lng bn s dng, trong 75% dng lm phn bn. Ngoi ra, trong cc phng php x l bn, phng php thiu t chim phn ln vi 71,7%, tip theo l x nng chy v phn vi khong 10%. Khi xem xt phng php x l bn, quan trng l phi la chn phng php x l thch hp nht cho tng vng, da trn nhu cu sn phm bn ti ch, chi ph x l, ngun kinh ph, x l cht thi v cc chnh sch lin quan xy dng mt x hi tun hon vt cht, v.v... V bn thi cha 85% nc ngay c khi c kh nc, vic t bn cn nng lng ln v chi ph cao. T quan im , x l phn l mt cch s dng bn c li hn. Sn lng phn bn t bn thi Nht vo nm 2007 k c bn cng nghip l 1,37 triu t tn, tng ng vi trung bnh 300kg phn bn trn 1 hecta t canh tc. (2) V d v phn bn thi Quy trnh phn bn thi c th khi qut nh sau: Bn c kh nc ti cc nh my x l nc thi hoc c s x l nc thi en, v c chuyn ti nh my di dng bn kh nc. Sau bn s c trn vi mn ca, iu chnh cn cha 60% n 70% nc, v c cht vo trong cc nh ln men. Cc nh c thit b thng kh, v kh c thi vo ty theo tnh trng ln men. Ngoi ra, ng bn c lt ngc li mi tun mt ln thc y qu trnh ln men v ngn nga tnh trng ln men khng u. V nh my ny c quy m sn xut ln nn s dng cc my mc hng nng thc hin cng vic lt ngc ny. Vi cch lm nh th ny, vic phn c hon thnh ch trong khong hai thng ri. Tnh trng bn trong dy nh ging nh trong Hnh E.1.

Hnh E.1 Nh Sau khi hon thnh qu trnh phn, bn c a qua mt ci sng, mc ch chnh l loi b

90

mn ca. Trong mn ca b loi ra c mt lng ln vi khun bm vo. Mn ca s c trn mt ln na vi phn , sau c cht ng lm nguyn liu phn bn. Phn trn c th c sn xut vi t l khong 25 tn t 100 tn bn. Hm lng ca cc thnh phn chnh trong phn c th hin Bng E.2. Bng E.2 Hm lng ca cc thnh phn chnh trong phn Tng nit (%) Tng pht pho (%) Tng kali (%) T l cacbon/nit pH 1,5 - 1,7 4,0 - 5,0 Di 0,5 7,0 - 9,0 6,0 - 7,5

Vic kim tra phn c thc hin nh k pht hin kim loi nng c hi v kim loi qu. Bn c chuyn ti cng c xc nh hm lng theo chng trnh qun l cht lng khi k kt hp ng x l vi mt nh my x l nc thi bng cch yu cu nh my np cc bn k khai. iu kin thnh cng ca cc nh my phn bn l tnh trng ca bn c chuyn ti v nhu cu phn . Bn c chuyn ti l tp hp bn t cc nh my x l nc thi v cc c s x l nc thi en, nhng nu c rc ti trn ln trong bn, vic x l phn s gp kh khn. H thng thot nc l c s x l nc thi sinh hot. Nht, cc tiu chun thi ra i vi nc thi p dng khi nc thi t cc nh my v c s kinh doanh c thi vo h thng thot nc, v nhng tiu chun ny kim sot vic thi nc c cha kim loi nng c hi v cht ha hc vo h thng thot nc. Vic gim st cht lng bn thi t nc thi nh th ny c ngha quan trng. Nhu cu phn cng rt quan trng. Phn thuc dng phn hu c, c ln men nn rt thch hp vi t v hoa mu d hp th. Phn cng gip lm mm t, lm cho t ai mu m v khng lm gim hiu qu phn bn. Nht Bn hin ang xem xt li phng php nng nghip hu c v qun l t trng, nhng rt nhiu nng dn s dng phn trc y s tip tc s dng trong nhng nm ti. Yu t quan trng thnh cng trong vic x l bn nc thi bng cch phn l bn phi c cung cp n nh vi tnh cht v cht lng ng nht nh trn, v nhu cu phn trn c m bo. Nh my phn bn c th c xy dng tng ng vi lng phn sinh ra, min l lng phn trn khng t hn mt mc nht nh. Do , nh my x l nc thi xy dng vng nng thn c th chn la lp t thit b kh nc v nh my phn trong c s x l. Khi xy dng mt nh my quy m ln, cn phi c on phm vi tp trung bn nc thi v lng bn, nhu cu phn trn ca khu vc xung quanh nh my xem xt quy m v v tr ca c s.

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Ti liu tham kho 6: Tnh trng cht lng nc cc nc ng


ng hin ang pht trin mnh m v nn kinh t - x hi v c xem l trung tm tng trng ca nn kinh t th gii. Cc nc ASEAN chng kin s gia tng gp i v dn s trong 40 nm qua, t l tng trng kinh t cao cng lin tc ko di. i cng vi nhng xu hng pht trin , ti lng nhim cng tng ln. Ti nguyn nc cng b thu hp, i hi con ngi cn phi tng cng s dng hiu qu ngun ti nguyn nc, nh phng chng nhim cc vng nc, loi b nhng vn trong s dng nc, thc y vic ti s dng nc phc v cho cng nghip, v.v ng thi cng i hi ph bin cc k thut x l nc. Bng F.1 th hin GDP bnh qun u ngi ng trong nm 2009. Nhm mc ch tham kho, trong bng cng th hin s liu ca Nht Bn vo nm 1965, thi k vic x l nc thi khng th bt kp s tng trng ca cng nghip v kinh t, dn n mi trng nc b suy thoi nhiu vng trn c nc. Cc nc ng tiu biu nh Malaysia, Thi Lan, Trung Quc v Indonesia hin ang gn tng ng hoc ang dn tin ti tng ng vi Nht Bn vo thi k , v cng c th ni rng ang trong giai on pht trin kinh t tng t vi Nht Bn lc y. Nh cp trong mc 1.3, Nht Bn trong thi k ny chng kin cht lng mi trng nc nhiu vng trn c nc b suy gim, vic ly nc phc v cho sn xut nc my sinh hot gp nhiu kh khn, v ngnh ng nghip thng xuyn chu nhiu thit hi, v vy Nht Bn bt buc phi thc hin nhng bin php khn cp. V c th ni rng cc nc ng cng ang dn tin n giai on bt buc phi thc hin cc bin php i ph. Bng F.1
Trung Quc Hn Quc Thi Lan Malaysia

GDP bnh qun u ngi ca cc nc ng (n v USD, nm 2009)


3.734 17.074 3.940 6.950 Indonesia Philippines Vit Nam Campuchia 2.329 1.747 1.068 768 Lo Myanmar n (Tham kho) Nht Bn (1965) 885 571 1.032 3.170

* GDP bnh qun u ngi ca Nht Bn vo nm 1965 l gi tr c iu chnh gi

Trong s cc quc gia ng Nam , vo nm 1970 Malaysia, Philippines v Singapore p dng cc lut lin quan n mi trng nc v khng kh c nh hng trc tip n sc khe con ngi. Trong nhng nm 1990, Indonesia, Thi Lan v Vit Nam cng xy dng h thng lut tng t (xem Bng F.2). Tuy nhin, nhng n lc nhm bo v mi trng nc ch mi c bt u thc hin trong nhng nm gn y. Ti cc nh my v khu cng nghip quy m ln nh cc nh my ca cng ty nc ngoi th c thc hin x l nc thi, tuy nhin ch mt s t nh my quy m va v nh c trang b h thng x l nc thi. Cc h thng thot nc cng ang trong qu trnh hon

92

thin, v cng c nhng trng hp nc thi t nh my v nc thi sinh hot, v d nh nc thi t nh v sinh, c thi ra sng m khng h c x l. Do , cn phi sm thc y thc hin cc bin php i vi nc thi sinh hot nh xy dng cc h thng thot nc, ph bin cc bin php x nc thi ti nh my. Ngoi ra, vic dng phn bn nit cng tng ln nhanh chng cng vi s pht trin nng nghip, gy nhim nit cho nc ngm v s ph dng ca mt s vng nc. Bng F.2 Nm ban hnh cc lut lin quan ti mi trng cc nc ng Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Singapore Thi Lan Vit Nam 1997 1990 (1995) 1993 (1999) 1988 (2001) 1993 1974 (1998) 1975 (1997) 1978 1989 (2005) 1987 (1995) 1977 (1978) 1975 (2004) 1977 (1999) 1990 (2000) 1977 1999 (2000) 1975 (2001) 1971 (2002) 1987 (2000) 1992 1992 (1996) 1992 (2005) 1992 1994 (2005) 1993 (1995) 1993 (1995) 1999 1994 (2006)

Trung Quc Lut c bn v mi trng Cht lng nc Khng kh Cht thi nh gi tc ng mi trng 1973 (1989) 1984 (2008) 1987 (2000) 1995 (2005) 1979 (1998)

1992

* S liu trong du ngoc (

) th hin nm sa i gn y nht tnh n thi im 2007.

Ti Philippines, h Laguna, nm pha Nam khu vc th Manila trn o Luzon, theo k hoch l c s dng lm ngun nc ung quan trng, nhng h b nhim bi nc thi t cc nh my xunh quanh, v vic bo v cht lng nc tr thnh mt thch thc. Ti Thi Lan cng b nhim nc nghim trng sng Chaopraya, dng sng chy ngang qua th Bangkok, 75% nguyn nhn ca tnh trng ny c cho l do cc c s thng mi khng x l nc thi ph hp, cn li l do nc thi sinh hot. mt s a phng, tnh trng nhim nc phc v nng nghip do s gia tng s dng phn bn ha hc cng l mt thch thc ang c quan tm. Ngoi ra, qu trnh ph dng ang xy ra nhiu ao h v h cha nc ni c vai tr quan trng lm ngun nc ung. Nh vy, c th thy nhim nc cc nc ng ang dn tr nn nghim trng vi mc nhim nc gn nh tng t vi tnh trng ca Nht Bn trong giai on tng trng kinh t cao . Tnh trng i hi phi c nhng bin php c hiu qu thc t, v vy vic tn dng nhng kinh nghim v bi hc ca Nht Bn cng c ngha rt quan trng. nhim nc cc nc ng c rt nhiu ngun nhim nh cng nghip v sinh hot, v.v cho nn cn phi c

93

nhng bin php ph hp. S ph dng ang xy ra nhng vng nc khp kn nh ao h v sng c thi gian tn ng nc lu di, do vic p dng TPLCS c th xem l mt la chn c u tin cao.

94

Mc lc hnh v bng 0 Chng 1 TPLCS Hnh 1.1 Khi qut quy trnh thc hin TPLCS.............................................................................4 Hnh 1.2 nh ngha vng bin khp kn Nht Bn ....................................................................5 Hnh 1.3 Cu trc thc hin cc bin php ngun pht thi ........................................................ 11 Hnh 1.4 S cu trc ca TPLCS Nht Bn .........................................................................14 Hnh 1.5 H thng Lut kim sot nhim nc v v tr ca TPLCS ti Nht Bn ..................15 Bng 1.1 Cc ngun chnh ca ti nhim.......................................................................................8 0 Quy trnh thc hin TPLCS Hnh 2.1 S lung ca ti nhim v t l nhim ti mt im: v d t mt nh my ......22 Hnh 2.2 S lung cc ngun pht thi v ti nhim ...........................................................23 Hnh 2.3 Cc qu trnh trong TPLCS ...........................................................................................25 Hnh 2.4 Biu m hnh mt lu vc v cc im o...............................................................35 Hnh 2.5 Nhng nhn t bin ng chnh ca ti nhim trong vng nc khp kn .............. 366 Hnh 2.6 Quy trnh lp k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim ti Nht Bn .......................41 Bng 2.1 Cc yu cu v vng nc cn p dng TPLCS ...........................................................26 Bng 2.2 Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc ti cc vng bin Nht Bn (COD, tng nit, tng pht pho) .....................................................................................................28 Bng 2.3 Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc ti ao h Nht Bn (COD, tng nit, tng pht pho).................................................................................................................29 Bng 2.4 Tiu chun Cht lng Mi trng v nhim nc ti sng ngi Nht Bn (BOD) ........................................................................................................................................................30 Bng 2.5 Cc d liu cn thu thp tnh ton ti lng pht thi .............................................31 Bng 2.6 Cc phng php tnh ti lng nhim theo tng ngun pht sinh ti Nht Bn ......33 Bng 2.7 Mt mc lc tiu biu ca k hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim ti Nht Bn ..42 0 Chng 3 TPLCS Hnh 3.1 S dng h thng x l nc thi ph hp vi cc c im ca mi h thng...........57 Bng 3.1 C cu phi hp hay lin kt vi cc ban ngnh cn thit thc hin TPLCS ........ 477 Bng 3.2 Tn s o ti lng pht thi ti cc nh my v c s kinh doanh ti Nht Bn ........52 0 Hnh A.1 Bin ng v t l tng trng kinh t Nht Bn v cc nc ng ....................60 Hnh A.2 Bin ng v GDP bnh qun u ngi Nht Bn ( iu chnh gi) ....................61 Hnh A.3 Mt s khu vc xy ra nhim nc ...........................................................................62

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Hnh A.4 Bin ng v s ln xut hin thy triu Bin ni a Seto..................................66 0 Bng B.1 Cc n v gc thng dng cho ti lng nhim Nht Bn ...................................70 Bng B.2 Cc n v gc thng dng cho ti lng pht thi Nht Bn trng hp x l nc thi sinh hot ti h thng x l nc thi kt hp h gia nh ...................................................72 Bng B.3 Cc n v gc thng dng cho ti lng pht thi Nht Bn trng hp nc thi en c x l bng h thng x l nc thi ring l h gia nh.............................................73 Bng B.4 Cc n v gc thng dng cho ti lng pht thi t chn nui Nht Bn .............74 Bng B.5 Cc n v gc thng dng cho ti lng pht thi t t nng nghip Nht Bn . 766 Bng B.6 Cc n v gc thng dng cho ti lng pht thi t cc khu vc nh ca san st Nht Bn .........................................................................................................................................76 Bng B.7 Cc n v gc thng dng cho ti lng pht thi t rng Nht Bn .....................77 Bng B.8 Mt s n v gc cho ti lng nhim trn 1.000kg, sn lng c chp Nht Bn ..................................................................................................................................................78 0 Tng quan v Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim ca Nht Bn v mt s phng php thit lp cc gi tr tiu chunTi liu tham kho 3: Tng quan v Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim ca Nht Bn v mt s phng php thit lp cc gi tr tiu chun Hnh C.1 S khi nim cch xc nh Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim..........83 Bng C.1 Cng thc tnh Tiu chun Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim Nht Bn ...............81 Ti liu tham kho 4: Phng php o cht lng cc vng nc Nht Bn Hnh D.1 S mt ct khi o lu lng dng sng...................................................................87 Bng D.1 Cch chn thi im o cht lng ca sng, ao h, vng bin ............................... 855 Bng D.2 Cch chn im ly mu nc o cht lng nc ca sng, ao h, vng bin ....85 Bng D.3 Phng php ly mu nc o cht lng nc ca sng, ao h, vng bin .........86 Bng D.4 Cc cng vic cn thc hin trong khi ly mu nc t sng, ao h, vng bin ....... 866 0 Hnh E.1 Nh ............................................................................................................................90 Bng E.1 Tnh hnh x l v ti ch bn (nm 2006) ................................................................ 889 Bng E.2 Hm lng ca cc thnh phn chnh trong phn .....................................................91 0 Tnh trng cht lng nc cc nc ng

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Bng F.1 GDP bnh qun u ngi ca cc nc ng (n v: USD, nm 2009) ..............92 Bng F.2 Nm ban hnh cc lut lin quan n mi trng cc nc ng ........................93

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Danh mc ti liu tham kho


Kim sot nhim nc v chnh sch qun l: Kinh nghim ca Nht Bn, NXB Gyosei, 1999. Qun l mi trng nc Nht Bn (Bn sa i), NXB Gyosei, 2009. Hng dn v cch thc kim sot tng ti lng nhim nc (ln th nht, th hai, th ba, th t, th nm, th su, th by). K hoch kim sot tng ti lng nhim v nhu cu oxy ha hc, nhu cu nit, hm lng nit v hm lng pht pho (ln th 6) (Tnh Hyogo). Hng dn lp k hoch c bn v x l nc thi sinh hot theo quy nh ca iu 6(1) Lut v x l v dn sch cht thi, Thng t B Y t v Phc li x hi, 1990. Quan im c bn v cc bin php i vi cc lu vc bo m cht lng nc ca ao h, B t ai - C s h tng - Giao thng - Du lch, B Nng Lm Thy sn v B Mi trng, 2006. Phng php kho st cht lng nc, Thng t B Mi trng, 1971. Hng dn Kho st v ch thch K hoch tng hp xy dng h thng thot nc cho tng lu vc, Hip hi Cng trnh Thot nc Nht Bn, 2008. Bin ni a Seto vng bin c cu sng, Hip hi Bo v Mi trng Bin ni a Seto, 2004. Setouchi Net S tay hng dn h Biwa (mt s tay gii thiu v h Biwa), Ban bin son S tay hng dn h Biwa, 2007. Sch hng dn phn bn b ti-2008, Hip hi Thng k Nng nghip v Lm nghip. iu tra ti khu vc Kinki lin quan n cc h tr cho vic pht trin hot ng mi trng - tit kim nng lng nhng nc Chu Nm 2007, Phng Kinh t - Thng mi - Cng nghip Kansai, 2008. Cc bin php mi trng nc ngoi ca cc cng ty Nht Bn: Singapore, Din n Mi trng Ton cu, 2003. Cc bin php mi trng nc ngoi ca cc cng ty Nht Bn: Vit Nam, Din n Mi trng Ton cu, 2002. Cc bin php mi trng nc ngoi ca cc cng ty Nht Bn: Malaysia, Din n Mi trng Ton cu, 2000. Cc bin php mi trng nc ngoi ca cc cng ty Nht Bn: Thi Lan, Din n Mi trng Ton cu, 1999. Cc bin php mi trng nc ngoi ca cc cng ty Nht Bn: Indonesia, Din n Mi trng Ton cu, 1998. Cc bin php mi trng nc ngoi ca cc cng ty Nht Bn: Philippines, Din n Mi trng Ton cu, 1997. Tp san Hi nghin cu Hi dng hc ven bin s 32-2 (1995): Nhng vn mi trng cc nc ng Nam - Cc vn v cht lng nc, Masaru Maeda.

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H thng qun l mi trng dng phn quyn v nh gi nng lc x hi Indonesia, Shunji Matsuoka. Tnh trng nhim mi trng nc ng Nam Tp trung vo Vit Nam, Masataka Sugawara. Hi ngh chuyn ca i hc Showa: Cng sinh cng cc nc ang pht trin Ly Philippines lm hnh mu, 2009. Bn tin Vin Nghin cu Mi trng Quc gia s 18-5 (1999): Nghin cu v D n pht trin chung v k thut ci thin cht lng nc thch hp s dng cc h thng t nhin (Vng quc Thi Lan), Yuhei Inamori.

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Mi thc mc v tp Hng dn p dng H thng Kim sot Tng ti lng nhim (TPLCS) ny, xin vui lng lin h v: Vn phng Qun l Mi trng cc Vng ven bin Khp kn, B phn Mi trng Nc, Cc Qun l Mi trng, B Mi trng Nht Bn (Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Management Bureau, Water Environment Management Division, Office of Environmental Management of Enclosed Coastal Seas) 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8975, Japan in thoi: +813-5521-8320 Fax: +813-3501-2717

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