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This article is about the term's use in physics.

For
other uses, see Gamma ray (disambiguation).

.



Illustration of an emission of a gamma ray () from
an atomic nucleus .


Gamma radiation, also known as gamma rays or

hyphenated as gamma-rays and denoted as , is
electromagnetic radiation of high frequency and .

therefore energy. Gamma rays are ionizing radiation
and are thus biologically hazardous. Gamma rays

are classically produced by the decay from high
energy states of atomic nuclei (gamma decay), but .
also in many other ways. Natural sources of gamma
rays on Earth include gamma decay from naturally-
occurring radioisotopes such as potassium-40, and .
also as a secondary radiation from various
atmospheric interactions with cosmic ray particles.
Some rare terrestrial natural sources that produce

gamma rays that are not of a nuclear origin, are
lightning strikes and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes,
which produce high energy emissions from natural .
high-energy voltages. Gamma rays are produced by
a number of astronomical processes in which very
high-energy electrons are produced. Such electrons

produce secondary gamma rays by the mechanisms
of bremsstrahlung, inverse Compton scattering and
.
synchrotron radiation. A large fraction of such
astronomical gamma rays are screened by Earth's

atmosphere and must be detected by spacecraft.

Notable artificial sources of gamma rays include
fission such as occurs in nuclear reactors, and high
energy physics experiments, such as neutral pion
/
decay and nuclear fusion.

The first gamma ray source to be discovered

historically was the radioactive decay process called



gamma decay. In this type of decay, an excited

nucleus emits a gamma ray almost immediately
upon formation. Isomeric transition, however, can .
produce inhibited gamma decay with a measurable

and much longer half-life. Paul Villard, a French

chemist and physicist, discovered gamma radiation

in 1900, while studying radiation emitted from
.
[1][2]
radium.
Villard's radiation was named "gamma
rays" by Ernest Rutherford in 1903.[3] Gamma rays
] [
were named in order of their penetrating power:

alpha rays least, followed by beta rays, followed by


gamma rays as the most penetrating.

Gamma rays typically have frequencies above 10
exahertz (or >1019 Hz), and therefore have energies

above 100 keV and wavelengths less than 10
picometers (less than the diameter of an atom).
However, this is not a hard and fast definition but
rather only a rule-of-thumb description for natural
processes. Gamma rays from radioactive decay .
commonly have energies of a few hundred keV, and ) (
.
almost always less than 10 MeV. On the other side
of the decay energy range, there is effectively no
lower limit to gamma energy derived from [ ]
radioactive decay. By contrast, the energies of

gamma rays from astronomical sources can be
much higher, ranging over 10 TeV, at a level far too
large to result from radioactive decay.[4]
.

Nuclear physics


Radioactive decay
.
Nuclear fission

Nuclear fusion


]Classical decays[




]Advanced decays[
.

[ ]

[Emission processes]



[Capturing]


.

[High energy processes]



.
[Nucleosynthesis]

.


[Scientists]




v

t
.
e



The distinction between X-rays and gamma rays has
.
changed in recent decades. Originally, the
electromagnetic radiation emitted by X-ray tubes
almost invariably had a longer wavelength than the

radiation (gamma rays) emitted by radioactive

nuclei.[5] Older literature distinguished between X-
and gamma radiation on the basis of wavelength,
with radiation shorter than some arbitrary
wavelength, such as
.

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Education and Science
Chemistry
Nuclear Chemistry
-X : Types of Radiation: X-rays, Alpha-rays, Beta-rays and Gamma-rays

17 71
rate or flag
By Chemistry Book
They include: Alpha-rays, Beta- . There are four major types of Radiation.
Apart from X-ray, the . : rays, Gamma-rays, and X-rays.
-X other three are radioactive radiations with varying characteristics.

The most prevalent difference is the unique way each of them .


behave in an electromagnetic field.
Now, let's consider X-ray before treating each of the three nuclear-rays. .
.-X

:X X-ray photograph: Chest Radiograph of a female, demonstrating a hiatus hernia.


.
: Source: Wikipedia
-X X-rays
X Like Gamma-rays, X-rays are electromagnetic waves of shorter wavelength.
They are produced by bombarding metals such as Tungsten with .
fast-moving streams of electrons which knock electrons out of the innermost shell of the metal
atom.
Here, electrons from the outermost shell then replace the dislodged electrons at .
. the innermost shell.
This creates a transition of electron from a higher energy level to a lower energy level, hence the
emission of the excess energy as X-ray.
.-X
-X X-ray is known to penetrate solid substances opaque to light.
Examples of these substances include: Wood, metal foil, paper, human flesh, etc.But .
X-ray penetrates in varying degree so that it is categorised into soft X-ray and hard X-ray.
etc.But :
Soft X-rays have great penetrating power and hard .
Soft . X X-ray have low penetrating power.
X-rays are used in medicine to photograph human body parts where they penetrate the flesh and
absorbed by the bones thus casting the image of the bone on a photograph.

.

Hard X-rays on the other hand, are used for destroying tumor and cancerous cells, and also used to
study the structure of macro molecules like proteins.

They are also used to study the arrangement of particles in crystal lattices. .
.
Alpha-rays
They are fast moving streams of . Alpha-rays are written as -rays.
positively charged particles carrying two units of positive charge.
An Alpha particle is a Helium nuclei ( 4 2 He) with a mass number of .
four and atomic number of two thus making them heavier than Beta-particles and Gamma-rays.
2 ) 2 4(
Their mass and their positive charge allow for them to be deflected slightly towards the .
negative plate in an electrostatic field.
Alpha-rays are known to have the least penetrating .
power ie they travel only a few centimetres in air and are stopped or absorbed by a thin sheet of
Aluminium foil (0.1 mm thick) or paper.
Alpha- . ) 1.7(
They can . rays have a very strong ionizing effect on gas.
cause Fluorescence in materials such as zinc sulphide.
.

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Beta-rays
Beta-rays have more penetrating power than Alpha-rays but less than Gamma-rays.
They can travel up to three metres in air and penetrate up to 4 mm in .
They are very fast moving . 4 Aluminium.
streams of electron with a charge of -1 and a mass number of zero.
Hence they are deflected towards the positive plate in an . 7-
They have . electrostatic field.
7111/7 an ionization power of about 1/1000 that of Alpha-rays.
They do not cause fluorescence in zinc sulphide but in anthracene. .
-ray player Beta-ray is symbolised as -ray with a formula of 0 -1 e. .
. 7- 1
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Gamma-rays
Although Alpha-rays and Gamma-rays are particles with measurable masses, Gamma-rays (-rays)
are not particles, but electromagnetic waves (but of very short wavelength) similar to light and X-ray.
( )
They travel at the speed of light and are not deflected . X ( )
They have the most . in electrostatic field.
. penetrating powers but with the least ionization effect.
M711 They penetrate up to 100m in air and travel through 0.5 m of iron or lead.
Like Alpha-rays, they can cause fluorescence in zinc sulphide. . 1.9
They also cause fluorescence in other substances .
. that include sodium iodide.
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