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The first diagram given illustrates the process of cement production while the second one offers additional

information on the required steps for concrete production using cement as a primary ingredient. First of all, limestone and clay are the initial components for cement production which are then crushed to form a powder. The powder is then mixed and passed through a rotating heater to produce cement after grinding. After this stage cement is collected into bags. The following steps described in the second diagram involve the production of concrete. The first materials mixed for this purpose are cement (15%) and water (10%) followed by the addition of sand (25%) and small stones (also known as gravel) which constitutes the major component used (50%). Finally, all the above materials are thoroughly mixed in a specifically designed concrete mixer after which clement comes out as the final product. Overall, cement and concrete production are two coupled processes with the former to require energy and the latter a combination of more raw materials.