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Effective communication is the process of accurately forming a message, sending it and it being completely understood by the recipients. Effective communication requires that verbal (spoken words) and nonverbal (body language, gestures and actions) agree with one another. For example, if a manager verbally says he is interested in the employees' suggestions but never creates a way or opportunity for employees to express their thoughts, the messages will contradict each other. This leads to confusion and frustration. Effective communication in the workplace is the backbone of any business. Without it, you could miss out on important opportunities, waste time and cause your employees and customers to become frustrated. But not everyone is a born communicator, and there is always room to improve. That's why it's important to train your staff to create effective communication in the workplace. Removing roadblocks to effective communication in the workplace When a problem arises, it's often due to poor communication in the workplace. Particularly in this digital age when we rely so heavily on emails and phone calls to get things done, vital information can become lost or misinterpreted if not communicated clearly. Arming your staff with good communication skills enables them to work efficiently, effectively and navigate any potential issues that may arise. Everyone is different People have different styles of communication in the workplace. And while there is no right or wrong way to go about it, you can ensure that your staff are understood by teaching them how to adapt their style to the needs of others. With appropriate training, your employees will be able to identify their own communication style in the workplace, understand how this influences the process, and develop strategies to get the best results. Effective communication in the workplace is a two-way street Communication skills don't simply mean the ability to talk and write effectively - they also rely heavily on listening and negotiation. Through training, employees will be able to practise their active listening and problem-solving skills and develop the means to influence outcomes. A professional training organisation can help your employees develop effective communication in the workplace by teaching:
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the importance of effective communication different styles of communication awareness of non-verbal communication, such as body language how to improve written communication skills how to communicate with confidence how to tailor communication for an intended audience how to manage workplace conflicts or issues negotiation and influencing skills active listening skills and how to ask the 'right' questions.
Benefits of training to improve communication in the workplace • By developing better rapport with co-workers, employees are likely to be happier and more successful in their roles. • Improving employees' morale will make them more likely to remain loyal to your business. • Improving communication between individuals, teams or departments within your organisation will streamline business processes and activities. • Customer retention will be improved through better customer service. • Staff will learn how to handle difficult situations and resolve conflict before it becomes a problem. Opening the channels By promoting better communication in the workplace, you'll not only increase the efficiency of your team, but your organisation too. Talk to a training specialist today about how you can improve the communication skills of your staff to create a more successful business.
2. Explain the different aspects of non-verbal communication Types of Nonverbal Communication The purpose of this report is to examine the significance of the nonverbal communication in the business setting. The topics discussed include: types of nonverbal communication, the importance of recognition and use of nonverbal communication elements, potential problems with nonverbal communication and solutions for effective nonverbal communication. Kinesics, meaning - body movements, represents one of the largest areas of “ “leakage” – signals that escape from a deceptive interviewee despite his or her attempts at control.” (Waltman 1). One must realize, however, that “leakage” is not limited to interview subjects, but is natural human behavior (Waltman 1). In turn, torso movements, gestures and facial expressions are commonly viewed as the most important areas of kinesics in terms of generation of nonverbal cues that, when combined with other cues as well as context, suggest a meaning to what is being communicated (Sunduram 4). Ray L. Birdwhistell, in his research, also stresses that kinesic communication must be viewed in terms of “contextual meaning” (Jolly 6). Additional benefit of using “contextual meaning” in interpretation of
nonverbal cues is realized when trying to read a skilled communicator (Jolly 6). Experienced presenters can control their facial expressions and eye contact to reduce or, perhaps, prevent altogether the amount of leakage (Waltman 3). Therefore, by analyzing the context as well as the separate cues, one is more likely to perceive the true picture. William Nolen, in his advice to the auditors, suggests that based on previous studies “synchronization of kinesic cues, such as rhythmic hand gesturing and head nods, heightens the perception of credibility. Synchronous displays are perceived as more competent, composed, trustworthy, extroverted, and sociable than dissynchronous displays” (Nollen 2-3). In addition to general kinesics, oculesics – eye movement and behavior, is widely considered to be “single most powerful and persuasive way to gain attention and win approval” (Raudsepp 3). The behavior of a person’s eyes can either strengthen what is being communicated verbally, or diminish the importance or credibility of the subject. In American culture, a direct eye contact translates into confidence, competence and honesty (Raudsepp 3). On the contrary, in other cultures a direct eye contact with superiors may be considered as daring or disrespectful. Such cultural nuances are incredibly important in the modern global business environment, where many cultures, traditions and customs often existing side by side. Another important factors influencing eye contact are – relative heights of the people involved in the interaction and the distance between the individuals. The height gives the taller person a benefit of position of control or power and requires the shorter person to maintain eye contact because of the lack of power over the interaction. The proximity of interacting parties also tends to enhance the importance and intensity of the eye behavior simply because one is more aware of eye contact at closer range (Abrams 1). Study of space as a part of nonverbal communication - referred to as proxemics – further analyses physical and psychological space between individuals in the interaction (Abrams 2). Proxemics could be divided into the elements of territory and personal space. Territory refers to the general area in which the interaction occurs, while personal space is just that – a space immediately around a person. (Nolen 5) One of the most important elements of proxemics is the study of haptics or – in more conventional terms - touch. According to various researches, touch “enhances one’s interpersonal involvement, positive affect, social attachment, intimacy, and overall liking” (Sundaram 7). “The persuasive power of touch is further evident in the findings of Patterson et al. (1968) stating that people tend to associate positive characteristics with the individual who touched them” (Sundaram 7). In case of proxemics, the “leakage cues” may or may not be obvious (Waltman 3). In a non-familiar business setting a person cannot do much to change the territory, however, smaller actions, such as shifting a chair or placing a briefcase on his or her lap, can suggest the true feeling or intentions of that person (Waltman 3). Yet another important aspect of nonverbal communication is voice. Vocal characteristics of one’s speech – the paralanguage – that include volume, rate, pitch and pronunciation are one of the most crucial factors in contributing or reducing the speaker’s credibility. One of the most popular
beliefs, which has been confirmed by various studies in communication, suggests that a loud, strong voice transmits confidence (Fatt 2). Combinations of various elements of the paralanguage are attributed to different styles of speech, and, thus, provoke different feelings and perceptions in listeners. According to one of the studies, the conversation style, which includes slower rate, lower pitch and volume and less inflection, presented the speaker as being trustworthy, pleasant and friendly. In the same study the public speaking style, which includes higher pitch, vocal intensity and inflection, was said to portray dominance, dynamism and competence (Sundaram 6). The last aspect of nonverbal communication discussed in this research is physical appearance. Although, in the greater sense, attractiveness describes characteristics that go beyond the physical appearance alone (Gabbot 4), physically attractive people are perceived as “more persuasive (Chaiken, 1979), successful in changing attitudes (Kahle and Homer, 1985), and are perceived to be warmer, more poised, and more socially skilled than less attractive people (Chaiken, 1979)” (Sundaram 8). The way one dresses is also an important element of physical appearance as a source of nonverbal cues, in big part because a person has much more control over his or her clothes, as opposed to the features of the face or the body size. In the recent decade the business world in US has seen various degrees of acceptance of the business casual dress code either as an alternative or as an addition to the traditional business attire (McPherson 1-2). Types of Non-Verbal Communication According to experts, a substantial portion of our communication is nonverbal. Every day, we respond to thousands on nonverbal cues and behaviors including postures, facial expression, eye gaze, gestures, and tone of voice. From our handshakes to our hairstyles, nonverbal details reveal who we are and impact how we relate to other people. Scientific research on nonverbal communication and behavior began with the 1872 publication of Charles Darwin’s The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Since that time, there has been an abundance of research on the types, effects, and expression of unspoken communication and behavior. While these signals are often so subtle that we are not consciously aware of them, research has identified several different types of nonverbal communication. 1. Facial Expression Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal communication. Consider how much information can be conveyed with a smile or a frown. While nonverbal communication and behavior can vary dramatically between cultures, the facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger, and fear are similar throughout the world. 2. Gestures
Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning without words. Common gestures include waving, pointing, and using fingers to indicate number amounts. Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture. 3. Paralinguistics Paralinguistics refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual language. This includes factors such as tone of voice, loudness, inflection, and pitch. Consider the powerful effect that tone of voice can have on the meaning of a sentence. When said in a strong tone of voice, listeners might interpret approval and enthusiasm. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey disapproval and a lack of interest. 4. Body Language and Posture Posture and movement can also convey a great deal on information. Research on body language has grown significantly since the 1970’s, but popular media have focused on the over-interpretation of defensive postures, arm-crossing, and leg-crossing, especially after the publication of Julius Fast’s book Body Language. While these nonverbal behaviors can indicate feelings and attitudes, research suggests that body language is far more subtle and less definitive that previously believed. 5. Proxemics People often refer to their need for “personal space,” which is also an important type of nonverbal communication. The amount of distance we need and the amount of space we perceive as belonging to us is influenced by a number of factors including social norms, situational factors, personality characteristics, and level of familiarity. For example, the amount of personal space needed when having a casual conversation with another person usually varies between 18 inches to four feet. On the other hand, the personal distance needed when speaking to a crowd of people is around 10 to 12 feet. 6. Eye Gaze Looking, staring, and blinking can also be important nonverbal behaviors. When people encounter people or things that they like, the rate of blinking increases and pupils dilate. Looking at another person can indicate a range of emotions, including hostility, interest, and attraction. 7. Haptics Communicating through touch is another important nonverbal behavior. There has been a substantial amount of research on the importance of touch in infancy and early childhood. Harry Harlow’s classic monkey study demonstrated how the deprivation of touch and contact impedes development. Baby monkeys raised by wire mothers experienced permanent deficits in behavior and social interaction.
8. Appearance Our choice of color, clothing, hairstyles, and other factors affecting appearance are also considered a means of nonverbal communication. Research on color psychology has demonstrated that different colors can invoke different moods. Appearance can also alter physiological reactions, judgment, and interpretations. 3. Write short notes on (a) Upward communication (b) Downward communication (c) Horizontal communication Upward Communication -This may be defined as information that flows from subordinates to superiors. Some of the reasons for upward communication include discussing work related problems, giving suggestions for improvement and sharing feelings about the job and coworkers. This type of communication has both benefits and disadvantages. One of the biggest benefits is problem-solving. Once a subordinate has brought a problem to his superior’s notice, chances are that the problem will not recur, since the subordinate learns from his superior how to tackle it the next time. Thus, his ability to solve new problems and therefore his managerial ability, improves. Another benefit that could arise from upward communication is that valuable ideas and suggestions may sometimes come from lower level employees. Therefore organizations should encourage this kind of communication. A third benefit is that employees learn to accept the decisions of management and thereby work as a team. The biggest problem associated with this type of communication is that it may lead to “handing down” of decisions by superiors. When subordinates frequently seek the superior’s guidance, the latter may adopt an authoritarian approach and merely give instructions, disregarding the subordinate’s opinion completely. b. Downward Communication – This may be defined as information that flows from superiors to subordinates. The most common reasons for downward communication are for giving job instructions, explaining company rules, policies and procedures and giving feedback regarding job performance. A number of studies have indicated that regular downward communication in the form of feedback given to employees is the most important factor affecting job satisfaction. Therefore organization’s today are trying to encourage more of this type of communication. There are both benefits and disadvantages associated with this type of communication. Downward communication that provides regular feedback will be beneficial if the feedback or review of performance is constructive. A constructive review is one where a manager “counsels” an employee, or advises him on how to improve his performance. On the other hand, a destructive review can destroy employee morale and confidence. Regular downward communication also creates a climate of transparency or openness, where information is passed on through official channels, rather than through rumours. Thirdly, downward communication boosts employee morale, since it indicates that management is involved in their progress. The problems
with this type of communication are the danger of doing destructive reviews, as mentioned, and that of “message overload.” This means that superiors many sometimes burden their subordinates with too many instructions, leading to confusion. c. Horizontal Communication – This type of communication is also known as “lateral” communication. It may be defined as communication that takes place between co-workers in the same department, or in different departments, with different areas of responsibility. For example; Sales Managers and Advertising Managers in the Marketing department, or Marketing Managers and Finance Managers. The reasons for this type of communication are for coordination of tasks, sharing of information regarding goals of the organization, resolving interpersonal or work related problems and building rapport. The biggest potential benefit of horizontal communication is the sense of teamwork that is created. Regular communication of this type ensures tha tall co-workers work together towards achieving a common goal in the overall interest of the organization. The biggest potential problem is that conflicts such as ego clashes are bound to arise, when co-workers at the same level communicate on a regular basis. In spite of these problems, horizontal or lateral communication has become more important in today’s business scenario than upward or downward communication. 4. Explain the different barriers to listening .List the differences between discriminative listening and comprehension listening Listening is not easy and there are a number of obstacles that stand in the way of effective listening, both within and outside the workplace. These barriers may be categorized as follows – 1. Physiological Barriers – This was discussed earlier under the barriers to communication. Some people may have genuine hearing problems or deficiencies that prevent them from listening properly. Once detected, they can generally be treated. Other people may have difficulty in processing information, or memory related problems which make them poor listeners. Another physiological barrier is rapid thought. Listeners have the ability to process information at the rate of approximately 500 words per minute, whereas speakers talk at around 125 words per minute. Since listeners are left with a lot of spare time, their attention may not be focused on what the speaker is saying, but may wander elsewhere. 2. Physical Barriers – These refer to distractions in the environment such as the sound of anair conditioner, cigarette smoke, or an overheated room, which interfere with the listening process. They could also be in the form of information overload. For example, if you are in a meeting with your manager and the phone rings and your mobile beeps at the same time to let you know that you have a message; it is very hard to listen carefully to what is being said.
3. Attitudinal Barriers – Pre-occupation with personal or work related problems can make it difficult to focus one’s attention completely on what a speaker is saying, even if what is being said is of prime importance. Another common attitudinal barrier is egocentrism, or the belief that you are more knowledgeable than the speaker and that you have nothing new to learn from his ideas. People with this kind of closed minded attitude make very poor listeners. 4. Wrong Assumptions – The success of communication depends on both the sender and thereceiver, as we have seen in an earlier unit. It is wrong to assume that communication is the sole responsibility of the sender or the speaker and that listeners have no role to play. Such an assumption can be a big barrier to listening. For example, a brilliant speech or presentation, however well delivered, is wasted if the receiver is not listening at the other end. Listeners have as much responsibility as speakers to make the communication successful, by paying attention, seeking clarifications and giving feedback. Another wrong assumption is to think that listening is a passive activity, in which a listener merely absorbs the thoughts of the speaker. On the contrary, real listening or active listening is hard work – it requires speaking sometimes to ask questions, agree or disagree with the speaker, give feedback, etc. Yet another barrier of this type is to assume that speakers are more powerful than listeners. Speakers are seen as being in command of things, whereas listeners are seen to be weak and lacking authority. According to communication experts however, the reverse is true. Listeners are as important and as powerful as speakers. In fact David J. Schwartz, writer and management professor, emphasizes the importance of listening by saying “Big people monopolize the listening. Small people monopolize the talking.” 5. Cultural Barriers Accents can be barriers to listening, since they interfere with the ability to understand the meaning of words that are pronounced differently. The problem of different accents arises not only between cultures, but also within a culture. For example, in a country like India where there is enormous cultural diversity, accents may differ even between different regions and states. Another type of cultural barrier is differing cultural values. The importance attached to listening and speaking differs in western and oriental cultures. Generally, Orientals regard listening and silence as almost a virtue, whereas Westerners attach greater importance to speaking. Therefore this would interfere with the listening process, when two people from these two different cultures communicate.
6. Gender Barriers Communication research has shown that gender can be a barrier to listening. Studies have revealed that men and women listen very differently and for different purposes. Women are more likely to listen for the emotions behind a speaker’s words, while men listen more for the facts and the content. Example – A salesperson giving a demonstration of a new type of office equipment may be asked by two colleagues if the equipment will work without any problems and respond by saying “Sure.” A male user may take his answer at face value, whereas a female user may detect some hesitation in his voice. This is because the male user listens for the content of the message, whereas the female user listens for the tone of the message. 7. Lack of Training Listening is not an inborn skill. People are not born good listeners. They have to develop the art of listening through practice and training. Lack of training in listening skills is an important barrier to listening, especially in the Indian context. Lee Iacocca, former Chairman of the Chrysler Corporation in the US, was one of the first to recognize the need for organized training programs in listening skills. Today, many organizations both in India and abroad incorporate listening skills in their training programs. 8. Bad Listening Habits Most people are very average listeners who have developed poor listening habits that are hard to shed and that act as barriers to listening. For example, some people have the habit of “faking” attention or trying to look like a listener, in order to impress the speaker and to assure him that they are paying attention. Others may tend to listen to each and every fact and, as a result, miss out on the main point. Yet another habit is to avoid difficult listening and to tune off deliberately, if the subject is too technical or difficult to understand. Sometimes, the subject itself may be dismissed as uninteresting, because the listener does not want to listen. Discriminative listening Discriminative Listening This is the most basic type of listening, whereby the difference between the sounds is identified. Unless the differences between the sounds are identified, the meaning expressed by such differences cannot be grasped. Once we learn to distinguish between sounds in our own language, we are able to do the same in other languages. One reason why people belonging to one country find it difficult to speak the language of another country is that they find the sounds similar and cannot understand the subtle differences.
Likewise, a person who cannot hear the subtleties of emotional variation in another person's voice will be less likely to be able to discern the emotions the other person is experiencing. Listening is a visual as well as auditory act, as we communicate much through body language. We thus also need to be able to discriminate between muscle and skeletal movements that signify different meanings. Comprehension listening Once we have learnt to discriminate between the different sounds, the next step is to try to comprehend the meaning of these sounds. In order to do this, we require a dictionary of words, along with the rules of grammar and syntax. Apart from the verbal communication, we also need to understand the meaning conveyed by the speaker’s nonverbal behavior. This can be achieved by closely observing various aspects of the speaker’s body language and tone of voice. In communication, some words are more important and some less so, and comprehension often benefits from extraction of key facts and items from a long spiel. Comprehension listening is also known as content listening, informative listening and full listening. 5. Discuss the principles of business writing The process of good writing involves three basic steps - preparing, writing and editing. Practicing the following 16 principles will help you be a more effective writer. 1. Know your objective: Think before you write. What's your goal? Make sure you fully understand the assignment. Are you writing a one-paragraph executive summary or a five-page report? Try answering this question: What specifically do I want the reader to know, think, or do? 2. Make a list: Write down the ideas or points you want to cover. Why? This helps you get started in identifying the key ideas you want to discuss. If you have trouble getting started, try discussing your ideas with someone else."Kicking an idea around" often helps you clarify your objective and fine-tune what you are trying to accomplish. 3. Organize your ideas: Just as it's difficult to find what you want in a messy, disorganized desk drawer, it's hard to find important ideas in a poorly organized message. Here are a few ways you can organize your ideas: Importance - Begin with the most important piece of information and then move on to the next most important. Chronological order - Describe what happened first, second, third. Problem-Solution - Define the problem, and then describe possible alternatives or the solution you recommend.
Question-Answer - State a question and then provide your answer. Organize your ideas so the reader can easily follow your argument or the point you are trying to get across. 4. Back it up: Have an opinion but back it up - support with data. There are a number of ways you can support your ideas, including explanations, examples, facts, personal experiences, stories, statistics, and quotations. It's best to use a combination of approaches to develop and support your ideas. 5. Separate main ideas: Each paragraph should have one main point or idea captured in a topic sentence. The topic sentence is normally the first sentence in the paragraph. Each paragraph should be started by an indentation or by skipping a line. 6. Use bullets or numbers: If you are listing or discussing a number of items, use bullets or number your points like I have done in this paper. Here's an example of using bullets. Join the Business Club to: Increase sales Gain new marketing ideas Make new friends Give back to your profession 7. Write complete sentences: A sentence is about someone doing something - taking action. The someone maybe a manager, employee, customer, etc. The "doing something - taking action" can include mental processes such as thinking, evaluating, and deciding, or physical actions such as writing and talking. A good rule to practice is to have subjects closely followed by their verbs. 8. Use short sentences: Sentences should be a maximum of 12 to 15 words in length. According to the American Press Institute, sentences with 15 or fewer words are understood 90% of the time. Sentences with eight or fewer words are understood 100% of the time. 9. Be precise and accurate: Words like "large," "small," "as soon as possible," "they," "people," "teamwork, "and "customer focus" are vague and imprecise. The reader may interpret these words to mean something different than what you intended. Reduce communication breakdowns by being specific and precise. Define terms as needed. The reader may not understand certain acronyms and abbreviations. 10. Use commas appropriately: Use a comma to separate the elements in a series of three or more items: His favorite colors are red, white, and blue. Use a comma to set off introductory elements: After coffee and donuts, the meeting will begin. Use a comma to separate adjectives: That tall, distinguished, good-looking professor teaches history. 11. Use the correct word: Here are several words that cause confusion.
You're is a contraction for "you are" Your means possession, such as "your coat." It's is a contraction for "it is." Its indicates possession. Their means possession/ownership-"their house." There means location. They're is a contraction for "they are." 12. Avoid redundancies: It is a redundancy to use multiple words that mean or say the same thing. For example, consider the following: Redundant My personal beliefs … Beliefs are personal, so just state, Mybeliefs ... Redundant I decided to paint the machine gray in color . Gray is a color, so just state, I decided to paint the machine gray . 13. Numbers: When using numbers in the body of your paper, spell out numbers one through nine, such as "Three men decided…" When using numbers 10 or above it's proper to write the number, such as "The report indicated 68 customers…" 14. Have a conclusion: Would you really enjoy watching a movie or sporting event that had no conclusion? No. The conclusion ties your points together. The reader wants to know the final score - the bottom line message. 15. Edit your work: Read what you have written several times. On your first read , focus on organization and sentence structure. Shorten long sentences. Cross out unnecessary words and phrases. Reorganize material as needed. Read it again and make sure commas are used appropriately and that there isa punctuation mark at the end of every sentence. Read it a third time and focus on word choice. Are there certain words that are vague or unclear? Replace them with specific words. Read what you have written aloud to yourself or to a friend to see if he or she (and you) can understand it and improve it in any way. A significant part of good writing involves editing. Very few people can sit down and write a perfect paragraph on their first try. It requires multiple rewrites. Summary
You don't have to be a great writer to be successful manager/leader. However you must be able to clearly and succinctly explain your thoughts and ideas in writing. Strive to be simple, clear, and brief. Like any skill, "good writing" requires practice, feedback, and ongoing improvement. 6. Explain the advantages of oral communication with the help of suitable example. According to a 2005 study published in the Journal of Employment Counselling, oral communication skills are being increasingly sought after by employers. When surveying over 100 successful businesses, researchers found that more and more employers are emphasizing the development of good speaking skills in their employees. With this in mind, the concept of oral communication is an important idea to study and understand in the context of business. Presentations: One form of oral communication in a business setting is a presentation. Presentations are usually an organized conveyance of information to a group of people. Stylistically, they tend to be far more formal than informal, and rely more heavily on data and facts than they do analysis. Presentations are sometimes more persuasive in nature, like a pitch for an ad campaign, but tend to be informative more often, such as an employee briefing or a report on quarterly earnings. Presentations may include some dialog after the sender of the message has finished their speech, but they are, by and large, much more monologue reliant. This makes it important for the speaker to anticipate possible objections to the message and address them in the actual speech. Client Interaction: Another form of oral communication in business encompasses interaction with clients. Depending on the level of connection between the employee and the client, the communication in these interactions can range from incredibly formal to informal and casual. These interactions usually include a combination of data and analysis, and will be more persuasive than informative in nature, as the employee is trying to encourage continued and expanded business with the client. Because of the nature of these interactions, the communication is definitely a dialog, making listening skills incredibly important. Interoffice Interaction: Oral communication in the office can be referred to as interoffice interaction. This is comprised of conversations with superiors, subordinates and co-workers. Depending on the levels of power separation between the individuals engaging in conversation, the communication will fluctuate between formal and informal, though it should always remain professional. Conversations in this context may reference data, but will be much more analysis heavy, and will be a dialog by nature. Benefits: Oral communication in business provides a variety of benefits. First, oral communication is accompanied by nonverbal signifiers, which provides context that can enhance understanding in the communication process. Posture, facial expressions, and habitual movements may provide clues as
to individuals’ feelings about the ideas being discussed. Even in telephone conversations, pitch, rate, volume and tone of the respective speakers can help in understanding sentiments. Oral communication also provides a springboard for relational development. Unlike with email, memos and chat functions, which tend to take a task-oriented approach to communication, the immediacy involved in oral communication allows for instant feedback and a more relational approach. This is important, as strong relationships in business often lead to more profitable and productive cooperation.
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