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Orwell- Thesis

Orwell- Thesis

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Published by Éva Hegedüsné
Social criticism in Orwell' writings
Social criticism in Orwell' writings

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Published by: Éva Hegedüsné on Aug 28, 2012
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  • 1.2. The classification of Orwell’s works
  • 2.1. Introduction to historical background
  • 2.2. The British Empire in the years of the ‘Great Peace’
  • 2.3. Britain in World War I (1914-1918)
  • 2.4. The years between the two World Wars8
  • 2.5. World War II (1939-1945)
  • 2.6. After World War II (1946-1950)
  • 3.1. General remarks
  • 3.2. The differences of the two books
  • 3.3.1 On the periphery of the society
  • 3.3.2 The unemployment
  • 3.3.3. The care for the old
  • 3.3.4. Change in the religious attitude
  • 3.3.5. Other common features
  • 4.1. Orwell’s technique in A Clergyman’s Daughter
  • 4.2. Orwell’s technique in Down and Out in Paris and London
  • 4.3. The identification of the genre
  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. The lesson plan


When in 2003 I had to choose a topic for my thesis, what I knew about George Orwell was originated from my memories of the studies for our literature exam. Since ‘George Orwell’ was one of the twenty topics, my factual knowledge was not so thorough. However, what I knew well, due to the media, it was the 100th anniversary of his birth in 2003. With the exception of the two most famous novels, Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four, I was rather unfamiliar with his writings. By analysing the topic of the thesis, I hoped that I would reveal Orwell’s new face. After becoming familiar with Orwell’s early writings, I faced the difficulty of which writing(s) to analyse. Since several of the early writings deal with some kind of social problems, finally, I have decided to examine Down and Out ... and A Clergyman’s Daughter because there is a link between them, namely the social layer of the tramps that Orwell describes in both books. In this analysis, my aim is to outline the signs of Orwell’s good critical sense and to prove Orwell’s sensitivity to social problems. I will examine how Orwell characterizes the average English people’s attitudes towards the marginalized people in the two books, which, in the present case, means the investigation of the attitudes towards the tramps and the unmarried women at that time. I will also point out the aim that guides Orwell when he reveals the faults of English society. In Chapter One, I will sketch the author’s life relying on the Orwell-biographies and define the place of Down and Out ... and A Clergyman’s Daughter in the Orwellian corpus. In the next chapter, I will focus on the situation of the English society during the short period of Orwell’s life. With omitting the examination of the historical events and their consequences in the international politics, I will concentrate on the effects of these events on everyday people’s life. Chapter Three includes the social questions that Orwell poses in the two books. I will examine the parallels that can be drawn between Down and Out ... and A Clergyman’s Daughter and what the main difference is. Because sources in this subject field are not to be found, I relied on my own interpretation. After this examination, I will deal with the writer’s technique and I try to identify the genre of the two books.


Since I will be an English teacher, in the last chapter I suggest a lesson plan recommended to students of intermediate or upper-intermediate level. This sequence of three lessons has been based on the extracts of A Clergyman’s Daughter, hoping that they may arouse students’ interest in a girl’s life from the years of 1920s.


Chapter One 1.1. George Orwell’s life and literary activity
George Orwell was born as Eric Arthur Blair in 1903 in the Indian village of Motahari, which lies near the Nepalian border. India was the part of the British Empire at that time. His father, Richard Blair, was a civil servant in the Opium Department of the Government of India. His mother, Ida Mabel Limouzin, was the daughter of a French tradesman and she was eighteen years younger than her husband. The Blairs had two other children in addition to Eric: Marjorie, five years older than Eric, and Avril, five years younger than him. Not having a university education the father, Richard Blair could neither gain a well-paid position in ‘the Service’, nor was promoted fast to the highest posts at the ranks of the Opium Department. In spite of the fact that the father’s post had changed nearly every year until his retirement, the family were able to have a quite comfortable lifestyle in India. In 19041 Richard Blair decided to send back his family to England to give their children a more traditional Christian education. So the mother with the two children, Marjorie and Eric, returned to England, settled down in Henley, while the father continued to work in India until he retired. In England they led the same life as the other families of the lower-middle class did. But here the family had to face also the fact that, working in the British administration and belonging to the middle-class, they did not own a range of properties; besides, their subsistence totally depended on the Empire. The common strategy for attempting to change a middle-class family’s social and economic position was to get a better position in the British administration. So the young Eric was sent to excellent schools with upper class children. From 1908 Eric studied at an Anglican convent school in Henley and three years later he went to a private preparatory school in Sussex. At the age of thirteen he won a scholarship to Wellington, and in 1917,


In his George Orwell Biography Bernard Crick puts forth a now accepted theory pointing out that Ida Blair went back with Eric and his sister to England in 1904. Crick supports this argument with the notes of one of Ida Blair’s diaries from 1905 and a photograph of the three-year-old Eric in England. At the same time, there is another date of their return mentioned by Robert Welch, Raymond Williams and others, which is said to be 1907. Crick does not agree with them and reveals that ‘They were all misled by Avril Blair, reminiscing confidently of a time before she was born’ (2).


Orwell gives a colourful description of the atmosphere of these Anglo-Indians’ homes and their naive or biased attitude to life. On the one hand. which fact is proved by his final examination result. 138. and later he moved to Paris. James Joyce and Samuel Beckett made their home in this city. At that time. William Faulkner. He served in Burma for five years. He made lots of references to his memories not only in Burmese Days (1934). which was to be a writer. 4 . ‘he was the 138th from the 167 student. At Eton he was considered as a not extremely gifted student. His family’s past in the service of the British Empire and his own experiences as a policeman in Burma highly inspired his writings. casual jobs. 2 According to the unnamed author of an Orwell-biography at http://www. In the late 1920s. Orwell settled down in London and decided to study how to write. 139. From 1928. Gertrude Stein. Coming up for Air (1939). Paris was regarded as a cultural centre of Europe and many ex-patriot intellectuals like Ernest Miller Hemingway. In 1927 Orwell resigned his post. He had two main reasons for this. For example. He hired a low-priced room in London where he trained himself for writing for a year. k-1. not following their path worked in a working-class quarter and earned his living from different.’ 3 Attributes used by George Orwell in Coming Up for Air on the pages 137. he was convinced that he was not able to support a political system in which he could not believe. According to Robert Welch ‘he was already breaking away from the path many of his school-fellows would take …. instead of the further studies in Oxford or Cambridge he was drawn to a life of travel and action’ (5). Unlike them. On the other hand. which is the best-known Orwell-book on this theme.com/Orwell/index.as Orwell describes this social layer3. in 1922 he started working for the Indian Imperial Police. which can be found out from his references in his writings. the French franc depreciated in comparison to foreign currencies. but also in a series of other essays and novels.2 After finishing his studies.he was admitted to Eton College. and to the officer-rentier-clergyman-class’.cgi/ about/biography. which meant that the well-off foreign artists could lead a bohemian life fairly cheaply in Paris (Welch 6). Orwell. in his other novel. who did not belong to the well-off.html. he lived among the poor to discover their life in the East End of London. Going back to England. he considered his job at the British Imperial Police as a distraction from his real aim. which belongs to ‘the poverty-stricken officer class. to the penniless middle-class families. the protagonist’s wife comes from an Anglo-Indian officer family.

the renovation and modernisation of the lodging-houses. reading Orwell’s book readers can form an idea of Orwell’s view. Next year he returned poor to England: because of a theft he lost all his money.According to Robert Welch’s view.. Furthermore.. Instead she took the manuscript and brought it to . We owe the rescue of Down and Out.html: ‘The original version of Down and Out in Paris and London entitled A Scullion’s Diary was completed in October 1930 and came to only 35. 5 . In a chronological order. thus he became from Eric A. Orwell wished to break away from the British imperialism.cgi/about /biography. At that time he changed his identity by taking a new name. for instance.. According to the unnamed author at the http://www.’ Down and Out in Paris and London4. In this period he was making a living as a tutor and was writing a book which was inspired by his Parisian adventures. Blair to George Orwell which name was inspired by the Orwell River. the writer tries to point out a way of betterment in these conditions by proposing. his next book was the previously mentioned. reports on the plods’ exceedingly abhorrent living conditions.. As Dervla Murphy notes in his Introduction to Down and Out..... he also wrote a lot but. Burmese Days. and to overcome his instilled ‘physical disgust against working people’ (6). a literary agent at the house of Gollancz. who became the editor of Orwell’s other writings. which is to awake the English society to its faults. Down and Out. The publishing of the novel was due to Victor Gollancz. to Mabel Firez: he was asked to destroy the script. which shock the nowadays readers. he destroyed these writings. from ‘his own inherited values’ (6)...com/Orwell/index.000 words for Orwell had used only a part of his material..on condition that all swearwords were deleted . After two rejections from publishers Orwell [began to write] Burmese Days . as well. because of his literary agent’s criticism and refusal. In Paris. and bullied him to read it. He spent the Christmas of 1929 with his family. even today.k-1. Here we see Orwell’s aim. published in 1934. was printed under a pseudonym in 1933. Soon it was accepted . but save the paper clips. which is that the 4 This title will henceforth be used as Down and Out..

which is rather an essay. titled The Road to Wigan Pier. on the other hand. Regarding its literal merits. Robert Welch. which can be regarded as a typical report. most of the people who called themselves socialists wanted to be associated with the members of the middleclass. earnings. in this writing he lists factually the miners’ costs of living. which is due to the numerous statistical data in the first half of the volume and to the critique of English socialism in the second half. In the first part. In The Road to Wigan Pier the author pointed out that these hypocritical socialists could not protect the interests of the working class and the poor because their interests did not coincide with those of others’. this tendency developed a false image of the socialists in the other members of the society. 6 . The next two years were highly fruitful in view of the fact that Orwell wrote two novels: A Clergyman’s Daughter (published in 1935) and Keep the Aspidistra Flying (printed in 1936. For instance. draws our attention to Orwell’s confession in his essay ‘Why I Write’. and pensions in the mid-thirties. Orwell spent two months in Wigan. The Road to Wigan Pier might be more useful for making sociological studies of English society in the 1930s than for literary analysis. In the second part of The Road to Wigan Pier. Orwell traces the faults of English socialism back to two main reasons. On the one hand. However. this work cannot be counted among his most enjoyable works. The writer aims to reveal and show the objective truth about the situation of this underdeveloped region. 1989). which was published in 1937. Barnesley and Sheffield and he was tremendously shocked by what he experienced there.) Nevertheless. this socialism was based on an unrealistic ground. His inquiry about the conditions of these socially problematic areas provided the theme for his next volume.) The year of 1936 contained three moments influencing Orwell’s life: his employment in a shop in Wallington. readers can notice an Orwellian characteristic: his accurate representation of details and facts. his marriage and the most important one was that he was commissioned by the Left Book Club to make an examination by visiting the poor and the unemployed Yorkshire and Lancashire.British Empire mercilessly exploited colonial Burma (ví. in which Orwell expresses the same when he says ‘Good prose is like a window-pane’ (Orwell quoted in Robert Welch’s Orwell-biography to Animal Farm 8. Orwell’s point of view evokes the publisher’s displeasure and Orwell’s first published books were complemented with a preface by Victor Gollancz.

. to destroy those who wanted to ‘carry out a social revolution’ and to fight against Franco.’ (70).. Arriving in Barcelona. George Woodcock in his book titled Orwell’s Message . Therefore. where he got the necessary support. known as the POUM (it is the acronym of Partido Obrero de Unificacion Marxista). and equality. In May. which was affiliated to the British Independent Labour party and consisted of excommunists and former anarchists. as he saw them. Woodcock draws our attention that Orwell knew ‘nothing about the political factionalism’ (70) in Spain and ‘he was still naive enough’ (71) when he thought that his participation in fights in a Communist unit could preserve his neutrality from political sects.Before the publication of The Road to Wigan Pier at the end of 1936 Orwell went to Spain with two aims in mind: to fight for his idea of socialism. for him. consisted of three parts. which was a rival revolutionary socialist group. Orwell went to the Independent Labour Party. he met a leader of the Communist Party of Great Britain in order to ask his help but he was refused because Orwell was unwilling to join the International Brigades without any experience about it. According to Woodcock. Therefore.. such as anti-imperialism. anti-fascism. (Woodcock 70) Orwell received a basic military training and he was sent to the front in Aragon.. it was due to ‘a series of quite unexpected events [that] changed his attitude and perhaps saved his life’ (71) from the political commissars of the Brigades. In April 1937. says in order to achieve his goal Orwell ‘needed some kind of credentials to cross the Spanish frontier and make contact with the appropriate group on the loyalist side . he had already realized the Communists’ real aim to ‘take control of vital points’ of Barcelona. (Williams 55) His other reason for the travelling was to tell the truth for his readers through his newspaper articles on the events of the Spanish Civil War. He joined the militia of the Spanish party. by this means. he participated in the fights brought out between the Communists and the POUM but by this time. he became aware of the fact that here his conceptions about the ideal socialism were achieved: there was no class distinction but equality. which. Raymond Williams’s opinion is about Orwell’s intention that simply wanted to fight against the fascists and at the beginning he was not interested in ‘the doctrinal differences’(55) of the socialist sects. (Woodcock 71-72) 7 . Orwell decided to discharge from the POUM and to join the International Brigades.

H. From the protagonist’s anxiety we get a picture of the real world of the late 1930s. in which he allegorically tells the story of a group of farm animals who take over the power from the humans and try to create their ideal state.’(78. which becomes a nightmare for the lower layers of the animal society who did not gain power. the government banned the POUM. namely ‘normal life’ came back. he could not do that as he was declared physically unfit because of his illness. Several critics regard Animal Farm as Orwell’s masterpiece. He also had to escape from Spain because the members of the POUM were persecuted. and ‘Boys Weeklies’.) 8 . However. he served in the Home Guard during the war and worked for the British Broadcasting Corporation as a producer in the Indian section.) In 1938 he fell ill with tuberculosis and spent many weeks in a sanatorium but he never recovered from this illness. he and his comrades were accused of being servants of the Fascist militia. The problems and fears of the people of that time appear on the pages of the book. In the year of the publication of Coming Up for Air Orwell also drafted numerous essays such as ‘Marrakech’. ‘Charles Dickens’. his fear of the modern world where he lives and the war to come. In 1943 he left the BBC and joined the Tribune as a literary editor and regular contributor. He wrote political and literary commentaries. From these ‘adventures’ Orwell produced a new book Homage to Catalonia (1938. he was wounded in the throat. Coote summarizes it ‘Orwell came to the conclusion that all revolutions … are betrayed from within. But their intention results in tyranny. At that time he began to write Animal Farm which was finished by 1944 but appeared only in 1945 because of the rejection of many publishers.In 1937. S. which were collected in Inside the Whale in 1940. Moreover. 1939 was the year when the Second World War broke out in Europe and England did not avoid participating in it.) Here readers can experience an average lower-middle-class salesman’s feelings. Orwell returned to Barcelona but he had to face the reality that during the few weeks which he spent in a sanatorium an important change happened in his ‘ideal city’. The novel is reminiscent of the Russian Revolution and Orwell’s experiences in the Spanish Civil War. Although Orwell wanted to fight against Fascism. In this year Orwell went to Morocco for six months where he wrote another novel titled Coming Up for Air (1939. Following his recovery.

he succeeded in finishing this utopian political satire by 1949.In 1944 he and his wife adopted a son. In the same year he married Sonia Brownell but their marriage lasted for three months only because of Orwell’s death in London in 1950. His work sent him to France. 9 . Though his health was gradually deteriorating. In 1945 his wife died during an operation and after this tragedy he moved to the island of Jura with his younger sister. Since the climate of the island badly affected his tuberculosis he returned for a medical treatment to London. in 1947. Nineteen Eighty-Four. Here he commenced writing the first draft of his other masterpiece. Germany and Austria to send back reports from there. he became a regular contributor to the Observer.

(260) As Nóvé says. it is necessary to discuss the categorization of the works. it meant that not one but two books of the Orwellian corpus were available in the easiest way to Hungarian readers: Animal Farm.1. Orwell’s first three novels were published in the USA and Down and Out . as there is a tendency for the Hungarian book-market to translate and publish the other Orwell. Since the chronological order of their publication coincides with the fact that the last two books brought international reputation for Orwell7. he or she will be able to realize that it was fairly short period.. The topic of the thesis specializes on two earlier writings of the Orwellian corpus. In Orwell’s case.novels6. 6 In Hungary.. and The Road to Wigan Pier in 2001. while the third way of grouping can originate from the different degrees of realism in the writings. with a negative connotation. in Hungary. the second way can be according to their theme. The fact that Orwell wrote many other books was almost unknown or forgotten.his first book was published in 1933. Down and Out .and that Orwell’s last work was printed in 1949. if one takes the fact into consideration that Orwell began to write in the early 1930s .. It means that during sixteen years he produced nine novels. There are three ways of grouping: one of them is according to the chronological order of the writings. Before starting the analysis of Down and Out in Paris and London and of A Clergyman’s Daughter.. What has been said above foreshadows that each of the other novels are usually regarded as his first attempts. that the publication of The Road to Wigan Pier brought the first considerable literary success for Orwell in England. The Lion and the Unicorn in 2000. which was the first version of Down and Out . Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four. and Nineteen Eighty-Four5.2. several volumes of essays. are proclaimed by several critics to be his masterpieces. Cartaphilus Publishing House edited some of Orwell’s books such as Homage to Catalonia (2nd edition) in 1999. these two books. it had no an overwhelming success. firstly Burmese Days was published in 1948 and it was the only available one of Orwell’s books for many years. according to Béla Nóvé in his epilogue of the Hungarian edition of The Road to Wigan Pier. but he comments that these books were unsuccessful.. in 2001.. The classification of Orwell’s works For many decades George Orwell was mentioned as a so-called “homo unius libri” in Hungary. 5 Notwithstanding. was published even in France. However. 7 It is vital that we should remark. for instance. As for the first way of categorization.. reports and some poems. (262) 10 . This situation seems to being solved nowadays. which was even a compulsory reading in many secondary schools.

One group of the novels.Notwithstanding this statement. Therefore. The second period begins.. plot and structure. he or she will find that the realism in the content decreases in his latest works. or Burmese Days with its colonial relations. with the passing of years these seven novels occupied their merited place in English and world literature. despite the fact that these writings were created prior to the two masterpieces. For example. kinds of character. If one examines the degree of realism in Orwell’s writing. from Down and Out. Coming 11 . containing Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four. As for A Clergyman’s Daughter. and The Road to Wigan Pier can be ranked among the most important of this group. It is worth remembering that there are some other novels that do not belong to any of these groups such as Keep the Aspidistra Flying.. This category includes the novel Burmese Days and many shorter writings such as ‘A Hanging’ and ‘Shooting an Elephant’. there is another kind of chronological grouping. and which was signed by the formation of the ‘Orwell-image’ (262). The simple and direct style. As it was pointed out above. In many scholars’ opinion. According to their theme. or Homage to Catalonia with its historical relations. deals with political issues showing their readers different political systems in an allegorical or distopian way.. setting. the classification according theme of writings can be the second way of grouping. such as the social reports Down and Out. the works with the characteristics of journalism.. which contains four novels. these seven other novels are literarily perfect creations since they can be distinguished by their length.. moreover. to Keep the Aspidistra Flying. this novel contains biographical elements. and The Road to Wigan Pier. Down and Out. with the publication of Road to Wigan Pier and contains the next two novels in the chronological order. stand the nearest to reality. Homage to Catalonia and Coming Up for Air. (261) He regards the period between 1933-36 as the writer’s first period. the other group of novels deals with social issues of the contemporary England. dealing with the writer’s experiences in colonial relations. A Clergyman’s Daughter.. Notwithstanding. the interesting themes of the books make them remarkably enjoyable for the public. So. according to Nóvé. He says that Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four belong to the writer’s third period. On the contrary. Béla Nóvé divides Orwell’s books into three groups. they are not a beginner’s attempts. the third group consists of the writings..

such as the picture of the Russian Revolution in Animal Farm. In conclusion. or these days. writing about the truth meant that his duty was to show his readers the facts simply as he saw them without any distortion. the fictive theme and characters even bring these novels farther from realism. such as setting. although they contain several lifelike elements. and A Clergyman’s Daughter could fill a gap is that they were not given a widespread reception either at the time of their publication. For the readers of the present these books are surely interesting and entertaining pieces providing information of the past through the eyes of a man who experienced numerous ways of living. two of the novels published before Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four will be analysed in the following parts of the thesis as the early works of the Orwellian-corpus. Maybe.. The reason why the analysis of Down and Out. For him. the political allegory in Animal Farm and distopian world of Nineteen Eighty-Four can be regarded to be the most unrealistic writings of Orwell’s.Up for Air. Orwell wrote about the truth in all of his novels because he wanted to create a shocking effect on the readers. 12 . references to political events of Orwell’s time.. who themselves personally experienced the events of that bloody times and therefore they were reluctant to read again the negative memories of their life. In spite of the reminiscences of certain political events.

the tendencies of the post-war period till 1950. Wartime alternated with peacetime that caused radical changes in the balance of power and the face of the world.2. The five main divisions between 1903 and 1950 automatically seem to be: ‘the Great Peace’(Thomson 24) in the early 1910s. the Great War. The British Empire in the years of the ‘Great Peace’ The main characteristic of the British society before 1914 was that most of the citizens of the British Empire enjoyed the benefits of development of the Welfare State. on the one hand. Similarly. The reason for it is that. which was caused by the economic growth of Germany and the United States. the net income rose. it was due to the prosperous economy of the Empire. on the other. and to describe the society of the British Empire during this half-century. to analyse the internal and international politics. The trade within the British Empire meant that the exports went to the countries of the Empire. Both the consequence and the prerequisite of the extensive commerce was. It is mainly true for people on average incomes who reached a higher standard of living. the social services showed an accelerated growth. World War II. 2. the development in the shipping techniques. on the one hand. to the other countries that felt the consequences of these troubled decades. where a transposition could be noticed as trade to Asia. Introduction to historical background The approximately fifty years covering George Orwell’s life historically cannot be said to be an uneventful period at all. the period of the Great Depression in the 1930s.Chapter Two Historical background 2. which made the Empire a naval 13 . Australasia and Africa got more emphasis than the one to Europe and North America. the British Empire was not able to avoid the difficulties coming to the surface. to India and the British Isles. This chapter of the thesis is based on David Thomson’s book titled England in the Twentieth Century. The chapter aims to point out the international changes and their effects on the economy.as the people named World War I. The economy was affected by the world trade. for instance.1. As for the positive shift in the standard of living.

In these days. when a trade depression occurred. a remarkable social change in behaviour towards the poor can be noticed. (It happened in 1904. the British Empire was judged as a significant commercial power in the world. the necessity of a growing industrial production. therefore. a new act was enacted for better secondary education with the help of the creation of local education committees. credit and insurance services that meant that the English money market had an important influence on stability throughout the world. for example. banking. In addition. there was a slowliness in the rate of the growth compared to its late Victorian speed. In spite of the fact that the emphasis of the production was on the textile industry and coalmining. which was unnecessary. The society considered poverty as a social evil. new universities were founded all over the country. and in the 1910s. This era brought a remarkable achievement in the arts. 14 . the government should distribute the national income in another way by using a larger amount for wages rather than profits and rents. According to other scientists.) What was also a sign of the Welfare State was the advancement of popular education. In addition. The flourishing scientific life resulted in many practical inventions but the application of the new inventions was more restricted in Britain than in the rival countries. on the other. mainly in literature. Mainly the lowest but smaller sized layer of the society suffered from it. her financial power came from the overseas investments. the cause of poverty was unemployment and underemployment although the phenomenon was an occasional one. This is the reason why numerous studies investigating poverty were written in those years. which was considered to be a narrow range of commodities exported and could have easily become a harmful factor for the economy. there were different views as to the elimination of poverty. it was officially measured and was treated as a remediable social disorder and a political question. and. especially in the drama and the novel. Many scientists tried to explore the reasons for poverty. Regarding the national income. quite many people felt it seeing the imminent greater poverty. for instance. In 1902. The very poor lived on an excessively flat standard of living because of the fact that almost all their income was spent on the basic necessities. however. which reveals again the old-fashioned way of thinking of the Empire.power of the world.

of dock and transport workers caused by rising prices. Britain made efforts to enter into an alliance with Russia and Japan.3.Regarding the internal policy of the British Empire. a form of government was created which was based on the constitutional framework of parliamentary institutions in order to preserve the rule of law and the code of justice. and in turn. or the strikes. several tendencies can be found which affected everyday life differently. as well. in 1911-1912. When Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914 the British nation stood firm and was hopeful that a victorious war would end in six months (Thomson 35). At first. the French. since the German sea-power was imminently getting stronger. the next chapter will show. These movements in numerous cases ended in violent acts. Besides this fact. In the international relationships a recognizable shift of mood happened in the early 1910s. or the problematic question of Home Rule for Ireland. Whether it became true or not. Third. (Thomson 31) Therefore. which had twenty-nine representatives in the House of Commons and whose main supporter was the growing trade-union movement. better water supply. 2. the Empire formed a new style of relationship with her colonies as many of them were given the rights to ‘independent self-government’. the former enemies of the British. This type of government worked with the help of the introduction of the civil service in the public administration and the local governments. in 1906 the Labour Party was formed. which were responsible for many aspects of urban life: for the cleaner and better-lit streets. which showed the darker side of the ‘Great Peace’. Britain became the symbol of individual and national freedom for the subjects of despotic empires. the previous image of the Germans changed negatively. Britain in World War I (1914-1918) 15 . Second. Despite these facts the ‘Great Peace’ was disturbed occasionally by revolutionary movements such as the struggles of the suffragettes for women’s rights to vote in parliamentary elections. became friends since they were regarded as a helpful ally and supporter in the defence of Britain’s position in the Channel and the Mediterranean. free libraries and schools.

The Empire relied on her resources of men and materials from the Dominions. Adding the financial cost of the war and post-war period to this. six million tons of lost shipping (42). The war disrupted the international relations in trade. It was also evident that it meant Britain’s vulnerable point as she was in need of imports for food and many essential raw materials. While in the first two years of the war Britain used voluntary enlistment to form new armies. three million people maimed with shrapnel or bullets (39). France and Britain. The official reason why Britain entered the war in August 1914 was the German intrusion in the neutral Belgium.The fact that on 28 June 1914 the crown prince of the Habsburg Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary and his wife were murdered in Sarajevo is considered as the ‘casus belli’ by historians. while the supporters of Serbia were Russia. the civilian populationdid not feel the effects of the war at a high degree as long as the Royal Navy was able to defend the Isles from the German attacks. It means that by the end of the war 8 million men and nearly one million women served either on the fronts or in munitions factories (Thomson 40). it brought immense suffering for millions of people during its four years. from 1916 the compulsory military service was introduced. the threatening danger could be averted only with American help.) So Britain had to organize war-factories and armed forces if the country wanted to win. 16 . moreover. thinking of the amount of the pensions and benefits paid to war-widows and veterans. when in January 1917 Germany proclaimed an unrestricted submarine warfare for the second time in the hope of ‘bringing Britain to her knees by starvation and shortage’ (Thomson 40). Although people believed that the war would be finished quickly. had not been sufficient for the war. On the side of Austria-Hungary stood Germany and Italy. The consequence of this murder was that in July 1914 AustriaHungary went to war with Serbia. Soon it turned out that Britain’s resources. the country lacked the needed arrangements for producing new supplies. Due to the geographical location of the British Isles. (Her naval army can be considered as the only exception because it was well prepared. the real success of the victory can be questioned. Therefore. which were believed to be immense and inexhaustible. by the end of the war Britain had almost one million dead. According to David Thomson.

2.4. The years between the two World Wars8 The years of transition from war to peace brought many difficulties in the countries that participated in the war. Due to her geographical location, Britain’s loss of equipment in factories and mines was smaller than that of the other participants on the Continent. As David Thomson shows, ‘the sinking of about 40 per cent of the merchant fleet was her largest single loss of capital equipment’ (58). Despite these facts Britain was not able to escape numerous problems in the 1920s: she went through a great influenza epidemic in 19199, and there were several governmental and economic crises, and many strikes in the country. The war being finished; four million men were released from the military service, which caused an increase in unemployment. It was made even worse by a great number of women who were discharged from industries to ensure jobs for men. By the late 1920s the rate of unemployment was at a high but constant level: at 9 or 10 per cent of the rate of the employees. (Thomson 124) In the first years of peace the acclaimed slogan of the government was ‘to return to normalcy.’ (Thomson 67) However, it proved to be difficult: speculation flourished; the rise of prices was much faster than that of the wages. Faced with the threaten of strikes, the government set up several acts to resolve or lessen the problematic questions. Nevertheless, the range of new acts could not bring radical improvement, and as a consequence, different groups of workers - miners, policemen, railwaymen, and transport workers - went on strikes and stoppages demanding higher wages in the early 1920s. In conclusion, the violence of the war and its harmful effects were reflected in every aspect of public life in the first years after it ended. Apparently, there was a negative change in social manners and moral standards. During the war millions of people were trained to kill other men; furthermore, after the armistice lots of war-veterans faced unemployment and poverty, so the process of returning these men to normalcy did not proved to be easy. The strictness of the pre-war morals lightened with the appearance of

Historians divide the period between 1919 and 1939 into four major stages: the years of recovery (191923), the J.R.Macdonald - era (1924-29), the economic crisis of 1930-35 and the period of 1936-39. Each of them had their own characteristics in terms of internal and international policy, economic life and home affairs. This sub-chapter deals mainly with the economic and internal developments because these two show well the public mood of Britain in these twenty years. The rivalry between political parties, the elections, the changes in the relations of the Empire to India and the Dominions are not discussed here. 9 This epidemic caused 150,000 people’s death. (Thomson 66)


more social freedom in these post-war years, which was shown in, for instance, the emancipation of women, the easier facilities for divorce; moreover, in women’s and men’s fashion. David Thomson points out that since the United States stood in a leading position in the scientific and technical field, it was in the first half of the 1920s that ‘the process of Americanisation of English life and culture’ (90) began. Because there was a serious housing shortage in the country after the war, in 1924 the government, setting up a new act, prepared a longer-term solution by building 2.5 million houses by 1939. As for the other urgent social evil, they extended unemployment benefits, rose both women’s and men’s payments, and doubled the children’s allowance. This added to a gradual betterment of British economy, so the society felt a sense of recovery in the early 1920s. In 1926 this process of recovery was halted, when the so-called ‘General Strike’ broke out. The roots of this strike originated in the miners’ dissatisfaction, who claimed higher wages, shorter workdays. To support the miners’ demands, the strike extended to the workers of transport, the heavy industries, the building and printing trades, and the workers in gas and electricity services. The ‘General Strike’ lasted nine days; nonetheless, its effects were felt more heavily by the citizens of the big towns, who tried to carry on their life in spite of the difficulties caused by public transport or the shortage of newspapers. As it turned out, several people thought that this strike was too late since the new technologies (the widespread use of cars and radios) had eased the strains caused by the strike. In countless ways the society was transformed in the 1920s; the place of practicing religious life was transferred from churches to homes; simultaneously, with the widespread use of radios which broadcast religious programmes, there was a decline in churchgoing. At the same time the population of the United Kingdom grew, but its distribution was uneven with a large number of inhabitants in the suburbs around London and in the south-eastern part of England. The growing problem of housing shortage made the councils of the big cities build the so-called ‘council houses’. David Thomson says these houses were built with ‘minimum standards of density, size, and amenities’ and without any ‘ideas of elegance, attractiveness, or even community life’ (121). As it has been shown, these houses were built satisfy the needs of the masses. Even massproduction, hire-purchase, mass-consumption, community singing, popular sports, and


mass-produced cheap volumes of classic writers appeared in these years. As David Thomson concludes people felt the imminent economic crisis; therefore, they wanted to exploit ‘this brief time of relaxation’ (124). Because during World WarI the financial centre of the world was transferred into the United States and after the war her leading position grew with the American loans to Europe, when on 24 October 1929 the crash in Wall Street happened it resulted in the crisis of the whole European economic system. cent.11 This uncertain situation helped the radical right-wing groups to gain popularity for their propaganda, which was especially true for Germany where Adolf Hitler came to power. By the early 1930s the international circumstances were totally transformed, as Britain, the Soviet Union and France became almost passive participants in the events, while Germany, Italy and Japan got into leading positions. As the United States considered Europe to be responsible for the breakdown of the stock market, she did not interfere in the European affairs at that time. The British government tried to overcome the difficulties of the economic crisis from 1932; and with the devaluation of the pound, the reduction of the dole positive changes began to appear. The economic recovery lasted from 1933 to 1935. It brought about the decrease of unemployment to less than two million. Furthermore, in certain depressed areas there was a sensible betterment in many areas of life. The appearance of new industrial products, such as cars, radios, chemicals, and rayon, meant more jobs. As for the foreign affairs, Britain aimed both to save the balance of powers on the Continent and to transform the system of the Dominions.12 The importance of the Dominions grew after World War I because of their help given for the Empire. When the Nazi power became stronger, the British government started modernizing the Army; but their policy was appeasement instead of opposition.
10 10

This meant that the production, the

prices, the world trade were reduced, and that unemployment increased by 35-45 per

After the crash the United States reduced the loans to Europe by one third and introduced a fifty-per cent customs tariff ( Attila Herber et al 78). 11 According to David Thomson, in Great Britain the number of the actual unemployed was 3¾ million by the autumn of 1932. Thereupon the number of the people who lived on the dole was between 6 and 7 million (131). 12 Since 1922 the relationship between Britain and the Dominions was named to be the British Commonwealth of Nations. In 1926 Britain accepted the independence of Canada, New-Zeeland and South-Africa. In 1931 the Westminster Statute was passed which recognized that the Dominions could freely pass legislation, they had their own sovereignity in foreign policy and their own parliaments.


insurance against unemployment. pensions and family allowances. the rationing of supplies. squalor. too. and public education. There was a hope at that time for a better society in which social justice could be realized.6.000 civilians were killed in air-raids. In spite of the difficulties of war-time. the balance of power in the world and has made the United States the governor of world-policy. 2. World War II (1939-1945) World War II can be named as the most severe conflict in the history of humankind. According to David Thomson. or to provide better schooling or social insurance. The new acts aimed to bring economic development and greater social security. improved housing.. various acts were introduced to ensure full employment.000 members of the Merchant Navy lost their lives’ (201). by provision of minimal social services of public health and free medical aid. (Thomson 207) So. Several reports were written to explore the situation of agriculture and industry. ‘some 60. evacuations and air-raids. After World War II (1946-1950) 20 .000 soldiers. the citizens of Britain showed willingness in giving essential services and solidarity towards the others being in need (202). Each of the belligerent countries suffered from the effects of the war.2. against sickness.. unemployment. during World War II Britain and the members of the Commonwealth lost 412. in order to attain these governmental aims.5. which lasts nowadays. no real victor can be identified. Many war-time scholars confessed that the face of their society was transformed as the distinctions of wealth or birth seemed less crucial in these collectively hard times. and considering the losses of either side. which has redrawn the map of Europe. such as the increased taxation. the economy was replanned and reconstructed. 30. He even points out that one of the war-time effects was the stability in morals. furthermore. poverty. What did the government do for the social reorganization in the early 1940s? It set out the concept of comprehensive public protection for all individuals . and ignorance.

In conclusion. and the problem of unemployment. with this 13 In connection with education. (Herber et al. In spite of the measures which were introduced by the Conservatives. (Thomson 221) 14 The Housing Acts (1946 and 1949) supported council-house building. After World War II Britain lost her former leading position because the Soviet Union and the United States became the most powerful countries in the world. In addition to this. the former powers collapsed. it was not an easy and short-termed process to neutralize the negative effects of the war. the loss of her influence in Greece. the recurrent unbalance of payments. simultaneously. Therefore. and in social services14. here. thirdly. This war differed from World War I. the ceasing of the mandate for administering Palestine given by the Union of the Nations in 1922. on the one hand. 213) However. it was against Churchill and the Conservatives since the people felt that Churchill had not kept his former promises. power. three important events happened in her foreign affairs: firstly. which process had already started in the nineteenth century. while the British Isles were sheltered from the battles in the previous war. her imports increased. World War II accelerated her decline and intensified England’s suppression in connection with the balance of international powers. This programme consisted of two main parts: one of them dealt with the nationalization of credit. Summarizing the years of the late 1940s. on the other hand. the Labour Government started to fulfil its programme for reconstruction. The United States gave financial and material aid for restoration and recovery but this meant that the conditions of the loans destroyed the British economy. and transport. and the other part consisted of the reforms in education13. the first reform to construct a full national system of education was introduced in 1947. the independence of India. This change in the national mood explains that the Labour Party came to power in 1945. the government’s working was questioned.Despite the fact that Great Britain belonged to the victors. in this war the civilian population was not able to escape from the sufferings of the bloody fighting. During the election campaigne of 1945 the two chief parties presented their strategies for the reconstruction. and the National Health Service Act (1946) provided free medical service for all. As for the national mood at that time. secondly. new superpowers were born to. (Thomson 222) 21 . such as the shortage of food and houses. Many people said that the Conservatives’ most concrete achievement was the Butler Education Act of 1944. Britain lost a considerable part of her exports and.

I will omit to argue the years of the 1950s. Britain started on her way to recover to the ‘Welfare State’.policy. Since Goerge Orwell died in 1950. 22 .

Orwell illustrates life in the late 1920s and the early 1930s to his reader. In both Down and Out. written in 1935.. The differences of the two books In the first part of this chapter. A Clergyman’s Daughter and Down and Out in Paris and London15.. As for the main difference. General remarks In the case of any literary work. He demonstrates it from two viewpoints that have different and similar characteristics simultaneously. It is said that the mood of a society can indicate the situation.2..1. I will omit the analysis of the French part. I will concentrate on the facts which differentiate the two books. Evidently. These years were generally known as the years of the Great Depression. the development or backwardness of any country. The first book. the question is posed what the author’s aim was with the writing of his work. 3. A Clergyman’s Daughter. It is necessary to mention that Orwell deals with the poor and tramp of the French society in the first half of Down and Out. on the other hand. we find that George Orwell wrote the two books..Chapter Three Social questions in England in the late 1920s as George Orwell saw them 3. which predominantly made the lower classes’ life harder in the society.. to express also his disenchantment with the treatment of two groups of marginalized people on the part of the English society. Orwell follows this method by giving a sort of social history in his readers’ hand when he shows us the atmosphere of these years. national mood can be revealed officially with public opinion polls. provides a mirror about the unmarried women’s facilities for life by showing a short period of a ’spinsterish girl’s’ 15 This title will henceforth be used as Down and Out. a writer can disclose it with describing what and how men-in-the-street think about the functioning of the government. On the one hand.. and A Clergyman’s Daughter. One of the two groups is the special class of the unmarried women and the other group consists of the tramp. 23 . it is the consequence of the Orwellian choice of the protagonists. not all the problems of the two sexes are the same. Investigating this question. Since the thesis is about the social criticism of the English society.

However. also contains the Orwellian disillusionment with the English society.. The second book. However. In Down and Out.. we can call the protagonist rather the reporter of the exploration than the protagonist of the events in the traditional sense of its meaning. otherwise his or her examination would not be complete. and resulted in many acts and laws for women and in theory brought spectacular improvement in the women’s situation. We know the historical changes. which were due to the suffragette-movement. The theme here is the life of the tramps and it reflects Orwell’s own experiences he gained by spending a few months among these people.. Orwell makes his readers see a female portrait that is similar to the nineteenth-century women’s model in many ways rather than to the twentieth-century-model. Therefore.. Orwell studies a chosen social layer and he examines how the English society does harm to this layer. In A Clergyman’s Daughter. on the results of this examination. Orwell does not deal with the question of women. we can see the events from a man’s view and it is the author himself who portrays the society. During the examination. his or her gender would not prevent him or her searching. The reason why he leaves out this question may be the impossibility for a male tramp to enter a female ‘spike’. written in 1933.. In my opinion. one could easily face up the fact that the exploration of social problems does not include the thorough account of women’s problems on the level of tramps..life. a respectable widow woman. Here. The author demonstrates the difference originating from the protagonists’ sexes in many cases mainly in A Clergyman’s Daughter. the figure of the author as the protagonist disappears because in this book the importance is on the exploration of the faults of the society and the situation of the chosen layer. In Down and Out..’ Beside a short description of this woman’s behaviour. furthermore. The only example Orwell gives is on page 196 where he describes a woman tramp.. who ‘was. the examination of female problems can be a rightful claim from the readers’ side. Down and Out.. if one’s aim is to reveal the situation and the problems of a social layer thoroughly. no doubt. This defectiveness also proves the fact that men were in the centre in Orwell’s society. not an immediate 24 . become a tramp through some grotesque accident. Orwell chooses a female character that means that we receive impressions about the English society from a woman’s adventures. This statement will be analysed in connection with the genre of the book in more details in Chapter Four.

it was a much stronger characteristic in the nineteenth century.betterment happened with the introduction of new acts. Nobby accepts his defeat happily. In the English society of the late 1920s. For a woman. According to Orwell. He is incapable of understanding the girl’s behaviour because he is used to getting women easily. Focusing on it. 16 Mr Warburton tries to make love twice. Dorothy’s case proves it: when she visits Mr Warburton. nobody of the ‘not too pretty’ can escape their pursuit (76). The existence of a fixed etiquette is visible in the chemistry lesson of the girls’school when Dorothy has ‘to stay in the classroom during the chemistry lectures’ because it is improper ‘to leave the girls alone with a man’ (216). It was a long-time process when the new female rights were gradually built in the common knowledge and were put in use. Orwell’s descriptions reflect this slow process. The consequence of her mistake is her ‘popularity’ in the newspapers that believe the local scandalmonger’s theory and give an unfavourable account of Dorothy’s nature. Besides. If it had not been for her shame. Nevertheless. He points out that ‘For anyone so situated. As for the other man. One sign of this rigidity is reflected in A Clergyman’s Daughter when the author explains the reason for Dorothy’s loneliness during her schoolmistressing. as well. he is at a loss to know why Dorothy refused him. and particularly for a woman. and Nobby’s trying occurs in the middle of the story. she could have avoided suffering. breaking the rules of it resulted in serious troubles. Orwell’s talent is revealed in the description in which he brings out the male behaviour towards the plain girls. Later this false image depicted by the journalists becomes the source of her shame and prevents her asking her father’s help and her returning home. the ‘proper old rascal’ (37) of the village. it is all but impossible to make friends’ (219). the reason for this impossibility is that a woman like this has no money. They react differrently to Dorothy’s refusal. Orwell gives his observation into the protagonist’s mouth explaining that ‘the men of all description’ want ‘a little casual amusement’ with women. in the beginning and the end of the story. in the evening. He excellently recognizes that average girls are rather exposed to male roughness. we find three examples16 when single men try to make love with Dorothy against her wish. women still did not only meet discrimination in many areas of their life but they suffered from the rigid social conventions. it is also her defencelessness that causes troubles and differentiates her life from the men’s life. 25 . Evidently. no family and no home of her own so she is not able to invite guests (227). she acts against the rules of conduct. which comes from his happy temperament. at this time women were guided by the etiquette.

are limited in number and remind us of those that existed in the nineteenth century or even in the earlier centuries. her position is highly uncertain since the wages. however. furthermore. while in the fifth one some kind of summary is given into Mr Warburton’s mouth about these jobs. she plays the role of the curate. and which always run out. In the case of Dorothy Hare. which is outlined here. In addition. These possibilities. her life is made even harder by her father’s inability to fulfil ‘the dirty work of the parish’ and his duties ‘outside the four walls of the church’ (20). She depends on her father’s money given to cover the costs of their household. Nobby’s wandering to find a farm where they get work Orwell makes us feel the difficulties of the time of economic crisis. Going through these possibilities. which made more jobs for women. it results in the common opinion about her that she is Nobby’s ‘tart’. in A Clergyman’s Daughter Orwell reveals almost all possible types of jobs for an unmarried woman in the late 1920s. As for the fact that Dorothy lives in an open relationship with a man without marriage. making Dorothy feel ashamed. a hop-picker. her future heritage is ‘going down the sink’ (248) because of her father’s investment in gambling. at first the author informs us about the life of a woman if she lives at her family’s mercy. She has not got her own property. When she earns her living as a daylabourer. So Dorothy runs the household. and in their eyes Dorothy and Nobby’s relationship cannot be considered to be sinful. who originally belongs to the lower middle-class. there is one job which is presented by the protagonist. The other workers form their opinion on the basis of what they saw during those few days that Dorothy and Nobby spent together. In each of the first four chapters of the book. and maintains relations with the community while her father immerses himself in his past with nostalgia. the length of the time of her employment depend on the quantity and quality of the hop. Despite World War I. Besides. sinks down to the level of the agricultural workers. ignores the achievements of the end of the nineteen-century and the betterment that was introduced with the enactment of new laws in the early twentieth century.The nineteenth-century female image is also illustrated by the question of employment in the book. The life. 26 . In the next chapter. she suffers from his old-fashioned way of thinking. Dorothy. by the description of Dorothy and her companion. she lives under the same roof with her father.

In her eyes the job of a housemaid or a parlourmaid (173). Dorothy and Nobby have to work in the first few days without money to buy food so they would starve to death without Mrs Turle’s help. Orwell portrays school-mistressing and the conditions of lower-rate private schools in the darkest 17 Orwell also uses the word ‘communism’ later for the community of tramps in the meaning of solidarity.. when. Everybody has a bee in his or her bonnet.. when he says ‘. The difficulties join these marginalized people. They know that it is the solidarity what alleviates suffering. Beggary proves to be an equal ‘profession’ both for men and for women. Dorothy’s descent continues in the third chapter reaching the deepest point when Dorothy is reduced to begging for her food in the streets. after Nobby’s arrest ‘everyone in the set came across with a hatful of hops and dropped it into her bin’ (119). As Orwell points out. or of a nursery governess (126) is a more acceptable because any of them could open up a possibility to help her ‘to keep her past history secret’ easier (126). The writer introduces by several examples of the tramps’ communism and mutual help to his readers. mutual help. Evidently. Orwell shows their strangeness with the disorder in the characters’ dialogues.Orwell characterizes the community of hop-pickers with the presence of ‘huge communism’17. For instance. and they rather help each other. as it is manifested in several cases. every distinction disappears. Alternatively. who leave you ten thousand quid and care of the parrot’ (173) which are acceptable for girls of good upbringing but not for Dorothy.. when one of them is in need. However... 27 . When I use this expression I think of this meaning. Orwell describes these people. he depicts the nature of this ‘communism’ in such a way that it always originates from female benignity. It is the women who give help to those in need. who struggle against starvation and the cold weather day by day.everyone was extraordinarily kind’(109). Orwell tries to counterbalance the predominance of the nineteenth-century features with this way of characterization which reminds the readers rather to the twentieth century where World War I taught the human race solidarity in a higher degree. while they create a community where nobody is insulted because of his or her strangeness. until they get their first wages. people do not exploit their mates. but. everybody is ready to help. the private secretary and ‘to be companion to an old lady . The last possibility that Orwell suggests as a usual job for an unmarried ‘lady born and bred’ is school-mistressing. on this level. and team spirit. The writer enumerates few other jobs like that of the manicurist.

Although the author himself does not declare it directly this statement is still proved in the book. which means that ‘they have ultimately no purpose except to make money’ (212). Orwell criticizes these types of schools for the usage of old-fashioned books. On the contrary.The above-mentioned problem. for the badly selected subjects with which the students are not given the knowledge useful in everyday life. 28 . they do not pay money to develop teaching aids and create appropriate circumstances for learning (fundamental things such as heating. Orwell shows their tragic situation through remarkable examples pointing out the helplessness and powerlessness of thousands of teachers. not only is he allowed to teach but he receives no punishment. teachers depend on their employers whose aim is the reduction of the wages as much as it is possible. thirdly. the teacher’s defencelessness. second. With a good critical sense. there is another proof of the female discrimination against men. . Furthermore. which is a well-known fact both for the children and for Mrs Creevy. the teachers are at the mercy of the pupils. in the schools there is no need for any qualification on the teacher’s part (174). the owner of the school. poses another question. In spite of his weakness. As the owners of the private schools do not teach themselves.colours. they do not have experience in teaching. For instance.The troubles whose source is the owners’ avarice. lighting). by her employer. he points out the deficiencies of these schools. and finally by the children. as they are only interested in making money. even a teacher’s drunkenness is acceptable like in the case of the teacher of chemistry. This widespread notion negatively affects the quality of teaching. when Dorothy makes an effort to modernize the teaching by using her own money and to give something from ‘the Facts of Life’ (205) to her pupils. . In this part about private schools. these ill-paid teachers are dependent on the parents’ want since the schools are alive with the parents’ money. avarice. the teacher of chemistry. which can be divided into the following groups: . At first. either. has been teaching for many years in Ringwood House despite his constant drunkenness. she is seriously punished by the parents.The problems originate from the teachers’ inaptitude and their lack of methodological knowledge. Mr Booth. which prevents him from teaching more than the same two sentences lesson by lesson.

19 Except that case when he and his fellow ’tried for a job as a sandwich man’ (181). 29 . ‘The plot’ of the former book. the events of the two books join on the point when the two main characters get to the periphery of society. which. We know that the protagonist has some kind of job18 but he could not ask for any money since his employers went abroad. In the manifestations of the social problems. which are outlined in the treatment of three social features: the average people’s attitude to growing unemployment. when he runs out of money. nevertheless this short period of their life is still suitable for the portrayal of the marginalized people’s hard life. it cannot be regarded as her deliberate choice that she becomes a bum. due to ill fortune. The next year he returned to London where he continued the poorish life. Therefore. which can be rather called an account of experiences. comes from the protagonist’s (who is the author) deliberate choice to be a tramp. Later that year he went to Paris where he earnt his living from casual jobs. 3. (181) In contrast. with some money left in his pocket he chooses the streets instead of making any serious effort19 to find some work. her ragged 18 According to the autobiographical data Orwell. in 1928 lived in the East End among the poor. and then later. Furthermore. 3. the few days. The similarities of the two books In the second part of this chapter. the social class that can only afford to send their children to these lowerrate private schools rather excuses male imperfection than a female mistake. Their condition is not a constant one either in Down and Out…. The commonest feature of the two books is the situation of the main characters when they spent several days on the streets of London.3. Based on the experiences in France where life was cheap at that time he hopes to succeed in spending the next month with the little money that is in his pocket. I will collect the similar features in the treatment of social problems in the two books. three other similarities can be pointed out. which occur in both books. or in A Clergyman’s Daughter. which was hardened by a theft of his money. Orwell talks about Dorothy Hare’s struggle for finding a job in London and he attributes her fruitless attempts to such circumstances as her educated accent.1 On the periphery of the society Undoubtedly. he succeeds in asking two poundworth sums from the unnamed Mr B. in the other book. the protagonist is forced to spend in the streets of London.Undoubtedly.3. to the care of the old. and towards the Church. can be regarded as a short episode in the plot as a whole.

2 The unemployment In the historical review given in the second chapter. they ‘. the bad quality of the 20 Orwell refers to the workers’ practice to go out on Saturday evenings when ’fifty or sixty of the pickers used to get drunk in the pub and then march down the village street roaring bawdy songs’ (107). Although Orwell does not mention openly the real reason for her lack of success. quoting David Thomson’s words ‘the official rate at best 9-10 per cent was alarmingly large’ (Thomson.. 30 . as it turns out from the above about Dorothy’s efforts... According to Orwell... I have pointed out the changes in the number of unemployed people during the years of the Great Depression. but also in the agricultural parts of England. the first observation is in connection with being out of work with which he makes the readers face unemployment as a widespread feature all over England. If we examine the question of unemployment in the two Orwellian writings. and ‘her lack of references were against her’ (134). by the time Dorothy and her mates arrive at the hop-fields.. which can be found in the historical events. However. who came hop-picking for a holiday and were satisfied if they earned enough for their fare both ways and a bit of fun on Saturday nights20’ (108-109). that she had ‘been in trouble’ .. which is in September. Orwell points out that the unemployment in the case of the agricultural areas is worsened because of the migration of the townspeople. he still refers to it when he clarifies Dorothy’s ‘chances of finding work unaided were practically nil’ (134). he says that half of the casual workers in the agriculture are gypsies and ‘. 3. 124). began to meet discouraged people.and after probing her with their questions they got rid of her as quickly as possible’ (135).that is. there are three reasons for the lack of work. had an illegitimate baby .3. most of the others were respectable East Enders.clothes. mostly tramps.. As a matter of fact. costermongers and small shopkeepers and the like. Despite the government’s efforts to lower the number of the unemployed.’ (94). This proportion meant at least one million men out of work permanently. He shows us that the high rate of unemployment appears not only in urban areas. He depicts the suburban housewives whom Dorothy visits hunting for a job as prying and suspicious women who ‘reacted to her in precisely the same way’ (134) and who ‘sniffed . trailing back to London with the news that there was nothing doing .

the low of wages..according to their notion . there is the author’s tendency in the two books to make the members of the English society who are actually employed understand that most of the unemployed and the beggars at that time are unable to find such work which is called . the ensuring of ‘proper accommodation’ increased the farmers’ expenses. Orwell complains about the usage of meal-tickets because the proprietors of the eating-houses ‘. Thirdly... He emphasizes. how difficult it is for the members of the lower middle-class to find a job in the years of economic crisis. Orwell states that their biggest fault is their ‘choosing a trade at which it is impossible to grow rich’ (175). home pickers are those people who have got homes of their own. The situation is the same with the merchants who are depicted in A Clergyman’s Daughter to be the people whose main aim is to profit from the casual workers’ everlasting hunger. which was brought in by the Labour Government. they deceive the charitable people who give these tickets to the tramps. 31 . on the one hand. on the other hand. on the one hand. As for the beggars.. He arrives at that opinion that the working men consider the beggars and the other people out of work as ‘parasites’ (174) since they do not work and do not produce anything profitable... In Down and Out . She treats Dorothy with bitter contempt when she takes no notice of the picker-girl (124). In addition. The author gives an explanation for this attitude in Down and Out .. This law. Dorothy Hare tries to find work becoming to her rank in 21 In A Clergyman’s Daughter.crops. Orwell demonstrates it with the characterization of the postmistress of the village in A Clergyman’s Daughter. the homeless people’s prospects decreased.. Orwell suggests a disputable way to solve the problem.. however. In A Clergyman’s Daughter..’ (110). As for the working people’s contempt. Orwell says that ‘The local shopkeepers . Their behaviour is manifested in several ways such as abuses and contempt. since. stated that the farmers have to give ‘proper accommodation’ for their workers (95). knowing that the tramps could not go elsewhere . Orwell still wants to get them recognise that this lack of success is not the poor devils’ fault. when he analyses the roots of it. giving money instead of tickets to the tramp would prevent their ‘victimisation’ (187).. The second evidence...’ always cheat them by giving less food than the real value of the tickets (187). made both the farmers’ and the workers’ situation harder since.a normal one. The law. which is noticeable in both books. according to him. and that ‘the gypsies and ‘home pickers21’ had collared all the jobs’ (94). permanently hired. is the negative behaviour of the people. towards the unemployed. made more during the hop season than all the rest of the year put together .

. When comparing the two writings.3.. priests such as Mr Tallboys in A Clergyman’s Daughter or ‘real artists’ such as.. All of the marginalized people whom the writer talks about suffer from malnutrition. but at that time. visits eighteen places in four days and ‘sent written application for four others’ (134) without success. It seems Orwell attempts to change the English society’s attitude towards the class of the poor by showing a range of examples: men who do their best to earn their living while they brave the society’s contempt. he calls the tramps’ meal ‘bread and margarine diet’ (151). though in an illegal way... lower class-people... Orwell comes up with another problem that is the consequence of the high unemployment. 170). The care for the old 32 .3. starve in England at that time. He characterizes the meals of these people as ‘a filthy diet’ and the hawkers’ groceries from London as ‘horrifyingly cheap’ (111). In A Clergyman’s Daughter.. He tries again to draw the society’s attention to the fact that many people.London. with stolen fruits and vegetables. 3. in Down and Out . they are out of work. Later on this page he mentions that in the countryside there were vast orchards full of piles of rotting fruits because ‘the farmers could not sell them’. and in A Clergyman’s Daughter we meet many men who were originally clerks. both in Down and Out . He states in A Clergyman’s Daughter that ‘Probably it was only the abundance of stolen apples that prevented the camp from being ravaged by scurvy’ (111). overcome their sense of shame and struggle with the elements on the street day by day in order to look after their family. who have the possibility to supplement their meals. the fault of the state afflicts the poor.. Evidently. It was by no means unusual that educated men were sacked. Or in Down and Out . including women and children. he uses stronger words in order to make the starvation of the masses more perceptible for the readers. shopkeepers and even ‘one of them was a doctor’ (Down and Out . The writer proves to be well informed on this problem and he depicts a remarkably distressing view for the readers. On the other hand. the screever ‘who had studied in Paris and submitted pictures to the Salon in his days’ (172).. it turns out that the situation of those who live in towns is worse than that of the casual workers in the countryside.

In spite of the mutual help that the members of the class of the tramps and of the beggars give each other. which. The examples of the aged men whose lives are described in both books mirror how far the taking care of the old are unsolved in England. are in a worse situation than the old of a community.. who have no home and who live among the tramps. Orwell mentions a man who is an ‘old mummy- 33 .. He concentrates on those who stand alone in the world.After unemployment. the next criticized social feature worth discussing in connection with Down and Out . Besides. Here we see again Orwell’s sympathy for the marginalized people. not inquiring whether any man was well or ill’ (149). she has to do anything that these old people ask for. Day by day she makes ‘visitings’ which consist not only of chatting. Orwell describes an episode when Dorothy is asked to give an old woman ‘a bit of rub-down’ (52). Their illnesses are not treated properly. In A Clergyman’s Daughter one of the protagonist’s duties when she lives her ‘normal life’ as a clergyman’s daughter is to visit the old of the parish. on the one hand. Orwell also refers to the medical inspection in the ‘spike’ in Down and Out .. on the other hand. The writer chooses such old people who have no family to take care of them. Although the writer does not express it directly but reading between the lines it is evident that these tasks should belong not to the priest’s daughter but the state should find some kind of solution for the problem. is away at the time of this episode since he is digging in the doctor’s garden (49).. The Pithers above can be considered lucky because they have their own home and they are members of a community that takes care of them to some extent. consoling and praying together with the aged housewives but of nursing the invalid.. which means that in some cases Dorothy needs to overcome her disgust. But the white-haired people.. ‘was designed merely to detect smallpox . homeless old people suffer much more because of undernourishment and they are exposed more to the harshness of the weather.. Just when the woman does not see her she has to exhort herself why ‘.she really [does] not enjoy rubbing Mrs Pither down’ (52) because of the bad smell of the house. It is worth remembering that this Mrs Pither’s husband. and A Clergyman’s Daughter is the care for the old or rather the lack of it.. although he and his wife are over seventy in the story. Orwell draws a very saddening picture about it and there is no doubt that the question of the care of the old was unsolved in England in Orwell’s time. was a humiliating procedure for the tramps..

the paupers. The readers can see Orwell’s criticism of the institution of the Church of England. there is Mrs Pither who ‘was always ready for a ‘little prayer’ at any hour of the night or day’ and whose only consolation is the thesis that ‘the principal inhabitants of Heaven’ are the ‘poor working folks’ (51). Perhaps it is not only the fault of Dorothy’s father.as Orwell describes their life. For instance. 3. during the narration. I would like to emphasize that Orwell turns his readers’ attention to a twentieth-century characteristic of the English society. At first.4. These very old men often have to work hard for their living . In A Clergyman’s Daughter Orwell talks about a deaf old man who goes to work every year as a picker to Kent for the hop-season and the only happy and comfortable period of his life is when he spends his salary for ‘a paradisiac week’ staying in a lodging-house. On the one side. Nevertheless. which needs elaborating.. Orwell explains his use of the word ‘paradisiac’ which means in Deafie’s case sleeping in bed (129). there are more than five very old men introduced in Down and Out . however. Orwell gives a thorough explanation (21) stating that the people’s religious needs had changed by that time. The Rector’s ‘High Anglicanism’ proved out of date that is why it could not keep up with the average people’s requirements.like creature of seventy-five’ and in his case it is a wonder ‘how he could possibly make his daily march’ (149). Dorothy is the only person who holds together the congregation instead of its appointed leader. namely the one that the religious interest decreased at that time and this fact was independent from the social class a person belonged to.. Change in the religious attitude As I mentioned above the author introduces the attitude of the marginalized people to the different Churches. With the description of the trendy religious movements and the people’s changeable nature Orwell makes the readers see the value of Dorothy’s struggles to maintain the people’s feeling towards their Church. and old people.3. The other examples are not necessary to mention since the others above can make the readers understand how far Orwell was shocked by the critical situation of the homeless. Orwell describes a few of people who represent the opposite attitude with irony. which are going to be mentioned on the next pages. that the congregation of his parish is reduced but it is the fault of the cogregation’s members. as well. Or. there 34 . Mr Tallboys is an unfrocked priest who is not able to undress the habits coming from his education. in A Clergyman’s Daughter.

The lady filled with religious zeal was not able to recognize how far her attention was offending for these poor devils. which proves that the Church of England is unable to keep its congregation. Orwell. Nevertheless. however.. If a lady’s charity with good intention can humiliate those for whom it is given. they behave ungratefully. She sizes up the future situation when she says that ‘the Church connexion’ might ‘be worked up a bit’ (219). he says that the tramps hate the religious subjects (142) or during the prayers they ‘grinned and winked at one another’ (143). Although the way how Orwell depicts this episode is detailed. it is omitted from the arguing above. On the other side. Having compared this episode with the next one. As a schoolmistress. Examining their attitude.. what shows Mrs Creevy’s hypocrisy is that she chooses the church where to send Dorothy according to the parents’ taste... which shows that the church made a mistake somewhere during the religious education of these zealous people. As for the most marginalized people’s attitude. there are four episodes connected with the religion. her employer insists on Dorothy’s going to church regularly. Nevertheless. there is the tiny group of zealous people. there is the question: ‘Why?’ The key word will be humiliation which is mentioned in the end of the episode. The author. participates in a service made for the tramps which is linked with their getting free cups of tea. how far will the charity that originates 22 In Down and Out. Mrs Creevy tends to adjust to those from whom she gets the money and therefore she is ready for anything. The innocent and well-intentioned lady’s case prepares the better expression of the humiliation in the second episode on the pages 183-185. Despite the lady’s politeness and good intention. gained experiences also about their feeling toward the Church. Since the fourth one (on the pages 182-183). for instance. having lived among the tramps.which is in the second place if we consider the order of time of the four episodes. on pages 141-143.are huge numbers of people who leave their religion for the sake of a more modern one. serves for the readers to take a sample of the tramps’ feeling. They felt that they had to pay for the free cups of tea. in the company of other bums. 35 . is similar to the firstly mentioned one and it contains the writer’s summary (183). Behind her hunger for money is her aim. we can state. During the narration of the episode he mentions many times how far the tramps feel uncomfortable during the service. that the tramps’ behaviour here is more low-key than in the other place. there are three important episodes22 that enlighten it in Down and Out. The first one. he leaves his readers in uncertainty why these people are not grateful for the charity towards them.

self-satisfied Hallelujahs versus silence). In the second one they show ‘genuine gratitude’ (187) and praise the clergyman since they feel that the priest treated them in an altruistic way. for example.5. Orwell concludes the episode with his thoughts about the reason why the tramp behaved in this unthankful way. shows the readers the proper way of charity. Nonetheless. The writer draws a parallel between the minister’s and an old tramp’s acts to make the readers see the tramps’ behaviour with the help of comic elements.. his aim is to make the readers compare the two stories. we can consider the existence of the references to the Church as another connection between the two books after the previously mentioned problems of unemployment and care of the old.treated the service as a purely comic spectacle. Orwell. In the beginning of the practicing charity Orwell uses such expressions that make the tramps’ degradation evident. Orwell sharpens the situation during the next sentences.3. Orwell expresses that the charity takes an opposite turn since the priest. they were ‘shepherded’ into the church like the sheep or the tramps were separated from ‘the regular congregation’ and sat on the gallery (184). or in the mood of the two events (noisy. who practices charity. by the third case. in the third story. As an ending.) We can find another difference if we examine the tramps’ attitudes in the two episodes. There are striking differences between the two episodes such as the clergymen’s behaviour (one priest’s thundering behaviour versus the other’s shyness and embarrassment)..from hypocrisy be humiliating? In the second episode. Other common features 23 In this church the tramp get six slices of bread instead of the usual two slices. 3. which reaches its highest point when the author indicates his criticism with a short exclamation ‘But much we cared!’ (185) answering the priest’s loudly-said discrimination as the tramp will be unsaved. in spite of the fact that the charity is the biggest one according to its size23.’ (184). (184) 36 .. Although the writer in A Clergyman’s Daughter does not describe any similar situation to these three above from Down and Out . the writer wants the readers to learn from the case and he contrasts it with another way of charity putting it immediately after the previously mentioned one on pages 186-187. Here. expects the tramps to show visible gratitude.... Orwell details the tramps’ reaction to this discrimination saying that they ‘. or in the two ideas about helping (the congregation’s attitude waiting to be thanked for their goodness and the second clergyman’s unselfishness..

. what can be regarded as another similar aspect of the two books is that Orwell concentrates on the situation of the men-in-the-street.There are also some less important similarities between Down and Out . get attention. The protagonist. from which I will highlight two common features. In both writings Orwell criticizes the English laws about beggary for their absurdity and not being enforceable24... 35). now. he thinks of them only in localterms. Dorothy Hare. 37 . When a change of government comes. 174). with his good critical sense. They themselves participate in the ‘terrific din of cheering’ (Orwell. Orwell. The hypocrisy of the candidate is marked not only by the Orwellian remark about the ‘carefully graded’ smiles (36) but also by showing the opinion of a man-in-the-street about this campaign. when their votes are important. The inhabitants of the village of Knype Hill hear and read the slogans like ‘Blifil-Gordon and the Empire’ or ‘Who’ll put the Beer into your Pot? Blifil-Gordon! Blifil-Gordon for ever!’ (Orwell.. 33). he describes what efforts Mr Blifil-Gordon. Undoubtedly. and on page 165 in A Clergyman’s Daughter. Orwell gives the view of the average people into Proggett’s mouth. puts emphasis on what the average people perceive from the election... made to win a seat in Parliament. gets a smile ‘so warm that it [is] almost amorous (Orwell. he prompts his readers to realize that the enforcement of the laws is beyond the capacity of the state.. A Clergyman’s. 35) and the normally sleepy village becomes ‘a sort of triumphal procession’ .. and A Clergyman’s Daughter. In A Clergyman’s Daughter. A Clergyman’s. Furthermore. a proprietor of a sugar-beet refinery. who are normally ignored. A Clergyman’s. One sign of this endeavour is that he omits the high political events... A Clergyman’s.. when the churchman comments on the election with the following words: ‘All honey and butter they are till they’ve made sure as 24 The critical remark can be found on page 174 in Down and Out ... On the other hand. As for the elections...as the author depicts the atmosphere of the village (Orwell. who ‘had been deigned to recognize’ for several years by any of Blifil-Gordon’s company. it is impossible to imprison all of the beggars in London who are denounced to the police.. He expresses public opinion when he introduces these laws as ridiculous whereby anybody who does not directly beg the passers-by for money but makes some kind of work for the thrown down pennies is considered as a person ‘following a legitimate trade’ (Down and Out .. Orwell is interested in the change on such a level that affects the men-in-thestreet. 35).. People..

for instance... 34). Therefore.. their own home.. who have job. such as his poverty. 26 Orwell says about his future that ’His damaged leg . This man proves to be exceptionally interesting in the Orwellian description. 38 . According to Orwell. etc. It is felt from Orwell’s descriptions that he accuses the ‘insiders’ of their blindness why they are not able to realize their fortune. [and] there was . Despite his bad circumstances of life. I mean that all of us.. His disillusionment is shown when he experiences many examples for unfairness within the English society. and then they’ve forgot your very face the day afterwards’ (Orwell.. He mentions the defects of the Vagrancy Act many times when he experiences something working badly. 27 When I use this expression I think of the people who are ordinary members of the society. He makes only one exception in connection with the high politics when he characterizes a ‘pavement artist’ called Bozo (163). when people ‘inside the society27’ humiliate the ‘outsiders’. the writer suggests that we should follow this man’s philosophy and recognize the good in the things around us.you’ll vote for them. and the dark future26. everybody who stay on the periphery of the society I consider as an‘outsider’. and family. his damaged leg.. should be aware of the fact that at any time we 25 Many times in Down and Out . which was pointed out in the third paragraph above. In the last chapter Orwell gives the readers a conclusion of his experiences and he suggests many changes. It clearly turns out from his drawings.. Orwell uses the word ’spike’ referring to the ‘casual wards’ in England. no future for him but beggary and a death in the workhouse’ (168).. This self-educated man is up-to-date as for the politics and has his own opinion about the events of that time... In Down and Out.. Orwell also ignores the high politics and he is interested in the events or the laws that affect the characters of the book. For instance. he is especially fond of protesting against the unreasonable prosecutions in the ‘spikes25’ such as smoking (155) or having money more than eightpence (145). A Clergyman’s.. these social problems. are waiting to be solved. and against the lack of rules about comfort or cleanliness in the ‘spikes’ (213). would probably have to be amputated . which have been examined on the pages above.. that the writer deals with events only from the average people’s viewpoint. On the contrary. In this episode Orwell mentions some political events or characters but in such a way as a marginalized man sees and makes fun of them. Orwell places him before the readers as a model inspiring them that here is a man with several problems but he is able to appreciate his freedom and to see the world optimistically. In my opinion. he is able to remain brimful of life. it is true also for this example. the so-called insiders.

The ‘outsiders’ are often only the victims. Orwell expresses his hope that if he shows his readers who the ‘insiders’ of the society are. their errors. rid themselves of their prejudices. and by this means their mistakes. 39 . he will be able to make them correct their way of thinking.can be in a similar situation either by a war. or by accident.

. unchanging’ type and a ‘round. At first. The writer leaves his readers in doubt because he cannot give any credible explanation for the protagonist’s disappearance and the strange gap in her memory either immediately after her disappearance. 28 I have used the Baldwick’ varients for the characterization from this: Chris Baldwick ’s Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. titled Aspects of the Novel (1927). then I will examine it in Down and Out . 4. a ‘flat. Orwell’s technique in A Clergyman’s Daughter In A Clergyman’s Daughter the writer tells the readers a fictional story in which there is an exciting story-line built on the events of a girl’s life. 1990. and in A Clergyman’s Daughter.. I will focus on the examination of A Clergyman’s Daughter as for Orwell’s technique.. Why can this writing be considered as a fictional one? In my opinion. Beside the protagonist.Chapter Four Orwell’s technique and the identification of the genre Orwell uses a large number of literary devices in order to help his readers notice the social criticism that can be heard in Down and Out . dynamic’ one28. The statement above about the fact that this book belongs to the category of fiction poses a question. I will examine the characters of Orwell’s writing according to this distinction. What also supports that this writing can be regarded as a piece of fiction is the analysis of the characters. there are many subsidiary characters by whose lives Orwell makes the readers recognize the social problems. M. The definition of the genre of the two writings will be the third part of this subchapter. In my opinion. the answer can be found in the part of the book when the protagonist gets to London (from her village) under mysterious circumstances. Since E. we have distinguished two types of characters. making an analysis of the writer’s technique is essential for the identification of the genre of the two books supposing that each of them might contain such distinctive features by which each of them can be put into a category. As if the ‘deus-ex-machina’ from the classic dramas suddenly appeared but here this ‘god’ is the creator of the further events not the one solving the problems.. 40 .1. Forster’s famous study on the novel. or later during the story.

At the beginning of the story the protagonist’s strong love of God is expressed when the beauty of the summer nature evokes a prayer from her and she praises the ‘maker of the earth and all created things’ (53) in such a powerful way that some moments later she will be ashamed of the realization of the joyful worship. nonetheless her terror of sex precludes her from this possibility. For her there is no possibility for a better future. she has lost her faith and she is not able to feel the ‘power of the worship’ (220) any longer. the protagonist seems to be an everyday girl at first sight. but there is another one that can be defined as a changing characteristic. and unbelieving slavery are my creations. 41 . However. and the religion considerably defined her days. one of her specialities is her spinsterish attitude. when she can try enjoying freedom whose cost is the loss of her faith. and I name it as the inter-stage of “unbelieving slavery”. which is mainly due to the lack of sexual education combined with her childhood shock because of those ‘certain dreadful scenes’ (77) between her parents. I mean that a loving husband and her own family can be a way out from her situation. There is no doubt that Orwell employs a large number of minor characters in the story. because the protagonist’s character is changeable and complex. unbelieving freedom. it can be determined that it is a ’round’ type of characters using the Forsterian naming. To answer this query. The losing of her faith means that a deep change happens in the protagonist’s behaviour. It poses the question what it serves. Due to her family background she got religious education. can be called the stage of “unbelieving freedom”. such as in the case of Mr Darcy and Elizabeth Bennet in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice or in several of Thomas Hardy’s main characters. The fact that the protagonist’s character remains between the two stages at the end of the story obviously does not mean a dynamic change which was usual in many nineteen-century novels. I identify the part of the protagonist’s life spent under her father’s control as the stage of “believing slavery”29. if I consider the change of the character and her choice for her life. The next period. This quality does not change during the story. Her sexual coldness makes her a spinster and defines her relationships to men. it is worth investigating 29 The expressions of believing slavery. Nevertheless. The final period is between the first two. but Orwell makes us recognize later in the story that she has some special qualities. In my opinion. therefore the only way of life is to remain with her father and to continue the former life pretending to have faith.In A Clergyman’s Daughter. because of her sufferings during the eight months.

he remains in his dream world filled with old-fashioned ideas and he is unable to believe her daughter’s explanation about her disappearance. for example.. his letter in the fifth chapter is the herald of the saving. that Mr Warburton’s appearance in the first chapter finally causes the protagonist’s troubles. In each of the five chapters. by this means they become the active participants of the plot. for example Miss Mayfill. Nobby. These characters of the first group have one or two constant features and do not change during the story. Nobby’s happy temperament makes his companion take the difficulties of their vagrancy easier. in a short period. Several of the people belonging to the first group pop up repeatedly during the story and their appearances predict changes in the protagonist’s life. the surrounding air’ (91) and his happy temperament even keeps these positive qualities when he gets into trouble. the tramps.. Mr Warburton’s narrowmindedness brings about our critical remark about so-called freethinkers. Victor. and mean father of the protagonist goes through do not influence him at all. the elderly bachelor and freethinker is incapable to break away from his narrow-minded way of thinking and he can see the world from his own viewpoint. we can differentiate two groups of minor characters. and Mrs Creevy. At the end of the story. The events that the selfish. Hereby. Nobby with his neverending ‘inner radiance that warms . the schoolgirls and their parents. Beside the ‘flat’ characters’ strong influence on the main character. Mr Warburton. Mrs Semprill. Moreover. tyrannical. The Rector’s old-fashioned thinking makes him ridiculous for the readers of the Orwellian age. I mean. What is true for both of them and for the other minor characters in the first group is their incapacity for any metamorphosis.at first how Orwell distinguishes the minor characters and then how he distributes them in the five chapters. it is used to relieve the readers’ shock that was caused by the characters’ terrible circumstances. Orwell uses them even to evoke other effects. the measurer. for instance. Therefore. or in a long lifetime. the Forsterian category of the ‘flat’ character is applicable to them. The first group consists of those who are in an effective contact with the protagonist such as the Rector. Mr Boulger. either in Nobby’s case. In the other one are the people who have only indirect roles during the plot. Victor. All the characters in the first group somehow determine the protagonist’s life. Mr Warburton. 42 . the gypsies. he is unable to realize the protagonist’s situation and to understand her way of thinking and feelings.

As I mentioned above. thus. Other two points will help us to define the genre of the book and are useful for the presentation of Orwell’s technique. the number of people who are represented as individuals is between 11-14. it is interesting how the author distributes the characters in the chapters. The descriptions of the gypsies’ custom. the second-typed characters occur rather in descriptions. Since Orwell wants to characterize the possibilities of an unmarried woman at that time. Since Orwell depicts such female jobs each of those are made in some kind of community. mainly from the lower class.The members of the second group often occur in short episodes or in descriptive parts and they remain mute. On the one hand the proportion of the dialogues and the descriptions and on the other hand the question of narration need elaborating. even if they speak. appear only on a descriptive level. it will be often to a mob or in the centre of a community and not to only the protagonist. the writer uses them to describe several groups of the society. We can add to this amount those who appear in the crowd scenes. it turns out that Orwell distributes them equally in all the chapters. and it is the simple desire to entertain and to teach his readers. The other three chapters have their own special characters according to their settings and their plots. Obviously. It is noticeable that the proportion of the dialogues and descriptions shifts towards the latter but not in a high degree. The fifth chapter can be considered as a point of interest. The characters in the first and the fifth chapters are the same. According to the count of the minor characters. This is the obvious reason why they are in conversational contacts with the protagonist. he has to use the right characters to the right plot. Since many of them appear in descriptive parts of the story. These people are usually the sufferers of the events and do not have important roles in the development of the plot. In each of the five chapters. Orwell is able to show us 43 . There is another reason why the author uses these minor characters in the second group. their presenting often expresses the writer’s criticism for the society’s or the government’s faults. As it has turned out from the analysis of the minor characters. so these two chapters create the frame of the story. Its characters. it explains the usage of a large number of characters. and the pickers’ life serve this aim. the number of the characters is approximately the same. the process of hop-picking. with whom Orwell has already made the readers acquainted in the first chapter. but with the exception of two men. The two perspectives that they offer for the protagonist will differently determine her future no matter what perspective she chooses.

The dialogues mostly occur between the protagonist and the firsttyped minor characters. We cannot speak about plot in the 44 . It is obvious from the ‘plot’ that this writing belongs to the category of non-fiction. He is similar to the nineteenth-century omniscient narrator because he knows all the details of the events and all about the characters. while the use of several descriptions and regional dialects serves to inform the readers and improve their knowledge.2.many types of the different social layers. Being written in thirdperson narrative. the use of adjectives is more dominant than that of the participles. the third chapter can be regarded as an exception because a large part of it is a stream of dialogue. the dialogues make the story more dynamic and realistic. it is imbued with deep humanism and at the same time. and does not entrust the finding out of those questions to the readers.. colourful. Summarizing. which I will examine later. I intentionally named the third chapter a stream of dialogue. and the same is true for the description of the settings. It reminds me of James Joyce’s stream-of-consciousness technique since Orwell also presents the tramps’ rapidly changing thoughts. In the case of attributes.. the writer works out the characterization in great detail. 4. How well Orwell knows the people of the lower levels turns out from the richness of the regional dialects used by the characters. The writer rarely interrupts it with shorter descriptive parts used for giving explanations for the ignorant readers. and free from the repetition of words. He expresses everything directly and clearly. in a similar way as in the case of A Clergyman’s Daughter. his descriptive parts of the story are long and full of attributes. the writer stands outside the events and he is only the story-teller. Notwithstanding. Everything is visible in the story. it is also obvious that this technique is closer to the genre of the report. On the other hand. he is still critical of their faults. The other important question raised in the previous paragraph is the narration whose examination will also promote the definition of the genre. Orwell’s technique in Down and Out in Paris and London In this part of the subchapter I will focus on Orwell’s Down and Out . As for Orwell’s use of words. it is remarkably varied. When he characterizes the ousted people from the society. Therefore.

Progressing from the top to the bottom. The reason why this book has no traditional plot on the one hand is that the writer tells his readers the events in the form of a loose chain. his character can be placed in the ‘round’ category of characters. even the author himself compares his work to ‘a travel diary’ (215). Although each of them has some kind of special qualities. the writer does not have any essential purpose with the description of these qualities. On the other hand what explains that the story of the book is not regarded as a traditional plot of fiction is the fact that the author is both the protagonist and the narrator of the events. Notwithstanding. The narrator is the only person who develops by the end of the book. which might be invisible for the average society. We cannot consider either the characters of the writing in the traditional sense real characters. and finally the words. This practice becomes even more frequent in the end of the book. What is another characteristic of the personae of the book is that they do not show any development in their personality during the story. Another proof can be acquired for our non-fiction theory by an investigation of Orwell’s style. so this first-person narrative makes an inside and limited point of view possible. In my opinion. he inserts them in order to inform the readers and those who have the power to make changes in connection with the problems raised. He suggests solutions for them after he has accurately explored the facts and their relations. Then I will turn to the smaller units such as the sentences. I will start the analysis of the peculiarities of the Orwellian style with the examination of the largest units: the dialogues and descriptions. Since the author gives his readers a simple account of his experiences. Hereby they do not produce any effects on the story. for example in Bozo’s case his astronomical interest and view of freedom. into the chronicle of events.traditional sense of its meaning. These events are connected with each other according to the chronological order that is determined by the writer’s money running out. Orwell inserts complete explicative chapters. They can be described rather as the subjects of a report. which would be suitable for independent studies. he adjusts his style to this kind of content. The narrator is able to depict the events happening one after the other and the readers see the events through the narrator’s eyes. His way of thinking has changed positively towards the marginalized people. It is obvious that the proportion of the descriptive parts is higher than that of the dialogues. these 45 . Therefore.

it can be stated that Orwell writes in the verbal style Down and Out .. If we look at the comments introducing or finishing the dialogues. the descriptions contain concrete data when he depicts either a room in a ‘spike’. Orwell supplies a larger number of people and makes them speak if the setting is in a ‘spike’ since it is a useful device for the expression of the marginalized people’s opinion.. For instance. In order to carry out this purpose not only does he use some slang instead of ordinary language but also he devotes a whole chapter to ‘. and many of them are written in one of the regional dialects. The rate of subordinated clauses is lower than in A Clergyman’s Daughter. or an interesting person. an important trait must be emphasized.. In Down and Out . it will turn out that they are short and uncomplicated. which are complemented with subclauses. which goes with the decrease in the number of adjectives and participles. to the level of sentences... Orwell prefers using shorter sentences. Orwell’s vocabulary proves to be less decorated than it is in the other book. Therefore. Orwell’s formation of sentences adjusts to his aim when he writes something similar to a travel diary.theoretical chapters make his style much drier and less enjoyable for the everyday readers. putting 46 . This technique keeps the writer’s account of events as factual as possible. In spite of his restricted use of tenses and nominal phrases. The dialogues are varied in length. in occurrence within each of the chapters. According to these features. As for the lowest level. one part of them belongs to the category of simple sentence and the other one to the category of coordinated sentences. It still explains that emotions are missing here since they might be at the expense of the credibility of the events... The former statement brings the investigation with one-step more foreward. it is still Orwell’s intention to introduce his readers into the peculiarities of the tramp’s slang. which is in contrast with the nominal style of A Clergyman’s Daughter. The descriptions between the dialogues are factual because Orwell prefers objectivity. Although it was stated above that his vocabulary was poorer in general. All these mostly depend on the settings and the participants. He uses more repetitions and fewer synonyms. Syntactically. which is a characteristic of journalism and is the opposite of the comments in A Clergyman’s Daughter. The simple past in active voice is used most frequently for the verbs since the writer tells his readers a story from his past. The use of verbs is on a very high level.

are fictional. By so doing. to write something similar to a travel diary. The identification of the genre It can be stated from the comparative examination of the two books that they show differences rather in consideration of form. a form capable of high development’ (87). there are further arguments for another genre. which was mentioned before. its actors (54) and its plot ‘which is a narrative of events . Second. he introduces to his readers many typical members of different social levels.3. The analysis of form and of the writer’s technique raises the question of clarifying their genre. when one focuses on clarifying the genre of Down and Out. but there is no so high shift towards the descriptions in the rate of dialogues and descriptions. amongst which one can find ‘flat’ and ‘round’ characters. What still gives another proof in favour of the novel is the writer’s vocabulary... In contrast. Does this book satisfy Forster’aspects mentioned before? Based on the features related to the writer’s 47 . Thus. The third sign is that Orwell uses longer descriptive parts. Orwell says his critical remarks on the basis of his correct knowledge and with his aim of betterment.Forster’s statement could give one possible starting-point.in some notes . On the other hand. which are richly decorated. One could come nearer to the response as for the question of the genre on the basis of making a comparison between the results of the analysis before and the Forsterian requirements. Since the author is interested also in the faults of English society. On the one hand..M. he presumes that ‘the fundamental aspects of the novel are its story-telling aspect’ (40).. For making any decision.. In Aspects of the Novel (1927). there is a third-person narration here. at first. 4. with a mystery in it. In the case of A Clergyman’s Daughter numerous signs point towards the direction of novel. on London slang and swearing’ (176). one could assert that the genre of A Clergyman’s Daughter can be called a social novel because it not only satisfies the requirements of the novel but it examines social problems. Orwell makes the otherwise dry and factual narration more coloured and credible. that its story and the characters.. His criticism expressed in the book is also evident. summarizing the arguments. E. the strongest argument for it is the author’s remark on his aims.. Hereby the reader will hold in his hand a kind of social history. though they possess some connecting points for their content. he or she will arrive at the evident fact that this writing cannot be put into the same genre as A Clergyman’s Daughter.. It has been stated previously.

Regarding Down and Out. and it puts emphasis on the revelation of casual relations. 174). so this writing can be placed among the literary reports. It poses another question. 141-142).. It is apparent that this writing does not have a plot like the novels. its characters do not develop during the story. but the two greatest differences between it and the journalistic report are its artistic traits and its experience-like representation. our answer will be a ‘no’ to the question. Istvan Szerdahelyi’s statement can be viewed as the decisive step in clarifying the genre. that is a species of report. he calls ‘literary report’.. these qualities are in it. and its style reminds the readers of what characterizes journalistic writings more. 48 . saying that the literary report like the journalistic report ‘portrays an event or a social process.technique. its important criterion is its authenticity. According to him in Irodalomelmélet mindenkinek (1996. regarding its genre. there is a literary genre.. He makes his explanation of ‘literary report’ more complete in another book. Thus these are the proofs that this writing does not belong to the novels. other characteristics of this genre are its narrative-dissertative style and the lessened use of dialogues. titled Műfajelmélet mindenkinek (1997. The Hungarian scholar. According to Szerdahelyi.

and the beggar is not the correct behaviour. to bring literature into an English class. This could be the material of three lessons and I recommend it to secondary school students. I 49 . and can make distinctions between their way of life and the protagonist’s. which is regarded to be really valid for George Orwell’s age. Students can see a sort of lifestyle. at an intermediate or upper-intermediate level. I have already asked them to collect information about the author’s life and works. the age of the 1920s in the previous lesson as homework. he or she can draw his or her students’ attention to the fact that nowadays aversion to the poor. Introduction In my opinion. mainly a woman’s. In order to introduce students to the age of the novel and to make them familiar with George Orwell. the teacher can raise the students’ interest in reading whole book. A Clergyman’s Daughter.1. furthermore. Reading original English texts is a great opportunity for students to enlarge their knowledge about a foreign culture. and Orwell’s realistic writings inform their readers about the condition of those people thus completing the readers’ knowledge gained from history books. The historical events of that time made several people’s lives difficult. teaching the topic of the life of people in socially disadvantageous circumstances in secondary schools would be very significant. in the social problems of Orwell’s and our own time. With the help of reading original literary texts and comparing them with what the students have learned in their previous lessons. While the teacher has the students read original texts or solve exercises based on these texts. students will be able to translate sources from one language to the other. One of the aims of teaching the English language is to make learners able to read in English. for instance: ‘a woman’s life’ or ‘women’s jobs in the 1920s’.Chapter Five Pedagogical Implications 5. the teacher is able to develop their language skills especially vocabulary and grammar. This fact is a truth forever. mainly from English to Hungarian. or ‘the suffragette movement’. By this means. Many of these people get in their hard situation through no fault of their own. A Clergyman’s Daughter. some points with which they can start their search. on the other hand. the tramp. on the one hand. I gave them. My aim would be to awaken interest with the topic of George Orwell’s book. I have selecred extracts from George Orwell’s novel.

5. The teacher shows flashcards one after the other. there will be new words. containing some of the newly learnt words.) It is about what the students found about Orwell and the society of that time. their vocabulary will be extended. writing ‘FOR WOMEN’ at the top of the first part of the blackboard. The lesson plan The first lesson (45 min.): Aids: blackboard. the teacher writes down the main pieces on the blackboard. Collecting the homework (2 min. for this reason. 50 .2. The teacher puts the cards in the right place and fixes them with Blue tack on the board. As a finish.) 1. flashcards (on which adjectives are written for describing people).) 2.mentioned them titles of books or websites where they could find something about the topics. to translate to English. The students read their pieces of information. after some students have made the main pieces of information known. for homework the teacher dictates seven Hungarian sentences. The aim would be that each of the students’ materials be heard. and the students have to decide whether the given card fits mainly the characteristics of women or of men or both of them. expressions for some students. Certainly. the teacher asks the other students about those data that have not mentioned yet. by this means. FOR MEN in the second part and BOTH FOR WOMEN & MEN in the third one. The second lesson (45 min. meanwhile the class together produce a new biography of George Orwell’s and a sketch of the society of that age. Warming up exercise (5 min. Blue tack The description of the task: The teacher divides the blackboard into three parts. The students have to write their homework to sheets of paper so that the teacher will collect them in the next lesson.

) Aids: a picture The description of the task: a. They check the new vocabulary. and then the whole class check the 51 . The teacher asks questions about the woman: i. the teacher reveals the source of the picture by showing the cover of the book. ‘What does she do / what is her job?’ (The aim would be that the teacher makes the students tell free associations.) The description of the task: The teacher makes the students read and translate the text sentence by sentence. Pre-reading task (5+5 min.The adjectives for the flashcards: FOR WOMEN beautiful skinny spinsterish anorexic shapely FOR MEN handsome bald well-built muscular receding-haired BOTH FOR WOMEN & MEN slim stout attractive overweight untidy-looking 3.) 4. the students answer the questions in Exercise A in writing. ‘Could you tell me what she looks like?’ ii. After the questioning. ‘What is she wearing?’ v. The teacher turns the conversation to George Orwell and his book based on the previously learnt information. The teacher shows a picture of an elderly woman (which is from the cover of the book A Clergyman’s Daughter) to the students.) b. ‘Is she young?’ iv. using a dictionary or the teacher’s explanations in English. Reading and vocabulary (25 min. (The aim of the task is a kind of repetition. ‘Is she married or single?’ iii. Having finished reading.

A Clergyman’s Daughter. and coldish for an August morning. and. Having set the kettle to boil for her father’s shavingwater. Rector of St Athelstan’s. Suffolk) put on her aged flannelette dressing-gown and felt her way downstairs. Dorothy filled the bath as slowly as possible . knelt down and raked the ashes out of the range. She was a good hard-working servant once she was awake. With care . As for Exercise B the students can solve parts a. lighted the candle on the mantelpiece. with heavy youthful snores. and she was the only child of the Reverend Charles Hare. still aching with fatigue. 2. Dorothy felt her way into the kitchen. Exercises C. Dorothy went upstairs and turned on her bath. and then the whole class check the answers. a) Has the Reverend Charles Hare got several children? b) How many people live in the Reverend’s house? c) Why does Dorothy have to do the morning duties herself? d) Is Dorothy an attractive girl? The note for the students: You are going to read extracts from George Orwell ’s novel. A. Ellen was still snoring.. D and E will be written homework. Dorothy (her name was Dorothy Hare. 3. 4. but she was one of those girls whom the Devil and all his angels cannot get out of bed before seven in the morning.the splashing always woke her father if she turned on the tap 52 . she finds a job as a schoolmistress but she gets disappointed in teaching and returns home. about a spinsterish girl of a priest who is treated badly and abused by her father. Finally. Knype Hill. Later somehow she looses her memory and becomes a beggar.answers orally.. ... parts individually. Look quickly at the text below and answer these questions. from either side of the passage on the second floor she could hear the antiphonal snoring of her father and of Ellen. 1. the maid of all work. ‘It was just half past five. and b.

gown. with pale eyes and a nose just a shade too long. Read the text again and find these words: maid kettle dressing-gown b) Dorothy’s life.they could never afford decent-sized towels at the Rectory. height. unremarkable kind of face. if you looked closely you could see crows’ feet round the eyes. it was for that reason that she made it a rule to take all her baths cold from April to November. modern clothes. awake. Her body had gone gooseflesh all over. but it certainly would be so in a few years’ time’ (Orwell 5-7). e) Dorothy filled the bath with hot water. She detested cold baths. she was a girl of middle height. and her face was her weak point. crow (d). ashes. when it was in repose. unappetizing pool of water. B.too fast . bed. blonde. and the mouth.and stood for a moment regarding the pale.. but strong and shapely. goose-flesh table napkin crows’ feet - a) Which paragraph is each one in? Explain each item and say what significance it has in 53 . d) Ellen usually gets up after seven o’clock. Not definitely a spinsterish face as yet. f) Dorothy is a snub-nosed girl with an ugly face. (The following words are hidden: bath. and she dried herself with a towel hardly bigger than a table napkin . a) Dorothy is a rich girl who dresses in brand-new. C. mouth... It was thin.. Dorothy got out of her bath. 5. . Look at the text again and say if the following sentences are true or false. . looked tired. D. b) Ellen’s duty is cleaning the cooker. Find the 11 words hidden in the square. tap. c) Dorothy’s father prefers to have cold baths. shade. eye. rather thin.

To breathe noisily through your mouth and nose while you are asleep. 2 this colour is much lighter than the standard colour (pale blue/pink/green etc. worried etc. especially because you are ill. (BrE) a large long container that you fill with water and sit in to wash yourself. To push a stick backwards and forwards in a fire in order to remove ashes.) Aids: flashcards (Each of them contains one word . Match the word with its definition. Very great tiredness. Some liquid hits or falls on something noisily or it moves noisily. 1 having a much whiter skin colour than usual. A piece of equipment for controlling the flow of water. Warming up exercise (5 min. verb coming from the Reading task but on one half of the cards there are English 30 The definitions are based on the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English.B A T H L C W E S A E R R T D H P I E O O A E B G O W N Q S S H A D E M O U T H C Y I X A W A K E E. gas etc from a pipe or container. where hot or cold water comes from. Pearson Education Limited 2000 54 . adjective.noun. An act of washing your body in a bath.) TO SNORE TAP RECTOR BATH2 TO RAKE PALE TO SPLASH FATIGUE BATH 1 The third lesson (45 min.) 1. 30 A priest in the Church of England or the Episcopal Church who is responsible for an area from which he receives his income directly.

and its lower windows were hidden from the road by ragged and dusty laurels. semidetached house of yellow brick. angel. passage. Presentation (15+15 min... Suggested words for making cards: child. to kneel. dressing-gown. candle. on the front of the house.) Aids: monolingual (or bilingual) dictionary The description of the task: The whole class read the text in Exercise A. 175-6). Underline the adjectives in the text. not one of whose windows was lighted. to boil. Above the laurels. gloomy house. There would be as many cards as the students in the group. then they check the found adjectives and solve Exercise C together. ashes. ‘Ringwood House was a dark-looking.one card per student. A. kettle. and then they check the meaning of the possibly unknown words from their dictionaries. A Clergyman’s Daughter. though it was after 8 o’ clock in the evening’ (Orwell. etc. mantelpiece. The students individually do Exercise B. She had not been expecting anything magnificent or attractive. was a board inscribed in faded gold letters: RINGWOOD HOUSE ACADEMY FOR GIRLS Ages 5 to 18 Music and Dancing Taught Apply Within for Prospectus …. Dorothy’s heart sank at the sight of Ringwood House.) The description of the task: The teacher distributes the flashcards to the students. If it has been checked. Read the text about the school where Dorothy Hare was employed.words. range. three storeys high.’?’ etc. The students are free to walk in the classroom and try to find their own pairs while they are asking each other: ‘Who/What are you?’. maid. and the other half contains the Hungarian equivalents. B. ‘What are you doing?’. 2. 55 . ‘Have you got the word ‘. but she had expected something a little better than this mean. Those who have found their pairs would sit down to their chairs. they look at the Grammar Explanation.

g..g. foggy The suffix -able/-ible combined with verbs gives the meaning ‘something can be done’. There are also certain beginnings for making adjectives.a jumper which can be washed. 75.g. The examples are from Virginia Evans. a rolled-up carpet). undercooked meat. we can form adjectives from nouns or verbs. The suffix -ish modifies the original meaning of the adjective. But there is a small group of adjectives with -ly in English. 75. There are certain common endings for adjectives which we call suffixes in English.g. washable . which we call prefixes. The other type of formation is the compound adjectives when we use present participles (e. FCE Use of English. The suffix -ly can be confusing because -ly is most often used for forming adverbs..g. a long-playing record32). lovely. e.C. These are: 31 32 For this part I used the book of Virginia Evans. What are the roots of the following adjectives? If you need. 56 . lonely. friendly which cannot be used as an adverb. deadly compulsory humorous windy. use your monolingual dictionary. As you see. E. e. or past participles (e.. These are: -able/ -ible -al /-ial -ary -ant /-ent -ful remarkable flexible antiphonal (artificial) elementary important persistent youthful -ious -ish -ist -ive -less rebellious smallish socialist suggestive penniless -ly -ory -ous -y likely. ragged  rag (noun): a small piece of old cloth faded  to fade (verb): to lose colour and brightness dusty  dark-looking  semi-detached  attractive  gloomy  Grammar Explanation31 In the text of Exercise A you can find many examples for forming adjectives. oldoldish = ‘sort of old’ or ‘fairly old’. entitled FCE Use of English..

.. I have read in National Geography that the Russian archeologists’ last travel was successful........ I think he is very unhappy.......and dis.............................. B and C.. and super.......................... The other ones would be their homework.. It is said that Peter is a happy man. c........g. ..... Contradict the following statements in the same way as the example.. .....) The description of the task: The students individually do the first three sentences from Exercises A..................’ 3... It is said that the Chinese meal is possible to eat......... (poison)....means ‘against’... b.....can form the opposite of the adjectives..... 57 ............ Use the word in brackets to form an adjective that fits in the sentence........ or more powerful than usual’.. E...........[there] was a board inscribed in faded gold letters.... They can be ..... ..... then they and the teacher go over the sentences.. Tina loves wearing fashionable clothes................... a..... B.......... People always make legal acts in our country....... You should be extremely ..... The prefix anti.... (fashion) among the young in towns... ‘...... Grammar Practice (10 min....antidisilimin- anticlerical distasteful illegal impolite intolerant irnonoversuper un- irrational nonfinite overweight supernatural unhappy The prefixes un..means ‘more..... A.(caution) when you put your head into the mouth of a crocodile. ............. Don’t cook the mushrooms you picked on the picnic yesterday...................... We can use present and past participles as adjectives............ with the use of the prefix -in/-il/-im/-ir the adjective can also have a negative meaning................ I always find Anne very sensitive.. I don’t agree............... Plazas are very .................. .. over......... larger................................means ‘too much’....

. ............ he wouldn’t be so ........ a white-skinned face with blue eyes and blond hair..... i....... love ..... e.... g........... C. ... scientists.. The workers of the company are paid well... A half-marathon that was well organised... It is ..............(weight).. A pair of jeans that lasts a long time......... but today it is snowing heavily..animals.... c.... qualified scientists... g. d....... .. Everybody says that he is a ... b.........workers.......... my mother hurt her leg badly.... ......... pair of jeans......... h...... (to act)..... (to use) as nice.. Make compound adjectives to describe the following: a........ .......d... a well-organised half- 58 .... guy.... marathon. At this time yesterday the sun was shining warmly...........(success) businessman today........... the animals are treated ill by their f....... My computer is not working at the moment. If Tom hadn’t given up running and didn’t eat so many sweets in these days....... circuses trainers..... a .. In many e..................... The weather is ......... Bill Gates is considered to be the most ..... f.. (to change) in March................leg..... Having fallen yesterday... a .. Johnny has got a muscular body..............a .... Jane and John’ s love never ends..... The students who have taken degree at this university will be well ...... We bought some newly-designed gadgets for our kitchen that are not so much ..

it became obvious that the two books are different in their genre. which was the tramps’ class. I found other similarities. was regarded to be the connection between the two writings.. It turned out from Orwell’s two books that even the average people had damaged those who belonged to a lower-level class than theirs. since A Clergyman’s Daughter belongs to the category of the novel..M. he was very critical of the faults of the society which are directly expressed in both books. the care of the old. So having considered the criteria of the novel according to E. In my opinion. I pointed out that the main difference between the two books came from the protagonists’ gender.. Forster.. while Down and Out . I hope that in the pedagogical chapter I have been able to present useful ideas for bringing the English literature closer to the classroom. As a conclusion... I have determined the genre of the two books on the basis of an examination of the writer’s technique. it is evident that although men-in the-street were affected by these events heavily. and A Clergyman’s Daughter Orwell’s sensitivity to social problems has been proved by several examples. he knew the problems of the poor in more details. and the decreasing tendency in practising religion. Being a member of the lower middle-class and being short of money. to tramps. so reading literature is the quintessence of learning 59 . His sensitivity originated from his family background and his political views. but the appearance of the marginalized layer of society. Not only did he criticize the faults of the English society but he also made suggestions how to the correct the errors. marginalized poor people suffered even more. I would like to report that during the examination of Down and Out . Due to his political views. such as the question of unemployment.Conclusion I hope that I have been able to fulfil my aims successfully in my thesis. Beside this link. and to beggars. and A Clergyman’s Daughter. literature is one part of the culture of any civilization. I drew the attention to the fact that by describing his disillusionment Orwell’s aim was to teach his readers and to make them better and more sympathetic to the poor. Orwell’s criticism can be traced in these areas. Considering the historical events of ‘Orwell’s time. is closer to reportage. Having analysed Down and Out .

nor be surprised if men out of work lack energy.. He summarizes his experiences in Down and Out . I would like to point to a number of things that today’s readers might learn from Orwell’s experiences.: ‘I shall never again think that all tramps are drunken scoundrels.a foreign language because literature brings its readers closer to becoming acquainted with the custom and history of a given civilization. Finally. 60 .. nor expect a beggar to be grateful when I give him a penny. That is a beginning’ (216)....

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