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Bi cnh th gii v tnh hnh nc Vit Nam phong kin gia th k XIX

Th k XVIII v XIX l th k c y ry nhng bin ng i vi th gii v khu vc ng Nam , trong c Vit nam. phng Ty, giai cp t sn cc nc ln lt nm chnh quyn. Cng thng pht trin mnh, khoa hc k thut trong th k nh sng gt hi c nhiu thnh cng. Vo nhng nm 60-70 ca th k XVIII cch mng Anh n ra. Cuc chin tranh ginh c lp Bc M thnh cng a giai cp t sn ln a v thng tr Hp chng quc Hoa K. Hng ho ca t bn cc nc n n c ch ra nc ngoi v cng ti tp ch v nhng vng, bc chu bu, hng liu v cc sn vt qu him. Khi th trng thng mi tr nn cht hp, cc nc t bn phng Ty bt u ua nhau ko sang phng ng, va bn sn phm ca nn cng nghip, va u t vn kim li trong cc ngnh kinh doanh, khai thc nguyn liu v ngun nhn cng r mt. Vn mng ca cc dn tc b ch ngha t bn thc dn phng Ty e do. Gia lc , trt t phong kin cc nc chu ang lung lay trc mu thun khng th iu ho gia giai cp phong kin nm quyn v nng dn trong nc. Cuc chy ua xm chim cc nc phng ng lm thuc a dn dn xc lp v tr ca thc dn Anh v Php vng ny. Cuc chy ua xm chim cc nc phng ng lm thuc a dn dn xc lp v tr ca thc dn Anh v Php vng ny. Ti Trung quc t gia th k XVII giai cp thng tr Hn tc phi khut phc trc s thng tr ca phong kin ngoi tc. Nh Mn Thanh ln cm quyn. Trc nguy c b phng Ty xm lc, phong kin Trung Quc vn kh kh m ly m l thuyt so rng c k, cho Trung Quc l trung tm ca nn vn minh th gii. i ni th ra sc cng c ch chuyn ch c ti, i ngoi th bnh trng v b quan to cng. Trong khi th nc Vit Nam cng khng c g kh hn, cng li ln theo vt xe Trung Quc, dp theo kinh nghim Trung quc chm m trong gic ng phong kin ngn nm. V chnh tr lut php: Sau khi ln ngi, Gia Long cho cng c ch qun ch chuyn ch tp quyn. Trn ht c hong , nm tt c quyn bnh; c C mt vin bn quc s ln lao, nhng kin quyt nh cui cng vn l kin ca nh vua. Hong t xng l Thin t - Con tri, thay tri tr dn. Vua c uy quyn tuyt i, cho ai sng th c sng, bt ai cht th k phi cht. vua l php nc v nc l nc ca vua. Trong thc t, vua l mt a ch ln nht, c ton quyn quyt nh trong vic s dng ngn kh nh nc, c quyn tc ot bt k ca g, ca bt c ai nu nh vua mun Lc u thi Gia Long, Bc k v Nam K c t chc khm sai tng trn thay mt vua trng nom, v sau triu nh trc tip vi tay xung cc a phng. Cc hng quan u tnh u do Nh nc b nhim, thng qua thi c. vng thng du, triu nh khng c kh nng trc tr th thng qua cc t trng nm quyn. T Minh Mng tr i, tnh tp quyn ngy cng cao. Nh vua t mnhchu ph", son tho cc vn bn, v sp t mi vic "Vua sng sut v vic chnh tr, nhng t s dng ln, vua u xem ht v trc mt ch bo cho; h vic g quan trng tu ln th phn nhiu l vua t ngh son ly, hoc bo ra ri giao ph cho, hoc chu ph vo. Bn chu ph bt u t y mi c". cai tr nhng vng thn qu rng ln, nh Nguyn ch trng tn dng tng lp a ch ph ho v chuyn b phn ny thnh cng c tha hnh c lc ca quan li t cp tri huyn tr ln v c coi l dn quan". V nh vy, trong khi m quan li triu nh t bin mnh thnh gia nhn trung thnh ca nh Nguyn, th m quan li a phng tr thnh nhng k cup ngy", c dung dng, b , tha h c khot nhn dn. Nm 1828, Nguyn Cng Tr tu rng: "Quan li nhng t ch mi hai ba phn, cn iu ho lm hi n by tm phn; cup ca git ngi, git v cup con m trn vn khng bit, vn khng ti v g" Vic cai tr trong cc lng th nht nht tay ban hi t, hng chc. Ban hng chc c nhiu quyn hnh trong lng. Ngoi vic thu thu, bt su, bt lnh cn m ng vic chia cng in, cng th. H uc quyn cho mn cng in thu t; lp s b ngi v t, ra l lng... hnh thnh c ch t tr vi nhng lut k h khc, phc tp. Ni cch khc, di cc thn x, quyn bnh nm trong tay b phn ph ho, c v kinh

t, cai tr, gio dc. Vn mng ca dn lng ph thuc vo cc tng l, k dch. B lut Gia Long (cn gi l Hong Vit lut l) ni l tham kho b lut Hng c thi L nhng thc cht gt b nhng iu tin b ca lut Hng c, sao chp gn ht b lut ca triu Mn Thanh, mt quc gia phong kin phn ng nht chu . Trong tng s 328 iu th c ti 166 iu l lut hnh, 58 iu lut qun s. p dng c hiu lc b lut trn, nh Nguyn lp ra mt t chc chuyn trch v t php cp tnh gi l Ty Nit. Qun chng nhn dn b p bc thm t. Ngoi thu kha, su dch h cn phi chu v s lut l qui g v d:d c tin cng khng c xy nh lu. Nh dn khng c lm theo kiu Ni cng ngoi quc... Dn thng khng c n vn qun o c cc mu vng, lam, tm... ch c dng mu en, nu. Khng c i giy... V kinh t x hi: Thi Nguyn, ch s hu rung t cng suy yu nhiu. Nn chp chim rung t ca a ch ngy cng trm trng. Sch Minh Mng chnh yu cho bit vo nm 1840 ti tnh Gia nh khng c rung cng, cc nh giu bao chim rung t n ngn trm mu,dn ngho khng c nh cy. Cng theo s c, vo nm 1852 trong 31 tnh ca ton quc th ch c hai tnh l Tha Thin v Qung Tr l c s rung cng nhiu hn rung t. 01 tnh l Qung Bnh c rung cng v rung t bng nhau, cn li 28 tnh khc rung t nhiu hn rung cng, trong , phn rung tt th cng ho chim c, tha ra th hng l bao chim. Dn ch c phn rung xu, cn ci, xc mu. Nn cng ho nhng nhiu nhiu lc lm cho triu nh Hu lo ngi. Song v y l b phn ring ct ca ch , cho nn d c bit vy m triu nh nh phi lm ng. V khng cn rung cng phong cp cho quan li nh trc, m li cn nhiu tin chi dng, nh nc Nguyn khng c cch no khc l phi v vt bc lt nhn dn bng mi mnh khe, th on. V khng cn rung cng phong cp cho quan li nh trc, m li cn nhiu tin chi dng, nh nc Nguyn khng c cch no khc l phi v vt bc lt nhn dn bng mi mnh khe, th on. Do b p bc trm ng, khng chu ni nn nhiu nng dn phi b lng m i. C nm ti trn Hi Dng, trong tng s 13 huyn, dn phiu tn mt 108 thn x. gii quyt tnh trng kh khn v kinh t, ti chnh, nh Nguyn cho thc hin chnh sch khai hoang. T 1802 n 1855 nh nc ban hnh 25 quyt nh v khai hoang, trong c 16 quyt nh cho p dng Lc tnh, 2 Bc thnh,1 vng Kinh k v 6 i vi ton quc. Trong Nam cng nh ngoi Bc, hnh thc ch yu l chiu m dn lu tn khai hoang lp p. n in pht trin mnh Lc tnh, theo hnh thc: hoc Nh nc giao cho binh lnh hay t nhn b lu y khai hoang, hoc cho t nhn chiu m dn khai thc. Mt s quan li t chc tt vic khai hoang nh Nguyn Cng Tr lp ra hai huyn Kim Sn, Tin Hi v mt s tng Nam nh; Nguyn Vn Thoi o sng Ni Sp Thoi H, knh Vnh T v khn hoang vng Chu c (An Giang); Trng Minh Ging lp c 25 thn vng bin gii Vit Nam- Cm Pu Chia; Nguyn Tri Phng lp c 21 c n in v t chc 124 p Lc tnh. Din tch t nng nghip nh th m tng nhanh so vi trc. Theo thng k vo nm 1820 c 3.076.300 mu; nm 1840:4.063.892 mu v nm 1847 tng ln 4.278.013 mu Tuy din tch canh tc c tng nhng tnh trng dn lu tn vn tip tc xy ra v s t khai hoang c ch mt thi gian sau li ri vo tay giai cp a ch phong kin. Tnh trng ca nng nghip nh vy, th cng thng nghip li cng bi t. Di thi Nguyn, nh nc vn duy tr ch cng tng c. Vic lng bt cc th gii a v kinh phc v cuc sng cung nh khin cho th cng dn gian ngy thm tn li. Thm vo l chnh sch ngn sng cm ch, tc giu ngh v cc quy nh ngt ngho v l ca nh nc nh cm bun bn st, cm khai thc m mt s vng; t nhn khng c giao thng vi nc ngoi... khin cho cc trung tm thng mi tr nn tha tht, cng thng nghip tiu iu. Nhng ngi th kho tay nhiu khi ch c s dng vo vic lm tha mn tnh hiu k ca cc bc vng gi... khin cho nn cng nghip chn chnh khng th ra i. Chnh sch b quan ta cng khc t mi quan h thng thng vi bn ngoi lm cho Vit Nam b tch bit vi cc nc. Chnh sch thu ngt ngho li ging tip n nng n vo cng thng nghip lm cho n khng sao pht trin c; cng nghip cng khng c iu kin tr thnh mt ngnh ring, ngc li, n c

xu hng b ha tan vo nn kinh t t cung t cp ca x hi phong kin lc hu. ch p bc nng n cng vi nhng chnh sch i ni, i ngoi thin cn ca Nh nc phong kin Nguyn tr thnh nguyn nhn ca hng lot cuc khi ngha nng dn ko di sut t thi Gia Long n thi T c, trong c nhng cuc khi ngha ln ko di nhiu nm thu ht hng ngn ngi tham gia, khin cho mu thun x hi ngy cng tr nn su sc. Trong sut 18 nm thi Gia Long (1802-1820) c 73 cuc khi ngha nng dn. T thi Minh Mng tr v sau, cho n nm 1858, cc cuc khi ngha n ra ngy cng nhiu hn, quy m ngy cng ln hn. Nm 1821 c cuc khi ngha Phan B Vnh vng Nam nh (ko di ti tn nm 1827). Nm 1833 c khi ngha ca L Duy Lng Ninh Bnh, L vn Khi Gia nh, Nng vn Vn Tuyn Quang. Nm 1854 n ra cuc khi ngha ca Cao B Qut Bc Ninh... Trong vng 7 nm ngi ca Thiu Tr, c ti 56 cuc khi ngha nng dn. Thi T c, cao tro nng dn khi nghi lm cho nn tng ch phong kin lung lay mun . ng ch nht l cc cuc khi ngha ca Hong Phan Thi, khi ngha ca cai tng Vng ( Bc Ninh) v cuc khi ngha nm 1854 vng Sn Ty (gic Chu chu) do Cao B Qut, mt nh th v nh t tng bc nht th k 19 lnh o. Theo thng k cha y ch t nm 1848 khi T c ln ngi n nm 1862 l nm thc dn Php cup trng ba tnh min ng Nam K c 40 cuc khi ngha v nu tnh n nm 1883, khi nh Nguyn k iu c Hc mng, tha nhn s chim ng ca Php trn ton ci Vit nam th cc cuc khi ngha chng triu nh ln ti con s 103. Phong tro nng dn khi ngha ni trn khng nh rng, vo lc thc dn Php chun b n sng xm lc nc ta l lc mu thun gia nng dn vi phong kin tr nn ht sc su sc. Tuy nhin nng dn bao gi cng l mt lc lng yu nc quan trng. H t ra ht sc tnh to v nhy bn trc thi cuc v c sc sng, sc qut khi trong cuc khng chin chng Php. Chnh qun chng nhn dn, trong ch yu l nng dn, ch khng phi l ai khc tr thnh ch da ca cc s phu yu nc, lm tch mt b phn phong kin tin b ra khi triu nh phong kin u hng, tip tc lnh o cuc u tranh chng xm lng ca dn tc ta giai on sau. ( Su tm )