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Bi 32: Chin tranh th gii th hai (1939-1945)

I. Con ng dn n chin tranh. Giai on u cuc chin tranh chu u (9/1939 n 6/1941) 1. Con ng dn n chin tranh (1931 - 1939) - u nhng nm 30, cc nc c, I-ta-li-a, Nht Bn lin kt vi nhau thnh lp khi lin minh pht xt. - Nm 1931 - 1937, khi pht xt y mnh chnh sch bnh trng xm lc: + Nht chim vng ng Bc ri m rng chin tranh xm lc trn ton lnh th Trung Quc. + I-ta-li-a xm lc -ti--pi-a (1935) cng vi nc c tham chin Ty Ban Nha (1936 - 1939). + c cng khai xa b Ha c Vc-xai, m mu thnh lp mt i c chu u - Thi ca cc nc ln: + Lin X: kin quyt chng ch ngha pht xt, ch trng lin kt vi cc nc Anh, Php chng pht xt v nguy c chin tranh. + M, Anh, Php: khng lin kt cht ch vi Lin X chng pht xt, tri li cn thc hin chnh sch nhng b pht xt hng y pht xt tn cng Lin X. * Hi ngh Muy-nch: - Hon cnh triu tp: + Thng 3/1938, c thn tnh o. Sau Ht-le gy ra v Xuy-t nhm thn tnh Tip Khc. + Lin X kin quyt gip Tip Khc chng xm lc. + Anh - Php tip tc tho hip, yu cu chnh ph Tip Khc nhng b c., Hi ngh Muy-nch c triu tp gm i din 4 nc Anh, Php, c , I-ta-li-a. => Do , ngy 29/9 - Ni dung: Anh - Php - k hip nh trao vng Xuy-t ca Tip Khc cho c. i li, c cam kt chm dt mi cuc thn tnh chu u. - ngha: + Hi ngh Muy-nch l nh cao ca chnh sch dung tng nhng b pht-xita ca M- Anh - Php. + Th hin m mu thng nht ca ch ngha quc (k c Anh - Php - M v c - I-ta-li-a - Nht Bn) trong vic tiu dit Lin X. *Kt qu - Ba Lan b c thn tnh - To iu kin pht xt c pht trin mnh lc lng. - an Mch, Na - uy, B, H Lan, Luc-xam-bua b c thn tnh. Php u hng c. K hoch tn cng nc Anh khng thc hin c. - Ru-ma-ni, Hung-ga-ri, Bun-ga-ri, Nam T, Hi Lp b thn tnh. II. Chin tranh lan rng khp th gii ( t thng 6/1941 n thng 6/1944) 1. c tn cng Lin X (6/1941 n thng 11/ 1942). Chin s Bc Phi. * Mt trn X - c: - Ngy 22/6/1941 pht xt c tn cng Lin X theo k hoch nh. Thi gian u nh u th v v kh v kinh nghim tc chin nn qun c tin su vo lnh th Lin X. - Thng 12/1941, Hng qun Lin X Phn cng quyt lit, y li qun c ra khi ng Mt-xc-va, lm ph sn k hoch Chin tranh chp nhong ca c. - Cui nm 1942, c chuyn mi nhn tn cng xung pha Nam nhm chim Xta-lin-grat song khng th chim c thnh ph ny. *Mt trn Bc Phi - Thng 9/1940 qun i I-ta-li-a tn cng Ai Cp. -Thng 10/1942 lin qun M Anh dnh thng li ln trong trn En-Alamen (Ai Cp) v chuyn sang phn cng trn ton mt trn. 2. Nht khai chin vi Anh M Chin Tranh Thi Bnh Dng bt u ( 12/1941 n 11/1942) -Ngy 7/12/1941, qun Nht bt ng tn cng hm i M Trn Chu Cng.B tht bi nng n , M tuyn chin vi c , Ita-li-a , Nht Bn. Chin tranh Thi bnh Dng bng n - T thng 12/1941 n tang 5/1942. Nht Bn m mt lot cuc tn cng v chim c mt vng rng ln ng Nam , ng v Thi Bnh Dng. 3. Trt tu mica phe Trc v phong tro khng chin chng pht xt (t tm hiu) 4. Qun ng minh chuyn sang phn cng (t thng 11/1942 n thng 6/1944) * mt trn X c : - T 11/1942 n 2/1943 Hng qun Lin X phn cng , tiu dit v bt sng ton b o qun tinh nhu gm 33 vn ngi ca pht xt c Xta-lin-grat. * Ngha: nh du bc ngot ca chin tranh th gii, buc qun c phi chuyn t tn cng sang phng ng m ra thi k Lin X v phe ng minh chuyn sang tng tn cng trn cc mt trn. - Cui thng 8/1943 Hng qun b gy cuc phn cng ca c ti vng cung Cuc-Xc, nh tan 50 vn qun c. - Thng 6/1944, phn ln lnh th Lin X c gii phng . * mt trn Bc Phi: T thng 3 n thng 5/1943, lin qun M - Anh phn cng qut sch qun c I-ta-li-a ra khi chu Phi. Chin s chu Phi chm dt.

* I-ta-li-a : 7/1943 n 5/1945 lin qun M - Anh tn cng truy kch qun pht xt lm cho ch ngha pht xt I-ta-li-a sp , Pht xt c khut phc. * Thi Bnh Dng : Sau chin thng qun Nht trong trn Gua-dan-ca-nan (1/1943) M chuyn sang phn cng nh chim cc o Thi Bnh Dng. III. Giai on kt thc (6/1944 n thng 8/1945). Kt cc v nh hng ca chin tranh. 1 Tiu dit pht xt c - Sau khi gii phng cc nc Trung v ng u (1944), thng1/1945, hng qun Lin X m cuc tn cng c mt trn pha ng. - Thng 2/1945, Lin X t chc hi ngh Ianta gm 3 nc Lin X, M, Anh bn v vic t chc li th gii sau chin tranh. - Nm 1944, M, Anh m mt trn th hai Ty u v bt u m cuc tn cng qun c mt trn pha Ty t thng 2/1945. - Ngy 16/4 n 30/4 1945, Hng qun Lin X tn cng nh bi hn 1 triu qun c tai Bc-lin. Ch ngha pht xt c b tiu dit. - Thng 9/1945, nc c u hng khng iu kin. Chin tranh chm dt chu u. 2. Nht Bn u hng - T nm 1944. M - Anh trin khai tn cng qun Nht Min in, Phi-lp-pin, cc o Thi Bnh Dng. - M tng cng nh ph cc thnh ph ln ca Nht bng khng qun. Ngy 06/8/1945 v 09/8/1945, M nm hai qu bom nguyn t xung hai thnh ph Hi-r-shi-ma v Na-ga-xa-ki git hi hng vn ngi. - Ngy 8/8, Lin X tuyn chin vi Nht v tn cng o qun Quan ng gm 70 vn qun ch lc ca Nht Mn Chu. - Ngy 15/8/1945, Nht ng hng khng iu kin. Chin tranh th gii th hai kt thc. 3. Kt cc ca chin tranh th gii th hai. - Ch ngha pht-xt c - I-ta-li-a - Nht Bn sp hon ton. Thng li v i thuc v cc dn tc trn th gii kin cng u tranh chng ch ngha pht - xt. Trong , ba cng quc Lin X, M, Anh l lc lng tr ct, gi vai tr quyt nh trong vic tiu dit ch ngha pht - xt. - Gy hu qu v tn tht nng n nht trong lch s nhn loi, lm cho 60 triu ngi cht, 90 triu ngi b thng, thit hi v vt cht 4.000 t la. - ngha: CTTG II kt thc dn n nhng bin i cn bn ca tnh hnh th gii. ST