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S 11- Bi 17: CHIN TRANH TH GII TH HAI (1939 1945)

u nhng nm 30, cc nc pht xt c, I-ta-li-a v Nht Bn lin kt thnh lin minh pht xt (Trc Bc-lin - R-ma - T-ki-), tng cng cc hot ng qun s v gy chin tranh xm lc nhiu khu vc khc nhau trn th gii:

S 11- Bi 17: CHIN TRANH TH GII TH HAI (1939 1945)

I. CON NG DN N CHIN TRANH TH GII TH HAI 1. Cc nc pht xt y mnh chnh sch xm lc (1931 1937) - u nhng nm 30, cc nc pht xt c, I-ta-li-a v Nht Bn lin kt thnh lin minh pht xt (Trc Bc-lin - R-ma - T-ki-), tng cng cc hot
ng qun s v gy chin tranh xm lc nhiu khu vc khc nhau trn th gii: + Nht xm lc Trung Quc; + I-ta-li-a xm lc -ti--pi-a (1935), cng vi c tham chin Ty Ban Nha (1936 1939), h tr lc lng pht xt Phran-c nh bi chnh ph Cng ho. +c x b ho c Vec-xai, hng ti mc tiu lp mt nc i c bao gm tt c cc lnh th c dn c sinh sng Chu u. - Lin X ch trng lin kt vi Anh, Php chng pht xt v nguy c chin tranh nhng b t chi. - Anh, Php, M u mun gi nguyn trt t th gii c li cho mnh. Anh, Php thc hin chnh sch nhng b pht xt y chin tranh v pha Lin X. M vi o lut trung lp (1935) khng can thip vo cc s kin bn ngoi chu M. - Cc nc pht xt li dng tnh hnh thc hin mc tiu gy chin tranh xm lc ca mnh.

2. T Hi ngh Muy-nch n chin tranh th gii .

Hi ngh Munich

- Thng 03/1938, c thn tnh o, sau gy ra v Xuy-t nhm thn tnh Tip Khc - Lin X sn sng gip Tip Khc chng xm lc. Anh, Php tip tc chnh sch tho hip, yu cu chnh ph Tip Khc nhng b c. - Ngy 29/09/1938, Hi ngh Muy-nch c triu tp vi s tham gia ca Anh, Php, c v I-ta-li-a. Anh, Php trao vng Xuy-t ca Tip Khc cho c i ly vic Ht-le ha chm dt mi cuc thn tnh Chu u.

* ngha:

-Hi ngh Muy-nch l nh cao ca chnh sch nhng b pht xt nhm tiu dit Lin X ca M Anh. -Th hin m mu thng nht ca ch ngha quc (k c Anh - Php - M v c - Italia - Nht Bn) trong vic tiu dit Lin X. * Sau hi ngh Muy-nch: -c a qun thn tnh ton b Tip Khc (3/1939) - Tip , c gy hn v chun b tn cng Ba Lan. - Ngy 23/8/1939 c k vi Lin X Hip c X - c khng xm lc nhau -Nh vy, c phn bi li hip nh Muy-nch, thc hin mu thn tnh chu u trc ri mi dc ton lc nh Lin X.

Chin trng Chu u v Bc Phi II. CHIN TRANH TH GII TH HAI BNG N V LAN RNG CHU U (T thng 09/1939 n thng 06/1941). 1. Pht xt c tn cng Ba Lan v xm chim Chu u (t thng 09/1939 n thng 09/1940)
- Ngy 01/09/1939, c tn cng Ba Lan. Anh, Php tuyn chin vi c. Chin tranh th gii th hai bt u. - Thng 04/1940, c tn cng sang pha Ty, chim an Mch, Na-uy, B, Phn Lan, Lc-xm-bua v Php.

Tn thm kch nc Php Qun c tin vo Pari: Sau khi chc thng phng tuyn Magin min Bc nc Php, ngy 05/6/1940, qun c tin v pha Pari nh bo tp. Chnh ph Php tuyn b b ng th v chy v Boc-o, mt b phn do tng Gn cm u b t Php ra nc ngoi, da vo Anh, M tin hnh cuc khng chin chng c. B phn cn li do Ptanh ng ra lp chnh ph mi, ngy 22/6/1940 k vi c hip c u hng nhc nh (Php b tc v trang, hn 3/4 lnh th Php b c chim ng v Php phi nui ton b qun i chim ng c).
- Thng 7- 1940 k hoch tn cng nc Anh khng thc hin c

Qun c tin vo Pari 2. Phe pht xt bnh trng ng Nam u (t thng 09/1940 n thng 06/1941).
- Thng 9-1940, Hip c Tam cng c Nht k ti Bc lin qui nh tr gip ln nhau v cng khai phn chia th gii . - Thng 10-1940, Ht-le thn tnh cc nc ng v Nam u: Ru-ma-ni, Hung-ga-ri, Bun-ga-ri... bng v lc; c v thn tnh Nam T v Hy Lp. - H 1941 c thng tr phn ln Chu u . Thi gian T 01/9/1939 n ngy 29/9/1939 T thng 9/1939 n thng 4/1939 T thng 4/1940 n thng 9/1940 T thng 10/1940 n thng 6/1941 Chin s c tn cng Ba Lan Chin tranh k quc c tn cng Bc u v Ty u c tn cng ng v Nam u Kt qu Ba Lan b c thn tnh. To iu kin pht xt c pht trin mnh lc lng -an Mch, Nauy, B, H Lan, Lc-xm-bua b c thn tnh. -Php-u hng c. K hoch tn cng nc Anh khng thc hin c Ru-ma-ni, Hung-ga-ri, Bun-ga-ri, Nam T, Hi Lp b thn tnh.

* Nguyn nhn : +Nguyn nhn su xa: -Tc ng ca quy lut pht trin khng u v kinh t v chnh tr gia cc nc t bn trong thi i quc ch ngha,so snh lc lng trong th gii t bn thay i cn bn. -Vic t chc v phn chia th gii theo h thng Vc-xai - Oa-sinh-tn khng cn ph hp na. -a n mt cuc chin tranh mi phn chia li th gii. +Nguyn nhn trc tip: cuc khng hong kinh t th gii 1929 - 1932 lm nhng mu thun trn thm su sc dn ti vic ln cm quyn ca ch ngha pht xt vi gy chin tranh phn chia li th gii. *Th phm gy chin l pht xt c, Nht Bn Italia. Nhng cc cng quc phng Ty li dung tng, nhng b, to iu kin cho pht xt gy ra cuc Chin tranh th gii th hai tn st nhn loi. *Tnh cht ca Chin tranh th gii th hai trong giai on u l chin tranh quc, xm lc, phi ngha. S bnh trng ca pht xt c chu u ch p ln quyn c lp, t ch thing ling ca cc dn tc, y hng triu ngi dn v ti vo s cht chc... cuc khng hong kinh t th gii 1929 - 1932 lm nhng mu thun trn thm su sc dn ti vic ln cm quyn ca ch ngha pht xt mt s nc vi gy chin tranh phn chia li th gii. III. CHIN TRANH LAN RNG KHP TH GII (T thng 06/1941 n thng 11/1942)
1. Pht xt c tn cng Lin X. Chin s Bc Phi. * Mt trn X - c: - Sng 22/06/1941, c tin hnh chin tranh chp nhong tn cng Lin X. Ban u, do c u th v v kh v kinh nghim tc chin, qun c tin su vo lnh th Lin X.

-Rng sng ngy 22/6/1941, c tn cng Lin X . -c huy ng 190 s on vi 5,5 triu qun, 3712 xe tng, 4950 my bay, -Chia lm 3 o qun, ng lot tn cng trn sut dc tuyn bin gii pha ty Lin X:o qun pha bc bao vy L-nin-grt, o qun trung tm tin ti ngoi vi th Matxcva, o qun pha nam chim Ki-p v Ucraina.
- Nhn dn Lin X kin quyt chin u bo v T quc. Thng 12-1941, Hng qun Lin X do tng Giu-cp ch huy y li qun c. Chin thng Mt-xc-va lm ph sn chin lc chin tranh chp nhong ca Ht-le. - Cui nm 1942, c tn cng Xta-lin-grt -nt sng ca Lin X- nhng khng chim c. Qun i Lin x diu binh trong l k nim ln th 10.

- Thng 09/1940, I-ta-li-a tn cng Ai Cp. - Thng 10/1942, lin qun Anh-M ginh thng li trong trn En A-la-men, v chuyn sang phn cng trn ton mt trn . 2. Chin tranh Thi Bnh Dng bng n . - Thng 09/1940, Nht ko vo ng Dng. - Ngy 07/12/1941, Nht bt ng tn cng Trn Chu Cng cn c hi qun ch yu ca M Thi Bnh Dng. M b thit hi nng n. Chin tranh lan rng ton th gii. - Nht tn cng vo ng Nam v Thi Bnh Dng.

* Mt trn Bc Phi:

Ngy 7/11/1941: Hng qun Lin x tin vo Qung trng trc khi i thng ra chin trng chng qun i c Quc x.

Ngy 7/12/1941, vo 7 gi 55 pht gi a phng, cc my bay trn tu sn bay Nht ct cnh oanh tc d di cc tu chin v sn bay M cng Trn Chu. Tham gia trn tp kch ny cn c 12 tu ngm ca Nht. Cuc tp kch bt ng v d di ca hm i Nht gy cho hm i M nhng tn tht nng n cha tng c trong lch s hi qun M (5 tu ch lc b nh chm, 19 tu chin v 177 my bay b tiu dit, hn 3000 binh lnh v s quan M b thit mng. Ti lc m M tuyn chin vi c, Italia, Nht v chin tranh Thi Bnh Dng chnh thc bng n. Chin tranh th gii th hai ln rng khp th gii.

3. Khi ng minh chng pht xt hnh thnh .


- Hnh ng xm lc ca phe pht xt trn ton th gii thc y cc quc gia cng phi hp vi nhau trong mt lin minh chng pht xt. - Vic Lin X tham chin lm thay i cn bn cc din chnh tr v qun s ca cuc chin, c v mnh m cho phong tro khng chin ca nhn dn cc nc b pht xt chim ng. - Anh, M thay i thi , bt tay cng Lin X chng ch ngha pht xt. - Ngy 01/01/1942, ti Oa-sinh-tn , 26 quc gia, ng u l Lin X, M, Anh ra Tuyn ngn Lin hip quc cam kt cng nhau chng pht xt vi ton b lc lng ca mnh . Khi ng minh chng pht xt c thnh lp.

ngha: Vic Lin X tham chin v s ra i ca khi ng minh chng pht xt lm cho tnh cht ca Chin tranh th gii th hai thay i, tr thnh mt cuc
chin tranh chng ch ngha pht xt, bo v ha bnh nhn loi. 1. Qun ng minh phn cng (t thng 11/1942 n thng 6/1944)

IV. QUN NG MINH CHUYN SANG PHN CNG. CHIN TRANH TH GII TH HAI KT THC (T thng 11/1942 n thng 08/1945) * Mt trn X c :
+ trn phn cng Xta-lin-grt (t thng 11/1942 n thng 02/1943), Hng qun Lin X tn cng tiu dit, bt sng ton b i qun tinh nhu ca c gm 33 vn ngi do thng ch Pao-lt ch huy. T y, Lin X v phe ng minh chuyn sang tn cng trn cc mt trn.

Chin thng Xtalingrt nh du bc ngot cn bn ca chin tranh th gii, buc pht xt phi chuyn t tn cng sang phng ng. ng thi bt u t y, Lin X v phe ng minh chuyn sang tn cng ng lot trn cc Mt trn.
phng. + Cui thng 08/1943, Hng qun b gy cuc phn cng ca qun c ti vng cung Cuc-xc. Thng 06/1944. phn ln lnh th Lin X c gii

* Mt trn Bc Phi: T thng 3 n thng 5/1943, lin qun M - Anh phn cng qut sch qun c - Italia khi chu Phi. Chin s chu Phi chm dt.

* Italia: Thng 7/1943 n thng 5/1945, lin qun M - Anh tn cng truy kch qun pht xt, lm cho ch ngha pht xt Italia b sp , pht xt c phi khut phc. * Thi Bnh Dng: Sau chin thng qun Nht trong trn Gua-an-ca-nan (1/1943) M phn cng nh chim cc o Thi Bnh Dng.

2. Pht xt c b tiu dit. Nht Bn u hng. Chin tranh kt thc. a. Pht xt c b tiu dit .

- Sau khi gii phng cc nc Trung v ng u (1944), thng 1/1945, Hng qun Lin X m cuc tn cng c Mt trn pha ng, tin qun vo gii phng cc nc Trung v ng u, tin st bin gii nc c. - Thng 2/1945, Lin X t chc hi ngh Ianta gm 3 nc Lin X, M, Anh bn v vic t chc li th gii sau chin tranh. -H 1944, M, Anh m Mt trn th hai Ty u bng cuc b ti Noc-mng-i (min Bc Php) tin vo gii phng Php, B, H Lan, chun b tn cng c. - T thng 02 n thng 04/1945, Lin X tn cng Bc-lin, nh bi hn 1 triu qun c. - Ngy 30/04, l c ba lim c cm trn nc to nh Quc hi c. Ngy 09/05/1945, nc c k vn bn u hng khng iu kin. Chin tranh chm dt Chu u

Hng qun Lin X cm c chin thng trn nc ta nh Quc hi c ngy 9/5/1945

c u hng b. Nht b tiu dit - Mt trn Thi Bnh Dng, t nm 1944, lin qun M, Anh tn cng nh chim Min in v qun o Phi-lp-pin. - Ngy 06/08-1945, M nm qu bom nguyn t xung Hi-r-si-ma lm 8 vn ngi thit mng. Ngy 08/08, Lin X tuyn chin vi Nht v tn cng o qun Quan ng gm 70 vn qun Nht Mn Chu. Ngy 09/08, M nm tip qu bom nguyn t th hai hu dit thnh ph Na-ga-da-ki, git hi 2 vn ngi. - Ngy 15/08, Nht Bn chp nhn u hng khng iu kin. Chin tranh th gii th hai kt thc.

V vai tr ca Lin X, M, Anh trong vic tiu dit pht xt Nht (xt phm vi thi gian 1944 - 1945): Lin X, M, Anh u l lc lng tr ct, gi vai tr quyt nh trong vic tiu dit ch ngha pht xt Nht. Cuc tn cng ca M, Anh khu vc chim ng ca Nht ng Nam thu hp dn th lc ca pht xt Nht. Vic qun M uy hip, nh ph cc thnh ph ln ca Nht bng khng qun, c bit vic M nm 2 qu bom nguyn t xung Nht Bn c tc dng ln trong vic ph hy lc lng pht xt Nht c v vt cht ln tinh thn. Tuy nhin cng khng th ph nhn vic M nm 2 qu bom nguyn t xung Nht Bn l mt ti c, reo rc thm ha cht chc kinh hong cho nhn dn Nht Bn.

Nht u hng V. KT CC CA CHIN TRANH TH GII TH HAI.


- Chin tranh th gii th hai kt thc vi s sp hon ton ca pht xt c, I-ta-li-a, Nht. - Thng li v i thuc v cc dn tc trn th gii kin cng chin u chng ch ngha pht xt. - Lin X, M, Anh l lc lng tr ct, gi vai tr quyt nh trong vic tiu dit ch ngha pht xt. - Hn 70 quc gia vi 1700 triu ngi b li cun vo vng chin, khong 60 triu ngi cht, 90 triu ngi b tn ph, thit hi vt cht 4000 t -la.. - Chin tranh kt thc dn n nhng bin i cn bn ca tnh hnh th gii

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