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Vai tr c a phong tro kh i ngha Yn Th i v i l ch s dn t c Vi t Nam

Cuc chinh phc Vit Nam ca thc dn Php n nm 1897 hon thnh v c bn. Phong tro v trang khi ngha ca vn thn s phu c pht ng rm r t min Trung, ri nhanh chng lan ra min Bc v vo min Nam sau khi vua Hm Nghi ri khi kinh thnh Hu pht hch Cn Vng (13-7-1885) n nm 1896 cng i vo thi k tn li vi s tht bi ca cuc khi ngha Hng Sn, Hng Kh v ci cht ca ch tng Phan nh Phng. nh rng cn c mt s th ho a phng ni dy ngay t u nhng ngy thc dn Php mi t chn ti t nc ta vn c vt qua mun vn kh khn ca thi k i mi tip tc hot ng, nhng cng ch ng khung trong phm vi nh hp tng vng ri dn tan r. c bit trong khi cuc khi ngha nng dn Yn Th do Hong Hoa Thm ng u vn tip tc hot ng, tt nhin trong nhng iu kin chin u ca thi k mi cng bt buc phi c nhng iu chnh mi v t chc lc lng, cng nh v cch nh. Nhng n u thng 12-1897 hai bn thc dn Php v ngha qun Yn Th nh chin ln th hai, mi bn c nhng mc ch ring. Thc dn Php th c tranh th thi gian nh chin chun b thm iu kin v lc lng v v kh ch ngy trit h pho i cui cng ca nhn dn ta v kt thc giai on bnh nh qun s c li cho chng. Cn ngha qun Yn Th th cng ra sc cng c lc lng, xy dng cn c chun b i ph vi nhng cuc tn cng ln bit trc th no cng s ti, v bc sang nhng nm 1909 n 1913 th d cho c hot ng i chng na th cng ch l nhng t sng cui cng ca phong tro yu nc git gic hi m thi. ri vi cuc tn cng c quy m ln ca qun i thc dn Php bt u t ngy 9-1-1909 ko di gn mt nm tri n tn u thng 1-1910 mi chm dt, sau vi ci cht bi hng ca th lnh Hong Hoa Thm (10-2-1913) th phong tro khi ngha Yn Th mi tht s chm dt.

nh: c Hng C th khng nh rng, trong cc phong tro chng Php ca nhn dn ta trc chin tranh Th gii ln th nht (1914-1918) th cuc khi ngha Yn Th do Hong Hoa Thm ng u ko di lu nht (1883-1913) lm cho thc dn Php lo ngi nht v tn tht nhiu nht. ng thi cng c th khng nh rng loi hnh u tranh t pht ca nng dn Yn Th tuy song song, tn ti v pht trin cng vi phong tro Cn Vng chng Php (1885-1896), nhng li c trc, tn ti lu di hn, li tng i c lp so vi phong tro Cn Vng. Phong tro khi ngha Yn Th (1883-1913), xt v mt ngha v tc dng ca phong tro i vi lch s dn tc Vit Nam, c mt v tr v vai tr v cng to ln. Trc ht, xin ni v s chuyn bin tnh cht phong tro trong qu trnh pht trin. C th cn c trn cc vt biu hin chia qu trnh pht trin ca phong tro khi ngha Yn Th ra hai giai on; t quy t, t chc, thng nht lc lng n xy dng a bn, t chc cng tc hu cn n b tr nh v dnh nhng chin cng oanh lit. Nhn chung, c th khng nh rng phong tro nng dn Yn Th ng gp vo lch s qun s Vit Nam nhng nt c o v quy m, cng , hiu qu, cng nh cc c im v chin thut, th t chc xy dng lc lng v cn c lng x n tc chin du kch trn mt a bn rng khp. Nhng quan trng hn c l do s chuyn bin tnh cht ca phong tro yu nc ca nhn dn ta t nhng nm cui th k XIX sang nhng nm u th k XX, phong tro nng dn Yn Th t mt phong tro mang ct cch phong kin ca giai on cui th k XIX, nhng bc sang nhng nm u th k XX ho dn v chu nh hng ca phong tro yu nc cch mng c tnh cht t sn ca nhn dn ta hi u th k XX. Th hin r ch ch tng Hong Hoa Thm c tip xc vi cc nh yu nc ca thi k mi nh Phan Bi Chu, Phan Chu Trinh bn bc phng thc v vic phi hp tc chin trong tnh hnh mi, vic vin tr ln nhau gia cc phong tro, nh vi Duy Tn hi, vi ng Kinh ngha thc dn ti mt s s kin tiu biu, nh thnh lp ng Ngha Hng ti H Ni v cn c c s Bc Ninh, Nam nh hay v H Thnh u c cui nm 1908. thy r thm s chuyn bin t tng ca Thm, cn bit thm hai s kin lin quan. l cui nm 1907, Thm c s tip xc vi nh cch mng Trung Hoa l Tn Trung Sn. S kin th hai l cuc tip xc vi Phan Chu Trinh Nht Bn v nm 1906, cuc tip xc ny khng t kt qu no do s cch xa nhau gia Thm v Phan Chu Trinh v t tng v phng php qun s.

nh: Ngun kho a ch - Th vin tnh Bc Giang

Nh vy l t mt phong tro u tranh t pht ca nng dn mang tnh cht phong kin, phong tro khi ngha Yn Th t u th k XX chuyn sang phm tr t sn. Nhng ng nh nhn nh ca ng ch Trng Chinh th d c tri qua hai giai on nh vy, nhng t u n cui phong tro khi ngha Yn Th vn l mt cuc u tranh t pht ca nng dn vi tt c nhng c im vn c v gn lin vi bt c mt phong tro nng dn no khi cha bt gp s lnh o ca giai cp tin tin. Cng v vy m khi nh gi cc phong tro yu nc cch mng u th k XX, trc khi xut dng tm ng cu nc mi, anh thanh nin Nguyn Tt Thnh (sau ny l Bc H, l H Ch Minh) nhn nh rng phong tro khi ngha Yn Th do Hong Hoa Thm lnh o vn mang ct cch phong kin v chnh v hn ch , t trong bi cnh Vit Nam lc , phong tro khi ngha khng th khng tht bi trc sc tn cng dn dp v c lit ca k th l thc dn Php ang trong

th p o. Mc d cui cng tht bi, phong tro khi ngha ca nng dn Yn Th gi mt v tr c bit quan trng trong s pht trin khng ngng i ln ca phong tro yu nc cch mng ca nhn dn ta. l v tr chuyn tip, bn l t mt cp phm tr c (phong kin) sang mt phm tr mi (t sn), khng nh truyn thng yu nc ca dn tc, ng thi cng khng nh tnh nhy bn, kh nng hi nhp, tip nhn ci mi, ci tin b ca nhn dn ta trong qu trnh dng nc v gi nc.

nh: Ngun kho a ch - Th vin tnh Bc Giang

Ni v s tht bi cui cng ca cuc khi ngha oanh lit ca nng dn Yn Th, c th nu ra nhng nguyn nhn khch quan m ni, ti u th k XX v c bn thc dn Php hon thnh cuc bnh nh qun s v cng c nn thng tr ca chng trn phm vi c nc khng ni chi n phong tro vn thn lc trc tan r t lu, t nhng nm cui th k XIX, m ngay cc phong tro c tnh cht t sn ca thi k ny trc s khng b gt gao ca qun th cng tri qua nhng gi pht kh khn nht. Cho nn d phong tro nng dn Yn Th lc u c mnh nhng vn cn c gii hn trong mt phm vi nh hp, thiu mt s hng ng nhit lit rng ri ca ng o nhn dn ton quc. V ch quan, ngha qun tuy c chin thut ng, nhng vn cn gii hn hot ng ch yu trong phm vi a phng, m cha pht ng c lng yu nc v sc ng h nhit lit ca nhn dn a phng tranh th bi dng v pht trin, m nhn chung vn nng v phng ng, thiu phn ch ng tn cng ch, v vy b l nhiu dp c th tiu dit ch. Nhng ch yu vn l do tnh thiu trit ca phong tro cha thot khi khun kh cht hp ca mt cuc khi ngha phong kin, tuy phong tro khi ngha Yn Th c s chuyn bin tnh cht t nm 1897 v sau. Cn ni rng s chuyn bin tnh cht ca phong tro khi ngha nng dn Yn Th cn rt hi ht, nng v tc ng khch quan bn ngoi hn l do chnh iu kin ni thn quyt nh, cho nn tuy nng dn vng ln, nhng vn khng gii quyt c vn rung t l mc tiu u tranh chnh bao i h m p. M mt khi cn cha gii quyt c vn rung t th lc lng to ln ca nng dn vn cha c kt hp, cha c pht trin, ho vi cc lc lng khc trong dn tc tin hnh cuc u tranh gii phng dn tc. Phi i n khi giai cp cng nhn xut hin th hai nhim v phn v phn phong ca cch mng mi c ra c th v chp hnh trit . Mc d cui cng tht bi, phong tro khi ngha ca nng dn Yn Th nh du mt thi k qut khi oanh lit, chng minh sc d tr hng hu ca giai cp nng dn trong lch s u tranh oanh lit ca dn tc./. GS: inh Xun Lm Gio s S hc - i hc KHXH&NV- i hc Quc gia H Ni