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Khng hong suy vong ca vng triu nh Nguyn

T bn Php chn ng lc n sng xm lc Vit Nam khi ch phong kin Vit Nam ang i su vo giai on khng hong trm trng. Ch phong kin Vit Nam khng hong nng t cui th k XVIII. T bn Php chn ng lc n sng xm lc Vit Nam khi ch phong kin Vit Nam ang i su vo giai on khng hong trm trng. Ch phong kin Vit Nam khng hong nng t cui th k XVIII. Nhng mm mng u tin ca ch ngha t bn trong nc xut hin v ngy cng mu thun i khng vi quan h kinh t phong kin bo th lc hu bao i thng tr x hi Vit Nam. Nn kinh t tiu nng ang cn c pht trin, nhng b ch chim hu v bc lt phong kin uy hip nghim trng. y cng l thi k bng n cc cuc khi ngha nng dn trn mt quy m rng ln trong phm vi c nc, i hi t nc phi sm thng nht. Cuc khi ngha ca nng dn Ty Sn thng li m ra nhiu trin vng cho s pht trin ca lc lng sn xut theo hng t bn ch ngha. Nhng da vo th lc t bn Php, Nguyn nh nh thng Ty Sn. C th khng nh rng triu Nguyn thnh lp l s thng th ca tp on phong kin ti phn ng trong nc c t bn nc ngoi ng h i vi triu i Ty Sn tng i tin b hn v nhiu mt. Ngay sau khi ln ngi (1802), Nguyn nh ly nin hiu l Gia Long v cc vua tip theo (Minh Mng, Thiu Tr, T c) ngy cng i su vo con ng phn ng, va ra sc phc hi v cng c quan h sn xut c, va c tnh bp nght lc lng sn xut mi manh nha pht trin hi th k XVIII. Mi chnh sch chnh tr, kinh t, vn ha, x hi triu Nguyn ban hnh u nhm mc ch duy nht l bo v c quyn c li cho tp on phong kin nh Nguyn. B my chnh tr triu Nguyn ngay t u mang nng tnh cht quan liu, c on v su mt. l mt nh nc qun ch chuyn ch tuyt i, tp trung cao vi mt ch chnh tr lc hu, phn ng. Mi quyn hnh u tp trung trong tay nh vua. Vua c coi l "con tri", thay tri" tr dn; quyn hnh nh vua c coi l thn kh thing ling, v hn. Nh vua trong thc t l i a ch ln nht trong nc, c ton quyn phung ph ti sn quc gia trn xng mu ca nhn dn. Cn quan li trong triu v cc a phng hu ht l bn h bi; chnh tr th bo th, cu an, kinh t th tham lam v cung bo. T vua n quan u rt t cao t i vi m hc thuyt Khng, Mnh li thi, xem trt t phong kin l bt di bt dch, mi n lc sng gic n m bn tai mi bng hong tnh gic. Trong hon cnh , i sng ca ngi nng dn trong cc thn x v cng c cc. Di triu Nguyn, t chc x thn hon ton tr thnh mt cng c ca bn cng ho a ch nng thn. N tri buc ngi nng dn trong nhng quan h a phng hp hi c li cho s bc lt ca nh nc phong kin v cn tr s pht trin ca nn kinh t hng ha. Nn kinh t t hu ca nng dn b xm phm nghim trng. Rung t phn nhiu tp trung vo tay bn quan li, a ch. Cng in, cng th ch no mu m bo tt u b bn cng ho lng on, cn li th bn hng l li bao chim, dn ngho ch c nhng ch xng xu m thi. Cho nn, ni chung nng dn khng c rung cy, i sng v cng cc kh. Hin tng nng dn khng c rung t cy cy lm n phi b lng i tha phng cu thc l nt ph bin di triu Nguyn. Ch t nm 1802 n nm 1806, nng dn trn 870 thn thuc my trn ln ngoi Bc xiu tn i ni khc. n nm 1826, li n 108 x thn thuc mi ba huyn ca trn Hi Dng xiu tn, cng thm vo l t thu rt nng n. l cha k ti tnh trng v lt li, mt ma i km thng xy ra, hu nh khng nm no khng c. Vn Giang Hng Yn v 18 nm lin, bin c mt vng ng bng ph nhiu Khoi Chu thnh bi t hoang, nhn dn vng ny phi tng on lang thang ko nhau i cc ni xin n. Ti cc vng Bc Ninh, Sn Ty li c nn chu chu ph hoi ma mng. V vy, nn i xy ra thng xuyn. Ngay trc khi t bn Php sp n sng nh vo Nng (1858), mt trn i gh gm xy ra lm cho hng chc vn nhn dn cc tnh Trung Bc K b cht. ng thi, cng do s bt lc ca bn phong kin thng tr hi , nn dch honh hnh d di, git hi hng chc vn ngi. Trc tnh hnh bi thm , xoa du v ngn nga dn chng ni dy chng li, phong kin triu Nguyn c mt s bin php. Minh Mng ra lnh cho Nguyn Cng Tr chiu dn tin hnh khai hoang min ven bin lp ra hai huyn Tin Hi (Thi Bnh), Kim Sn (Ninh Bnh) trong hai nm 1828 - 1829; T c giao cho Nguyn Tri Phng lo liu vic m dn lp p Nam K t nm 1853. Nhiu dn b t ti c a vo y khai khn. Nhng tt c cc bin php trn u khng mang li kt qu ng k v u xut pht t li ch ca giai cp thng tr. Ngi nng dn sau mt thi gian m hi si nc mt li thy rung t do tay mnh lm ra b bn phong kin cp ot. V vy, nn nng dn lu tn, nht l n i T c khi t bn Php sp n sng khi hn, li cng tr nn ph bin khp c nc v ngy cng trm trng hn ln. l mt trong nhng nt tiu biu ca thi k khng hong suy vong ca ch phong kin Vit Nam di triu Nguyn. Trong khi nng nghip ang lm vo tnh trng tiu iu x xc nh vy th cng nghip nm trong tay bn phong kin triu Nguyn cng ngy mt b tc. Chnh sch ca triu Nguyn v mt cng nghip v cng phn ng. Phong kin nh Nguyn nm trong tay nhng ngnh kinh doanh ln. Cc cng xng ln c sng, ng tu, c tin; cc xng nh chuyn ch to dng ring cho nh vua, vng bc, gm vc; cc cng trng xy dng cung in, thnh quch, lng tm u do

b Cng ca triu nh qun l. Ch lm vic trong cc cng xng ny l ch "cng tng" mang nng tnh cht cng bc lao ng. Nhng ngi th gii cc a phng b bt v y c bin ch thnh i ng, lm vic tp trung vi mt s lng rt thp, li chu s kim sot nghim ngt ca quan li nn rt bt mn, khng phn khi vi cng vic. Triu nh phong kin cn gi c quyn ngnh khai m . S m c khai thc t 1802 n 1858 l 139 m, bao gm cc loi. Nhng phn ln cc m u do bn quan li triu nh ng ra khai thc, ch mt s t l do ch m Hoa kiu hay Vit Nam ch tr. Phng thc sn xut trong c ba loi m cn bn vn l li sn xut th cng c th vi nhng hnh thc bc lt phong kin mang nng tnh cht n dch. Nng sut trong cc cng trng m v vy thng thp. th, triu Nguyn cn nh thu sn vt rt nng vo cc m do Hoa kiu hay ngi Vit ng ra khai thc. Nhiu php tc v l lm hn ch s pht trin ca ngnh khai m, nh quy nh nhng khu vc cm khai m, gi c quyn thu mua cc kim loi khai thc c theo gi quy nh. Cc ngh th cng trong nhn dn khng c iu kin pht trin. Ti cc cng xng th cng, mc d khng c mt ch phng hi cht ch theo kiu cc nc phong kin chu u, nhng cc mi quan h phc tp gia ch v th, gia th c v th bn, gia cc lng chuyn nghip vi nhau v rt nhiu lut l cm on ca triu nh lm cho sng kin, ti nng ca ngi th ngy cng b bp nght. Cc ngh th cng nh v ngh ph gia nh nng thn cn b nh n v nng dn i kh, li tn. Th cng nghip hu nh b t lit. Thng nghip di triu Nguyn st km mt cch r rt. Chnh sch "trng nng c thng" ca triu nh km hm thng nghip. V ni thng, mt mt chng nm c quyn bun bn nguyn liu cng nghip (nh ng, thic, ch, km, nht l lu hong, dim tiu), v s nhn dn ch v kh chng li. Mt khc, chng t ra nhiu lut l cht ch kim ch, nh nm c quyn bun bn c i vi mt s lm sn qu gi cp ot ca ng bo min ni (qu, gc hu, sp ong, ng voi, g qu); nh thu nng vo cc mt hng quan trng n i sng nhn dn nh la go hn ch vic chuyn ch trao i gia cc vng trong nc; cm nhn dn hp ch. Vic giao lu gia cc a phng v vy gp rt nhiu tr ngi, th trng trong nc khng tp trung v thng nht. Ngoi thng cng b triu nh nm c quyn. Thc hin chnh sch b quan ta cng, triu nh ch m nh git mt s ca bin cho tu nc ngoi lui ti bun bn. Ch c nhp vo nhng hng ha triu nh cn (nh st, ch, gang, lu hong lm sng n); cn xut cng th cm tu thuyn nc ngoi khng c mua t la, thc go trong nhn dn. Tu bun nc ngoi ti bun bn cn b khm xt rt k nh thu v nh gi hng, li cn c th b trng dng i phc v cho cc t cng tc t xut ca triu nh (nh ch go cho qun lnh, hay chuyn ch nguyn vt liu xy dng lng tm, cung in) . Chnh sch b quan ta cng ca triu nh lm cho vic bun bn vi nc ngoi sa st r rt. Thu ca quan, trc c 60 s, n nm 1851 ch cn 21 s; mt s cng trc kia bun bn rt phn thnh, nay cng tr nn tiu iu vng v. Ni tm li, nn kinh t ti chnh nc ta trong na u th k XIX suy n trm trng v mi mt nng, cng thng nghip. Do chnh sch phn ng ca triu Nguyn, cc yu t t bn ch ngha mi ny sinh trong cc khu vc kinh t, ang trn pht trin t nhin v tin b, ph hp vi yu cu pht trin ca x hi hi , u b bp nght. Nn kinh t hng ha v vy b co hp li. Trn c s , nn ti chnh quc gia ngy mt kit qu. i sng nhn dn ngy cng cc kh. Mi mu thun gia bn phong kin thng tr vi nhn dn ch yu l nng dn tr nn v cng gay gt v bc l ra ngoi mt cch su sc vi hng lot cc cuc khi ngha nng dn sut c my i vua triu Nguyn. Trc khi t bn Php n sng xm lc, mt s cuc khi ngha ln bng n: Phan B Vnh Nam nh (1821); L Duy Lng Ninh Bnh (1833); L Vn Khi Gia nh (1833); Nng Vn Vn Tuyn Quang (1833) ; Cao B Qut H Ni v Bc Ninh (1854). l cha k ti nn th ph Trung Quc lin tc quy ph trn vng bin gii pha bc, ngi Vch (Thch Bch) Qung Ngi khng ngng ni dy trong nhng nm 1857-1858. duy tr ch x hi thi nt nhm bo v c quyn c li, phong kin nh Nguyn ra sc cng c trt t bng mi cch. i ni, chng ra sc n p khng b cc phong tro ca qun chng, huy ng nhng lc lng qun s to ln vo vic dp tt cc cuc khi ngha nng dn trong bin mu. Cc cuc hnh qun lin min mt mt lm cho chnh lc lng qun s ca triu nh b suy yu dn, mt khc cng lm hy hoi kh nng khng chin ln lao ca dn tc, cng to thm iu kin thun li cho t bn Php thn tnh nc ta. bin minh cho th on tn bo trn, chng ban hnh b lut Gia Long nm 1815. B lut ny c son ra phng theo b lut phn ng ca phong kin Mn Thanh (Trung Quc), di nim trn p nhn dn v gi vng trt t phong kin tuyt i. Chng cn li dng c vn hc tuyn truyn cho ch thng tr m mu ca chng, nh Minh Mng ra 10 iu Hun d, T c din m Thp iu din ca truyn b rng ri hc thuyt Nho gio trn c s cng c thc h phong kin b rn nt. i ngoi, chng ra sc y mnh th on xm lc i vi cc nc lng ging nh Cao Min, Lo lm cho

qun lc b tn tht, ti chnh quc gia v ti lc nhn dn b khnh kit. Cn i vi cc nc t bn phng Ty th chng thi hnh ngy mt thm gt gao chnh sch b quan ta cng v cm o, git o. Trc m mu xm lc ngy cng ro rit ca bn t bn nc ngoi nht l ca t bn Php - phong kin nh Nguyn tng lm nh vy l trnh c nn ln. Chng khng thy c mun bo v c lp dn tc, mun gi gn t nc trong nhng iu kin quc gia v quc t by gi, bin php thch hp nht l m rng ca bin giao thng duy tn x s, y mnh pht trin nng cng thng trong nc, trn c s nhanh chng bi dng sc dn, sc nc c th i ph kp thi v hiu qu vi nhng m mu xm lc ngy cng c y mnh ca t bn nc ngoi. Tri li, cng ng cht ca v cng cm o, git o, li cng to thm l do cho chng n sng xm lc sm hn. R rng l vi nhng chnh sch phn ng ni trn, nc Vit Nam suy yu v mi mt v tr thnh ming mi ngon i vi cc nc t bn phng Ty. c bit i vi t bn Php t lu c c s bn trong nc ta nh s hot ng ngm ngm v lin tc ca bn gin ip i lt con bun v gio s. Lch s lc ny i ti mt bc ngot. Mt l triu Nguyn b nh v thay th vo l mt triu i khc tin theo hng mi ca t bn ch ngha c kh nng duy tn t nc v bo v nn c lp dn tc. Hai l nc Vit Nam b mt vo tay t bn Php tr thnh mt x thuc a. Thc t lch s chng minh rng khi ting sng xm lc ca t bn Php bng n, giai cp phong kin Vit Nam phn ha ra hai phi ch chin v ch ha, phi ch ha gm phn ng bn i phong kin v quan li ln vi T c ng u s nhanh chng cu kt vi bn cp nc lm tay sai cho chng n p v bc lt nhn dn c nc. l ti ln ca phong kin nh Nguyn trc dn tc, trc lch s. Tt nhin, khi khng nh "ti" ca nh Nguyn trong vic mt nc ta vo tay thc dn Php vo na sau th k XIX, chng ta khng h qun nhng ng gp ca h v cc mt pht trin gio dc, vn ha, ngh thut m mt s thnh tu n ngy nay vn l ti sn qu ca dn tc.

(Ngun:i Cng Lch s Vit Nam, H Ni, Gio Dc, Tr.479-484.)