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x0

lim

sin(x) =1 x

using an proof. Solution: One can see that the following inequalities are true for values close to zero, both positive and negative. | sin(x)| < |x| |x| < | tan(x)| This in turn implies that | cos(x)| < | On the interval (/2, /2), this implies cos(x) < Subtracting 1 from both sides, we have cos(x) 1 < Taking absolute values, again, we have | sin(x) 1| < |1 cos(x)| x sin(x) 1<0 x sin(x) <1 x sin(x) |<1 x

This step is important, since we can show that |1 cos(x)| goes to zero as x does, that is, the right hand side can be found in terms of . Since |1 cos(x)| = | Putting this together we have | Therefore, if |x 0| < then |f (x) L| = | Summing up, if |x| = then |f (x) L| = | sin(x) 1| |x|2 2 = x sin(x) 1| |x|2 2 x sin(x) 1| < x2 x 1 cos2 (x) sin2 (x) |= x2 1 + cos(x) 1 + cos(x)

2. Problem 2 Using the results of the previous problem, show that lim sin(sin(x)) x

x0

exists. Solution: The easiest way is to write the problem as lim sin(sin(x)) sin(sin(x)) sin(x) = lim lim x0 x0 x sin(x) x

x0

Let u = sin(x), then we have lim sin(sin(x)) sin(u) sin(x) = lim lim = (1)(1) = 1 u0 x u x0 x

x0

x0

lim sin(1/x)

does not exists, using an proof. Solution: The easiest way is a proof by contradiction. Suppose the limit did exist, then there would be an L such that given an | sin(1/x) L| < . > 0, then |x| < would imply

Choose an > 0. Find the , depending on . We can nd an x-value, e.g. x1 = 1/(N ) such that |x1 | < , so that | sin(1/x1 ) L| = | sin(N ) L| < |0 L| < Similarly, we can nd an x-value, e.g. x2 = 1/((2N + 1/2)) so that |x2 | < , so that | sin(1/x2 ) L| = | sin((2N + 1/2)) L| = |1 L| < This is a problem, since if < 1/2, L cant be close to both 0 and 1! Intuitively, sin(1/x) oscillates to rapidly near x = 0. It takes on values near -1, 0, +1, arbitrarily close to x = 0 so it cannot approach a limit...

we must show that given any > 0, we can nd an N , depending on , such that |x| > N = |f (x) L| < The rst step is to multiply by the conjugate x+1+ x lim [ x + 1 x] = lim [ x + 1 x][ ] x x x+1+ x = lim

x

= lim

x

The critical observation is that this can be estimated in terms of N . So if |x| > N > 4/ 2 , then | 1 1 1 < 2 < 2 x x+1+ x N

5. Problem 5 The Fibonacci numbers are dened by the relationship an+1 an + an1 , n = 1... with a0 = 1, a1 = 1. What we want to show is that 5+ 5 1+ 5 n 5 5 1 5 n ( ) + ( ) a(n) = an = 10 2 10 2 for all integer values of n. This is an indication that we must use induction. First we show that it is true for n = 1. 5+ 5 1+ 5 0 5 5 1 5 0 5+ 5 5 5 a(1) = ( ) + ( ) = + =1 10 2 10 2 10 10 which is true. Now asssume that is true for n k, that is 5+ 5 1+ 5 k 5 5 1 5 k ( ) + ( ) a(k) = 10 2 10 2 5 + 5 1 + 5 k1 5 5 1 5 k1 ( ) + ( ) a(k 1) = 10 2 10 2 Then we examine a(k + 1) = a(k) + a(k 1) = 5+ 5 1+ 5 k 5 5 1 5 k ( ) + ( ) 10 2 10 2 5 + 5 1 + 5 k1 5 5 1 5 k1 + ( ) + ( ) 10 2 10 2 and by combining common terms, 5 + 5 1 + 5 k1 1+ 5 5 5 1 5 k1 1 5 = ( ) (1 + )+ ( ) (1 + ) 10 2 2 10 2 2 The crucial observation is that 1+ 5 2 1+2 5+5 1+ 5 ( ) = =1+( ) 2 4 2 so ( Therefore, 1 + 5 k+1 1 + 5 k1 1+ 5 k ) =( ) +( ) 2 2 2

an 5+ 5 1+ 5 n ( 2 ) 10 =1+

5 5 1 5 n ( ) 5+ 5 1+ 5

and since

1 5 |<1 1+ 5 1 5 n | 0 | 1+ 5 |

5+ 5 1+ 5 n 10 ( 2 )

hence

an

Therefore c =

5+ 5 10

and r =

1+ 5 2 .

6. Problem 6 Show that one can compute by means of the innite series = 4 (1 =

n=0

1 1 1 1 1 + + + ...) 3 5 7 9 11

(1)n

1 2n + 1

Solution: The function tan1 (x) can be written as tan1 (x) = 1 dx = 1 + x2 =x Substituting x = 1, we have /4 = tan1 1 = 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 + + + ... 3 5 7 9 11 (1 x2 + x4 x6 + ...)

x3 x5 x7 + + ... 3 5 7

7. Problem 7 Show that the non-alternating series 1 2n + 1 n=0 diverges. One can do this several ways. The direct approach is to group terms. If we take k successive terms, staring with 2N1+1 we have (taking k of the smallest terms as a lower bound) 1 1 1 1 + + + 2N + 1 2N + 3 2N + 5 2N + 2k 1 k 2N + 2k 1 This will be greater than a xed constant, e.g. 1/4, if 1 k 2N + 2k 1 4 that is, if k N 1/2. So, letting k = N we have the inequality 1 1 1 1 + + + = 2N + 1 2N + 3 2N + 5 2N + 2k 1 1 1 1 1 + + + 2N + 1 2N + 3 2N + 5 2N + 2N 1 1 N 4N 1 4 Since we have an innite number of these groups, all of which are greater than 1/4, the series diverges. Another way of demonstrating this is to compare the series to an integral. Using the left hand rule for Riemanns sums

y

1

1/2 1/3 1/4

1

This implies that 1+

N 1

1 1 dx = ln(N ) x 2

As N , the integral (and therefore the sum) become innite. This is known as an integral comparison test.

Show, uising an argument that limit of H(t) as t 0 does not exist. Solution This is very similar to Problem 3. Again, one uses a proof by contradiction. Suppose the limit did exist, then there would be an L such that given an > 0, then |x| < would imply |H(x) L| < . But, for any > 0 we can nd two x values such that we must have |H(x1 ) L| = |0 L| < and |H(x2 ) L| = |1 L| < . This leads to a contradiction if > 1/2.

x0+

lim xx = 1

Solution Since xx = (eln x )x = ex ln x , we can use the properties of the limits, and the fact that ex is continuous, to show that lim+ xx = lim+ ex ln x = elimx0+ x ln x

x0 x0

To calculate the last limit, we use LH pitals rule. o lim x ln x = lim ln x 1/x = lim = lim x = 0 + 1/x2 1/x x0 x0+

x0+

x0+

Therefore,

x0+

lim xx = elimx0+ x ln x = e0 = 1

You can check this out on a calculator for values very close to 0.0

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