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Algebra Formulas
1. Set identities
Definitions:
I: Universal set
A’: Complement
Empty set:

Union of sets
{ } | A B x x x B r A o ∪ = ∈ ∈

Intersection of sets
{ } | A B x x x B d A an ∩ = ∈ ∈

Complement
{ } | A x I x A ′ = ∈ ∈

Difference of sets
{ } \ | B A x x B x A and = ∈ ∉

Cartesian product
( ) { }
, | A B x y x A and y B × = ∈ ∈

Set identities involving union
Commutativity
A B B A ∪ = ∪

Associativity
( ) ( ) A B C A B C ∪ ∪ = ∪ ∪

Idempotency
A A A ∪ =

Set identities involving intersection
commutativity
A B B A ∩ = ∩

Associativity
( ) ( ) A B C A B C ∩ ∩ = ∩ ∩

Idempotency
A A A ∩ =

Set identities involving union and intersection
Distributivity
( ) ( ) ( ) A B C A B A C ∪ ∩ = ∪ ∩ ∪

( ) ( ) ( ) A B C A B A C ∩ ∪ = ∩ ∪ ∩

Domination
A∩∅ = ∅

A I I ∪ =

Identity
A A ∪∅ =

A I A ∩ =

Set identities involving union, intersection and
complement
complement of intersection and union
A A I ′ ∪ =

A A′ ∩ = ∅

De Morgan’s laws
( ) A B A B

′ ′ ∪ = ∩

( ) A B A B

′ ′ ∩ = ∪

Set identities involving difference
( ) \ B A B A B = ∪

\ B A B A′ = ∩

\ A A = ∅

( ) ( ) ( ) \ \ A B C A C B C ∩ = ∩ ∩

\ A I A ′ =

2. Sets of Numbers
Definitions:
N: Natural numbers
N
o
: Whole numbers
Z: Integers
Z
+
: Positive integers
Z
-
: Negative integers
Q: Rational numbers
C: Complex numbers
Natural numbers (counting numbers )
{ } 1, 2, 3,... N =

Whole numbers ( counting numbers + zero )
{ } 0, 1, 2, 3,...
o
N =

Integers
{ } 1, 2, 3,... Z N
+
= =

{ } ..., 3, 2, 1 Z

= − − −

{ } { } 0 . .., 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3,... Z Z Z

= ∪ ∪ = − − −

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Irrational numbers:
Nonerepeating and nonterminating integers
Real numbers:
Union of rational and irrational numbers
Complex numbers:
{ } | C x iy x R and y R = + ∈ ∈

N Z Q R C ⊂ ⊂ ⊂ ⊂

3. Complex numbers
Definitions:
A complex nuber is written as a + bi where a and b are
real numbers an i, called the imaginary unit, has the
property that i
2
=-1.
The complex numbers a+bi and a-bi are called complex
conjugate of each other.
Equality of complex numbers
a + bi = c + di if and only if a = c and b = d
Addition of complex numbers
(a + bi) + (c + di) = (a + c) + (b + d)i
Subtraction of complex numbers
(a + bi) - (c + di) = (a - c) + (b - d)i
Multiplication of complex numbers
(a + bi)(c + di) = (ac - bd) + (ad + bc)i
Division of complex numbers
2 2 2 2
a bi a bi c di ac bd bc ad
i
c di c di c di c d c d
+ + − + − | |
= ⋅ = +
|
+ + − + + \ ¹

Polar form of complex numbers
( ) cos sin modulus, amplitude x iy r i r θ θ θ + = + − −

Multiplication and division in polar form
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
cos sin cos sin
cos sin
r i r i
r r i
θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
( ( + ⋅ + =
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( = + + +
¸ ¸

( )
( )
( ) ( )
1 1 1 1
1 2 1 2
2 2 2 2
cos sin
cos sin
cos sin
r r
r r
θ θ
θ θ θ θ
θ θ
+
( ⋅ = − + −
¸ ¸
+

De Moivre’s theorem
( ) ( ) cos sin cos sin
n
n
r r n n θ θ θ θ ( + = +
¸ ¸

Roots of complex numbers
( )
1
1
2 2
cos sin cos sin
n n
k k
r r
n n
θ π θ π
θ θ
+ + | |
( + = +
| ¸ ¸
\ ¹

From this the n nth roots can be obtained by putting k = 0,
1, 2, . . ., n - 1

4. Factoring and product
Factoring Formulas
( )( )
2 2
a b a b a b − = − +

( )( )
3 3 2 2
a b a b a ab b − = − + +

( )( )
3 3 2 2
a b a b a ab b + = + − +

4 4 2 2
( )( )( ) a b a b a b a b − = − + +

( )
( )
5 5 4 3 2 2 3 4
a b a b a a b a b ab b − = − + + + +

Product Formulas
2 2 2
( ) 2 a b a ab b + = + +

2 2 2
( ) 2 a b a ab b − = − +

3 3 2 2 3
( ) 3 3 a b a a b ab b + = + + +

3 3 2 2 3
( ) 3 3 a b a a b ab b − = − + −

( )
4
4 3 2 2 3 4
4 6 4 a b a a b a b ab b + = + + + +

( )
4
4 3 2 2 3 4
4 6 4 a b a a b a b ab b − = − + − +

2 2 2 2
( ) 2 2 2 a b c a b c ab ac bc + + = + + + + +

2 2 2 2
( ...) ...2( ...) a b c a b c ab ac bc + + + = + + + + + +

5. Algebric equations
2
+ bx + c = 0
Solutions (roots):
2
1,2
4
2
b b ac
x
a
− ± −
=

if D=b
2
-4ac is the discriminant, then the roots are
(i) real and unique if D > 0
(ii) real and equal if D = 0
(iii) complex conjugate if D < 0

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Cubic Eqation:
3 2
1 2 3
0 x a x a x a + + + =
Let
3 2
1 2 3 1 2 1
3 2 3 2 3 3
9 27 2 3
,
9 54
,
a a a a a a
Q R
S R Q R T R Q R
− − −
= =
= + + = − +

then solutions are:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1
2 1
3 1
1
3
1 1 1
3
2 3 2
1 1 1
3
2 3 2
x S T a
x S T a i S T
x S T a i S T
= + −
= − + − + −
= − + − − −

if D = Q
3
+ R
3
is the discriminant, then:
(i) one root is real and two complex conjugate if D > 0
(ii) all roots are real and at last two are equal if D = 0
(iii) all roots are real and unequal if D < 0

2
4
4 3
1 2 3
0 x a x a x a x a + + + + =
Let y1 be a real root of the cubic equation
( ) ( )
3 2 2 2
2 1 3 4 2 4 3 1 4
4 4 0 y a y a a a y a a a a a − + − + − − =

Solution are the 4 roots of
( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1 2 1 1 1 4
1 1
4 4 4 0
2 2
z a a a y z y y a + ± − + + ± − =

Algebric equations Quadric Eqation: ax2 + bx + c = 0 Solutions (roots): Multiplication and division in polar form  r1 ( cos θ1 + i sin θ1 ) ⋅  r2 ( cos θ 2 + i sin θ 2 )  =     = r1r2 cos (θ1 + θ 2 ) + i sin (θ1 + θ 2 )   r ⋅ = 1 cos (θ1 − θ2 ) + sin (θ1 − θ2 )   r2 ( cosθ2 + sin θ2 ) r2  De Moivre’s theorem  r ( cos θ + sin θ )  = r n ( cos nθ + sin nθ )   n r1 ( cosθ1 + sinθ1 ) x1. .1 Complex numbers: C = { x + iy | x ∈ R and y ∈ R} 4....2 −b ± b2 − 4ac = 2a 2 if D=b -4ac is the discriminant.. then the roots are (i) real and unique if D > 0 (ii) real and equal if D = 0 (iii) complex conjugate if D < 0 .. has the 2 property that i =-1.c) + (b . The complex numbers a+bi and a-bi are called complex conjugate of each other. θ − amplitude 5.2(ab + ac + bc + . 1.www. 2. called the imaginary unit.) 2 = a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + . . a 3 − b3 = ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 a3 + b3 2 ( = (a + b)(a ) − ab + b ) 2 a 4 − b 4 = ( a − b)( a + b)( a 2 + b 2 ) a 5 − b5 = ( a − b ) a 4 + a 3b + a 2 b 2 + ab3 + b 4 ( ) Equality of complex numbers a + bi = c + di if and only if a = c and b = d Product Formulas ( a + b) 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ( a − b) 2 = a 2 − 2ab + b 2 Addition of complex numbers (a + bi) + (c + di) = (a + c) + (b + d)i (a + b)3 = a3 + 3a 2b + 3ab2 + b3 (a − b)3 = a3 − 3a 2b + 3ab 2 − b3 4 Subtraction of complex numbers (a + bi) . Complex numbers Definitions: A complex nuber is written as a + bi where a and b are real numbers an i. n .) Division of complex numbers a + bi a + bi c − di ac + bd  bc − ad  = ⋅ = + i c + di c + di c − di c 2 + d 2  c 2 + d 2  Polar form of complex numbers x + iy = r ( cosθ + i sinθ ) r − modulus.. .org Roots of complex numbers Irrational numbers: Nonerepeating and nonterminating integers 1 θ + 2k π θ + 2k π    r ( cos θ + sin θ )  n = r n  cos + sin    n n   1 Real numbers: Union of rational and irrational numbers From this the n nth roots can be obtained by putting k = 0.(c + di) = (a . Factoring and product Factoring Formulas a 2 − b 2 = ( a − b )( a + b ) N ⊂Z ⊂Q⊂R⊂C 3.d)i Multiplication of complex numbers (a + bi)(c + di) = (ac .bd) + (ad + bc)i (a + b) = a 4 + 4a 3 b + 6 a 2 b 2 + 4ab3 + b 4 ( a − b )4 = a 4 − 4a3b + 6a 2 b2 − 4ab3 + b4 (a + b + c)2 = a 2 + b2 + c 2 + 2ab + 2ac + 2bc (a + b + c + ..mathportal.

mathportal. 9 S = 3 R + Q3 + R2 . then solutions are: 9a1a2 − 27a3 − 2a13 R= 54 T = 3 R − Q3 + R2 1 x1 = S + T − a1 3 1 1 1 x2 = − ( S + T ) − a1 + i 3 ( S − T ) 2 3 2 1 1 1 x3 = − ( S + T ) − a1 − i 3 ( S − T ) 2 3 2 if D = Q + R is the discriminant. then: (i) one root is real and two complex conjugate if D > 0 (ii) all roots are real and at last two are equal if D = 0 (iii) all roots are real and unequal if D < 0 3 3 Cuadric Eqation: x4 + a1x3 + a2 x2 + a3x + a4 = 0 Let y1 be a real root of the cubic equation y3 − a2 y2 + ( a1a3 − 4a4 ) y + 4a2 a4 − a32 − a12 a4 = 0 Solution are the 4 roots of ( ) z2 + 1 1 a1 ± a12 − 4a2 + 4y1 z + y1 ± y12 − 4a4 = 0 2 2 ( ) ( ) .www.org Cubic Eqation: x3 + a1 x 2 + a2 x + a3 = 0 Let 3a2 − a12 Q= .

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