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2011 Cluster Documentation Fashion & Lifestyle Accessories Department Semester-V
Documented by: Anurag Raroliya April R. Thompson Neetu Susan George Pratyaksha Sonam Kumari Vijay Kumar
Thanjavur Thanjavur Painting and Veena Construction
• Preface …………………………………….....…..………….............. • Acknowledgements …………………………................………….… • Thanjavur Distrct…….…………………………..............……..……. • About Thanjavur ……….…………………..…………..............……
• Map of Thanjavur • History of Thanjavur and Chola Dynasty • Modern Thanjavur
• Crafts Bowl of the Thanjavur District .…………………............……
• UNESCO • Thanjavur Handicrafts • Brief Description of Thanjavur Crafts • Root Carving • Pith Work • Icon Craft • Thalayatti Bommai (Thanjavur Dolls) • Metal Casting Craft • Thanjavur Art Plates • Veena craft • Thanjavur Painting
• Thanjavur Paintings ……………………………………..............
• Royal Family Maintaining the Tradition • Basic Characteristics of Thanjavur Painting • List of Tools and Materials including Souring • List of Employees including name and Job Title • Steps of the Process • Canvas Preparation • Chalk Paste and Kundan Stone Application • Gold Foiling • Painting • Framing • Marketing and Cost of Product • Our Thanjavur Painting • S.W.O.T. Analysis of Thanjavur Painting
• Veena Manufacturing ……………………………….............……
• Religious Significance • Aim of Playing Veena and Science in Veena • Basic Characteristics of a Veena • List of Tools and Materials used including Sourcing • List of Employees including name and Job Title • Steps of the Process • Wood Sourcing and Carving Initial Shape • Carving Resonator, Neck and Head of Veena • Filing and adding Carved Embellishment • Assembly • Finishing • Tuning • Process Chart of Veena Making
……………………………..W..O.• Marketing and Cost of Product • Our Veena Model • S. . Analysis of Veena • Learning Outcome • Travelogue …………………….T....... • Climate • Lodging • Transportation • Food • Sites Visited • Bibliography …………………………………………………….
Preface raft documentation is the study of the craft of a particular region. Herewithin is an attempt to an ordered recollection of our memories. After which we made minor alterations to the traditional craft to make it more appealing to a larger market. Thanjavur is known as the art capital of Tamil Nadu and that can be seen within its rich history of bronzes. craft and history of Thanjavur. from which the Thanjavur Royal family descends. This book is a compilation of information on the Thanjavur Craft Cluster Bowl and general history on Thanjavur/ Tamil Nadu. For our cluster documentation we studied the art. a documentation of both Thanjavur paintings and Veena Manufacturing and a narrative of our stay in Thanjavur for 15 days. production process and marketing of the two crafts we chose for our main focus: the famous Thanjavur Paintings and Veena manufacturing. The beautiful handicrafts of Thanjavur reflect is its strong cultural heritage. we have a brief description of life in ancient and modern Thanjavur. This document may be called a basic study of art in the Thanjavur region where traditions and values have remained predominately unchanged by the influence of modernism. paintings and temples. hurried notes and a selection of enthusiastic photography. These crafts bear testimony to the areas rich past along with the culminations of skills. as well as the historical and religious significance of our chosen craft. C . Along with this. of which Thanjavur was the capital. Finally. to create a modern product unrelated to the traditional art form. We have done a basic research on the primary handicrafts of Thanjavur. focusing on the Chola Dynasty. along with a in-depth description of the history. including our own time spent in Thanjavur. a gathering of endless pages of disjointed. techniques and refinement handed down from one generation to another. we took inspiration from the production process. and Nayak Dynasty. We have collected the basic history of Tamil Nadu.
NIFT. During our time learning the Veena manufacturing process we received help from Mr. Sambaji Bhonsle of the Thanjavur Royal family for his gracious support and his generousite in teaching us the ancient art of Thanjavur Painting. for giving us the oppurtunity to have a cluster study and also for the support of the department during our trip. Narayan . We extend our gratitude to Mr. we thank him for his readiness to share his knowledge and letting us work along side his crafts men. w Acknowledgement .Chennai.e would like to thank the department of Fashion & Lifestyle Accessories.
T . Thirty-six kms north of Thanjavur and about 70 kms south-west of Chidambaram is. which dominates the skyline nsylandscape. religious festival and the betel leaf. The district is grouped into the Thanjavur craft cluster. one of the oldest cities in south India. Once every 12 years a festival is held here at Mahamakkam sacred Tank.Thanjavur District Tamil Nadu’s Rice Bowl he Thanjavur District consists of Thanjavur itself along with Kumbakonam. Kumbakonam on the banks of the River Kaveri. The quite and dreamy town is noted for it magnificent temple sculpture. and all crafts are sold in the city of Thanjavur. jewellery. The most notable city in the district beside Thanjavur its self. Natchiarkoil and Swami Malai. Thanjavur is Tamil Nadu’s rice bowl and is most known as a tourist city for its Brihadeshwara Temple. The strong arts history in the city as led to it being the center of the District. which devotees in thousands flock to the city to have a holy dip.
About Thanjavur Map of Thanjavur .
’ The art traditions originated here a millennium ago. Until eight century the Chola kingdom was very small but gained importance from the ninth century onwards. but still the ‘Art Capital of South India. He conquered Sri Lanka. also known as Tanjore or Tanjavur. The most important ruler of Chola was Rajaraja I. The Chola dynasty placed its capital in modern day Thanjavur. with two others at Madurai and Gingee. Thanjavur. It is today a small town. Maratha and Bristish period. are still continued.’ Rajaraja I. Territory south of rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra extending up to Cape Comorin is known as South India. The 6. He built a magnificent temple in Thanjavur that is in his namesake. This was hauled up inch by inch along an eastern ramp especially built for this purpose. He was one of the greatest kings of the South India and was known as ‘Rajaraja the Great. Kaveri is the main river that drains through Tamil Nadu before it merges into the seas with its wide delta. The temple. Brihadeshwara Temple. was the capital of the prosperous Chola Empire. fort and palaces of Thanjavur have been silent witness to the great cultural and artistic awakening that once it had experienced. Then it was also a great centre of trade and commerce and is rightly called the rice bowl of South India because of its agricultural prominence. and in January every year a great music festival is held when master musicians in Carnatic music assemble here. Tamil Nadu is flanked in the east by the Costal plains of the Bay of Bengal and bounded by Kerala in the vast and by Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka in the north. was placed under one of the three Nayakships during the Pandyas kingdom.5 meter high tower of the temple marks the crowning glory of the Chola architecture. the Maldive Islands and Sumatra and other places in Malay Peninsula. an important city during the Vijayanagar. Dedicated to Lord Shiva this masterpiece of Dravidian art has its Viman crowned with a dome of monolithic rock granite weighing over 81. His kingdom extended from Cape in the north to Comorin in the south. and which extended 6 kms in length.History of Thanjavur and Chola Dynasty hanjavur. the Pandyas of Madurai and the Ganges of Mysore. Rajarajestwar. which dominates the entire landscape. The bronzes made here are still the best. He was not only an able administrator but also a great builder. the Chera and the Pandyas of which Cholas was the most famous kingdom. The Cholas occupied present Thanjavur and the Trincnopoly districts with some adjoining areas. was built by the Chola King Rajaraja. T .5 tons. Rajaraja defeated the eastern Chalukyas of Vegi. South India is divided into three kingdoms namely Cholas.
His son. . He assumed the title of the Victor of the Ganges. many of the palace buildings remain in a sorry state. During his reign the kingdom was called the ‘Golden Age of Cholas. despite various promises of funds for renovation. It is Serfoji II who was ruler in Thanjavur during the eighteenth century. including an exhibition of oriental manuscripts and a superlative museum of Chola bronzes. His successors were weak and so the kingdom started disintegrating. Unfortunately. the Marathas made additions from the end of the seventeenth century onwards. was also an able ruler like his father. Work on the palace began in the mid sixteenth century under Sevappa Nayak. Thanjavur is roughly split in two by the east west Grand Anicut Canal. He was victorious up to the Banks of Ganges. but the Royal Palace Compound is still maintained by the Thanjavur Royal family. that the current Royal family of Thanjavur descends. He even went up to Bengal. the founder of the Nayak kingdom of Thanjavur. Around the compound are several reminders of Thanjavur’s past under these two dynasties. On his way he built a new capital called Gangaikondacholapuram and was the only Chola ruler to move the capital from Thanjavur.’ After his death the capital was moved back to Thanjavur but the Chola kingdom began to decline. None of the Nayak secular buildings survive. Rejendra Chola. The old town north of the canal was once entirely enclosed by a fortified wall. after the Thanjavur Nayakship lost it’s royal authority.
The St. The Institute tests a variety of Food Processing Technologies that suit cultivation of the crops and Consumers. an asurain Hindu mythology. Peter’s school at Thanjavur was established by Rev. In fact Thanjavur is well-known for its education. The Paddy Processing Research Centre (PPRC) later became the Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology (IICPT) in 2008 has made Thanjavur a food processing hub. The nearest seaport is Nagapattinamwhich is 84 kms from Thanjavur. red gram. gingelly.Modern Thanjavur he name Tanjavur is believed to have been derived from Tanjan. it means the place is surrounded by rivers and green paddy fields but is mostly made up mostly of barren uplands sloping towards the east. Organic farming is gradually being known to the farmers of Thanjavur. banana. The average high temperature in the summer is 40°C with a slight decline to 38°C in the winter. Thanjavur’s economy is mainly agro-based. The institute conducts many training programs and also delivers training to Research Scholars every year. ragi.000 rare manuscripts. C F Schwartz and was the first school in South India which taught English to the local populace. In order to maximize agricultural produce organic farming is being implemented. The Thanjavur Medical College was established in 1959. Christian Missionaries have played a prominent role in promoting education in Thanjavur. coconut. sugarcane and maize. The city acts as a focal point for food grains transported from the adjoining areas of the Cauvery Delta. Like many Tamil Nadu cities. The Tamil University is based in Thanjavur and is a home to the Saraswati Mahal Library which dates back to the end of the 16th century and contains over 30. Also the name is believed to have been derived from Than-sei-oor.732 as of 2011 and is well-connected by roads and railways with other with cities and towns in Tamil Nadu along with the rest of India. The major crops other than paddy include blackgram.90. Thanjavurs limits are fixed and marked by some temple which housed the ‘boundary deity’ The city. has a population of a 2. The Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology (IICPT) is located in Thanjavur. Agricultural Cultivation has been the major occupation of the local inhabitants of Thanjavur as the land is ideal for growing crops like Rice. T . which is the eleventh largest city in Tamil Nadu. The town sits at an elevation of 77 metres about sea level and has a landmass of 36 square kms. green gram. The city is known as the rice bowl of Tamil Nadu. The nearest airport is Tiruchirapalli International Airportlocated at a distance of 56 kilometres. who is believed to have to have been killed at this spot by the Hindu god Vishnu.
V. Thanjavur art plates craft. design development. Thalayattii Bomani (Thanjavur dolls) craft. awards are given and the selling of each craft within a large craft showroom is coordinated. musical instruments craft and the Thanjavur painting craft. bell metal craft. Government of India under their ‘Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hatashilp Vikas Yojana (B. scheme. exhibitions and other market promotional activities for these crafts.) scheme has promoted cluster via the pith work and root carving craft. . adopted by UNESCO in 1972.A. along with many of the Thanjavur crafts. the local artisans are given input on manufacturing of customer oriented items and fusion of design of all works. the Thanjavur Handicraft Society has also been formed among the artisans of this cluster.H. Beyond this initiative. metal casting/iron craft.Craft Bowl of the Thanjavur District World Heritage Government Certification he United Nations Educational. The Thanjavur Brihadishwara Temple falls under the UNESCO initiative. provide emergency assistance for World Heritage sites in immediate danger. UNESCO’s World Heritage mission is to help each State Party to safeguard World Heritage properties by providing technical assistance and professional training. The artisans have capacity to execute bulk orders of their particular craft. This is embodied in an international treaty called the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. helping the cluster to operate successfully.Y. create public awareness building activities for World Heritage conservation. Ministry of Textiles. This certification helps preserve the crafts of the area and our world’s history.H. protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity.V. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) seeks to encourage the identification. After the intervention of the B.Y.A. Within this society. This scheme is implemented through the Small Industries Product Promotion Organization (SIPPO) which assists in organizing skill training. T Thanjavur Handicrafts The office of the Development Commissioner (Handicrafts). encourage participation of the local population in the preservation of their cultural and natural heritage and to encourage international cooperation in the conservation of our world’s cultural and natural heritage.
root carving features Erikammbu root wood carved into figures of Lord Ganesha. The outer skin is peeled out by using a sharp knife to uncover the roots natural white colour. The figure is left as such without colouring.Brief Description of Thanjavur Crafts Root Carving ased in Kumbakonam. The root is shaped and designed with a simple tool knife. B .
Chokkalingam. The craft as also been used by developers to make miniatures for production planning. Pith work was traditionally used to decorate palace walls. churches and temple carts.Pith Work nder the same production as root carving in Kumbakonam. this wood is used for making miniatures of real life architectures or monuments. lakes and ponds) shaped into creative designs. Prakasam Pithwork (OPP) Head Post Office Head Post Office Road. Kumbakonam Tel: 0435-2421807 . Popularly known as ‘Chola Pith’ in West Bengal and Netti or Thakkai in Tamil Nadu. This craft is a seasonal craft with most production occurring during the summer because the monsoon season makes the wood too damp to work on.000. Production of a smaller work is only a day and pricing varies from Rs 300-2. U Contact Information: Thiru K. pith work features the soft and pliable weed that grows underwater (mainly rivers. chariots. A.
the icon first made of bee wax and then covered with a mud mixture (plaster of paris will be used if the order is rushed. After baking.00. otherwise the workers prefer the primitive mud mixture). The largest icon made is a 3 ton horse that takes four months in production costing Rs 25.Icon Craft ne of the ancient traditions of Swami Malai in Tamil Nadu is the craft of making icon craft bronze icons made in the Chola style. O Contact Information: Swamimalai Icon Indl. This craft has attained its supremacy during the rule of the Guptas. Hollow bronze/brass icons take more work than solid icons.000 per piece. bronze or brass is poured into the mud mold. Coop. The images of gods and goddesses in different postures are made by a wax process of casting. The general cost of the brass is Rs700 with the metal work production at Rs 15. Society North East Rajaveedhi Swami Malai Tel: 0435-2454433 . In the casting process.000.
Thalayati Bommai (Thanjavur Dolls) hanjavur is known for its dancing dolls as much as the dancing dolls are known for Thanjavur. These dolls earn their name from the prominent swaying heads of the dolls that are balanced from the pointed neck. Mariamman Koil . a craft that has been practiced since 1776 B. T Contact Information: Thiru Boopathy Saliya Street.C. The dolls are made from Kaliman (clay) and then coloured. For that reason we were not able to visit the craft during the cluster trip. This craft requires a high degree of skill and product only occurs in the summer since the clay cannot properly dry during the rainy season.
Apart from lamps. many utility oriented items. Natchiarkoil Tel: 0435-2466470 T . Contact Information: Natchiarkoil Bell Metal Works Kamalar Street.Metal Casting Craft he metal casting craft. is used to primarily cast Anna Vilakku lamps (pooja lamps). are being manufactured. These lamps are considered auspicious and are used regularly in pooja rooms and in all religious festivals. such as bells. traditional to Natchiarkoli of the Thanjavur district. These lamps are available in various designs and sizes.
After.Thanjavur Art Plates he Thanjavur art place is the art of engraving and embossing beautiful figures and images of different sizes and shapes on metal. on request. The metal sheets are heated up and hammered onto a mold. karithol powder and drinking water for a good finish. such as company logos. and fixing them on brass or copper plates. wax is poured on the backside of the metal sheet so maintain impression. T Contact Information: Thiru Gamesan Nanayakara Chetty Street. mythological or nonreligious. this is a traditional art work handed down by generations. Generally the art plates are generally round and mounted on a wooded frame. The designs follow a theme. and occasionally have special motifs. Made popular by Sarbhoji Raja but found 200 years later for a Maratha King. Thanjavur Tel: 93-4460230 . The various pieces of metal sheets are attached with rivets and polished with a brass brush. The plate production is privately run by Gamesan in Thanjavur. but is part of a cooperative society. mainly silver.
A Contact Information: Musical Instrument Workers Ind. Jackfruit wood is carved into a belly. neck and head shape. The production is spread across several groups of artisans. Popular in Chennai and Kochi. carved surface and is handed tuned. and then connected to form the 6-7 kg instrument. often making the instrument in their own homes. Coop.Veena Craft Veena is a traditional stringed musical instrument used during religious ceremonies and festivals. Society South Main Street. the Veena has a detailed. Thanjavur Tel: 0436-2237213 .
and generally are of Hindi deities ornamented with gold foil on an embossed surface. The paintings take the name of their place of origin. T Contact Information: Thiru Sambaji Palace Compound. The painting’s colours are strong and vivid applied with a flat bush stroke. The tradition is now maintained by the fifth generation of the Marathan King Sefoji II. East Raja Veedhi.Thanjavur Paintings he term Thanjavur painting refers to a certain style of painting which reached a characteristic form in the Thanjavur area during the Maratha period. Thanjavur .
Thanjavur Paintings .
learned the craft under the palace painters at a young age.Thanjavur Paintings Royal Family Maintaining the Tradition he Thanjavur style of paintings started to gain popularity under the reign of the Marathas during the sixteenth and seventeenth century. The paintings are exported to Singapore. Sambhaji has taken the craft that was merely a hobby for his ancestors. the United States and many European countries at buyer’s demand. In order to prevent the extinction of the craft. who has been in business for twenty-five years. where the Royal family still resides. and dedicated it solely to painting production. ten government selected students have been chosen to receive painting production training free of cost. a masterpiece weighing 750 kg worth over Rs 25 lakhs. then made a business out of the painting production. a fifth generation descendant of the Marathas Serfoji II of the Bhonsle clan. Today most of the product is handled by Sambhaji Raja Bhonsle. Malaysia. a dynasty that strongly promoted art and literature. including his father and grandfather. but the style originates from the Chola dynasty during the ninth century. Serfoji ruled Thanjavur from 1798-1832 until his death and first popularized the paintings. He holds a Tamil Nadu State Award for one of his paintings. He has taken one section of the Royal palace. T Example of early Thanjavur Paintings Another early Thanjavur painting . along with the Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Award and a Chandigarh Chief Minister Award. Sambhaji himself.
Members of the Thanjavur Royal Family
hanjavur paintings are known for their elegance, rich colours and attention to detail. The themes for most of these paintings are Hindu gods and goddesses and sense from Hindu mythology. The main feature of the paintings is the elaborate 24 carat gold foil pasted over textured detail (usually more floral motifs) made with a chalk powder mixture along with sparkling Kundhan stones in various colours. The early paintings were embedded with real diamonds, rubies and other precious stones; but as the paintings become more popular, the use of semi-precious and artificial stones became more common. Most paintings have a glass mirror border bordering the main image. A typical painting has one main figure, most often a deity, with a rounded body and almond shaped eyes. The background of most paintings is red, a distinctive mark of Thanjavur paintings, with the main figure depicted in white, yellow, green and blue. The deity is often surrounded by an arch or curtains covered in the gold foil. The gold foil is also used to highlight certain aspects of the painting like dresses, ornaments and jewellery worn by the deity. Each painting is framed before being sold.
List of Tools and Materials including Sourcing Name
Arabic Glue/Gum Carbon Paper Chalk paste Glass Mirror Herbal Solution Kundhan Stones Mirror Cutter Paint Brushes Poster Paint Sandpaper Tweezers Wooden Board 24 Carat Gold Foil
This herbal glue protects the wooden board and the painting from termites Used to trace sketch on canvas Mixed with Arabic Glue to create chalk paste, used for painting detailing and canvas smoothening Cut into rectangles and placed as a border on the canvas Crushed Chukkan (a hard rock) mixed with Tamarin seed glue Sized from 2mm-8mm A small sharp point with handle used to cut glass Size # 0,1,2,3,4,5,6 Used to create a matte finish Used to polish canvas surface Used to help lay gold foil Originally Jackfruit wood, now plywood is used. Glued onto a thin paper before application on the painting
Purchased from a nearby Medical Shop Purchased from a nearby Shop Purchased from a local shop Purchased from local shops Purchased from a nearby shop Purchased from local shops at Rs 1-10 Purchased from local shops Purchased from a nearby Stationary Shop Purchased from a nearby stationary shop Purchased from a nearby shop Purchased from a nearby shop Purchased locally from any wood working store. Purchased from Jaipur at Rs 20,000 for 160 sheets
Materials Arabic Glue/Gum Chalk Paste .
Gold Foil Kundhan Stones .
Tools Glass Cutter Tweezers .
Paint Brushes .
Each of them earns Rs 10. two other working work along side. As help to Karthi with the gold foiling work. each of them earning Rs 4.000 monthly wage. F Name Bhaskar Karthi Raghavan Job Title Embossing and Design Work Gold Foiling Painting/Colouring Bhaskar . Three trained craftsmen head the production with some additional assistant in gold foiling from less trained workers. at least two years of training is need.List of Employees including Job Title or practice in this painting.000 monthly wage. Ragahavan is in charge of the overall production.
Karthi Raghavan .
Chalk powder is put in water and kept aside for two days. Then Arabic glue is added. The board is covered with two layers of this cloth. Canvas Preparation The plywood is covered with a chalk paste-soaked cotton cloth and again layered with the chalk paste mixture. To polish and smooth this surface. the chalk paste is prepared days in advance. Next. The batter is used for embossing has more water whereas the detailing work is a thicker mixture. a detailed sketch is traced onto the canvas using a carbon sheet. T 1. After surface is polished. mixed and filtered.Steps of the Process he process of making a Thanjavur painting involves many stages. Before the painting begins. granite stone is rubbed on the canvas. two layers of an herbal solution are applied on the canvas to preserve the wooden base and cotton cloth covering. Prepared Boards Photocopy of sketch that will be traced onto board Initial sketch showing plywood backside .
Once both layers have dried.2. The second layer of chalk paste is thicker and used to create minute detailing. the surface is rubbed with a damp cloth to remove any cracks. dresses. green or white) are glued to the board. jewellery. The first layer is a thinner chalk paste that creates a slightly elevated surface. the chalk paste is applied as embossing on the decorative borders. weapons or any furniture in the initial sketch. pots. Sandpaper is used to polish this layer after it has dried. curtains. usually on the border. Chalk Paste and Kundan Stone Application In select points on the painting. After the stone application. arches. thrones. The chalk paste is applied in two layers. Kundhan stone application First layer of chalk paste . jewellery and pots Kundhan stones in various colours (usually red.
Chalk paste embossing .
Finished Detailing .
the thin gold foil sheets were delicately applied.3. That shape is cut out and Arabic glue (called herbal glue by Karthi) is applied to the back of the foil. gold foiling is applied. A thin razor blade is used to clean the edges. In order to make this process for comfortable for the craftsmen. Gold Foiling After the applied chalk paste dries. Creating initial impression . Originally. Finally. The foil is applied by gently pressing with a cloth. the gold foil is glued onto thin paper so that the foil is less prone to ripping. First an impression is made of the detail on the gold foil by plane the foil sheet of the detail and gently pressing with a cloth. A pen is used to highlight minute detailing. black paint is used to draw small lines on the gold paper to further show highlight the details.
Cleaning edges with thin razor Deepening impression with pen .
Painting Paint is applied in three steps.Applying black lines to highlight details 4. artists used natural colors like vegetable dyes. but poster paint is now preferred since it proves brighter shade contrast. mainly the background. The second base is added texture and shadowing. . In the past. the poster paint is diluted with water so that as it dries smooth and without visable paint strokes. The third base is for detailing. The first step is a light base to create initial color. In each step.
First layer of paint .
After adding shadow .
Example of framing . Framing At this point. the painting is completed.5. Two types of teak wood frames are used: plain style and the Chettinad style that has more ornamental design details.
Process Chart of Painting Making .
Director of Painting Production Palace Compound. The paintings are sold at several show rooms in Thanjavur but can also be found in nearby cities such as Mamallapuram. The paintings size varies from a small ‘post card’ size to a three by four meter masterpiece. they now hang in offices and homes. as an ornate decoration of puja rooms. Tirunelevi and Chennai. Salem. A Current contact information for purchasing or inquiry: B. East Raja Veedhi.000. Thanjavur – 613 302 Tel: 04362-230060 Chennai Showroom. Ooty.000-Rs 1. Anna Salai. Sambaji Bhonsle. Works commissioned can be purchased by contacting Sambaji at the Royal Palace compound directly. Most of the painting sales are between Rs 5. Chennai 600 – 002 Tel: 044-28520624. 28550157 . 108.Marketing and Cost of Production lthough the paintings have a rich royal history. Thanjavur Tel: 0436-2273127 Thanjavur Showroom.00. Railway Station Road. Some do seek the paintings for their original religious purpose.
the image of baby Krishna. but slightly changed the paintings main subject away from its usual religious context. we maintain the traditional embellishments with the chalk paste. We maintain the bright colours characteristic of Thanjavur paintings. we choose a peacock. In relation to Krishna. In our variation.Our Thanjavur Painting uring our trip. Within the peacock design. but also added the paste to all parts of the main image as to take advantage of the paintings unique raised surface. we echoed the floral motifs in the chalk paste embellishment to keep the main spirit of the Thanjavur paintings. and another as a slight variation of the traditional technique. D Our Thanjavur Painting . we made one painting to better understand the manufacturing process.
W. Analysis of Thanjavur Painting Strengths • World renowned painting since the eighteenth century • The paintings three dimensional texture and unique technique of gold foiling • Easy availability and handling of raw materials • Low capital investment and minimal man power required at initial stages • Easy establishment and development of production centres • High value added products Weakness • Low-quality paint used in painting • Lack of skilled labour due to low interest • Still confined to rural areas • Lack of promotion and marketing of the product Opportunities • Rise in demand for the craft • Promotional activities such as the national and state award events for the paintings • Training young students free of cost to preserve the craft Threat • Religious subject inhibits marketing to non-Hindu’s .T.O.S.
Veena Manufacturing .
Western music scholars believe that the instrument has many characteristics that belong to European style lute. She is also represented as the Goddess of Knowledge. which in turn gave birth to the formation of Veena.Veena Manufacturing Religious Significance and History If there is any instrument that has earned the status close to godliness and managed to mesmerize the audience with its soothing melodies. Once the basic structure of the Veena was formed. The history of Veena dates back to the Vedic period. which is about 1500 BCE. despite efforts to revive it. the instrument also has religious association. further changes took place to bring about a distinctive sound. This 1. . The music concert does not only help retain an ancient culture but also cater to a global audience. Today however you can find several musical festivals such as the National Veena Festival in India and the Thayagraja Concert in Chicago and in Thanjavur to promote and encourage aspiring musicians. One who masters the art of playing this musical device is said to attain deliverance from the cycle of birth The Veena performance in the ancient times used to be accompanied during the chants of the Yagya as a way to please to the gods and goddess. With growing globalization. it has to be the Veena. this art form is almost on the verge of being extinct. The legend states that it all began when a hunter first discovered a different sound from his bow when it began to vibrate. the influences of western music diminished its importance in the country. The Veena has many discrepancies in sound and shape it has been customized and improvised over the decades to create a unique style from the lute. In the olden days this instrument had very few frets but today the Sarswathi Veena is said to have 24 frets on it. The curious hunter tried various grass roots and animal fiber to create music. Besides this. Veena being an age-old musical instrument holds religious importance and also symbolizes ancient culture and heritage in southern India. Veena is a popular Carnatic music instrument that is said to be many centuries old. It soon became an important source of entertainment as many musicians where seen playing them in royal courts and in temples. as it has been described in many sacred texts that as goddess Sarawati playing this instrument.5 meter long instrument has two drones on both the side to give it an even balance and is connected with four different strings along with frets that give different harmonics than any other music device. Today.
. creation. T . the Veenas which were used were not as convenient as Saraswathi Veena. The 24 frets get their importance by the nada produced from them and not because of the metal used. the 24 frets representing 12 Sruthees in two octaves (24) indicate the 24 letters (Aksharas) of GAA Y A THRI MANTHRA. The Vedic representation of the human spinal cord as the musical instrument (Veena) is shown in the next figure. Shiti and Laya) even in Nada we see the same three states. the productions of various seed-sounds in relation to various chakras starting from Mooladhara at the base are shown. Below. sustenance and merger (Srusti.Aim of Playing Veena and Science in Veena he musical instrument (Veena) represents the spinal cord important in physical. The importance of various chakras in spiritual path is well known. Likewise. The 4 strings bear the Suddha Satvaguna. The Sarva Raga Mela Veena of Raghunatha Bhoopala is today’s Saraswati Veena.“TAT SAVITUR VARENYAMBHARGO DEVASYA DHEEMAHIDHIYO YONAH PRACHODAYAT”.As we see in the universe the three states viz. Prior to Saraswathi Veena. as we seen above the number 24 also relates to the 24 syllables in the Vedic Gayatri mantra. emotional and spiritual aspects of life. The production of Saraswathi Veena is the result of many experiments conducted by sages and vanikas. The 24 frets of the instrument are analogous to the 24 cartilages in the spinal cord.
The human back-bone (Spinal Chord) stands straight from the Mooladhara (the seat of the body) up to the head.Veena has been compared to human body.This shows the resemblance between the Daivi Veena and man made Veena. human back bone has 24 divisions. the back bone has 7 cervicles.According to the anatomy. So it is definite that to attain Moksha nada yoga is a correct path. 12 thorasic and 5 lumbar vertibrays.Similarly the back bone is thick at the Mooladhara and the distance between each ring becomes less while proceeding towards the Brahma randhra.In Veena the distance between each fret is broad in the lower octaves and becomes less while proceeding towards the higher octaves. . Many Gods have played many instruments but only Veena has been given such Godly sacred position. and for practising nada yoga Veena is an appropriate instrument. Just like the 24 frets of the Veena. In the top of the head exists the Brahma Randhra. Hence Veena is considered to be Moksha dayaka liberating instrument.
most of us are familiar with the Saraswati Veena which is commonly played in many events even today. the latter has a close resemblance to the guitar. There are many modern day versions to it such as Ranjan Veena and Mohan Veena. Vichitra Veena like the name suggests is a distinctive kind of veena that does not have any frets and looks similar to the Gottuvadhyam. I . until date. Every Veena has the basic shape of a Kuddam. There have been many versions of the Veena. Kolkata craftsmen have been well known for creating the best Saraswati Veena and Thanjavur artisans are famous for producing some of the finest Rudra Veena and Vichitra Veena in the world.Basic Characteristics of a Veena t's a known fact that the Veena is an ancient instrument that has undergone several changes. While the former looks similar to the sitar. Veena continues to undergo various changes. However. neck and head along with some carving detailing and musical strings and 24 frets. Rudra Veena which is said to be an instrument played by Lord Shiva according to scholars is now completely declined. To begin with.
Components of Veena .
manjal and kaaram. used to cover gaps on the resonator Plastic colour stick that is heated applied to the Veena for decoration Oil stone-esque material used for sharpening tools Brush Chinna Sutti Katti Kuthusi Madal Uli Madu Mani Muppat Aaram Ona Koradu Patta Sali Pose Kambi Pudi Vetti Pudichiravi Rambam Rambatule Rojanam Saanakkallu .List of Tools and Materials including Sourcing Local Name Adi Gol Arak Aram Bitt Blade Description/Function Scale Glue heated up and then used to attach plastic sheets Filer Used to make decorate holes on the sides Hacksaw blade For touch ups Small Hammer The metal pieces on the Veena. 24 pieces for 24 tones Needle at the end of the Tamra Kudu Steel tool used to make the inside of the Veena hollow Used for hammering Pearle-esque material used to decorate the Veena Used to sharpen tools Used to tighten strings Emery sheet sand paper used for wood and metal Cycle Spokes used to attach strings onto Veena Scissor device used for cutting Clamp used to hold wood and metal pieces when cutting or filing Saw used to cut wood Mixed with Fevicol. plaster of paris.
Sathuram Solution Sutti Tamru Kudu & Villi Kadi Varuvu Katta Vettu Koradu Yala Padi Handle made of dear horns (maan kombala Paliu) A rubber mixture that is used to stick plastic sheets onto the Veena Hammer Manual wood driller Used to mark straight lines Used to cut wire strings affixed to Veena Grater used to flatten and smooth surface .
Muthu Kumar. Vijay Kumar. Anurag Raroliya. Shanker . Rayar Sandep Kumar Shekhar V. the following did the majority of the work. V. Shanker Experience Job 40 years 25 years 30 years 7 years 28 years 7 years Owner of Veena manufacturing Veena manufactoring (head craftsmen) Sources wood for Veena and thabal a Meruthalam Wood carving and Veena constuction Wood carving and filing Tools management Skekhar. Name M. Of the workers we met.List of Employees and Job Title Within the group of craftsmen that we visited each had followed the same line of work as their father and had learned most of their skills in a family setting. Narayanan Muthu Kumar R.
The ordinary style is made of three sections. kuddam. No molds are used for the carving. The Veena carving is a road side venture under a shady tree right outside a local park. The open space allows room for the craftsmen to carve the log into the initial Veena Shape. Carving initial shape Jackfruit wood before carving begins . just years of experience. It is attractive and the highest quality Veenas have the entire body carved out of a single block of jackfruit wood. neck and head. Wood Sourcing and Carving Initial Shape The Saraswati Veena is one of the most ancient and revered of south Indian instruments.Steps of the Process 1.
Chiseling the Kudam. only skill gained through years of experience Chiseling in process One piece Veena after chiseling Yali Carved by Villi Kadi’s . Neck and Head In a small workshop.2. There are no guides for the work. the surface of the initial Venna shape is smoothed and given a definite shape. Even the smaller parts like the vallarm. gaddi sakai and dandi are given detailed chiseling.
Some Veenas have embellishment of melted colours. Filing and adding Carved Embellishment Before the grooves are carved on the Kuddam. The groves have no set width. Groves in the Veena for decorative embellishment are made by a needle and hammer. it is scraped to make the surface even. Filers are used to make the surface even smoother. onto a strip of mani glued to the Veena. sizes and textures for each particular use. Colouring.3. Carved detail Melting colours into plastic strips . rojnam. The filers used are of different shapes.
When the rambatule melts. Kava (marron) and majal (yellow) . After kneading. When a natural defeat is too large to fix with a bandage. more pieces are stuck until a large lump is formed. one and half inch strips of cardboard are cut with a sharp chisel to create bandages. Meanwhile.Majal and kava is also used to hide any cracks and given additional finish.4. As this gum keeps melting. the glue is left in water to cool. another piece of wood is affixed with a joint with Fevicol. Repair of Any Defects Small pieces of rambatule are melted and stuck together on one end of a wooden stick. the bandage is place on any cracks and pressed quickly.
The strips are nailed inside the dandi. The gaddi sakai (the part of the instrument that holds the frets) is fixed into the dandi by nails which fall over the wooden strip. Assembly Nearly completed Veena . then allowed to cool for a strong joint.5. Assembly All the joints are stuck by a natural tree gum. The gum is heated and applied between the two parts.
Finally the surface is rubbed with a fine powder that gives the surface an even. making the surface very soft and smooth. Smooth Finish . there are different coloured areas of the wood. natural look. Sawdust is mixed with Fevicol and applied to the wood to create a even coloured surface. Then dark strokes are applied to mimic the appearance of wood grain.6. Due to the nature of a natural material like wood. the Veena surface is given a final smoothening with sandpaper. Finishing After the assembly of all the parts.
Heating coal to soften wax Tuning . Tuning At this point the Veena construction is complete. At this point the 24 frets are pressed into the wax at particular places determined by the ear of a highly trained craftsmen and correct distances.7. Honey comb wax is melted and fixed on the gaddi sakkai.
Process Chart of Veena Making .
There are around 30 families in the town dependent on making this musical instrument for their livelihood. Anna Salai. The Veena still maintains its religious function and is often used for religious events and festivals across India.000. Society South Main Street. the Goddess Saraswati.Marketing and Cost of Production his is evident from the innumerable treatises on music in ancient India and famous sculptures in ancient places of worship depicting musicians. Thanjavur veenas are manufactured in great numbers. Gods and Goddesses are often depicted playing various instruments. 28550157 .000-15. which is capable of evoking a meditativeatmosphere. Assembled Veena’s can be purchased at several local Thanjavur crafts stores in the district. Thanjavur – 613 302 Tel: 04362-230060 Chennai Showroom. 108. Pricing is from Rs 12. Coop. particularly the Goddess of learning and the arts. Thanjavur Tel: 0436-2237213 Thanjavur Showroom. Chennai 600 – 002 Tel: 044-28520624. T Contact Information: Musical Instrument Workers Ind. Railway Station Road. Its main attraction is the mellow tonal quality. whose image is never seen without a Veena. while many still remain rural and a small-scale industry.
We hoped that changing the Yali would give a modern touch to an ancient instrument so that music lovers could play it without the religious context. B Constructing our Veena model . an essential tool for playing the Veena. we created a small Veena model using a coconut shell and spare wood. we were unable to construct one for the cluster documentation. we replaced the Yali with a spiral like design and added one additional engraving for oil. Adding the extra groove would give space for oil. With our own improvisation. As a variation of the original shape.Our Veena Model ecause of the highly labor intensive nature of the Veena.
education potiental customers • No competition Threats • Inadequate knowledge about the new technologies • Lack of interest in learning the craft • Still confined to rural areas • Youth less interested in religious music (tending toward western-style music) . mass marketing) • Little knowledge of origin and purpose by both the craftsmen and consumer Opportunities • Rising demand for craft in developed countries • Inclusion in goverment school syllabus. high sales in Singapore) • Low capital investment • No reliance on electricty for any step in manufacturing • No excess pollution during the manufacturing process Weakness • Lengthly production time (10-15 days) • Due to vast deforestation. reduing Veena lifespan and quality) • No advertisement or promotional activities (i. low availability of whole piece jackfruit tree (as a result multiple pieces of wood are joined together.e.SWOT Analysis Of Veena Strengths • Strong devotional and spiritual context • Low labour cost resulting in a competitive price • High value added product • Potential source of foreign revenue because of high export (ex.
both required years of practice and the patience of a spiritual mind. The art of Thanjavur is produced with the same techniques and in the same spiritual context used by its ancient craftsmen. it became obvious we needed more experience and a proper mindset to reach the skill level required for the paintings. is not only impressive but gives both physical and mental rejuvenation. This customs is a result a belief in conserving the natural. Again. made-man materials. people prefer eating on banana leaves. During our cluster we learned the general skills of the Thanjavur paintings and Veena manufacturing. making group decisions and acclimating to the regional environment. This cluster initiative taught us how to communicate without knowledge of the regional language. T . presented on a banana leaf and completed with betel leaves. patiently considering the opinion of others. Modern man’s thought is often clouded by new technology and profit and is therefore unable to make the Thanjavur are in the same spiritual context with the same quality.Learning Outcome his cluster initiative was an opportunity for us to observe the art and beauty of the Tanjauvr craft while gaining knowledge of the craft techniques. abundant materials rather than sparse. the delicate application of chalk paste and the flat application of paint. God-given resources by using natural. This also gave us a chance to work as a group. It is an example of intricate work and construction without modern technique and tools. The unique techniques’ in Thanjavur paintings we had a chance to learn include gold foiling on embossed detailing. Each required practice and patience. and because of this we learned more about the process and history of the crafts rather the acquiring the craft’s skill. Thanjavur is peaceful and serene. Veena manufacturing gave exposure to both wood working and construction of musical instruments. Although serving plates are abundant in Thanjavur. While our efforts were genuine. The twelve days spent Thanjavur gave us exposure to the origin and art of the district’s craft cluster. The Big Temple is a truely awesome example of the Chola dynasty’s craftsmanship. The delicious food of Thanjavur. of Thanjavur. including note placement and string tuning in which we had no previous musical knowledge. The crafts of the area require years of experience.
and there’s very little choice at tvhe bottom of the market. During our visit to Thanjavur the city remained dry and dusty with a desert like sun. Immediately after arriving in Thanjavur. M 93. We managed to book two rooms in the lodge equipped with fans. In order to respectfully blend into the towns culture.Travelogue Climate hanjavur is well known as one of the hottest cities in Tamil Nadu. we stayed only a short distance from both the Palace compound and the Veena manufacturing. within striking distance of the railway station. Abraham Pandithar Road. While Thanjavur was hot. considering how popular the city is for filming Tamil movies. Thanks to the central organization of the city. T Lodging ost of Thanjavur’s hotels are concentrated in the newer part of town. They tend to charge higher rates than you’d pay elsewhere in the state. we escaped some of the heat in the Royal Palace compound. we dressed in ethnic wear which provided some relief from the heat because of the loose fit and dupatas covering the girls head from the glaring sun. a television and two beds each. Thanjavur 613 001 Tel: 04362-230022 Ashoka Lodge . We did experience some trouble finding a room. as a group. we rushed to Ashoka lodge just down the street from the bus station. The palace’s construction was mainly thick stone that acts a natural air conditioning.
Taxis into town here cost Rs 100. inconveniently located 4 km southwest of the center. in the south of the old town. or you can jump on one of the 74 buses that shuttle to and from the center every few minutes. Thanjavur is an important railway junction of the Southern Railways. in the middle of nowhere. During our stay we strongly relied on the close proximity of the town and mostly walked with the occasional late night auto. has a computerized system for booking trains to Chennai. Tiruchirapalli and Rameshwaram. The railway station. Other services from Madurai. opposite the City Bus Stand. stop at the New Bus Stand. just south of the centre. S . Thanjavur is connected by rail with most important cities and towns in India. Tiruchirapalli and Kumbakonam. We took a sleeper train to Thanjavur from Chennai that took roughly seven hours.Transportation ome buses from Chennai and Puducherry pull in at the old-long distance State bus stand.
A . Rice was given in a heaping scoop with popards served to at crunch to the lunch. Most of our meals ended with paan that was completely edible. That mixed with endless pack of biscuits and aloo bhujya was our main diet during the trip. The meals are characterized by banana leafs laid on Thali’s with cups of different gravies and sweet pongal.Food ll meals during the trip were eaten at local restaurants with most our lunch being a typical south India meal.
In the sanctum of this temple. made of a single block of black granite. The thirteen story tower is covered with fine sculptures including those depicting the one-hundred and eighty poses of Natyam enumerated in Bharat’s classical Natya Shashtra. is enshrined a huge Shiva Lingam. D . Before the sanctum lays the Nandi Bull. The first day we got to Thanjavur we immediately visited the temple.Sites Visited uring our stay we had the chance to visit the Brihadeshwara Temple. under the superb tower. The temple stands encircled by a huge courtyard with cloisters. the second largest of its kind. The inner walls are decorated with excellent paintings and frescoes reminiscent of Ajanta cave paintings.
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