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14 Transformer Phasors

14 Transformer Phasors

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Published by Shahnawaz Ahmad

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Published by: Shahnawaz Ahmad on Aug 28, 2012
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 (a) Ideal transformer at no load 8/28/12 (b) Ideal . Ideal Transformer Phasor: to develop the phasor of a Here we are going practical transformer first at no load and then under load. But before that we will have a look on the phasor of an ideal transformer.

in the direction of flow of primary current. various 8/28/12  The imperfections are now . The various imperfections in a real transformer are now considered one by one. Transformer at No Loadthe no load .  The emf -E1 is being replaced by V1’ just for convenience. the magnetic flux Φ Now for being common to both primary and secondary is drawn first. Alternatively V1’ may be treated as a voltage drop in the primary. The induced Emf E1 and E2 lags Φ by 90 and are shown accordingly in the fig.

The core loss consist of Hysteresis loss and eddy current loss. The hysteresis loss in the core is minimized by using Cold-rolledgrain oriented (CRGO) steel and eddy current loss is minimized by using thin laminations for the core.a) Effect of Transformer core loss:. This . It also 8/28/12 that that the current Ie shows leads the flux ‘Φ’ by an angle of ‘α’. ) The above two figs shows the variation the exciting current Ie with respect to flux.

since its function is to produce the required magnetic flux ‘Φ’. second component is along V1’ which is ‘Ic’ and this component is called as the core-loss component or the power component of ‘Ie’. The No Load primary current ‘Ie’ is called the exciting current of the transformer and can be resolved into two components. component ‘Im’ along ‘Φ’ is called the reactive or magnetizing current. 8/28/12  The  The . since ‘Ic’ when multiplied by V1’ gives total core loss Pc.

8/28/12 .

by adding to V1’.b) Effect of Transformer resistance:.The effect of transformer resistance R1 can be accounted for. Note that ‘IeR1’ is in phase with ‘Ie’ and is drawn parallel to ‘Ie’ in the phasor diagram 8/28/12 . a voltage drop equal to ‘IeR1’.

8/28/12 .c) Effect of Leakage flux:. II. which links only the primary winding. The primary leakage flux ΦL1.  This magnetic establishes: potential difference I. The mutual flux Φ linking both the windings.For the direction of current ‘Ie’ in the primary the point A is at higher magnetic potential than point B.

Although ΦL1 does passes through some part of iron core. similarly ΦL1 induces an emf Ex18/28/12 in the primary winding and  On  In . the primary winding. the reluctance offered to ΦL1 is mainly due to air. primary leakage flux ΦL1 exist largely in the air . Therefore it can be taken is phase with the exciting current Ie that produce it. The mutual flux Φ exist entirely in the ferromagnetic core and therefore involves hysteresis loop. Φ induces an EMF E1 lagging it by 90. the other hand.

 Since Ie leads Ex by 90. it is possible to write Ex1=-JIeX1. total voltage equation  The in the primary at no load can be written asV1=V1’+Ie(R1+jx1) 8/28/12 .

 When switch8/28/12 closed.Transformer Phasor Under Load  In this the secondary circuit of the transformer is considered first and then primary for developing the phasor diagram under Load. secondary ‘S’ is .

secondary resistance drop  The Is accounted by drawing I2R2 Parallel to I2.  The secondary mmf I2N2 give which Rise to leakage flux Primary. Assuming the load to have a lagging power factor so that I2 lags secondary load voltage V2 by an angle θ2.  The Link only secondary & not secondary no load Voltage E2 must have a 8/28/12 .

voltage equation for the secondary circuit can now be written as:-----(a) E2= V2 + I2(R2+jX2)= V2 + I2Z2  The   Where Z2 is the secondary leakage impedance of the transformer. I2R2 and JI2X2 gives secondary induced emf E2 as shown in fig. we can also draw the transformer phasor for the leading load as well. Thus the phasor sum of V2. 8/28/12  Similarly .

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