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ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universiteti ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universiteti ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universiteti ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universiteti ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universiteti
humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis
fakulteti fakulteti fakulteti fakulteti fakulteti
semiotikis kvlevis centri semiotikis kvlevis centri semiotikis kvlevis centri semiotikis kvlevis centri semiotikis kvlevis centri
s e m i o t i k a s e m i o t i k a
s e m i o t i k a s e m i o t i k a s e m i o t i k a
samecniero Jurnali samecniero Jurnali samecniero Jurnali samecniero Jurnali samecniero Jurnali
II II
II II II
SEMI OT I CS
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL
Tbilisi
Tbilisi
2007
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mTavari redaqtori
cira barbaqaZe
nomris redaqtori
Tamar berekaSvili
pasuxismgebeli mdivani
Tamar lomiZe
nino abakelia
nomris recenzentebi
guCa kvaracxelia
nodar ladaria
izabela qobalava
UDC 8122
misamarTi:
saqarTvelo 0179 Tbilisi
ColoyaSvilis q. #3
semiotikis kvlevis centri
ISSN 1512-2409
ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universiteti 2007
saredaqcio kolegia
garekanis dizaini: daviT maWavariani
Editor-in-Chief
Tsira Barbakadze
Editor
Tamar Berekashvili
Executive Secretary
Tamar Lomidze
Nino Abakelia
References
Gucha Kvaratskhelia
Nodar Ladaria
Izabela Kobalava
Editorial Board
E-mail: tsira_barbakadze@iliauni.edu.ge
Address:
Georgia 0179 Tbilisi
Cholokashvili st. #3
Researching Centure of Semiotics
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S i n a a r s i S i n a a r s i S i n a a r s i S i n a a r s i S i n a a r s i
enisa da literaturis semiotika
rusudan asaTiani
informaciis struqturirebis sintaqsuri modelebi qarTulSi 7
cira barbaqaZe
sityva azris ZiebaSi, anu `varskvlavebis poetika~
ana kalandaZis poeziaSi 29
TinaTin bolqvaZe
nasesxebi sityvebis semiotika 41
marine ivaniSvili
mcenareTa samyaros protoqarTveluri da protoindo-
evropuli saxelebi 52
zaal kikviZe
leqtur terminTa semiotikuri wredi 65
Tamar lomiZe
filosofia da poezia (fixte da baraTaSvili) 75
merab RaRaniZe
`zevsuri~ akakis poeziaSi 84
kulturis semiotika
nino abakelia
saganTa funqcionirebisaTvis samyaros modelSi (qarTuli
masalis mixedviT) 99
daviT andriaZe
mxatvrul-diskursuli sivrcis kategoriaTa Tezaurusi 108
qeTevan alaverdaSvili
ferxul `Zabras~ mniSvnelobisaTvis 115
qeTevan bezaraSvili
antikuri ritorikis Teoriis cnebaTa reinterpretaciisaTvis
bizantiur da qarTul literaturaSi 123
Tamar berekaSvili
erovnuli ena, erovnuli kultura, erovnuli suli 132
nino doborjginiZe
TargmanTan dakavSirebuli problemebis funqcionalizacia
sxvadasxva enaSi 145
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zurab kiknaZe
Tasi, diogene da Svidi brZeni 164
irakli mWedliSvili
metafora, msgavseba da `umSvenieresi kavSiri~, romelic samyaros
sxeuls srulyofilad aerTebs... 178
semiotikis istoria da Teoria
manana kvaWantiraZe
Carlz pirsi da Tanamedrove semiotikis problemebi 189
levan cagareli
metafora _ rogorc semiotikuri fenomeni 208
semiotika da sxva...
givi alxaziSvili
sami semiotikuri esse 223
cira barbaqaZe
`vinc wvimis saidumlo icis...~ (guCa kvaracxelias verlibri) 232
levan bregaZe
rogor vaswavli semiotikas or saaTSi 243
amiran gomarTeli
`meranis~ qaragma 250
gia joxaZe
XX saukunis istoriuli narativi da miTologia 258
debiuti
Tamar yuraSvili
semantema `gzis~ konceptualuri veli qarTulSi 267
Targmanebi
iuri lotmani
poeturi teqstis struqturuli analizis amocanebi da meTodebi
(Targmna Tamar lomiZem) 276
iuri lotmani
uflis gamocxadeba Tu azartuli TamaSi? (Targmna gia joxaZem)
290
alfred barkovi
`winaaRmdegobebis~ roli literaturul SedevrebSi
(Targmna Tamar berekaSvilma) 300
vladimer toporovi
saxeli, rogorc kulturis faqtori (Targmna nino abakeliam) 307
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C O N T E N T S
Semiotics of Language and Literature
Rusudan Asatiani
Syntactic Means of Information Structuring in Georgian 28
Tsira Barbakadze
The Word Related to Researching of Conception or Poetics of Stars
in Anna Kalandadzes Poetry 40
Tinatin Bolkvadze
Semiotics of Borrowed Words 51
Marine Ivanishvili
Proto-Kartvelian and Proto-Indo-European Plant-Names
(the conifers: fir, fir (-tree), pine (-tree)) 63
Semiotics of Culture
Zaal Kikvidze
A Semiotic Circuit of Lectal Terms 74
Tamar Lomidze
Self-conception in the Works of Georgian Romanticist Poets 84
Merab Ghaghanidze
Zevsuri in the Poetry of Akaki Tsereteli 98
Nino Abakelia
Towards the Investigation of the Functions of things in the Pattern of World
(According to the Georgian Data) 106
David Andriadze
Thesaurus of Artistic Discourse Space Categories 114
Ketevan Alaverdashvili
On the Meaning of the Round-dance Called Dzabra 122
Ketevan Bezarashvili
On the Reinterpretation of the Concepts of Classical Rhetorical Theories
in Byzantine and Georgian Literature 131
Tamar Berekashvili
National Language, National Culture, National Spirit 144
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Nino Doborjginidze
Functionalisation of Problems Related to the Translation in Different
Languages 163
Zurab Kiknadze
A Cup, Diogenes and Seven Sages 177
Irakli Mchedlishvili
Metaphor, Similarity and the Finest Union which in Perfection Connects
a Body of the Universe... 188
History and Theory of Semiotics
Manana Kvachantiradze
Charles Peirce and Problems of Modern Semiotics 208
Levan Tsagareli
Metafiction as a Semiotical Phenomenon 222
Debute
Tamar Kurashvili
Conceptual Field of the Semanthema way in the Georgian Language 275
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e n i s a d a l i t e r a t u r i s e n i s a d a l i t e r a t u r i s e n i s a d a l i t e r a t u r i s e n i s a d a l i t e r a t u r i s e n i s a d a l i t e r a t u r i s
s e m i o t i k a s e m i o t i k a s e m i o t i k a s e m i o t i k a s e m i o t i k a
rusudan asaTiani
informaciis struqturirebis
sintaqsuri modelebi qarTulSi
1. Sesavali: sakiTxis dasma
winadadeba, sazogadod, ufro met in-
formacias moicavs da gadmogvcems, vidre
masSi Semaval sityvaTa mniSvnelobebisa da
sintaqsuri mimarTebebis struqturul-
semantikuri mTlianoba iZleva. winadadebaSi
informaciis struqturirebis sxvadasxva-
gvari saSualebebi cvlis winadadebis prag-
matikul Sinaarss da implikaciurad ufro
farTo konteqstur Sinaarsebsac moicavs.
am fenomenis sakvlevad Tanamedrove enaT-
mecnierebaSi SemuSavda garkveuli Teoriuli
safuZvlebi da meTodologia; ganisazRvra
ZiriTadi cnebebi, romelTa saSualebiT, met-
naklebi warmatebiT, SesaZlebelia winadadebis
sainformacio struqturis kvleva.
2. Teoriuli midgoma
informaciis struqturireba, misi
SefuTva, xorcieldeba opoziciis safuZvelze,
sadac informaciis erTi nawili gamoikveTeba
informaciis meore nawilisgan. sakomunikacio,
pragmatikuli TvalsazrisiT, es gamokveTili
Nnawili aris aqtualizebuli, xazgasmuli,
mniSvnelovani da warmogvidgens sainformacio
nakadSi dawinaurebul informacias. nebismieri
filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, saq. mecnierebaTa
akademiis g. wereTlis sa-
xelobis aRmosavleT-
mcodneobis institutis
wamyvani mecnieri Tanam-
Sromeli.
ZiriTadi Sromebi:
qarTvelur enaTa tipo-
logiis sakiTxebi; Con-
ceptual Representations of
the Verb Forms Creation
(on the Georgian Data);
Semantics and Typology of
Yes/No particles (on the
Georgian data); ZiriTadi
semantikuri rolebis
konceptualuri warmod-
gena da situaciis lin-
gvisturi struqturireba.
interesTa sfero:
sintaqsur konstruqcia-
Ta tipologia, kognitiu-
ri lingvistika, sainfor-
macio struqturebi, qar-
Tvelur enaTa gramati-
kuli sistema da misi ti-
pologiuri Tavisebure-
bebi.
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saxis `dawinaureba~ (igive: xazgasma, gaSuqeba, fokusSi moqceva,
logikuri gamokveTa, win wamoweva, TvalTaxedvis centrSi moqceva
da sxva amgvari) SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc erTi, saerTo fenomeni
[asaTiani, 2007], romelic asaxavs informaciis lingvisturi
struqturirebis mTavar strategias. aqtualizeba sxvadasxva
struqturis mqone enebSi gansxvavebuli formaluri saSualebebiT
xorcieldeba da nebismier enobriv doneze SeiZleba iyos realizebuli.
2.1. konceptualuri aqtualizeba
eqstralingvisturi situaciis lingvisturi struqturireba
bunebriv enebSi ZiriTadad sami mTavari konceptualuri ganzomilebis
mixedviT mimdinareobs [Kibrik, 1997]:
1. situaciis Semadgeneli semantikuri rolebis (agensi-paciensi-
adresati) markireba;
2. sainformacio nakadis pragmatikuli Rirebulebebis (topiki-
komentari) markireba;
3. sakomunikacio aqtis statusebis (molaparake/msmeneli-saubris
sagani) markireba.
konkretuli enebi irCeven maTTvis misaReb strategiebs da
Sedegad vRebulobT situaciis konceptualuri aqtualizebis
gansxvavebul modelebs.
semantikuri rolebis markirebaze orientirebul enebSi
informaciis TvalsazrisiT aqtualizebul saxelad konceptualizdeba
an agensi an paciensi, ris Sedegadac warmoiqmneba nominatiuri an
ergatiuli konstruqciebi. pirveli afiqsirebs informaciis im
nawilis aqtualizebas, romelic gamoxatavs, Tu vin moqmedebs,
meore ki informaciis im nawilis aqtualizebas, romelic gamoxatavs,
Tu ra xdeba, ra iqmneba. konceptualurad aqtualizebuli saxeli
enobriv struqturebSi formalurad warmodgenilia aramarkirebuli,
saxelobiTi brunviT: nominatiur konstruqciebSi es aris agensi,
xolo ergatiul konstruqciebSi paciensi.
enebi, romlebic, upirveles yovlisa, sainformacio nakadis
pragmatul konceptualizacias axdenen, formaluri struqturebiT
erTmaneTs upirispireben informaciis aqtualizebul:fonur
monakveTebs. aseT enebSi, rogorc wesi, aqtualizebuli saxeli
markirebulia specialuri morfologiuli afiqsiT.
rusudan asaTiani
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rac Seexeba mesame tipis enebs, aq informaciis aqtualur wevrad
konceptualizdeba sakomunikacio aqtSi monawile pirebi da
gramatikulad gamoixateba piris I/II : III diqotomia.
2.2. funqcionaluri aqtualizeba
funqciurad aqtualizebuli saxeli gramatikul tradiciaSi
aRiniSneba terminiT subieqti. es aris Setyobinebis is nawili,
romlis Sesaxebac modis garkveuli informacia da romelic, bunebrivia,
aqtualizebulia sainformacio nakadSi. konceptualurad ukve
struqturirebuli konstruqciebis Semdgomi aqtualizaciis procesi
swored aseTi funqciurad dawinaurebuli elementebis formalur
gamokveTas gulisxmobs. magaliTad, nominatiur enebSi, sadac agensia
konceptualurad aqtualizebuli, SeiZleba paciensi wamoiwios da
iqces gamonaTqvamis subieqtad; anu informacia gadalagdes ise, rom
gamonaTqvami gvawodebdes garkveul informacias swored rom
moqmedebis obieqtis, paciensis Sesaxeb da centralur, mTavar elementad
aqtualizdes ara agensi, aramed paciensi. nominatiur enebSi aqtiuri
konstruqciebi asaxaven agensis aqtualizebas (resp. agensi asrulebs
subieqtis funqcias), maSin, rodesac pasiuri konstruqciebi warmoaCenen
paciensis aqtualizebas (resp. paciensi aris subieqti). formalurad
paciensis amgvari dawinaureba gamoixateba misTvis nominatiuri formis
miniWebiT. e.i. paciensi pasiur konstruqciaSi formalurad imave
brunviT aris markirebuli, romliTac aqtiur konstruqciaSi
konceptualurad aqtualizebuli saxeli, agensia warmodgenili.
(agensi pasiur konstruqciaSi an sruliad gamqralia, an Tandebuliani
formiT dasturdeba.)
2.3. diskursuli aqtualizeba
komunikaciisas Cveulebrivia informaciis gacvla-gamocvla:
dialoguri formiT xdeba axali informaciis mopoveba da
informaciul nakadSi arsebuli garkveuli xarvezebis Sevseba.
sainformacio nakadis ucnobi elementebi dgindeba kiTxva-pasuxebis
garkveuli wyvilebiT. kiTxviT moTxovnili informacia moipoveba
pasuxebSi, sadac moTxovnili informacia Cveulebriv aqtualizebulia.
amgvar, diskursulad gamokveTil, aqtualizebul informacias uwodeben
fokuss. umravles SemTxvevebSi fokuss axasiaTebs specifikuri
informaciis struqturirebis sintaqsuri modelebi qarTulSi
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intonacia, magram sxvadasxvagvar enebSi arsebobs, agreTve, sxvadasxvagvari
formaluri meqanizmebi fokusis markirebisaTvis.
2.4. pragmatikuli aqtualizeba
zogierT SemTxvevaSi situaciis asaxvisas saWiro xdeba
informaciis dazusteba, misi pragmatikuli Rirebulebebis gaxazva,
movlenebs Soris arsebul (an ararsebul) kavSirebze miniSneba,
informaciis mosalodneloba-moulodnelobis asaxva, axali-Zveli
informaciis warmoCena, informaciaSi implikaciuri an presupoziciuli
mimarTebebis dafiqsireba da sxva amgvari. yoveli aseTi specifikuri
xasiaTis informacia vlindeba teqstis ufro farTo fragmentSi,
romelic metia, vidre ubralod gamonaTqvami, winadadeba.
winadadeba, tradiciuli ganmartebiT, gamoxatavs dasrulebul
azrs, magram is, rogorc ufro maRali enobrivi donis, teqstis,
Semadgeneli erTeuli, rogorc wesi, ufro met pragmatikul
informaciasac moicavs. informaciis aseTi damatebiTi niuansebi,
rogorc wesi, winadadebis aqtualizebuli wevris Sesaxeb grovdeba.
informaciis swored amgvar, pragmatikulad aqtualizebul, nawils
ewodeba topiki. topikis markirebis ZiriTadi universaluri
meqanizmia specifikuri intonaciuri konturi, Tumca arsebobs enaTa
mixedviT gansxvavebuli sxvadasxvagvari formaluri modelebic. enebSi,
romlebic orientirebulia sainformacio nakadSi pragmatikulad
aqtualizebuli elementebis konceptualur markirebaze, rogorc
wesi, topikis aRmniSvneli specialuri morfologiuri mawarmoebelic
gamoiyofa.
fokusi da topiki winadadebis sainformacio struqturis
ganmsazRvreli ZiriTadi cnebebia. orive winadadebis aqtualizebul
wevrs aRniSnavs. gansxvaveba maT Soris is aris, rom fokusi aRniSnavs
adre ucnob, axal informacias, romelic mopovebul iqna Sesabamis
kiTxvaze pasuxis amsaxvel winadadebaSi aqtualizebuli wevris
saxiT; xolo topikiT xdeba ukve cnobili wevris, Zveli informaciis
aqtualizeba masze informaciis mopovebis an arsebuli informaciis
gamokveTisa Tu gavrcoba-dazustebis mizniT. magaliTad, informacia,
romelic Seesabameba situacias, romlis drosac monadirem mokla
iremi, da romelic, magaliTad qarTulSi, struqturirdeba konkretuli
TxrobiTi winadadebis monadirem mokla iremi saxiT, srulia
da, amave dros, neitraluri informaciis romelime Semadgeneli
elementis aqtualizebis TvalsazrisiT. Tu situaciis romelime
rusudan asaTiani
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wevri ucnobia, komunikaciisas Cndeba kiTxva, mag.: vin mokla iremi?
pasuxSi: monadirem mokla iremi aqtualizebulia monadire, e.i. is
aris fokusi; an, vTqvaT:
ra mokla monadirem? [iremi]F mokla monadirem.
ra qna monadirem? [iremi mokla]F monadirem.
ra uqna monadirem irems? [mokla]F monadirem iremi.
Tu vsaubrobT monadireze da gvainteresebs mis Sesaxeb raime
informaciis mopoveba, es Sevsebuli informacia reprezentirebul
iqneba winadadebiT, sadac monadire kvalificirdeba rogorc topiki:
ras ityviT monadiris Sesaxeb? [monadirem]T mokla iremi.
formaluri TvalsazrisiT, topiki da fokusi SeiZleba
markirebul iqnes sxvadasxva enobriv doneze:
1. fonetika-fonologiis (intonacia, maxvili, toni, specifikuri
fonetikur-fonologiuri procesebi: gamJRereba-dayrueba, asimilacia-
disimilacia da sxv.);
2. morfologia-sintaqsis (specialuri brunva, Serwymuli
nawilaki an klitika; sityvaTa rigis cvla, elifsi, specifikuri
konstruqciebi, frazebis gagleja, tmesi da sxv.);
3. leqsika-semantikis (specialuri sityvebi, nawilakebi, artikli,
kvantoruli sityvebi: mxolod, marTlac, namdvilad, aseve, kidec da
sxv.).
yvela zemoT CamoTvlili SesaZlebloba xSirad Tanaarsebobs
informaciis SefuTvisas warmoiqmneba rTuli, kompleqsuri
SemTxvevebi da, amdenad, rTuldeba formaluri analizic.
aqtualizaciis ierarqiulad organizebul rTul procesSi zogierTi
informacia aucilebelia da ierarqiis umaRles safexurzeve
ganisazRvreba (mag., konceptualuri an funqcionaluri aqtualizeba),
zogi mxolod dialoguri sistemebisaTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli (mag.,
fokusi), zogic nebismieria da konkretuli komunikaciuri funqciiT
ganisazRvreba (mag., topiki); formaluri meqanizmebi xSirad
implikaciuri xasiaTisaa (mag., sityvaTa rigis cvla xSirad intonaciur
gamokveTasac iwvevs da garkveul SemTxvevebSi sintaqsuri mimarTebebis
cvlasac) da sxv. miuxedavad imisa, rom es procesebi enaTa mixedviT
specifikuria (yoveli ena Tavisi strategiis mixedviT axorcielebs
informaciis struqturirebis sintaqsuri modelebi qarTulSi
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topik-fokusisa Tu sxva aqtualizebuli wevris formalizebas),
universalur maxasiaTeblebsa da niSnebze saubari mainc SesaZlebelia.
3. meTodologia
informaciis struqturirebis formaluri modelebis
moZiebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT Rirebulia bunebriv sametyvelo
situaciebSi warmoqmnili winadadebebi. aseTi situaciebis
stimulireba SesaZlebelia garkveuli saeqsperimento amocanebis
SerCeviT. am amocanebis gadawyvetaze dafuZnebuli eqsperimentebis
Sedegad mopovebuli masala 1 warmoadgens spontanurad warmoqmnili
sametyvelo teqstebis korpuss, romlis analizsac eyrdnoba
winamdebare kvleva.
1 eqsperimentebSi monawileobda 10 cdispiri Tbilisis
saxelmwifo universitetis aTi studenti (gogonebi da biWebi).
4. informaciis struqturirebis morfosintaqsuri
modelebi qarTulSi
qarTulSi naklebad aris Seswavlili winadadebis sainformacio
struqturebis formirebisa da aqtualizebis procesebi, gansakuTrebiT,
fokusisa da topikis ganmsazRvreli formaluri modelebi.
masalis analizidan cxadia, rom qarTulSi ara gvaqvs topikis
an fokusis morfologiuri mawarmoeblebi, Tumca SeiZleba gamovyoT
garkveuli morfosintaqsuri da sintaqsuri konstruqciebi, romlebic
gamoxataven aqtualizebis sxvadasxvagvar modelebs. am procesebSi
gansakuTrebul rols asrulebs intonacia [asaTiani, 2006].
4.1. ergatiuli konstruqcia rogorc paciensis
konceptualuri aqtualizebis saSualeba
qarTuli ar aris Tanmimdevrulad ergatiuli ena da gviCvenebs
seriaTa mixedviT gaxleCil ergatiulobas [Dixon, 1979]D: I seria
nominatiuria (e.i. aq agensia aqtualizebuli); II seria saxelur
argumentTa mixedviT ergatiulia (e.i. aq paciensia aqtualizebuli),
zmnuri piris niSnebis mixedviT ki nominatiuri (e.i. aq agensia
aqtualizebuli); III seria micemiTbrunviani subieqtiT ergatiulia
(e.i. aq paciensia aqtualizebuli). qarTulis es monacemebi gvibiZgebs
davaskvnaT, rom qarTulSi konceptualur aqtualizebas ganapirobebs
rusudan asaTiani
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dro-kiloTa garkveuli semantikuri jgufebi: awmyosa da imperfeqtis
SemTxvevaSi kognitiurad wina planze iwevs subieqti da swored is
aqtualizdeba centralur, aramarkirebul erTeulad, maSin, rodesac
perfeqtisaTvis informaciulad meti Rirebulebisaa paciensi da
swored is aqtualizdeba centralur, aramarkirebul saxelad. amgvari
konceptualuri aqtualizebis kognitiuri safuZvlebi met-naklebad
naTelia: situaciis aRqmisas awmyoSi swored rom subieqtia wina
planze, paciensi ki, moqmedebis msvlelobis gamo, faqtobrivad
ganusazRvrelia, maSin rodesac perfeqtSi swored rom moqmedebis
Sedegia saxeze (resp. paciensi), subieqti ki, mxolod warsulis
gamocdilebidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba iyos (wyvetili) an sulac ar
iyos (III seriis TurmeobiTebi) cnobili.
amgvarad, ergatiuli konstruqcia gviCvenebs paciensis
aqtualizebas, nominatiuri ki _ agensis (ufro zustad, subieqtis).
amgvar daskvnas mxars uWers l. enuqiZis kvlevac [enuqiZe 1981: 109-
110]. avtori garkveuli teqstebis statistikur analizze dayrdnobiT
askvnis: statistikuri analizi gviCvenebs, rom ergativis elifsi
ufro xSiria, vidre nominativis. (Cven mier mopovebuli sametyvelo
teqstebis korpusis monacemebic adasturebs am statistikas.)
ramdenadac aqtualizebuli saxelis elifsi araa mosalodneli
(faqtiurad gamoricxulia), ergativis elifsisken swrafvis tendencia
SeiZleba miviCnioT warmodgenili interpretaciis erT-erT Zlier
argumentad: ergatiul konstruqciaSi topikalizebulia ara ergativSi
mdgari agensi, aramed nominativSi mdgari paciensi.
4.2. specifikuri morfosintaqsuri konstruqciebi:
nawilakebis funqcia sainformacio struqturebis
formirebaSi
sazogadod, kargad aris cnobili nawilakebis roli winadadebis
sainformacio struqturis formirebaSi, Tumca qarTul specialur
literaturaSi TiTqmis araferia naTqvami nawilakebis am funqciaze.
nawilakebi gaxazaven, gamokveTen informaciis garkveul nawils;
amasTanave, isini specifikur semantikur elfersac hmateben winadadebas
da garkveuli TvalsazrisiT leqsikuri SinaarsiTac arian
datvirTulni; amitomac maTi interpretacia topikis calsaxa
morfologiur markerebad ver CaiTvleba adekvaturad. nawilakebi,
rogorc wesi, qmnian specifikur morfosintaqsur konstruqciebs.
magaliTisaTvis SeiZleba ganvixiloT implikaciuri topikze
informaciis struqturirebis sintaqsuri modelebi qarTulSi
14
mimaniSnebeli nawilakebi: ai, mxolod, marto, swored (rom), arc
arc, -c, -c ki, kidec. [wereTeli, 2007].
4.2.1. ai nawilaki cdispirebis mier gamoiyeneboda iseTi
implikaciuri topikis gamosaxatavad, romelic damatebiT, ZiriTadad
sapirispiro informacias gvawvdida rogorc zogadi (1), aseve
konkretuli situaciis (2) meore, nagulixmev wevrze:
(1) ai qalebi ar ewevian. (igulisxmeba, rom kacebi ZiriTadad
ewevian.)
(2) ai biWs qudi ar axuravs. (situaciis mixedviT, gogos qudi
axuravs.)
implikaciuri topikis gadmosacemad yvelaze xSirad swored
es nawilaki dafiqsirda. sazogadod, sainteresoa ai nawilakis
zogadi funqcia: `miTiTeba+substantivizacia+predikacia~, rac mas
a. veJbickas mier navaraudebi erT-erTi primitivis (demonstrativis,
substantivisa da predikaciis elementebiT) Sesabamis enobriv
realizaciad warmogvidgens [Wierzbichka, 1996]. swored am funqciebis
gamo, is bavSvTa metyvelebis adreuli formebis aucilebel
Semadgenels warmoadgens, rac aseve TanxmobaSia a. veJbickas mier
`winaswarmetyvelurad aRdgenil~ (ramdenadac inglisurSi msgavsi,
sami funqciis gamaerTianebeli, universaluri semantikuri primitivis
enobrivi realizacia ar dasturdeba, veJbicka ki primitivebis
gamoyofisas ZiriTadad inglisur enas iSveliebs) primitivTan.
4.2.2. mxolod nawilaki sixSiriT meorea implikaciuri topikis
markirebis procesSi. is gulisxmobs, rom topikTa SesaZlebel
variantTagan erTi da mxolod erTia dasaSvebi situaciisda
Sesabamisad. es nawilaki mxolod aseT konkretul SemTxvevebSia
misaRebi:
(5) mxolod biWia navSi. (igulisxmeba, rom gogo ar aris
navSi)
4.2.3. EerT-erTma cdispirma mxolod nawilakis gamoyenebas
marto nawilaki amjobina. am nawilaks, rogorc Cans, igive funqciebi
aqvs, rac mxolod nawilaks: alternativebidan SearCios erTaderTi:
(6) ara, biWi marto ar aris navSi. (igulisxmeba, rom sxvebic
arian.)
rusudan asaTiani
15
Tumca maTi funqciebi msgavsia, isini Tavisuflad ar enacvlebian
erTmaneTs: marto uSvebs postpoziciur wyobas, mxolod ki ara.
magaliTad, (6) winadadebaSi marto-s mxolod-iT Canacvleba ver
gvaZlevs gramatikulad gamarTul winadadebas.
4.2.4. aseve erT SemTxvevaSi dafiqsirda ar+c nawilaki:
(7) arc biWs ar axuravs qudi. (e.i. viRac sxvasac ar axuravs.)
am rTuli, nawarmoebi nawilakis funqciaa SesaZlebel
alternatiul topikTagan uaryofiTi niSniT gamoarCios erT-erTi
imgvarad, rom implikaciurad meore wevris igive mdgomareoba
daafiqsiros. es nawilaki informantma gamoiyena kiTxvaSi mocemuli
uaryofiTi mniSvnelobis dasadastureblad imgvarad, rom
implikaciurad meore wevris Sesaxebac msgavsi, uaryofiTi informacia
mogvawoda.
4.2.5. swored nawilaki dafiqsirda im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac
informanti implikaciurad adasturebda kiTxvaSi mocemuli
informaciis sapirispiro informacias situaciis meore wevris
Sesaxeb. saiteresoa, rom `uaryofiTi dadasturebis~ gasaZliereblad
man gamoiyena kompleqsuri fraza swored rom:
(8) swored rom kacs ar axuravs qudi. (e.i. qals axuravs)
gaZlierebis mizezi SeiZleba iyos zogadi warmodgena
(gansakuTrebiT Zlieri qarTuli tradiciis farglebSi), rom,
sazogadod, kacs ufro unda exuros qudi, vidre qals. swored
rom frazis gamoyenebiT cdispirma gaxaza mis zogad warmodgenasTan
Seusabamoba da eqsperimentis farglebSi SemoTavazebuli konkretuli
situaciis moulodneloba.
4.2.6. -c nawilaki Segvxvda, aseve, informaciis (mxolod
dadebiTis) dadasturebisas:
(9) qalic kiTxulobs wigns. (e.i. kidev viRac sxva kiTxulobs
wigns.)
rogorc Cans, swored da -c nawilakebis funqcia aris `daTanxmeba,
dadastureba~ situaciis meore wevris Sesaxeb damatebiTi (dadebiTi
an uaryofiTi) implikaciuri informaciis gadmocemis mizniT.
4.2.7. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom nawilakebi, rogorc mosalodnelic
iyo, ar dadasturda martivi implikaciuri topikis SemTxvevebSi:
informaciis struqturirebis sintaqsuri modelebi qarTulSi
16
(10) ara, biWs ar axuravs qudi.
(11) ki, biWi navSia.
(12) ara, qali ar kiTxulobs wigns.
5. informaciis struqturirebis sintaqsuri saSualebebi
qarTulSi
5.1. funqciuri aqtualizeba: pasiuri konstruqciebi
qarTulSi pasiuri konstruqciebis saSualebiT paciensis
aqtualizebis SesaZlebloba SezRudulia dro-kiloTa seriebis
mixedviT:
(1) I-seriis zmnuri formebi qmnian nominatiur konstruqciebs,
rac gulisxmobs agensis aqtualizebas konceptualur doneze. Semdgom
safexurze (funqcionaluri done) SesaZlebelia paciensis rolis
gazrda, misi aqtualizeba, rac xorcieldeba pasiuri konstruqciebis
formirebiT, sadac paciensi iqceva funqciurad aqtualizebul wevrad
da kvalificirdeba subieqtad;
(2) II da III-seriis zmnuri formebi qmnian ergatiul
konstruqciebs, rac gulisxmobs konceptualur doneze paciensis
aqtualizebas. ramdenadac paciensi ukve aqtualizebulia
konceptualurad, misi Semdgomi funqciuri aqtualizeba sinTezuri
pasiuri konstruqciebis formirebiT sruliad gamoricxulia III-
seriis formebisaTvis da sakmaod SezRudulia II-seriisaTvis. am
mizniT upiratesoba eniWeba `yofna~ zmniT Sedgenil aRweriT pasivebs.
miuxedavad imisa, rom pasiuri konstruqciebis formireba ar
aris SezRuduli I seriaSi (da nawilobriv II-Sic), konkretuli
eqsperimentebis safuZvelze mopovebuli masala gviCvenebs, rom
cdispirebi paciensis aqtualizebisaTvis iSviaTad iyeneben pasiur
konstruqciebs da upiratesobas aniWeben sityvaTa rigis cvlas, an
ganusazRvrelnacvalsaxelian Tu ganusazRvrelsubieqtian
konstruqciebs, gansakuTrebiT im SemTxvevebSi, roca paciensi sulieria.
es Tavisebureba qarTuli enis pasiuri konstruqciebis
specifikurobidan gamomdinareobs.
sazogadod, qarTuli pasivi gansxvavdeba indoevropuli enebis
pasivisgan:
indoevropul enebSi pasiuri konstruqcia, rogorc wesi,
Sesabamisi aqtiuri konstruqciis konversiuli konstruqciaa, sadac
paciensi dawinaurebulia da qceulia subieqtad, agensi ki
rusudan asaTiani
17
transformirebulia windebulianFfrazad. qarTulSi pasiuri
konstruqcia yovelTvis ar warmoadgens Sesabamisi aqtiuri
konstruqciis konversiul formas; e.i. is ar aris mkacrad sintaqsuri
kategoria da, rogorc Cans, ufro metad semantikuri safuZvlebi
aqvs. qarTulSi iseve, rogorc zogierT sxva enaSi, magaliTad, iaponurSi
[Shibatani, 2002], aqtiv-pasivis opozicia qmnis kontiniums, sadac
prototipuli pasivi morfologiurad uTanabrdeba e.w. saSual
formebs da zogjer aqtiur semantikasac gamoxatavs, magaliTad:
eqaCeba, awveba, elaparakeba, uyveba, emaleba da sxv.
pasivi qarTulSi formalurad naTlad gansxvavdeba aqtiuri
formebisgan: awmyoSi subieturi III piris niSani aqtiuri formebisTvis
aris -s, pasiuri formebisTvis ki -a sufiqsi (SaniZe, 1948). zmnebi,
romelTa semantika ar emTxveva prototipuli aqtivis an pasivis
semantikas, formaluri markirebisaTvis irCeven an aqtiur models
-s sufiqsiT, an pasiur models -a sufiqsiT. am formalur modelTa
dapirispireba gvibiZgebs axali semantikuri interpretaciisken,
romelic naTels mohfens qarTuli aqtiuri da pasiuri formebis
ganmsazRvrel pirobebs.
is, rom aqtiv-pasivis formalur dapirispirebas ar aqvs mkacrad
sintaqsuri pirobebi cxadia, rac Seexeba semantikur niSnebs, aqac
ufro faqizi niuansebia misakvlevi, ramdenadac aseve cxadia, rom
semantikuri dapirispireba aqtivi: pasivi calsaxad ver faravs
formalur dapirispirebas aqtiuri forma: pasiuri forma. aseT
semantikur niSnad, romelic gansazRvravs aqtiv-pasivis formalur
dapirispirebas, SeiZleba SemoTavazebul iqnas Semdegi interpretacia:
Tu saSuali (e.i. prototipulad arc aqtiuri da arc pasiuri)
semantikis zmnebi ganasxvaveben moqmedebis (an mdgomareobis)
mimarTulebas (an lokacias), zmna uTanabrdeba pasivs da irCevs
markirebis pasiur models; Tu ki saSuali semantikis zmna ver
ganasxvavebs predikaciis mimarTulebas/lokacias, maSin zmna uTanabrdeba
aqtivs da irCevs markirebis aqtiur models. formalurad es wesi
advilad interpretirebadia: Tu saSuali zmna dairTavs zmniswin(eb)s,
mas eqneba pasiuri forma, Tu ara aqtiuri. magaliTad, dgeba/a-
dgeba/Ca-dgeba/gada-dgeba; emaleba/da-emaleba; awveba/mi-awveba/da-awveba
da a.S.; magram cxovrobs, dgas, Rirs da a.S.
lingvisturi markirebis amgvari strategia SeiZleba aixsnas
markirebulobis mimarTebis kognitiuri safuZvlebiT: ramdenadac
pasiuri semantikisaTvis, sazogadod, naklebad mosalodnelia (e.i.
kognitiurad markirebulia) mimarTuleba/lokaciis gamoxatva (rac
informaciis struqturirebis sintaqsuri modelebi qarTulSi
18
bunebrivia prototipulad aqtiuri semantikis zmnebisTvis), is
medialuri Sinaarsis zmnebi, romlebic uSveben amgvar Sinaarsebs,
enobriv struqturebSic warmodgenilni arian markirebuli (resp.
pasiuri) formebiT; anu: kognitiuri markireba lingvisturi
struqturebis markirebulobiT reprezentirdeba.
qarTuli enis pasivis amgvari Tavisebureba gansazRvravs im
SezRudvebs da specifikas, romelic Cndeba winadadebis sainformacio
struqturebis formirebisasac: eqsperimentebiT mopovebul masalaSi,
rodesac situaciurad vxvdebiT gaurkvevel agenss da pasiuri
konstruqcia (gauCinarebuli agensiT) yvelaze ufro mosalodnelia,
qarTveli cdispirebi upiratesobas aniWeben aqtiur konstruqciebs
ganusazRvrelnacvalsaxeliani subieqtiT viRac, raRac an
ganusazRvrelsubieqtian konstruqciebs subieqturi mesame piris
mravlobiTobis maCvenebeli sufiqsiT zmnaSi. magaliTad:
am kacs TavSi CaquCs urtyamen.
boTls kraven fexs.
mas viRac fexs urtyams.
da sxv.
mxolod erT SemTxvevaSi dafiqsirda `situaciurad ucnobi
agensis~ konkretuli arsebiTi saxeliT warmodgenis SemTxveva: tafas
iRebs qali, rac, rogorc Cans, aixsneba zogadi warmodgeniT, rom
`ZiriTadad qalebi amzadeben saWmels da saqme aqvT tafebTan~, ris
safuZvelzec `ucnobi agensi~ cdispiris mier Canacvlda konkretuli
saxeliT qali.
amgvarad, QUIS-eqsperimentebis [Skopeteas et all, 2006] safuZvelze
spontanurad mopovebul qarTul sametyvelo teqstebSi `ucnobi
agensis~ gamosaxatavad ar dafiqsirda pasiuri konstruqciebi, rac
kidev erTi Zlieri argumentia im interpretaciis sasargeblod,
romlis mixedviT, qarTulSi pasiur konstruqciebs gansazRvravs
semantikuri da ara sintaqsuri (resp. sainformacio struqturis)
ganmsazRvreli niSnebi.
rusudan asaTiani
19
5.2. sityvaTa rigi
5.2.1. sityvaTa rigi: qarTuli gramatikuli tradicia
rogorc cnobilia, qarTuls aqvs metad ganviTarebuli
morfologia mdidari afiqsaciiT. amdenad, sityvaTa rigis simkacre
qarTulSi ar aris aucilebeli piroba sintaqsuri mimarTebebis
gamosaxatavad, rogorc es gvaqvs enebSi Raribi afiqsaciiT. swored
mdidari afiqsaciis, kerZod brunvis niSnebis funqciuri
gansazRvrulobis gamo, qarTulSi sityvaTa rigi Tavisufalia da
sityvaTa faqtiurad nebismieri gadalageba dasaSvebia [SaniZe 1948;
foCxua 1962; Ciqobava 1968; daviTiani 1973; afridoniZe 1986;
kvaWaZe 1996; da sxv.] Tumca, bevri mkvlevari aRniSnavs, rom sityvaTa
rigi ar aris absoluturad Tavisufali, magaliTad: Tanamedrove
qarTulSi zedsarTavi Cveulebriv uswrebs arsebiTs; aseve, zmnizedebi
da damatebebi iswrafvian daikavon saxelzmnis wina pozicia; kiTxviTi
sityva yovelTvis zmniswina pozicias ikavebs; da sxv. da garkveuli
SezRudvebi, tendenciebi ganapirobeben sityvaTa aramarkirebul rigs.
statistikuri kvleva naTels hfens amgvar tendenciebs [foCxua
1962; afridoniZe 1986; Harris 2000] da saSualebas gvaZlevs
ganvsazRvroT sityvaTa kanonikuri, aramarkirebuli rigi: SOV / SVO.
pirveli damaxasiaTebelia literaturuli, samwerlobo enisaTvis,
meore ki ufro xSirad sametyvelo, gansakuTrebiT modernuli
sametyvelo stilisaTvis [javaxiSvili 1929], aris bunebrivi. sityvaTa
am aramarkirebuli rigis nebismieri gadalageba ukavSirdeba
winadadebis sainformacio struqturis cvlas. sazogadod, qarTul
specialur literaturaSi sityvaTa rigis cvla am kuTxiT sistemurad
ar gaanalizebula; ZiriTadad ganixileboda aqtualizacia maTeziusis
gagebiT [Mathesius, 1967], da daskvnebi mxolod zogadi xasiaTis
SeniSvnebiT Semoifargleboda [javaxiSvili 1929; sergia 1972;
daviTiani 1973; zardiaSvili 1978; enuqiZe 1981 da sxv].
Tanamedrove lingvisturi Teoriebi da meTodologia, rac
faqtiurad maTeziusis ideebis Semdgom ganviTarebas warmoadgens,
ukeTes pirobebs iZleva sainformacio struqturebis sakvlevad.
QUIS-eqsperimentebi orientirebulia swored am tipis sakiTxebis
SeswavlisaTvis Rirebuli spontanuri sametyvelo teqstebis
mopovebaze.
informaciis struqturirebis sintaqsuri modelebi qarTulSi
20
5.2.2. sityvaTa rigi da axali/Zveli informaciis kodireba
enebSi Tavisufali sityvaTa rigiT `sityvaTa gadalageba~
mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs Zveli/axali informaciis
aqtualizaciisaTvis [Skopeteas and Fanselow, 2007]. winadadebis
sawyisi pozicia yvelaze Rirebulia sainformacio nakadis garkveuli
monakveTebis xazgasasmelad. eqsperimentebis Sedegad mopovebuli
masalis nawili damuSavda statistikurad: davTvaleT Agent-new,
Agent-given, Object-new, Object-given erTeulebis gamoCena winadadebis
sawyis poziciaSi; calke Sefasda [Ag-new-invisible] da [O-given, Ag-
new-invisible] SemTxvevebi. ramdenadac masalaSi dafiqsirda ramdenime
magaliTi lokativebiT, es SemTxvevebic aisaxa statistikuri
odenobebis amsaxvel cxrilebSi:
1. semantikuri rolebi winadadebis sawyis poziciaSi
New Given Ag-new-invisible Total
Ag 11 18 3 32
O 1 14 +8 23
Loc 2 2
2. axali/Zveli informacia winadadebis sawyis poziciaSi
Ag O Loc Total
New 11+3 1 17
Given 18 14+8 2 40
am statistikuri monacemebidan gamomdinare, gamoikveTa Semdegi
tendenciebi:
1. agensi (gansakuTrebiT Zveli informaciis matarebeli)
miiswrafvis daikavos winadadebaSi sawyisi pozicia;
2. ucnobi agensi winadadebis sawyis poziciaSi
warmodgenilia ganusazRvreli nacvalsaxeliT viRac;
3. axali obieqti winadadebis sawyis poziciaSia iSviaTia;
SeiZleba iTqvas, gamonaklisuria (faqtobrivad, mxolod erTi aseTi
SemTxveva dafiqsirda);
4. winadadebaSi sawyisi poziciis dakavebis TvalsazrisiT
gamoikveTa semantikur rolebs Soris arsebuli Semdegi ierarqia:
Ag>O;
rusudan asaTiani
21
5. Zveli obieqti (gansakuTrebiT konteqstSi ucnob agensTan,
romelic gamoxatulia zmnaSi S.3.PL-sufiqsiT) aseve miiswrafvis
daikavos winadadebaSi sawyisi pozicia;
6. Zveli informacia sjobnis axals winadadebaSi sawyisi
poziciis dakavebis TvalsazrisiT: Given>New;
7. gamovlenil or ierarqias (Ag>O,Given>New) Soris
konfliqturi situaciis warmoqmnis SemTxvevaSi moqmedebs ufro
konkretuli ierarqia: Ag-given>O-given>Ag-new>O-new;
8. damatebiTi argumentebs (Given>New)>(Ag>O) ierarqiis
sasargeblod iZleva konstruqcia Zveli-lokativiT sawyiss
poziciaSi.
sazogadod, lokativebis sakiTxi (bolo, (8) SemTxveva) Semdgom
kvlevas moiTxovs.
5.2.3. Llokativebi
qarTulSi sityvaTa Tavisufali rigi xelsayrel pirobebs
qmnis lokatiuri frazebis winadadebis sawyis poziciaSi moTavsebis
TvalsazrisiT: isini Tavisi Cveuli, aramarkirebuli poziciidan
(winadadebis bolo) gadmoinacvleben axal markirebul poziciaze,
rac mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs informaciis struqturirebisas.
Cvens masalaSi dadasturebuli 134 SemTxvevidan 61 SemTxvevaSi
isini win uswreben saxels, romlis lokalizebac xdeba. masalis
analizi gviCvenebs, rom gadanacvlebis kriteriumebi icvleba
cdispirebis mixedviT, Tumca garkveuli ganzogadebebi mainc
SesaZlebelia:
1. meoTxe sesiaSi (sul Catarda cdispirebis mixedviT
gansxvavebuli 4 sesia) monawile cdispirebi lokativebis pozicias
gansazRvraven lokalizebuli saxelis semantikuri niSnebiT: mxolod
adamianebi da didi cxovelebi uswreben lokativebs;
2. mesame sesiis cdispirebisTvis Rirebuli Cans lokatiur
frazaSi Semavali saxelisa da lokalizebuli saxelis zomebi: zomiT
(moculobiT) ufro didi saxeli win uswrebs ufro pataras;
3. es ori kriteriumi met-naklebad Rirebulia danarCeni, pirveli
da meore, sesiis cdispirebisaTvisac, Tumca Zveli/axali informaciac
TamaSobs garkveul rols: Zveli lokativi an axali saxeli
miiswrafvis daikavos pirveli adgili.
informaciis struqturirebis sintaqsuri modelebi qarTulSi
22
rogorc masalidan Cans, lokativebis Semcveli informaciis
struqturireba ZiriTadad mosaubris (resp. cdispiris)
individualuri kognitiuri warmodgenebis safuZvelze xorcieldeba.
5.3. sintaqsurad Warbi erTeulebi rogorc
topikalizaciis markerebi
5.3.1. qarTuli zmnis poli personaloba da S/O piris
niSnebis siWarbe
qarTuli zmnis polipersonalobis gamo, ramdenadac zmnis forma
aRniSnavs erTdroulad subieqtsac da obieqtsac, winadadebaSi piris
nacvalsaxelTa dafiqsireba ar aris aucilebeli (Warbia); da Tu
isini mainc warmodgenilni arian, es umravles SemTxvevaSi niSnavs,
rom Sesabamisi subieqti (an obieqti) topikalizebulia; magaliTad:
[me]T vipove gza, [me]T viyide pamidvrebi, [me]T movutane dedas
aq me Warbia (qarTulis enis specifikidan gamomdinare: ramdenadac
pirveli piri morfologiurad ukve warmodgenilia zmnur formaSi
pirveli subieqturi piris markeriT (v-), misi dublireba sintaqsur
konstruqciaSi me nacvalsaxelis saxiT Warbia da migvaniSnebs pirveli
piris topikalurobaze:
me da ara sxva vinmem, swored me da ara sxva vinmem, namdvilad
me da ara sxva vinmem moutana dedas pamidvrebi.
5.3.2. qcevis kategoria da Tandebuliani frazebis siWarbe
qarTulSi qcevis kategoria gamoxatavs moqmedebis kuTvnileba-
daniSnulebas da xmovani prefiqsebi aRniSnaven im saxels, Tu visTvis
(risTvis) xdeba moqmedeba, amitom Tandebuliani saxeli, romelic
moqmedebis mizans aRniSnavs, Warbia da misi dafiqsireba migvaniSnebs
am saxelis topikurobaze:
ninom [TavisTvis]TCainiSna davalebebi
rusudan asaTiani
23
am winadadebaSi Tandebuliani refleqsuri nacvalsaxeli
TavisTvis Warbia, ramdenadac saTaviso qcevis maCvenebeli
xmovanprefiqsi -i- ukve aRniSnavs moqmedebis samizne saxels, romelic
subieqtis identuria (anu aRniSnavs refleqsurobas); da Tu is
mainc warmodgenilia, es migvaniSnebs, rom is aris implikaciuri
topiki:
ninom TavisTvis (da ara, vTqvaT, ZmisTvis) CainiSna davalebebi.
amgvarad, winadadebebi sintaqsurad Warbi erTeulebis elifsisis
gareSe aris implikaciuri topikis arsebobaze mimaniSnebeli:
sintaqsurad Warbi erTeulebi sainformacio struqturis
topikalizebul wevrebs warmogvidgenen.
5.4.4. sainformacio struqturis sxva sintaqsuri niSnebi
5. 4. 1 . om on im uri sin ta qsuri kon struqcie bi da
winadadebis sainformacio struqtura
sxvadasxva saxis sintaqsuri omonimuri formebis gaxsnasa da
informaciis calsaxa interpretaciaSi xSirad gvexmareba winadadebis
sainformacio struqturis dadgena; magaliTad, winadadeba: maRali
gamyidvlis daxlTan dgas omonimuria. am omonimiis moxsna
SesaZlebelia winadadebis sainformacio struqturis garkveviT,
risTvisac aucilebelia ufro farTo teqstualuri konteqstis
ganxilva. Tu es winadadeba aris pasuxi SekiTxvaze: sad dgas myidveli?
maSin maRali gamyidveli iqneba fokusi da fokusisaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli aRmavali, talRiseburi intonaciiT warmoiTqmis,
xolo winadadeba iqneba uqvemdebaro (myidvelis elifsisiT): [maRali
gamyidvlis]FF daxlTan dgas; Tuki maRali aris pragmatikulad
gamoyofili wevri, romelic gulisxmobs, rom vinme maRali da ara,
vTqvaT, dabali, dgas daxlTan, maSin igi warmoiTqmis aRmavali
intonaciiT, sadac intonaciuri maxvili meore marcvalzea, da topikad
kvalificirdeba: [maRali]T gamyidvlis daxlTan dgas. ase rom,
winadadebis sainformacio struqtura gamoricxavs omonimurobas
da komunikaciur orazrovnebas.
informaciis struqturirebis sintaqsuri modelebi qarTulSi
24
5.4.2. saxeluri frazebis gaxleCa, rogorc topika-
lizaciis erT-erTi meqanizmi
saxeluri frazebis gaxleCa damaxasiaTebelia qarTuli enisaTvis:
nebismieri saxis NP, garda Tandebuliani frazisa, SeiZleba gaixliCos
da es aris fokusirebuli saxelis warmodgenis erT-erTi formaluri
meqanizmi. aseTi gaxleCili konstruqciebi iSviaTia saliteraturo
enisaTvis, Tumca bunebrivia metyvelebasa da poeziaSi:
qalis xeli uWiravs bavSvs?
ara, [fexi]F uWiravs qalis.
patara Wiqas iRebs biWi?
diax, [pataras]F iRebs is Wiqas.
5.4.3. Cleft konstruqciebi
e.w. Cleft konstruqciebi qarTulSic dasturdeba, Tumca isini
arc Tu ise produqtiulia: cdispirebi mxolod Zalian specifikur
SemTxvevebSi iyenebdnen informaciis struqturirebis am models
topikis gamosayofad:
es biWia, visac qali urtyams.
es konstruqciebi aigeba yofna-meSvelzmniTa da daqvemdebarebuli
winadadebis formirebiT: topikalizebuli saxeli Tavsdeba mTavar
winadadebaSi meSveli zmnis klitikasTan erTad da qmnis Sedgenil
Semasmenels; topikis Sesaxeb mopovebuli axali informacia
(komentari) gadmocemulia damokidebul winadadebaSi.
yofna zmnis III piris klitikuri elementi -a topiks aRniSnavs
ara mxolod Cleft-konstruqciebSi, aramed, sazogadod, nebismier
winadadebaSi.
5.4.4. meSvelzmniani klitikuri konstruqciebi rogorc
topikis da/an fokusis markerebi
meSveli zmna `yofna~ subieqtur mesame pirTan iqceva klitikad
da erTvis Sedgenili Semasmenlis saxelad nawils: is aris qali >
is qalia. is SeiZleba daerTos winadadebis nebismier sityvas da
rusudan asaTiani
25
aqcios is Sedgenili Semasmenlis saxelad nawilad. es klitika
topik-markerad gvevlineba: sityva, romelic warmodgenilia -a klitikiT,
misi wyalobiT topikalizebulia. magaliTisaTvis ganvixiloT, vTqvaT,
winadadeba:
lamazi gogo dRes aris saxlSi.
topikalizaciis yvela logikurad dasaSvebi SesaZlebloba
realizdeba -a klitikuri elementis darTviT:
(1) saxlSia dRes lamazi gogo. (da ara, vTqvaT, kinoSi)
(2) dResaa lamazi gogo saxlSi. (da ara, vTqvaT, erTi kviris
mere)
(3) lamazi gogoa dRes saxlSi. (da ara, uSno gogo)
(4) lamazia gogo dRes saxlSi.
(1) da (2) magaliTebi gamoxatavs CarCo-topikebs droisa da
sivrcis sxva SesaZleblobebis implikaciuri gamoricxviT. igive
winadadebebi intonaciuri konturis cvliT SeiZleba gamoxatavdnen
droisa da sivrcis viwro fokusebs. mTeli saxeluri frazis
topikalizaciis nimuSia (3) winadadeba, xolo rac Seexeba (4)-
winadadebas, is Zalian specifikur situacias aRwers, romelic
perifrazulad niSnavs: dRes gogo lamazia, imitom rom aris saxlSi.
5.4.5. mimarTvis formebi, rogorc filerebi da maTi
funqcia winadadebis sainformacio struqturis formirebaSi
mimarTvis formebi xSirad asruleben Txrobisas pauzis
Semavsebeli elementebis (e.w. filerebis) funqcias. aseTi filerebi
SeiZleba gaCndes winadadebis nebismieri wevris Semdeg:
(1) me, Cemo kargo, didi xania, aq vcxovrob.
(2) wigns, Cemo batono, mwerali siyvaruliT wers.
(3) wer-s, Cemo kargo, aba ara?!
(4) lamazi, Cemo daTo, qali sando ar aris.
(5) kargad, RmerTo Cemo, aba vin aris?!
aseTi filerebi mniSvnelovan rols asruleben informaciis
struqturirebaSi. isini Cveulebriv Cndebian sxvadasxva saxis
fokusebisa Tu topikebis momdevnod; magaliTad, zemoT mocemul (1),
informaciis struqturirebis sintaqsuri modelebi qarTulSi
26
(2), (5) winadadebebSi isini gamoxataven topikebs, maSin, rodesac (3)
da (4) winadadebebSi fokusebs.
5.4.6. topikis `dasadgeni~ konstruqciebi qarTulSi
topikis gamosacnobad (dasadgenad) Cveulebriv iyeneben Semdeg
konstruqciebs: As for X, As far as X is concerned, Concerning X, As
regard X. qarTulSi am konstruqciebs Seesatyviseba rTuli
qvewyobili mimarTebiTi winadadeba:
ras ityviT am monadiris Sesaxeb?
rac Seexeba monadires, [swored rom is]T klavs irems.
6. daskvnebi
informaciis struqturirebis ganxiluli sintaqsuri
saSualebebis Sejamebis Sedegad SeiZleba davaskvnaT:
qarTulSi informaciis struqturirebis ZiriTadi sintaqsuri
modelebia:
1. markirebuli intonacia//markirebuli sityvaTa rigi;
2. gadalageba informaciulad gamokveTili wevris winadadebis
TavSi dasma (+intonacia);
3. specifikuri sintaqsuri konstruqciebi (+intonacia);
4. nawilakebi (+sintasuri cvlilebebi + intonacia).
am modelebs Soris unda arsebobdes garkveuli ierarqiuli
mimarTebebi. vvaraudobT, rom 1>2>3>4 ierarqia asaxavs aqtualizebis
xarisxobriv zrdas: rac meti formaluri saSualebaa gamoyenebuli
informaciis garkveuli nawilis gamosakveTad, miT maRalia
aqtualizaciis xarisxi.
literatura
afridoniZe 1986: afridoniZe S., sityvaTganlageba axal qarTulSi.
Tbilisi: mecniereba.
asaTiani 1982: asaTiani r., martivi winadadebis tipologiuri
analizi. Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis masalaze.
Tbilisi: mecniereba.
daviTiani 1973: daviTiani ak., qarTuli enis sintaqsi. I. martivi
winadadeba. Tbilisi: ganaTleba. E
rusudan asaTiani
27
enuqiZe 1981: enuqiZe l., winadadebis aqtualuri danawevreba da
misi mimarTeba sintaqsuri da semantikuri analizis
Tanamedrove meTodebTan Tanamedrove zogadi enatmecnierebis
sakiTxebi. VI. Tbilisi: enaTmecnierebis instituti.
foCxua 1962: foCxua b., sityvaTa rigi qarTulSi. ike. XIII. Tbilisi:
mecn. akad. gamom.
kvaWaZe 1996: kvaWaZe l., Tanamedrove qarTuli enis sintaqsi.
Tbilisi: rubikoni.
SaniZe 1948: SaniZe ak., qarTuli enis gramatika. II. sintaqsi. Tbilisi:
Tsu gamomcemloba. 1973b. qarTuli enis gramatikis
safuZvlebi. Tbilisi: Tsu gamomcemloba.
Ciqobava 1968: Ciqobava arn.,Mmartivi winadadebis problema
qarTulSi. I. qvemdebare-damatebis sakiTxi Zvelss qarTulSi.
Tbilisi: Mmecniereba.
wereTeli 2007: wereTeli n., winadadebis sainformacio struqtura:
implikaciuri topiki qarTulSi.samagistro naSromi. Tbilisi.
Tsu.
javaxiSvili 1929: javaxiSvili iv., Tanamedrove qarTuli
saliteraturo enisaTvis. mnaTobi. 1. Tbilisi.
asaTiani 2007: Asatiani R., The Main Devices of Foregrounding in the
Information Structure of Georgian Sentences. Proceedings of Tbilisi
Symposium on language, Logic and Computation 1005.
Amsterdam: Spriger. 21-31.
Ceifi 1971: Chafe W. L., Meaning and the structure of language. Chicago
and London: Chicago Un. Press.
diqsoni 1979: Dixon R. M. W., Ergativity. Cambridge: Cambridge Un.
press.
harisi 1998: Harris, Al. C., Georgian Syntax: A Study in Relational
Grammar. Cambridge etc.: Cambridge University Press. 2000b, Word
Order Harmonies and Word Order Change In Georgian. In Sornicola
R, Poppe E., Haley A. (eds), Stability, Variation and Change of
Word-Order Patterns over time. 133-163. Amsterdam/Philadelphia:
Benjamins.
hiuiti 1995: Hewitt B. G., Georgian: A Structural Reference Grammar.
Amsterdam, Philadelphia: Benjamins.
kibriki 1997: Kibrik A., Beyond Subject and Object: Toward a
Comprehensive Relational Typology. Linguistic Typology.I.. Berlin-
New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 279-346.
maTeziusi 1967: . .,
. . . .
226-238.
Sibatani 1985: Shibatani M., Passives and related constructions: A prototype
Analysis. Language, Vol.61,No4. Kobe: Kobe Un. press.
skopeteasi 2006: Skopeteas S., Fiedler I., Hellmuth R., Schwarz, A.,
Stoel, R., Fanselow, G., Fry, C., and Krifka M., Questionnaire on
Information Structure (QUIS). Interdisciplinary Studies on
informaciis struqturirebis sintaqsuri modelebi qarTulSi
28
Information Structure 4. Working Papers of the SFB 632, Potsdam:
Universittsverlag Potsdam.
skopeteasi 2007: Skopeteas S., Fanselow G., Effects of givenness and
constraints on free word order. In Information Structure from different
perspectives. Zimmermann, Malte and Caroline (eds.), Oxford: Oxford
Un. Press.
TuiTi 1998: Tuite K., Kartvelian morphosyntax. Munich: Lincom Europa.
veJbicka 1996: Wierzbicka A., Semantics (Primes and Universals). Oxford-
New York: Oxford Un. press.
Rusudan Asatiani
Syntactic Means of Information Structuring in
Georgian
Structuring of information proceeds through the foregrounding of certain
parts of the information. Any kind of foregrounding (res. Highlighting, Logical
Emphasis, Promotion, Standing out as the first, important and etc) could be
regarded as one, common phenomenon which represents the main strategy of
structuring of linguistic structures. From this point of view Topic, Focus, Subject,
Theme, Point of view and so on are the same as far as they represent various
forms of foregrounding. It is supposed that such a wide, generalized interpretation
of topicalization make more clear, what happens when we have mixed forms of
foregrounding.
In general, foregrounding can be realized on various linguistic levels and it
is possible to distinguish: Conceptual, Functional, Discourse and Pragmatic devices,
which can be represented by various formal means: Phonetic-Phonological,
Morphological-Syntactic and Lexical-Pragmatic. All the devices can co-occur
during the information packaging. Some of them are obligatory and are on the high
level of the hierarchically organized processes of foregrounding (e.g. conceptual
or functional foregrounding); some of them are optional and they are defined by
the specific discourse and/or pragmatic values of a sentence (e.g. focus or topic);
some forms of foregrounding are implicational (e.g. sometimes reordering implies
emphasis of intonation) and so on. The relations between the different kinds of
foregrounding are language specific, but it seems possible to speak about universal
models of formalization of the information structures. In Georgian there is no
morphological topic marker, but all other devices of foregrounding are possible.
The paper examines the main models of syntactic devices in Georgian.
rusudan asaTiani
29
cira barbaqaZe
sityva azris ZiebaSi anu
`varskvlavebis poetika~
ana kalandaZis poeziaSi
poezia, garda imisa, rom metyvelebis faqtad
rCeba, igi, amave dros, mis sazRvrebs gareTac
iWreba... enis stiqiis moZraobaSi Cafluli,
misi nawilakebis gadaadgilebiT garTuli
poeti, an TviTon irCevs sityvebs, an sityvebi
irCeven poets.
oqtavio pasi
. . . pirvelad iyo sityva. . . samyaro
warmogvidgeba, rogorc sityva, qmnadobis aqti
ki _ rogorc niSnis Seqmna.
lotmani
enaSi arsebuli nebismieri sityva poetur
metyvelebaSi SeiZleba iqces imgvar metafo-
rebad, romelTa srulad aRwera SeuZlebeli
iqneba. `mwerali amravlebs mniSvnelobebs da
tovebs maT daumTavrebels da Rias. enis
meSveobiT is qmnis aRmniSvnelebiT gajerebul
samyaros da verasodes ver iRebs saboloo
aRsaniSns~ (barti 1989: 284).
Tavis droze xlebnikovma kruCenixTan
erTad wamoayena Tezisi, romlis Tanaxmadac,
mxatvruli nawarmoebi SeiZleboda, rom
mxolod erTi sityvisgan Semdgariyo. maTi
azriT, es iyo ara mxolod avangarduli
proeqti, aramed Tavad sityvis saxeobrivi
bunebis lingvisturad ganpirobebuli
rekonstruqcia. Tavad sityva ukve patara
nawarmoebia, _ acxadebdnen isini. amaze
filologiis mecniere-
baTa doqtori, ilia Wav-
WavaZis saxelmwifo uni-
versitetis humanitarul
mecnierebaTa da kultu-
ris kvlevebis fakulte-
tis asocirebuli profe-
sori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
qarTuli mWevrmetyve-
lebis lingvopragmatika,
folkloruli ritorika,
Tanamedrove politikuri
diskursis ritorikuli
Taviseburebani, qarTuli
sakanonmdeblo stili...
interesTa sfero:
semiotika, ritorika, sti-
listika.
30
miuTiTebs mixeil epSteini, roca wers: aforizmi iTvleba yvelaze
mcire literaturul Janrad, _ erT winadadebaSia azri SekumSuli...
magram arsebobs kidev ufro mcire Janri _ mxolod sityva. swored
sityva warmodgeba, rogorc dasrulebuli nawarmoebi, rogorc
sityvaSemoqmedebis damoukidebeli rezultati. epSteini xazs usvams
sityvas, ara rogorc enis erTeuls da enaTmecnierebis sagans, aramed
rogorc literaturul Janrs, romelSic aris plastika, idea, saxe,
TamaSi, kolizia da siuJeti. erTsityvianoba _ erTi sityvis xelovneba,
romelic Tavis TavSi moicavs axal ideas, an suraTs, _ maqsimumi
azri minimum enobriv erTeulSi!
me gavagrZelebdi epSteinis azrs da davamatebdi, rom amgvar
`literaturul Janrad~ da damoukidebel mxatvrul nawarmoebad
sityva SeiZleba iqces amave dros, sxva sityvebTan urTierTobis
Sedegad. enis bunebaSi Cadebuli metaforuloba mxatvrul saazrovno
sivrceSi kidev ufro aqtualizdeba da amouwurav qmnadobas
gvTavazobs. `yoveli sityva uamrav potenciur mniSvnelobas Seicavs.
roca sityva sityvebs ukavSirdeba da iqmneba fraza, im mraval
mniSvnelobaTagan erT-erTi aqtiurdeba da mTavar mniSvnelobad
iqceva~(oqtavio pasi). enaSi devs mniSvnelobadqmnadobis imgvari
potenciali, romelic praqtikulad amouwuravia.
calkeul avtorTa poetur SemoqmedebaSi gamoiyofa iseTi
`sityva_nawarmoebebi~, `sityva_konceptebi~, romelTa garSemo SeiZleba
gadaewyos poetis enobrivi samyaro. imisaTvis, rom amgvari
sityva_konceptebi, semantemebi, gamovlindes, saWiroa:
a) teqtSi semantemis gamoyenebis maRali sixSire, markireba;
b) aRniSnuli semantemis metaforulobis maRali xarisxi, rac
gamoixateba axal mniSvnelobaTa warmoqmnaSi;
g) poetis Semoqmedebis koncepti Tavisi funqcionirebiT teqstSi
gamoxatavs avtoris ideas.
Cveni kvlevis obieqts am mimarTulebiT warmoadgenda ana
kalandaZis poezia. Ppoeturi nawarmoebSi aris iseTi simboloebi,
romlebic iTxoven interpretacias Tavad avtorisaTvis (mamardaSvili
2000: 127). kvlevis Sedegad poetis SemoqmedebaSi gamoikveTa
sityva_koncepti `varskvlavi~.
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom semantema `varskvlavi~ metnaklebi sixSiriT
TiTqmis yvela poetis SemoqmedebaSi gvxvdeba, magram ana kalandaZis
`varskvlavi~ namdvilad gansakuTrebulia. ratom maincdamainc es
sityva? kiTxvaze pasuxi martivia da poetis individualobidan
momdinareobs. rogorc Cans, am sityviT gamoxatuli azri yvelaze
cira barbaqaZe
31
metad enaTesaveba poetis suls. sityvis pirdapiri mniSvnelobidan
dawyebuli mis yvelaze ufro dausazRvrav mniSvnelobamde, TiTqmis
yvelafers Tavi mouyria ana kalandaZis SemoqmedebaSi. oTar WilaZisa
ar iyos:
`Zvirfaso, sityvas aqvs Tavis fasi,
zoma da wona, suni da feri
da isic yvela Cvenganis msgavsad
icinis, tiris, ocnebobs, mReris...~
da ara mxolod...
vfiqrob, varskvlavebTan dakavSirebuli suliskveTeba da poetis
Semoqmedebis arsi kargad gamoixata anas Semdeg striqonebSi:
var marad varskvlavTa mWvreteli
da cecxliT vivsebi imaTebr...
`o, RmerTo, o, RmerTo, sabaoT,
sinaTle, sinaTle, sinaTle...~
ra azria gamoTqmuli striqonSi: `var marad varskvlavTa
mWvreteli~? ra Tqma unda, es ar aris mxolod pirdapiri mniSvne-
loba _ rom warmovidginoT, poeti rogor aCerebia Rameul
varskvlavebian cas. pasuxi amave striqonebSia: sinaTle! Aar SevcdebiT,
Tu vityviT, rom rom ana kalandaZe sinaTlis poetia, rac swored
`varskvlavTmWvretelobaSi~ da imaTebr `cecxliT avsebaSi~
metaforulad gamoxata avtorma. ratom daunaTesavda poetis suli
varsvlavs? im Tvisebebis gamo, romelsac varskvlavi atarebs _
siSore, sinaTle, idumaleba, siCume...
tomas strenz elioti erT esseSi wers: `ra sityvebic unda
gamoiyenos mweralma, ramdenadac SesaZlebelia, sargeblobs am sityvaTa
istoriis codniT, imis codniT, Tu rogor gamouyenebiaT es sityvebi.
amgvari codna exmareba mis amocanas, mianiWos sityvas axali sicocxle
da enas ki axali idiomi Sehmatos. arsebiTi tradicia aseTia:
miwvde, ramdenadac SesaZlebelia, mTels mniSvnelobas enis istoriisa,
rac sityvis miRmaa~ (elioti 2007: 159). aseT SemTxvevaSi
gasaTvaliswinebelia sityvis saxarebiseuli gagebac. `roca ieso
daibada iudeis beTlemSi, mefe herodes dReebSi, ierusalimSi movidnen
varskvlavTmricxvelni aRmosavleTidan da Tqves: sad aris, iudevelTa
mefe rom daibada? vinaidan vixileT misi varskvlavi aRmosavleTSi
da movediT, raTa Tayvani vceT mas (maTe, 2.1; 2.2); agreTve: `maT
mousmines ra mefes, wavidnen. da ai, varskvlavi, romelic maT
aRmosavleTSi ixiles, win uZRoda maT, vidre mividoda da gaCerdeboda
sityva azris ZiebaSi, anu `varskvlavebis poetika~ ana kalandaZis poeziaSi
32
im adgilze, sadac yrma iyo (maTe, 2.9). am mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare,
arsebobs iseTi idiomebi, rogorebicaa: bedis varskvlavi, varskvlavi
aenTo (adamiani daibada), varskvlavi Caqra (adamiani mokvda)...
varskvlavi anasTvis agreTve uflis macnea:
RamiT, iq, zemoT, varskvlavs aanTebs
viRacis xeli,
gaTenebamde sanTeliviT rom
iwvis da RvenTavs...
Torem aq vis ra gaaZlebinebs,
kldeT ufskrulebSi,
uamvarskvlavod? Uamsxivod?
uSvelos RmerTma...
bedis varskvlavis mniSvnelobiT aris gamoyenebuli semantema
varskvlavi Semdeg konteqstebSi:
aciskrovndeba gulSi edemi!
naTobs varskvlavi Cveni bedisa...
rad vSfoTavT Cven mis gamoCenamde?
anda:
damexsen srbas: igi dameweva
iis konebiT, _
varskvlavi Cemi varskvlavTSoris
maradis mrwemi, _
da sixaruliT amaRldeba
sauflo Cemi.
ara mxolod adamians, qveyanasac Tavisi bedis varskvlavi dahyveba:
miwav, usasod damcirebulo,
gamarjvebisas Sen isev Sesvam:
modis varskvlavi gabrwyinebuli,
rom dagvibrunos dideba ese!
bibliaSi vkiTxulobT: `Tqva RmerTma: iyos mnaTobebi cis myarze
dRisa da Ramis gasayrelad, droJamis aRmniSvnelad... dasxa isini
RmerTma cis myarze, rom gaenaTebina miwa, gaeyaraT naTeli da bneli...~
sibnele-sinaTlis, keTilisa da borotis kontrastulobas isev
varskvlavebiT (bibliuri mniSvnelobiT) warmoadgens poeti:
varskvlavi igi sixarulisa
Cems wil maradis
aRavlens cials,
rac ufro Rame
Camodis bneli,
cira barbaqaZe
33
igi ufrore
elavs da brwyinavs!
an:
gakrTes naTeli Sinagan bnelTa,
viT kvali varskvlavT mimosvlaTani...
adamiani_varskvlavi aseve ar aris ucxo mniSvneloba da
metaforuloba da anas poeziaSi am mniSvnelobasac vxvdebiT. rCeuli
adamiani `Suqurvarskvlavia~ da misi gardacvalebisas poeti ityvis:
`cas moswyda Suqurvarskvlavi~, patriot jariskacebs ki varskvlavebs
adarebs: `midixarT mtvriani, mtvriani CeqmebiT da varskvlavebiviT
brwyinavT~.
9 aprils daRupulebi uflis varskvlavebia:
A axloa Jami SuaRamisa,
caze varskvlavi uflisa krTeba...
kvdeba sruliad saqarTvelosTvis,_
locviT,
galobiT,
vinc axla kvdeba.
SeiZleba aq gagvaxsendes oTaraanTqvrivis giorgi, romelic
satrfos mimarTavs: `sad Sen da sad _ me... sad mogwvdebodi caSi
varskvlavs...~ (adamiani_varskvlavi).
bunebrivia, rom varskvlavi siwmindesTan, brwyinvalebasTan
asocirdeba poetisaTvis, amitom Cndeba amgvari saxeebi:
varskvlavi brwyinavs ase saamod,
Tu wminda mamebs unTiaT zeTi?
.....................................................................
angelosi daeTxova miwis SvilTa,
Sors gafrinda varskvlavebis SaravandiT.
..............................................................................
brwyinva kandelTa
hgavda brwyinvas varskvlavT miriadT...
...............................................................................
Sen Semodixar ucxod morTuli
da varskvlavebiT TavdanamSveni.
poeturi metyveleba arsebiTad dialogia, rogori monologuri
formiTac ar unda iyos gamoxatuli. Ppoeti yovelTvis viRacas
(raRacas) mimarTavs, elaparakeba. sxvagvarad saerTod SeuZlebeli
iqneboda gamoxatva. `ena erTmaneTTan akavSirebs sam elements: `me~,
sityva azris ZiebaSi, anu `varskvlavebis poetika~ ana kalandaZis poeziaSi
34
`Sen~ da `is~, anu sagani. viRaca viRacas raRacaze esaubreba~ (pol
valeri 1994: 87).
mimarTvis obieqti poeziaSi SeiZleba usulo iyos, amas arca
aqvs arsebiTi mniSvneloba arc poetisaTvis da arc poeziisaTvis.
ana kalandaZes xSirad aqvs dialogi varskvlavebTan.
da gaqrnen sadRac...
cis siRrmeSi krToda varskvlavi,
ratom moswydio? _
manac mkiTxa,_
sauflos Sensa?
.........................................................
ras gadmomyureb banzeiT,
Se lurj varskvlavTa cialo? Dda sxva.
identifikacia varskvlavTan niSneulia anas poeziisaTvis.
Bbrwyinva, anTeba, Caqroba _ es is leqsikaa, romelic varskvlavTan
uSualo kavSirSia, misi maxasiaTebelia. raki Cven aRmovaCineT poetis
identoba mnaTobTan, Sesabamisad, varskvlavis leqsika bunebrivad
gadadis poetze, amitom is ambobs:
me avmaRldebi Sens lurj caze,
SenTvis vibrwyineb,
aRvinTebi da davSrtebi Senda!
eWvi ar aris, rom am SemTxvevaSi `poeti_varskvlavi~ laparakobs.
poetis identifikacia varskvlavebis Cum samyarosTan
kargad gamoixata Semdeg striqonebSi:
dums varskvlavebis
Cumi samyaro...
mas SehRaRadebs
miwa codvili...
gamoiRviZe,
miusafaro,
o, sulo Cemo,
geyo lodini, _
gafrindi cisken!
Tu ca varskvlavebiT Tvals daxuWavs, ixuWeba poetis gulis
Tvalic da es identifikaciis kidev erTi mSvenieri dasturia:
daxuWa Tvali caman cxovelman
da... daixuWa `gulisa Tvalic~...
cira barbaqaZe
35
zogjer cxovrebisagan ganridebis mosurne poeti varskvlavad
yofnas eswrafvis, radgan yofiereba savsea cru da amao xmebiT, rac
axSobs da Trgunavs lirikul mes. varskvlaviviT Sors yofna _
identifikaciis Semdegi safexuria:
ar minda da, _
vambob...
ar minda da, _
vismen...
im varskvlavis msgavsad
Sors mamyofa
ise...
arsaidan xmai
ar mwvdebodes
casa...
o, mamyofa
ise,
im varskvlavis msgavsad!
poetis identifikacia varskvlavTan isev ana kalandaZis
striqonebiT unda avxsnaT. kiTxvaze: ratom varskvlavebTan? Aanas
pasuxi aseTia:
magram me mainc, o, me mainc
sixaruls vesav...
esityvebian varskvlavebi
gulisTqmas Cemsas
uSiSrad da daufaravad...
am leqsSi anas winapris _ nikoloz baraTaSvilis striqonebic
xmiandeba: `mxolod varskvlavTa, TanamavalTa, vamcno gulisa me
saidumlo...~; varskvlavi yovelTvis `Tanamavalia~, sadac midixar,
mogyveba, swored amitom is aris avTandilis megobaric, satrfos
moSorebuli, mnaTobebs rom esaubreba.
`ra SeuRamdis, varskvlavTa amosvla eamebodis,
mas amsgavsebdis, ilxendis, uWvretdis, eubnebodis~.
sxvaTaSoris, aqve unda aRvniSnoT, avTandilisa da ana kalandaZis
lirikuli gmiris sulieri naTesaoba, roca isini mnaTobebs mimarTaven
sulis sanugeSod. avTandili mimarTavs zuals:
mo, zualo, momimate cremli cremlsa, Wiri Wirsa,
guli Savad SemiRebe, sibnelesa mimec xSirsa,
Semomyare kaeSnisa tvirTi mZime, viTa virsa,
mas uTxar, Tu: `nu gaswirav, Senia da SenTvis tirsa~.
sityva azris ZiebaSi, anu `varskvlavebis poetika~ ana kalandaZis poeziaSi
36
ana kalandaZe mimarTavs zuals:
aRmekra pirsa me mwuxareba:
sixarulisgan damcala zeman
da vardiani Cemi karavi
wyvdiaidisaTvis daagdo mzeman...
SemomeZarcva Saravandedi
daunjebuli da idumali...
ganqarda Cemi xati iisa
da... Cems karavze dgaxar, zualo!
aRmekra pirsa me mwuxareba.
am or teqsts Soris saerTo mwuxarebaa, gansxvavebuli enobrivi
formebiT gamoxatuli, magram erTi saTqmeli. Aam saTqmels zuali
ganapirobebs. axla sxva mnaTobisadmi mimarTvac vnaxoT:
modi, marixo, uwyalod damWer laxvriTa SeniTa,
Se-ca-mRebe da Semsvare wiTlad sisxliTa deniTa,
mas uTxren Cemni patiJni, mas gaagonen eniTa,
ragvar gasrulvar, Sen ici, gulia aRar lxeniTa.
ana kalandaZe:
o, marss ar vkadre me sayveduri,
arca wuxilis cremlebi vkadre:
moiRo cecxli man RvTaebrivi,
gadamafara ciuri madli...
momarTva Tvisi maRali taxti,
damarqva TuRi Tvisi mefuri...
ganmaZliera me SiSsa zeda...
o, marss ar vkadre me sayveduri:
Zalumi iyo wyaloba misi!
avTandili aspirozs mimarTavs:
modi, aspiroz, marge ra, man damwva cecxlTa dagiTa,
vin margalitsa gareSe moscavs Zowisa bagiTa;
Sen daamSveneb keklucTa damSvenebiTa magiTa,
visme, glax, Cemebr daagdeb, gaxdi cnobiTa SmagiTa.
ana kalandaZe:
da brwyinavs, brwyinavs, brZeni aspiroz,
qvabebis Tavze amayad mdgari,
da dauSretis idumalebiT
kvlav nugeSsa scems am SemogarenT.
cira barbaqaZe
37
am uneburi analogiiT Cven vadasturebT Semoqmedi sulebis
kavSirs mnaTobebTan. isini sxvadasxa droSi da gansxvavebul
situaciebSi miemarTebian ciur sxeulebs, magram faqtia, rom `Tvali
cisken uWiravT~_pirdapiri da gadataniTi mniSvnelobiTac. Aamgvar
teqstebSi minimum ormagi kodirebaa, erTi fizikuri samyarosaTvis,
xolo meore_miRmuri samyarosaTvis daniSnuli.
kiTxvebi, romlebic kvlevisas miCndeba da romelzedac pasuxebs
vpoulob, uecrad aRmoCndeba rom ana kalandaZe romelime leqsiT
midasturebs, ase moxda amjeradac poetis Semdegi striqonebiT:
aq salamuriT atirdeba
patara mwyemsi,
ra aRonebs pawia biWsa?
brwyinavs varskvlavi:
cas imisi gulisTqma esmis,
cas uuSoress, Seucnobels,
grZneuls da misans.
Tu CavTvliT, rom patara mwyemsi zogadad maZiebeli adamianis
simboloa, gabrwyinebuli varskvlavebi adastureben, rom ufals esmis
misi...
miuRweveli (anu ufali) varskvlavis bunebisaa (anda, piriqiT),
brwyinvalea, amitom: `gamomibrwyindi, miuRwevelo, aw ucnauri meqmen
sacnaur...~ _ wers poeti da am gamobrwyinebaSi WeSmaritebis gaelvebas
gulisxmobs.
ra Tqma unda, varskvlavis pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT gamoyeneba
Sesabamis gancdaTa gadmosacemad bunebrivia anasTvis.
varskvlavi brwyinavs,
o, varskvlavi,
krTis sasiamo
da mTvare aris kvlav
sxivTa mTovar...
an:
da mSvidTa caTa amoenTeba
varskvlavi kideT,
daubrundebaT Tvisi feri
didebul naZvebs...
satrfos ki ise aRar elis poeti, rogorc xaverdovani Ramis
wyvdiadi varskvlavs:
o, aRar veli mas,
rogorc varskvlavs _
xaverdovani
Ramis wyvdiadi...
sityva azris ZiebaSi, anu `varskvlavebis poetika~ ana kalandaZis poeziaSi
38
namiani balaxic ki avtorisTvis `varskvlavebis laRi bibinia~...
da ase Semdeg... vfiqrobT, srulad ver SevZeliT warmogvedgina
yvela is konotaciuri mniSvneloba, romelsac varskvlavi aCens anas
poeziaSi.
`sityva~, rogorc realoba, ganuyofelia mTqmelisagan, imisgan,
visTvisac es metyvelebaa daniSnuli da agreTve im situaciisagan,
romelSic es sityva warmoiTqmis (gaseti 2000: 665). ra Tqma unda,
sxvagvarad sityva mxolod abstraqciaa.
aseTive abstaraqciaa sityva `varskvlavi~, romlis saleqsikono
mniSvnelobaa _ cis sxeuli, romelic sakuTari SuqiT naTobs; Sori
manZilis gamo varskvlavi cis kamaraze Cans, rogorc yovelmxriv
sworxazovnad sxivebis gamomcemi mnaTobi wertili (qegl-i, 1955:
30).
qarTul saliteraturo enaSi leqsema `varskvlavma~ myari
Sesityvebebic warmoSva, aseTebia: kudiani varskvlavi (kometa),
varskvlavi mowyda (meteorma gaielva), mowyvetili varskvlavi
(meteori), ciT mowyvetili varskvlavi (Zalian lamazi), varskvlavebs
epotineba (miuwvdomlisken miiswrafvis), varskvlavebs eTamaSeba
(lamazia), bedis varskvlavi, bednier varskvlavze dabadebuli...
gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT varskvlavi aRniSnavs agreTve beds, gangebas,
mizans. (mag.: `Cven unda vsdioT axla sxva varskvlavs...~(ilia).
rogorc davinaxeT, sityva `varskvlavs~ enis sistemaSi sakmao
potencia moepoveba imisaTvs, rom gaagrZelos `mniSvnelobaTqmnadobis~
procesi poetur metyvelebaSi...
ana kalandaZis poeturi teqstebis mixedviT, sityva `varskvlavis~
saboloo azri uflisken midis, varskvlavi uflis erT_erTi epiTetia,
saboloo aRsaniSni RmerTia, romelic Tavad dausazRvravia da
dausazRvravia is semantemac, romelic misi aRmniSvneli xdeba. am
konteqstSi CvenTvis sainteresoa Suasauukuneebis xedva. Suasaukuneebis
simbolizmis kosmologiuri universalizmi dakavSirebulia
`ukanaskneli~ aRsaniSnis gagebasTan. wminda avgustinesTan realurad
yovel sagans SeuZlia aRniSnos meore sagani, anu gamovides aRmniSvnelis
rolSi... am perspeqtivaSi erTaderTi sagani, romelic ar SeiZleba
aRsaniSnis rolSi gamovides, aris RmerTi. Ggarkveuli azriT, aq
gaTanabrebulia `referentis~ semiotikuri gageba da `pirvelmizezis~
metafizikuri gageba.
signifikaciuri damokidebulebis saboloo polusebia: RmerTi
_ sityva: `sufTa aRsaniSni~ da `sufTa aRmniSvneli~, sadac
materialuroba fiqsirebulia sityvis polusze, xolo spiritualoba
_ referentis polusze.
cira barbaqaZe
39
sityvis mTavari azri, idea yovelTvis SeniRbulia Ria teqstiT,
anu im teqstiT, romelic uSualod aris Cven winaSe. metaforuloba
zogadad SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc garegan metyvelebaSi teqstis,
sityvis Sinagani azris gamovlenis faqti. TavisTavad metafora
ukve SeniRbuli azria. Mmetaforulad es azri SeiZleba ase
warmovadginoT: `zRva(an okeane), romelic Tavis TavSi aerTianebs
zedapirs da siRrmes (zedapiri_Ria teqstia, xolo siRrme_dafaruli
teqsti, qveteqsti), rogor SeiZleba siRrmis gamikvleva? siRrmeSi
CasvliT an zedapirze amotivtivebuli raime niSnis axsniT. axla
warmovidginoT, rom zedapirze amotivtivebuli sagani _ es Ria
teqstSi qveteqstidan (siRrmidan) `SemoWrili~ tropebia, romelTa
axsniT da analiziT vSifravT siRrmes, anu azrs, ideas. siRrmis
gamokvleva siRrmeSi CasvliTac SeiZleba _ magram am SemTxvevaSi ena
wyvets arsebobas idumalSi gadasvlis gamo~ (barbaqaZe 2003: 50).
rogorc vnaxeT, ana kalandaZis poeziaSi sainteresod warmoCnda
`varskvlavebis poetika~. feSenko wers: `Tu davuSvebT, rom semiotikas
aqvs Tavisi ganviTarebis siuJeti, maSin am ganviTarebis kulminacia
is wertilia, romelSic semiotika xvdeba poetikas~ (feSenko 2006:
62).
maS, raze gadis gza azridan sityvisken da piriqiT, sityvidan
azrisken? amaze vigotski gvipasuxebda: `...azri ar emTxveva araTu
sityvebs, aramed arc maT mniSvnelobebs, romlebiTac is gamoiTqmeba.
gza azridan sityvisken mniSvnelobaze gadis. Cvens metyvelebaSi
yovelTvis aris dafaruli qveteqsti. am winaaRmdegobis dasaZlevad
iqmneba axali gza azridan sityvisken sityvaTa axali mniSvnelobebis
gavliT~ (vigotski 1999: 331). swored aseT axal mniSvnelobebs
gvTavazobs poeturi metyveleba. iqneb arc ise axalia dReisTvis
is azri, romelic Tavis droze kantma gamoxata agreTve metaforulad:
ori ram maocebs amqveynad_varskvlavebiani ca Cem zemoT da moraluri
kanoni CemSi! _ moraluri kanoni Tu uflismieria (da namdvilad
aris uflismieri), masTan varskvlavebiani cis dakavSireba sulac
ar aris SemTxveviTi da amasve adasturebs kantis am azris ana
kalandaZiseuli reinterpretacia. iqneb samyaro sul ramdenime
metaforis (re)interpretaciaa?
literatura
barbaqaZe 2003: cira barbaqaZe, qarTuli mWevrmetyvelebis pragmatika,
Tbilisi.
barti 1989: , , , ,
.
sityva azris ZiebaSi, anu `varskvlavebis poetika~ ana kalandaZis poeziaSi
40
gaseti 2000: --, , .
elioti 2007: tomas strenz elioti, aTi esei (Targmnes paata da
rostom CxeiZeebma), Tbilisi.
vigotski 1999: .. , , .
kalandaZe ana 2004: ana kalandaZe, leqsebi, Tbilisi.
mamardaSvili 2000: , ,
.
pol valeri 1994: sulis krizisi, (Targmna baCana bregvaZem),
Tbilisi.
feSenko,2006: , Autopoetica,
; :
, .
qegli 1955: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, t. 3, Tbilisi.
Tsira Barbakadze
The Word Related to Researching of Conception
or Poetics of Stars in Anna Kalandadzes Poetry
Metaphority existed in the nature of the language is more activated and
offers continual creation as it deals with artistic space of thinking. Each word
contains plenty of potential meanings. The word forming the phrase with other
words activates one key sense from the diversity of concepts (Octavio Pass).
The language consists of practically incomplited creational capacity that forms
variety of meanings.
Word-derivatives and Word-concepts representing the poets language
scope are revealed with various authors. The mentioned word-concepts, semantems
are exposed by:
a) the frequency of using semantem in the text, marking;
b) the high grade of semantem metaphorization forming the new sense;
c) the concept of poetry indicating the authors idea, due to its functioning in the text.
While researching Anna Kalandadzes poetry the star appeared to be the
word-concept.
Almost each poet applies the semantem star with different frequency in
their poetry, but Anna Kalandadzes star is really spacial, forming exciting poetics
of stras. Why just this word? The response is very simple as it is based on the
poets individuality. The sense of this word seems dealing with the authors soul.
Anna Kalandadzes poetry exposes all types of concepts of this word from
literal meaning to idiomatic ones as well.
According to Anna Kalandadzes poetry the conclusive sense of the star
as one of the metaphors aspiring towards God. Eventual denotative is God that is
indefinite as the expedient designating semantem.
cira barbaqaZe
41
TinaTin bolqvaZe
nasesxebi sityvebis
semiotika
statiaSi ganixileba nasesxebi sistyvebis
funqcionireba semiozisSi, konkretulad
ki, interpretatorTa damokidebuleba,
interpretanta (reaqcia, romelic SeiZ-
leba mohyves niSans) da konteqsti, ro-
melSic nasesxebi enobrivi niSani gvxvdeba.
semiozisis faqtorTa analizi dadis
enobrivi niSnis sami gansxvavebuli Tvalsa-
zrisiT ganxilvaze: semantikuri, sintaqtikuri
da pragmatuli (gamyreliZe 2000: 24).
calkeuli enobrivi niSnis sruli daxasiaTeba
SesaZlebelia mxolod maSin, roca Seswavli-
lia misi urTierToba obieqtTan, sxva niSnebTan
da momxmarebelTan. enis amomwuravi daxasia-
Teba ki maSin aris SesaZlebeli, roca dad-
genilia enis semantikuri, sintaqtikuri da
pragmatuli wesebi.L L= L
sem
+ L
sin
+ L
prag
(morisi 2001: 54). am SemTxvevaSi CvenTvis
sainteresoa enobrivi niSani, kerZod ki,
nasesxebi sityva pragmatuli valsazrisiT.
enaTa minimaluri kontaqtebic ki
sakmarisia sityvaTa sasesxeblad. nasesxebi
leqsikuri erTeulis mimarT enobrivi ko-
leqtivis wevrebs sxvadasxvagvari damokide-
buleba aqvT _ zogs moswons, zogi iwunebs.
erTi da imave nasesxebi sityvis mimarTac ki
damokidebuleba droTa ganmavlobaSi icvleba.
Tumca, sesxeba rom Cveulebrivi movlenaa, amaze
aravin davobs. magaliTad, sulxan-saba
filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, ivane javaxiSvi-
lis saxelobis Tbilisis
saxelmwifo universi-
tetis humanitaruli
fakultetis profesori,
saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa
da mecnierebis saminis-
tros saxelmwifo enis
programebis koordina-
tori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
`poeturi paralelizmi
`vefxistyaosanSi (Tsu
gamomcemloba, 1997 weli),
`ideologizebuli Rire-
bulebebi (Tsu gamomcem-
loba), `qarTveluri dig-
losia, (2007 weli).
interesTa sfero:
semiotika, sociolin-
gvistika, ti pologiuri
da arealuri enaTmecnie-
reba.
42
orbeliani erT-erT ucxoenovan sityvas aseT komentars urTavs:
eseviTarni yovelsa enasa Sina iqmnebian anu mezoblobisa
mier, anu SemoRebisa mier ... sparsulad ewodebis madar
dedasa, xolo frangulad maTer, vina ornive erT; laTinTa
eniTa sudari - mkvdrisa saxvevelsa, egreTve qarTulad, anu
qarta, anu sandali laTinTa da qarTulTa saziaro ars.
egreTve yovelTa enaTa Sina mravali movals.
rogor mkvidrdeba nasesxebi sityva enaSi? erT-erTi gza aseTia
_ nasesxebi sityva imave an msgavsi mniSvnelobis adgilobriv
sityvasTan erTad qmnis sinonimur wyvils da xSirad gamoiyeneba
sxvadasxva daniSnulebis teqstebSi. magaliTisTvis davimowmoT SoTa
rusTvelis poema. `vefxistyaosnis~ avtori xSirad xmarobs orenovan
wyvilebs, ai ramdenime:
ese metad momewona TaTbiri da gamorCeva.
saxelmwifo sajdomi da taxti gmarTebs, sraca sruli.
mutribTa da momReralTa moyvaruli, Rvinis msmeli.
Sen ar-gatexa kargi gWirs zenaarisa, ficisa.
var ucxo vinme Raribi, sayofTa moSorvebuli.
vefxistyaosnamdec Zalian xSiri iyo qarTul werilobiT
ZeglebSi ucxoenoveni sityvis Semcveli wyvilebi: mowame da
martvili, kereoni da sanTeli, ZRueni da feSqaSi, moaje da
moqene da sxva.
bilingvuri sinonimuri wyvilebi, rogorc ena saerTod,
mravalfunqciuria. v. boederma komunikaciis aqtis funqciaTa
iakobsoniseul sqemaze dayrdnobiT aCvena orenovani sinonimuri
wyvilebis funqciaTa ierarqiis cvalebadoba, rac Tan sdevs ucxo
sityvis Semcvel sinonimur wyvilTa funqciebs naTargmn filosofiur
da mxatvrul nawarmoebebSi. mxatvrul TxzulebebSi aseT wyvilebs
azris gaZlierebis mizniT iyenebdnen. kvintilianedan moyolebuli
yvela avtori orenovani da saerTod sinonimuri wyvilebis umTavres
funqciad swored `emfazas~ (xazgasmas, gamkveTrebas) aRiarebs. Tavidan
ucxo sityvis Semcvel sinonimur wyvilebs yvela enaSi ZiriTadad
metalingvisturi funqcia aqvT (boederi 1991: 120), magram droTa
ganmavlobaSi isini icvlian funqciebs, rasac maTi gamoyenebis arec
gansazRvravs.
`vefxistyaosanSi~ gamoyenebul arabul-sparsul sityvaTa
Semcveli sinonimuri wyvilebis Seswavlam dagvarwmuna, rom poemis
Seqmnis droisaTvis ukve dabindulia maTi metalingvisturi funqcia
TinaTin bolqvaZe
43
da isini qarTuli enis referenciul Zalas uerTdebian. am
TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa T. batoniSvilis azri rusTvelis poemaSi
ucxoenovani leqsikis gamoyenebaze: `xolo romelnica, sxvaTa enis
leqsni uxmarebies stixTa Sina, igini arian adridganve mravalT
saukuneTa uwinares qarTulsa enasa Sina Semotanilni da
egreT vxmarobT maT. viTarca sakuTarTa leqsTa CvenTa;
vinaidan Cveuleba sxvaTa yovelTa enaTa, romel mezoblobisa
ZliT, anu xSirad erTsa romelsame enisa smenisa ZliT
urTierTisa leqsTa miiReben da ixmareben TvisTa Sina enaTa
(bagrationi 1960: 200). faqtiurad, am azrs agrZelebs mari, roca
wers: poemaSi arabuli da sparsuli sityvebi iseTi formiTaa naxmari,
rom isini ver iqneba SeTvisebuli romelime literaturuli
nawarmoebidan. rusTveli maT uSualod cocxali urTierTobidan
iRebs (mari 1917: 428)
elvertma aCvena, rom bilingvuri sinonimuri wyvilebi axasiaTebda
provanseli trubadurebis lirikasac. trubadurebma gaamartives
laTinuri samwevra varianti, radgan wyvili axlosaa yoveldRiur
metyvelebasTan da ufro efeqturia. v. boederis azriT, rusTveli
provansel trubadurTa darad xSirad gasariTm poziciaSi ayenebs
aseT wyvilebs. es xerxi Semdeg gavrcelda mTel evropaSi da siciliur
sakaro poeziaSi provansalizmad Seicnoboda. saintereso sakiTxia
am TvalsazrisiT rusTvelisa da provanseli lirikosebis siaxlove
raime istoriuli makavSirebeli rom arsebobdeso. _ wers v. boederi
(boederi 1991: 106-107). taepSi bilingvuri wyvilebis adgilze
specialurma dakvirvebam gvaCvena, rom igi yovelTvis riTmis Seqmnis
aucileblobiT ar aris nakarnaxevi, Tumca emorCileba taepSi marcvalTa
ganawilebis zogad wesebs.
Tu pirvel etapze nasesxeb sityvas ganmartebisTvis Tan axlavs
msesxebeli enis imave an msgavsi mniSvnelobis sityva, riTac bilingvuri
wyvili iqmneb, Semdeg aseTi wyvili aucileblad iSleba. daSlis
mizezi sxvadasxvaa:
a) SeiZleba nasesxebi sityva saerTod daikargos. magaliTad,
zenaari _ es sityva Axvewnis dros gamoiyeneboda. igi RaRadisis
mimarTva iyo da niSnavda `gaficeb. dRes zenaari mkvdari leqsikuri
erTeulia qarTulisTvis.
b) xSirad ucxouri sityva srulad integrirdeba msesxebel
enaSi rogorc, magaliTad, Raribi. Tu sesxebis sawyis periodSi igi
aRniSnavda ucxos (sulieris SemTxvevaSi _ ucxo mxareSi gadaxvewils,
nasesxebi sityvebis semiotika
44
usulos SemTxvevaSi _ saucxoos, Zvirfass), mogzaurs, martodmartos,
sawyals, obols, dRes mas aqvs erTaderTi mniSvneloba _ uqoneli
da Tavisi semantikiT gansxvavdeba im sityvebisagan, romlebTanac igi
bilingvur wyvilebs qmnida. amgvarive gza ganvlo sityva lamazma.
igi Tavdapirvelad TvalTmaqcobas, sicrues niSnavda, axla ki
gamSvenebasTan da keklucobasTan aris dakavSirebuli. sailustraciod
gamodgeba magaliTebi `visramianidan da `vefxistyaosnidan.
`daagde siWrele Seni da lamazoba (`visramiani). iust.
abulaZe am adgils ase ganmartavs: `daagde Seni sicrue da
TvalTmaqcoba. Cans, rom lamazi pirvandeli mniSvnelobiTaa
gamoyenebuli.
`ga exa rnes xilva Cem i, turfisa da la m a zisa
(vefxistyaosani). aq lamazs igive mniSvneloba aqvs, rac dRes.
g) ucxo sityvis enaSi integrirebis bolo etaps asaxavs e. w.
`hibriduli kompozitebi, romelTa komponentebi ganekuTvnebian
sxvadasxva enis leqsikur fondebs. hibriduli kompozitebis kargi
magaliTebia S. ZiZiguris mier moZiebuli nitka-Zafi, gvozd-lursmani
da kalco-beWedi. S. ZiZiguri maT ucxo sityvis Semcvel sinonimur
wyvilebad, anu, rogorc TviTon uwodebs, sinonimuri paralelizmis
SemTxvevebad miiCnevs (ZiZiguri 1946) v. boederis azriT ki, nitka-
Zafi niSnavs safeiqro teqnologiiT damzadebul Zafs, gvozd-lursmani
_ qarxnul lursmans gansxvavebiT kustarulisagan, xolo kalco-
beWedi uTvlo, saqorwino (niSnobis) beWeds (boederi 1991). maSasa-
dame, es sityvebi, romlebic Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo
enisaTvis barbarizmebia, ukve integrirebulia dialeqtSi da avlens
damanawevrebel Zalas, rac iqidan Cans, rom Tavidan gvevlineba
gansazRvrebis funqciiT, bolos ki, kompozitis Semadgeneli nawili
xdeba.
mWidro literaturuli, samecniero, sazogadod _ kulturuli
(da gansakuTrebiT politikur-ekonomikuri, T.b.) damokidebuleba
erTi eTnikuri koleqtivisa meoresTan _ sawindaria sityvaTa
ganuwyveteli dinebisa, saWiroebis miuxedavad. am situaciaSi es
ucxo ena gamodis kulturuli kanonmdeblobis rolSi, erTgvar
modadaa qceuli misi leqsikoni. (ZiZiguri 1975: 48) metyvelebaSi
ucxo sityvis gamoCenisTanave sazogadoebis wevrebi gamoTqvamen TavianT
azrs. kvlav davakvirdeT pirveli qarTuli ganmartebiTi (Tumca
didwilad enciklopediuri) leqsikonis Semdgenlis komentarebs.
specialurad unda SevCerdeT im ucxoenovan sityvebze, romelTac
sulxan-saba orbeliani umars uwodebs. umar sityvaTa didi
TinaTin bolqvaZe
45
nawili Semosulia soflisa JamTa viTarebisagan anu, rogorc
zogjer ambobs, JamTa SlaTagan, romelTa xmarebas unda veridoT.
aseTi sityvebi sabas leqsikonSi imisTvis Seutania, rom moswavleman
cnas samari da umari, jerovani da ujero.
enis kodificirebis erT-erTi mizani enobrivi koleqtivis
TviTdamkvidreba da stabilurobaa (haugeni 1972). swored es
ganapirobebs sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonSi sxvaTa anu ucxo
enidan Semosul sityvebze darTul komentarebsa da maTTvis qarTuli
Sesatyvisebis Ziebas. aseTi damokidebuleba ucxouri warmomavlobis
sityvebisadmi gamowveulia mravalricxovan agresorTa politikuri
da kulturuli ZaladobiT. qarTuli enis siwmindis dacvisTvis
saba meTodurad da dabejiTebiT akeTebda amas. orbeliani Tavis
leqsikons, pirvel rigSi, saswavlo miznebs usaxavda. Tvlida, rom
aucilebeli iyo enis saxelmZRvanelo leqsikonis saxiT, uromlisodac
ena iryvneba, fuWdeba (abulaZe 1998: 32).
ai ramdenime leqsikuri erTeuli, romelTac sulxan-saba
umarad afasebs.
burji sxvaTa enaa JamTagan mosuli. varskvlavTa zodiaqTa
uwoden da kedlisasa godledi hqvian.
Tamami JamTagan SemoRebul(i)a da cudi, qarTulad kadnieri
ewodebis: Tamami TurqTa eniTa srulsa hqvian.
qosa ar ars qarTuli, aramed JamTa viTarebisagan SemoRebulia,
qarTulad popliki ewodebis.
oda (um.) TurqT(a) enaa, senaksa hqvian.
qafi (um.) sxvaTa enaa, qarTulad peri hqvian.
Tanamedrove qarTvelisaTvis, Tu is specialobiT enaTmecnieri
ar aris, burji, Tamami, qosa, oda, qafi da sxva warsulSi nasesxebi
uamravi sityva sulac ar aRiqmeba ucxoenovan da, miT umetes, `u
mar sityvebad, radgan es da mravali amisTana nasesxebi erTeuli
didi xania qarTuli leqsikis ganuyofeli nawili gaxda. iakob
gogebaSvili werda: `ena aris burji erovnebisa. burji iseT
konteqstSia gamoyenebuli, rom kargad Cans, mas avtori nasesxeb,
arasaliteraturo da uxerxul sityvad sulac ar aRiqvams. es
leqsikuri erTeuli didi xnis win SeerTebia qarTuli enis
referenciul Zalas.
am sakiTxze dafiqrebas verc sulxan-saba orbeliani ascdeboda.
radgan mas sityvaTa sesxeba enisTvis Cveulebriv movlenad miaCnda
da enis ucxouri elementebisagan srulad gawmendas SeuZlebelad
Tvlida, saWiro gaxda kriteriumis gamoZebna - romeli araqarTuli
nasesxebi sityvebis semiotika
46
leqsikuri erTeuli Seewynarebina da romeli ara. rogorc el.
metrevelis dakvirveba cxadyofs, orbeliani sityvis sadaurobasa
da mis qarTul Sesatyviss zog SemTxvevaSi ramdenime redaqciis
manZilze eZebs. magaliTad, sityva sufris sadaurobisa da misi
qarTuli Sesatyvisis Ziebis dros saba siZneleebs Sexvedria. mas
sufra ki miuCnevia ucxourad, sparsulad, magram veRar gadauwyvetia,
romeli iyo misi qarTuli Sesatyvisi - tabla Tu dastaxani. amgvari
SeeWvebisTvis leqsikologs safuZveli namdvilad hqonda, radgan
arc erTi es sityva qarTuli ar aris. tabla - berZnulia, sufra
- arabuli, xolo dastaxani - sparsuli. orbelians sityvis
qarTulobis sazomad auRia misi gavrcelebis xangrZlivoba. tabla
damowmebulia uZveles qarTul teqstebSi, oTxTavis qarTul
redaqciebSi, xolo sufra da dastaxani klasikursa da aRorZinebis
xanaSi Semosuli da gavrcelebuli sityvebia. sulxan-saba qarTulad
Tvlis tablas. amgvarad, igi qarTulad miiCnevs im ucxouri
warmomavlobis sityvebs, romelnic didi xnidan gavrcelebulan
qarTul literaturasa da sametyvelo enaSi, Sesulan qarTuli enis
ZiriTad leqsikur fondSi (metreveli 1956: 19).
ama Tu im ucxoenovani sityvis umarad gamocxadebaSi vlindeba
enobrivi niSnis mimarT enis momxmareblis damokidebuleba, rac
pragmatikis Seswavlis obieqtia. rogorc SesavalSive aRvniSneT,
enobrivi niSani SeiZleba ganvixiloT sami gansxvavebuli TvalsazrisiT
semantikuri, sintaqtikuri da pragmatuli, amasTan enobrivi niSnis
semantikuri da sintaqtikuri midgomiT miRebuli Sedegebi SeiZleba
ar daemTxves misi pragmatuli aspeqtiT Seswavlisas miRebul Sedegebs,
radgan pragmatika gulisxmobs enobriv niSanTa sistemisadmi enis
momxmarebelTa damokidebulebis Seswavlas (gamyreliZe 2000: 241).
swored enis momxmareblis anu enobrivi niSnis interpretatoris
Tvalsazrisze wers emil benvenisti: metyvelisaTvis ena da garesamyaro
mTlianad adekvaturia. niSani mTlianad faravs realobas da batonobs
masze. ufro metic, is TviTonaa realoba. metyvelis Tvalsazrisi
imdenad sxvaobs enaTmecnieris Tvalsazrisisagan, rom enaTmecnieris
mtkiceba niSnis nebismierobis Sesaxeb odnavadac ver aryevs mis
ganpirobebulobaze metyvelis rwmenas. rogorc unda iyos, enobrivi
niSnis bunebas, sosiuris gansazRvrebiT, es sulac ar exeba, ramdenadac
am gansazRvrebis mizani isaa, rom aCvenos aRsaniSnisa da aRmniSvnelis
urTierToba. amgvarad, nebismierobis sfero enobrivi niSnis gareTaa
gatanili, sosiuri ambobda: ena verafriT ver icavs Tavs im Zalebisagan,
romlebic yovelwuTierad cvlian mimarTebas aRsaniSnsa da
TinaTin bolqvaZe
47
aRmniSvnels Soris. es niSnis nebismierobis erT-erTi Sedegia. am
daskvnis fasi, - wers emil benvenisti, - odnavadac ar Semcirdeba,
piriqiT, gaizrdeba, Tu zustad vityviT, ra mimarTebazea aq saubari.
cvalebadobisa da imavdroulad ucvlelobis unari aRsaniSnisa da
aRmniSvnelis urTierTobas ki ar axasiaTebs, aramed sagansa da
niSans, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, aRniSvnis sagnobriv motivacias, romelzec
yovelTvis moqmedebs sxvadasxva istoriuli faqtori. e. benvenistis
azriT, sosiuris daskvna sworia, oRond ara niSnisTvis, aramed
mniSvnelobisTvis (benvenisti 1974: 93-94).
ama Tu im sityvis umarad anu usargeblod Sefaseba aCvenebs,
rogor uyurebs, ra warmodgenebi aqvs interpretators, am SemTxvevaSi
qarTuli enis leqsikis kodifikators sulxan-saba orbelians
qarTuli enis leqsikuri erTeulebis mimarT. misTvis enobrivi
niSani aramc da aramc ar aris nebismieri, igi aucileblad
ganpirobebulia. emil benvenistis sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, sulxan-
sabasTvis qarTuli ena da garesamyaro mTlianad adekvaturia. rodesac
ama Tu im sityvas mosdevs komentari sxvaTa enaa, umari da cudi,
aq imaze ki ar aris miTiTeba, rom garkveuli bgeraTkompleqsi,
magaliTad, SaRavaTi cudad asaxavs am cnebis (SeRavaTi) arss,
aramed igi cudia (umaria) imis gamo, rom sxvaTa enaa, JamTa
viTarebiT SemoRebulia, rogorc amas aRniSnavs, magaliTad, qaravanis
ganmartebisas: arabTa enaa, JamTa viTarebiT SemoRebulia, qarTulad
mogzauri ewodebis. TavisTavad aRmniSvnelebi qaravani da mogzauri
(akustikuri xatebi, rogorc ferdinand de sosiuri uwodebda)
erTnairad nebismieria cnebis (aRsaniSnis) mimarT, magram qarTul
enaze metyvelisaTvis mogzauri kargi, mosawoni da samari iyo,
qaravani ki cudi da umari. es aris enobrivi niSnis mimarT
momxmareblis pragmatuli damokidebuleba. misTvis mogzaur
bgeraTkompleqssa da aRsaniSn cnebas Soris ganpirobebuli
urTierTobaa. aseTi urTierToba ar aris qaravansa da imave cnebas
Soris. dRes ki viTareba sxvagvaria: mogzaurisa da qaravanis
mniSvnelobebi mxolod Tematurad ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs. maT aqvT
diferencirebuli semantika da Tanamedrove qarTul enaze metyvelis
cnobierebaSi Soreul sinonimebadac ki ar moiazrebian.
1884 wels sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikoni gamoica rafiel
erisTavis redaqtorobiTa da aleqsandre episkoposis safasiT. am
wigns redaqtor-gamomcemelma rafiel erisTavma winasityvaoba daurTo,
romelSic axsnilia orbelianis leqsikonis gamocemis aucilebloba.
erT-erT mizezad dasaxelebulia is faqti, rom zogierTi
nasesxebi sityvebis semiotika
48
literatorebis nawerebSi Semosulia ucxo enis sityvebi,
romlebis samagieroni da ufro namdvilni moipovebian sulxan
orbelianis leqsikonSi. maSasadame, es leqsikoni rom
yofiliyo aqnobamdis dabeWdili da gavrcelebuli, maSin
ucxo sityvebi aRar SeamRvrevda qarTuls enas, radganac
TT am enazed moi poebian jerovanni da ufro marjve
saxelwodebani. iqneba sTqvan, rom zogi qarTuli sityvebi
daZvelebulan da gaugebarni ariano, magram, Cemis azriT, sjobs,
rom isev is Zveli sityvebi ganvaaxloT da SemovitanoT
literaturaSi saxmareblaT, vidre sxva enas davesesxoT:
xom imasac xel-axla Seswavla da SeCveva dasWirdeba da
amasac, da Tu ki ucxo enebidgan im gvari sityvebis Semotana
dagvWirda, romlebic qarTulSi sruliad ar moi poebian,
maSin Cvenc visargebloT im sityvebiT, romlebis sesxobasac
ar Takiloben Cvenzed ufro dawinaurebulni da ganaTlebulni
xalxni (erisTavi 1884: II). rafiel erisTavi, iseve, rogorc orbeliani,
sityvaTa sesxebis winaaRmdegi ar aris, magram es ar niSnavs Zvel
qarTul leqsikaze uaris Tqmas. piriqiT, misi gaaqtiurebaa saWiro.
aseTi damokidebuleba, erTi mxriv, ucxoenovani leqsikisa da, meore
mxriv, Zveli qarTuli leqsikis mimarT XIX saukuneSi Zalian
gavrcelebuli iyo. ai, ras werdnen am sakiTxze imdroindel presaSi:
petre mirianaSvili: ... ucxoenovani sityvebi mxolod
aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi unda vixmaroT, ... imis magieri aq
ar unda iyos, ... magram is, rac Cvens enaSia, unda vamjobinoT
sxvas da amitom sxvisi ena unda moviSvelioT didis
sifrTxiliTa da gamorCeviT (mirianaSvili 1888).
grigol yifSiZe: SeviZinoT evropelTagan: rusTa, frangTa,
germanelTagan, garna nu wavaxdenT da nu gavryvniT Cvens enas
n urc rusicizm e biT, n urc ga licizm e biTa da n urc
germanizmebiT (yifSiZe 1903: 4).
silovan xundaZe: SeuZlebelia romelime enaSi ucxo sityva
ar Sevides, magram es sityva uTuod imisTana teqnikuri,
gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis meqoni unda iyos, romlis
mzgavsic am enaSi arasodes yofila (xundaZe 1927: 77).
Zveli qarTuli leqsikidan aRebuli sityvebisTvis axali
sicocxlis SeZena Tanamedrove qarTul sazogadoebaSi erTgvar modad
iqca. sainteresoa, rom sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonidan irCeven
ZiriTadad iseT sityvebs, romelTac ucxouri JReradoba da qarTuli
warmomavloba aqvT. magaliTad:
TinaTin bolqvaZe
49
ardi aw, somxuria. miuxedavad imisa, rom sulxan-saba aRniSnavs
ardis somxurobas, igi daerqva saswrafo daxmarebas.
eari gazafxuli. eari airCies moswavleTa sagazafxulo
festivalis saxelad.
zanduri (bal.) TaTuxi. dRes erT-erTi kerZo purkombinatis
saxelwodeba.
ilekro ewodebis oqrosa, vercxlsa, spilenZsa, rkinasa, tyviasa,
kalasa da yovelsave misTanaTa erTbamad. ilekro rusTavis
metalurgiul kombinatTan arsebuli mcire sawarmos saxelia.
es magaliTebic metyveli koleqtivis enobrivi niSnisadmi
damokidebulebis maCvenebelia. pragmatuli TvalsazrisiT metyveli
koleqtivisTvis erTi enis leqsikuri erTeuli (enobrivi niSani)
sxva enis erTeuls sjobs. rogorc sosiuri ambobda, ena Tavisi
bunebiT Tavsmoxveulia sazogadoebaze, magram imavdroulad ar
arsebobs sazogadoeba, romelic kmayofili ar iyos Tavisi eniT.
ufro metic, ena badebs siamayis grZnobas masze metyvel koleqtivSi.
es grZnoba gansakuTrebiT gamZafrebuli aqvs enis kodifikators.
aqedan gamomdinare, ZiriTadad im leqsikuri erTeulebis mimarT
amJRavneben adamianebi uaryofiT damokidebulebas, romlebic mis
sicocxleSi Semovida mis enaSi (pirvel, mSobliur enaSi), xolo
didi xnis win nasesxebi, enaSi ukve damkvidrebuli leqsikuri
erTeulebze iSviaTad an saerTod ar gamoiTqmis uaryofiTi azri,
radgan igi aRiqmeba mSobliuri enis ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondis
ganuyofel nawilad. es aris yvela droSi nebismier enaze molaparake
individisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli zogadtipologiuri niSani. es SeimCneva
Cvens sazogadoebaSic. axlac nasesxebi sityvebi xSirad xdeba
uaryofiTi emociebisa da uaryofiTi Sefasebebis mizezi. marTalia,
yovelgvari nasesxobis Tavidan acilebis mcdeloba araswori nabijia,
Tumca zomierebis SenarCuneba sesxebis dros aucilebelia, radgan
nasesxebi sityvebis raodenobis Tvisobrivi mateba iwvevs enis bunebis,
anu Tvisobriobis) cvlilebas. enis bunebas ki mxolod Znelad da
gviancvalebadi morfologiuri inventari da sintaqsuri wesebi ki
ar qmnian, aramed enis bunebis ganmsazRvreli erT-erTi, yvelaze
xelSesaxebi nawili aris leqsika, romelic Zalian cvalebadia da
amitom naklebmedegic.
nasesxebi sityvebis semiotika
50
literatura
abulaZe 1998: abulaZe i., sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikoni
qarTuli, gamomcemloba merani, Tb., 1998
bagrationi 1960: bagrationi T., ganmarteba poema `vefxistyaosnisa~
gaioz imedaSvilis redaqciiT, gamokvleviTa da saZiebliT,
Tb., 1960
boederi 1991: boederi v., Boeder W., A note on synonymic parallelism
and bilingualism, Studia Linguistika, 45 (1/2), 1991
gamyreliZe 2000: gamyreliZe T., rCeuli qarTvelologiuri Sromebi,
Tb., 2000.
erisTavi 1884: erisTavi r., winasityvaoba wignisa _ qarTuli
leqsikoni, Sedgenili sulxan-saba orbelianisagan, gamocemuli
raf. erisTavis redaqtorobiTa da aleqsandre episkoposis
safasiTa, Tb., 1884
mari 1917: .,
- .
, , 1917
metreveli 1956: metreveli el., sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis
uZvelesi avtografi, akad. s. janaSias saxelobis saqarTvelos
saxelmwifo muzeumis moambe, t. XIX, Tb., 1956
mirianaSvili 1888: mirianaSvili p., saero ena da saTemo kilo,
gazeTi iveria, 166, Tb., 1888
orbeliani 1991: orbeliani s.-s., leqsikoni qarTuli, avtografuli
nusxebis mixedviT moamzada, gamokvleva da ganmartebaTa
saZiebeli daurTo ilia abulaZem, t. I, Tb., 1991; t. II, Tb.,
1993
yifSiZe 1903: yifSiZe gr., wminda qarTuli, gazeTi iveria, # 4,
tf., 1903
ZiZiguri 1946: ZiZiguri S., cneba sinonimuri paralelizmisa, saq.
ssr mecn. akad. moambe, t. II, # 7, 1946
ZiZiguri 1975: ZiZiguri S., sityvis sesxebis saerTo mizezebi da
Sedegebi, saenaTmecniero saubrebi, Tb., 1975
xundaZe 1927: xundaZe s., qarTuli marTlwerisa da sworenis
ZiriTadi safuZvlebi, komunaluri meurneobis stamba, quTaisi,
1927
haugeni 1972: Haugen E., Linguistics and Language Planning, - The Ecology
of Language, Essays Selected and Introduced by Anwar S. Dil, Stanford
University Press, Stanford, California, 1972
TinaTin bolqvaZe
51
nasesxebi sityvebis semiotika
Tinatin Bolkvadze
Semiotics of Borrowed Words
The article deals with appearance and consolidation ways of borrowed words,
especially applies bilingual synonymous couples, hybrid composites, conceptual
modification of borrowed words. Due to this scope the article exposes functioning
of borrowed words in semioses, particularly interpreteters relation, interpretanta
(possible reaction availability appearing with the sign) and context representing
the borrowed linguistic sign. Historical and up-to-date examples of the Georgian
language are considered throughout the analysis as well.
52
marine ivaniSvili
mcenareTa samyaros
protoqarTveluri da
protoindoevropuli saxelebi
(wiwvovanebi: `naZvi~, `soWi~, `fiWvi~)
`yvela xe xom muxaa... fiWvis garda~
jon barTi
rogorc cnobilia, ukve Cvens welTaR-
ricxvamde VI-V aTaswleulis periodidan
samxreT kavkasia warmoadgenda Zveli aRmo-
savleTis civilizaciis miRwevebis Semomtansa
da gamavrcelebels mTel kavkasiaSi, ramac
ganapiroba indoevropul, semitur da mTis
kavkasiur enebTan uZvelesi arealuri kontaq-
tebis kvalis arseboba qarTvelur enebSi.
T. gamyreliZisa da g. maWavarianis kvle-
vis Sedegebma (1965), mogvianebiT gamyreliZe-
ivanovis hipoTezam (1984) indoevropuli
metyvelebis wina aziis im teritoriul
sartyelSi arsebobis Sesaxeb, romelic uSua-
lod emijneba qarTvelur enaTa gavrcelebis
areals, kerZod, samxreT kavkasiis regions,
materialuri dadastureba hpova k. renfrius
(1987) mniSvnelovan arqeologiur gamokvle-
vebSi, ramac am mimarTulebiT kvlevis stimuli
misca araerT gamoCenil lingvists. am
TvalsazrisiT, Rirebul naSroms warmoadgens
g. klimovis erT-erTi bolo gamokvleva
filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, akad. g. wereT-
lis saxelobis aRmosav-
leTmcodneobis institu-
tis mecnieri TanamSro-
meli.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
y da fonemaTa distri-
bucia megrulSi; Cultural
and Logical Bases for Dup-
licate Forms in Proto-Lan-
guages; Morphological
structure and semantic
analysis of the Georgian so-
called passive forms (co-
author Ether Soselia);
Semantics and Typology of
Dative Subject (on the
Georgian data) (co-author
R. Asatiani).
interesTa sfero:
qarTvelur enaTa isto-
riul-SedarebiTi analizi,
kulturis lingvisturi
paleontologia, enaTa
tipologia, ena, logika,
kompiuterizacia.
53
mcenareTa samyaros protoqarTveluri da protoindoevropuli saxelebi
(1994), sadac mocemulia qarTvelur enebSi uZvelesi indoevro-
peizmebis sistematizaciisa da ganzogadebis cda.
kvlevis Sedegad dRemde gamovlenili arcTu mcirericxovani
masala mowmobs qarTvelur da indoevropul enaze metyvelTa arealur
kontaqtebs, Tumca amJamad Znelia, mkacrad gavmijnoT erTmaneTisgan
nasesxobebi da SesaZlo substratuli zegavlenebi. am problemis
gadaWraSi gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba zust qronologiur
stratifikacias, rac Tavis mxriv, unda efuZnebodes fonetikur
procesTa relatiuri qronologiis sakiTxebis Semdgom damuSavebas.
zogadi kriteriumi qarTveluri indoevropeizmebis ama Tu im
qronologiuri donis gansazRvrisaTvis aris gamoxatulebis planis
Sesabamisoba im fonetikur procesebTan, rasac adgili hqonda
qarTvelur enaTa istoriaSi da aseve maTi Sinaarsis planis
Sesabamisoba epoqis cnebebTan da realiebTan.
protoqarTvelur da protoindoevropul mcenarTa samyaros
rekonstruirebuli modelebis Sedareba SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs
gamovavlinoT am sistemaTa Soris arsebuli msgavseba-gansxvavebebi,
davazustoT etimologiebi, sesxebis SesaZlo gzebi, uZvelesi sakulto-
ritualuri warmodgenebi, rac, Tavis mxriv, gvixatavs SesaZlo realur
suraTs winare qarTvelebisa da winare indoevropelebis pirvel-
sacxovrisis landSaftis, sazogadoebis sameurneo yofis xasiaTisa
da donis, sakulto-ritualuri warmodgenebis, zogadad, kulturis
Sesaxeb.
protoqarTveluri mcenareTa samyaro rekonstruirebuli fu-
Zeebis mixedviT gacilebiT mravalferovania, vidre protoindoev-
ropuli. es bunebrivia, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT migraciis im masStabebs
da masTan dakavSirebul ekologiur cvlilebebs, rac ganapirobebda
lingvistur formaTa modifikacias, semantikur gadawevebs da sxva
inovaciebs indoevropul enaTa ojaxis wevrebs Soris.
protoqarTvelur da protoindoevropul mcenareTa samyaros
Soris gamovlenili paleobotanikuri da, xSir SemTxvevaSi,
paleolingvisturi, gansakuTrebiT semantikur planSi, izomorfizmi
avsebs informacias qarTvelur enaTa indoevropul enebTan mimarTebis,
maTi SesaZlo uZvelesi Soreuli naTesaobis (Urverwandtschaft),
54
marine ivaniSvili
arealuri erTianobis farglebSi mravalsaukunovani kontaqtebisa
Tu ubralo tipologiuri izomorfizmis Sesaxeb. am sakiTxebs
ganvixilavT wiwvovan mcenareTa aRmniSvneli fuZeebis (`naZvi~, `soWi~,
`fiWvi~) magaliTze.
monaTesave enaTa istoriul-SedarebiTi Seswavlis safuZvelze
SesaZlebelia ara mxolod fuZeenis wminda lingvisturi struq-
turebis, aramed im araenobriv saganTa samyaros rekonstruqciac,
romelic asaxulia ganxilul enobriv monacemebSi.
qarTvelur enebSi mcenareTa saxelebis SedarebiTi analizi
saSualebas gvaZlevs aRvadginoT uZvelesi winare qarTveluri fuZeebi
da maTTan dakavSirebuli sakulto-ritualuri warmodgenebi.
q.e.g.l.: naZvi [Picea] wiwvovani xe. aqvs waxnagovani wiwvebi da
Tavdakidebuli girCebi. qmnis tyeebs (izrdeba foTlovan tyeebSic).
kargad itans Crdils. merqans xmaroben samSeneblod, musikaluri
instrumentebis dasamzadeblad da sxv. naZvnari _ naZvis tye, naZviani
_ igivea, rac naZvnari.
libanis kedari (pinus cedrus), aRmosavleTis tyeebis samkaulia
_ maRali, maradmwvane, farTod gaSlili wiwvovani totebiT, mowiTalo
girCebiT, anTebul sanTlebs rom Camohgavs. bibliis mkiTxveli ara
erTgzis waawydeboda poetur Sedarebebs mcenareTa samyaros am
marTlac didebul binadarze. wminda werilSi is saxelis, Zalis,
dRegrZelobis simboloa (4 mef. 14, 9; fsalm. 91, 13; gamosl. 21, 13;
ezek. 17, 3, 22 da Smd. 31, 3 da Smd.) kedari 2000w. cocxlobs da
50m. simaRles aRwevs (ezek. 31, 3). surnelovani merqnis gamo mwerebi
ar ekarebian da amitom is Zvirfasi samSeneblo masalaa (II mef. 7, 2;
3 neSt. 7, 2; 3 mef. 8, 9; ezdr. 3, 7; 3 mef. 6, 9; 7, 3-7; fslm. 1, 16;
ierem. 22, 14) misgan akeTebdnen kerpebs (gamosl. 44, 14), iyenebdnen
gemTmSeneblobaSi anZebis dasamzadeblad (ezek. 27, 5), zeTs xmarobdnen
balzamirebisaTvis, kedris fisi mZafri sunis gamo (fslm. 4, 11;
osia 14, 7) gamoiyeneboda ganwmendis zogierTi ritualis dros
(lev. 14, 4; ricxv. 19, 6).
libanis mTebi ganTqmuli iyo kedris koromebiT, solomonis
dros ierusalimSi imdeni kedari yofila, rom misi fasi sikomo-
rosisas (leRusulelis) ar aRemateboda. axda esaias winaswar-
55
mcenareTa samyaros protoqarTveluri da protoindoevropuli saxelebi
metyveleba, dRes saxelganTqmuli kedris tyeebi gaCexilia (esaia, 10,
19).
Zveli qarTuli Zeglebis mixedviT _ naZu, naZvi, kviparosi,
cupressus: mosca Zeli naZsa da maSenebelni zRudeTani da xuroni
Zelisa, raTa uSenon mas saxli M, I nSt. 14, 1; gardamoiRon naZsa
Zeli libaniT O, I ezra 4, 48; me damkdrebul var saxlsa Sina
naZsasa M, I nSt. 17, 1; miZRuane me Zeli naZsa, fiW da naZ-
libaniT II nSt. 2, 8. naZovani _ kedroni; naZvebiani adgili;
gamovida mowafeTa misTa Tana wiaR evsa mas naZovansa DE, _
ganvida mowafiTurT TsiT wiaR evsa mas kedronisasa C, i. 18, 1.
~Satberdiseuli cxorebis~ cnobiT, mirian mefem wa ninos uTxra:
miyuaran mayualni ege Senni... aramed ara vhrido samoTxesa mas
sameufosa da naZuTa simaRlesa da babiloTa maT nayofierebasa da
yuavilTa maT sulnelebasa-o (wa ninosi, , II, 775). amave ZeglSi
naTqvamia: mefis samoTxesa... naZuTa queSe babiloTa adgili ars
mcire, sayuaviled Semzadebuli-o (iqve, II, 757). am amonawerebiTganac
sakmaod irkveva, rom samoTxe sameufo, samefo baRi, meurneobis
marto erTi dargisa da mxolod erTi daniSnulebisaTvis ar yofila
gankuTvnili, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, iq sxvadasxva xeebi mdgara,
mg., maRali naZvisa da brinjisa da, ra Tqma unda, bevri sxva jiSis
xeebi, romelnic adamianis Tvalis saameblad iseve, rogorc sxeulis
dasasveneblad da sicxis dros CrdilSi gasagrileblad hqoniaT
darguli.
wa ninos Satberdiseul cxovrebaSi aRniSnul fuZesTan dakav-
SirebiT kidev erTi sagulisxmo cnobaa daculi: samoTxesa Seved,
naZuTa qveSe babiloTa adgili aris mcire, sayuaviled Semzadebuli
( , II, 757). babilo V VI ss-Si [xeze] gaSvebul vazsa hniSnavda~
(javaxiSvili iv., 1930:121).
al. mayaSvilis botanikur leqsikonSi: naZvi _ (Picea) sb. elati;
aRmosavluri naZvi _ (Picea orientalis L.) Link qv. rW. cvela, Wan., megr.
nuzu; svn. nezvra, Rumir; sb. elati.
sulxan-saba orbeliani: naZ (naZvi ZABCbqDE) (xe) (+1, 16 qeba
ZAB) ZABCDE. elati (xe) naZvi ZABCD.
~
~
~
56
marine ivaniSvili
p. Waraias megrul-qarTul leqsikonSi: nuzu _ naZvi. nuzoni _
naZvnari. v. Tofurias da m. qaldanis, svanur leqsikonSi: nenz
(-iS, _ r) zs. bot. soWi, ds xoSa nenz Cerid xuRe (bz. 406)
_ devs didi soWi TiTistarad aqvs. cxekisga xag xoSa laRld
Rumir, nenz i ggib (bq. 70) _ tyeSi metwilad aris naZvi, soWi da
fiWvi.
k. donduas svanur-qarTul-rusul leqsikonSi: nezvra = fiWvi
.
mzia andronikaSvilis narkvevebSi iranul-qarTuli enobrivi
urTierTobidan: naZvis aRmniSvneli sityva jer kidev aqamenidTa
Zvel sparsul warwerebSi gvxvdeba: Zv. spar. naua (ina), parTuli
(arSakid.) n, romelic dadasturebulia somxurSi [no] saxiT da
axali sparsuli formebiT: [n], [ng] da [nz]. meore
mxriv, rogorc Cans, arsebobda saSualo sparsulSi (sasanurSi)
sufiqsiT gavrcobili forma n-k, nzk, romelTac axal sparsulSi
mogvces [n] da [nz]. am ukanasknel axal sparsul formas
[nz] eyrdnoba qarTuli naZu-i. Sdr. megruli nuzu, romelic an
qarTulidan aris nasesxebi, an romelime iranuli dialeqtidan~.
(andronikaSvili m., 1966: 347-348).
h. fogtis azriT, qarTuli naZvi, megr. nuzu qarTvelur-kavkasiur
sityvad unda miviCnioT, rogorc kavkasiis mTebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT
damaxasiaTebeli xis saxeli, xolo somxuri no, romelic iranulidan
SeTvisebulad iTvleba, amosavlad gulisxmobs megrul hipoTetur
formas _ *nu-i.
naZ _ fuZe SesaZlebelia aRvadginoT saerTo _ qarTvelur
doneze Semdegi Sesatyvisobebis safuZvelze:
*naZ _: qarT. naZu _ naZu-i; naZ-ov. an-i; naZv-i (ax. qarT.): megr.
naZu _ / nuzu- nuZu _ nuzu naZvi: svan. nez _ nez-ra naZvi;
dasturdeba Zvel qarTulSi: mouZRuana mas Zeli naZsa da
fiWsa, II mef. 5, 11 O; ese Tqua iesu da gamovida mowafeTa misTa
Tana wiaR evsa mas naZovansa, sada-igi iyo mtili. i. 18, 1 DE da sxv.
qarTul naZu _ Zirs kanonzomierad Seesatyviseba megruli
nuZu _ (< *noZ _. o>u t. gudavas mier dadgenili wesis Tanaxmad,

.
57
mcenareTa samyaros protoqarTveluri da protoindoevropuli saxelebi
ix. gudava 1960, 119-19; nuzu < nuZu dezafrikatizaciis Sedegad)
da svanuri nez.
qarTuli da megruli masala Seapirispira h. fogtma (Vogt,
1938, 335); svanuri ekvivalenti gamoavlina b. gigineiSvilma
(gigineiSvili 1984, 35; fenrixi h.,sarjvelaZe z., 2000).
rac Seexeba kavkasiur enebs, bacburis nav da uduris naw -
naZvi qarTulidan aris nasesxebi ( ., ., 2003).
~wiwvovanebis~ aRmniSvnel ZirebTan dakavSirebiT saintereso
masalaa warmodgenili svanurSi:
ars. onianis leqsikonSi: Rumr leCx. fiWi an naZvi; _
Rumlra leCx. fiWvis an naZvis xe.
taxra leCx. mamali fiWvi an naZvi; nezra leCx. dedali
fiWvi an naZvi; leRmur leCx. sadac bevria fiWvi da naZvi.
Rumri tik, Rumri em

Rumrs xowib murga llar-i mujdra,
Rumri lSi li ale. kls: iSdba (lsg.).
v. Tofurias da m. qaldanis svanur leqsikonSi: Rumir (-mriS
zs., -mrl bz., -mrr bq., -iS, -l lnt.), Romir (-S, -l) bz., Rumr
(-al) lSx. _ naZvi. laxbad Rumri likcxe ncxnex (bz. 401) _
Zmebma naZvis gasxepa arCies. gergl Romr aSxldJi Cayra (bz.
314) _ giorgi naZvis totze iwva. cxekisga xag Rumir (bq. 70) _
tyeSi dgas naZvi. nSyi Rumrs xodeni (lSx. 24) _ kevi naZvs
gamosdis. eCa Jiqan lix RumirlAcxekr (lnt. 4) _ imis zeviT
naZvis tyeebia. knin. Rumril. eji kotol Rumril iri (poez. 308)
_ is patara naZvi iqneba.
nez (-iS, -r zs., lnt., -ar lSx.) zool. _ nezvi. nenz (-iS, -r)
zs., bot. _ soWi. ds xoSa nenz Crid xuRe (bz. 406) _ devs
didi soWi TiTistarad aqvs. cxekisga xag xoSa laRd Rumir, nenz
i ggib (bq. 70) _ tyeSi metwilad aris naZvi, soWi da fiWvi.
taxra (-rS, -rl) lSx., bot. 1. mamali naZvi an fiWvi. mugal
taxra Rumrs xoxal i ggbs (lSx., xor. 17) _ kvari mamalma
naZvmac icis da fiWvmac. 2. kavkasiuri soWi.
k. donduas svanur _ qarTul _ rusuli leqsikonSi: Rumr, -
iS = (wiwviani mcenare (fiWvi, naZvi, soWi)); nezv(r), -iS, -ar _ nezvi
58
marine ivaniSvili
[dedali Rori]. nezvra _ fiWvi; tax(r) iS, -ar _ taxi [mamali
Rori]. taxra _ naZvi;
i. niJaraZis leqsikonSi: Rumir _ naZvi; leRvmir _ naZvnari;
moxmobili masalis analizi gvavaraudebinebs, rom Rumr ||
Rumir || Romir fuZeebi svanurSi wiwvovanTa aRmniSvneli zogadi
saxeli unda yofiliyo. nenz || nezra _ dedali fiWvi, naZvi an
soWi, taxra _ mamali fiWvi, naZvi an soWi. svanurSi mcenareTa
saxelebis ra daboloeba rom ara, zemoT moyvanili fuZeebi formiTac
da mniSvnelobiTac emTxveva nezi da taxi, Sesabamisad dedali
da mamali Roris aRmniSvnel saxelebs.
vfiqrobT, saxeldebisas aqcentireba leqsikur sqesze, gamoZaxilia
im Soreuli warsulisa, rodesac xeebi da maT Soris wiwvovani
xeebic Tayvaniscemis obieqtebi iyvnen. Sdr. vazis jiSis sqesis
ganmasxvavebeli saxelebi (mamali rqawiTeli, dedali rqawiTeli,
unayofo vazi _ avrezi sb.) vaz _ yurZnis jiSebis sqesobrivi
gansxvavebis gamomxatveli saxeli marto frangul nomenklaturaSi
moipoveba (javaxiSvili iv., 1986: 496).
wiwvovan mcenareTa saxelebis fuZeTa zusti rekonstruqcia
gaZnelebulia am saxeobaTa msgavsebis gamo. amas adasturebs
tipologiuri monacemebic.
maradmwvane xeebisTvis: soWi~, `naZvi~, `fiWvi~ (the conifers: fir
(-tree) silver fir; fir, pine (-tree)) kerZod, soWisTvis da fiWvisTvis
protoindoevropulSi aRdgenilia *p
[h]
euk
[h]
-/*p
[h]
uk
[h]
da *p
[h]
it
[h]
-
fuZeebi sxvadasxva sufiqsuri daboloebiT ( . .,
. . 1984: 631).
sityvaTa amave jgufs ukavSirdeba *p
[h]
ei-/*p
[h]
i- saerTo Ziridan
*-t-
[h]
*-k-
[h]
ufiqsebiT nawarmoebi *p
[h]
it
[h]
fiWvi, soWi da *p
[h]
ik
[h]
fisi formebi.
yuradRebas iqcevs *p
[h]
i- k
[h]
-

fiWvis fisi da saerTo-
indoevropuli zmnuri fuZeebis *p
[h]
ei-k
[h]
-/*p
[h]
i-k
[h]
- SeRebva,
saRebaviT wera formaluri msgavseba (Pokorny J. 1959: 794), rac
SesaZlebelia aixsnas fisis, rogorc Savi mcenareuli saRebavis
gamoyenebiT pirvelad piqtografiuli niSnebisa da naxatebis,
mogvianebiT ki werisTvisac. swored es sityva gaxda saerTo-
indoevropuli aRmniSvneli weris da saRebavebiT weris procesisa
( . ., . . 1984: 632).

59
mcenareTa samyaros protoqarTveluri da protoindoevropuli saxelebi
soWi (Abies Mill.), fiWvi (Pinus) da maTi saxesxvaobebi
gavrcelebulia kavkasiaSi, wina aziaSi, evropis mTian raionebSi, evraziis
aRmosavleT nawilSi.
wiwvovan xeTa rigs ganekuTvneba naZvi (Picea) da misi
nairsaxeobebi (Picea orientalis; Picea excelsa; Picea obovata), Zvelad
warmodgenili mxolod kavkasiasa, centralur da samxreT evropis
maRalmTian regionebSi.
naZvi mniSvnelobiT saerTo-indoevropul doneze rekons-
truirdeba ori fuZe: *ed
[h]
lo- wiwvovani xe, naZvi, ekliani
mniSvnelobebiT da *el- Ziridan nawarmoebi fuZeebi, Zveli berZnuli
v elav th (<el-n-t) somxuri eevin (*el-eu) naZvi, kedari ( 1971;
: 18) da sxv. ( . ., . . 1984, 633).
T.gamyreliZisa da viaC. ivanovis mixedviT, sxva indoevropuli
dialeqtebisgan izolirebulad mdgari Zveli iranuli *naua-, aseve
spars. nj, osur. nzy formebi savaraudoa, rom nasesxebia qarTveluri
enebidan (Sdr. Vogt H. 1938:335; andronikaSvili m. 1966, : 347-348;
ix. naSromis Tavi II: 131-136).
sesxebis piriqiTa gzis daSvebis SemTxvevaSi, es unda momxdariyo
qarTvelur enaTa erTianobis periodisTvis, ara ugvianes II
aTaswleulis pirveli naxevrisa Cvens eramde.
vfiqrobT, ~wiwvovanebis~ aRmniSvnel svanur ZirebTan
dakavSirebuli leqsikuri sqesis gamoxatvis kvali, agreTve kavkasiur
da indoevropul enebSi qarTvelur ZirTa nasesxobebi, mowmobs maT
uZvelesobaze da amyarebs T.gamyreliZis mosazrebas winare qarTvelTa
sacxovrisis samxreT kavkasiis centralur da dasavleT mTian
regionebSi lokalizaciis SesaxebA( . ., .
. 1984, 880-881).
amrigad, qarTvelur da indoevropul wiwvovanTa aRmniSvneli
fuZeebis etimologiuri da tipologiuri kvlevis Sedegad SegviZlia
davaskvnaT:
- saerTo-qarTvelur *naZU - fuZesTan svanuri enis monacemebis
mixedviT dakavSirebulia xeebisadmi Tayvaniscemis uZvelesi
warmodgenebi.
- cnobili indoevropuli dialeqtebis fuZeebisagan
izolirebuli Zveli iranuli *naua- da ufro mogviano sparsuli
nj, aseve osuri nzy, bacburis nav da uduris naw nasesxebia
qarTveluri enebidan.

60 marine ivaniSvili
- saerTo-qarTveluri da saerTo-indoevropuli `wiwvovanebis~
zogadi da calkeul saxeobaTa aRmniSvneli Zirebi gviCveneben
erTgvarovan semantikur speqtrs, msgavs distribuciul suraTs.
Cveni azriT, am tipis kvlevebi avsebs informacias winare xalxebis
pirvelsacxovrisis landSaftis, sazogadoebis sameurneo yofis
xasiaTsa da doneze, maT sakulto-ritualur warmodgenebze, zogadad,
kulturaze.
akad. g.wereTelma jer kidev ormoci wlis win zustad gansazRvra
amgvar sakiTxebTan dakavSirebul problemaTa wre da am problemaTa
gadaWris gzebic : ,,pirvel yovlisa, saWiroa kavkasiis enaTaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli struqturuli kanonzomierebebis dadgena istoriul-
SedarebiTi meTodis safuZvelze da amis Semdeg SedarebiT-
tipologiuri Seswavla anu struqturul-tipologiuri msgavseba-
gansxvavebebis gamovlena ara marto mTis ,,iberiul-kavkasiur enebTan,
aramed kavkasiis indoevropul enebTanac, somxurTan da osurTan,
agreTve wina aziis Zvel indoevropul da araindoevropul enebTan...
da am enaTa Soris kanonzomier mimarTebaTa dadgena enobrivi ierarqiis
yvela doneze: fonologiis, morfologiis, leqsikis da sxv.
sferoSi(wereTeli g.,1965). am mimarTulebiT lingvistebs,
filologebs, istorikosebs, arqeologebs... kvlavac bevri ram gvaqvs
gasakeTebeli.
literatura
abulaZe 1973: i. abulaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni, Tbilisi,
1973.
andronikaSvili 1966: m. andronikaSvili, narkvevebi iranul-
qarTuli enobrivi urTierTobidan, I, Tbilisi 1966.
gamyreliZe 2002: T. gamyreliZe, `kulturis ekologia~, `oCxari~,
j. ruxaZisadmi miZRvnili eTnologiuri, istoriuli da
filologiuri Ziebani~, `mematiane~ gv. 113-115, Tbilisi 2002.
gamyreliZe 1965: T. gamyreliZe, g. maWavariani, sonantTa sistema da
ablauti qarTvelur enebSi, Tbilisi 1965.
gigineiSvili 1981: b. gigineiSvili, masalebi qarTuli enis
etimologiuri leqsikonisaTvis; `macne~ (enisa da lite-
raturis seria) 2, Tbilisi 1981.
61 mcenareTa samyaros protoqarTveluri da protoindoevropuli saxelebi
gordeziani 1985: r. gordeziani, winaberZnuli da qarTveluri,
Tbilisi, 1985.
gudava 1981: t. gudava, T. gamyreliZe, TanxmovanTa kompleqsebi
megrulSi, Tsu krebuli `akaki SaniZes~, Tbilisi 1981.
dondua 2001: k. dondua, svanur-qarTul-rusuli leqsikoni, spu,
Tbilisi 2001.
Tedeevi 1975: o. Tedeevi, memcenareobis qarTuli leqsika osurSi,
`mecniereba Tbilisi 1975.
Tofuria 1931: v. Tofuria, svanuri ena I, zmna, spi, tfilisi 1931.
qarTvelur enaTa sityvaTwarmoebidan, IV, xomvanTavsarTiani saxelebi;
Tsu Sromebi, XXXII Tbilisi 1947.
Tofuria 2000: v. Tofuria, m. qaldani, svanuri leqsikoni, `qarTuli
ena~, Tbilisi 2000.
mayaSvili 1961: a. mayaSvili, botanikuri leqsikoni, Tbilisi 1961.
maWavariani 1950: g. maWavariani, masalebi pureulis leqsikisaTvis
SigniT kaxeTSi, studentTa samecniero Sromebis krebuli,
Tsu, wigni V, gv. 286-295 Tbilisi 1950.
meliqiSvili 1965: g. meliqiSvili, saqarTvelos, kavkasiisa da
mezobeli aRmosavleTis uZvelesi mosaxleobis sakiTxebi,
Tbilisi 1965.
meliqiSvili 2002: i. meliqiSvili, qarTvelur-indoevropuli
geneturi urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxisaTvis, enaTmecnierebis
sakiTxebi, I, Tbilisi 2002.
oniani 1917: ars. oniani, xeebisa da mcenareebis svanur saxelTa
leqsikoni, petrogradi. (
) 1917.
orbeliani 1928: sulxan-saba orbeliani, leqsikoni qarTuli,
Tbilisi 1928, 1949, 1993.
fenrixi 2000: h. fenrixi, z. sarjvelaZe, qarTvelur enaTa
etimologiuri leqsikoni, spu, Tbilisi 2000.
foqti 1961: h. foqti, qarTuli enis fonematuri struqtura,
Tbilisi 1961.
qajaia 2002: o. qajaia, megrul-qarTuli leqsikini 1-3 tomi, `nekeri~,
Tbilisi 2002.
Ciqobava 1938: arn. Ciqobava, Wanur-megrul-qarTuli SedarebiTi
leqsikoni, tfilisi 1938.
saxelis fuZis uZvelesi agebuleba qarTvelur enebSi, Tbilisi 1942.
Waraia 1997: p. Waraia, megrul-qarTuli leqsikoni, spu, Tbilisi
1997.
javaxiSvili 1986: iv. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani Tormet tomad, t.
V, Tbilisi 1986.
62
marine ivaniSvili
gamyreliZe 1984: .., ..,
. - -
, .I-II, 1984.
yifSiZe 1914: ., ( )
.
, .- 1914.
klimovi 1964: ..,
, . 1973,
; 1974, . 1964.
klimovi 2003: .., . . ,
. , 2003.
mari 1915: . .,
(pluralia tantum) I-III, , -. 1915.
niJaraZe 1910: .., - ,
1910.
fahnrixi 1982: Fahnrich H., 1984, 1985, 1987, 1991, Kartwelischer
Wortschatz I-V: Georgica, 5, 7, 10, 13/14, Jena-Tbilissi, Konstanz,
1982.
fridrixi 1970: Friedrich P., Proto-Indo-European Trees, The University
of Chicago Press. Chicago and London, 1970.
friski 1963: Frisk H., Griechisches Etimologisches Wrterbuch, Heidelberg,
1963.
gamyreliZe 1999: Gamkrelidze T. V., On linguistic paleontology of culture,
Time Deph in Historical The Linguistics, edited by Colin Renfrew, April
Me Mahon and Larry Trask; Me Donald Institute for Archeological
Research, Papers in the prehistory of Language, 1999.
gigineiSvili 1990: Gigineischwili B., Etymologishe Untersuchungen aus
dem Bereich der Lexik der Kartwel sprachen: Georgica 13/14, Konstanz,
1990/1991.
klimovi 1998: Klimov G., Etimological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages,
Berlin/New York, 1998.
Proto-Kartvelian and Proto-Indo-European Plant-Names (the conifers: fir, fir
(-tree), pine (-tree))
63
mcenareTa samyaros protoqarTveluri da protoindoevropuli saxelebi
Marine Ivanishvili
Proto-Kartvelian and Proto-Indo-European Plant-Names
(the conifers: fir, fir (-tree), pine (-tree))
The study of grammatical, phonological and lexical isoglosses among dialects of
a proto-language makes it possible to establish extra-linguistic factors. This trend in
linguistics is called linguistic paleontology of culture, since its object of investigation
is not only proto-language but also the proto-culture of speakers; what is reconstructed
is not so much the language itself as the extra-linguistic world reflected in the linguistic
data (Gamkrelidze Th. 1990).
Reconstructing elements of the extra-linguistic world of daughter-language
speakers in turn gives a clearer picture of the linguistic affinities among the daughter-
languages and their development over time, i.e. of purely linguistic factors. This is
particularly true of the semantic structure of languages, which simply cannot be studied
in isolation from the external world that is reflected in the content plane of language.
The reconstructed forms and meanings may be grouped by lexico-semantic
fields, which designate extra-linguistic classes such as animals, handicraft tolls, and
others. Such a proto-linguistic lexico-semantic system can give historical reality through
typological comparison with the actual culture of the past and the present and especially
by the archeological facts, in verifying a reconstructed culture and, particularly, its
material side (Gamkrelidze T.V., Ivanov V.V., 1986).
Today it is widely agreed that culture does not consist of things, people, behaviour
or emotions, but of the forms or organization of these things in the mind of people.
How can the organization of these things in the mind of people be discovered? The
best way of discovery lies in the area of the language, and that there is a whole
battery of linguistic tests which can be put to use to reveal different aspects of the
organization of the universe in the minds of people. (Wierzbicka A., 1996).
The apparent discovery of ethnobiological universals and the ensuing debate
have further stimulated interest in the conceptualization of plants and animals, and
they are largely responsible for the key position of this conceptual domain in current
anthropology.
At first sight, it seems that studying the corpus of plant names doesnt give us
the possibility to reconstruct models such as we have for kinship or for colour-terms
systems and that only this provides a history of language with facts, or it is useful only
for the identification of biological units with their names. But exactly this kind of research
fills our imagination and knowledge with the events of human cognitive mechanisms
to clarify the nature of the human world through categorization and so on.
As it is known, the South Caucasus was the main importer and wide spreader of
all achievements of the old oriental civilization since VI-V
m
. B. C. in the whole
Caucasus. This fact was the reason of the oldest areal contacts of Kartvelian languages
with the Indo-Europeans, Semitic and Caucasus languages.
64
marine ivaniSvili
The results of researches Th. Gamkrelidze and G. Machavariani (1965), later
Gamkrelidze Ivanovs hypothesis (1984) about the Proto-Indo-Europeans living
place in the Asia Minor near by the areal of spreading Kartvelian languages, in particular,
immediately of the South Caucasus region, materially has confirmed by C. Renfrews
(1984) important archeological investigations, which has stimulated many famous
linguists for further researchers in this direction. From this point valuable work is one
of the latest investigation of G. Klimov (1994), where he tried to systematize and
generalize the oldest Indo-European forms in Kartvelian languages.
There isnt scanty data which certificates about the Proto-Kartvelian and Proto-
Indo-European speakers areal contacts, but, now its very difficult to separate the
borrowed forms from the substractive influence. To solve this problem the most important
is the exact chronological stratification, which by its side must be based on the further
elaborated questions of the relative chronology of the phonetic processes.
General criterion for the definition of the chronological level of Kartvelian Indo-
Europeisms is the correspondence of expression plan of forms with the historical
phonetic processes of Kartvelian languages and also the correspondence to its semantic
meaning to the concepts and reality of the epoch.
The English Kartvelologist D. Reifield (1988) has written: While the
reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European language, the dendrology and dendronims are
as well elaborated, as phuging field. The work which was made by P. Friedrich (1970)
and Th. Gamkrelidze (1989) for Indo-European languages when they have gathered
tree-names, would be done for Caucasian languages too. . .
Proto-Kartvelian arboreal system is more diverse than Proto-Indo-European.
Its natural, if we foresee this sale of migration and connected to it ecological
modifications, which was recalling the language forms changes, semantic removes
and other innovations.
While investigating Photo-Kartvelian arboreal system, we exposed the new
roots, made more precise the old one, revealed the borrowed forms on the proto-level
and compare Proto-Kartvelian roots with the Proto-Indo-European and Caucasian
data.
Reveal paleobotanical and in many case paleolinguistical isomorphism between
the Proto-Kartvelian and other Proto systems shows the similarity and differences
on the basis of which these languages may be considered (or not) as the same structural
typological (or genetic) classes.
We have tried consider this questions on the basis of the results of the historical-
comparative investigations of Kartvelian languages by the example of Proto-Kartvelian
names of the conifers: fir, fir (-tree), pine (-tree).
65
zaal kikviZe
A leqtur terminTa semiotikuri
wredi
terminologiis sakiTxebis kvlevisas
samecniero literaturaSi araiSviaTad
vawydebiT urTierTgamomricxav gamonaTqvamebs,
rac, masalis specifikidan gamomdinare, erTi
SexedviT, TiTqosda moulodnelia. magaliTad,
arsebobs aseTic: terminologiasTan dakav-
Sirebuli sakiTxebi ar Sedis enaTmecnierebis
interesis sferoSi (pokli 1990: 278).
gvxvdeba iseTebic, romelTa avtorebisaTvis
terminologiur saqmianobaSi enaTmecnieris
roli SedarebiT ukana planzea daweuli:
terminologias qmnis ama Tu im dargis
specialisti da ara lingvisti. es ukanaskneli
alagebs terminebs, rCevas aZlevs specia-
listebs, agvarebs enobriv problemebs, ikvlevs
ama Tu im sferoSi arsebul mdgomareobas,
qmnis monacemTa banks, magram ar qmnis terminebs
(lara 1986: 98). miuxedavad imisa, rom am
sityvebis avtori faqtobrivad gamoricxavs
lingvistikis, rogorc samecniero discip-
linis, da, Sesabamisad, misi umdidresi
terminologiuri sistemis arsebobas (rac,
cxadia, avtorisave gasaWirs warmoadgens),
WeSmariti problema mravalsaukunovani
tradiciebis mqone da dResdReobiT inten-
siurad mzardi saenaTmecniero terminolo-
giis mravalferovnebasa da zogjer arasis-
temurobaSic mdgomareobs. terminologiis,
rogorc dargis, erT-erTi metrisMm. t. kabres
azriT, saTanado lingvisturma Teoriam
filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, akaki wereTlis
saxelmwifo universi-
tetis sruli profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
Tavazianobis gamoxatvis
gramatikuli saSualebebi~
(1999), Language-made
Paradox: Gender Prefe-
rences in Georgian~
(2002), enisa da genderis
kvlevis retrospeqtiuli
da prospeqtiuli koordi-
natebi~ (2005), ena kul-
turaSi da kultura
enaSi~ (2005).
interesebis sfero:
sociolingvistika, enisa
da genderis kvleva, kog-
nituri lingvistika.
66
terminebi unda ganixilos rogorc specialuri kognituri erTeulebi,
romlebic ar arseboben enis farglebs gareT da, Sesabamisad, maTi
erToblioba aris dinamikuri da nairgvari rogorc formalurad
(denominacia), aseve konceptualurad (cneba) (kabre 1999: 14).
mdgomareobas arTulebs kidev erTi faqtori: sxva samecniero
disci plinebisagan gansxvavebiT, lingvistikaSi gacilebiT meti
problema gvxvdeba dargis metaenis TvalsazrisiT. es arc aris
gasakviri: am SemTxvevaSi xom enis Sesaxeb vsaubrobT enisave
saSualebiT (kikviZe 2003: 44). aRniSnuli viTareba kidev erTi
saxasiaTo niSniTaa gamorCeuli: es gaxlavT enobriv erTeulTa
metaforizaciis SesaZlebloba, rac terminTsistemebSi warmoSobs
orazrovnebas. Cveni azriT, terminologiuri erTeulis orazrovneba
da metaforuloba namdvilad araproduqtiuli da araefeqturia
terminologiis, rogorc Zalian mkafio semiotikuri sistemis,
funqcionirebisa da Semdgomi ganviTarebisaTvis.
winamdebare naSromSi warmovadgenT -leqt (< berZn. `saubari~)
elementis Semcvel sociolingvistikuri terminologiis glosariums,
romelSic Setanili erTeulebis umravlesoba Seiqmna enaTa
kontaqtebisa da enis varirebis sakiTxebis Seswavlis procesSi;
amasTanave, Rirssacnobia isic, rom zogierTi maTgani tovebs ukve
arsebuli da aprobirebuli terminis sinonimis STabeWdilebas, rac
inovaciis saWiroebas eWvis qveS ayenebs, Tumca xSir SemTxvevaSi
axali terminis Semotana swored ukve arsebulis metaforulobis
gamo wamoSobili siZneleebis gadasalaxadaa Seqmnili (amgvari viTareba
cnebebiT JonglirebisaTvis gasaqans aZlevs zogierT avtors). rac
mTavaria, maTi amgvari sistematizebuli saxiT warmodgena cxadad
gviCvenebs, rom saqme gvaqvs mwyobr terminTsistemasTan, risi
saSualebiTac ikreba semiotikuri wredi, romelSic sakmaod
xelSesaxebadaa warmoCenili maTs Soris arsebuli implikaciuri
mimarTebebi.
aloleqti ama Tu im enis adgilobrivi nairsaxeoba, romelic ar
iswavleba skolaSi; igivea, rac teritoriuli dialeqti.
akroleqti enis yvelaze prestiJuli leqti, varianti mis sxva
saxesxvaobebTan SedarebiT. termini SemoRebulia amerikeli
enaTmecnieris derek bikertonis (Derek Bickerton) mier (1975).
zaal kikviZe
67
aristoleqti aristokratiisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli an maT mier
upiratesobaminiWebuli ena an leqti.
bazileqti yvelaze dabali socialuri statusis mqone leqti,
akroleqtisagan yvelaze gansxvavebuli. termini SemoRebulia
amerikeli enaTmecnieris derek bikertonis (Derek Bickerton)
mier (1975).
genderleqti qalebis an mamakacebis (an, ufro sworad, qaluri
an mamakacuri) metyvelebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli leqti. termini
SemoRebulia amerikeli enaTmecnieris adelaida haasis (Adelaide
Haas) mier (1979).
geoleqti enis geografiulad Sepirobebuli saxesxvaoba,
teritoriuli dialeqti.
gero(nto)leqti xandazmuli adamianebis metyveleba (faiTi 2005).
glotoleqti ganzogadebuli mniSvnelobis mqone termini enis
aRsaniSnavad. termini SemoTavazebulia Svedi enaTmecnieris
goran hamarstromis (1975) mier.
grafoleqti idioleqtis zusti da SeZlebisdagvarad
gamowvlilviTi Canaweri miRebuli saenaTmecniero terminebis
meSveobiT (haugeni 1966).
demoleqti oficialuri statusis armqone esa Tu is idiomi.
// ori sxvadasxva, magram Tanabari uflebebis mqone ena.
egzoleqti importirebuli ena.
eTnoleqti enis saxesxvaoba, leqti, romelzec metyvelebs esa
Tu is eTnikur-kulturuli qvejgufi, da romelic funq-
cionirebs rogorc ganmasxvavebeli niSani am qvejgufis wevrTa
socialuri identobisa. terminSi urTierTSerwymulia
eTnikuri jgufisa da dialeqtis cnebebi. es termini
Tavdapirvelad gamoiyenes evropuli warmoSobis amerikeli
kolonistebis metyvelebis aRsaniSnavad, romlebic dasaxldnen
niu-iorkis Statis qalaq bufaloSi, Tumca amJamad sanimuSod
leqtur terminTa semiotikuri wredi
68
ZiriTadad asaxeleben Savkaniani amerikelebis mdabiur
metyvelebas Blach English (karloki & uolki, 1981).
gvxvdeba aseve termini eTnosocioleqti, romelic qarTvel
ebraelTa metyvelebis aRsaniSnavadaa gamoyenebuli (furcxvaniZe
& kikviZe 1996).
ekoleqti enis saxesxvaoba, leqti, romelzec metyveleben erTi
ojaxis wevrebi. termini pirvelad gamoCnda literatu-
raTmcodneobaSi, risi iniciatoric gaxldaT hiu saiks devisi
(1986). e. neologizmia, Tumca advilad imkvidrebs Tavis
adgils sociolingvistikaSi..
endoleqti avtoqTonuri mosaxleobis ena.
ergoleqti biznesis ena; ZiriTadad gamoirCeva leqsiko-semantikuri
TaviseburebebiT. termini SemoiRo duglas piketma 1989 wels.
manamde am cnebis aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneboda termini biznesis
registri.
idioleqti erTi individis metyveleba erTsa da imave Tanamou-
barTan erTsa da imave Temaze drois mokle monakveTSi. termini
SemoRebulia amerikeli enaTmecnieris bernard blokis (Bernard
Bloch) mier (1948). amJamad i. ufro farTo mniSvnelobiT
gamoiyeneba: enis nairsaxeoba, warmodgenili erTi piris
metyvelebaSi.
izoleqti erTi individis gankargulebaSi arsebuli da mis mier
gamoyenebuli enobriv erTeulTa masivi, romlebic SeiZleba
dadasturdes an ar dadasturdes sxva mtareblebTan. TiToeuli
i. warmoadgens leqts. terminis SemoReba dakavSirebulia
amerikeli enaTmecnierebis C.-j. beilisa (1973) da d.
bikertonis (1971) saxelebTan.
interdialeqti dialeqtTa mijnaze warmoqnili axali enobrivi
warmonaqmni, magaliTad, koine. termini Semoitana britanelma
enaTmecnierma piter Trajilma (1986).
interimleqti semilingvizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli metyveleba
(ditmari 1997).
zaal kikviZe
69
interleqturi or an met leqts Soris arsebuli.
intraleqturi calkeuli leqtis SigniT arsebuli.
kriptoleqti saidumlo sakomunikacio saSualebad gamoyenebuli
esa Tu is idiomi.
leqti enobrivi warmonaqmni, idiomi, enis arsebobis forma. termini
Seqmnilia amerikeli enaTmecnieris Carlz-jeims beilis (1973)
mier teritoriulad da socialurad neitraluri enobrivi
warmonaqmnis aRsaniSnavad. erTi enis leqtebi erTmaneTisagan
gansxvavdebian kontinuumis farglebSi, rac qmnis panleqtur
anu polileqtur bades da amgvarad gveZleva implikaciuri
mimarTeba sxvadasxva leqts Soris.
makroleqti nebismieri leqti, romelic ganixileba sivrciT,
socialur da fsiqosakomunikacio konteqstebSi.
matrileqti amosavali ena; magaliTad, britanuli inglisuri am
enis sxva saxesxvaobebTan mimarTebaSi (baueri 2002).
mezoleqti Sualeduri saxesxvaoba akroleqtsa da bazileqts
Soris. m.-ebi ver CaiTvleba diskretul odenobebad, radganac
isini erwymian erTmaneTs akroleqtsa da bazileqts Soris
arsebuli sivrcis Sesavsebad. termini SemoRebulia amerikeli
enaTmecnieris derek bikertonis (1975) mier.
metaleqti mocemul saxelmwifosa Tu teritoriul-admini-
straciul erTeulSi arsebuli enobrivi situaciis farglebSi
gabatonebuli idiomi, leqti.
metroleqti metropoliis ena.
mikroleqti sivrciTi, socialuri da fsiqosakomunikacio
konteqstebis farglebs gareT arsebuli leqti.
mimoleqti Jest-mimikis ena (stiuarti 1990).
leqtur terminTa semiotikuri wredi
70
monoleqturi iseTi idiomi, romelic mxolod erTi leqtiTaa
warmodgenili mocemul enobriv situaciaSi (meuvisi &
blomarti 1998).
panleqti ganzogadebuli mniSvnelobis mqone termini
saliteraturo, standartuli enis aRsaniSnavad.
panleqturi bade leqtebis kontinuumi, romlis farglebSic
gveZleva implikaciuri mimarTeba sxvadasxva leqts Soris.
sxvagvarad moixsenieba rogorc enobrivi varirebis kontinuumi
an speqtri.
paraleqti standartisagan odnav gansxvavebuli leqti (uelzi
1982).
polileqturi bade ix. panleqturi bade
polit(ik)oleqti raime oficialuri statusis mqone ena.
pubileqti mozardebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli sametyvelo
Taviseburebebis erToblioba. termini SemoRebulia kanadeli
enaTmecnieris marsel danezis (1994) mier.
regioleqti termini ZiriTadad gamoiyeneba romanul dialeq-
tologiasa da sociolingvistikaSi da aRniSnavs enis mdgo-
mareobaTa sistemaSi arsebul erT-erT rgols, romelic
damaxasiaTebelia ama Tu im regionisaTvis da cvlilebaTa
mudmivi dinamikiT gamoirCeva (borodina 1982). arsebobs cnoba
imis Taobaze, rom es termini (albaT, Tavdapirvelad ase:
Regiolekt) pirad werilSi axsena germanelma enaTmecnierma
hainc klosma (vudi 1981).
religioleqti ama Tu im religiis sakulto ena (Zveli qarTuli
qarTul marTlmadideblobaSi, laTinuri kaTolicizmSi,
klasikuri arabuli islamSi, sanskriti hinduizmSi da a.S.).
rurileqti soflad gavrcelebuli leqti.
seqsoleqti igivea, rac genderleqti (iorgenseni 1984).
zaal kikviZe
71
socioleqti (socialuri dialeqti) enis varianti (saxe-
sxvaoba), leqti, romliTac sargeblobs adamianTa esa Tu is
sazogadoebrivi gaerTianeba an jgufi. igi moicavs iseT
leqtebs, rogorebicaa Jargoni, argo, profesiuli enebi, slengi
da a. S. (labovi 1966)
subleqti enis esa Tu is nairsaxeoba, rogorebicaa kilokavi,
Tqma, qceva.
supraleqti igivea, rac koine (gouldi 1982).
tempoleqti istoriuli dialeqti.
teqnoleqti ama Tu im dargisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli spe-
cializebuli terminologiuri leqsika (kabre 1999).
urbanoleqti qalaquri metyveleba (Slobinski 1987).
fonoleqti mxolod zepiri saxiT arsebuli leqti.
fsiqoleqti erTi leqtis SigniT arsebuli nairsaxeoba, romelic
warmoaCens enis gamoyenebis fsiqologiur motivacias.
qvedialeqti krebsiTi termini kilos Siga diferenciaciis
Sedegad warmoqnili nairsaxeobebisa, rogorebicaa kilokavi,
Tqma, qceva (jorbenaZe 1989).
qTonoleqti deda ena.
qsenoleqti odnavi ucxouri Seferilobis mqone saxesxvaoba
enisa. igi efuZneba enis ara radikalur, aramed mcire, magram
mniSvnelovani simboluri Rirebulebis matarebel cvlilebebs
(holmi 1988-89).
hiperleqti socialurad privilegirebuli da elituri gra-
matikuli da sawarmoTqmo TaviseburebebiT markirebuli leqti
(hani 1989).
leqtur terminTa semiotikuri wredi
72
Tavis droze m. danezim (1985) gamoaqveyna leqturi terminebis
mokle glosariumi, romelSic mxolod 24 erTeuli figurirebda.
winamdebare publikaciaSi, ra Tqma unda, gaTvaliswinebulia xsenebuli
naSromis monacemebi da, amavdroulad, dafiqsirebulia sxva iseTi
terminebic, romlebic arsebobda jer kidev danezis glosariumis
dabeWdvamde da romlebic gaCndnen Semdgom periodSi. miuxedavad
amisa, am etapze Cven mizaSeuwonlad CavTvaleT iseT erTeulebze
yuradRebis gamaxvileba, rogorebicaa agoraleqti, alokuToleqti,
iurileqti, koraleqti, profesioleqti, situoleqti, funqcioleqti,
hierleqti da a.S. amis mizezi is gaxlavT, rom isini srulfasovan
terminebad jer ar Camoyalibebulan da, Sesabamisad, araTavsebadi
arian Cven mier zemoT naxseneb semiotikur wredTan.
literatura
baueri 2002: Bauer, L. An Introduction to International Varieties of
English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2002.
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leqtur terminTa semiotikuri wredi
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Zaal Kikvidze
A Semiotic Circuit of Lectal Terms
The paper argues that emerging lectal terms in contemporary sociolinguistics
form a strictly ordered terminological system, making up a semiotic circuit with
salient implicational links.
The published glossary includes 53 entries. Some of the lectal terms (for
instance, agoralect, functiolect, hierlect, etc.) are not included owing to the fact
that they have not so far gained currency and, therefore, are not compatible with
the said semiotic circuit.
zaal kikviZe
75
Tamar lomiZe
filosofia da poezia
(fixte da baraTaSvili)
aRiarebulia, rom romantizmma SeimuSava
pirovnebis axleburi koncefcia da, kerZod,
gamoavlina adamianis sulieri samyaros mTeli
winaaRmdegobrioba da sirTule. romantikuli
literaturaSi pirovnebis `me~ garkveuli
simravlis (ramdenime `me~-s) saxiT war-
mogvidga, ramac safuZveli daudo e.w.
`oreulebis~ poetikis~ damkvidrebas.
gamoiTqmis sapirispiro Sexedulebebic.
ase, magaliTad, s.s. averincevi kiTxulobs:
`rogor unda mivudgeT adamianis Sinagan
samyaros rogorc Ria da mravalkom-
ponentian struqturas Tu rogorc Caketil,
TviTkmarsa da daunawevrebel monadas?~ da
askvnis: `meorenairi midgoma ... Zalze gvian
warmoiSva da gamoiyeneboda literaturuli
faqtebis martooden viwro wreSi. warsulis
diadi literaturuli epoqebi sxva koncef-
ciebiT suldgmulobdnen~ (averincevi 1972:
235). Tavisi Tvalsazrisis dasadastureblad
mkvlevars mohyavs saTanado argumentebi iseTi
masalidan, rogoricaa miTologia, Zveli
berZnuli literatura, Sua saukuneebis mwer-
loba, XIX saukunis realisturi xelovneba,
da, bolos, imowmebs m.m. baxtinis debulebas:
`adamiani arasodes emTxveva sakuTar Tavs.
mis mimarT ver gamoviyenebT igiveobis
formulas: A aris A. amgvarad, averincevis
azriT, pirovnebis is koncefcia, romlis
filologiis mecniere-
baTa doqtori, ilia
WavWavaZis saxelmwifo
universitetis humani-
tarul mecnierebaTa da
kulturis kvlevebis fa-
kultetis asocirebuli
profesori;
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
`qarTuli riTmis isto-
riidan~, `feris mxatv-
ruli gaazrebis Tavise-
burebebi n. baraTaSvilis
poeziaSi~, `Teoriuli da-
fuZnebis problema po-
etikaSi, `me~-s koncef-
cia qarTvel roman-
tikosTa SemoqmedebaSi~.
interesTa sfero:
semiotika, leqsmcodneoba,
literaturis istoria
da Teoria, mxatvruli
Semoqmedebis fsiqolo-
gia.
76 Tamar lomiZe
warmoSobasac romantizmis epoqiT aTariReben, gacilebiT adre
funqcionirebda literaturaSi.
amasTan, aSkaraa, rom pirovnebis romantikuli koncefcia metad
specifikuria da aerTianebs orivenair midgomas: pirovneba erTiani
`monadaa~ samyarosTan mimarTebaSi; meore mxriv, es `Ria struqturaa~,
rodesac ganixileba TavisTavad, am samyarosgan izolirebulad.
rogoria TviT sityva `me~-s semantika? b. raselma `me~ miakuTvna
im `egocentrul sityvaTa~ ricxvs, romelTa mniSvnelobas gansazRvravs
mxolod da mxolod molaparakis mdgomareoba drosa da sivrceSi
(raseli 1957: 103).
XX saukuneSi ganxorcielebul semantikur kvlevaTa Sedegad
aRmoCnda, rom `me~ ganumartavi sityvaa. saxeldobr, originaluri
semantikuri Teoriis avtorma, a. veJbickam miznad daisaxa, gamoevlina
is semantikuri erTeulebi (`primitivebi~), romlebic, TavisTavad,
ganumartavia (intuiciurad cxadi mniSvnelobisaa) da romelTa
meSveobiTac SesaZlebelia nebismieri sityvis an gamonaTqvamis
ganmarteba. mecnierma daasabuTa, rom erT-erTi amgvari `primitivi~
aris `me~.
amgvarad, `me~-s semantika ver ganimarteba sxva sityvebis meSveobiT
(ra Tqma unda, aq vgulisxmobT fsiqologiur, filosofiur da a.S.
eqsplikaciebs), e.i. is TavisTavad cxadi mniSvnelobisaa - `me aris
me~, an `me var me~.
magram `me var me~ aris im filosofiuri koncefciis pirveli
(samTagan) ZiriTadi debuleba, romelmac, v. Slegelis azriT, biZgi
misca romantizmis warmoSobas. vgulisxmobT iohan gotlib fixtes
`zogad moZRvrebas mecnierebis Sesaxeb~. fixtes Teoriuli sistemis
es pirveli debuleba logikur aspeqtSi niSnavs `me~-s TviT-
igiveobriobas, xolo semantikurSi (Tumca filosofoss es sakiTxi
ar dausvams) imas, rom `me~ ganumartavi cnebaa
*
.
*
veJbickas Teoria miznad isaxavs imis damtkicebas, rom azrovneba emyareba
elementarul, TavisTavad cxad cnebebs (maT Soris - `me~-s cnebas). aqedan
gamomdinare, azrovneba warmogvidgeba, rogorc semantikurad dafuZnebuli procesi.
analogiurad, fixtesTan uTvisebo (ganumartavi), TviTigiveobrivi `me~-s cneba
filosofiuri moZRvrebis logikuri safuZvelia. amgvari `wertilovani~ cnebebis
Sesaxeb v.s. bibleri SeniSnavs: `obieqti iqceva ufro rTuli obieqtebisa da
procesebis argumentad mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu es obieqti SeiZleba gaviazroT
rogorc erTiani ... misive myofobis TviTkmari aucileblobis wyalobiT~ (bibleri,
1975; 205). amgvari TviTkmari `obieqtia~ `me~ veJbickas TeoriaSic da fixtes
sistemaSic. orive SemTxvevaSi `me~-s uTviseboba (ganumartavoba) emsaxureba
`ufro rTuli obieqtebis~ (veJbickasTan sityvebisa da gamonaTqvamebis, fixtesTan
ki `arame~-s) Semecnebisa da ganmartebis mizans.
77
fixte mouwodebs mkiTxvels: `Cawvdi sakuTar Tavs, moacile
mzera yvelafers, rac Sen garSemoa, da mimarTe is sakuTari Tavisken~
(fixte 1993: 448). `mas, vinc icnobierebs sakuTar Tavisuflebas da
damoukideblobas garemosgan ... ar sWirdeba sagnebi sakuTari `me~-
s sayrdenad da verc isargeblebs sagnebiT, radgan isini aqarwyleben
da Zirs uTxrian am damoukideblobas~ (iqve, 460).
fixtes am msjelobaSi ukve igulisxmeba pirovnebis is koncefcia,
romelmac gamoxatuleba pova romantizmSi. marTlac, pirovnebis
garemos warmoadgens, upirveles yovlisa, misi uaxloesi socialuri
garemo, anu `Sen~. `Tavisuflebisa da damoukideblobis~ misaRwevad
saWiroa am `Sen~-isgan `mzeris acileba~, misgan gamijvna. amasTan
`Sen~ ukvalod ver gaqreba. hkargavs ra Tavis funqcias (rogorc
pirovnebis uaxloesi socialuri garemo), is interiorizdeba,
gadainacvlebs TviT `me~-s farglebSi da iqceva mis Semadgenel
komponentad. warmoiqmneba pirovnebis `mravalkomponentiani~
struqtura, mis garSemo ki socialuri vakuumi. safiqrebelia,
rom swored amgvaria romantizmSi `Siangani oreulebis~ an, saerTod,
`oreulebis poetikisa~ da martoobis motivis popularobis mizezebi
(sul erTia, hqondaT es gacnobierebuli romantikosebs an TviT
fixtes, Tu ara).
* * *
davubrundeT fixtes moZRvrebis pirvel debulebas - `me var
me~. am debulebis mixedviT, samyaros logikuri centria `me~, anu
samyaro logikurad fuZndeba `me~-Si, rogorc `saganSi~. es niSnavs,
rom sxva `sagnebi~, `garemo~ ar arsebobs. Sesabamisad, romantikul
literaturaSi mkvidrdeba samyaros asaxvis imgvari xerxi, romelic
warmoaCens mis idumalebas (uTvisebobas). peizaJi ZiriTadad
`Rameulia~, bindSia Cafluli. aseTia gr. orbelianis `saRamo
gamosalmebisa~. nik. baraTaSvilis leqsebSi - `cisa fers~ da
`SemoRameba mTawmindazed~ - samyaro gaazrebulia, rogorc `bneliT
moculi~, Tvisebrivad ganusazRvreli mocemuloba. calkeuli sagnebi
masSi TiTqos uCinardeba, araaRqmadia. baraTaSvili xSirad mimarTavs
agreTve sagnebisa da movlenebis Tavisufal predikacias, ise, TiTqos
ar arsebobdes konkretuli sagnebi myari niSanTvisebebiT. al.
WavWavaZisa da gr. orbelianis poeziaSi samyaros groteskuli xati
emyareba samyarosgan `mzeris acilebis~ (samyaros suraTis
deformaciis) princips.
filosofia da poezia (fixte da baraTaSvili)
78
Tavisi moZRvrebis pirvel debulebas fixte uwodebs `sruliad
upirobos~. esaa TavisTavad cxadi debuleba, romelic am niSniT
gansxvavdeba meore debulebisagan: `me~ ar udris `arame~-s. meore
debuleba, filosofosis gansazRvriT, `ganpirobebulia Tavisi
SinaarsiT~, e.i. `me~-s postulireba garduvalad gulisxmobs `arame~-
s postulirebasac. amasTan, mesame debulebis (`me~ udris `me~-sa da
`arame~-s) mixedviT, sasruli `me~ da `arame~ gaerTianebulia erTi
da imave cnobierebis farglebSi.
rogoria logikuri safuZveli, romelmac fixte mesame
debulebamde miiyvana?
germaneli filosofosis mizani da saboloo amocanaa `me~-s
arsis Semecneba, misi, rogorc cnebis gansazRvra. magram rogor
unda SevimecnoT `me~, Tu is predikatebis armqone, TavisTavad cxadi
da ganumartavia? ra Tqma unda, es SesaZlebelia mxolod sxva cnebasTan
misi Sepirispirebis meSveobiT. da es ukanaskneli aucileblad unda
iyos ... isev `me~, magram pirveli `me~-sgan gansxvavebuli, rac dasaSvebia
martooden maSin, rodesac pirveli `me~ da meore `me~ (`arame~,
`Sen~) erTi da imave cnobierebis farglebSi igulisxmeba.
marTlac, cnebis Camoyalibebis procesi amgvaria: `ori `sagnis~
urTierTSenacvlebadoba warmoqmnis `cnebis~ safuZvels. Tu ori
gansxvavebuli sagani urTierTSenacvlebadia garkveuli sityvis mimarT,
maSin mocemul sityvaSi xorcieldeba mTi invariantis an kontaqtis
ganyeneba da ganzogadeba~ (porSnevi 1974: 474). cxadia, es ori (an
meti) sagani absoluturad identuri ki araa, aramed gaaCnia
arsebiTi erTgvarovani niSanTvisebebi, romlebic aucileblad
ganekuTvneba am sagnebs da Seesabameba maT arss. amgvarad, vinaidan
interiorizebis Sedegad `arame~ (`Sen~) imave cnobierebis komponentad
iqceva, romelic `me~-s moicavs, es `arame~-c `me~-s nairsaxeobaa, misi
sxvadyofnaa. `me~-sa da `arame~-s invariantis ganzogadeba saSualebas
iZleva, Camoyalibdes `me~-s cneba.
* * *
nik. baraTaSvilis poeziaSi TvalsaCinod vlindeba `oreulebis
poetikis~ damaxasiaTebeli niSan-Tvisebebi. magaliTad, `meranSi~
lirikuli gmiris oreulia merani, rogorc Sinagani `arame~.
faqtobrivad, lirikuli gmiri aq pasiuria, xolo aqtiuroba,
qmedebis unari miewereba merans, romelsac mihyavs lirikuli gmiri
bedis `samZRvrisken~. am nawarmoebis ZiriTadi motivia Tavisuf-
lebisken ltolva, rac yovelgvari (socialuri Tu sxva saxis)
Tamar lomiZe
79
kavSirebisgan ganTavisuflebis tolfasia (`raa, movSorde Cemsa
mamulsa ...~ da a.S.). sagnobrivi garemosgan ganTavisufleba, leqsis
mxatvruli koncefciis mixedviT (zustad ise, rogorc fixte
fiqrobda), cnobierebis ganTavisuflebas moaswavebs da aseT pirobebSi
`me~-s ZaluZs, `mimarTos mzera sakuTari Tavisken~ da Seimecnos es
ukanaskneli Tavisi `arame~-s meSveobiT.
`xma idumalSic~ aqtiuria Sinagani xma (Sinagani `arame~), romelic
iqvemdebarebs gmirs, mis fiqrebs da mTel cxovrebas. aseTivea `sulo
boroto~, romlis pirvelsave taepSi lirikuli gmiri Tavis
`winamZRvars~, Tavisi `gonebisa da sicocxlis aRmaSfoTars~ uwodebs
Sinagan oreuls (imaze, rom boroti suli Sinagani oreulia,
migvaniSnebs Sesityveba `ganvedi Cemgan~). amitom SeiZleba iTqvas,
rom baraTaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi `arame~ yovelTvis aqtiuria, `me~
ki umoqmedo, pasiuri.
SemTxveviTia Tu ara `me~-sa da `arame~-s amgvari gaazreba? Tu
is ganpirobebulia romantikuli msoflaRqmis specifikiT?
vnaxoT, rogor gansazRvravs fixte `me~-sa da `arame~-s
urTierTmimarTebebs Tavisi sistemis mesame debulebis ganmartebisas.
filosofosi xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom moqmedeba da realuroba
identuri Sinaarsis mqone cnebebia (realuria is, rasac moqmedebis
unari aqvs, da piruku). `me~-s TviTSemecneba moqmedebaa (garkveuli
aqtia) da, amgvarad, `me~ realuria. meore mxriv, `me~ Seimecnebs
sakuTar Tavs `arame~-s meSveobiT, anu `arame~-m unda gansazRvros
(gansazRvra ki moqmedebaa) `me~. maSasadame, `arame~-c realuria; es
ki logikuri winaaRmdegobaa, radgan `me~ da `arame~, rogorc
urTierTsapirispiro mocemulobebi, erTi da imave niSniT ar unda
xasiaTdebodes. am winaaRmdegobis moxsnis mizniT fixte miawers
`me~-s (romelsac gansazRvravs `arame~) moqmedebis sapirispiro
mdgomareobas vnebiTs. amasTan, `arame~-s ar gaaCnia araviTari
realuroba, Tu `me~ ar imyofeba vnebiT mdgomareobaSi, xolo im
SemTxve-vaSi, rodesac `arame~-s realuroba miewereba, es realuroba
moCvenebiTia.
baraTaSvilis mxatvruli azrovnebisa da fixtes filosofiur
debulebaTa Tanxvedra ar amoiwureba imiT, rom qarTveli romantikosis
nawarmoebebSi `me~ pasiuria (vnebiT mdgomareobaSia), `arame~-sgan
gansxvavebiT. `meranSi~ `me~ (metyvelebis subieqti) realuria
imdenad, ramdenadac realuria teqsti, romlis meSveobiTac `me~
gamoxatavs sakuTar Tavs. `arame~ realuri araa, radgan ar gaaCnia
araviTari sagnobrivi denotati (merani aRniSnavs ara `cxens~, aramed
filosofia da poezia (fixte da baraTaSvili)
80
Sinagan `arame~-s) da, garda amisa, ar warmoadgens metyvelebis
subieqts. amave mizeziT, realuria lirikuli gmiri (rogorc `me~)
baraTaSvilis yvela im nawarmoebSi, romlebSic aisaxa lirikuli
gmiris Sinagani gaoreba, da, Sesabamisad, ararealuria misi `arame~.
iseT nawarmoebebSi, rogoricaa `SemoRameba mTawmindazed~ da `fiqrni
mtkvris piras~ (sadac avtori mimarTavs movlenaTa Tavisufal
predikacias) realuria pirveli gamoTqmuli Tvalsazrisi, romelsac
ganamtkicebs teqstis realuroba, misi myofoba. meore (sapirispiro)
Tvalsazrisi unda mivakuTvnoT `arame~-s (niSandoblivia, rom is
yovelTvis gamoTqmulia nawarmoebis bolo strofSi).
al. WavWavaZis SemoqmedebaSi, sadac gamoxatuleba pova
karnavalurma motivebma da romantikuli groteskis poetikam, Tavs
iCens pirovnebis garegnuli gaoreba. misi karnavaluri niRabi `arame~-
s erTgvari nairsaxeobaa, radgan is enacvleba (faravs) adamianis
saxes. aseT SemTxvevaSi adamians aqvs ori saxe: saCinari da uCinari,
socialuri da individualuri, WeSmariti da araWeSmariti, realuri
da ararealuri. WeSmariti saxe, rogorc uCinari, `pasiuria~
(ufunqcioa). adamiani aRiqmeba mxolod misi niRbis mixedviT. am
gagebiT, vnebiT mdgomareobaSia `me~ xolo aqtiuria `arame~
(igulisxmeba socialuri roli, romelsac akisrebs adamians niRabi
karnavalur situaciaSi). aseve, realuria (radgan WeSmaritia) niRbiT
dafaruli saxe, xolo ararealuria (moCvenebiTi realurobiT
xasiaTdeba) niRabi.
gr. orbelianis SemoqmedebaSi `arame~ xorcSesxmulia
karnavaluri crumefeebis saxeebSi. maTi ararealuroba imaSi
gamoixateba, rom isini swored rom crumefeebia da karnavalis
damTavrebis Semdeg gadainacvleben `sikvdilis fazaSi~, anu kvlav
`monebad~ iqcevian. aRsaniSnavia, rom gr. orbelianis, iseve, rogorc
al. WavWavaZis SemoqmedebaSi `me~-sa da `ara-me~-s dapirispireba
vlindeba maSin, rodesac TiToeuli maTganis nawarmoebTa erTobliobas
ganvixilavT, rogorc erTian teqsts.
zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom qarTvel
romantikosTa (da, gansakuTrebiT, nik. baraTaSvilis) poeziaSi `me~-
s poeturi xati yalibdeboda imave principebis Sesabamisad, romlebic
safuZvlad daedo `me~-s cnebis SemuSavebas fixtes filosofiur
sistemaSi.
Tamar lomiZe
81
* * *
rogorc irkveva, genetikurad cnebiTi azrovneba mWidrod
ukavSirdeba xatovan azrovnebas da, faqtobrivad, am ukanasknelis
wiaRSi aRmocenda. es procesi detalurad aRwera o.m. freidenbergma
Tavis naSromSi `xati da cneba~.
mecnieris miTiTebiT, xatovani azrovnebis Camoyalibebamde,
miTologiur azrovnebaSi, ZiriTad princips warmoadgenda saxeTa,
warmodgenaTa polisemantizmi. `amgvari msoflaRqmis wanamZRvrebi
ganpirobebuli iyo gnoseologiuri mizezebiT Tvisebriv
maxasiaTebelTa ararsebobiT, warmodgenaTa daunawevreblobiTa da
igiveobriobiT, rac aiZulebda adamians, daeyo samyaro iseT
urTierTsapirispiro movlenebad, rogoricaa sicocxle da sikvdili,
siTbo da sicive, sinaTle da wyvdiadi da a. S. isini
personificirdeboda `msgavs~ arsebaTa wyvilebSi. maTgan erTi
(dadebiTi sawyisi) ganasaxierebda `Tvisebas~, xolo meore (uaryofiTi
sawyisi) mxolod mis konkretul `msgavsebas~, garegnul iers
`Tvisebis~ gareSe~ (freidenbergi 1998: 235).
maSasadame, miTologiuri azrovneba waagavs sagnis (kerZod, `me~-
s) gaazrebas romantizmis epoqaSi romantizmma `me~-s miawera
binaruli struqtura, romelSic erT wevrs (`arame~-s) hqonda
`Tviseba~ (moqmedebis unari, aqtiuroba), meore ki pasiuri, `vnebiT
mdgomareobaSi~ myofi iyo.
subieqtisa da obieqtis urTierTgamijvnis Semdeg, aRniSnavs o.
freidenbergi, sinamdvile aRiqmeboda, rogorc realuri movlenebisa
da garegnulad maTi `msgavsi~ (iluzoruli) movlenebis erToblioba,
anu originalisa da misi oreulis uwindel igiveobriobas Seenacvla
gansxvavebuli sagnebis moCvenebiTi msgavseba, rac gulisxmobda sagnis
Tvisebis gadatanas meore saganze. swored amgvarad warmoiSva,
freidenbergis miTiTebiT, metafora, romelsac cnebis funqcia hqonda.
amasTan, gadataniTi mniSvneloba warmoiqmneboda mxolod maSin, rodesac
ori sagani semantikurad igiveobrivi iyo.
`rodesac esqile ambobs, rom gmiri `Sevida aboboqrebul zRvaSi~,
is ar ganmartavs Tavis azrs. antikuri mayurebeli, romlisTvisac
`qariSxali~ da `qariSxlisgan aboboqrebuli zRva~, rogorc wesi,
aRniSnavda `daRupvas~, Tavis warmosaxvaSi xatavs gamouvali
ubedurebis suraTs. amasTan, gmiris garSemo araa araviTari zRva, is
arsad Sesula da misi mdgomareobis tragizmi moraluri da
religiuri xasiaTisaa. magram mayurebeli, romelic ismens zRvis
Sesaxeb naTqvam sityvebs, fiqrobs moraluri koliziis Sesaxeb.
filosofia da poezia (fixte da baraTaSvili)
82
xati metyvelebs Tavisi xatovani eniT yovelgvari cnebis gareSe,
xolo msmeneli yurs ugdebs ambavs da aRiqvams sruliad sxvas
ideis donemde ganzogadebul cnebas. xatis semantika gadatanilia
cnebaze. aboboqrebuli zRva zneobrivi koliziaa~ (freidenbergi
1998: 544).
freidenbergi vrclad msjelobs metaforisa da cnebis genetikuri
erTianobis Sesaxeb da, marTlac, sagnis Tvisebis gadatana meore
saganze sxva araferia, Tu ara metafora, magram vlindeba Tu ara
mecnieris mier moyvanil magaliTebSi enobrivi plani?
1
Tu asea, maSin
metaforuli paradigmis sityvier gamoxatulebebSi Tavs unda iCendes
seleqciis principi
2
, anu Tavisufali SerCeviToba, es ki xorcieldeba
im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac paradigma moicavs orze met wevrs, an Tu
paradigmis wevrebs Soris arsebobs ara uzualuri, aramed
okazionaluri kavSiri.
magram metafora, rogorc aRniSnavs freidenbergi, warmoiqmneboda
mxolod ori gansazRvruli sagnis semantikuri igiveobriobis
pirobebSi ar SeiZleboda nebismieri sagnis Tvisebis gadatana
nebismier sxva saganze. enobrivi koleqtivis cnobierebaSi
`aboboqrebuli zRva~ yovelTvis gulisxmobda gamouval ubedurebas,
xolo homerosiseuli gamoTqma `rkinis guli~ - Seupovrobas, xasiaTis
simtkices. amgvari metaforebi, Cveni azriT, miekuTvneba metonimiuri
metaforebis rigs, radgan isini sintagmebia, romlebic gamoricxavs
yovelgvar seleqcias (sainteresoa, rom termin `metaforis~ farTod
gagebis gamo freidenbergi metaforad miiCnevs poetur xats
, romelic, arsebiTad, Sedarebaa). amgvarad, im
etapze, rodesac warmoiqmneba cnebiTi azrovneba, metafora myar
sintagmadaa qceuli da ukve ganekuTvneba `metonimiur poluss~
1
metaforas, iakobsonis kvalobaze, mivakuTvnebT paradigmatul poluss (enobriv
plans), paradigmis wevrebi ki, sosiuris gansazRvriT, `ar aris cnobierebaSi
mocemuli arc garkveuli raodenobis, arc garkveuli mimdevrobis saxiT~
(sosiuri, 1977; 258). amitom gansazRvruli sityvebis (cnebebis) myari SekavSirebis
gziT wrmoqmnil sintagmebs metaforebad ar miviCnevT, ganurCevlad imisa, rogoraa
isini warmodgenili metyvelebaSi orive wevriT Tu mxolod erTiT.
2
sagulisxmoa, rom iakobsoni metaforis principad asaxulebs xan substitucias
(Senacvlebas), xan seleqcias, xan ki orives erTad. vfiqrobT, ufro koreqtulia
metaforis principad martooden seleqciis aRiareba, radgan subtitucia saufZvlad
udevs ara marto metaforas, aramed sxva tropebsac (J. Jenetis azriT yvela
trops). rac Seexeba seleqcias, e.i. alternatiuli variantebis SerCevis operacias,
is damaxasiaTebelia mxolod da mxolod metaforisTvis.
Tamar lomiZe
83
(iakobsonis termini). aqedan gamomdinare, cnebiTi azrovneba
genetikurad ukavSirdeba metonimias da ara metaforas.
rogorc vnaxeT, antikur epoqaSi, cnebiTi azrovnebis warmoSobisas,
xati gvevlineboda cnebis funqciiT, romantizmis epoqaSi, rodesac
filosofiuri refleqsis sagnad iqca adamianisTvis umniSvnelovanesi
cneba - `me~-s cneba, xats (kerZod, `me~-s xats) igive funqcia daekisra.
literatura
averincevi 1972: . . .
.. kreb.
, . 1972.
bibleri 1975: .. , . 1975.
porSnevi 1974: . . , .
1974.
raseli 1957: . , . 1957.
sosiuri 1977: . , . 1977.
fixte 1993: . . 2- ., . I, .-. 1993.
freidenbergi 1998: . . -
, . 1998.
Tamar Lomidze
Self-conception in the Works of Georgian Romanticist
Poets
The article observes the Self-image structure in the works of Georgian
Romanticist poets (Al. Chavchavadze, Gr. Orbeliani and Nic. Baratashvili), which
is compared with Self-conception in the philosophical system of I.G. Fixte. It has
been found that in these poets works cognizing of Self essence is realized in the
same ways, which is observed in philosophy, that is, the Self poetic image has a
notional structure. After that the problem of genesis of notional and picturesque
thinking and their correlation in the antique epoch are being analyzed. It is mentioned
that during the antique epoch, while appearing abstract thinking the image carried
out the function of notion, but at the of Romanticism epoch, when the object of
philosophical reflection was the most important notion Selfs notion the image
(in particular, Self~s image) was carrying out the same function.
filosofia da poezia (fixte da baraTaSvili)
84
merab RaRaniZe
zevsuri akakis poeziaSi
1915 wlis 25 ianvars, gamTeniisas, 5
saaTze, sxvitorSi, sakuTar saxlSi, akaki
wereTels tvinSi sisxli Caeqca. mTeli dRis
agoniis Semdeg, roca SuaRames gadascda, 26
ivnisis 1 saaTze, akaki gardaicvala (asaTiani
1965: 499).
erTi kviris Tavze, 2 Tebervals, jer
kidev poetis dakrZalvamde, yovelkvireul
gazeTSi Temi daibeWda akakis leqsi gedi.
formaluri uzustobis miuxedavad, ulogi-
kod ar Cans, rom swored am leqsiT mTavr-
deba akakis akademiuri Svidtomeulis pir-
veli tomi (akaki 1940: 854), romelSic misma
gamomcemlebma, aleqsandre abaSelma da pavle
ingoroyvam, poetis leqsebis sicocxlis-
droindeli publikaciebi moaTavses
1
.
Tumca, momdevno akademiur gamocemaSi,
TxzulebaTa TxuTmettomeulSi, am leqss
adgili miCenili aqvs ara sicocxlis miwu-
ruls daweril leqsTa Soris, aramed 1891
wlis TariRis qveS (akaki 1950: 215). TariRis
Secvlis safuZvlad TxuTmettomeulis
gamomcemeli, giorgi abzianiZe, asaxelebs
literaturis muzeumSi dacul pirad werils,
romelic Temis redaqtors gaugzavnia ivane
maCablisaTvis. Tavad es redaqtori am
1
leqsis pavle ingoroyvaseuli teqstologiuri
komentari aseTia: ukanaskneli leqsia, poetis mier
gadacemuli dasabeWdad Temi-s redaqciisaTvis.
daibeWda poetis gardacvalebis Semdeg, 1915 w. 2
Tebervals (akaki 1941: 707).
filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis
saxelmwifo universite-
tis humanitarul mec-
nierebaTa da kulturis
kvlevebis fakultetis
profesori.
gamoqveynebuli aqvs asze
meti statia da esei li-
teraturis, kulturisa da
religiis sakiTxebze, maT
Soris _ sami wigni.
interesTa sfero:
literaturaTmcodneoba,
kultura, religia.
85
komentarSi saxeldebuli ar aris (savaraudoa, garkveuli politikur-
sacenzuro mosazrebis gamo), Tumca igi, rogorc Cans, unda yofiliyo
grigol diasamiZe (baqraZe 1947: 38). am werilSi, romelic 1891
wlis 22 ivlisiTaa daTariRebuli, gazeTis redaqtori atyobinebs
maCabels, rom gamojanmrTelebul akakis misTvis gaugzavnia sakuTari
axali leqsi gedi, romelic yovelis mxriT mSvenieria, xolo
werils Tan erTvis am leqsis asli (akaki 1950: 506).
Tavad gedis teqsti esaa:
sikvdilis wined amboben,
aWikWikdeba gedio
1
,
da tkbil hangebSi imarxvis
misi arsebis bedio.
ucnauria galoba
pirvel da ukanaskneli!..
aq ixateba cis sivrce,
aqve isaxvis qveskneli.
or-azrovani, or-kilo,
erTis xmiT gamometyveli,
Semoqmedebis qebaa,
cisa da qveynis Semkvreli.
saamaqveyno zaria,
saimqveyano zevsuri,
gedo! Sevnatri Sens WikWiks.
Sengvar sikvdilsac mec vsuri!.. (akaki 1950: 214).
es leqsi, _ akakis poetur teqstebs Soris siRrmiTa da
simSvenieriT gansakuTrebuli gamorCeulobis miuxedavad, _ Tundac
saTqmeliT, Tundac gamoxatvis formiT uCveulo araa gedis avtoris
poeziisaTvis. da aqac, iseve, rogorc xSirad, sxva SemTxvevebSi, aSkarad
Cans teqstis agebis diqotomiuri princi pi. striqonebisaTvis
ubralo Tvalis gadavlebac ki mTeli leqsis qsovilSi saCinos
xdis mopirispire wyvilebs: pirveli/ukanaskneli, cis kide/qveskneli,
ca/qveyana, saamaqveyno/saimqveyano, zari/zevsuri. es dapirispirebani
gedis (_ poetis) sikvdiliswina simReraSi religiur-esTetikur
1
TxuTmettomeulSi gamoqveynebul teqstSi koreqturuli Secdomaa, _ dabeWdilia:
bedio.
`zevsuri~ akakis poeziaSi
86 merab RaRaniZe
gawonasworebasa da sinTezs aRwevs: or-azrovani da or-kilo galoba
erTis xmiT gamomxatvelad iqceva, romelic cisa da qveynis Semkvreli
aRmoCndeba da Semoqmedebis (_ qmnilebis) qebas gamoxatavs.
sicocxlisa da sikvdilis zRvarze pirvelad da ukanasknelad
momRerali gedi (Tu mgosani) ara marto agvirgvinebs sakuTari
cxovrebis gzas da ajamebs ganvlils, _ am simReraSi DSefarulia
da mJRavndeba misi arsebis bedi: misi ara erTjeradi, aramed arsiseuli
xvedri da mniSvneloba, misi namdvili raoba. magram, amas garda,
sicocxlesTan ganSorebisas (da am ganSorebis gansakuTrebulobis
wyalobiT) igi xedavs da aRiqvams Qqveynierebis mTlianobas; afasebs
da xotbas uZRvnis qmnilebas mis yovel gamovlinebaSi; ara marto
emSvidobeba am soflis xilul xats, aramed miesalmeba mis win
gaxsnil miRmier xilvas, radganac igi am samyarosa da im samyaros
Soris imyofeba, _ amqveyniursa da imqveyniurs Soris. amitom, am
Tvalsawieridan erTad da erTianad aRiqmeba zeca da qveskneli,
aRmafrena da dacema, nivTier sofelTan ganSorebis sikvdiliswina
tkivili da aranivTier soflad sikvdilisSemdgomi amaRlebis netari
gancda. amis gamo aRaraa gamijnuli gedis galobaSi godeba da qeba;
am da amgvar erTianobaSi yovelgvari dapirispireba uqmdeba da
erTmaneTs uerTdeba, xolo mgosnis Tvalwin iSleba samyaros
mTlianobis warmtaci da gaciskrovnebuli suraTi. amitomacaa es
ukanaskneli hangebi tkbili, amitomacaa sanatreli amgvari simRera,
amitomacaa sasurveli aseTi sikvdili...
magram amjerad teqstSi yuradRebas miipyrobs arcTu mTlad
naTeli cneba: zevsuri, _ koncepti, romelic formiT zedsarTavs
hgavs, magram SinaarsiT ueWvelad arsebiTia, Tundac misi mewyvilidan
gamomdinare: zari/zevsuri. konteqstidan Cans, rom gedis galoba
(WikWiki), rac am qveynisaTvis zarad aRiqmeba (raki gedi miwier
sofels emSvidobeba), im qveynisaTvis zevsuria, ese igi, sixarulis
sadidebelia (raki gedi miRmier sofels miesalmeba)...
mainc, cnebis arsis ukeT gasagebad mivmarToT akakis sxva
teqstebs. rogorc Cans, poets Tavis poetur teqstebSi es cneba,
saerTod, Svidjer gamouyenebia (sanikiZe 1983: 391)
1
da savaraudoa,
1
akaki wereTlis poeziis leqsikonis monacemebi emyareba poetis TxzulebaTa
sruli krebulis bolo gamocemas, _ TxuTmettomeuls (1950-1963), magram sagangebod
gadamowmda, agreTve, akakis is oTxi aTeuli leqsebi da xuTi poema, romelic
gamoqveynebulia SvidtomeulSi (1940-1959), magram aRaraa Setanili
TxuTmettomeulSi, _ rogorc aSkarad Cans, sabWoTa cenzuris moTxovnaTa
gaTvaliswinebis gamo. arc erT am teqstSi cneba zevsuri ar gvxvdeba.
87
rom maT Soris swored leqsi gedi misi gamoyenebis pirveli
SemTxvevaa (1891).
Semdgom is Cndeba leqsSi mwuxri (1894):
aq uecrad vardis buCqi
SeinZra da Seirxa rto,
zed bulbuli Turme ijda
gamsWvaluli martod-marto.
moeria grZnoba mmRerals,
gulSi madli Caesaxa!..
tbil-zevsuri, mware zari,
oriv erTad SemosZaxa.
xma gaisma sxivnarTi ram,
zeamtani, amaZgeri!..
yvela smenad gadaiqca,
usulo da sulieri (akaki 1950: 287-288).
am SemTxvevaSic zevsuri, winamorbedi teqstis msgavsad,
upirispirdeba zars da Tu pirveli tkbilia, meore mwarea,
magram aqac mgosnis (romelsac amjerad bulbuli warmoadgens)
simReraSi, gansakuTrebul wamSi, erTica da meorec erTiandeba da es
simRerac gamorCeulia: ara marto gaciskrovnebulobisa (sxivnarTi)
da STambeWdavobis gamo (amaZgeri), aramed imitomac, rom is zeciurTan
mimaaxloebeli da zeaRmtacia (zeamtani)...
imave welsaa dawerili leqsi anderZi (1894)
1
:
dil-diliT gasaRviZeblad
SaSvma mistvinos zevsuri,
rom mis maRal-ban salamurs
sikvdilmac daugdos yuri.
saRamos vardis Citunam
CaskvniT Camkvnesos nanina,
iqve maxloblad buCqebze
mas aerCios ra bina!..
1
leqsi CarTulia prozaul teqstSi _ moTxrobaSi sikvdili (Sdr. akaki 1958:
87-88).
`zevsuri~ akakis poeziaSi
88
da amden natvris gvirgvinad
erTsac davsaxav sxva rames:
kavSirsa sikvdil-sicocxlis,
orive soflis siames!.. (akaki 1950: 311).
aqac zevsuri isev gansadidebeli galobaa, romelic, rogorc
gedis SemTxvevaSi, isev sikvdils ukavSirdeba da, amave dros, sikvdil-
sicocxlis Serwymasa da orive sofelTan _ orive soflis
simSvenieresTan _ mgosnis arsebriv ganuyoflobas (Tumca amjerad
zevsuri upirispirdeba ara zars, aramed naninas, romelic
Sinaarsoblivad daZinebas _ da, farTo gagebiT, ueWvelad, sikvdils
_ aRniSnavs, miT umetes, rom sikvdili ukve naxsenebi iyo ori
striqoniT adre, naxsenebi iqneba oTxi striqonis Semdeg da, sxva Tu
araferi, leqss anderZi hqvia).
Semdgom, zevsuri dadasturebulia leqsSi mgosani
(zogierTebis sapasuxod) (1899):
xma ucnauri, xma saamuri,
gaisma qveynad marad da marad,
zogisTvis is xma Tafl-malamoa,
zogs gulzed xvdeba is naRvel-Zmarad.
erTic mRelvarebs da meoreca,
orive sworad moxiblulia
da TviT mgosanic, erTis saqebi,
aTasisaTvis wyevla-krulia.
magram mgosani hfiqrobs: amqveynad
yoveli zraxva aris amao,
suls Semusrvils da guls damdablebuls
nu Seuracxhyof Sen ki, mamao!
ambobs da Cangi sulis Camdgmeli
ca da qveyanas esalbuneba!..
zevsuri misi utyuaria
da mravalferi, viT TviT buneba! (akaki 1950: 415).
mgosnis simRerasTan (romelic ucnauricaa da saamoc)
dakavSirebuli mopirispire diqotomiuri wyvilebi amjeradac
merab RaRaniZe
89
TvalSisacemia: Tafl-malamo/naRvel-Zmari, qeba (saqebi)/wyevla-krulva,
amqveynad/imqveynad (_ mimarTva zeciuri mamisadmi), ca/qveyana... TviT
simRera (Cangi) ki isev ganuyofelia: am soflisTvisac da im
soflisTvisac is damaamebeli (esalbuneba) da amaRorZinebelia
(sulis Camdgmeli); poetis RmrTaebrivi galoba, zevsuri, _
romelic amjerad mewyvilis gareSe, calad aris moxseniebuli, _
ucdomelia (utyuari) da iseve mravalmxrivia, rogorc Tavad samyaro
an, ufro viwrod, ormxrivi, rogorc wina SemTxvevebSi, magram rac
yvela SemTxvevaSi dapirispirebaTa kosmosur erTianobas gulisxmobs
da rac samyaroseul mravalferobasa da mTlianobas ireklavs...
dabolos, akakis lirikul memkvidreobaSi cneba zevsuri
gvxvdeba leqsSi bodva, romelic Janrobrivad ufro lirikuli
poemis elfers atarebs da romelic poetis TxuTmettomeulSi
amgvaradaa daTariRebuli 1889-1892-1902 ww. (kerZod, teqstis is
monakveTi, sadac zevsuria dadasturebuli, 1902 wels gamoqveynda):
aRma mfreni daRmac xedavs
ufro naTlad, ufro didad!
qveynis Wiri, qveynis lxini
win miuZRvis gzad da xidad.
Cemi qnaric aRmamfreni
xan zars ambobs da xan zevsurs,
dRes ki bodavs da vafrTxileb,
yurs nu ugdebs, visac ar hsurs (akaki 1954: 55-56).
mopirispire wyvilebi am teqstSi amgvaria: aRma/daRma, Wiri/
lxini, gza/xidi, zari/zevsuri, aRmamfreni simRera (qnari)/bodva,
xolo mgosani ki, _ romelic raki zena soflis binadaria, ukeT
xedavs qvena sofelsac, _ xan glovobs (zars... ambobs) da xan
sadidebel-sasixarulo simReras (zevsurs) galobs, Tumca amjerad
es ori cneba _ zari da zevsuri _ ara imdenad erTiandeba,
ramdenadac upirispirdeba erTmaneTs da mxolod poetis pirovnebasa
da saTqmelSi, mgosnis qnarSi, xdeba maTi urTierTSerwyma...
rac Seexeba akakis epikur poetur Semoqmedebas, zevsuri poets
gamouyenebia poemaSi naTela (1897):
SeityveT saidumloba
zeciur tkbili xmebisa
da SeiswavleT kanoni
imaTi SeTanxmebisa!
`zevsuri~ akakis poeziaSi
90
me maSin mxolod gavbedav
xeli Sevaxo Cangursa
da mware zari am qveynis
SevrTo im qveynis zevsursa.
rom mec galobiT, gediviT,
davagdo qveynis sazRvari,
Cavdne Cemsave hangebSi
da gavqre, rogorc lampari! (akaki 1956a: 184)
naTelas _ poetis mxatvruli ostatobis erT-erTi umaRlesi
gamovlinebis _ am striqonebSi, erTi mxriv, leqsis gedis saTqmeli
ufro sxartadaa gamoTqmuli (Tan amjeradac mgosnis aRsaniSnavad
poeti isev momakvdavi gedis saxiT sargeblobs) da, meore mxriv, aq
Tavs iyris yovelive is, rasac poetis xedvasa da warmosaxvaSi
zevsuri aRniSnavs: zeciuri, idumali (saidumloba), mSvenieri
(tkbili) galoba, sadac amqveyniuri godeba erwymis imqveyniur
sadidebels, romelsac mgosani sikvdilis pirispir mReris...
dabolos, akakis originaluri poeziis garda, zevsuri kidev
erTxel gvxvdeba mis mier gadmoqarTulebul poetur teqstSi _
krilovis parnasis akakiseul TargmanSi (igav-arakis teqsti
pirvelad gamoqveynda iveriaSi 1901 wels):
didyuraanT scodniaT:
es midamo da gzebi
rom adre RmerTebs hqondaT
da scxovrobdnen muzebi.
ukravdnen da imRerdnen
mze-Sinas da zevsursa
da miTi qveyanasac
uwevdnen samsaxursa (akaki 1955: 84).
sayuradReboa, rom mTeli is strofi, sadac zevsuri aris
naxsenebi, akakis originaluri Semoqmedebis nayofia, akakiseuli
SemoqmedebiTi CanarTia (rac arcTu iSviaTi SemTxvevaa mis mier
Sesrulebul TargmanebSi), radgan ivan krilovs Tavis igav-arakSi
msgavsi araferi aqvs naxsenebi (: , , -
, // _ krilovi 1946: 14).
merab RaRaniZe
91
am SemTxvevaSic, zevsuri RmrTaebrivi qebaa, romelsac Tavad
RmerTebi da muzebi galoben (mzeSinasTan erTad), magram amjeradac
es simRera ara marto zeciuri samyofelis sagalobelia, aramed am
qveyanasac exmaureba, emsaxureba da, Sesabamisad, isev ori soflis
SemaerTebeli daniSnuleba aqvs.
sanam sabolood zevsuris Sinaarsi da warmoSoba gairkveodes,
unda daiZebnos Tavad zevsis xseneba akakis poeziaSi. zevsi mis
poetur teqstebSi orgzis gvxvdeba da orivegan periferiulia.
erTia isev krilovis igav-araki uRmrToeba (pirvelad gamoqveynda
igav-arakebis krebulSi 1906 wels), sadac moTxrobilia uRmrToTa
ajanyebis Sesaxeb ulumbos (olimpis) mTaze mcxovreb im warmarTul
RmrTaebaTa winaaRmdeg, romelTa Soris zevsi iyo mTavar-RmerTad
(akaki 1955: 112), xolo meoregan, dramatul poemaSi media (1893-
1894), mTavari personaJi qali mimarTavs berZenTa uzenaes RmrTaebas:
maRalo zevso, nuTu diana
aq sanadirod gadmofrenila?! (akaki 1956b: 188).
cxadia, rom zevsis xseneba verc pirvel da verc meore
SemTxvevaSi, sadac is, martivad, trivialurad warmarT berZenTa
umaRlesi RmrTaebaa, arafers iZleva sakvlevi problemis dasaZlevad,
arafers hmatebs zemore moyvanil teqstebs da, Sesabamisad, unda
gamoiricxos akakiseuli zevsuris konceptis gasagebad aucilebeli
konteqstidan.
mainc, sabolood, ra SeiZleba iTqvas zevsuris konceptis
Sesaxeb akakis poeziaSi? pirvel yovlisa, yvela moyvanil SemTxvevaSi
is erTmniSvnelovnad arsebiTi saxelia da ara zedsarTavi, rogorc
erTi SexedviT SeiZleba egonos mkiTxvels, Semdgom, is RmrTaebisadmi
mimarTuli, RmrTaebrivi, zeciuri mizanswrafvis sagalobelia,
romelSic samyaros mTlianoba da ganuyoflobaa asaxuli da rac
miwier msmenels, SesaZloa, godeba egonos, sinamdvileSi ki xsnis,
sixarulisa da netarebis sadidebelia, da kidev, is yovelTvis
ganuyofelia am soflisa da im soflis kavSirTan, sazRvarTan, am
sazRvarze yofnasTan (savaraudoa, rom iqac ki, sadac araa naxsenebi
sikvdili, rogorc leqsSi mwuxri, is teqstis struqturul
mTlianobaSi mainc igulisxmeba), romeli Tvalsawieridanac yovelgvari
SeuTavsebloba da dapirispireba uqmdeba.
rac Seexeba zevsuris warmoSobas akakis poeziaSi: savaraudoa,
rom zevsuris wyaro an uSualod ioane SavTelis abdulmesiani
`zevsuri~ akakis poeziaSi
92
iyos, sadac is teqstis dasawyis striqonebSi gvxvdeba, an daviT
CubinaSvilis qarTul-rusuli leqsikoni, romlis beWdva 1887 wels
daiwyo da romlis gamocema 1890 wels gasrulda (CubinaSvili
1984: VI). sayuradReboa, rom zevsuri swored am wlis Semdeg
Cndeba akakis sityvaTxmarebaSi. amave dros, es erTaderTi leqsikonia
(garda, ra Tqma unda, abdulmesianis gviandeli leqsikonebisa),
sadac es leqsema gvxvdeba, sadac is Targmnilia da sadac miTiTebulia
misi literaturuli wyaro. am leqsikonSi zevsis ganmartebasa
da Targmans imave budeSi mohyeba: zevsuri, , ,
SavT. 1 (CubinaSvili 1984: 519).
advili SesaZlebelia, rom akakis am leqsemisaTvis CubinaSvilis
leqsikonSi miegno, an iqidan gahxseneboda misi arseboba, Tumca
ueWvelia poetis mier Tavad SavTelis teqstis codna, rac dasturdeba
akakiseul teqstebSi abdulmesianis avtoris araerTi moxseniebiT
da misi poetur-saxotbo wignis ramdenimegzisi, arcTu dadebiTi,
SefasebiT.
akakis damokidebulebas samefo mexotbis mimarT, albaT, yvelaze
mkafiod gamoxatavs SavTelis, saerTod, pirvelive moxsenieba poetis
mier _ statiaSi qarTuli scena, romelic 1895 wels gamoqveynda
da sadac Zveli qarTveli mexotbe amgvaradaa daxasiaTebuli: gaberili,
uniWo ritori, xolo misi qmnilebis Sesaxeb ki naTqvamia: gaugebari,
grZnoba-gonebis mZime tvirTi (akaki 1961a: 215)
1
. metnaklebad amgvarivea
misi ramdenime sxva gamonaTqvamic SavTelis gamo
2
, Tumca sicocxlis
miwuruls, 1911 wels, akaki beWdavs mogonebas taras SevCenkos Sesaxeb
(rusulad, rusul gazeTSi), sadac ixsenebs, rom SevCenkosTan
siymawvilisdroindeli Sexvedrisas da saubrisas mas rusTveli,
SavTeli da CaxruxaZe msoflio poetebad ( )
mouxseniebia (akaki 1963: 554).
gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom SavTelis poeziis mimarT uaryofiTi
damokidebulebis gacxadebisas akaki aSkarad subieqturia, _ am
SemTxvevaSi igi arc miukerZoebelia da arc sakuTar Tavs, sakuTar
1
imave 1895 wels gamoqveynebul satirul poetur teqstSi _ panorama (xan
rusTvelobs, xan SavTelobs, // xanac moiCaxruxavebs _ akaki 1950: 322) SavTeli,
SesaZloa, ufro pozitiur konteqstSia aRmoCenili, Tumca gasaTvaliswinebelia
mTeli teqstis ironiuli konotacia da is, rom akaki yuradRebas amaxvilebs
satiris obieqtad qceuli poetis socialur rolze, sazogadoebriv aRqmaze da,
amdenad, aq Znelia danaxul iqnes SavTelis Tavad akakiseuli Sefaseba.
2
SavTelis mimarT akakis damokidebulebis mimoxilva da ganxilva ix. menabde
1973: 164-169.
merab RaRaniZe
93
poezias gamoricxavs Sefasebis sferodan (Tundac poetiseuli
kontrastuli TviTSefaseba konteqstidan impliciturad
gamomdinareobdes!). akaki sruliad mcdarad da umarTebulod miiCnevs,
rom misi Tanamedrove qarTveli mkiTxveli SavTels gadaWarbebul
Rirebulebas aniWebs da, kidev meti, rusTvelis gverdiT an xandaxan
mis maRlac ki ayenebs. akaki amgvari araswori Sefasebis mizezs
SavTelis poeziis moCvenebiT Rrmaazrovanebasa da bundovanebaSi
xedavs, romlisganac srulebiT gansxvavdeba rusTveluri leqsisa
Tu Txrobis simsubuqe da sisadave, rac simartiviT cdunebul
mkiTxvels naklebi Rirebulebisa hgonia (rodesac qarTveli
mwignobrebi da mwerlebi advilaT gasageb rusTvels hkiTxulobdnen,
ase egonaT: aq sityvebia kargi, Tvara azri didi ara aris rao!.. [...]
iseTi ubralo sityvebia, rom Tu ar miTqvams, SemeZlo ki rom meTqva
da yvela Cemi nacnobebic ki moaxerxeben amis Tqmaso. sakvirvelia
kaci. rac advilaT da gauWirveblaT eZleva, arafraT agdebs! ubralo
hgonia da rac gaWirvebas uCvenebs, is ki did rameT miaCnia! SavTelisa
Cven Zvelebs ara esmodaT ra! misi sityvebis raxa-ruxi da braxa-
bruxi harmonia egonaT!. _ akaki 1961a: 215).
am konteqstSi akaki, bunebrivia, sakuTar Tavs rusTvelTan aigivebs
1
da daufarav sayvedurs gamoTqvams mkiTxvelis mimarT, romelic
sxva poetebis qmnilebebs did fass adebs mxolod simZimisa da
maTSi gamoTqmuli azris crumniSvnelovnobis gamo. savaraudoa, rom
iseve, rogorc akaki sakuTar Tavs rusTvelTan da mis poetikur
princi pebTan kavSirSi moiazrebs, aseve, rusTvelis Tanamedrove
(tradiciis Tanaxmad!) SavTelis konotaciac akakis romelime
Tanamedrove poets gulisxmobdes, romelsac amgvarive simZime da
azriT yalbi Tu namdvili datvirTuloba axasiaTebdes, Tumca
WeSmarit poeziasTan, akakis azriT, amgvar qmnilebebs araferi aqvs
saerTo.
TiTqosda ucnaurad Cans, rom mogvianebiT, 1902 wels, CaxruxaZisa
da SavTelis teqstebis niko mariseuli akademiuri gamocemis gacnobis
Semdeg, am wignis gamo dabeWdil gamoxmaurebaSi akakim SesaZleblad
miiCnia, rom ara marto Tamariani, aramed SavTelis abdulmesianic
rusTvelis qmnilebad mieCnia: ara Tu marto Tamaris qeba, Caxruxauli
dawerili, daviTis qebac, is, romelsac batoni marri SavTels awers,
1
Sdr. akakis poeziis gamo sazogadoebriv literaturul cnobierebaSi
saukunenaxevris ganmavlobaSi farTod gavrcelebuli stereotipi, araerTgzis
aRniSnuli literaturismcodneobaSic: es poezia tovebs macdur STabeWdilebas,
rom ase wera nebismier msurvels SeuZlia.
`zevsuri~ akakis poeziaSi
94
_ rusTvelisave dawerilia da samive erTad vefxis tyaosnis avtors
ekuTvnis. amas ara Tu azris Tanxmoba, TviT sityvebis erTgvari
xmebic ki gvimtkicebs. da Tu marTla erTisa da imave avtoris
nawarmoebi ar aris da sxvadasxvis, maSin sCans, rom erTi meorisagan
gadmouRiaT, mouparavT, brmaT miubaZavT da amas rogor ikadrebda an
erTi maTgani, maSin rodesac Tavis Tavad SemoqmedebiTi Zali
umwvervalesobamde miuyvaniaT (akaki 1961b: 133-134). Sefasebis
amjerad aseTi radikaluri gansxvaveba, SesaZloa, ara sxva rames,
aramed imas metyvelebdes, rom Tavis dros SavTelis poeziaze
akakiseuli Tavdasxmebi ara marto sazogado nihilisturi
ganwyobebis gamoZaxiliT iyo ganpirobebuli
1
, aramed konkretuli
sababiTac, sadac SavTels akaki imgvari garkveuli poetikuri poziciis
niSnobriv gamovlinebad miiCnevda, ragvarsac igi imJamad mkveTrad
upirispirdeboda!
aseve TiTqos moulodnelia, SavTelisadmi akakis Cveuli
mimarTebis gaTvaliswinebiT, akakis mier zevsuris sesxeba swored
SavTelis poeturi leqsikidan (Tanac im wlebSi, roca poetis
damokidebuleba abdulmesianis avtoris mimarT Seurigebeli da
daundobelia!), magram am cnebis sxva wyaro jerjerobiT ar Cans,
xolo im SemTxvevaSi, Tu poeti uSualod eyrdnoba ara abdulmesianis
Sesaval striqonebs, aramed daviT CubinaSvilis leqsikons (rac
ufro naklebadaa savaraudo!), iqac wyaro _ SavTelis saxotbo
Txzuleba _ Tvalxiluladaa miTiTebuli. amas garda, akakis
pirvelwyarod mainc SavTelis teqstis miCnevas mkafiod adasturebs
riTmis pirdapiri reproducireba abdulmesianidan (zevsuri/vsuri)
da Tanac iq, sadac zevsuri, saerTod, pirvelad Cndeba akakiseul
teqstebSi _ leqsSi gedi.
mainc sad, rogor da risTvis xmarobs SavTeli zevsurs da
ramdenad adekvaturad isesxa es cneba akakim?
ioane SavTelis abdulmesiani ase iwyeba (1, 1-4):
samebiT RmerTman, arsebiT erTman
momces me swavla Tqvenda Semkobad!
giZRvna qebani: mwads aq ebani,
daviTis daviT vjde musikobad.
mesma zevsuri: ra vnaxe, vsuri,
rom sityva meTxznes mefeTa cnobad,
mun gulisxmobiT TviT gulis mobiT
kari sibrZnisa sulelTa qebad (SavTeli 1964: 117).
1
"mesamoce wlebSi rom ruseTidan davbrundiT, nigilistobis safuari cota-
odnaT Cvenc modebuli gvqonda (akaki 1961a: 384).
merab RaRaniZe
95
niko mariseul gamocemamde (1902) akaki, rogorc Cans,
abdulmesianis teqsts icnobda an platon ioselianiseuli (1838),
an daviT CubinaSviliseuli (1863), an zaqaria WiWinaZiseuli (1883)
gamocemebidan, an sulac xelnawerebidan (rac ufro naklebadaa
mosalodneli!), romelTa wakiTxvebi metad umniSvnelod gansxvavdeba
zemore moyvanilisagan
1
.
xolo rac Seexeba teqstis Tanamedrove mecnierul
interpretacias, im orstriqonedis gasagebad, sadac zevsuri gvxdeba,
mogvyavs komentari abdulmesianis bolo akademiuri gamocemidan
(komentaris avtoria ivane lolaSvili):
gamoTqmas mesma zevsuri: ra vnaxe vsuri mose janaSvili
kiTxulobs: me, sma zevsuri ra vnaxe, vsuri... da ganmartavs: mefed
dasma zevsebr zenaurad, umaRlesi nebiT ra vnaxe, me msurs Sevaqo
mefeo (abd., 1920, gv. 37). daviTi zenaurad, umaRlesi nebiT mefed
ar dausvamT; is, rogorc Tamaris meuRle, mefis uflebiT sargeblobda,
gvirgvinosan mefed ki Tamari iTvleboda. Tu davuSvebT, rom daviTi
mefed dasves, zenaurad, umaRlesis nebiT, maSin es unda momxdariyo
1189 wels, roca Tamarma da daviTma iqorwines; magram gana 15-20
wlis Semdeg SeiZleba eTqva poets: ra daviTis mefed dasma vnaxe,
msurs xotba davweroo? garda amisa, sma ar niSnavs dasmas da
zevsuri _ zenaurs, an umaRles nebas. me sma erTi sityvaa _ m e
s m a (me is), e.i. momesma, Sevityve, gavige, xolo zevs-ur-i _
zevsisebri, (n. mari), nawarmoebia sakuTari saxelidan
zevs-i. SavTelisTvis es zevsi _ mrisxane, Zlieri da mgrgvinavi
RmerTi, STagonebis mimniWebelia: mesma zevsuri (brZola da), ra vnaxe,
movisurve, rom momeces SesaZlebloba sityvani SevTxza mefis
Sesamkoblad (Znobad) (SavTeli 1964: 157).
daaxloebiT amgvaradvea ganmartebuli SavTeliseuli zevsuri
abdulmesianis XX saukunis saqrestomaTio Tu sajaro gamocemebis
leqsikonebSic: zevsisa, RvTiuri (qrestomaTia 1949: 435),
zevsiseburi (Cveni saunje 1960: 535), zevsiseburi (qarTuli
poezia 1979: 346).
yvela SemTxvevaSi, saSualeba gvaqvs, davaskvnaT: filologiuri
kvlevis safuZvelze miCneulia, rom zevsuri SavTelis poeziaSi
ueWvelad zedsarTavi saxelia (da ara arsebiTi!) da, Sesabamisad,
abdulmesianis Sesaval striqonebSi naTqvamia ara is, rom mas
1
mxolod or xelnawerSi zevsurs enacvleba xevsuri, rasac teqstis
variantebiani gamocemis redaqtori, ivane lolaSvili, weriT Secdomad miiCnevs
(SavTeli 1964: 116-117).
`zevsuri~ akakis poeziaSi
96
zevsuri esma, aramed is, rom mas poemis saqebari obieqtis,
xotbaSesasxmeli gmiris zevsuri brZolebis (an brZolis, an Tundac
gamefebis) Sesaxeb esma. Tuki akademiur sivrceSi ganmtkicebul am
Tvalsazriss daveyrdnobiT, maSin unda miviCnioT, rom, roca akakim
waikiTxa: mesma zevsuri, bunebrivi poeturi (ritmuli) pauza man
logikur pauzad miiCnia, saTqmelis farglebi am ori sityviT
dasazRvra da maT miRma aRar uZebnia is uTqmeli obieqti, rasac
zevsuri gansazRvravda (mesma ra? _ zevsuri!), xolo zevsuris
smenam mas warmousaxa RmrTaebrivi, zevsisadmi mimarTuli da zevsuri
RmrTaebriobiT gamsWvaluli simRera.
amgvari midgomiT, akakiseulma aramarTebulma, arasworma
interpretaciam warmoSva mis poeziasa da esTetikur xedvaSi axali
koncepti, _ zevsuri, _ romelsac qarTul poetur tradiciaSi,
rogorc Cans, arc winamorbedi hyavda da akakis Semdgom arc memkvidre
aRmoaCnda
1
.
magram uTuod Cndeba kiTxva: SavTeliseuli zevsuri akakim
marTlac arasworad gaigo da am mcdari gaazrebis Sedegad aRmocenda
cneba, romelmac sruliad axali Sinaarsi SeiZina gedis avtoris
poeziaSi Tu akakim poeturi mixvedris wyalobiT moixelTa
zevsuris namdvili Sinaarsi, rac miuwvdomeli aRmoCnda
filologiuri kvlevisaTvis, xolo SemoqmedebiTi gadaZaxilis
meSveobiT XIX saukunis poetma swored is Sefaruli mniSvneloba
gaacocxla da gaaRviva, rac am cnebaSi aswleulebiT adre
abdulmesianis odindelma avtorma igulisxma. gana ueWvelad
dasturdeba, rom zevsuri zevsisebr, RmrTaebriv qmedebebs aRniSnavs
da ara RmrTaebriv, zeaRmtac sagalobels? iqneb, erTi poetis sityvis
siRrmiseuli gageba, Tundac JamTa wiaR, yvelaze ukeT swored meore
poetma SeZlo?!
orsave SemTxvevaSi, _ SavTeliseuli cnebis akakiseuli wakiTxva
interpretaciuli Secdoma iyo Tu intiuciuri wvdoma, _ mainc,
akakis zevsuri qarTul poeziaSi darCa poeziis sikvdilTan
Tanaziarobis, am soflisa da im soflis sazRvarze yofnis, am
1
akakis poeturi memkvidrisaTvis qarTul poeziaSi, galaktion tabiZisaTvis, ra
Tqma unda, SeumCneveli ar darCenila akakiseuli zevsuri, rac mis gamoqveynebul
teqstebSi xuTgzis gvxvdeba, magram rac unda ucnauri iyos, galaktionTan is, _
erTi saTuo gamonaklisis garda, _ yvelgan zedsarTavis formiT da akakisagan
savsebiT gansxvavebul konteqstSi dasturdeba. Tumca zevsuris galaktioniseuli
ganzomileba scildeba amJamad ganxiluli sakiTxis farglebs da calke da
sagangebo kvlevas saWiroebs.
merab RaRaniZe
97
sazRvridan samyaros erTianobis xilvisa da mis mimarT aRvlenili
RmrTaebrivi sadideblis gamoxatulebad.
literatura
akaki 1940: wereTeli a. Txzulebani: sruli krebuli Svid tomad,
t. I, Tb.: saxelmwifo gamomcemloba, 1940.
akaki 1941: wereTeli a. Txzulebani: sruli krebuli Svid tomad,
t. II, Tb.: saxelmwifo gamomcemloba, 1941.
akaki 1950: wereTeli a. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli TxuTmet
tomad, t. II, Tb.: saxelmwifo gamomcemloba, 1950.
akaki 1954: wereTeli a. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli TxuTmet
tomad, t. III, Tb.: saxelmwifo gamomcemloba, 1954.
akaki 1955: wereTeli a. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli TxuTmet
tomad, t. IV, Tb.: saxelmwifo gamomcemloba, 1955.
akaki 1956a: wereTeli a. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli TxuTmet
tomad, t. V, Tb.: saxelmwifo gamomcemloba, 1956.
akaki 1956b: wereTeli a. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli TxuTmet
tomad, t. VI, Tb.: saxelmwifo gamomcemloba, 1956.
akaki 1958: wereTeli a. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli TxuTmet
tomad, t. VIII, Tb.: sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1958.
akaki 1961a: wereTeli a. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli TxuTmet
tomad, t. XIII, Tb.: sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1961.
akaki 1961b: wereTeli a. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli TxuTmet
tomad, t. XIV, Tb.: sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1961.
akaki 1963: wereTeli a. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli TxuTmet
tomad, t. XV, Tb.: sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1963.
asaTiani 1965: asaTiani l. cxovreba akaki wereTlisa, Tb.: nakaduli,
1965.
baqraZe 1947: baqraZe g. qarTuli periodikis bibliografia: 1819-
1945, Tb.: wignis palata, 1947.
krilovi 1946: . . . . III. .:
, 1946.
menabde 1973: menabde l. XIX saukunis qarTveli klasikosebi da
Zveli qarTuli mwerloba, Tb.: ganaTleba, 1973.
sanikiZe 1983: sanikiZe T. akaki wereTlis poeziis leqsikoni, w. II,
Tb.: Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 1983.
qarTuli poezia 1979: qarTuli poezia, t. 1, Tb.: nakaduli, 1979.
`zevsuri~ akakis poeziaSi
98
qrestomaTia 1949: Zveli qarTuli literaturis qrestomaTia, II,
Tb.: stalinis sax. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis
gamomcemloba, 1949.
SavTeli 1964: Zveli qarTveli mexotbeni, II: ioane SavTeli,
abdulmesiani, Tamar mefisa da daviT soslanis Sesxma, Tb:
mecniereba, 1964.
Cveni saunje 1960: Cveni saunje: qarTuli mwerloba oc tomad, t.
2, Tb.: nakaduli, 1960.
CubinaSvili 1984: CubinaSvili d. qarTul-rusuli leqsikoni, Tb.:
sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1984.
Merab Ghaghanidze
Zevsuri in the Poetry of Akaki Tsereteli
The word zevsuri is used in the poetry of Akaki Tsereteli some several
times, but is not clear what exactly it means. As it seems, poet have discovered
zevsuri in the medieval panegyric poetical text Abdulmesiani by Ioane Shavteli.
But is difficult to say, what was it - Tseretelis interpretative mistake or his intuitive
understanting, that he found out in this word the consept of the Divine song,
which is sing by poet before his death, the song of the laudation of the whole
world.
merab RaRaniZe
99
nino abakelia
saganTa funqcionirebisaTvis
samyaros modelSi
(qarTuli masalis mixedviT)
cnobilia, rom kulturis ZiriTad
semantikur elementebs kategoriebi Seadgenen.
kategoriebi CabeWdilia enaSi da niSanTa sxva
sistemebSi: xelovnebis enaSi, mecnierebaSi,
religiebSi... samyaros gaazreba am katego-
riebis gareSe iseve SeuZlebeli iqneboda,
rogorc enis kategoriis gareSe.
kulturis fundamentur kategoriebad
iTvleba dro, sivrce, cvlileba, mizezi, bedi,
ricxvi, damokidebuleba grZnobiTsa da
zegrZnobiTs Soris, mimarTeba nawilsa da
mTels Soris da sxv. aRniSnuli cnebebi yovel
kulturaSi dakavSirebuli arian erTmaneTTan
da qmnian Tavisebur samyaros models e. w.
koordinatTa qsels, romlis meSveobiTac
adamianebi aRiqvamen sinamdviles, sakuTar
cnobierebaSi ageben samyaros suraTs (gureviCi
1972: 5-26).
nivTebi/sagnebi teqstebSi gvian Cndeba.
kosmologiuri e.i. uZvelesi teqstebi ar
exebian nivTebs, par excellence, da maT rTaven
gakvriT, rogorc mizanscenis erTgvar funq-
ciur-damxmare rekvizits (Sdr., Tundac
iSTaris samosis aRwera, romelsac igi ixdis
erSkigalTan Casvlisas). istoriul
periodSi, romelic kosmogoniis memkvidrea,
nivTi revanSs iRebs. rogorc dabali
Sesaqmis ZiriTadi elementi, igi xdeba
k u l t u r i s s e m i o t i k a k u l t u r i s s e m i o t i k a k u l t u r i s s e m i o t i k a k u l t u r i s s e m i o t i k a k u l t u r i s s e m i o t i k a
istoriis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis
saxelmwifo univer-
sitetis humanitarul
mecnierebaTa da kultu-
ris kvlevebis fakulte-
tis asocirebuli pro-
fesori. iv. javaxiSvilis
sax. istoriisa da eT-
nologiis institutis
mTavari mecnieri Tanam-
Sromeli.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:

., . 1991.
simbolo da rituali
qarTul kulturaSi, Tb.,
1997.
interesTa sfero:
kulturuli anTropolo-
gia, semiotika, uZveles
kulturaTa kvlevebi,
miTologia da reli-
giebis istoria, anali-
zuri fsiqologia, li-
teraturis istoria, mu-
sika, xelovnebis istoria.
100
nino abakelia
garkveulwilad, istoriisa da kulturis ZiriTadi indeqsic,
romliTac Sesabamisi qronologiuri Wrilis modeli ganisazRvreba
(civiani: 121-122).
samyaros modelSi CarTuli erT-erTi elementi _ ganZi _
erTi, ori an meti nivTisagan Semdgar depozits warmoadgens.
samyaros modelSi CarTuloba mas miTo-ritualur kompleqsebTan
da, Sesabamisad, kulturis sxvadasxva kategoriasTan akavSirebs. ganZis
Caflva miwaSi garkveul rwmena-warmodgenaTa ciklTanaa dakavSirebuli
(mag., iseTTan, rogoricaa miRmur samyarosTan mimarTeba).
kulturis kategoriebSi sikvdilis kategorias gansakuTrebuli
adgili ukavia qarTvelTa yofaSi, xolo dakrZalvis wes-CveulebaTa
kompleqsSi ganZi, rogorc qonebis niSani, specifikur mniSvnelobas
iZens.
ganZis gadagzavna cocxalTa samyarodan micvalebulTa samyaroSi
dakavSirebulia rwmena-warmodgenaTa ciklTan sicocxlis Sesaxeb
sikvdilis Semdeg.
ganZi, rogorc xiluli samyaros niSani, garkveulwilad
dakavSirebulia uxilav samyarosTan da migvaniSnebs mimarTebaze:
grZnobiTi/zegrZnobiTi, xiluli/uxilavi da a.S.
da maic, romel RirebulebaTa orientaciis cnebas unda
gulisxmobdes ganZi? eTnografiuli dakvirvebebis mixedviT, adamiani
ganZs agrovebda rogorc saaqaosTvis, aseve saiqiosTvisac.
ganasxvaveben bunebriv, miwaSi Camalul ganZs ( liToni, sabado,
madani, miwis wiaRiseuli) da adamianis xeliT Seqmnili sagnebisgan
Semdgar ganZs (sameurneo, saritualo, sabrZolo iaraRebi, monetebi...),
(antiTeza: buneba / kultura); orive tipis ganZi sakralur sferos
miekuTvneba da miRmur rwmena-warmodgenaTa kompleqss ukavSirdeba.
bunebrivi ganZi saiqiodan (gare samyarodan, gare sknelidan Sinas
rac gars akravs da ara mxolod micvalebulTa samyarodan, rogorc
dRes ixmareba es termini. aRniSnuli terminis sivrculi
aspeqtebisTvis ix. 2.9-15) mosulad iTvleba (meteoritebi,
wiaRiseuli) da gulisxmobs moZraobas garedan SigniT _ imieridan
amierSi, adamianis xeliT Seqmnili ganZi Signidan/Sinadan gareT,
amieridan imierSi moZraobis maCvenebelia. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, ganZi
kosmiur doneebTan aris dakavSirebuli. ufro metic, ganZi kosmosis
sakralur sferoebTan kontaqtis, komunikaciis saSualebaa, rac
saaqaoSi yoveli adamianisTvis umTavresi sazrunavi iyo.
ganZis es funqciebi (e. i. komunikaciis funqciebi) qarTul kul-
turaSi dasturdeba, rogorc arqeologiuri (abakelia 1987: 134-149),
101
aseve eTnografiuli monacemebiTac (lorTqifaniZe 2004: 58-67; kan-
delaki 2001: 317-320). rogorc aRiniSna, ganZs adamiani agrovebda
rogorc saaqaosTvis, ise saiqiosTvis da cdilobda dagrovili ganZi
rac SeiZleba moxerxebulad gadaetana, gadaegzavna saiqioSi. amisTvis
igi specialur ritualebs asrulebda. magaliTad, qarTul xalxur
yofaSi eTnologebi aseT specialur ritualad luxors// lexors
miiCneven. Zalian mokled luxoris ritualis ganmarteba aseTia a.
daviTianis mixedviT: luxoris gadaxda, romelic xor Ziridan
momdinareobs da Sesawiravebisa da Semwirvelebis krebuls aRniSnavs,
saWiro iyo imaTTvis, vinc saaqaos uSvilo iyo da saiqios uzrunveli
cxovrebis gagrZeleba undoda qonebis gadatanis gziT. luxoris
ritualis Sesrulebisas (xarebis tradiciulad xuTis an metis
Sewirvis ritualis Sesrulebisas, rac miznad isaxavda saiqioSi
garantirebul cxonebas) rogorc es m. kandelakma Seiswavla, mTavari
mizani iyo qonebis dagroveba-daxarjva anu qonebis daZvra. qarTvel
mTielTa samyaroSi orientacia aRebuli iyo saxelian yofnaze saaqaoSi
da uzrunvel yofaze saiqioSi (surgulaZe 2003: 58-67). i.surgulaZis
azriT, qarTvel mTielTa samyaroSi imave simbolizms e.w. walalulni
da wargzavnilni (anu winaswar Sewirulni) emsaxurebodnen [7].
mkvlevarebis azriT (m.kandelaki, i.surgulaZe) arsebobs qonebis
gadatanis ori xerxi, daflva da gafantva. gafantva Tavs inarCunebs,
rogorc socialuri prestiJis forma (surgulaZe 2003: 58-67;
kandelaki 2001: 317-322).
mTel dasavleT saqarTveloSi dasturdeba funqcionaluri
TvalsazrisiT luxoris msgavsi rituali cnobili sulis
gadabrZanebis saxelwodebiT cnobili, romelic nanaTliRebis
xuTSabaTs sruldeboda, e.i. naTlisRebis Semdeg pirvel xuTSabaTs
ewyoboda specialuri vaxSami, an sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT sakurTxs
gaakeTebdnen da gadaulocavdnen WiSkars. adgilobrivi rwmeniT, am
dRes mkvdarma da cocxalma erTad unda Wamos. gardacvlilTaTvis
idgmeboda skamebi (sakurcxili). vaxSmis Semdeg, aiRebdnen erT kvers,
erT Wiqa Rvinos, erT naWer xorcs da gaemarTebodnen WiSkrisken,
gzadagza Rvinos asxamdnen da Tan iZaxdnen: wamobrZandiT, wamobr-
ZandiTo. cariel Wiqas WiSkarTan dadgamdnen, kvers da xorcs
daadebdnen da ukanmouxedavad dabrundebodnen saxlSi. igive rituali
svaneTSi lifanalis, samegreloSi galeniSis saxelwodebiTaa cnobili
(surgulaZe 2003: 238-239). svaneTSi ufro reliefurad SemorCenili
rwmenebis mixedviT, aRniSnuli dResaswaulis dros gardacvlil
winaparTa sulebi saiqioSi Sewiruli cxovelebis sulebs
saganTa funqcionirebisaTvis samyaros modelSi (qarTuli masalis mixedviT)
102
mierekebodnen. amave rwmena-warmodgenebis amsaxvelia primitiuli
naxatebi, romlebsac aRniSnul dResaswaulze qalebi xatavdnen
sxvadasxva saganze specialurad momzadebuli (nakurTxi wyliTa da
nacris SereviT mRebuli) saRebaviT (abakelia 1987: 134-139).
Tu ganZTan dakavSirebiT dasavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi yofam
ufro ritualebi Semoinaxa, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTaSi
gansakuTrebiT andrezebia SemorCenili wminda saganZurebze, romlebic
saidumlo adgilebSia (gamoqvabulebSi, miwis siRrmeebSia) daculi.
maT qvesknelis Zalebi ifaraven, masTan wm. giorgis mier qajaveTis
dalaSqvris motivia dakavSirebuli da sxv. (bardaveliZe 1957: 81-
102; oCiauri 1967: 83-127).
rogorc specialuri literaturidan kargad aris cnobili,
mosaxleoba gansakuTrebuli ridiT da krZalviT ekideba ganZs.
vaxuSti batoniSvilis mixedviT, verc fSaveli da verc xevsuri
napovn oqros an vercxls TavisTvis ver gamoiyenebda, is aucileblad
laSaris jvrisTvis unda Seewira. jvars hyavda Tavisi msaxuri
(jvaris msaxuri), romelsac Cabarebuli hqonda jvris Tas-ganZi.
mxolod ganZis mcvelma icoda misi adgilsamyofeli, samalavi. mas
gamohqonda igi dResaswaulebze, dReobis damTavrebis Semdeg
asufTavebda da kvlav Tavis adgilze abinavebda... sainteresoa, rom
am meganZurebs Tavad jvari irCevda qadagis piriT. meganZuri ori
iyo. Tu orive daixoceboda, samalavis adgilsamyofeli saidumlod
darCeboda. Tas-ganZic ikargeboda da saganZuris aRmoCena, rogorc
amas z. kiknaZe aRniSnavs, mxolod rCeulTa xvedri iyo (kiknaZe 1996:
83-127).
erTerTi aseTi rCeulTagani, romelmac SeZlo uxilavi ganZis
gamovlena, z.kiknaZis gamokvlevebiT, qarTvelTa erTiani qveynis mefe
farnavazi iyo, romelmac Tbilisis RirRalebSi miagno ganZs.
farnavazma misi wyalobiT gaaTavisufla qveyana da mefoba moipova.
z. kiknaZis azriT, mefobis kandidatisTvis, raTa is mefed gamxdariyo
sxvasTan erTad erT-erT aucilebel komponentsa da pirobas
warmoadgenda ganZis povna da sxv.
amgvarad, liTonis adamianTan yofnas magiuri mniSvneloba aqvs
da mas sxvadasxva doneebTan urTierTobis SesaZleblobas uxsnis.
magram aseve sainteresoa is faqtic, rom maT (e .i. liTonebs) ara
marto adamianis neStTan pouloben, aramed RvTaebebis gamosaxulebebis
gverdzec. mag., neoliTuri xanis erT-erTi ganZi aRmoCenilia festoSi,
sadac Tixis qalRvTaebis gamosaxulebis gverdze ido magnituri
rkinaqva (evansi 1921: 37). amrigad, ganZis mflobelni ara marto
nino abakelia
103
xeldasxmulebi, mefeebi arian, aramed RmerTebic. xolo qristianobis
gavrcelebis Semdeg wmindanebic. aseT wmindans qarTul tradiciaSi,
adgilobrivi rwmena-warmodgeneboT, ganZis mflobeli xaxmatis wm.
giorgi warmoadgens. masTan kargad cnobili qajaveTis dalaSqvris
motivi erTiandeba. bneli Zalebis winaaRmdeg brZolis Semdeg xaxmatis
wm. giorgim qajaveTidan wamoiRo sakraluri nivTebi: Tasi, sakideli,
cxraeniani zari, oqros fanduri, aTZaliani oqros saceri, didi
grdemli da furis rqa, raTa isini mTeli xevsureTis RvTisSvilTa
saymoebisTvis gaenawilebina (kiknaZe 1996: 83-127).
o. lorTqifaniZis mixedviT (lorTqifaniZe 2004: 134-149),
ganZi gvianbrinjaos xanis kolxuri kulturis (Zv. w. II aTaswleulis
meore naxevari I aTaswleulis dasawyisi) erT-erTi umniSvnelo-
vanesi elementTagania. sadReisod cnobili 150-ze meti ganZidan arc
erTi ar aris aRmoCenili regularuli gaTxrebisas.B oTar lorT-
qifaniZis dakvirvebiT, maTi aRmoCenis pirobebi qmnis STabeWdilebas,
rom ganZebi xelaxla moxmarebisTvis ar iyo gamiznuli: isini
ZiriTadad sakraluri daniSnulebisa iyo. Zv. w. VIII-VII saukuneebidan
brinjaos nivTebis ganZebi aRar gvxvdeba kolxeTSi. da swored am
dros Cndeba aq samlocveloebi mravalricxovani nivTSewirviT.
o. lorTqifaniZis azriT (lorTqifaniZe 2004: 134-149), ganZi,
romelic ase gavrcelebuli da tipuria kolxuri brinjaos kul-
turisTvis, ZiriTadad ritualuri daniSnulebisa iyo da warmoad-
genda Sesawiravs. ganZis ganZoba xSirad dasturdeba maTi izo-
lirebulad, dasaxlebis gareT e.w. kulturuli konteqstis gareT
aRmoCeniT. (mdinaris piras, mindorSi da sxv. samosaxlodan moSorebiT).
mravali eTnografiuli da arqeologiuri masala arsebobs
mdinareebis, wyaroebis da a. S. Tayvaniscemaze. mudmivad cvalebadi
da Seuqcevadi mdinare uZvelesi droidan asocirdeboda drois
nakadTan, romelic mxolod erTi mimarTulebiT miedineba. mdinaresTan
dakavSirebuli sxva cnobili simboluri mniSvnelobebia: saiqioSi
mimavali gza, codvebisgan ganwmendis saSualeba, nayofiereba da sxv.
mdinare komunikaciis saSualebaa saaqaodan saiqioSi. mdinares Sinadan
gareT atanen cud ambebs, sakralur obieqtebs. igive iTqmis gantevebis
vaczec. gantevebis vacic xom ar unda dabrundes da sxv. berZnul
sinamdvileSi wyalSi gadagdebuli Sesawiravis kvlav amotivtiveba
cud niSnad iyo miCneuli da sxv.
ganZis, rogorc Sesawiravis izolirebul adgilas Sewirva,
o. lorTqifaniZis azriT, SesaZloa ganpirobebuli iyo im dros
samlocveloebisa da taZrebis uqonlobiT (lorTqifaniZe 2004:
saganTa funqcionirebisaTvis samyaros modelSi (qarTuli masalis mixedviT)
104
134-149). ganZi warmoadgenda gankuTvnil RmerTebisaTvis Sesawiravs,
xolo msxverplSewirva specifikuri ritualiT unda Sesrulebuliyo.
msxverplSewirva, Sesrulebuli rogorc ukvdavTaTvis, aseve mokvdav-
TaTvis _ gacemis formaa.
amrigad qarTul tradiciaSi ganZi, erTi mxriv, dasturdeba,
rogorc Sesawiravi anu RmerTebTan urTierTobis da maT mimarT
garkveuli qmedebebis Catarebis erTerTi uZvelesi gza (kosmologiuri
aspeqti) da, meore mxriv, rogorc aseve mniSvnelovani da ganviTarebuli
forma gacema/xarjvisa (Sewiruli xarebis xorcis danawileba
luxoris ritualSi (socialuri aspeqti)).
Cveni azriT, ganZis, rogorc qonebis saiqioSi gadatanis motivi
uSualod ukavSirdeba sivrcis simbolikas. Sinasa da gares simbolikas
Tu gaviTvaliswinebT da faqts msxverplSewirvebi (igulisxmeba
arqeologiuri `ganZebi~) ZiriTadad mdinaris napirebTan sruldeboda
e. i. marginalur zonebSi, maSin amgvari izolireba logikuri da
gamarTlebulia. ubralod aq simboluri, ritualuri sivrce
vertikaluris nacvlad horizontalur planSi iSleba. sainteresoa,
rom eTnografiul yofaSic dasturdeba msxverplSewirvis amgvari
kosmologiuri aspeqti. mxedvelobaSi maqvs samegreloSi dadas-
turebuli galeniSi orTasadmi Sesrulebuli rituali tyeSi, sociumis
gareT da sxv. (Sdr. Cvens mier Seswavlil kosmologiur
simbolizmTan).
ganZis povna garkveulwilad Tvalis axelasTan, WvretasTan,
Sesabamisad, xeldasxmasTan aris dakavSirebuli. ganZis floba, erTis
mxriv, sibrZnis meores mxriv Zalauflebis flobas gulisxmobs.
Sesabamisad, axlad xeldasxmuli mefe imavdroulad sibrZnisa da
Zalauflebis meufed moiazreboda.
amrigad, ganZi samyaros modelSi saaqaosa da saiqios Soris
cirkulirebs. igi xan Cenilia, xan uCinari. ganZi, rogorc Sesawiravi
(misi es funqcia Cans rogorc zemoT xsenebul arqeologiur
kulturaSi, aseve cocxal eTnografiul realiaSic) RmerTebTan (an
RmerTTan) urTierTobis da maTTan TanamSromlobis uZvelesi
gzaa. igi am konteqstSi absoluturad racionaluri da funqcio-
naluria. ganZis, rogorc sakomunikacio simbolos meSveobiT
myardeboda kontaqti warmavalidan waruval sferosTan, romelic
ritualis Semsrulebels garantias aZlevda mSvidad gaegrZelebina
cxovreba, rogorc saaqaoSi, aseve saiqioSic.
nino abakelia
105
literatura
gureviCi 1972: ,., , .
civiani 2001: .., .
, , 2001.
abakelia 2000: abakelia n., cikluri simbolizmi da dakrZalvisa
da glovis wesebi dasavlur-qarTul tradiciaSi, qarTuli
memkvidreoba IV,quTaisi 2000. agreTve: n.abakelia.
kosmologiuri simboloebi dasavleT saqarTveloSi, masalebi
saqarTvelos eTnografiisTvis,XXIII, 1987.
lorTqifaniZe 2004: Lorkipanidze, O., Hoards in Colchian Bronze
culture: their Role and Function, Journal of Georgian Archaeology, N.
1,2004, Tbilisi.
kandelaki 2001: kandelaki m., faseulobiTi orientaciis
sakiTxisaTvis qarTvel mTielTa tradiciul yofaSi, analebi,
# 1, 2001.
surgulaZe 2003: surgulaZe, miTosi, kulti, rituali saqarTveloSi,
Tb., 2003.
abakelia 1987: abakelia n., kosmologiuri simboloebi dasavleT
saqarTveloSi, mse, 23, Tb., 1987.
bardaveliZe 1957: ..,

, ., 1957.
oCiauri 1967: oCiauri T.,miTologiuri gadmocemebi aRmosavleT
saqartvelos mTianeTSi, Tbilisi, 1967.
kiknaZe 1996: kiknaZe z., qarTuli miTologia I (jvari da saymo),
Tb., 1996.
evansi 1921: Evans A., The Palace of Minos., L., 1921.Vol.1.
saganTa funqcionirebisaTvis samyaros modelSi (qarTuli masalis mixedviT)
106
Nino Abakelia
Towards the Investigation of the Functions of things in the
Pattern of World
(According to the Georgian Data)
According to the archaeological and ethnographic data hoard represents
one of the important elements of Georgian culture. Inscription of hoard in the
pattern of world associates it with the definite mythico-ritual complexes and
consequently with the various categories of culture.
Among the categories of culture death category takes a special place and
role in the mode of life of Georgians and in the burying custom complexes hoard
as a sign of property receives a specific meaning.
Moving the hoard from the living world to the nether world, is directly
associated with the beliefs of life after death
Hoard as a sign of visible world is related to the invisible world and points to
the correlation between: sensible/supersensible, visible/invisible. Natural hoard
(metals, meteorites, etc.) is thought to be occurred from the outer world (Nether
or Upper ones) and points to the direction from outer world into the inner one.
Hoard is revealed as a communicative means between the sacred cosmic spheres
and for that reason everybody tried to regulate the communication between these
spheres by means of it.
As is known during the life man used to make his fortune to ensure his
mode of life among the living and afterlife among the dead. For that reason he
needed to convey the hoard across the nether world and he performed special
rituals. One of such rituals in Georgia was called luchori (i.e. sacrificial ritual
performed among the relatives and neighbors by the childless families in order to
maintain their living after death). The other ritual that also used to be performed
to provide hoard for the nether world was called the farewell to the spirits of the
dead, who were thought to visit their living relatives during the Epiphany festival
in winter. According to the native beliefs, on the day of their departure the spirits
of the dead ancestors drove the soles of the sacrificed cattle away to the nether
world. These beliefs were also reflected in the primitive paintings drawn by women
on that period.
It is noteworthy, that if such rituals are attested mostly in western Georgia,
myths and legends on hoards are preserved in eastern Georgia. Hoard histories
are also preserved in the historical sources such as the Life of Kartli. According
to these legends hoard is generally guarded by the chthonic powers called Kaji.
Against these dark powers, according to the native legends, the campaign of St
nino abakelia
107
George was arranged, who in order to take possession of Kaji hoard descended to
the nether world.
With the concept of hoard the motifs of initiation and election of kings are
associated. Even more the essential condition to become a king is to find and
reveal hidden and invisible hoard. The owners of hoards were not only the initiates
and kings, but according to the archaeological data gods as well.
In Late Bronze Colchian culture hoards were found as isolated deposits far
away from the settlements, near the banks of a river and fields. The custom of
isolated ritual offering of bronze objects was caused by the absence of sanctuaries
at that time. Starting from 8
th
-7
th
cc B.C. bronze votive offerings disappear
(seize to exist) in the Colchian Bronze Culture. According to O. Lordkipanidze,
from this time temples and sanctuaries start to appear in Colchis.
Permanently changing and irreversible river, flowing in one direction from
times immemorial was identified with the stream of time. The popular beliefs
associated with the symbolic meaning of river are: road to the nether world,
atonement, fertility, etc.
From my viewpoint, transference of the hoard into the other world is directly
related with the space symbolism.If we take into account the symbolism if inner/
outer spaces such sacrifices held on the banks of river, springs, etc. e .i. in marginal
zones, isolated from the settlements seem quite logical and full of sense. Here the
symbolic ritual space is unfold (displayed) instead of vertical in the horizontal
plane, revealing cosmological aspects of the ritual.
Revelation of hoard in some way is connected with the intuition, insight and
initiation. Possession of hoard means to attain wisdom and to possess power.
Consequently, the newly elected king possesses both: wisdom and power.
Thus hoard in the Georgian patter of world circulates between Nether and
Living worlds from time to time becoming manifest.
Hoard as a communicative means contributes to the contact between transient
and intransient worlds, this contact guarantees both: life among the living and life
after death in the world of dead.
saganTa funqcionirebisaTvis samyaros modelSi (qarTuli masalis mixedviT)
108
daviT andriaZe
mxatvrul-diskursuli sivrcis
kategoriaTa Tezaurusi
pragmasivrcis refleqsiis Sedegebi
arqauli droidanve erTgvari `Canaweris~,
rogorc ontoteqstis saxiT fiqsirdeba;
mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs, erTi mxriv, kosmogoniuri
miTebis literaturuli `Canaweri~, xolo
meore mxriv, mengirebiT, dolmenebiTa Tu
kromlexebiT anda gamoqvabulTa `ferweriTa~
Tu piqtogramebiT warmodgenili `Canaweri~.
esaa sivrcis reprezentaciis ori avtono-
miuri forma, romelic Tavis mxriv, amJRavnebs
sivrcisa da teqstis mimarTebis or poluss:
a) teqsti sivrculia, Tu igi flobs
sivrculobis niSan-Tvisebas da iseve rogorc
kulturis ZiriTadi fondis Semadgenel
informaciaTa umetesoba, `realur sivrceSi~
ganTavsdeba;
b) sivrce aris teqsti, rac imas niSnavs,
rom sivrce, rogorc aseTi, SeiZleba gagebul
iqnes, rogorc informacia.
ase rom, teqsti sxva faqtebTan erTad,
Sedis simravleSi, romelic gagebulia, rogorc
sivrce, xolo sivrce, teqstebis sxva saxeebTan
erTad, akonstituirebs simravles, romelic
garkveulia, rogorc teqsti
1
.
sivrcisa da teqstis mimarTebis meore
aspeqti ukavSirdeba Wvretis sivrces.
Wvretis sivrce is kategoriaa, arasivr-
cul cnobierebaSi realuri sivrcis eqviva-
filosofiis mecniere-
baTa doqtori, Jurnal
`artefaqtis~ mTavari
redaqtori, iv. javaxiS-
vilis saxelmwifo uni-
versitetis profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
ferwera da imaginacia
(monografia), ikonolo-
giuri margialiebi (mo-
nografia), leviaTanis
daRupva (monografia)
da sxva.
interesTa sfero:
kulturis filosofia,
literaturis kritika,
artkritika, xelovnebis
sociologia, semiotika.
1
ix. , ., 1972.
109
lentad rom gvevlineba. Wvretis sivrceSi yvelaze paradoqsuli
isaa, rom igi warmogvidgeba cnobierebaSi aRbeWdil sivrced, im
dros, rodesac TviT cnobiereba Tavisi SinaarsiT arasivrculia.
mokled, Wvretis sivrce - esaa warmodgenadi sivrculoba anu garegan
samyarosTan cnobierebis SeTanawyobis is saocari unari, romlis
Tvinier samyaro ver warmogvidgeboda, rogorc `garegani~.
sivrcul xelovnebaTa tipi, rogorc mxatvrul-esTetikuri
kreaciis forma, gulisxmobs sivrcis moazrebis Sedegebis erTgvar
teqstualur `Caweras~ da specifikur artefaqtul dafiqsirebas
esTetikur saganSi, Tavis mxriv, xelovanis gawvrTnili mxatvruli
cnobierebis `muSaobis~ produqtad rom gvevlineba. esTetikur saganSi
sivrcis artefaqtulad dafiqsirebis paralelurad, saxeze gvaqvs
TviT am procesis metamxatvruli aRweris aqti. am gagebiT, xelovneba
da metaxelovneba erTmaneTs avseben da mxatvruli kulturis
sinTezuri Senadnobis saxiT warmogvidgebian.
asea Tu ise, mxatvruli sivrce SeiZleba gagebuli da
interpretirebuli iqnes, rogorc sivrcis esTetikuri Wvretis
Sedegebis `Canaweri~, warmodgenili specifikuri mxatvruli
ontoteqstis saxiT.
bunebrivia, sivrcis esTetikur Wvretas Tan sdevs topologiuri
mxatvruli recefcia, pirobiTad or, erTmaneTTan gadajaWvul
horizontad rom calkevdeba. laparakia recefciis cnebismier da
xatismier movlenebze. cnobiereba, r. arnheimis Tanaxmad, kategoriebiT
orsave horizontSi operirebs. da mainc, cneba-kategoriebsa da cneba-
xatebs Soris arsebobs kauzaluri kavSiri, romelic sqematurad
SeiZleba Semdegnairad iqnas konstruirebuli:
x (xati) - x (1) - siRrmis mflobi sivrcis vizualuri
`Sejerebas~, cnebis gverdis avliT, uSualod centraluri perspeqtivis
safuZvelze mivyavarT misive vizualuri modelis agebamde;
x -x -c (cneba) (2) - saganTa cvalebadi feris mravalgzis
vizualur Sejerebas Tvalisagan daSorebis kvalobaze da SemCneuli
movlenis mravaljerad fiqsacias ferweris masalaSi mivyavarT
`haerovani perspeqtivis~ cnebis formirebamde; x - c - x (3) -
movlenis uSualo dakvirveba ivseba ukve formirebuli cnebiT
(haerovani perspeqtiva, feradovani kontrasti da a. S.), romlis
kvalobazec ferweris masalaSi yalibdeba vizualuri modeli am
principiT xorcieldeba swavleba;
x - c (4) - cnobierebaSi arsebuli cneba (mag, `stil-moderni~)
warmodgeba vizualur modelad, romlis kvalobazec yalibdeba
`modernis~ tipologiur niSan-TvisebaTa saxeobrivi stereotipi,
mxatvrul-diskursuli sivrcis kategoriaTa Tezaurusi
110
daviT andriaZe
romelTanac momavalSi SeiZleba Sejerdes perceptualuri
STabeWdilebani - aq igulisxmeba swavlebaca da kritikac;
c - x - c (5) - xelTqmnili cneba, magaliTad, `qaoturoba~
vizualur masalasTan Sejerebisa da Semdgomi cnebiTi damuSavebisas
warmoSobs sxva cnebas, am SemTxvevaSi `disharmonias~, konstruqtiuli
amocanis dasaxvisas ki - `mowesrigebas~;
c - x (6) - cneba (mag `kolonada~) percefciaSi avtomaturad
iwvevs konkretuli saxeobrivi modelis serias, romelTa zoma da
konkretizebac uSualo damokidebulebaSia mxatvruli cnebis
individualur rezervTan
1
.
es sqematizebuli modeli SeiZleba gamodges sivrcis
mxatvruli recefciis samuSao hipoTezad, Tumca isic aSkaraa,
rom azrovnebis procesi ara mxolod zemomoxmobili tipebis
calkeuli kavSiriT, aramed kategoria-xatebis metadoneze
cxaddeba da piriqiT, rTuli jaWvuri kavSirebiT repre-
zentirdeba. da mainc, am kavSirebis moazrebisas arsebiTi
is zogadi faqtoria, rom goniTi moRvaweobis nebismier
sferoSi, ama Tu im amocanaze orientirebuli azrovneba,
operirebs ra kategoria-cnebebiT, imavdroulad masTan da-
kavSirebuli kategoria-xatebiTac muSaobs; amdenadve gvev-
lineba igi orenovan fenomenad - bilingvad da iyenebs or
`leqsikon-Tezauruss~.
warmodgenili sqema SeiZleba gamodges mxatvruli sivrcis
agebis Teoriul modelad. `ujredebi~, romelSic abstrahirebulia
makonstituirebeli kategoria-xatebi, warmoadgenen mxatvruli
kulturis diaqroniul process, romelic istoriuladve yalibdeba
TviT sivrcis, rogorc ontologiuri fenomenis filosofiuri
moazrebis konteqstSi; magram yovel regionalur kulturas sivrcis
cnebiTi Tezaurusebis Tavisi `leqsikoni~ aqvs. evropul arealSi
igi gulisxmobs: formas, xats, garegnobas, moxazulobas, romelTac
romanul-germanul enebSi Seesabamebaa form appearance, shape, gestalt;
amas emateba kidev ramdenime specializebuli cneba: pattern (formis
organizebulobis struqturuli daxasiaTeba), image (xiluli anda
warmodgenili xati) da sxva. Cinur-iaponur arealSi meordeba
dasaxelebuli cnebebis `kalkebi~ da maT emateba specializirebuli
cnebebi: `keisiki~ anu Sinagani forma, `keitei~ anu garegani forma,
`kata~ igive `nari~ an forma-struqtura, `komo~ anu erTdroulad
garegani da Sinagani formac (in-ianTan mimarTebiT) da a. S. magram,
1
. . - , .,
!)*@7 . !^!-!^@.
111
aseTi viwro specializebuli cnebebi evropul arealSic gvxvdeba,
Tundac, cukaroseuli desegno interno da desegno esterno anda
hartmaniseuli `Sinagani forma~ da `garegani forma~....
meore mxriv, gamoiyofa sivrcesTan kompoziciuri muSaobis
sistemis damaxasiaTebeli cnebebis bloki, romlebmac evropul enebSi
marTlac, universaluri mniSvneloba SeiZines; es cnebebia - `ampiri~,
`inglisuri parki~, `renesansi~. iaponur-Cinuri kulturis konteqstSi
analogiurad konstituirebuli cnebebis gverdiT, sivrcesTan muSaobis
zogadi struqturebis formalizacias moaswavebs iseTi cnebebi,
rogoricaa `sin~, `ko~ da `kusa~, romlebic iaponurSi aRniSnaven
WeSmarit anu mkacr oficialur, moqmed anu naxevradoficialur da
Tavisufal anu araoficialur `stilebs~.
dabolos, unda gamocalkevdes sivrcesTan mxatvris muSaobis
fiqsirebuli saSualebani, romelnic zemoxsenebuli ormagi `leqsikon~-
Tezaurusis evropul variantSi gulisxmobs iseT cnebebs, rogoricaa
`ritmi~, `simetria~, `dominanti~, `valiori~ da a. S. iaponuri
Tezaurusis sakompensaciod, sivrcis Wvreta-aRqmis funqciurad kidev
ufro niuansuri da rafinirebuli aRniSvnebi gamoiyeneba. saxeldobr,
`kubomi~ -aRniSnavs ara sazogadod niSans, aramed garkveuli
simboluri mniSvnelobis mqone calkeuli saganis (xe, tye, karibWe)
xazgasmulad Seqmnil specialur lokuss. aseve, `butani~ - aRniSnavs
ara sazogadod scenas, aramed peizaJis kontemplaciuri tkbobisaTvis
konstruirebul specialur moedans. magram, amgvari specializebuli
`leqsikoni~ - Tezaurusi evropuli xelovnebis TeoriaSic
figurirebs. saxeldobr, `regularuli velis~ cneba, romelic
sasuraTe velis gansazRvruli kosmologiuri struqturis
ganmsazRvrel kategoriad Semoitana m. Sapirom
1
da rusuli xelovnebis
TeoriaSicaa damkvidrebuli
2
. swored, `gamosaxulebis regularuli
veli~ avsebs sivrces, rogorc sicarieles, specifikur esTetikur
RirebulebiT sisavses aniWebs mas da gvevlineba, rogorc sivrcis
gaformeba, Tanac, gaformeba sakuTriv saganTaSorisi sivrcisa, rac,
Tavis mxriv, cariel sivrces, rogorc saganTa neitralur fonsac ki
ontoteqstad aqcevs
3
.
1
oI. . . .
- -
, ., !)*@7 . !#^-!^#8
2
oI. . . . ,
, 7 !)(@.
3
"_:. |:___o ___l_ol l_do_o_:. oI. . .
, . , c. !$!-!*).
mxatvrul-diskursuli sivrcis kategoriaTa Tezaurusi
112
amrigad, msjelobis obieqtad gvevlineba sakuTriv `carieli~
sivrcis forma. tradiciulad, sivrcul xelovnebaTa konteqstSi,
forma ganixileba, rogorc sagnobriv-plastikuri fenomeni, im dros,
rodesac mxatvruli sivrcis axali gageba gvibiZgebs, gansxvavebuli
rakursiT ganvsazRvroT im fenomenis arsi, romelic adre moiazreboda.
rogorc sivrcul-haerovani garemo, plastikuri formis Suq-haerovani
anu pleneruli foni.
ama Tu im sagnis, nivTis, plastikuri sxeulis war-
modgenisas Cveni cnobiereba sivrcisa da sivrculi fonis
reprezentaciis ori princi piT operirebs. am mxriv, sivrce
warmogvidgeba, rogorc erTgvari rezervuari, rogorc
sicariele anu naTeli, anda bneli eTeri, romelSic livlivebs
mocemuli sagani. amgvari sivrce uformoa. magram, rodesac
warmovidgenT sagnis plastikur formas da mis ganmsaz-
Rvrelad movixmobT termins `sivrculi forma~, TviT sagani
warmogvidgeba, rogorc gansazRruli fenomeni, romelic ikavebs
ra garkveul adgils sivrceSi, Cvens yuradRebas i pyrobs
sivrceSi Cawerili formis, rogorc ikonikuri ontoteqstis
TvalsazrisiT. am SemTxvevaSi, sagnis plastikuri forma
arsebobs, rogorc sakuTriv sivrculi forma, ramdenadac
misi sazRvrebi, rogorc misive onturi garkveulobis `kodi~,
sivrceSi konstruirdeba. sagnis ontologiuri statusi
sakuTriv sivrceSi dgindeba. meore mxriv, sivrculi forma
miemarTeba ara sivrces, aramed TviT sagans, mis plastikas.
am gagebiT, sazRvari, sagansa da sivrces erTmaneTisagan rom
acalkevebs, miemarTeba mxolod sagans.
amgvar situaciaSi forma sivrculia, magram TviT sivrce ki ar
flobs mas, aramed sagani.
gavixsenoT gavrcelebuli fsiqologiur-optikuri testi
`larnaki Tu profilebi~, romelSic sarkiseburi arekvlis principiT
Cans adamianur profilTa gamomsaxveli ori konturi; konturebi
`Casmulia~ CarCoSi, naxatis `veli~ ki Savad da TeTradaa gafe-
radebuli. rogorc wesi, Savad profilebia gaferadebuli, maT Soris
sivrculi cezura ki TeTradaa datovebuli, anda piriqiT. mokled,
es naxati gvevlineba erTgvari `intencionaluri naxtomis~ paradigmad.
Tu mzeriT fokusirebas profilebisadmi mivmarTavT, davinaxavT
pirispir mibjenil saxeebs, romelTa Soris cezurac carieli sivrcis
saxiT warmogvidgeba, xolo Tu am cezuras sagnobrivi intenciiT
SevxedavT, davinaxavT ara cariel, aramed savse, gaformebul sivrces,
saxeldobr, larnakis formis simetriul sxeuls, ris kvalobazec
daviT andriaZe
113
profilebi gaqrebian da sicarieled iqcevian. simptomaturi am
banalur eqsperimentul modelSi isaa, rom naxatis abrisi aRmqmeli
subieqtis mier Tanmimdevrulad moiazreba xan rogorc adamianur
profilTa formebis sazRvari, xan ki, rogorc sazRvari larnakisa.
amdenad, inversiis Sedegad, sicariele iqceva larnakad, saxeebi ki -
sicarieled. orive maTgans aqvs abrisiT aRniSnuli garkveuli forma.
Tu larnakis adgilas moviazrebT cariel sivrces, rogorc profilebs
Soris arsebul neitralur cezuras, miviRebT saganTaSoris sivrces,
romelic Tavisi xazulobiT zustad `jdeba~ larnakis formaSi
anu larnaki `jdeba~ am sivrcis formaSi. am gagebiT, saganTaSoris
sivrcesac aqvs forma. am fsiqologiur-optikuri testis
filosofiur-esTetikuri transkrifcia mxatvruli sivrcis erTgvari
modelia, romelic afuZnebs sakuTriv sivrcis formas, xolo es
ukanaskneli moiazreba, rogorc jerarsuli, virtualuri fenomeni,
gamoxatuleba sivrcis substanciuri gaformebisa. am konteqstSi,
sagani-materia sivrcis mimarT matricis rols asrulebs, anu aformebs
mas, gamosaxulebad aqcevs, amis klasikuri nimuSia henri muris
skulpturuli arqetipi `dedamiwa~, romelic moqandakem sivrceSi
imdagvarad daayena, rom skulpturuli materiis gamWol RiobSi,
rogorc gamosaxulebis regularul velSi~, moCans miwa; am genialurad
martivi xerxiT ki konstituirebulia sivrcis forma, rogorc
`deda-miwis~ miTosuri xati; amrigad, skulpturuli gamosaxulebis
materialuri struqtura sakuTari, Sida formis qronotopSive
hpovebs im metaforul resursebs, romlis konteqstSic, `materia~-
`dedis~ arqetipis Semcveli skulpturuli forma sivrcis mimarT
matricis funqcias asrulebs da sakuTar wiaRSive `Sobs~ vir-
tualuri sivrcis formas.
henri murisaTvis `dedoba~ misi arqetipuli qronotopuli
warmodgenebis realizebis formaa, dakavSirebuli deda-materiis
miTopoetur xatTan; misi yoveli plastikuri ontoteqsti, rogorc
deda-miwis abstrahirebuli xati, sivrcesTan, rogorc mama-zecasTan
mimarTebiT iZens ontologiur sazriss, rac imas niSnavs, rom muris
TiToeuli qandakeba, rogorc deda-materiis miTopoeturi xati,
erTgvari matricaa, romlis wiaRSic sakuTriv sivrcem, rogorc
mama-zecis miTopoeturma xatma, unda aRbeWdos forma anu sivrculad
gaaformos, mianiWos ontologiuri garkveuloba.
muriseul formaSi, brutaluri simSvide da geologiuri Zvrebis
Senelebuli ritmi romaa daunjebuli, drois xmauri moismis. am
gagebiT, muris adamiani - esaa `wiaRiseuli~ forma, romelic ikiTxeba,
rogorc bunebaSi, fiusisSi garindebuli preistoriuli fenomeni.
dabal postamentebze dadgmuli figurebi kidev ufro usvams xazs
mxatvrul-diskursuli sivrcis kategoriaTa Tezaurusi
114
maTs deda-materiulobas anu sivrcis mimarT matriculobas,
sivrcisadmi `Riaobas~. am mxriv, maTs artistul srulyofilebaSi
prioriteti eniWeba ara avtoriseul, aramed bunebiseul sawyiss.
amitomacaa, rom muriseul ontoteqstSi Cawerilia ara mxolod
sivrcis, aramed drois istoriac, aRbeWdilia erTgvar `temporalur
laSqarTa~, qarborbalaTa Tu niaRvarTa nakvalevi... muris
ontoteqstTa teqsturul-faqturuli aspeqtic ara artefaqtis,
aramed naturaluri substratis efeqts Seicavs. arpisagan gansxvavebiT,
muris qandakebis polirebuli zedapirebic ki, ara mxatvris
mgrZnobiare xeliT, aramed bunebis stiqiuri ZaliT Seqmnilis
STabeWdilebas axdens: ase aprialebs wylis stiqiur-bunebrivi Wavli
qvas...
muris `wiaRiseuli~ praformebi SeiZleba SevadaroT yofierebis
napirze mosrolil da maradisobis `mokiTxvamde~ arsebul obieqtebs;
mis plastikaSi materiis da sivrcis gaerTianebis wyarod unda
miviCnioT ara ubralod masalis avtoriseuli gaformeba, aramed
dro, ramdenadac forma - esaa sivrcis `pluskvamperfeqti~ anu misi
winaswarganvlili dro; am gagebiT, muris qandakebebs swored dro
asrulebs. amitomac SeiZleba kvalificirdes misi klasikuri saojaxo
jgufebi, rogorc formis istoriis dasruleba, misi yofierebis
gvirgvini.
David Andriadze
Thesaurus of Artistic Discourse Space Categories
The type of the so-called space arts, as the form of artistic creativity, implies
some textual recording of the results of topological reflex ions and specific
artifact fixation in aesthetic subject, which, in its turn appears as the product of
artists tamed reception.
In parallel with fixing the space in the aesthetic subject, in the form of
artifact substitute, we see the act of meta-artistic description of this creative process
itself.
In this meaning, art and meta-art add to each other through the principle of
some filling each other and are represented in the form of synthetically alloy of
the artistic culture.
Thus, artistic discourse space may be understood and interpreted, as a
record of results of topological reception, presented in the form of artistic onto
text.
The process of topological reception determined not only through casual
relations between the concept categories and the concept-images, but is also
revealed at the meta-level of the category-images and< using double dictionary-
thesaurus, appears as some peculiar bilingual phenomenon bilingual.
daviT andriaZe
115
A
qeTevan alaverdaSvili
ferxul Zabras
mniSvnelobisaTvis
cekvis simboluri da ritualuri
funqciebi metad mravalferovania. imis gamo,
rom garkveul ritms emorCileba, igi xels
uwyobs samyaros organizacias da ciklur
mowesrigebas, ukavSirdeba kosmologiur
simbolikas, warmoadgens miwasa da zecas
Soris kavSiris, harmoniis damyarebis
saSualebas, SeuZlia xeli Seuwyos gamar-
jvebas, siyvaruls, nayofierebas, igi kreaciis,
samyaros mowesrigebis, dacvis da amave dros
reintegraciis saSualebaa, ukavSirdeba
energias, Zalas, romelic ganagebs samyaros
transformaciebs. lukianes mixedviT,
cekvebSi yvelaze sakraluri religiuri
dogmebi iyo gadmocemuli (gvaramaZe 1957;
janeliZe w.1, 1948; alaverdaSvili 2005;
Eliade 1949; Ellis 1929; Chevalier, Gheerbrant, T.1,
1973; 1987; 1994. -
1983; 1987).
m. eliade aRniSnavda, rom sawyisurad
yvela cekva sakraluri iyo, anu sxvagvarad
rom vTqvaT, maT zeadamianuri modeli
gaaCndaT. yoveli cekva iqmneboda in illo tempore,
miTosur pradroSi, miTosuri winapris,
RvTaebis Tu gmiris mier. qoreografiuli
riTmebis modeli adamianis miwieri cxov-
rebis gareT arsebobs. cekva mudam arqeti-
puli Jestis imitirebas axdens an miTosur
istoriis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, iv. javaxiSvi-
lis saxelobis istorii-
sa da eTnologiis ins-
titutis mecnieri Tanam-
Sromeli.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
Sesawiravi gul-RviZlis
simbolika qarTul ri-
tualur praqtikaSi; gza-
jvaredinTan dakavSire-
buli simbolika qarTul
rwmena-warmodgenebSi;
sakraluri geometria
(monografia).
interesTa sfero:
eTnologia.
116
qeTevan alaverdaSvili
moments aRniSnavs. erTi sityviT, gameorebas da sawyisuri drois
reaqtualizacias warmoadgens (eliade 1987; eliade 1949).
qarTvel tomTa uZvelesi sarwmunoebrivi Sexedulebebis
aRsadgenad ritualuri ferxulebis Seswavlas aucileblad Tvlida
v. bardaveliZe. misi sityviT, es masala gadauWarbeblad SeiZleba
CaiTvalos Tavisebur gasaRebad qarTvel tomTa uZvelesi religiis
dasadgenad, qarTuli cekvebis Tavdapirveli azrisa da daniSnulebis
sabolood gasarkvevad ki saWiroa yvela saxeobis qarTuli cekvis
monografiuli Seswavla (bardaveliZe 1938; bardaveliZe 1953).
v. bardaveliZes miaCnda, rom wriuli cekvebis azrsa da
daniSnulebas kargad gamoavlens saweso moqmedebaTa mTeli kompleqsi,
romelSic wriuli cekvebi Sedioda, rogorc saweso moqmedebis
erT-erTi saxeobaTagani. magaliTisaTvis igi ganixilavda batonebTan
dakavSirebul TavSemovlebisa da garSemovlis rituals. (bardaveliZe,
1953: 129-131; bardaveliZe 1957).
wrebrunva, triali, rac wris dinamiur gansazRvrebas warmoadgens
ritualsa da xelovnebaSi, m. raulis mixedviT warmoSobs magiur
Zalas, maT Soris damcav Zalas, radgan qmnis xelSeuxebel teritorias
wres. (kerloti 1994).
yoveli wre aucileblobis ZaliT gulisxmobs centris
arsebobas. rogorc ki mocekvaveni wres Sekraven, wris SigniT
warmoiqmneba sakraluri sivrce Tavisi centriT, romelic erTgvarad
materializebulia sxvadasxva saxiT.--- wriul ritualur ferxulTa
erTi nawili SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc Axis mundi s garSemo
mTeli samyaros, vertikalze ganlagebuli misi samive donis
wrebrunvis ideis, sakralur centrSi cisa da miwis kavSiris, drois
cikluri mdinarebis gamoxatuleba, rac bunebrivia ukavSirdeba wesrigs,
nayofierebas, keTildReobas da sxv., rac gasagebs xdis ferxulis
Sesrulebis aucileblobas dResaswaulze, misi Sesrulebis mixedviT
winaswarmetyvelebis SesaZleblobas da a.S. (alaverdaSvili 2005;
alaverdaSvili 2000).
d.janeliZis klasifikaciiT xuTgvari wyobis ferxulebs
vxvdebiT: a) wriseburi, xelmobmiT wyobis erT-or da samsarTuliani
ferxulebi; b) erTi an ori rkalisagan Semdgari ferxulebi; g)
wriseburi xelmoubmeli, erTimeoris zurgSeqceviT moZravi ferxulebi;
d) ferxisebi, romelTac ara aqvT mrgvali, wriseburi wyoba. Fferxisa
or an sam mwkrivad iyofa, xelmobmuli mwkrivebi erTimeoris pirispir
ewyobian da urTierTTan misvla-mosvliT cekvaven da moZraoben; e)
117
rTuli saferxulo wyoba aerTianebs ferxulTa yvela nairsaxeobas
(janeliZe 1948: 185, 216).
d. janeliZis mixedviT, gamoiyofa Semdegi saxis ferxulebi:
uZvelesi saxeobis saferxulo wyobad miCneuli erTpiri ferxuli,
romelsac Tavisi moZaxili e.i. hangisa da sityvebis mTqmeli hyavs,
xolo misi Sembanebeli da Semxmobeli mTeli saferxulo mwyobria;
erTpiri ferxulidan orpirze gardamavali forma orsarTula
anu zemyrelo; saferxulo wyobis ganviTarebis Semdegi safexuri
orpiri ferxulebi; kiTxva-migebiTi ferxulebi; saferxulo wyoba
wrisSigniTa kenti an wyvili pantomimikuri moTamaSiT; saferxulo
wyoba wrisSigniTa momReral-moTamaSiT

(janeliZe 1948: 155-166).
wrisa da centris simbolikasTan dakavSirebiT gansakuTrebiT
sayuradReboa saferxulo wyoba wrisSigniTa momReral-mocekvaviT.
am SemTxvevaSi teqsts wrisSigniTa moTamaSeni warmoadgendnen da
saferxulo mwyobri mxolod bans aZlevda maT an zogierT mniSvnelovan
frazas ukeT gamokveTisaTvis imeorebda. dramatuli moqmedebis
wamyvan Zalad ki wrisSigniTa moTamaSe xdeboda (janeliZe 1948).
swored aseTi ferxulia e.w. Zabra, Zabrale.
es megruli ferxuli Tavisi formiT miekuTvneba im ferxulebis
jgufs, romelTaTvisac damaxasiaTebelia ferxuls SigniT moTamaSeTa
monawileoba. cnobilia Zabras Sesrulebis sxvadasxva varianti.
maT Soris yvelaze gavrcelebuli Semdegnairad sruldeboda: wris
SigniT gamovidoda moTamaSe, romelsac simRerisa da oxunjobis
niWi hqonda. ferxulis centrSi bewvian quds (boxoxs) daagdebdnen.
ferxuls SigniT moTamaSe ki xanjliT xelSi gars uvlida quds.
qudSi gulisxmobdnen iseT urCxuls Zabras, romelmac TiTqos
mTeli sofeli gadaWama, romelsac SeeZlo mTeli sofeli STaenTqa
zRapruli gveleSapiviT.Fferxuls SigniT moTamaSe, simRerasTan erTad,
warmoadgenda Setevas, SiSs, siZulvils, ukan daxevasa da isev Tavdasxmas.
igi daxmarebisaTvis xalxs mimarTavda. moTamaSe yovelive amas
ganasaxierebda simReriT, saferxulo mwyobri ki hoi, Zabras
SesZaxebda. sabolood ferxuls SigniT moTamaSe xanjals dahkravda
boxoxs, meferxulenic miscvivdebodnen quds, daglejdnen da
mxiarulebas miecemodnen. Fferxuli Zabrale sruldeboda ferxuls
SigniT moTamaSeTa gareSec, romlis drosac ferxulis erTi naxevari
simReriT teqsts ambobda, meore naxevari ki moZaxil hoi Zabras.
ferxuli Zabrale sruldeba simReris TanxlebiT, romlis
musikaluri zomaa 2/4 (janeliZe 1948: 165; TaTaraZe 1986).
ferxul `Zabras~ mniSvnelobisaTvis
118
Zabrales saxecvlilebas warmoadgens komikuri xasiaTis
megruli cekva-TamaSi jansulo. masSi saferxulo mwyobri
Zabralesagan gansxvavebiT aRar moZraobs. igi statikur mdgo-
mareobaSia. jansuloSi momReral-moTamaSe ufro gaaqtiurebulia.
igi simReriT gamodis sacekvao moedanze da trabaxobs, rom isea
SeiaraRebuli, arafris eSinia. moulodnelad moednis centrSi bewviani
qudi davardeba. rogorc ki moTamaSe-momRerali quds SeniSnavs,
SeSindeba (rogorc ZabraleSi, aqac qudSi urCxuls gulisxmoben).
igi daxmarebas sTxovs xalxs. TamaSis daskvniT nawilSi momReral-
moTamaSe TandaTanobiT gamxnevdeba, Setevaze gadava da xanjals
dahkravs quds. amis Semdeg gamarjvebuli moTamaSe zeimis niSnad
cekvavs. jansulo sruldeba simReris TanxlebiT, sadac teqsts
mTlianad momReral-moTamaSe mReris, gundi ki mxolod SeZaxiliT
jansuloTi kmayofildeba (janeliZe 1948: 165; TaTaraZe 1986).
amgvarad, saferxulo wris centrSi mdgomi meferxule
ganasaxierebda soflis damrbevi zRapruli urCxulis winaaRmdeg
brZolas da mis damarcxebas.
cnobilia, rom drakoni qaosis Zalebs ganasaxierebda, amave dros
igi gvevlineba rogorc dafaruli ganZis mrisxane mcveli, romlis
damarcxeba aucilebelia ganZis mosapoveblad. es ganZi SeiZleba
iyos sibrZnis, ukvdavebis gansaxiereba (mag. oqros sawmisi, ukvdavebis
wyaro da sxv.)

(Sevalie... 1973: 211).
wyali, rogorc kosmogoniuri simbolo, sicocxlis yvela
Canasaxis Semcveli, magiuri da samkurnalo Tvisebebis mqonea. igi
kurnavs, aaxalgazrdavebs, ganapirobebs maradiul sicocxles. wylis
winasaxe ukvdavebis wyali, sicocxlis wyalia. wyalTan dakavSi-
rebuli sxvadasxva Sexedulebebi erTi da igive miTologiur-
religiuri faqtis gamoxatulebas warmoadgens: wyalSia sicocxle,
Zala, energia da maradiuloba. ra Tqma unda, misi mopoveba yvelas ar
SeuZlia. igi xSirad Znelad misaval adgilebSia, mas saSineli
urCxulebi, drakonebi darajoben da igi iseve Znelad misaRwevia,
rogorc sicocxlis xe

(eliade 1999: 354).
m.xidaSelis mixedviT, Zv.w. I aTaswleulis I naxevarSi
saqarTveloSi calke gamoiyofa sakulto daniSnulebis mqone Zeglebi,
romlebic gansakuTrebuli SemkulobiTa da semantikuri datvirTviT
gamoirCeva. Bbrinjaos plastikis mravalricxovani nimuSebi,
anTropomorfuli da zoomorfuli qandakebebi, romelTac saritualo
xasiaTi hqondaT, warmogvidgenen brZolisa da ferxulis scenebs,
mesakraveebs da a.S. maT sakraluri daniSnuleba unda hqonodaT,
qeTevan alaverdaSvili
119
magram Sesrulebis maneriT Janrul scenebs warmoadgenen. Bbrinjaos
sartylebze gadmocemul kompoziciebSi xSirad gvxvdeba anTro-
pomorful RvTaebaTa iseTi gamosaxulebani romlebic ritualur
qmedebaSi iReben monawileobas. xSiria nadirobis, ritualuri
purobisa Tu cekvis amsaxveli scenebi. arqauli xanis adamianis
cnobiereba miTiT iyo ganpirobebuli, samyaros gaazrebas kosmogoniuri
idea edo safuZvlad. kosmogoniis mTavari aqti uformo qaosisagan
kosmosis, mowesrigebuli samyaros Seqmna iyo. Qqaosis damarcxeba
da wesrigis gamarjveba, sikvdilisagan axali sicocxlis aRorZineba,
sikeTisa da sinaTlis damkvidreba mxolod brZoliT SeiZleboda.
Aamitom miTosur cnobierebaSi brZola erT-erT umTavres ritualad
gaiazreboda, romlis meSveobiT adamianis umTavresi miznebis
ganxorcieleba iyo SesaZlebeli. Qqaoss ufro xSirad drakoni
ganasaxierebda. Mmas qveyanaze wesrigis damamkvidrebeli RvTaeba
unda dapirispireboda. igi unda yofiliyo drakonis mkvleli da
axali wesrigis damfuZnebeli. Aam kosmogoniuri koncefciis saxviTi
xati brZolis scenebSi iyo gadmocemuli. Aarqauli xelovnebis
Zeglebze asaxuli cxovelTa brZola, RvTaebrivi nadiroba, urCxulis
an veSapebis damarcxeba yovlismomcveli kosmogoniuri ideis
simbolod gaiazreboda (xidaSeli 2002).
wrisa da wriuli brunvis mniSvnelobis Seswavlisas
i.surgulaZe ganixilavda sadResaswaulo ritualuri msvlelobebis
monawileTa rigis mier soflis an soflebis Semovlas, garSemovlas
ritualis ZiriTadi ideebis Sesabamisad. ritualis monawileni
mTeli samoqmedo procesiiT kravdnen wres, radgan maTi msvlelobis
mizani ar iyo raime geografiul an sakulto punqtTan miRweva.
Semovlili teritoria warmogvidgeba rogorc samyaro misteriis
praqtikuli da ideologiuri ganfenisa da am niSniT, rogorc
aRniSnuli, organizebuli sivrce, upirispirdeba danarCens,
araorganizebul samyaros, aRuniSvnels. dResaswaulis sivrcobrivi,
wriuli gaazreba mas damoukidebel miznobriv Rirebulebas aniWebs.
igi ukavSirdeba koncefcias, romelic warmogvidgens drois aRricxvis
wriul, ciklur wess, Sesabamisad bunebis kvdoma-aRorZinebisa. misi
azriT, es idea vlindeba brinjaos balTebis dekorSic, sadac xSiria
wris, anu Semovlis principze agebuli kompoziciebi. safiqrebelia,
rom aRniSnuli masala asaxavs kavkasiuri miTosis formirebis
erT-erT umniSvnelovanes etaps da mas Sesabamisi religiur-
kosmogoniuri aspeqtic gaaCnia. aRniSnul kompoziciebSi mocemulia
samyaros yvela sknelis simbolika da isini kompoziciurad wris,
ferxul `Zabras~ mniSvnelobisaTvis
120
ciklis saxiT arian warmodgenili, rac ar iZleva maTi semantikuri
arealis mxolod astraluri warmodgenebiT Semofargvlis
saSualebas. amave ideis gancxadebas warmoadgens ritualuri
ferxulebi (zogjer mravalsarTuliani), orpiruli (orgundiani)
simRerebi, saqanelebze qanaoba da a.S. (surgulaZe, 1987).
centrisa da RerZis saxeebi, simboloTa dinamikaSi, korelaturia
da gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan mxolod xedvis kuTxiT. erTi da
igive sakraluri adgili erTdrouladaa centric da samyaros RerZic.
igi warmoadgens Teofaniis privilegirebul adgils. centris cneba
mWidrod ukavSirdeba komunikaciuri arxis cnebas. mas gaaCnia rogorc
spiritualuri, ise materialuri mniSvneloba. centri SeiZleba
ganxilul iqnas, Tavis horizontalur ganfenilobaSi, rogorc samyaros
suraTi, rogorc mikrokosmi, romelic Tavis TavSi Seicavs samyaros
yvela virtualobas, xolo Tavis vertikalur ganfenilobaSi
rogorc gadasvlis, mijnis adgili samyaros zeciur, miwiur da
infernalur doneTa Soris. Ees yvelaze Zlieri intensivobis
matarebeli wertilia

(eliade 1949; eliade 1965; Sevalieri, gerbranti,
T.1, 1973).
centrs warmoadgens is adgili, romelic konsekrirebuli iyo
ritualebisa da locvis meSveobiT, radgan aseT adgilebSi myardeba
kontaqti zebunebriv ZalebTan (abakelia 1991: 111).
am sqemaSi SeiZleba CavrToT wriuli ferxulebi, gansakuTrebiT
iseTi, sadac ama Tu im saxiT centria aRniSnuli. Aamgvar ferxulebs
unda miekuTvnebodes ferxuli Zabrac.
n.abakelias azriT, wyarosTavi, wyalsacavi, mdinare da sxv. e.w.
liminaluri zonaa, samyaros centria (miTologiuri da ara
geometriuli TvalsazrisiT), romelic kosmiuri brZolis adgils
warmoadgens. qarTul, iseve rogorc sxva mraval tradiciaSi, gvelis
simbolo dakavSirebulia wyalTan, wvimasTan, nayofierebasTan,
mosavlianobasTan. rwmenebi wylismflobeli gveleSapis (veSapis)
Sesaxeb uSualod ukavSirdeba megaliTur Zeglebs veSapebs da maT
miTologias. amave rwmena-warmodgenebSi erTiandeba kosmiuri brZolis
Temac amindis RvTaebasa da mis xTonur mowinaaRmdeges Soris
(abakelia 1997: 16-17).
Sesabamisi rwmenebi gvelTmebrZol gmirebze farTodaa
gavrcelebuli mTel saqarTveloSi.
statiaSi ganxiluli ferxuli Zabrac Tavisi saxumaro,
erTgvarad sakarnavalo xasiaTis miuxedavad, romelic man droTa
ganmavlobaSi miiRo, mainc SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes farTod
qeTevan alaverdaSvili
121
gavrcelebul rwmena-warmodgenebs, romelTa mixedviTac gveleSapi,
romelsac SeuZlia mTeli sofeli STanTqas da gaanadguros, epatroneba
wyals da sanacvlod msxverpls iTxovs, gmiri ki ebrZvis mas, amarcxebs
da anTavisuflebs sofels (aseTia magaliTad gadmocemebi kaxanis,
JivJias da vaJias da saboloo jamSi wm. giorgis Sesaxeb).
literatura
abakelia 1997: n. abakelia, simbolo da rituali qarTul
kulturaSi. Tb., 1997.
abakelia 1991: , . . , ,
., 1991.
alaverdaSvili 2000: q.alaverdaSvili, centris simbolikisaTvis
zogierT qarTul ferxulSi. .analebi, # 1, 2000.
alaverdaSvili 2005: q.alaverdaSvili, wriuli ritualuri
ferxulebis simbolikisaTvis qarTuli eTnografiuli
masalis mixedviT, mse, 25, Tb., 2005.
bardaveliZe 1938: v. bardaveliZe, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos qarTveli
mTielebis sasuliero teqstebi, mse, nakv. 1, tf., 1938.
bardaveliZe 1953: v. bardaveliZe, qarTuli (svanuri) saweso
grafikuli xelovnebis nimuSebi. Tb.,1953.
bardaveliZe 1957: , ..,

. .,1957
gvaramaZe 1957: l. gvaramaZe, qarTuli xalxuri qoreografia, Tb.,
1957.
eliade 1949: Eliade,M., Le mythe de leternel retour. Paris, 1949.
eliade 1965: Eliade, M., Le sacre et le profane. Paris,1965.
eliade 1987: , . , . .,1987.
eliade 1999: , ., , 1,.,1999.
elisi 1929: H.Ellis, The dance of life. N.Y.,1929.
zemcovski 1987: , . . ,
. .
. . , 1987.
TaTaraZe 1986: a.TaTaraZe, qarTul cekvaTa ganmartebani. Tb., 1986.
kerloti 1994: , .., . .,1994.
Jornickaia 1983: , . . ,
- .
. , 1983.
ferxul `Zabras~ mniSvnelobisaTvis
122
samsoni 1987: , . , .
. --.,1987.
surgulaZe 1987: surgulaZe, i., sivrcobrivi aspeqtebi qarTvelTa
religiur da miTosur warmodgenebSi. mse, 23, Tb., 1987.
Sevalieri, gerbranti 1973: Chevalier, Gheerbrant, Dictionnaire des
symbols. T.1, Paris, 1973.
xidaSeli 2002: m.xidaSeli, brZolis kosmogoniuri koncefcia
saqarTvelos uZveles sulier kulturaSi. saqarTvelos
siZveleni, # 2, 2002.
janeliZe 1948: d.janeliZe, qarTuli Teatris xalxuri sawyisebi,
w.1, Tb., 1948.
Ketevan Alaverdashvili
On the Meaning of the Round-dance Called Dzabra
According to the point of view, expressed in the article the round-dance
dzabra despite its humoristic and carnival characteristics might also be associated
to the widespread local religious beliefs on the dragon, which might demolish and
swallow the whole village and seize the water reservoirs. After this the dragon
demands human sacrifices. The local hero fights, defeats and releases the village
(Such local heroes are Kakhani, Zhivzhiva and Vazhina and in the end St George).
qeTevan alaverdaSvili
123
qeTevan bezaraSvili
antikuri ritorikis Teoriis
cnebaTa reinterpretaciisaTvis
bizantiur da qarTul
literaturaSi
Sua saukuneebis ritorikis Teoriidan
ZiriTadad dasavleT evropis laTinurenovani
literaturis monacemebia gamokvleuli da
mecnieruli Sromebi da saxelmZRvaneloebic
amas eZRvneba (Minnis, Scott, Wallace 1988; Minnis,
Johnson 2005; Curtius 1953). bizantiuri ri-
torikis Teoria naklebad an TiTqmis ar
aris Seswavlili samecniero literaturaSi
(gamonaklisia: Kustas 1973). magram irkveva, rom
Sua saukuneebis berZeni da qarTveli av-
torebi SesaniSnavad iyvnen gaTviTcnobiere-
bulni klasikuri da bizantiuri ritorikis
TeoriaTa sakiTxebSi. isini kargad icnobdnen
mag., baZvis, stilTa doneebis, mSvenierebisa
da sxv. cnebebs da Sesabamisad axdendnen maT
gadaazrebas (bezaraSvili 2004: 147-155; 158-
259; 530-587). winamdebare naSromSi ganxi-
luli magaliTebi kidev erTxel warmoaCens
bizantieli da qarTveli mwignobrebis, basili
minimusisa (X s.) da efrem mciris (XI s.)
mier
1
ritorikis Teoriebis karg codnas da
filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis
saxelmwifo universi-
tetis pumanitarul mec-
nierebaTa da kulturis
kvlevebis fakultetis
asocirebuli profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
grigol RvTismetyvelis
poeziis qarTuli versia,
1990. miqael fselosis
ritorikuli traqtatebis
Targmanebi, 1996. ritori-
kisa da Targmanis Teoria
da praqtika grigol
RvTismetyvelis Txzule-
baTaYqarTuli Targmanebis
mixedviT, Tbilisi, mecnie-
reba, 2004. (Tanaavtoreb-
Tan) S. Gregorii Nazian-
zeni opera. Versio Iberica,
I-V, in Corpus Christiano-
rum, Turnhout, Leuven,
Brepols publishers, 1998-
2007.
interesTa sfero:
bizantiuri da qarTuli
literaturis istoria,
himnografiis problemebi,
antikuri da Sua sauku-
neebis ritorikis Teoria,
Targmanis Teoria.
1
basili minimusis komentarebis berZnuli teqsti
damowmebulia r. kantarelasa da T. Smidtis gamocemebis
mixedviT (Cantarella 1926; Schmidt 2001), agreTve
gamouqveynebeli xelnawerebis mixedviT (cod. Vat. Gr.
437, s.X; cod. Paris. Coisl. 240, s.XI; cod. Paris. Cois. 52, s.
XI). basili minimusis komentarebis efrem mciriseuli
Targmani yvelgan damowmebulia T. oTxmezuris mier
gamosaqveyneblad momzadebuli teqstidan. kometarTa
numeracia gakeTebulia efrem mciriseuli qarTuli
Targmanebis mixedviT T. oTxmezuris mier. basili
minimusis berZnul teqstTa xelnawerebi, romelTa
umetesi nawili gamouqveynebelia, Segrovebulia prof.
Justin moseis mier da inaxeba luvenis kaTolikuri
universitetis aRmosavleTmcodneobis fakultetTan
arsebul grigol RvTismetyvelis kabinetSi.
124
gaazrebas, kerZod, cxadyofs maT mier aristoteles moZRvrebis
recefcias Txzulebis kompoziciis Sesaxeb. qvemoT am Teoriis sami
sakiTxi Sedarebulia imave problemebTan Sua saukuneebis ritorikaSi.
esenia ritorikuli sityvis kompoziciuri agebulebis mSveniereba,
prologisa da epilogis darTvis xelovneba:
1) aristotele saubrobs ritorikuli sityvis kompoziciuri
struqturis mSvenierebaze (t ,c -c` | . | .,. -.. -c. tc ..
. ct. |. Arist. Poet. 7, 1450 b 9). aq igulisxmeba winasityva da
bolosityva, anu Sesavali da dasasruli (Rhet. III, 13-14, 1414 b -
1416 a). ritorikuli sityvis kompoziciis klasikuri Teoria da am
kompoziciis mSveniereba kargad aris Seswavlili samecniero
literaturaSi.
1
2) aristotele agreTve ganmartavs, rom safleito musikaluri
preludia (cu `.|) da poeziis dasawyisi striqonebi ( `,,)
imave funqcas asrulebs, rasac sadResaswaulo sityvis Sesavali
(. .|). (T . | u | . . | . ct.| c ` ,u, . . |
. c.. `,, -c. . | cu ` c.. cu `.|. Arist. Rhet. III, 14, 1414
b 5).
3) aristoteles mixedviT, epilogi yovelTvis ar aris saWiro
ritorikuli sityvis yvela saxeobisaTvis, mag., roca igi aris mokle,
anda roca misi Tema advili dasamaxsovrebelia ( . . `,, [sc. t.|
c o..-t.-.|] . . t. u o. o.-c|.-u c|t ,, . | . c | .- ,
` ,,, t c,c .u | |.ut|. Arist. Rhet. III, 13, 1414 b 1).
ganvixlavT am Sexedulebebs X-XI saukuneebis dasaxelebuli
avtorebis SromebSi warmodgenil Teoriul mosazrebebTan SedarebiT,
sadac klasikuri Sexedulebebi gadaazrebulia.
1) grigol RvTismetyvelis homiliebze darTul basili minimusis
komentarebSi (iseve rogorc maT efrem mciriseul TargmanebSi)
ganxilulia ritorikuli sityvis winasityviTa da bolosityviT,
anu prologiTa da epilogiT (i.e. exordium, peroratio; prologium, epilogus)
Semkobis sakiTxi da amgvari Semkoba ritorikuli xelovnebisa da
mSvenierebis nimuSad aris dasaxelebuli. sayuradReboa, rom
qristianuli epoqis avtorTa nawerebSic sityvis Semkoba SesavliTa
1
Sesavali da daskvna (.. |, . . \,,), rogorc ritorikuli sityvis
kompoziciuri konstruqciis nawilebi, ganxilulia klasikuri ritorikis
TeoriebSi(Martin 1974: 55, 147).
epilogis tradiciuli ganmartebisaTvis, rogorc homiliis Tematikis
Semajamebeli nawilisaTvis, ix. aristotele (Arist. Rhet. III, 19, 1419b)
(Mnnlein-Robert 2003: 778-788).

qeTevan bezaraSvili
125
da dasasruliT miCneulia ritorikuli xelovnebis wesad. es cnebebi
miRebuli iyo berZen avtorTa nawerebSi arsitoteledan moyolebuli
da farTod iyo gavrceleuli elinistur periodSi, gvian antikurobaSi
da Sua saukuneebSi. mag., grigol RvTismetyvelis homiliebze darTul
basili minimusis komentarebSi litonoba (= `.t |) ewodeba
swored xelovanebis (t. |-s) gareSe Txzvas, kerZod, Sesavlis
gareSe Txzulebis Seqmnas. basili minimusi saubrobs homiliis
iseTi ritorikuli ornamentebiT Semkobaze, rogoricaa Sesavali da
ritmuli perioduli kolonebi.
1
basili minimusis mixedviT, homiliis
SesavliT SemkobiT da am Sesavlis formis srulyofiT acilebulia
simartive, litonoba, uelovnoba (c `., - litonad).
2
Sesabamisad, unda vigulisxmoT epilogis gareSe Txzvac. basili
minimusi saubrobs homiliis locviTi daboloebis, anu epilogis
(. . `,, - bolo) tradiciuli ritorikuli formis Sesaxeb
qristianul literaturaSi. epilogiT Txzulebis daboloeba
ritorikul ostatobas miekuTvneba (t. |c., . t.-.| -
elovnebani metyuelTani).
3
2) basili minimusi aseve saubrobs Txzulebis uSesavlod
agebis Sesaxeb, rac grigol RvTismetyvelma qristianuli homiliis
ritorikul wesad gadaaqcia, roca pirdapir TxrobiT daiwyo
1
ix. berZnuli teqsti da misi efrem mciriseuli Targmani: Ou t, \ ,,
ccc., tc., t.|.-c., ccc\..t., .,-.-c\\..ctc. .-o., c-.. ,c .|
.. ., .u -. .,, cc., c .tc., \ -.., t . . .\, ..\ , t . c. t. c,
-ctcc-.u , t t. c--.\. c ...yovelTave elovnebiTa RonisZiebiTa unaklulod
Semkobil ars awindeli ese sityua ... rameTu ganicade myis dasabamsave sitysasa
raodeniTa SuenierebiTa Semkobil ars Sesavalovnad SemosilobiTa, mizezovnad
SenawevrebiTa grZelSenadgamobasave Tana (Or. 43, com. prooemium. Cantarella 1926:
21
28-31;
cod. Iber. Jer. 15, s. XII, f. 22r); -c \\,, -ctcc-.u , -c\\.. .c-c. miekuTvneba
sityvis garegnul xorciel ornamentul Rirsebebs (c .tc. \. ..,). (Martin 1974:
339, 340, 342; 252. Ernesti 1962: s.v. -c\\.. .c-c.).
2
ix. basili minimusis teqsti da misi efrem mciriseuli Targmani: T.\ cc, t t,
\, u -. c.., prooiv mion, ouj c aJ plw~ .. , t ,. |,, c \\c .tc t.|, prooimiakhv ~
. ||. c, .. cc \\... srul-yo yovelive winadawyeba Sesavalisa mizezTa da amieriTgan
ara litonad, aramedwinaSesavalovanadve iwyebs naTesavTaTs didisa basilisTa
sityuad (Or. 43, com. 15. Cantarella 1926: 23
1
; cod. Iber. Jer. 15, f. 23v).
3
ix. basili minimusis komentari: c) to; e[ scaton mev ro~ tu \u \ ,u u t , . ct.|
-.-\. |, ej piv logo~, euj ch~ tuv pon ej pev cwn, ., aiJ tev cnai -.c.. uc.|. ) . |tcu-c
t t.\.utc.| t.| -.c\c. .| oJ ej piv logo~ tuv pon e[ cwn euj ch~, . , qesmoi; kai; o{roi
paradhlousi rJ htorikoi . ese ars bolo sakiTxavisa amis, romelsa locvis saxe
zeda-ac, viTarca elovnebani metyuelTani ganaCineben (Or. 43, com. 216. Cantarella
1926: 32
15-19;
cod. Iber. Tbilis. A 109, s. XII-XIII, f. 69v).

antikuri ritorikis Teoriis cnebaTa reinterpretaciisaTvis bizantiur


da qarTul literaturaSi
126
makabelTadmi miZRvnili homilia
1
an SesxmiTi galobis saxiT _
Sobis homilia.
2
basili minimusis warmodgenili ganmarteba ZiriTadad
efuZneba aristoteles ganmartebas, rom musikaluri preludia
(proauv lion) sadResaswaulo sityvis Sesavals (prooiv mion) hgavs
(Arist. Rhet. III, 14, 1414 b 5). am SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs ritorikis
Teoriis sakiTxTan, rac damaxasiaTebeli iyo ritorikuli sityvis
axali saxeobisaTvis, Tumca am SemTxvevaSic igi dasabams iRebs
klasikosi Teoretikosis traqtatidan, magram interpretirebulia
axal sulier konteqstSi.
3) ritorikis klasikuri da bizantiuri Teoriebis mSvenierebis
kategoriis codnasTan erTad Txzulebis kompoziciuri nawilebis
Sesaxeb moZRvrebis aTvisebas efrem mciris mier cxadyofs misi
kidev erTi kolofoni, romelsac igi urTavs imperator iulianes
ganmaqiqebel meore sityvas (Or. 5). kolofoni exeba homiliis epilogis
sakiTxs: xolo ubolood datevebisaTs nuvis usrulica hgonies
(= Or. 5), rameTu berZulad esreT ars Tqumuli wmidisa, ara litonad,
arca sxuaTa aRmwerelTaebr, aramed, viTar-igi aTormet arian
elovnebani berZenTa swavlulebisani da TiToeuli aRmwereli miT
saxiTa aRmwerelobs, raca elovneba eswavos aTormetTa maTgan
1
basili minimusis da misi mTargmnelis, efrem mciris mixedviT, makabelTa
sityvis uSesavlod dawyebis litonad da SemTxveviTad miCneva moCvenebiTia.
amgvari meTodi ritorikis axali, qristianuli xelovnebis damaxasiaTebel niSnad
aris warmodgenili: ,c . , . tu.| . | t. tcut| c . .c \. ,..| -c. ,c ..| ...
-c. u cu t tut o.c tu tt.-u -c. |. ct . u t. -.., cu t t, \u c..,
t.| tu. |.| o..-|u , o.c t, c |cc-.u, t.| . |c|t.\,u. |.| c . u, . ,-.. .|.
rame makabelni? rameTu ara saeWu ars ] add. litonad da viTar damTxueviT
rasme Tquma esodenisa Rirsebisa kacisa mier ... myis saZiebliT marculiT iwyo
da aRsnasa wina-moaqcia saZiebeli da aCuena igi Rirs Sesxmisa... (Or. 15, com. 1.
codd. Paris.Coisl. Gr. 240, s. XI, f. 187r; cod. Iber., Tbilis. A 109, f. 220r).
2
qristeSobis homiliis komentarSi basili minimusi ritorikuli Sesavlis
Semcvlelad Tvlis homiliis galobiT dawyebas, udidesi qristianuli dResaswauliT
gamowveuli mometebuli sitkboebisa da sixarulis gamo. amdenad aq, piriqiT,
axali tipis dasawyisi axali, qristianuli ritorikis Rirsebad aris dasaxelebuli:
.. - t., -c. prooimiv wn tav xin .. \. tcutc, procoreuv onto~ kai; proskirtwv nto~ -c.
. | proanakrouomev nou tu Hct~ t th~ hJdonh~ te kai; eujfrosuvnh~ u.\.
samarTlad nacvalad winaSesavalisa moipova aqa didman aman moZRuarTa Soris
winamZnobeloba da winaaRmRereloba, viTarmca gardamatebulisa sitkboebisa da
sixarulisa winamcemel iyo ebnisa (Or. 38, com. prooemium. Cantarella 1926: 5
22-25
;
Schmidt 2001: 10-11; cod. Iber. Jer. 15, f. 10v).
basili minimusis warmodgenili ganmarteba ZiriTadad eyrdnoba aristoteles
ganmartebas, rom musikaluri preludia (cu \.|) emsgavseba epidiqtikuri sityvis
Sesavals (. .|. Arist. Rhet. III, 14, 1414 b 5).


qeTevan bezaraSvili
127
(=aq igi CamoTvlis 12 zogadsaganmanaTleblo sagans) ... aramed
wmida ese da didi RmrTismetyueli, viTarca amiT yovliTa sruliad
swavluli, yovliTave amiT Seamkobs TqumulTa TsTa. amisTs sxsa
elovnebisa ars daboloeba da sxsa _ ara daboloeba. vinaca me,
vinaTgan oqsino ara maqunda saolavad skamarangisa, flasiTa ver
davolevdi. aramed Sedarebulad berZulisa, uboloo ubolood da
daboloebuli daboloebulad miTargmnia... (bregaZe 1988: 171-172).
1
aRniSnuli sakiTxavi (Or. 5) ubolood, e.i. epilogis gareSea
berZnulSi da Sesabamisad, qarTul TargmanSic. meore mxriv, efrems
berZnuli dednis erTgulebis gamo daboloebuli, anu epilogiani
(sxva sakiTxavebi) aseve epilogianad uTargmnia. efremi xsnis, rom
amgvari xerxi uepilogobisa ar aris sxva mweralTaebr litonad
TqumiT gamowveuli, aramed swored rom samecniero da ritorikuli
xelovanebiT, e.i. ritorikuli ostatobiT, aris Seqmnili, romelSiac
kargad iyo ganswavluli grigol RvTismetyveli. igi am swavlulebiT
amkobda Tavis Sromebs _ TqumulTa TsTa.
2
amdenad, es movlena
uepilogobisa SemTxveviTi ki ar ris, aramed kanonzomieria. efremis
ganmartebiT, sakiTxavis daboloeba _ epilogis darTva sxva xelovnebaa
da dauboloebloba ki sul sxva xelovnebisaganaa, radgan epilogi,
romelic Txzulebis kompoziciis Semadgeneli nawilia, SeiZleba
gamoyenebul iqnes homiliis samkaulad.
aq efremi, SesaZloa, gulisxmobdes ritorikuli sityvis agebis
da misi mSvenierebis klasikur Teorias (aristoteles ritorikidan
da poetikidan). rogorc ukve iTqva, aristoteles mixedviT, epilogi
ar aris yovelTvis aucilebeli yvela saxis sityvisaTvis, mag., roca
igi moklea anda roca sityvis sagani advili dasamaxsovrebelia
(Arist. Rhet. III, 13, 1414 b 1). marTlac, grigolis ganmaqiqebeli sityvis
sagani
3
ioli iyo dasamaxsovreblad, radgan ganqiqeba grZeldeboda
1
Cod. Iber. A 292, a. 1800, f. 215v. es kolofoni da masSi dasaxelebuli
zogadsaganmanaTleblo sagnebi ganxilulia samecniero literaturaSi (Rapava,
Coulie 1991: 121-124). igive kolofoni grigol RvTismetyvelis zogierT uepilogo
sakiTxavze efTvime aTonelis mier darTul epilogebTan mimarTebiT aseve ganxiluli
iyo samecniero literaturaSi (Kourtsikidze 2000: 429-437).
2
aseve afasebs miqael fselosi grigol RvTismetyvelis xelovnebas da ostatobas.
misi Txzulebebi yovelgvari mecnierebis (. .ct ) da xelovanebis (t. |)
codnas Seicaven (Mayer 1911: 14
254-273
; bezaraSvili 1996: 146).
3
ganmaqiqebeli homiliis klasikuri warmomavloba ( ,,, .-t.- ,), rogorc
epideiqtikuri Janris saxeoba (,.|, ..o..-t.-| - genus demonstrativum), e.w.
negatiuri enkomia (. ,-. .|), romelic iqca qristianul ganqiqebad, e.w. \ ,
ct\..ut.-, ganxilulia samecniero literaturaSi (Menander Rhetor 1981;
Hunger 1978: 120-122. Payr 1962: 332-343. Guignet 1911: 76-77. maWavariani 2002: 92).
antikuri ritorikis Teoriis cnebaTa reinterpretaciisaTvis bizantiur
da qarTul literaturaSi
128
mTeli homiliis manZilze da, Sesabamisad, zemoxsenebuli mokle
daboloeba aRar saWiroebda raime damatebas.
imperator iulianes ganmaqiqebeli meore sityvis SinaarsTan
dakavSirebuli problema ganxilulia samecniero literaturaSi.
aRniSnulia, rom epilogis darTvis nacvlad grigol RvTismetyveli
amTavrebs ganmaqiqebel sityvas/homilias (lov go~ sthliteutikov ~)
iulianesadmi mamarTuli ironiuli sityvebiT (maWavariani 2002:
90-92; bezaraSvili 2004: 573-576). igi ambobs, rom es sityva aris
maradiuli Zegli iulianesaTvis am frazis uaryofiTi mniSvnelobiT
(Or. 5, c. 42. PG 35, 720A). aseTi daboloeba aRar saWiroebs Semajamebel
daskvniT epilogs.
efremma icis ritorikis bizantiuri Teoriebis es Tavisebureba
_ kompoziciuri agebuleba. Tumca amave dros, rogorc iTqva, igi
aRniSnavs, rom ubolooba ar aris litonoba da sworedac rom
xelovnebaa. am SemTxvevaSi efremis Teoriuli wyaro uepilogobis
ostatobasTan dakavSirebiT unda exmaurebodes rogorc ritorikis
zemoT naxseneb aristoteleseul klasikur Teorias (Arist. Rhet. III,
13, 1414 b 1), ise qristianul Teorias da esTetikas (ix. basili
minimusis ganxiluli komentarebi). klasikur Teorias rom SevadaroT,
Sesavali iTvleba ritorikuli sityvis Semkobilebis mSvenebad
(kov smou cav ri~), roca misi ararseboba sityvas aZlevs saxeldaxelod
warmoTqmulis saxes.
1
efrem mcire kolofonSi Tavs imarTlebs, rom ritorikis
xelovneba Zvirfasia da fufunebaa, rasac igi TavisiT ver miwvdeboda
da Tavad epilogs ver daurTavda: abreSumis qsovili (oqsino) ar
mqonda mosasxamis (skamarangis) Sesakerad da ubralo ZaZiT (flasiT)
xom ara Sevkeravdio. mosasxams an CarCos, rogorc gare samkauls,
ritorikis TeoriebSi swored ritorikul xelovnebas uwodeben,
romliTac unda moapirkeTon Rrma Sinaarsi.
2
marTalia, aq uSualod
mSvenierebis cneba ar aris naxsenebi, magram vnaxeT, rom efremi
kompoziciis xelovnebis mSvenierebis Sesabamis problemas exeba,
rac Seswavlilia aristoteles ritorikasa da poetikaSi da basili
minimusis komentarebSi. amave dros igi ritorikis Zvirfas samkaulebs
asaxelebs, romelTa Soris kompoziciis xelovnebac Sedis.
1
gorgias leontielis eleelebisadmi mimarTuli saxotbo sityva (enkomia)
dasaxelebulia saxeldaxelo sityvis nimuSad (Arist. Rhet. III, 14, 1415b12-1416a1).
2
Sdr. miqael fselosic grigolis Rrma saRvTismetyvelo azris garegnul
Semosvas da Semkobas ritorikuli samkaulebiT uwodebs saxarebiseuli Zvirfasi
margalitis (maT. 13, 45-46) movarayebas oqroTi da mis Casmas patiosani qvebiT
mopirkeTebul CarCoSi (Mayer 1911: 5
85-90
).
qeTevan bezaraSvili
129
Seswavlilia, rom efremi am kolofonSi mSvenierebis cnebis
aspeqtebsac ixilavs (bezaraSvili 2004: 573-576). aSkaraa, rom
efremi exeba ritorikuli sityvis kompoziciuri struqturis
cnebasac, kerZod, xan epilogis darTvas, xan ki homiliis daskvnis
gareSe dasrulebas ritorikis Teoriebis mixedviT.
amgvarad, cxadi xdeba, rom efremi SesaniSnavad icnobs ritorikis
klasikur da bizantiur Teoriebs da maTi meTodologiis
gaTvaliswinebiT Targmnis grigol RvTismetyvelis Txzulebebs
qarTulad da qmnis Tavis kolofonebs literaturul-Teoriuli
sakiTxebis Sesaxeb. zemoT gaanalizebuli magaliTebi safuZvels
umagrebs mosazrebas, rom efremi dainteresebuli iyo ritorikis
TeoriebiT Tavisi moRvaweobis adreuli periodidanve (roca Targmna
Or. 5)
1
. es imas niSnavs, rom bizantiaSi mimdinare saazrovno procesebze
efremma Tavisi moRvaweobis dasawyisidanve elinofiluri kulturuli
orientacia aiRo, maSin roca misi mTargmnelobiTi meTodi mxolod
TandaTan xdeboda elinofiluri.
maSasadame, klasikuri ritorikis Teoriis cnebebi basili
minimusisaTvis da efrem mcirisaTvis kargad iyo cnobili, gaTavisebuli
da gadaazrebuli axali, qristianuli ritorikis moTxovnilebaTa
mixedviT.
literatura
bezaraSvili 1996: q. bezaraSvili, miqael fselosis traqtati
saRvTismetyvelo stilis Sesaxeb (gamokvleva, Targmani,
komentarebi), bizantiuri mwerlobis qrestomaTia, III, Tbilisi,
1996, gv. 146.
bezaraSvili 2004: q. bezaraSvili, ritorikisa da Targmanis Teoria
da praqtika grigol RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTa qarTuli
Targmanebis mixedviT, Tbilisi: gamomcemloba mecniereba,
2004.
bregaZe 1988: T. bregaZe, grigol nazianzelis TxzulebaTa Semcvel
qarTul xelnawerTa aRweriloba, Tbilisi: gamomcemloba
mecniereba, 1988.
kantarela 1926: R. Cantarella, Basilio Minimo,II, in Byzantinishce Zeitschrift,
26, 1926, p. 1-34.
1
grigol RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTa qarTulad Targmanis qronologiis Sesaxeb
ix. bezaraSvili 2004: 413.
antikuri ritorikis Teoriis cnebaTa reinterpretaciisaTvis bizantiur
da qarTul literaturaSi
130
kurciusi 1953: Curtius, European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages,
Translated from the German by W.R. Trask, London: Routledge and
Regan Paul, LTD, 1953.
ernesti 1961: Jo. Ch. Th. Ernesti, Lexicon Technologiae Graecorum
Rhetoricae, Leipzig, 1795 / Darmstadt, 1962: Georg Olms
Verlagsbuchhandlung.
gine 1911: M. Guignet, St. Grgoire de Nazianze et la rhtorique, Paris,
1911, p. 76-77.
hungeri 1978: H. Hunger, Die hochsprachliche profane Literatur der Byzantiner,
Bd. I, Mnich: C.H. Becksche Verlagsbuchhandlund, 1978, S. 120-
122.
qurcikiZe 2000: T. Kourtsikidze, La composition du manuscrit Iviron 68 et
le colophon d Ephrem Mtsir, dans Le Muson, t. 113, 2000, p. 429-
437.
kustasi 1973: Kustas, G.L., Studies in Byzantine Rhetoric (Analekta
Blatadon, 17), Thessaloniki: Patriarchikon Idruma Paterikon Meleton,
1973.
maWavariani 2002: m. maWavariani, efrem mciris damokidebuleba
gareSe sibrZnisadmi grigol RvTismetyvelis imperator
ivlianesadmi miZRvnili meore ganmaqiqebeli sityvis (Or. 5)
mixedviT, literaturuli Ziebani, XXIII, Tbilisi, 2002, gv.
89-95.
manlain-roberti 2003: I. Mnnlein-Robert, Peroratio, in Historishces
Wrterbuch der Rhetorik, herausgegeben von Gert Ueding, Bd. 6,
Tbingen, 2003, col. 778-788.
martini 1974: J. Martin, Antike Rhetorik. Technik und Methode, Mnchen:
C.H. Becksche Verlagsbuchhandlund, 1974.
maieri 1911: A. Mayer, Psellos Rede ber den rheto rischen Character des
Gregorios von Nazianz, in Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 20, 1911, S. 48-
60.
menandre ritori 1981: Menander Rhetor, Peri; ej pideiktikwn, I,
edited with translation and commentary by D.A. Russel, N.G. Wilson,
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981.
minisi... 1988: Minnis, A.J., Scott, A.B., Wallace, D., Medieval Literary
Theory and Criticism, c. 11000-c. 1375, Oxford: Clarendon Press,
1988.
minisi... 2005: The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism, vol. 2, Middle
Ages, edited by Minnis, A., Johnson, I., Cambridge: University Press,
2005.
qeTevan bezaraSvili
131
pairi 1962: Th. Payr, Enkomion, in Reallexikon fr Antike und Christentum,
Bd. V, Stuttgart, 1962, S. 332-343.
rafava... 1991: M. Rapava, B. Coulie, Les Colophons d Ephrem Mtsire et
les traductions Gorgiennes de Gregoire de Nazianze, dans Le Muson.
Revue d Etudes Orientales, t.104, fasc.1-2, 1991, p. 121-124.
Smidti 2001: Basilii Minimi in Gregorii Nazianzeni orationem XXXVIII
commentarii, ed. a Th. Schmidt, in Corpus Christianorum, Series
Graeca, 46. Corpus Nazianzenum, 13, Turnhout-Leuven: Brepols
Publishers, University Press, 2001.
Ketevan Bezarashvili
On the Reinterpretation of the Concepts of Classical
Rhetorical Theories in Byzantine and Georgian Literature
The problems of acquiring the concepts of classical rhetorical theories in
Byzantine and Georgian literature are studied in the present paper. The
commentaries of Basilius Minimus (the 10th century) and the colophon of
renowned Georgian writer of the 11th century, the founder of hellenophile trend in
Georgian literature _ Ephrem Mtsire, are analyzed. Basilius Minimuss and Ephrem
Mtsires concept of compositional construction of rhetorical speech is based on
Aristotles theory. The literary-theoretical opinions of the writers of Byzantium
and Christian East are not thoroughly studied in modern scholarly literature. The
study of this problem is important for revealing the Medieval approach to rhetorical
theories, namely, to the concept of compositional parts of speech. The analysis of
the problem makes it evident that Basilius Minimus and Ephrem Mtsire were
well-acquainted with classical theories of rhetoric, and they re-interpreted the
theory of compositional construction according to the demands of new, Christian
rhetoric.
antikuri ritorikis Teoriis cnebaTa reinterpretaciisaTvis bizantiur
da qarTul literaturaSi
132
Tamar berekaSvili
erovnuli ena, erovnuli
kultura, erovnuli suli
enis da eris urTierTmimarTebis
problema metad Zvelia, rTuli da mravalsaxa.
gansakuTrebuli aqtualoba am problemam
SeiZina dRes, rodesac erTan da enasTan
dakavSirebulma sakiTxebma axleburi gada-
wyveta moiTxoves.
imisaTvis, rom Tavi davaRwioT Seqmnil
viTarebas, aucilebelia Camoyalibdes mocemuli
sakiTxebisadmi mecnieruli midgoma, rac
gulisxmobs ara marto sxva qveynebSi
arsebuli gamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebas,
ucxoel mecnierTa naazrevis Seswavlas, aramed
TviT sakiTxis axleburad dayenebas, arsebuli
situaciis mravalmxrivi Seswavlis safuZ-
velze. unda iyos ara erTi Teoria, ara erTi
midgoma mocemuli sakiTxisadmi. TeoriaTa
simravle, SexedulebaTa siWrele da
mravalferovneba mxolod sargeblobis
momtania, WeSmaritebis dadgenis gzaa.
am mimarTulebiT aRniSnuli sakiTxebis
kvleva calsaxad da mkacrad SemosazRvruli
mimarTulebiT midioda. erT-erT cnebad,
romelzedac naklebi iwereboda, gvevlineba
`sulis~, `gonis~ cneba, romlis gamoyeneba da
xseneba did Tavdasxmebs iwvevda sabWoTa
periodSi, magram arc mogvianebiT gaxda
seriozul mecnierTa gansjis obieqti. amasTan,
am cnebebs bevri mniSvneloba gaaCniaT, maTi
gamoyeneba metad moxerxebulia, ramdenadac
filosofiis mecniere-
baTa doqtori, Tbilisis
ilia WavWavaZis saxelmw-
ifoUuniversitetis aso-
cirebuli profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
`Tanamedrove Rirebule-
bebi da idealebi~, `post-
modernizmi Tanamedro-
veobis konteqstSi
(kulturis filosofia)
da sxva. gamoqveynebuli
aqvs ramdenime statia so-
-cialur da politikur
filosofiaSic _ `demo-
kratizacia (g. JorJo-
lianTan da m. musxeli-
SvilTan erTad), `Tana-
medrove socialuri vi-
Tareba saqarTveloSi
(rusul enaze xarkovis
universitetis masaleb-
Si) da sxva.
interesTa sfero:
semiotika, kulturis
filosofia.
133
bevri azris Tu Sexedulebis ufro gasagebi formiT gadmocemis
saSualebas iZleva. es gansakuTrebiT Cans iseT sakiTxebze
msjelobisas, rogoric erTan da enasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebia.
metad Znelia ilaparako sulier kulturaze da gverdi auaro
cneba suls, Seexo `kulturis ekologias~ ise, rom ar daakavSiro
is sulierTan.
mocemuli werilis mizania erTgvarad warmoaCinos enisa da
kulturis mniSvneloba erisaTvis. enis amgvari mniSvneloba TiTqos
eWvs ar unda iwvevdes. miuxedavad amisa, bolo dromde Cndeboda
naSromebi, romelTa avtorebi ar Tvlidnen enas eris mniSvnelovan
niSnad. es maTi uflebaa, romelic ar gamoricxavs sxva Sexedulebebis
arsebobis uflebas.
siZnele imiTac aris gamowveuli, rom ar aris dadgenili eris
fenomenis mecnieruli cneba. aq, ZiriTadad, arsebobs ori
urTierTsawinaaRmdego midgoma. pirveli, romelsac iziarebda sabWoTa
mecnierTa didi nawili, aufasurebda ers, Tvlida mas droebiT, warmaval
movlenad, amitom eris meobis yovel gamoxatulebas eZleoda
uaryofiTi Sefaseba, rogorc CamorCenils, nacionalisturs, reaqciuls
da a.S. meoreni, piriqiT, ers warmoaCendnen rogorc adamianTa erTobis
umaRles da ucvlel formas, romelmac unda SeinarCunos Seucvlelad
Tavisi saxe, ganeridos nebismier gavlenas. aseTi Sexedulebebi, rogorc
wesi, garkveuli erebis SigniT Cndeboda da Cndeba da isini, samwuxarod,
mTavrdeba nacionalizmis ukiduresi gamovleniT, ramdenadac erTi
calkeuli eris umaRlesi kulturuli misiis aRiareba, misi
gansakuTrebulobis da unikaluri xvedris mtkiceba aniWebs am
eris warmomadgenlebs siamayis yalb grZnobas, uqmnis maT imis gancdas,
rom isini uflebamosilni arian daCagron sxva eri, moaxvion sxvas
Tavisi neba; Ffaqtobrivad orive aRniSnuli midgoma, saboloo
angariSSi, `rCeuli erebis~ arsebobaze Tanxmdeba sxva `naklebad
Rirebuli~ erebis xarjze.
eri, iseve rogorc erovneba, warmoadgens sruliad bunebriv
warmonaqmns adamianTa urTierTkavSirisa, is ufro didi erTobis,
kacobriobis konkretuli gamovlenaa, misi arsebobis erT-erTi formaa,
romelic mowodebulia Taviseburad, TiToeul calkeul SemTxvevaSi
gansakuTrebulad, mxolod misTvis Cveuli saxiT asaxos, ganaviTaros
sakacobrio Rirebulebebi, misi arsebobis wesi da sxva. TiToeuli
eri erTi mTlianis calkeul mxares warmoadgens, romelic mwirdeba
da sabolood kvdeba sxva mxareebis, sxva erebis gareSe, romlebic
mas avseben, amdidreben, da mxolod urTierTkavSirSi SeiZleba maTi
erovnuli ena, erovnuli kultura, erovnuli suli
134
arsebobis uzrunvelyofa. am azriT, TiToeul ers gansakuTrebuli
misia akisria, romelic sxva araferia, Tu ara eris unikaluri
istoriuli bedi, romelSic Caqsovilia misi ena, tradiciebi, kulturis
monapovrebi, xelovneba. . . es istoriuli bedi, erTi mxriv, SemTxveviTia,
magram, amasTan, masSi gansakuTrebuli sicxadiT Tavs iCens eris
Rirebulebebi, misi msoflmxedveloba, romelic Tavis mxriv, icvleba
da viTardeba eris cxovrebis manZilze. am TvalsazrisiT, eris
samsaxuri yovelTvis ufro maRalia, ufro sayovelTaos samsaxurs
niSnavs. eris sulis saukeTeso gamovlenebi, rogorc, magaliTad,
goeTesTan, SeqspirTan, rusTavelTan, yovelTvis mTel kacobriobas
amdidrebdnen, mis saerTo potencials avlendnen, mis progress
emsaxurebodnen da Znelia imis dafiqsireba, Tu romelma calkeulma
erma SeiZina meti.
amgvarad, TiToeuli eri Taviseburad wyvets msoflios Zireul
umniSvnelovanes problemebs, Taviseburad pasuxobs mTeli kacobriobis
mier dasmul kiTxvebze da mxolod aseTi masStabis amocanebis
gadawyvetiT an Tundac dasmiT, fasdeba eris mniSvneloba, eris
sicocxlisunarianoba. Tumca, unda iTqvas, rom ers Tavisi amocanebic
aqvs _ droebiTi, amJamindeli, romelTa gadawyvetac mas mudmivad
uxdeba.
ena yoveldRiuri cnobierebis donezec ganicdeba rogorc eris
metad mniSvnelovani niSani. amiT unda aixsnas, rom mSobliuri enis
siyvaruli utoldeba qveynis, eris siyvaruls, misi samsaxuri _
eris samsaxurs.
`eris aRmavloba yovelTvis ukavSirdeba gansakuTrebiT saTuT
zrunvas Tavis enaze, mis siwmindeze~.
ena araa marto urTierTobis saSualeba, is aris enis raobis
gamovlenis upirvelesi da umniSvnelovanesi forma; Cemi, rogorc
pirovnebis mikuTvnebuloba mocemuli erisadmi saSualebas maZlevs
CavTvalo sakuTari Tavi mis erT-erT gamoxatulebad da, meore
mxriv, eris sicocxle, misi siZliere, kultura, arsebobis xangrZlivoba,
misi maradiuloba Cemi sicocxle, Cemi siZliere, Cemi maradiulobaa,
ramdenadac mec vqmni mas nawilobriv: Cemi yofna, cxovreba erovnul
enaze eris yofnaa. `mSobliuri ena, warmoadgens ra erovnuli
TviTSegnebis saSualebas . . . praqtikulad usazRvrod afarToebs
droSi da sivrceSi Cems SemosazRvrul arsebobas, usasrulobas
maziarebs~ (WavWavaZe 1984: 146).
enas udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs xalxTa urTierTobaSi, magram
is ara marto gamaerTianebelia, calkeuli adamianebis da eTnikuri
Tamar berekaSvili
135
jgufebis Semkvreli, aramed gamTiSvelic. enebi erTgvar zRvars,
ufskruls qmnian erebs Soris. am zRvris gadalaxva yovelTvis
amdidrebs ers, afarToebs mis Tvalsawiers, rasac, rasakvirvelia,
mxolod maSin aqvs adgili, rodesac am axali kulturis Rirebulebebi,
Semosuli ucxo enis wyalobiT, xvdebian mSobliur erovnul enas.
xSirad, rodesac surT uaryon enis mniSvneloba erisaTvis, mohyavT
ebraelebis magaliTi, romlebic saukuneebis manZilze gafantulebi
iyvnen ara marto saerTo teritoriis, aramed erTiani enis gareSec.
magram unda iTqvas, rom erad Camoyalibebis procesSi maT ueWvelad
gaaCndaT Tavisi teritoriac da enac. swored am saerTo enaze
moxda maTi konsolidacia, romelic iseTi mtkice aRmoCnda, rom
dRemde SeunarCuna maT erovnuli TviTSegneba, TviTdasaxeleba, erovnuli
xasiaTi. cneba `mamulic~ warmoadgens mamobis, Zeobis gafarToebul
cnebas. eris, rogorc sisxlis erTobis ideam, rogorc aRniSnavs
s. bulgakovi, miiRo Tavisi plastikuri gamoxatuleba bibliaSi,
rac sxva araferia, Tu ara Tavisi gansakuTrebuli meobis gacnobiereba,
gamoxatuli ramdenime aTaswleulis win mSobliur enaze bibliaSi.
meore, ebraelTa (ise rogorc sxva daqsaqsuli, magram erT
erad arsebobis cnobierebis mqone eris, magaliTad irlandielTa)
swrafva gaerTianebisa da ganTavisuflebisaken metad SesamCnevia,
rac kidev erT makonsolidirebel moments warmoadgens maTs
cxovrebaSi.
da, kidev, rogorc ki xalxebi miaRweven TavianT damoukideblobas
da Seqmnian erovnul saxelmwifos, isini maSinve cdiloben daibrunon
erovnuli ena. ase moxda ebraelTa SemTxvevaSic, romelTac saxelmwifo
enad gamoacxades ivriTi.
enis udidesi mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb n. naTaZe aRniSnavs: `is, rom
sakuTari ena eris yvelaze TvalsaCino da Rrma maxasiaTebelia,
empiriuli faqtia, magram eri, rogorc idealuri kategoria, am faqtis
miRmac dgas. figuralurad rom vTqvaT, is, rom homo sapienss bgeriTi
ena gaaCnia da misi goni am enaSi cocxlobs, SemTxveviTia, magram Tu
ers sakuTari ena ara aqvs, mas unda hqondes igi da, rogorc ivriTis
magaliTi mowmobs, SesaZloa iqnes kidec faqtobrivad~ (naTaZe 1984:
104).
amgvarad, swored enaSi, pirvel rigSi, Tavs iCens erovnuli;
metic, erovnuli gamoxatulebis yvela forma, iqneba es erovnuli
xasiaTi, kultura, fsiqikuri wyoba Tu sxva, yalibdeba enasTan erTad
da moucilebelia misgan. magaliTad, eris iseTi niSani, rogoricaa
kulturis erTianoba, enis msgavsad, eris arsebobis, TviTgamoxatvis
erovnuli ena, erovnuli kultura, erovnuli suli
136
da ganviTarebis aucilebel pirobas warmoadgens, TviTon iqmneba da
viTardeba enasTan erTad, aisaxeba masSi, iseve, rogorc SemdgomSi ena
erTgvarad gansazRvravs mas. erovnuli kulturis cneba kargavs
Tavis sazriss, Tu ar arsebobs misi Camoyalibebis iseTi piroba,
rogoricaa erTiani ena. kulturis da enis urTierTdamokidebulebis
da kerZod, enis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb n. WavWavaZis wignSi vkiTxulobT:
`ena warmoadgens ara marto eqspresiis, komunikaciis, socializaciis
da a. S. saSualebas, is amave dros eris erT-erT konstruqciul
niSans warmoadgens, zeindividualuri Rirebulebis niSans,
romlisTvisac patriotebi swiraven sicocxles, yovel SemTxvevaSi,
mzad arian gaswiron is, anu mzad arian gaxdnen kulturis subieqtebi,
gamovidnen Tavisi fsiqofizikuri individualobis sazRvrebs gareT~
(WavWavaZe 1984: 146).
amdenad, ar SeiZleba enis mniSvnelobis gatoleba teritoriul
da ekonomikur niSnebTan, ramdenadac enaSi vlindeba da cnobierdeba
TviT am niSnis mniSvnelobac. Tundac imave `mamulis~ cneba, is
warmoadgens ara mxolod teritorias, romelzec cxovrobs xalxi,
aramed gaaCnia maRali eTikuri, esTetikuri, socialuri Rirebulebac,
teritoria, buneba gvevlineba ara marto im pirobad, romelmac
gaaerTiana adamianTa jgufi fizikurad, saerTo materialuri
(ekonomikuri) interesebiT, is adamianebTan `urTierTobis~ Sedegad,
d. lixaCovis sityvebiT, `xalxis sulis gamoxatuleba~, `mamuli~
xdeba, iZens iseT Rirebulebas, romelic gaaCnia mxolod sulieri
cxovrebis mqone adamianTa erTobliobas. is cnobierdeba `samSoblos~
cnebaSi, romelsac xalxi saukuneebis manZilze icavda da romelic
kvlav mis zrunvas da dacvas moiTxovs. erTi sityviT, is xdeba
kulturis fenomeni da misi erTianoba ganpirobebulia ara marto
meqanikurad, fizikurad, aramed sulierad enaSi. `teritoriis
erTianoba warmoadgens eris aucilebel niSans, misi formirebis
pirobas ara marto im obieqturi garemoebis gamo, rom xalxma unda
sadme erTad icxovros da awarmoos, imisaTvis, rom SesZlos erovnul
kulturul organizmSi gaerTianeba, aramed ZiriTadad imitom, rom
es teritoria, aTvisebuli da gardaqmnili xalxis mraval TaobaTa
saqmianobis Sedegad, morTuli misi materialuri da sulieri
kulturis ZeglebiT, uxvad morwyuli mis damcvelTa sisxliT,
RirebulebiT _ neitraluri geografiuli cnebidan gadaiqceva
mSobliuri saxlis, samSoblos, mamulis cnebad, mis cocxal
sivrcobriv-droiT velad saukunidan saukunemde~ (WavWavaZe: 147-
148) da es xdeba SesaZlebeli mxolod enis meSveobiT, davumatebdiT
Tamar berekaSvili
137
Cven, enis wyalobiT xdeba `samSoblos~, `mamulis~ cneba cocxal
sivrcobriv-droiT velad saukunidan saukunemde~.
Tu eris cnebis aucilebeli niSnebi _ saerTo ekonomikuri
cxovreba, erTiani teritoria _ Tavdapirvelad misgan daSorebuli,
garegani faqtorebia, iseTi niSnebi, rogorc ena da kulturaa,
moucilebelia misgan, misi Sinagani arsis gamoxatvas warmoadgenen,
misi sulis cocxal gamoxatulebas. amasTan, ena is Zalaa, romelic
qmnis, ayalibebs ers erad, uzrunvelyofs erovnuli xasiaTis
ganmtkicebas, eris gonebrivi, sulieri unaris warmoCenas. `erovnuli
Taviseburebis nebismieri Seswavla~ _ wers humboldti _ `romelic
ar iyenebs enas, rogorc damxmare saSualebas, iqneboda amao, vinaidan
mxolod enaSia STabeWdili mTeli erovnuli xasiaTi da, amasTan,
masSi, rogorc mocemuli eris urTierTobis saSualebaSi qrebian
individualobebi, raTa gamomJRavndes sayovelTao~ (uznaZe 1940:
353).
maSasadame, ena is sferoa, romelSic yvelaze srulad warmoCndeba
eris suli, iseve, rogorc erovnuli xasiaTi da erovnuli kultura,
magram erovnuli suli ar aris erovnuli xasiaTis sinonimuri
cneba, iseve rogorc erovnuli kulturisa, Tumca orive maTganSi
iCens Tavs.
rodesac xasiaTze laparakoben, Cveulebriv gulisxmoben
specifikur moqmedebas an nebelobas, romelic qcevas gansazRvravs,
qcevas ara marto warsulSi, aramed momavalSic. es qceva
damaxasiaTebelia ara marto calkeuli pirovnebisTvis, aramed
erisaTvisac, is gansxvavebulia sxva erebis, sxva xalxebis qcevisagan.
amdenad, erovnuli xasiaTic, romelic damaxasiaTebeli, Taviseburi,
individualuri qcevebis kompleqss warmoadgens, gansxvavebulia sxva
erebis erovnuli xasiaTisagan. es rodi niSnavs, rom erTi eri
xasiaTdeba iseTi niSnebiT, romlebic ucxoa sxva erisTvis. igive
niSnebiT, TvisebebiT SeiZleba xasiaTdebodes da xasiaTdeba kidec,
sxvadasxva erebi, magram sxvadasxvaa, Tu SeiZleba iTqvas, am niSnebis
xarisxobrioba, struqtura da, amdenad, gamovlenis formebi.
konkretuli xasiaTis aRniSvnisas igulisxmeba agreTve, rom is Tavs
iCens damaxasiaTebeli qcevis saxiT met-naklebad mudmivad. winaaRmdeg
SemTxvevaSi SeuZlebeli iqneboda misi gamoyofa, aRqma rogorc
individualurisa.
unda iTqvas, rom erovnuli xasiaTi ar aris eris Tandayolili
Tviseba, ise rogorc calkeuli xasiaTi, romelic warmoadgens,
d. uznaZis sityvebiT, `garkveul ganwyobaTa gamovlenis dispozicias~,
erovnuli ena, erovnuli kultura, erovnuli suli
138
Camoyalibebuls `garemos zemoqmedebis pirobebSi~ (ramiSvili 1980:
195). aseve erovnuli xasiaTic avlens erisTvis, xalxisTvis
damaxasiaTebel ganwyobebs, romlebmac eris Camoyalibebis procesSi
miiRes gansazRvruli tendenciebi, Tavisi raoba; maTi formireba
moxda garemos zemoqmedebis Sedegad da ara marto fizikuri garemosi,
aramed tradiciebis, e. i. mTlianad socialuri garemos gavleniT.
rac Seexeba erovnul suls, misi sazrisi kidev ufro bundovania
da Znelad aRsaweri. `marto is (erovnuli sulis Tavisebureba _
T. b.) rogorc is Seqmna bunebam da Camoayaliba garemoebebma,
gansazRvravs erovnul xasiaTs, marto am ukanasknelzea dafuZnebuli
yoveli Semoqmedeba eris istoriaSi, mis dawesebulebebSi, mis naazrevSi,
masSia aRbeWdili misi Zala da Rirseba, romelic memkvidreobiT
gadaecema misgan individebs~ (uznaZe 1940: 47).
maSasadame, erovnuli suli aris is Zala, is energia, romelic
Tavis gamovlenas konkretul xasiaTSi poulobs. suli sulierSi
iCens Tavs da sulierSi misi gamosaxva swored erovnuli xasiaTis
meSveobiT xdeba.
miuxadavad imisa, rom moxerxda erovnuli sulis da erovnuli
xasiaTis cnebebis gamijvna, zemoTqmulidan ar irkveva sulis da
sulieris, rogorc sulis gamoxatvis Sedegis sazrisi. sulis mravali
ganmarteba da daxasiaTeba arsebobs. TiToeuli maTgani calmxrivad
axasiaTebs suls da ar amowuravs im cnebas sulisas, romelic
xalxis qcevis masuldgmuleblad da ganmsazRvrelad SeiZleba
mogvevlinos. aRsaniSnavia kidev erTxel, rom xalxis suli metia,
vidre erovnuli xasiaTi. is safuZvlad udevs ara marto erovnul
xasiaTs, aramed erovnul kulturas, erovnul ideals, rac metia
erovnul xasiaTze. erovnul suli erTgvarad eris arsebobis
xangrZliobas, mis sicocxlisunarianobas ganapirobebs. rasakvirvelia
erovnuli xasiaTi gavlenas axdens erovnul kulturaze da erovnuli
idealis Camoyalibebaze, magram mas damoukidebeli sazrisi aqvs. is
SeiZleba hgavdes sxva msgavs pirobebSi mcxovrebi erebis erovnul
xasiaTs da ar unda iyos am mxriv SemTxveviTi laparaki samxreTelebis
temperamentze an CrdiloeTis mcxovrebTa TavSekavebul xasiaTze.
rac Seexeba erovnul suls, is meti abstraqtulobiT gamoirCeva,
idealuris sferos ganekuTvneba, amasTan is ufro calsaxad vlindeba
individualurSi.
g. Speti, romelic sulis ramdenime daxasiaTebas ixilavs, irCevs
iseTs, romelic, misi azriT, unda iyos eTnikuri fsiqologiis
Seswavlis sagani, ramdenadac warmoadgens xalxis qcevis ZiriTad
Tamar berekaSvili
139
maxasiaTebelTa krebuls, anu eTnikur xasiaTs: `suli (goni) aq
aRniSnavs erTgvar konkretul tips, stils, anu `tons~, misi saxiT
Cven gvaqvs ideis TvalnaTlivi, uSualod SegrZnebadi `xati~ rogorc
erTianoba. magram ara ganyenebul-logikuri da amasTan Taviseburad
koleqtiuri . . . es ar aris xanmokle mdgomareoba, aramed win
mimavali `forma~, romelic xatebSi beWdavs erTgvar ara marto
niSanTa mocemul erTianobas, aramed agreTve Tavis TavSi asaxavs
niSanTa mTel im masas, romelic Segrovda sulis istoriuli
`formirebis~ procesSi . . . `suli~ warmoadgens TiTqosda eqos
am cxovrebiseuli mravalsaxeobisa, pasuxs mis TiToeul bgeraze da
tonze, romelic moicavs mas srulad, magram gansakuTrebul simbolur
proecirebul korelaciebSi. amgvarad, `suli~ asaxavs sinamdviles
da avlens Cvens winaSe kondensirebuli saxiT, magram zustad, _
koleqtiuri organizaciis gancdebis erTgvar struqturas . . . ~
(Speti 1927: 90).
rogorc vxedavT, Spets xalxis suli, da amdenad erovnuli
suli warmoudgenia rogorc `xatSi~ gamosaxul raRac damaxasiaTebel
niSanTa, TvisebaTa erToblioba, `ideis~ anarekli, ramdenadac avtors
ara aqvs sagangebod aRniSnuli, icvleba Tu ara es `xati~, viTardeba
Tu ucvlelia, SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom is mocemulia erTxel da
samudamod, rom mas araferi aRar emateba. sinamdvileSi es ase ar
aris da es Spetis gansazRvrebidanac Cans, vinaidan `suli~ Tu
`goni~ warmoadgens `formas~, romelSic aRibeWda niSanTa mTeli
erToblioba, Segrovili `sulis~ Camoyalibebis istoriul procesSi,
amitom is unda icvlebodes. istoriuloba xom pirvel rigSi
cvlilebas gulisxmobs: erovnuli suli exmaureba eris cxovrebaSi
momxdar TiToeul movlenas. imisda mixedviT, Tu ramdenad mgrZnobiarea
is, ramdenad ZaluZs asaxos cxovrebis mTeli mravalferovneba, ramdenad
mdidaria aseTi asaxvis SesaZleblobebi, imdenad TavisTavadi,
sicocxlisunariani da mdidaria eri, erovnuli suli swored is
Zalaa, romelic ayalibebs erovnul xasiaTs, qmnis erisaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli qcevis formebs.
metad sagulisxmoa g. Spetis SeniSvna imis Taobaze, rom xalxis
suli asaxavs koleqtiuri organizaciis gancdebis erTgvar
struqturas. aRsaniSnavia, rom humboldtic Tvlis, rom mTavari
mizezi, ris gamoc man adamianis arsis gamosaxatavad amoirCia swored
sityva `suli~, mdgomareobs imaSi, rom es sityva gamoxatavs adamianis
grZnobier da zegrZnobier bunebas erTdroulad. `Zneli iyo mogvenaxa
gamoTqma, romelic gadmogvcemda adamianis arss erTdroulad zogadi
erovnuli ena, erovnuli kultura, erovnuli suli
140
da mainc specifikuri saxiT, iseTi sityvebis msgavsad, rogorc arsi
da Zala. imisaTvis, rom aseTi gamoTqma gamodges, is erTdroulad
unda mogvaniSnebdes mis grZnobier da zegrZnobier bunebaze, da
garda amisa, unda miuTiTebdes mis batonobaze am sferoebSi~ (Speti
1927: 343-344).
maSasadame, erovnuli suli, ise rogorc adamianis suli
warmoadgens im arss, romelic moicavs eris grZnobier da zegrZnobier
bunebas. amasTan, is aisaxeba konkretul xasiaTSi, romelic, Tavis
mxriv, vlindeba gansazRvrul, erisTvis damaxasiaTebel nebelobaSi,
qcevaSi da yalibdeba socialuri garemos gavleniT.
obieqturi samyaros kanonzomierebani Tanabrad vrceldeba
rogorc mTel bunebaze, samyaroze, ise adamianze. adamianis moqmedebani,
qceva emorCileba am obieqturi samyaros zemoqmedebas. jer kidev
Teoriul Secnobamde, cnobier aRqmamde garemo aisaxeba adamianis
qcevaSi da garkveuli mimarTulebiT warmarTavs mas. adamianSi
unikaluri saxiT mocemulia unari Seinaxos, gamoyos damokidebulebebi,
damaxasiaTebeli kanonzomieri kavSirebi, rac warmogvidgeba rogorc
erTgvari ganviTarebadi sistema, romelSic xdeba movlenebis asaxva.
aseTi asaxva SesaZlebelia moxdes, da xdeba kidec, enis meSveobiT.
ena warmoadgens im pirobas, romlis wyalobiTac mimdinareobs
adamianis praqtikis fiqsireba gaucxoebuli da amasTan qmediTi
saxiT. es asaxva da fiqsireba xdeba, d. ramiSvilis sityvebiT rom
vTqvaT, individualur cnobierebaSi. magram, ena ar warmoadgens erTi
adamianis unaris gamovlenas, is koleqtiuri qmedebis Sedegia. ena
aris swored erovnuli sulis gamovlena, erovnuli sulis
marealizebeli mxare. erovnuli sulis moqmedeba, konkretuli qmedeba,
individualuri gamovlena yovelTvis calkeuli konkretuli enaa,
amitom ena ganuyofelia erovnuli sulisagan: yvelgan, sadac laparakia
erovnul enaze, ueWvelad igulisxmeba erovnuli suli. amdenad savsebiT
kanonzomieria g. ramiSvilis SeniSvna `aq TiTqosda Seikra jadosnuri
wre: xalxis suli rogorc `umaRlesi principi~ apirobebs ra
enebis gansxvavebulobas da specifikas, Tavis mxriv, TviTon Txoulobs
axsnas enis meSveobiT~ (humboldti 1984: 10).
amgvarad, gamodis, rom xalxis suli Tavis konkretul
individualur gamovlinebebs Rebulobs enebis saxiT. rogorc zogads
SevicnobT konkretulis, erTeulis saxiT, ise xalxis suls SevicnobT
erovnuli enebis saxiT. am azriT enis pirveladoba ar niSnavs imas,
rom is TiTqosda mowyvetilia azrovnebas, erovnul xasiaTs, kulturas
da a. S. da rom es ukanasknelni mohyvebian droSi mas, rogorc
Tamar berekaSvili
141
kanonzomieri Sedegebi mizezs. ena mouwyvetelia azrovnebisagan,
erovnuli fsiqikisagan. isini urTierTganapirobeben erTmaneTs, magram
enaSi obieqturi kanonzomierebebis asaxvis dafiqsirebis, gaucxoebis
gareSe uazroa laparaki azrovnebaze, d. ramiSvilis sityvebiT: `enis
pirveladoba warmoadgens subieqtisagan damoukidebel obieqtur
kanonzomierebaTa adamianuri fsiqikis doneze asaxvis aucilebel
pirobas, sxva sityvebiT, asaxvis Teoriis principis ganxorcielebis
aucilebel pirobas~ (ramiSvili 1980: 165).
rodesac vixilavdiT sulis g. Spetiseul gansazRvrebas, vaxseneT
grZnobierebis momenti. sulis raobaSi, kerZod, misi grZnobadi da
zegrZnobadi buneba. es momenti Tavs iCens enaSic; ra wams Camoyalibda,
ena Tavis struqturaSi Seicavs grZnobad Sefasebebs. is gvevlineba
rogorc erTiani meqanizmi, erTiani qmnileba, romelSic Tavs iCens
adamiani, rogorc Camoyalibebuli pirovneba Tavisi azrovnebiTa da
grZnobebiT. fsiqologiaSi es debuleba d. ramiSvilTan iCens Tavs:
`enobrivi meqanizmis aucilebel momentebs warmoadgens agreTve
geStalti, geStaltqvaliteti da saerTod grZnobieri Rirebulebebis
qvalitetebi, romlebic gansazRvrul aspeqtSi erTiandebian erT
klasSi. saerTod damokidebulebebi, romlebic ar aris mocemuli
cnobierebaSi da amasTanave warmarTaven mis kanonzomier sityvier
gamoyenebas da sazogadod enobrivi procesi, da masTan erTad mTeli
misi cnobiereba aucileblad proecirdeba grZnobieri Sinaarsis
movlenebSi, da kerZod, mis geStaltur qvalitetSi, romelic
dakavSirebulia emocionalur procesTan, romelic Tavis mxriv Cndeba
subieqtSi am movlenis aRqmisas~ (ramiSvili 1984: 169).
ena ar Cndeba TandaTanobiT im azriT, rom jer Cndeba erTi
sityva, Semdeg meore; jer arsebiTi saxeli da Semdeg metyvelebis
sxva nawilebi. ena erTiani warmonaqmnia, romelic TandaTanobiT
ixveweba da mdidrdeba. magram misi struqtura imTaviTve
Camoyalibebulia. `adamiani adamiania mxolod enis wyalobiT da
imisaTvis, rom Seqmnas ena, is ukve unda iyos adamiani. rodesac
varaudoben, rom es procesi mimdinareobs TandaTanobiT,
TanmimdevrobiT da TiTqosda raRac rigiT, rom miRebuli enis
TiToeul axal nawilTan erTad adamiani sul ufro xdeba adamiani
da am gziT srulyofilebis Sedegad axerxebs moigonos enis axali
elementebi, ar iTvaliswineben adamianis cnobierebis, adamianis enis
ganuyofadobas, ar esmiT gonebis moqmedebis buneba . . .~ (uznaZe
1940: 314).
erovnuli ena, erovnuli kultura, erovnuli suli
142
amrigad, ena aris is, rac ganuyofelia adamianisagan, rac mas
adamianad xdis. magram amasTan ara erTeul gankerZoebul adamianad,
aramed raRac koleqtivis, adamianTa gansazRvruli jgufis _ tomis,
eris . . . wevrad. xalxis suli, adamianTa am gansazRvruli
erTobliobis Semqmneli da masuldgmulebeli, gvevlineba rogorc
misi ena.
ena Seiqmna, gaCnda adamianTa erTobliv cxovrebaze obieqturi
sinamdvilis, socialuri garemos zemoqmedebis pirobebSi, rogorc
am garemos asaxva da am asaxvis adgili aris individualuri
cnobiereba.
maSasadame, ena warmoadgens warmonaqmns, romelic axdens
socialuri gamocdilebis fiqsirebas. xalxis suli aZlevs adamianebs,
rogorc unikalur arsebebs, unars Seqmnas xarisxobrivad axali
sfero, iseTi warmonaqmni, rogoricaa ena, romelic asaxavs yvela
ZiriTad movlenas obieqtur samyaroSi, mTel socialur gamocdilebas.
aseTi asaxva xdeba ara marto enaSi, aramed kulturaSi, romelic
rogorc mTlianoba warmoadgens mainc meorad qmnilebas, Tumca
aqtiurad ukumoqmedebs enazec da adamianTa cnobierebazec, erovnuli
ena, erovnuli xasiaTi, erovnuli kultura warmoadgenen erTmaneTisagan
mouwyvetel urTierTganpirobebul movlenebs. amdenad, erovnuli suli
gvevlineba rogorc eris unikaluri bedi, Taviseburi individualuri
urTierTobebis gamocdileba, tradiciebi, obieqturi samyarosadmi
TavisTavadi midgoma, rac xorcieldeba enis safuZvelze, erovnuli
enis pirobebSi, misi uSualo zemoqmedebis Sedegad. amdenad erovnuli
suli SeiZleba warmovidginoT rogorc xatovani saxeli imis
aRsaniSnavad, rac ayalibebs ers mocemul erad, aZlevs mas unikalurobas,
TavisTavadobas, ayalibebs mis idealebs, Rirebulebebs, misias, e. i.
erTgvarad apirobebs mis momavals, uzrunvelyofs mocemuli eris
rogorc eris momavals.
da, bolos, enas rogorc eris Camoyalibebis pirobas, mis ganuyofel
mxares, unda gaaCndes funqciac. ena rogorc ena Tavs iCens metyvelebaSi,
is gvevlineba rogorc informaciis gadacemis saSualeba da adamianTa
urTierTobis saSualeba. magram marto amiT enis funqciebis
SemosazRvra ar iqneboda swori. samarTliania vaisgerberis cnobili
mosazreba, rom Tu enis daniSnulebas SemovsazRvravT mxolod da
mxolod urTierTobis saSualebiT, maSin unda vaRiaroT, rom
WianWvelebs, futkrebs, frinvelTa gundebs da sxvebs gaaCniaT ena,
rac, rasakvirvelia, ase ar aris, Tumca sityvas `urTierToba~ aq
pirobiTad Tu vixmarT.
Tamar berekaSvili
143
enas aqvs socialuri buneba. is adamianTa erToblivi qmedebiT,
erToblivi cxovrebis pirobebSi gaCnda da gaxda adamianis adamianad
Camoyalibebis pirobac da Sedegic. adamiani warmoudgenelia misi
enis gareSe. gaCnda ra adamianTa erToblivi Zalisxmevis Sedegad,
adamianTa jgufSi da gaxda ra erTgvarad obieqturi samyaros
asaxvisa da gansxvisebis, gaucxoebis saSualeba, enam adamians moutana
Tavisufleba, damoukideblad arsebobis Zala. enis meSveobiT
individualur cnobierebaSi xdeba samyaros asaxva; ena da misgan
mouwyveteli azrovneba uzrunvelyofen adamianis individualurobas,
Tavisuflebas aniWeben mas. da SemdgomSi, mxolod imis Semdeg, rac
gauCnda ena, rogorc Tavisufali pirovneba, rogorc individualuri
subieqti, adamiani xdeba informaciis gadacemis Semqmneli, urTierTobis
damyarebis unaris mqone masaviT gonier, cnobierebis mqone
individualur subieqtebTan.
aqedan gamomdinare, ena gvevlineba xalxTa urTierTobis
saSualebad. ara imitom rom is yvelaze mosaxerxebeli iaraRia
amisTvis, ris gamoc Seiqmna kidec, aramed is funqcias asrulebs,
ramdenadac warmoadgens adamianis adamianurobis, pirovnulobis sazoms,
aZlevs mas saSualebas gaiucxoos samyaro, gaiTavisuflos Tavi
misi mudmivi uSualo zegavlenisagan da mxolod amis Semdeg adamiani
Sedis kontaqtSi sxva adamianebTan Tavisufali gonieri SeTanxmebis
safuZvelze. ena yvelaze mosaxerxebelia amisTvis, imitom rom is
yvelaze adekvaturad gamoxatavs adamianis adamianurobas: misi
saSualebiT moxda socialuri gamocdilebis reprezentacia
cnobierebaSi da sruliad gasagebia, rom yvela enis, rogorc erTi
obieqturi samyaros amsaxvels, erTi da igive arsebis _ adamianis
cnobierebaSi aqvs saerTo; es aris logikuroba. `TiToeuli ena _
wers d. ramiSvili _ xasiaTdeba Tavisi midgomiT, Tavisi socialuri
gamocdilebiT. logikuri TiToeul enaSi aris is, rac mas saerTo
aqvs sxva enebTan, rac `rCeba igive~ yvela sxva enaSi. TiToeuli
enobrivi koleqtivis specifikuri gamocdileba qmnis Tanmyol
periferiul garemocvas logikuri mniSvnelobis irgvliv, garemocvis,
romelic modis am koleqtivebis socialur-istoriul situaciebidan~
(ramiSvili 1984: 57).
amrigad, ena gvevlineba rogorc eris damaxasiaTebeli
umniSvnelovanesi niSani, romelic ara marto warmoadgens sxva niSnebTan
erTad misi rogorc eris warmoqmnis safuZvels, aramed SemdgomSic
misi ganviTarebis aucilebeli pirobaa. enis ganviTareba mouwyvetelia
eris ganviTarebisagan, misi sikvdili eris sikvdils niSnavs, ramdenadac
enis gaqrobiT ifiteba da ikargeba erovnuli suli, romelic
masazrdoebeli da sicocxlismimcemia ara marto erovnuli enisa,
erovnuli ena, erovnuli kultura, erovnuli suli
144
aramed erovnuli kulturisaTvis, erovnuli xasiaTisa da erovnuli
fsiqikisaTvis. swored amitom TiToeuli adamiani pasuxismgebelia
Tavisi eris winaSe da sanam misi eris suli cocxalia, cocxalia
isic.
literatura
naTaZe 1984: naTaZe n. eri da erovnuli kultura. Tb., 1984.
ramiSvili 1984: . -
//
. . . . , 1984.
ramiSvili 1980: ramiSvili d. enobrivi procesebis fsiqologiuri
meqanizmi da Semecnebis Teoria. Tb., 1980.
uznaZe 1940: uznaZe d. zogadi fsiqologia. Tb., 1940.
Speti 1927: . . ., 1927.
humboldti 1984: .
. . , 1984.
WavWavaZe 1984: . . . ., 1984.
Tamar Berekashvili
National Language, National Culture, National Spirit
The question of the interrelationship between nation and language is rather
old, thought not completely studied. In our country the investigation of the problem
was carried out according to the for ever given scheme without objective approach,
which caused special effect nowadays, when the many regions of the country
suffer from the strained situation.
Language is the inseparable sign of nation like the national culture and national
mentality. National character reveals the national spirit. For all that, it is of primary
importance, but not in the sense that it had been formed before the thinking or the
culture or independently from them, but in the sense that without it, without
reflection, fixation, revealing in it objective development it would be meaningless
to speak about thought and culture.
As far as the national language is the most important manifestation of the
human spirit, the viability of those who speak these languages, display fortitude of
viability of their languages. The language of a nation, and consequently, the people
themselves are richer and possess vital capacity the fuller they express the public
values and their fate and how they are intertwined in the fate and the progress of
the mankind.
Tamar berekaSvili
145
nino doborjginiZe
TargmanTan dakavSirebuli
problemebis funqcionalizacia
sxvadasxva enaSi
antikuri da gvianantikuri periodis
saliteraturo-filosofiur tradiciaSi ama
Tu im problemasTan dakavSirebiT Camoyalibda
araerTi Tvalsazrisi, romelic konkretul
garemoebasTan da winapirobebTan iyo uSua-
lod dakavSirebuli. bevri maTgani yovelgvari
dasabuTebis gareSe gavrcelda Semdgom
epoqebSic, imis miuxedavad, axal pirobebSi
kidev moqmedebda Tu ara am Tvalsazrisis
Camomayalibebeli Tu maprovocirebeli wi-
napirobebi. Secvlil garemoebebSi damkvid-
rebis amgvari unariT gamorCeul Tvalsazriss
toposs uwodeben.
1
toposis moqnili buneba,
unari, iolad daimkvidros adgili axal-axal
konteqstebSi, martivad, yovelgvari Za-
lisxmevis gareSe, warmarTavda misi funq-
cionalizaciis process. winamdebare naSromSi
Sevexebi enasTan, ufro sworad, TargmanTan
dakavSirebul erT toposs, romelic antikuri
periodidan moyolebuli gviani Sua sauku-
neebis CaTvliT vrceldeboda erTmaneTisgan
sakmaod daSorebul geografiul, kulturul
da religiur sivrceSi msgavsi formiT da
sxvadasxva funqciuri datvirTviT. misi Ca-
moyalibeba uSualod ukavSirdeboda im lin-
gvistur Tu mTargmnelobiT problemebs,
ilia WavWavaZis univer-
sitetis humanitaruli da
kulturis kvlevebis fa-
kultetis asocirebuli
profesori.
interesTa sfero:
antikurobisa da Sua sau-
kuneebis gramatologia,
sociolingvistika.
ZiriTadi publikaciebi:
Die identittsfindende
Funktion der Sprache und
bersetzungsprobleme bei
den altgeorgischen Exege-
ten, in: F. Paul (Hg.), Mus-
ter und Funktionen kultu-
reller Selbst und Fremdwah-
rnehmung, Gttingen, 2000.
Die Argumente gegen die
Bibelbersetzung in die
Volkssprache und ihre
Nachwirkung auf die
Entwicklung des Georgi-
schen in den 10.-12. Jh., in:
Kaukasische Sprachpro-
bleme, Hrsg. v. Winfried
Boeder, Oldenburg 2003.
diamerizmebi da TxuTmeti
samwerlo enis toposi
(uZvelesi cnobebi iberiu-
li damwerlobis Sesaxeb.
JurnalSi: literatura
da sxva, Tbilisi 2005
weli. 1
toposi evropuli samecniero tradiciis erT-erTi
produqtuli terminTagania. vfiqrob, mizanSewonilia
am saxiT misi damkvidreba qarTul samecniero enaSic.
146
romlebic Tan axlda berZnulidan laTinurad sxvadasxva tipis
teqstebis (gansakuTrebiT filosofiuris) adekvaturad Targmnas.
Egestas linguae, egestas patrii sermonis (enis siRaribe,
mSobliuri enis siRaribe)
1
es iyo Tvalsazrisi, romelic
Tavdapirvelad filosofiasa da ritorikaSi gawafuli berZnuli
enis gamomxatvelobiT SesaZleblobaTa laTinurad gadmotanisas
gaCenil problemebs asaxavda, ufro sworad, im sirTuleebis aRiarebis
erTgvari forma iyo, romlebic mTargmnel enaSi axali cnebebisa da
maTi ekvivalenti terminologiis damuSavebas axlavs Tavs. Nostra
lingua, quae dicitur inops (Cveni ena, romlis Sesaxeb amboben, rom is aris
Raribi) ciceronis es sityvebi (Zv. w.a. 69 w.) aris pirveli
wyaro, romelSic laTinuri enis siRaribis toposia dafiqsirebuli.
2
winamdebare naSromSi Sevecdebi vaCveno, Tu ra roli iTamaSa am
toposma sxvadasxva kulturul da religiur garemoSi da rogor
daamsgavsa erTmaneTs sruliad gansxvavebul enaTa e. w. garegani
istoriis calkeuli etapi.
enebi ara marto Sinagani kanonzomierebebiT, Sinagani istoriiT
SeiZleba hgavdes erTmaneTs, aramed socialuri da sazogadoebrivi
funqciebis mixedviT ganviTarebis kanonzomierebebiT, anu maTi garegani
istoriiTac. Tu Sinagani kanonzomierebebis mixedviT sistemuri
msgavseba mkacrad gansazRvrul genetikur winapirobas emyareba,
socialuri da sazogadoebrivi funqciebis, anu garegani ganviTarebis
mixedviT msgavseba sulac ar aris damokidebuli sisxliT naTesavur
kavSirebze; umetes SemTxvevaSi es aris sruliad gansxvavebuli
bunebis mqone enaTa qcevis erTnairi (an Zalian msgavsi) wesi, da,
Sesabamisad, erTnairi an msgavsi statusis, funqciebisa da gavrcelebis
sferoebis mopovebis istoria.
amjerad swored gansxvavebuli imanenturi bunebis mqone enaTa
qcevis saerTo wess Sevexebi. qarTuli enis istoriuli
sociolingvistikisa da zogadad kulturologiur sakiTxebs, kerZod
misi legitimaciis calkeul etapebs, ganvixilav laTinuri, siriuli
da saeklesio slavuri enebis garegani istoriis zogad
kanonzomierebaTa konteqstSi. amasTan dakavSirebiT Sevexebi:
1). am toposis funqcionalizaciis magaliTebs antikuri,
gvianantikuri da Sua saukuneebis laTinurenovani wyaroebis mixedviT;
1
wyaroebi, romlebSic laTinuri enis siRaribis toposi aisaxa, Seswavlili aqvs
m. miuler-vetcels. ix. Mller-Wetzel 2000: 120-145.
2
ix. Cicero, Pro Caecina 51,2.
nino doborjginiZe
147
2) am toposis transformaciis SemTxvevebs qristianuli
aRmosavleTis gansxvavebul religiur, lingvistur, sociokulturul
da istoriul sivrceSi (siriuli, qarTuli, saeklesio slavuri).
konkretul sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT dawvrilebiT Sevexebi im
lingvistur da Teologiur winapirobebs, romelTa fonze mSobliuri
enis siRaribisa da gonierTa xedvaTa mommarjve (iovane petriwi)
berZnulis gatolebis toposi damkvidrda Zvel qarTul tradiciaSi.
qarTuli enis istoriuli sociolingvistikis am da sxva
sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT sagangebod unda aRvniSno erTi mniSvnelovani
garemoeba: wyaroebi, romelTa mixedviT SesaZlebeli xdeba qarTuli
enis siRaribis toposis Sesaxeb saubari, berZnulidan qarTulad
Sesrulebuli pirveli naTargmni teqstebis Tanadrouli ki ar
aris (araugvianes V saukunisa), anu im periodisa, roca qarTul
enaSi realurad gaCnda axali cnebebisa da axali mimarTebebis
gadmotanis sirTuleebi, aramed gviandeli (X-XII saukuneebisa), roca
am cnebaTa aRmniSvneli terminebis gaazrebuli ganxilva, berZnuli
terminebis qarTuli ekvivalentebis sistematizaciis procesi daiwyo.
Targmanis istoriis pirveli etapis, anu dReisaTvis cnobili yvelaze
adreuli Targmanebis Sesaxeb araviTari Teoriuli xasiaTis wyaro,
komentarebi da Sefasebebi ar gagvaCnia. rogorc a. xaranauli miuTiTebs,
I etapze Sesrulebuli Targmanebi spontanuri da intuiciuri unda
yofiliyo.
1
es ki TavisTavad gamoricxavs mTargmnelTa mxridan
TargmanTan dakavSirebuli lingvisturi Tu sxva saxis Teoriuli
sakiTxebis analizs, Sesabamisad, enis siRaribis toposis gaCenas da
mis gamoyenebas sxvadasxva funqciuri datvirTviT. niSandoblivia
isic, rom aRmosavleT qristianobis zemoTdasaxelebul sali-
teraturo tradiciebSi, kerZod, siriulSi, somxursa da saeklesio
slavurSi, am enebis siRaribis, TargmanTa koreqtirebisa da berZnulTan
maTi gatolebis toposi SedarebiT gviandelia da, qarTulis msgavsad,
TargmanTa gaazrebul analizsa da mSobliur enaze cnebaTa aRmniSvneli
terminebis sistematizaciis process ukavSirdeba.
1
Sdr. rodesac Cven wminda werilis pirveli Targmanis meTodze vlaparakobT,
sruliadac ar igulisxmeba, rom mTargmnels hqonda garkveul principebze
dafuZnebuli Targmanis meTodi. Cven mxolod im principebze vlaparakobT, romelTac
Tavadve gamovyofT teqstSi. Targmanis I etapze mTargmnelis amocana cxadi da
martivi iyo: zustad eTargmnaT RvTis sityva. raSi unda gamoxatuliyo es
sizuste da ra xarisxisa unda yofiliyo igi, es sagangebo Teoriuli gansjis
sagani albaT arc yofila. mTargmnelebi yoveli calkeuli SemTxvevisTvis intu
iciurad irCevdnen Targmanis princi ps. amgvari xasiaTis gamo pirvel Targmanebs
SeiZleba spontanuri an intuiciuri vuwodoT ... SemdgomSi, roca intuiciuri
Wvreta analitikurma azrovnebam Secvala da bibliis teqsti polemikis iaraRi
gaxda, Targmanis dedanTan siaxlove ukve iseT principad iqca, romelic konkretul
detalebSi gamoixata (xaranauli 2005: 36).
TargmanTan dakavSirebuli problemebis funqcionalizacia sxvadasxva enaSi
148
1. laTinuri enis siRaribis toposi da misi funqcio-
nalizacia sxvadasxva epoqaSi
Zneli saTqmelia, laTinuri enis siRaribis toposis
Camoyalibebas uZRoda Tu ara win msgavsi intuiciuri, spontanuri
Targmanis pirveli periodi, rogorc es aRmosavleT qristianuli
samyaros enebis SemTxvevaSi. es sakiTxi calke msjelobis sagania
da pirveli laTinuri Targmanebis winapirobaTa sagangebo analizs
moiTxovs. amjerad me veyrdnobi mkvlevarTa umetesobis mier
gaziarebul Tvalsazriss, rom es toposi wyaroebSi dokumentirebulad
dadasturebulia ciceronidan moyolebuli da rom is sakmaod
Zveli da gaziarebuli Tvalsazrisi unda yofiliyo.
1
amaze metyvelebs
formulirebaTa gasaocari siuxve antikur da gvianantikur xanaSi:
Haec inops lingua, Nostra lingua, quae dicitur inops (Cicero); Egestas linguae,
egestas patrii sermonis (Lucretius); Inopia ac potius ut Lucretius ait egestate
patrii sermonis (Plinius); Latini sermonis angustiae, Inopia sermonis nostri,
Latinae linguae paupertas (Hieromymus), Paupertas sermonis, (Quintilianus).
2
sawyis etapze, roca Targmnis procesTan dakavSirebiT gamoiTqmeba
Tvalsazrisi enis siRaribis Sesaxeb, is adekvaturad Tu ara,
gazviadebulad mainc asaxavs realobas, im problemebs, rac teqstis
da gansakuTrebiT cnebis aRmniSvneli terminis gadmoRebas axlavs
Tan. magram roca toposi misi Camomayalibebeli winapirobebisa da
argumentaciis gareSe vrceldeba sxvadasxva epoqaSi, cxadia, iqmneba
sruliad gansxvavebuli konteqsti: ciceronis, kvintilianesa da
hieronimes epoqis laTinuri swored ritorikuli figurebisa da
gamomxatvelobiTi saSualebebis gasaocari simdidriT gamoirCeoda
da ara siRaribiT. miuxedavad amisa, mas ama Tu im axali cnebis
gamosaxatavad winaswar gamzadebuli terminebi ar gaaCnda. swored
am process, enaSi axali terminis damkvidrebas, aiolebda es toposi;
aqedan gamomdinare, unda vilaparakoT ara axal konteqstSi, axal
realobaSi toposis Sesabamisobisa da adekvaturobis, aramed misi
funqcionalizaciisa da sxvadasxva pirobebSi transformaciis Sesaxeb.
1
amis dasturad m. miuler-vetcels mohyavs am toposTan dakavSirebul erT-erT
konteqstSi ciceronisave gamonaTqvami: Ut vulgo putarent (rogorc sazogadod
fiqroben). Sdr. Das lateinische sei eine arme Sprache diese Annahme ist seit Cicero
bis in die Neuzeit hinein immer wieder vertreten und begrndet worden. Zwar fehlen
Belege, die die Existenz dieser Annahme fr die frhen Epochen der lateinischen Literatur
nachweisen, doch lassen die Formulierungen, mit denen dem Leser der antiken Texte die
Armut der lateinischen Sprache vorgefhrt wird, darauf schlieen, dass es sich um einen
verbreiteten und alten Allgemeinplatz handelt. (M. Mller-Wetzel 2000: 120).
6
romael avtorTa gamonaTqvamebi damowmebulia m. miuler-vetcelis dasaxelebuli
naSromis mixedviT (Mller-Wetzel 2000: 121).
nino doborjginiZe
149
ras niSnavda ciceronisTvis toposi: laTinuri ena aris
Raribi? bunebrivia, rom axali cnebis, axali mimarTebebis gaCenasTan
erTad ena an sesxulobs cnebis aRmniSvnel termins, an Tavad
awesebs am cnebisTvis saxels sakuTari leqsikuri maragisa da
gamomxatvelobiTi saSualebebis mixedviT. ismis kiTxva: maS ratom
examuSeba mTargmnels aseTi bunebrivi procesi da ratom miuTiTebs
mSobliuri enis siRaribis Sesaxeb? zemoTdasaxelebul avtorTa
fragmentebis gamowvlilviT Seswavlam aCvena,
1
rom TiToeuli am
avtorTagan or ZiriTad problemas gamoyofs:
a). berZnuli leqsika ufro mravalferovania, vidre laTinuri,
b). gansakuTrebiT rTulia zogierTi berZnuli terminisTvis
adekvaturi Sesatyvisis moZebneba, enaSi axali terminis Seqmnas da
damkvidrebas ki bevri sirTule axlavs Tan.
romauli apologetikidan moyolebuli es toposi ritorikuli
figuris funqcias iZens: aramarto cnebis aRmniSvneli terminis
sesxebis an enaSi misi ekvivalentis damkvidrebisas, aramed nebismier
SemTxvevaSi, roca ama Tu im Sinaarsis gadmocemis formalur mxareze
surT yuradRebis gamaxvileba, mTargmnelebi moiSvelieben am toposs,
raTa erTgvari TavmdablobiT xazi gausvan sakuTar ostatobas,
maRal profesionalizms.
saintereso transformacia ganicada am toposma gvianantiku-
robisa da adreuli Sua saukuneebis laTinur patristikaSi. Targmanis
gamomxatvelobiTi saSualebebidan aqcenti amjerad Sinaarsobriv
mxareze, wminda Teologiur sakiTxebze, gadavida da ritorikul
formulad qceuli egestas patrii sermonis axali funqciebiT daitvirTa:
igi srulfasovani argumenti gaxda Teologiur polemikaSi. amis
mkafio magaliTia rufinusis komentari, romelic exeba origenes
Txzulebis: Peri; aj rcw n hieronimeseul laTinur Targmans. rufinusi,
erTis mxriv, ganadidebs hieronimes da, meores mxriv, icavs origenes
teqsts, romlis sidiade da namdvili Zala ver warmoCnda laTinur
TargmanSi srulyofilad Cveni enis siRaribis gamo.
2
1
amis Sesaxeb ix. Hille-Coates 2000b: 206-238, gansakuTrebiT gv. 215-234; H.-J.
Hartung 1970.
2
Sdr. da me meSinia, rom Cemi SecdomiT es adamiani [igulisxmeba origene],
romelsac is [hieronime] mociqulebis Semdeg damsaxurebulad Tvlida Tavis
meore maswavleblad sibrZnesa da mecnierebaSi, Cveni enis siRaribis gamo ufro
umniSvnelod warmoCndeba (Unde vereor, ne vitio meo id accidat, ut is vir, quem ille
alterum post apostolos ecclesiae doctorem scientiae merito conprobavit, inopia sermonis
nostri longe se inferior videatur), Hieronymus, Epist. 80. sxvadasxva epoqaSi am toposis
transformaciis calkeuli magaliTebi ganxilulia m. miuler-vetcelis
zemoTdasaxelebul naSromSi.
TargmanTan dakavSirebuli problemebis funqcionalizacia sxvadasxva enaSi
150
mniSvnelovani funqciiT gamodioda enis siRaribis toposi
adamianTa Tavdapirveli enis da sami wminda enis Sesaxeb diskusiebSic.
es ori diskusia mWidrod ukavSirdeboda erTmaneTs da gvianan-
tikurobidan moyolebuli aqtualuri iyo TiTqmis XVIII-XIX
saukuneebamde, sanam daiwyebdnen indoevropulis, rogorc mecnieruli
kriteriumebiT aRwerili protoenis, Seswavlas. bunebrivia, rom am
periodSi enaTa warmoSobasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs
1
filosofiur-
Teologiur diskursSi ganixilavdnen da Semecnebis Teoriisa da
wminda istoriis
2
problemebs ukavSirebdnen. marTalia, bibliaSi
versad vipoviT pirdapir pasuxs kiTxvaze, Tu romel enaze la-
parakobda adami, magram adreqristianul patristikul literaturaSi
mainc erTxmad gaziarebuli Cans Tvalsazrisi, rom adamis ena ebrauli
iyo.
3
es Tvalsazrisi gansakuTrebiT myaria laTinurenovan patris-
tikaSi: TiTqmis yvela avtori erTxmad aRiarebs ebraulis pirvelobas
da miiCnevs, rom laTinuri swored kacobriobis Tavdapirvel enas,
ebrauls, mihyveba.
4
Tvalsazrisi, rom ebrauli kacobriobis Tavdapirveli enaa,
5
safuZvlad daedo bibliur istoriografias da mTeli Sua saukuneebis
ganmavlobaSi sayovelTaod gaziarebuli Cans: hieronimeTi dawyebuli
1
Tavdapirveli enis, enaTa da xalxTa urTierTmimarTebis, enaTa legitimaciis
Sesaxeb sxvadasxva kulturul tradiciaSi ix. a. borstis monumenturi naSromi:
Borst 1957-1963; aseve: Hille-Coates 2000a: 129-147; Eco 1997; doborjginiZe 2000: 20-
27.
2
rogorc cnobilia, babilonisdroindeli ambebis interpretaciiT religiurma
istoriografiam ax. w.a. I saukunidan moyolebuli msoflios xalxebi or
nawilad gayo: istoriis namdvil Svilebad, anu wminda istoriis monawile
samocdaTormet (zogierTi wyaros mixedviT samocdaaT) xalxad da danarCen
samyarod, e.w. istoriis gerebad (Sdr. Borst 1957, I: 292).
3
rac Seexeba siriul da, saerTod, aRmosavleT qristianul tradiciaSi gavrcelebul
Tvalsazriss, rom ara ebrauli aramed siriuli aris kacobriobis Tavdapirveli
ena, igi SedarebiT gvian gaCnda garkveul Teologiur konteqstSi da siriuli
enis ebraulTan gatolebas isaxavda miznad. amis Sesaxeb ix. doborjginiZe
2007a: 92-100.
4
Sdr. hieronime, mcire winaswarmetyvelTa wignis erT-erTi komentari: Id quod
diximus nugas, sciamus in Hebraeo ipsum Latinum esse sermonem, et propterea a nobis ita
ut in Hebraeo erat positum, ut nosse possimus linguam Hebraicam omnium linguarum esse
matricem (Adrian 1970: 708). Et sicut ante aedificationem turris fuit, quando una lingua
omnes populi loquebantur (Adrian 1970:700). avgustine: Quando autem erat una, nihil
aliud, quam humana lingua vel humana locutio vocabatur, qua sola universum genus
humanum loquebatur (Augustinus Hipponensis, De civitate Dei, in: Dombart-Kalb 1955:
48).
5
patristikul literaturaSi Tavdapirveli enis Sesaxeb gamoTqmuli
Tvalsazrisebis mimoxilva ix. Hille-Coates 2000a: 129-147.
nino doborjginiZe
151
dantes CaTvliT yovelgvari argumentaciis gareSe amtkiceben, rom
adamma pirveli sityva el RmerTis saxeli, ebraulad warmoTqva.
Sdr. metyvelebis am saxeobiT laparakobda adami; metyvelebis am
saxeobiT laparakobda misi yvela STamomavali babilonis godlis
mSeneblobamde. godlisa, romelic aRrevis godlad ganimarteba.
metyvelebis es saxeoba memkvidreobiT miiRes heberis Zeebma, romlebic
aqedan moyolebuli ebraelebad iwodnen. isini aseTebad (anu am
enaze molaparakeebad) darCnen enaTa aRrevis Semdegac, raTa maT
Soris adamianad dabadebuli Cveni mxsneli ara aRreulTa, aramed am
[Tavdapirveli] eniT damtkbariyo.
1
berZnulTan da laTinurTan erTad ebrauli sagangebo
argumentebis safuZvelze
2
wminda enad, bibliis enad iyo aRiarebuli
da mas sami wminda enis, anu trilingvitas, ierarqiul rigSi pirveli
adgili ekava. amis miuxedavad, gvianantikurobisa da adreuli Sua
saukuneebis patristikuli literatura mainc eWvqveS ayenebda
ebrauli da laTinuri enebis berZnulTan Tvisobrivi Tanasworobis
argumentebs. igi samarTlianad Tvlida, rom ebrauli sakmaod viwrod
SemosazRvruli erTobis, iudaizmis, identobis simboloa da ara
qristianuli universalizmis; trilingvitas konteqstSi mas ufro
simboluri datvirTva hqonda qristes gziT gadalaxul warsuls
ganasaxierebda da, amdenad, mas wminda enis ara realuri, aramed
sapatio tituli ergeboda.
3
laTinurTan mimarTebiT trilingvitas
konteqstSi axali datvirTviT Semodis misi siRaribis argumenti.
erTi SexedviT situacia ar Secvlila: axalgazrda laTinur enas
isev berZnulTan SedarebiT siRaribes sayveduroben. erT-erT
werilSi hieronime SeniSnavs: SenTvis davSveri da msurda, rom
berZnuli enis simdidre Rarib laTinur enaSi momeTavsebina.
4
1
Hac forma locutionis locutus est Adam; hac forma locutionis locuti sunt omnes posteri
eius usque ad aedificationem turris Babel, quae turris confusionis interpretatur; hanc
formam locutionis hereditati sunt filii Heber, qui ab eo dicti sunt Hebrei. Hiis solis post
confusionem remansit, ut Redemptor noster, qui ex illis oriturus erat secundum humanitatem,
non lingua confusionis, sed gratie frueretur ( Mengaldo 1979: 2, I, VI).
2
laTinur patristikaSi SemuSavebuli sami wminda enis, anu trilingvitas
Teoria ebrauls, berZnulsa da laTinurs gamorCeul statuss aniWebda e. w.
wminda argumentebis moSveliebiT. pirveli argumenti Tanabrad exeboda samive
enas da gaxldaT is, rom qristes jvris cnobili warwera ebraulad berZnulad
da laTinurad iyo Sesrulebuli. meore argumenti gansxvavebuli iyo TiTeuli
enis SemTxvevaSi:asaki, rjuli (Leges, aetas) kacobriobis Tavdapirveli enis,
ebraulis siwmindis argumenti iyo, sibrZne da mecniereba (Sapiens) berZnulis,
xolo romaelTa sayovelTao Zalaufleba (Imperium Romanum) laTinuris.
3
berZnul-.laTinuri wyaroebis analizi ix. Hille-Coates 2000a: 129-147.
4
Tibi enim meum sudauit ingenium et facundiam Graecam Latinae linguae uolui paupertate
pensare. (Hieronymus, Epistulae LXXI-CXX, in: Hilberg 1910: 395).
TargmanTan dakavSirebuli problemebis funqcionalizacia sxvadasxva enaSi
152
trilingvitas konteqstSi araerTi avtori axsenebs laTinuris
siRaribes da gamoucdelobas rogorc berZnulTan, aseve ebraulTan
mimarTebaSi. iovane beleti 1182 wels daweril erT-erT komentarSi
werda: es sityva [igulisxmeba ebrauli warmomavlobis sityva
aleluia] meti Rirsebis mqonea ebrauli enis ufro Rirseulobis
gamo, magram es ki [igulisxmeba aleluias laTinuri Sesatyvisi]
naklebad Rirseulia, vinaidan is laTinuria da [Sesabamisad] Raribi
eniT aris [gadmocemuli].
1
yovelive amis fonze, roca laTinuri enis siRaribis toposi
sakmaod aqtualuria da sxvadasxva funqciuri datvirTviT moqmedebs,
merve saukunidan moyolebuli, trilingvitas SigniT Cndeba axali
ierarqiuli rigi: laTinuri, berZnuli, ebrauli. igi pirvelad
klasikuri ierarqiis (ebrauli, berZnuli, laTinuri) paralelurad
moqmedebs, Semdeg ki srul aRiarebas moipovebs. trilingvitas
klasikuri ierarqia gansakuTrebiT miuRebeli iyo laTinuri
koinesTvis, romlis adgili am TanamimdevrobaSi adekvaturad ver
asaxavda realur situacias. laTinuri koines integratulma funqciam,
ufro metad ki am enis siwmindis argumentma romaelTa Zalauflebam
(Imperium Romanum) TandaTanobiT Secvala trilingvitas
ierarqiuli rigi yvelaze axalgazrda da erT dros siRaribis
iarliyiT gamorCeuli laTinuris sasargeblod. amgvari markirebuli
gacvla gardauvali Canda im pirobebSi, roca sakmaod SezRuduli
iyo ebraulis SesaZleblobebi, yofiliyo qristianuli religiis
universalurobis simbolo, xolo laTinuris, rogorc kulturis,
religiisa da saurTierTo zenacionaluri enis integratul funqcias
veraferi zRudavda, TviT berZnulis Tvisobrivi upiratesobac ki.
2
zemoTqmulidan aSkaraa, rom Egestas linguae, egestas patrii
sermonis aris transformaciisa da funqcionalizaciis gansakuT-
rebuli unariT gamorCeuli toposi, romelic iolad ergeba Secvlil
garemoebebs, yovelgvari argumentaciis gareSe imkvidrebs adgils
da axal-axal konteqstebs gansazRvravs. antikurobisa da adreqris-
1
Illa est auctorizabilior propter auctoritatem Hebraici sermonis, ista vero indignior, quia
Latina et in paupere (Douteil 1976: 146).
2
wminda enebze berZnulis Tvisobrivi upiratesoba sayovelTaod gaziarebuli
Cans berZnulenovan patristikaSi. erTaderTi ena, romelsac ZaluZs srulyofilad
gamoTqvas am religiis saidumlo, aris berZnuli werda basili didi Tavis
214-e epistoleSi terenciusis mimarT: l.,. :. u , . u vccc.--c. u c. c u
cu . . c., -c. cu ., . -.. ., u v.cjj .c. . c v j - Au c..- c :.`. ,. . . -
c.. . j - . cu. . ,`. j- u ,. ..., j - u c. c- .c j '|``c :. ..j
vc,c:.:. -cc.. (Migne 1857, t. 32: 789).
nino doborjginiZe
153
tianuli periodis zemoT ganxilul orive opoziciaSi (yovel
SemTxvevaSi es exeba opoziciuri wyvilis formirebis periods)
siRaribe laTinuris arasasurveli iarliyi iyo. Sdr.
originalis mdidari ena (berZnuli) Targmanis Raribi ena
(laTinuri)
sam wminda enaTagan simdidriT gamorCeuli ena (berZnuli)
siRaribiT gamorCeuli ena (laTinuri).
mdgomareoba radikalurad icvleba sxva sibrtyeze: opoziciaSi
Sua saukuneebis laTinuri / adgilobrivi xalxuri enebi
siRaribis iarliyi laTinuridan xalxur enebze gadadis da enaTa
funqciuri diferencirebis argumentad iqceva:
laTinuri, rogorc liturgiis da bibliis
1
sanqcionirebuli
ena, da, amdenad, funqciuri TvalsazrisiT maRal safexurze mdgomi,
funqciurad SedarebiT dabal safexurze mdgomi adgilobrivi
xalxuri enebi.
2
xalxuri enis siRaribis toposma, anu lingvisturma
argumentma, wminda werilis TargmnasTan dakavSirebul meore,
Teologiur argumentTan erTad, Sua saukuneebSi mniSvnelovnad
gansazRvra laTinuri enis spiritualuri imperializmi da
sakramentaluri kulti.
3
marTalia, romis eklesias xalxurenovani
Targmanis sawinaaRmdego sayovelTao ediqti ar gamoucia da
akrZalvebs lokaluri xasiaTi hqonda,
4
magram faqtia, rom bibliis
TargmanTan dakavSirebul diskusiaSi es toposi kidev erTi axali
funqciiT warmoCnda, rogorc sakmaod damajerebeli argumenti. romis
1
is faqti, rom vulgatam eklesiis kanonikuri teqstis funqcia SeiZina, cxadia,
ar gamoricxavda romis saeklesio sivrceSi xalxurenovani Targmanebis arsebobas.
marto germanulenovan samyaroSi reformaciamde 18 xalxurenovani beWduri
Targmani da bevrad meti xelnaweri Targmani arsebobda, oRond arcerTi maTgani
ar iyo aRiarebuli, rogorc eklesiis kanonikuri teqsti, rogorc liturgiaSi
gamosayenebeli biblia; amgvar Targmans ufro saswavlo, egzegetikuri funqcia
hqonda.
2
marTalia, sakmaod adre, VIII saukunidan dadasturebulia werilobiT fiqsirebuli
teqstebi adgilobriv enaze (ix. Feldbusch 1985), bibliis glosarebi da sxva saxis
literatura, magram, rogorc zemoT vTqvi, es teqstebi mxolod damxmare mniSvnelobisa
iyo da konkurencias ver uwevda religiis, literaturis, mecnierebisa da saurTierTo
universalur laTinurs.
3
Gerl 1985: 327-336.
4
amgvari akrZalvebi miiRes tuluzis 1229 wlis sinodze, taragonaSi 1234 wlis
konsiliumze, aseve 1246 wlis konsiliumze; amave mizans isaxavda 1369 wils
karlos IV-is ediqti, maincis mTavarepiskoposis, berTold henebergis 1484 wlis
22 martis edikti da sxva.
TargmanTan dakavSirebuli problemebis funqcionalizacia sxvadasxva enaSi
154
erTiani eklesia miiCnevda, rom xalxuri ena uZluria, gadmosces is
urTulesi Sinaarsi, rasac filosofiasa da ritorikaSi gawafuli,
mdidari gamomxatvelobiTi saSualebebis mqone wminda enebi
gadmoscems,
1
amitom xalxurenovani Targmani sxva funqciiT unda
arsebobdes: ara eklesiis kanonikuri teqsti, liturgiaSi
gamosayenebeli biblia, aramed rogorc egzegetikuri, saswavlo,
damxmare funqciis mqone Targmani, romelsac gaunaTlebeli
mrevlisTvis martivad unda aexsna wminda werilis Sinaarsi. maincis
mTavarepiskoposi berTold henebergi 1484 wlis 22 martis sacenzuro
ediktSi mkacrad akritikebda bibliis xalxurenovan Targmanebs,
rogorc Rarib enaze arasrulfasovnad gadmocemul RvTis sityvas:
da bolos, ra unda vTqvaT wminda wignebisa da saeklesio kanonebis
Sesaxeb? ... ra unda vTqvaT danarCeni mecnierebebis Sesaxeb? ...
amgvarma mTargmnelebma, Tuki isini WeSmaritebisTvis zrunaven, ...
unda aRiaron, SeuZlia Tu ara germanul enas gamoxatos igive Sinaarsi,
igive ram, rasac saukeTeso berZeni da romaeli avtorebi udidesi
sizustiTa da siRrmiT gadmoscemen rogorc qristianuli religiis,
aseve sxva mecnierebebis Sesaxeb. unda vaRiaroT, rom Cveni enis
siRaribe amis saSualebas ar iZleva; amitom gardauvalia, rom isini
an axal, ucnob sityvebs gamoigoneben (es ki niSnavs, rom mkiTxvelisTvis
gaugebari darCeba Targmani), an, Tu Zvel, tradiciul gamoTqmebs
gamoiyeneben, WeSmarit mniSvnelobas Seryvnian. wminda werilis
SemTxvevaSi ki Cven gansakuTrebiT gveSinia amgvari ramis. vin daexmareba
mrevls, gaunaTlebel adamianebs da qalebs, romelTa xelSi es
Targmanebi moxvdeba, rom masSi WeSmariti codna (Semecneba) dainaxon?
2
rogorc vxedavT, enis siRaribis toposi opoziciaSi: dasavleTis
eklesiis sayovelTao ena laTinuri / adgilobrivi xalxuri enebi
aramarto funqcias, adresatsac icvlis da toposis mTavari
atributi siRaribe, rogorc Targmanis damabrkolebeli piroba,
laTinuridan meqanikurad gadadis am axal adresatze adgilobriv
xalxur enebze. sxva winapirobebTan erTad, swored am toposis
funqcionirebasTan dakavSirebulma procesebma daakanona laTinuris
upiratesoba, kerZod, is, rom Sua saukuneebis mTeli samecniero
literatura, Teologiuri da didaqtukuri literaturis udidesi
nawili, specialuri dargobrivi literatura, samarTlismcodneobisa
1
xalxurenovani Targmanis funqciisa da maTi sawinaaRmdego argumentebis
dawvrilebiTi analizi ix. Hille-Coates: 2000b; Stackmann 1988: 273-288; Wulf 1991.
2
nawyveti sacenzuro ediqtis teqstidan motanilia Semdegi gamocemis mixedviT:
Pallmann 1884: 238-241.
nino doborjginiZe
155
da istoriografiis Zeglebi da poeziis didi nawili laTinurenovani
iyo.
1
2. enis siRaribis toposi qristianul aRmosavleTSi.
adgilobriv xalxur enaTa ganviTarebisa da religiis dominant
enasTan maTi mimarTebis TvalsazrisiT Sua saukuneebis qristianuli
aRmosavleTi mkveTrad upirispirdeba dasavleTs. eklesiaTa erToba,
religiuri zenacionalizmi, qristianul aRmosavleTSic enis gziT
gamoixateboda, magram zenacionalurobis aRmosavluri simbolo
radikalurad gansxvavdeboda romis eklesiis koinesgan. qristianuli
aRmosavleTi aRiarebda universaluri enis arsebobas, enisa, romelic
yvela qristianisTvis saerTo da gasagebi iyo. magram, dasavleTisgan
gansxvavebiT, es privilegia sxvadasxva argumentebis moSveliebiT
wmindad Seracxili romelime adamianuri enisa ki ar iyo, aramed
zeadamianuri sulis enisa, romelic Tanabrad gasagebi iyo yvela
qristianisTvis maTi enobrivi da eTnikuri sxvadasxvaobis miuxedavad.
Zvel qarTul literaturaSi, iseve rogorc qristianuli aRmo-
savleTis sxva tradiciebSi, aRwerilia araerTi saswaulebrivi
epizodi,
2
rogor agebineben erTmaneTs adamianebi, romelTac erTmaneTis
ena ar ician. asurel mamaTa cxovrebaSi qarTveli avtori dawvri-
lebiT gviambobs imis Sesaxeb, rogor alaparakda qarTlSi Camosuli
iovane qarTulad, im enaze, romelic araTu icoda, arc ki smenia,
rogor moeca mas ena qarTulad metyveli da rogor daelaparaka
ucnob qarTvel mamebs:
aqa damayena me sityuaman moTxrobad Tquenda sakrvelebisa
didisa, Tu viTar Rirsman kaTalikosman da netarman iovane iswavnes
1
Sdr. Kartschoke 1990: 6.
2
am kuTxiT v. boederi (boederi 1998: 60-81) ganixilavs erT epizods iovanesa
da efTmes cxovrebidan, romelSic moTxrobilia ori sasuliero piris, qarTveli
beris, gabrielisa da italiidan aTonze Camosuli mamis, leonis, urTierTobis
episodi. avtori sagangebod usvams xazs im garemoebas, rom arc erTma maTganma ar
icis mSobliuris garda sxva ena. amis miuxedavad isini saaTobiT elaparekebian
erTmaneTs im enaze, romelic yvela qristianisTvis gasagebia. Sdr. Rirssa
mRdelsaGgabriels qarTvelsa da amas wmidasa bersa didsa leonsHhromsa friadi
siyuaruli aqunda sulieri da, odesca movidis xilvad mamaTa, maxlobelad
senaksa gabrielisasa aqunda senaki da mun dayvnis dReni igi.Dda Tsisa enisagan
kide arca man icoda, arca man. da viTarca Sebneldis, gamovidian TsTa senakTagan
da locva-yvian da dasxdian da vidre ciskrisa rekamde ubnobdian sityuaTa
saRmrToTa da vidre warslvadmde amas esreT hyofdian yovelsa mwuxrsa.
(javaxiSvili 1946: 31)
TargmanTan dakavSirebuli problemebis funqcionalizacia sxvadasxva enaSi
156
erTmanerTisaTvis da saxeli TiToeulisa da kualad viTar moeca
ioanes ena qarTulad metyveli yovlad daubrkolebeli. eha,
sakrvelebasa Sensa, qriste RmerTo, viTar adideb madidebelTa
SenTa. ese saswauli, Zmano, mimsgavsebul ars sions gardamoslvasa
sulisa wmidisasa da wmidaTa zeda mociqulTa da ganyofasa mas
enaTasa cecxlisaTa. WeSmaritad sakrvel ars RmerTi Soris wmidaTa
misTa, romelman suliTa wmidiTa wamsa Sina aRatyua sityTa zraxvad
iovane, romeli arca odes asmioda, arTu eswava. ese vismca ara
daukvirda, visimca cnoba ara gancvibrda, romelni maSin mun iyvnes
da romelTa esma ucxo ese saswauli, yovelni gankrvebulni da
zar-gandilni adidebdes RmerTsa, moqmedsa sakrvelebaTasa.
1
marTalia, qristianul aRmosavleTSic aRiarebdnen wminda enebis,
gansakuTrebiT berZnulis, Tvisobriv upiratesobas, magram funqciuri
TvalsazrisiT am religiuri sivrcis yvela ena Tanasworuflebiani
iyo: gamomxatvelobiTi saSualebebiT, kreatulobiT, qarTuli bevrad
Camouvardeboda filosofiaSi, ritorikasa da TeologiaSi gawaful
berZnuls, magram funqciuri TvalsazrisiT misi Tanaswori iyo,
rogorc eklesiis, bibliis Targmanis, literaturis, mecnierebis,
saurTierTo da saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis ena.
2
swored qristianuli aRmosavleTis adgilobriv enebTan
SedarebiT berZnulis Tvisobrivi aRmatebulobis konteqstSi Cndeba
enis siRaribis toposi. erTi SexedviT identuria am toposis
damkvidrebis winapirobebi dasavleTsa da aRmosavleTSi: berTold
henebergis zemoTnaxsenebi argumentebi Zalian hgavs imas, rasac berZnebi
ayvedridnen aRmosavleTis SedarebiT Raribi samwerlo tradiciebis
mqone enebs. maTi braldebebi sulac ar iyo ufro rbili, vidre
romis eklesiis sacenzuro ediktebi.
3
qarTvelebi, iseve rogorc
aRmosavleTis sxva xalxebi, ar uaryofdnen, rom maTi ena da maTi
naTesavi berZnulTan da berZnebTan SedarebiT Raribia, rom maTi
Targmanebi bevr uzustobas, gaugebrobas Seicavs.
4
gansakuTrebiT
rTuli iyo filosofiur-.Teologiur terminTa zusti qarTuli
1
abulaZe 1955: 82.
2
amis Sesaxeb ix. Boeder 1983: 85-95; Doborjginidze 2003a: 149-170; Doborjginidze
2003b: 119-140; doborjginiZe 2000: 20-27; misive 2007b: 217-228. .
3
Sdr. Zveli qarTveli mTargmnel-redaqtorebi wuxdnen, rom SeuZlebelic ki iyo
TToeulad yovlisave warmoTquma, ravdenni ginebani, ravdenni Seuracxebani da
yuedrebani moiweodes maT mier Cuen zeda [] da mwvalebelad xadiTa Seiwrebulni
didsa urvasa Sina viyveniT (iovanes da eqvTimes cxovreba, (javaxiSvili 1946: 52.
4
Sdr. giorgi mcire: xolo Cuen, romelni-ese barbaros-wodebul viyveniT elenTa
mier uswavlelobisaTs da umecrebisa Cuenisa (lolaSvili 1994: 190).
nino doborjginiZe
157
Sesatyvisis povna, vinaidan berZenTa ena ufskrul Rrma ars,
1
qarTulis semantikuri da stiluri potenciali ki berZnulisas
bevrad Camouvardeba.
2
iovane petriwi araerTgzis miuTiTebs, rom
berZnul terminTa qarTuli Sesatyvisebi zusti da myari ar aris,
amis gamo qarTvelebi erTad da sworad ityvian sxvadasxva termins,
maSin roca ellinTa enamzeobaTa zeda terminebi, da saerTod,
samecniero ena gansakuTrebuli sizustiT gamoirCeva: Tsi saxeli
hqian, Sesabami Tsisa arsebisa.
3
Cvens sinamdvileSic sakmaod aqtualuri iyo bibliis teqstis
damaxinjebis, anu eresis safrTxe, romlis gamoc romis eklesiis
lokaluri ediqtebi mkacr SezRudvebs awesebdnen xalxurenovan
Targmanebze. iovane petriwi sagangebod msjelobs yovlad dauSvebeli
uzustobebis Sesaxeb, romlebic wminda werilis qarTul TargmanebSia
(mag. pirveliTgan iyo sityua, vqmnaT kaci xatisaebr da msgavsisa
Cuenisa da a.S.).
4
am da sxva msgavsi magaliTebidan aSkaraa, rom
1
efrem mciris komentari, romelic erTvis saqme mociqulTas ganmartebis
Targmans (abulaZe 1950: 029).
2
Sdr. erT-erT komentarSi qarTveli mTargmneli wuxs, rom uRonoebis gamo
qarTuli Taragmani ver ganarCevs erTmaneTisgan iseT mniSvnelovan berZnul
sityvebs, rogoricaa fsiqe da pnevma: Seiswave, rameTu orsaxe ars berZulad
saxeli sulisa: fsiqi, romeli umetessa adgilsa samSnvelisa wil dadebul ars
pavlesa Sina, da kualad pnevma, romeli-ese TT Tavadis sulisa arsebasa
uwodian da wmidisaTs igive iTqumis. xolo qarTvelTa uRonoebisagan erTi
saxeli aqus sulisa (xeln. A. 217, 322r).
3
Sdr. iovane pertiwis komentari: kualad ufro saTanado ars da saWiro cnobad,
viTarmed sxua ars Zali da moqmedeba sulisa da sxua gonebisa. Dda
yovelTave ellinTa enamzeobaTa zeda Tsi saxeli hqan, Sesabami Tsisa arsebisa.
xolo CuenTaman arca TargmanTa, arca sxuaman vin dasWuritna, da aw me uzomod
miSlis Targmansa Sina, rameTu yovelsave erTad da sworad ityan da dasdeben
Cuenni. xolo aw ismine, rameTu sulisasa ewodebis diana, xolo gonebisasa
noima, xolo gasagonsa da zesTamdebaresa noitoni (yauxCiSvili 1940: 6).
4
pirveliTgan iyo sityua. petriwi mkacrad akritikebs am Targmans da
aRniSnavs: ... ara uwyian, rameTu pirveli SemdgomTa ars pirveli da maTi aras
Tu ucxo bunebaTa, aramed erT da igive bunebiTa, viTar iTqumis kaci kacisa
pirvelad da cxeni cxenisa da aras Tu winaukmo, Tumca kaci cxensa da cxeni
kacsa. vina Tu sityua mamisa RmrTisa pirvelad dabadebulTa da warmoCenilTa
Zalad pirvel mebr aw maTi, magra Tanmebunebe maTda da erTi nabadTa da
warmoCenilTagani. Dda ara pirvel saukuneTa yovelTa mamisSorisi, romel ars
dasabami TsSorisisa sityvisa viTar disko Tualimzisa SarvandedTad. Dda
kualad viTar itys damdebi Cuensa Soris eniTsa RmrTis mxilvelisa moses mier
esTa gamociskrovnebulisa moses mier sityuasa, viTarmed: movediT da vqmnaT kaci
xatad da msgavsad Cuendao. ar esTa, aramed esTa, Tu damxedman iWuritne, itys:
movediT da vqmnaT kaci xatisaebr da msgavsisa Cuenisa (yauxCiSvili 1940: 219-
220).
TargmanTan dakavSirebuli problemebis funqcionalizacia sxvadasxva enaSi
158
qarTuli enis siRaribisa da berZnulTan misi Tvisobrivi (da ara
funqciuri) uTanasworobis toposi, romelic garkveul konteqstSi
damkvidrda, yvela im atributs aerTianebda, romlebic ciceronidan
moyolebuli dantes CaTvliT jer laTinuris, Semdeg ki dasavleTis
adgilobrivi enebis siRaribis arasasurvel iarliys qmnida.
rac Seexeba am toposis funqcionalizacias, qristianul
aRmosavleTSi igi radikalurad gansxvavdeboda dasavluri
modelisgan: opoziciaSi: laTinuri adgilobrivi enebi am toposma
mniSvnelovani argumentis roli Seasrula da sxva faqtorebTan
erTad sagrZnoblad Seaferxa xalxuri enebis emansipaciis procesi,
maTi funqciuri sferoebis gafarToveba, maTi qceva samwerlobo
enebad, Sesabamisad, mtkice safuZveli Seuqmna laTinuri enis primats.
sul sxva datvirTva SeiZina man aRmosavleTis adgilobriv enaTa
emansipaciis procesSi: araTu Seaferxa, piriqiT, yvelaze metad Seuwyo
xeli adgilobrivi enis funqciuri sferoebis gafarTovebas,
ganapiroba enis gamomxatvelobiTi saSualebebis gamdidreba da
TargmanTa daxvewa sizustis TvalsazrisiT.
1
dasavluri opoziciisgan
gansxvavebiT (laTinuri xalxuri enebi) berZnuli da qarTuli
funqciurad diferencirebuli enebi ki ar iyo, aramed ori, funqciuri
TvalsazrisiT Tanaswori ena.
2
berZenTa gamudmebuli sayveduri
qarTulis siRaribis Sesaxeb, rasac arc qarTvelebi uaryofdnen,
araTu abrkolebda, piriqiT, sxva mizezebTan erTad yvelaze metad
uwyobda xels TargmanTa mravalgzis gadamuSavebas, redaqtirebas,
teqstebis xelaxla Targmnas, Sesabamisad, samecniero enis, termi-
nologiis dazustebas, daxvewas. es iyo qarTuli enis Tvisobrivi
legitimaciis, berZnulTan gatolebis procesi, romelmac axleburad
1
ix. bezaraSvili 2004; danelia 1983; TvalTvaZe 1997; keWaRmaZe, rafava: 1983:
243-256; meliqiSvili 1984:106-120; misive 1988; misive 1999; oTxmezuri 2005;
WeliZe 1996.
2
am umniSvnelovanes sxvaobas pirvelad v. boederma miaqcia yuradReba. Sdr. Wie
so viele Gebildete vor und nach ihnen waren sie zweisprachig, sie sprachen und schrieben
Griechisch und Georgisch, und diese Zweisprachigkeit, dieser georgischer Weg, wie
alva Nucubi3e die zwischen Ost und West vermittelnde bersetzungsttigkeit georgischer
Philosophen genannt hat, ist fr Georgien und die griechischsprachige Welt sehr
bedeutsam gewesen. Aber warum bedeutete Zweisprachigkeit fr sie nicht Diglossie?
So hat der Soziolinguist Charles Ferguson (1959) das Nebeneinander von zwei funktional
differenzierten Sprachvarianten genannt, wie z.B. Klassisches Arabisch und arabische
Volkssprache oder Latein und Volkssprache im europischen Mittelalter. Aber fr diese
Georgier waren Griechisch und Georgisch , soweit ich sehe, gleichberechtigt, funktional
nicht verschieden; religise und philosophische Literatur wurde in beiden Sprache
geschrieben. (Boeder 1983: 86).
nino doborjginiZe
159
gansazRvra Sua saukuneebSi qarTuli enis poziciebi: qarTuli aRar
iyo Raribi da uRono ena, igi aRarafriT Camouvardeboda ellinTa
enamzeobas, gonierTa xedvaTa mommarjve berZnuls, mTeli
qristianuli samyaros misabaZ magaliTs.
ganviTarebis sxvadasxva etapze funqciuri da Tvisobrivi
legitimaciis, TargmanTa da gansakuTrebiT samecniero enis dazustebis,
berZnulTan maqsimaluri daaxlovebis msgavsi gza gaiares qristianuli
aRmosavleTis sxva enebmac.
1
es procesi, iseve rogorc xalxuri enis
idea,
2
saTaves iRebs siriul tradiciaSi. iq sagangebod gadaamuSaves
aleqsandriis skolis teqstologiuri aparati berZnulidan naTargmni
teqstebis redaqtirebisaTvis. am aparatiT aris damuSavebuli berZen
saeklesio mamaTa Txzulebebis sxvadasxva redaqciebi, bibliis
filoqsene mabugelisa da Toma harkeliseuli siriuli Targmanebi.
swored am Targmanebze darTul komentarebSi, SesavlebSi,
bolosityvaobebsa da sqolioebSi, aisaxa Targmanis originalTan
maqsimaluri daaxlovebis, berZnul terminTa adekvaturi siriuli
Sesatyvisebis Ziebis, samecniero teminologiisa
3
da, saerTod, Targmanis
teqstologiuri aparatis Seqmnis urTulesi gza.
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Nino Doborjginidze
Functionalisation of Problems Related to the Translation
in Different Languages
The study describes issues related to the functionalization of the Topos:
Egestas linguae, egestas patrii sermonis evolved during the translation process
from one language into other in antiquity and Middle Ages. The main topics
concerning functional and quantitative legitimacy, standartization and genera
historical sociolinguistic of Georgian Language are analysed within the frames of
the natural development of the eastern chrischian languages during the Middle
Ages.
TargmanTan dakavSirebuli problemebis funqcionalizacia sxvadasxva enaSi
164
zurab kiknaZe
Tasi, diogene da Svidi brZeni
I
diogene laertelis wignSi `gamoCenil
filosofosTa cxovrebis, moZRvrebaTa da
gamonaTqvamTa Sesaxeb~ vkiTxulobT:
`roca platoni ideebis Sesaxeb msjelobda
da saxels urCevda magidobas (trapeZotes)
da Tasobas (kaTotes), diogenma Tqva: me, platon,
magidas da Tass ki vxedav, magram magidobas da
Tasobas vera. platonma ki: asea, magidisa da
Tasis dasanaxad Tvalebi gaqvs, magram magidobisa
da Tasobis saxilvelad goneba ar gaqvs~
[diogene: 230].
platonis mosaubre es diogeni is
saxelganTqmuli diogenia, romelmac im erTi
cnobili incidentis Semdeg, romelic aseve
diogene laertels aqvs moTxrobili amave
wignSi, araTu Tasobis, aramed Tavad Tasis
xilvac aRukveTa Tavs. bavSvis danaxvaze,
romelic peSviT svamda wyals, diogenma
moisrola Tasi, raTa aRar exila igi da
Tasobac mas gadaayola. am erTi ukanaskneli
da kidev sxva bevri sagnis amoRebiT,
erTaderTi kasris amara darCenilma,
sagrZnoblad gaaRariba yofa da, masTan erTad,
Sesabamisi ideaTa samyaro.
am dialogidan da diogenis cnobili
incidentidan _ maTi dakavSirebis Sedegad
is azri unda gamovitanoT, rom Tasobis
uaryofas aucileblobiT Tavad Tasis, rogorc
filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, ivane java-
xiSvilis saxelobis
Tbilisis saxelmwifo
universitetis profe-
sori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
Suamdinaruli miTolo-
gia; qarTuli miTologia
I, jvari da saymo; Zveli
aRTqmis wuTisofeli;
xuTwigneulis Targmaneba.
interesTa sfero:
qarTuli folklori,
mwerloba, miTologia;
qristianuli Teologia;
Zveli aRTqma; asirio-
logia, semitologia.
165
nivTis, uaryofa mosdevs. Tu nivTis sazrisi ucnobia, nivTic
kargavs aqtualobas da zedmeti xdeba. amave dros, platoni Tavisi
pasuxiT (ara aqvs mniSvneloba namdvilad man warmoTqva es Tu
miaweres) adamianis erTgvar gansazRvrebasac iZleva: adamiani gonieri
arsebaa, romelsac ideebis samyaros wvdomis unari aqvs. diogenis
yoveli mcdeloba ki mimarTulia iqiTken, rom uaryos Tavis TavSi
adamianoba, adamianis is saxe, romelic mis kulturaSi Camoyalibda.
diogeni aarsebs axali adamianis saxes `faseulobaTa gadafasebiT~,
romelic ar scnobs nivTebs, zedmetad miaCnia isini. da, kerZod, am
nivTs _ Tass, garkveuli daniSnulebis mqone, m. haidegeris
terminologiiT [haidegeri] xelsawyos (Zeuge) misi xelidan wasuls,
bunebis qmnileba Seenacvla. Tumca peSvi _ `erTmaneTs midebuli
orive xelis mtevani, WurWlis formiseburad moxrili, rom Sig
raime Caidos an Caisxas~ [qegl VI:178] _ ar CaiTvleba arc liton
nivTad, arc srulyofil xelsawyod, is mainc adamianis qmnilebaa.
magram peSvs, adamianis qmnilebas, damoukidebeli arseboba ara aqvs,
igi, rogorc adamianis nawili, romelic periodulad iqmneba da
qreba, moklebulia nivTobas, rom artefaqtad miviCnioT.
SeniSvna 1.
bunebrivi wyarodan wyurvilis mosaklavad adamianisTvis peSvic
sakmarisia. magram Tasis, rogorc yoveli WurWlis, aucilebloba
Cndeba mas Semdeg, ufro sworad ki, imasTan erTad, rac mis yofaSi
Semodis kulturis produqti, sasmeli (Rvino, ludi), romelic
Casayeneblad mudmiv WurWels da aseve misi Sesmis mudmiv xelsawyos,
rogoric aris Tasi, saWiroebs. Tavis genezisSi Tasi ara mxolod
yofiTi nivTia, aramed sakultoc, rac TvalsaCinoa Tundac erTi
kulturis farglebSi [kiknaZe:88-95].
SeniSvna 2.
peSvs, Tavisi konfiguraciiT da daniSnulebiT Tasis arqetips,
Tu sakulto fenomenad ver miviCnevT, mis erTgvar sakralur statuss
ver uarvyobT, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT maTxovrobis metafizikur sazriss
Zvel kulturebSi. gawvdili peSvi dRemde rCeba religiur da yofiT
praqtikaSi wyalobis gamoTxovis erTaderT niSnad.
Tu diogene kacobriobis uSores warsulamde anu im sawyisamde
daeSva, roca peSvidan xelsawyo Tasi warmoSobiliyo jer kidev ar
iyo, arsebobs teqsti, sadac peSvic ar aris gamoyenebuli, Tumca
mosalodneli iyo. Tu diogene ramodenime xnis Semdeg vinmes wabaZviT
uars ityoda xelis mtevnebis am spontanur moZraobazec, romelic
Tasi, diogene da Svidi brZeni
166
zurab kiknaZe
qmnis peSvs (rogorc peSvma Tasis forma Seqmna), es, cxadia, ar
iqneboda Cadenili im motiviT, rogorc `msajulTa wignSi~ Caidines
meomrebma.
`adga diliT ierobaali, igive gedeoni, agreTve
masTan myofi mTeli xalxi, da qarodis xevSi
dabanakda. midianis banaki misgan CrdiloeTiT iyo,
mores borcvTan, vakeze. uTxra ufalma gedeons: Zalze
bevria xalxi. ar Cavagdeb amaT xelSi midians, rom
ar gamididguldes israeli, ar Tqvas, Cemma xelma
mixsnao. amitom gamoucxade xalxs da uTxari: vinc
SeSinebulia da kankalebs, ukan gabrundes, wavides
galaadis mTidan. ocdaori aTasi kaci ukan gabrunda,
xolo aTi aTasi darCa. uTxra ufalma gedeons:
mainc bevria xalxi. wyalze Caiyvane da iq gamogirCev
maT. viszec getyvi, gamogyves-meTqi, is gamogyves. viszec
getyvi, nu gamogyveba-meTqi, nu gamogyveba. da Caiyvana
man xalxi wyalze. uTxra ufalma gedeons: vinc eniT
Sesvleps wyals, rogorc ZaRlebi svlepen, calke
daayene, agreTve isinic, vinc Caimuxlebs da ise dalevs.
eniT msvlepelTa ricxvi samasi iyo, danarCenma xalxma
Caimuxla da ise dalia wyali. uTxra ufalma gedeons:
samasi msvlepeliT gixsniT da xelSi CagagdebinebT
midians, danarCeni xalxi Sin wavides~ (msaj. 7:1-7).
gasagebia, meomarTa umciresi raodenobis datovebiT RmerTs
surda, eCvenebina, rom gamarjveba israels ara Zalis simravlem, aramed
RvTiurma Carevam moutana. magram ismis kiTxva: risi niSani iyo
wylis ZaRliviT svlepa samasi meomris mier da ratom iqna es
samasi msvlepeli arCeuli gasamarjveblad? SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom
xalxis es kategoria _ ZaRliviT msvlepelni _ im zRvrze imyofeba,
romlis qvemoT adamiani, rogorc adamiani, wyvets arsebobas. brZola
ki adamianebis saqmianobaa, risTvisac ZaRlebi sruliad gamousadegarni
arian. meore mxriv, Tumca msvlepelni rCebian adamianebad, magram
iseTebad, rogornic TavianTi sulmokleobis gamo aseve sruliad
gamousadegarni arian brZolisaTvis. magram ufali maTi saSualebiT
imarjvebs.
167
SeniSvna 1.
SesaZlebelia msvlepelTa poziciis sxvagvari inerpretaciac,
Tumca es iqneba adamianuri TvalTaxedva. msvlepelni anu uTasoni,
rogorc barbarosni, upiratesoben brZolaSi kulturiT ganazebul
adamianebze, romlebic adamianuri wesebiT iqcevian: Caimuxleben, iaraRs
gverdze dadeben, raTa xeli gaiTavisuflon Tasis asaRebad an peSvis
Sesaqmnelad, rom wyali adamianurad Sesvan. maT omis pirobebSic ar
aviwydebaT es wesi. magram maTi iaraRi Tundac erTi wamiTac
upatronod devs miwaze, rasac msvlepeli ar dauSvebs: iaraRi xelSi
CabRujuli aqvs da svleps wyals. mxolod aseTni imarjveben.
SeniSvna 2.
diogene sinopelis cxovrebaSi konceptualur mniSvnelobas
iZens ZaRlis Tema, rac, erTi mxriv, ganpirobebulia im skolis
saxelwodebis etimologiiT, romlis saukeTeso warmomadgeneli Tavad
iyo. SesaZloa, kynikos ar ikiTxebodes, rogorc `ZaRluri~ da sruliad
sxva Sinaarsi Caido masSi, roca es termini Seiqmna, magram aravis,
TviT diogenesac, es ar gausaCivrebia, piriqiT, daeTanxma, ZaRli rom
uwodes, da aitaca da ZaRli Tavisi cxovrebis stilis simbolod
aqcia. da Tumca igi ambobda, rom mas surs, araTu hgavdes ZaRls,
aramed iyos ZaRli, yovelgvari simbolizmis gareSe, mainc mTeli
misi cxovreba da misi yoveli saqcieli simboluri iyo. misma
konkretulma realurma saqmianobam, monetebis yalbismqmnelobam,
`faseulobaTa gadafasebis~ simboluri saxe miiRo. adamiani ZaRlad
gadafasda. kulturuli cxovrebis pirobiTobas (romelic Tavisi
bunebiT simboluria) ZaRluri cxovrebis pirobiToba Seunacvla.
adamianobaze uari iTqva adamianisve saxeliT. roca aleqsandre
makedonelis sityvebs `me didi mefe aleqsandre var~, man miugo me
ki ZaRli diogene varo~, es adamianobis gamowveva iyo isev da isev
adamianobis poziciidan. is ambobs amiT, rom me ZaRli var da
srulyofilad vasruleb ZaRlobas, ara ise, rogorc Tqven adamianebi
_ adamianobas. roca Zvali gadaugdes, rogorc ZaRls, man ZaRliviT
daaSarda Zvals [diogene:228]. es epataJi iyo, romelic TavisTavad
simboluri saqcielia da qcevis am simbolizmSi sinopeli diogene
Zveli aRTqmis winaswarmetyvelebs gvagonebs, romlebic xalxis
darwmunebas, roca sityva aRar Wrida, igavur-simboluri qceviT
cdilobdnen.
diogene amayad uwodebs Tavs `upolisos~ (berZn. apolis), rac
gulisxmobs berZnul polisSi istoriulad dagrovebul yvela im
Tasi, diogene da Svidi brZeni
168
kulturul faseulobaTa uaryofas, romlebic berZnuli polisis
sazriss, rogorc istoriul monapovars, Seadgens. ramdenadac diogene
upolisoa, imdenadve uTasoa. elinuri civilizaciis dasasruls,
elini diogene uaryofs poliss, adamianuri Tanacxovrebis umaRles
formas, romliTac elini emijneboda danarCen barbarosul samyaros.
es sazRvari TiTqos waSlilia kulturul nivTTa uaryofiT, magram
ideaTa samyaro uxilavad myofobs mis caze, rac mentalur
barbarosobaSi gadavardnas ar anebebs. igi rCeba filosofosad.
aristoteles cnobil debulebas _ `is, vinc Tavisi bunebis da
ara raRac SemTxvevis gamo cxovrobs polisis gareSe, an zneobrivad
moumwifebeli arsebaa an zekaci~ (politeia 1253a), Tu diogeneze
SevamowmebT, unda vifiqroT, rom mas Tavi umwifarad aramc da aramc
ar unda mieCnia (diogeni boloa, ara dasawyisi). diogenes mcdelobaSi,
Seicvalos buneba anu bunebiT upoliso (da uTaso) gaxdes, zekacobis
pretenzia Cans. mas surs iyos zekacic da bavSvic, romelic zekacis
meore mxarea da romlis qceva WeSmaritebas RaRadebda mis TvalSi.
am konteqstSi mis pasuxSi aleqsandresadmi `me ZaRli diogene var~
hubrisis gamoxatuleba unda davinaxoT. SesaZloa, marTlac am
cxovelis saxeli zeironiiT zekacze mianiSnebdes. kasris binadris
paradoqsuli yofa da azrovneba am varauds ar gamoricxavs.
II
diogene eTxoveba imas, riTac, SesaZlebelia, adamianma adamianuri
cxovreba daiwyo. Tu diogenesTvis Tasma amowura Tavisi Tavi,
Suamdinarul eposSi igi Tavidan iwyebs Tavis saqmes. velebidan
mosul naxevarmxec enqidus `galavniani uruqis~ saxiT polisis
povnis gzaze, gzis dasawyisSi, rac misi gankacebis gzaa (romelsac
ukuqceviT gaivlis diogeni), Tasi elodeba.
igema enqidum Wamadi ZRomamde,
sasmeli Sesva _ Svidi Tasi.
am aqtis Semdeg, eposis Tanaxmad, msvlepelis gankaceba
dasrulebulia.
zurab kiknaZe
169
III
ar unda iyos moulodneli, aramed sruliad kanonzomieri, Tu
romelime sakralur sazogadoebaSi Tasi adamianis simbolod
Segvxvdeba. indur religiur-ritualur, kerZod, dharmul teqstebSi
patra (~WurWeli~) marTal adamians, romelic imsaxurebs wyalobas,
xolo apatra (`uWurWlo~) _ codvils gulisxmobs, romelsac ara
aqvs mowyalebis gamoTxovis ufleba. orgzis SobilTa sazogadoebidan
gaZevebis (mokveTis) anu apatras mdgomareobaSi gadayvanis ceremoniali
Seicavs gasaZevebelisTvis uwmiduri wyliT savse WurWlis gadacemis
rituals. Tass gadmoayiraveben imis niSnad, rom adamians warTmeuli
aqvs misiT sargeblobis ufleba (TasiT wylis Sesma). roca codva
gamosyidulia, adamians aZleven WurWels wmida wyliT da igi
ubrundeba patras mdgomareobas [romanovi].
I V
ideebis nimuSad Tasis cnebis motana dasawyisSi moyvanil
anegdotSi SemTxveviTad ar CaiTvleba, Tu gavayolebT Tvals Tasis
biografias msoflio `anegdotebSi~, magram amjerad elinuri
msoflioTi vifarglebiT. marTalia, peSvi pragmatul-utilitaruli
TvalsazrisiT mainc asrulebs masze dakisrebul movalobas, da,
SesaZloa, ukeTesadac, ramdenadac adamiani bunebasTan siaxlovis
wyurviliT amjobinebs mis gamoyenebas da upiratesobas aZlevs mas
Tasis, rogorc xelovnuri xelsawyos, winaSe. es Cvens ganuSorebel
gamocdilebaSia. `peSvi movrkale TasiviT~ ambobs poeti (al. abaSeli)
da Cvenc araerTxel Segviqmnia am mizniT peSvi.
Tu diogenma Tasis gadagdebiT, Camoixsna adamianuri kulturis
tvirTi da ukanaskneli kavSiri gawyvita kulturul kacobriobasTan,
rogorsac misi qveyana warmoadgenda, ukacriel kunZulze gariyul
mis Tanamemamules filoktetes, gvelisgan dageslils, ukurnebeli
WrilobiT gawamebuls, romlis yivili cas swvdeboda, eyo Zala, rom
am kavSiris SesanarCuneblad xisgan Tasi gamoeCorkna (sofokle,
`filoktete~, 35-37).
orad-ori nivTi, rac aRmoaCines mis gamoqvabulSi, es iyo Tasi
da `kves-abedi~, romelTa xilvaze odisevsma warmoTqva fraza, romelic
SeiZleba gavigoT ase: `sul es aris misi nagrovebi (Tesaurisma)~?
an ase: `sul es aris mTeli misi ganZi~ (Tesaurisma)? arc erTi
gageba ironias moklebuli ar aris. ironia im adamianisa, romlis
Tasi, diogene da Svidi brZeni
170
xelSi aRmarTuli niCabi naosnobis niSnad unda qceuliyo xalxebSi
(`odisea~) dadebiT Sinaarss iZens, radgan filoktetes Tasi, rac
unda Sors yofiliyo misi qveynis xelovnebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli
srulyofilebisgan, da kidev, rac gamoqvabulSi aRmouCines, cecxlis
gaCenis xelsawyo (preion), marTlac ganZi ukacrieli kunZulis
binadarisTvis. is iyo niSani misi erTgulebisa kacobriobisadmi.
V
kvlav Cven Zvel avtors diogene laertels vubrundebiT. kiTxvaze
_ romelia adamianis xeliT damzadebuli is pirveli nivTi, kulturis
simbolod rom gamodges da itvirTos misi ani da hoe? _ vpasuxobT:
es Tasia, romelic Sors gascda Tavis pirvandel daniSnulebas,
yofiliyo wyurvilis mokvlis an, Tundac, msxverplSewirvis wmida
xelsawyo. man itvirTa imaze meti, risTvisac mowodebuli iyo.
Cveni avtori Talesis biografiaSi utrialebs Tasis Temas,
ramdenimegzis mogviTxrobs Tqmulebas sxvadasxva tradiciiT, sadac
centraluri figurebia Tasi da Svidi brZeni. sxva or TqmulebaSi
Tass samfexi enacvleba _ oriveni sakulto nivTebia [diogene:62-
64].
teqsti 1 (samfexi)
`amboben, ramdenime ionieli ymawvili kaci winaswar
SeuTanxmda mebadurebs, rom iyididnen imas, rasac maTi
bade amoaTrevda. badem samfexi amoaTria da Seiqna dava,
vis unda mikuTvneboda igi. bolos, miletelebma gagzavnes
samfexi delfoSi da RmerTma (apolonma) aseTi ganaCeni
gamoitana: `miletis naSiero, febis samfexze mekiTxebi?
aha, Cemi pasuxi: samfexi brZenTa Soris upirveless
ekuTvnis!~ samfexi gaugzavnes Taless, man sxva brZens
gadasca, sxvam _ mesames da ase solonamde. man ki ganacxada,
rom sibrZneSi RmerTia pirveli da samfexi delfoSi
gadagzavna~.
teqsti 2 (Tasi)
`magram kalimaxe `iambebSi~ sxvagvarad mogviTxrobs
ambavs, romelic meandrios miletelisgan gaugonia.
arkadielma vinme baTiklosma sikvdilis win dastova
Tasi (fiale) aseTi anderZiT: `mieciT mas, vinc brZenTa
Soris ukeTesia~. da misces Taless. Talesisgan
zurab kiknaZe
171
gadacemulma moiara yvela brZeni da kvlav Taless
daubrunda, Talesma ki apolon didimeels gaugzavna aseTi
warweriT: `mimarTva nelevsidebis mefes, feboss, Talesma,
romelmac orgzis damimsaxura jildod~. brZenidan
brZenamde ki Tass baTiklosis Ze firioni daatarebda~.
teqsti 3 (Tasi)
xolo evdoqsos knidieli da evanTes mileteli
amboben, rom kresosma (krezem) erT-erT Tavis megobars
Caabara oqros Tasi (poterion) elinTa Soris
ubrZenesisTvis gadasacemad. man igi Taless gadasca, Tasma
moiara yvela brZeni xilonamde, romelic piTias daekiTxa,
Tu vin iyo masze brZeni, man ki misani daasaxela...
teqsti 4 (samfexi)
`sxvani amboben, rom samfexi hefestom gamoWeda da
pelopss aCuqa mis qorwilze; pelopsisgan menelaoss
Sexvda da mere elenesTan erTad aleqsandrem (parisma)
moitaca, elenem igi kosis zRvaSi Caagdo sityvebiT `iomon
misTvis!~ gamoxda xani da ramdenime lebedoselma am mxareSi
mebadurebisgan maTi nadavli iyida da nadavlTan erTad
maT xelSi samfexic moxvda. daiwyes dava mebadurebTan
da imdeni idaves, rom kunZul kosamde mividnen. aq rom
ver morigdnen, TavianT metropolias milets mimarTes.
miletis elCobam nayofi ver gamoiRo da miletelebma
gailaSqres kosze. orive mxridan bevri daeca brZolaSi
da, bolos, orakulma brZana, samfexi yvelaze brZenisTvis
miecaT. maSin orive mxare SeTanxmda, rom samfexi
TalesisTvis miecaT. xolo mas Semdeg, rac samfexma yvela
brZeni Semoiara, Talesma igi didimeel apolons Seswira.
koselebs ki es ganaCeni emcnoT:
`ar Sewydeba ionielTa da koselTa omi,
vidre gadagdebuli zRvaSi samfexi, hefestos naxelavi,
ar moSordeba aqaurobas da ar Cabardeba kacs,
vinc uwyis yoveli _ rac iyo da rac iqneba~.
Tasis dawyvileba samfexTan moulodneli ar unda iyos,
ramdenadac Tqmulebis Tanaxmad maTi saboloo adgilsamyofeli
delfos samisnoa, sadac oriveni, rogorc sakulto nivTebi, Tav-
Tasi, diogene da Svidi brZeni
172
TavianTi funqciiT, erTmaneTs avseben. magram am teqstebSi, romlebic
aseve erTmaneTis Semavsebelni arian, isini, rogorc sinonimebi, erTi
da imave funqciiT monawileoben.
es nivTebi sam etaps gadian am narativSi, romelsac aqvs miTosis
niSnebi, Tumca miTosad mas, SesaZloa, aravin miiCnevdes. nadavli,
romelSic garkveuli ganzraxviT zRvaSi gadagdebuli Tasi Tu samfexi
moyva, jer Tu megobarTa Soris Tanxmobis niSania, meore etapze
efemeruli davisa Tu xangrZlivi omis sagani xdeba (teqstebi 1-2),
_ roca is jer kidev Cveulebrivi nivTia, Tundac qmnileba, SesaZloa,
ganZic, _ raTa Tavdapirveli Tanxmoba ufro maRal safexurze aiyvanos,
vidre nivTi Tavis saboloo adgils ipovides, risTvisac gamiznulia
igi. magram manamde is sxva funqcias asrulebs.
Tassa Tu samfexs erTi gza aqvT: Tavdapirvelad nivTieri
simdidris niSniT gamoCndebian narativSi, gansakuTrebiT, roca
miTosurad ganTqmuli krezes xelSi vxedavT erT maTgans da is
(Tasi) oqrosia (midieli mefis sabediswero niSanic es aris), an
samfexs, romelic ver iqneba oqrosi, rogorc cecxlTan saurTierTo
nivTi, magram miuxedavad amisa, rac, SesaZloa, abrkolebdes mis
gaTanabrebas Tasis, rogorc ZRvenis, simbolizmTan, mainc samfexma,
rogorc hefestos naxelavma, saqorwino saCuqris maRali statusi
daimsaxura da orakulis ganaCenis gamocxadebamde elenes wyevlas
emorCileba da omis sababi xdeba. narativis saboloo sazrisi ar
Seecvleba, imisda mixedviT, Tu ra Tavgadasavali aqvs Tassa Tu
samfexs _ zRvidan aris amoTreuli TevzebTan erTad, Tu yovelgvari
winaistoriuli peripetiebis gareSe, is mainc Seasrulebs Tavis
misias, anderZiT Tu danabarebiT gamoxatuls. am mxriv, klasikuria
Tavisi simartiviT da gamWvirvalobiT teqsti 1.
dasmulia es kiTxva _ vin aris yvelaze brZeni? _ rogorc
gamowveva da gamocda, da dasmulia igi zRvis siRrmeebidan, qveynierebis
arqedan, rogorc es Taless, mokvdavTa Soris upirveles brZens
miaCnda. Tass Tu samfexs daekisra misia, amoicnos yvelaze brZeni, da
nivTi mogzaurobs brZenidan brZenamde im gamomcdeli molodiniT,
rom romelime maTganis xelSi darCeba samudamod. magram ase ar
moxda.
Tasi gadaeca Taless, romelic miiCnies yvelaze brZenad, magram
Tavad Talesi aseTad ar miiCnevs Tavs, gadascems x-s (variantebSi
sxvaoben pirTa saxelebi), romelsac is Tavisze brZnad Seracxavs, es
ukanaskneli mis kvalze iqceva da yvela brZenis gamovlenis Semdeg
kvlav Taless ubrundeba. ras niSnavs es? Tu es narativi Svidi
zurab kiknaZe
173
brZenis gamovlenis miTosia, Tasi an samfexi is nivTia, romlis
meSveobiTac xdeba gamovlena. aq nivTi kravs wres, romelic mis
gareSe verasodes Seikvreboda, ganusazRvreli raodenobidan Svidis
arCeva ver moxdeboda. nivTi aq arCevis nivTieri sayrdenia.
Tasis pirvelma gadacemam amoarCia brZeni da axla TiToeul
brZens Tasi aZlevs Sanss amoarCios Tavisze brZeni. nivTi, rogorc
gamowvevis niSani, elis TiToeulisgan gadawyvetilebas. roca Tasi
pirvelad arCeulTan dabrundeba anu Seikvreba wre, aRmoCndeba, rom
TiToeuli maTgani erTmaneTze brZenia anu isini sibrZneSi Tanabarni
arian. swored am Tanamimdevruli arCeviT, roca erTmaneTs upiratesoba
mianiWes, daamtkices maT TavianTi sibrZne. ise moxda, rogorc platoni
werda `saxelmwifoSi~, rom Rirseuli da brZeni kaci ar cdilobs
aRematos Tavissave msgavss (saxelmwifo 350b). ricxvi Svidi amas
mianiSnebs. Svidi xom ar aris ricxvebis jami, is erTiani mTlianobaa,
romelic ar iSleba Semadgenlebad, romelTagan erTi naklebi iqneboda
meoreze. magram verc erTs ver davukargavT individualobas, ver
gavTqvefT erTmaneTSi, Tundac SvidSi: TiToeuli maTgani Seudareblad
unikaluria. magram Svidi TiToeul maTganze upiratesobs.
mas Semdeg, rac Svidi brZenis xelSi gaiara da yovel maTganSi
sibrZne damowma, Tasma unda Sewyvitos Tasoba, rogorc Tavdapirvelad
Cafiqrebulma xelsawyom. am wris Semoweris Semdeg, axali
gamocdilebiT gamdidrebuli, kidev ufro maRal safexurze adis
apolonis sakuTrebaSi. Tass (Tu samfexs) brZenTa ambavi miaqvs
apolonTan. apoloni ki Tavis mxriv adasturebs brZenTa
gadawyvetilebas.
SeniSvna
makari egviptels stumrad mosulma berma yurZeni miarTva.
makarim TavisTvis ver gaimeta yurZeni da mis axlo dayudebul
sneul bers gaugzavna. am bermac ar axlo xeli yurZens da sxva bers
gadaugzavna. is sxvac ase moiqca. da ase, am yurZnis mtevanma yvela
beri Semoiara, vinc ki axlo-maxlo eyuda.
Svidis aRmomCeni SeiZleba yofiliyo nebismieri sxva sagani Tu
nivTi, an sulieri arseba _ cxoveli (furi) Tu frinveli (mtredi),
rogorc SegviZlia analogiur daarsebis miTosebSi vixiloT, sadac
arsebani, rogorc RvTis nebis saukeTeso gamtarni, ar saWiroeben
Suamavals, gamZRols. Tassac da samfexsac SeeZlo mxolod RvTis
nebas yofiliyo minebebuli, rogorc analogiur SemTxvevebSi fSav-
Tasi, diogene da Svidi brZeni
174
xevsurul andrezebSi vadasturebT dinamiuri, damoukideblad moZravi
Tasis Tu sxva sagnebis mimarT. magram klasikuri tipis elinuri
narativi ar cnobs TviTmoZravi nivTebis saswaulebriv gamoCenas
(`iudevelni moiTxoven saswaulebs da elinebi sibrZnes eZeben~, 1
kor. 1;22), amitomac teqsti 2 Tasis mimotanas brZenTa Soris
avalebs meanderZis baTiklosis vaJs. elinur racionalistur
warmosaxvas am miTosSi adamianuri agenti esaWiroeba, rac sruliad
zedmetia.
zemoT iTqva, rom im miznis aRsrulebaSi, risTvisac Tasi da
samfexi arian mowodebulni, es nivTebi semiotikuri sinonimebia,
magram ara absoluturi. Tass garkveuli upiratesoba aqvs, Tumca
Tu Sors wavalT, samfexi (tripos) didad ar CamorCeba mas. samfexs
vxedavT im saCuqrebis TavSi, romelic odisevsma feakelTa karze
miiRo (od. XIII, 13), xolo `iliadaSi~ srbolaSi morkinalTa sapatio
jildoa (il. XI, 700), rac cxadyofs mis maRal niSnobriv statuss.
magram Tass, rogorc xelsawyos, erTi mniSvnelovani funqcia
gamoarCevs: masSi ziarebis siTxea Cayenebuli (miTosis Tanaxmad:
ambrosia `ukvdavebis sasmeli~), romelic aRrmavebs da ganamtkicebs
Svidis kavSirs.
VI
adamianis xeliT Seqmnil saganTa ierarqiaSi Tass namdvilad
umaRlesi safexuri uWiravs. Tavis mniSvnelobas adasturebs igi
ara mxolod gankacebis gzaze Semdgar enqidus xelSi, aramed misi
uarmyofeli diogenes saqcielSic da mravalnacadi odisevsis
ironiaSic, roca ganZad moixsenia filoktetes xeliT gamoCorknili
es WurWeli. rac unda martivi iyos es sayofacxovrebo nivTi,
xelsawyo, romelsac forma adamianis peSvma ukarnaxa, igi ver eteva
utilitaruli praqtikiT miCenil sazRvrebSi. mas SeuZlia moeqces
saganTa ierarqiis TavSi, rogorc svetis Tavze Semodgmul yabaxs.
yabaxis Tasi ukiduresad sublimirebulia, is Sors aris
gacdenili zRurbls, romelic misma avtorma miuCina, da mTlianad
Camocilebuli aqvs gamosadegoba. is ukve wmida niSania, niSani wmida
saxiT. magram ra aris is, risi niSanicaa igi? es aris raime siqveleze
dafuZnebuli Rirseba, romelic iseve gamousadegaria, rogorc misTvis
miRebuli jildo.
zurab kiknaZe
175
VII
roca Tasze vlaparakobT, ver gaveqceviT qristianul dasavleTSi
ganTqmul graalis Tass. Tu Tasoba Tavis mwvervals graalis TasSi
aRwevs, is sxvagvarad aRwevs, vidre Tasi yabaxisa an Tasi, rogorc
delfos sakulto xelsawyo. graalis Tasi aris Ziebis saganic da
maZieblis jildoc erTdroulad. Tu Tasis mxridan, misi poziciidan
SevxedavT, igi igi elis Tavis rCeuls: Ziebis dasawyisi arCevaa,
radgan mxolod rCeulTa xvedria Zieba da povna, rogorc jildo.
Tasi irCevs mas, vinc misi xilvis da mopovebis pirobebs akmayofilebs.
asea Tu ise, graalis Zieba srulyofilebis gzaze svlaa.
mociqulTa ricxvis Tanaziari mefe arturis is Tormeti
raindi, romelic mrgvali magidis (Tasis da, Tundac, samfexis
konfiguracias rom imeorebs) irgvliv aris Semokrebili, qristes
mociqulTa msgavsad, Tanabarni arian, amitomac am magidas ara aqvs
arc saTave, sadac maT Soris ukeTesi daikavebda adgils, da arc
bolo, sadac maT Soris udaresi dajdeboda. es Tormetic imave
Tvisebisaa, rac Svidi elinur TqmulebaSi, sadac aseve arsebobs
mrgvali magida, magram misi arseboba virtualuria, ufro droJamul
ganzomilebaSi myofobs uxilavad, vidre sivrculSi da, amrigad,
ufro magidis ideas _ magidobas gamoxatavs, ris saxilveladac
platonis TqmiT gonebis Tvalia aucilebeli. iseve, rogorc elinur
TqmulebaSi, aqac Tasi TiToeulis wilxvedrili unda iyos: TiToeuli
maTgani unda eziaros am Tasidan mas Semdeg, rac srulyofis gzas
gaivlis. qriste, romelsac xelT upyria barZimi (legendebSi graalis
Tasad wodebuli), Tanabrad aziarebs mociqulebs, rig-rigobiT rom
eaxlebian mas, erT mxares eqvsi, meore mxares eqvsi, rogorc mociqulTa
ziarebis xati gvisuraTebs (es scena gansxvavdeba ukanaskneli serobis
aRwerisgan). graalis legendis Sinagani logika karnaxobs narativis
ganviTarebas: TiToeulma am Tormetidan Tav-Tavisi unikaluri gza
unda gaiaros srulyofisken, raTa TiToeuli Tavis gzis bolodan
dabrundes mrgval magidasTan, sadac mas magidis SuagulSi dasvenebuli
safarvelaxdili Tasi, rogorc jildo RvawlisTvis, daxvdeba.
SeniSvna 1
magram legendis Tanaxmad, mefe arturs Tormetze gacilebiT
meti saxelovani raindi hyavda Tavis karze da metoqeoba maT Soris
iseTi mwvave iyo, rom man daamzadebina mrgvali magida, raTa
acilebuliyo dava imis Taobaze, Tu vin unda mjdariyo saTaveSi.
Tasi, diogene da Svidi brZeni
176
SeniSnulia, mrgvali magida imeorebs graalis tablas, romelic sxva
arafria, Tu ara tabla ukanaskneli serobisa. amitomac evalebodaT
mis garSemo msxdom raindebs iseTive harmonia yofiliyo
damkvidrebuli maT Soris, rogoric qristes mociqulTa Soris
sufevda [kavendiSi:53-54]. Tumca iyo SemTxveva, roca zebedes Svilebma,
iakobma da ioanem, mosTxoves iesos, rom Tavis didebaSi erTi Tavis
marjvniv daesva, meore _ marcxniv, ramac danarCeni aTis drtvinva
gamoiwvia (mr. 10:35-41).
SeniSvna 2
aSkaraa graalis Tqmulebis ara mxolod zogadqristianuli
arsi, aramed misi konkretuli gamoxatuleba, kerZod, evqaristiis
saidumlos saxiT. Cans, dasavleTis religiurma cnobierebam legendaSi
siuJeturad ganfina saRvTo liturgiis mTeli Sinaarsi. am saidumlos
Zlier da Rrma liturgiul gancdas ganumsWvalavs qristianobamdeli
warmoSobis kelturi Tqmuleba da sruliad gardauqmnia igi.
mociqulTa ricxvis Tanaziari is Tormeti raindi, romelic mrgvali
magidis (Tasis da, Tundac, samfexis konfiguracias rom imeorebs)
irgvliv aris Semokrebili da zneobriv srulyofas eswrafis, sxva
ra unda iyos, Tu ara eklesia, romlis zRvruli ricxvi `mociqulTa
dadgenilebebis~ Tanaxmad, Tormetia _ krebuli morwmuneTa barZimis
gamoCenis molodinSi, romelsac maT winaSe safarveli unda aexados,
rom saTiTaod eziaron `uxrwnelTa da cxovelsmyofelTa
saidumloTa~. Jamiswirvis mTeli ganmavloba maT gamobrZanebamde
xom ziarebisTvis samzadisia.
aseTia graalis legendis idea. magram mrgval magidasTan erTi
skami Tavisufalia. Tavisufali adgili SeiZleba niSnavdes an imas,
rom erTi wevri gasulia am wridan, rogorc iuda, romelmac datova
ukanaskneli serobis tabla, an imas, rom igi elis rCeuls. wre ar
aris dasrulebuli, is gawyvetilia erT adgilas da rCeba ase,
vidre ar mova rCeuli graaliT xelSi, raTa daikavos Tavisi kuTvnili
adgili da, amrigad, gaamrTelos gawyvetili wre.
literatura
gilgameSiani 1984: gilgameSiani, nakaduli, Tb., 1984.
diogene 1998: , ,
, . , , 1998.
zurab kiknaZe
177
kavendiSi 1983: Cavendish R. King Arthur and the Grail, Granada Publishing,
1983.
kiknaZe 1996: kiknaZe z. qarTuli miTologia I, jvari da saymo,
quTaisi, 1996.
romanovi 1980: . .
(
), 3, 1980.
qegl 1960: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, T. VI, Tb., 1960.
haidegeri 1992: haidegeri m. dasabami xelovnebis qmnilebisa,
germanulidan Targmna giorgi baramiZem, `goni~, Tb., 1992.
Zurab Kiknadze
A Cup, Diogenes and Seven Sages
In the hierarchy of things made by human hand a cup holds the highest
place. Its symbolic meaning is attested not only in the hands of Enkidu on his way
to becoming human (The Epic of Gilgamesh), but in the behavior of Diogenes of
Sinope, who denies culture and in the words of Odysseus as well, when he ironically
called treasure the vessel roughly made on the deserted island by Philoctetes
(Sophocles: Philoctetes), as the first and the last sign of culture.
However, primitive this everyday life utensil might seem, the form of which
was dictated by the cup of the hand, it could not be restricted to the limits of its
practical use.
In the narrative of Diogenes Laertius (Lives and Opinions of Eminent
Philosophers) the question is asked as a challenge and a test: who is the wisest
among the sages. The cup (or tripod) is assigned the mission to find the answer to
the question and this thing travels from one wise man to another in testing
expectation that it will remain in the hands of one of them.
But each wise man is given a chance to choose the person more wiser than
himself. The item as a sign of challenge, awaits from each of them the only right
decision. When the cup (or tripod) so circulated returns back to the first chosen
(Thales), it turns out that all of them are equally wise. By giving to each other the
priority, they proved their wisdom.
Tasi, diogene da Svidi brZeni
178
irakli mWedliSvili
metafora, msgavseba da
`umSvenieresi kavSiri~,
romelic samyaros sxeuls
srulyofilad aerTebs...
rogorc zogierTi Tanamedrove moaz-
rovne acxadebs, mas Semdeg rac garemomcvel
sinamdvileSi teqnologiuri ganviTarebis
Sedegad warmoSobili axali movlena, virtua-
luri realoba `Casaxlda~ Cveni samyarosTan
mimarTeba gamoTqmuli ara cnebiTi, aramed
mxolod metaforuli formiT SeiZleba iyos.
es ki niSnavs, rom dezorientaciuli dabneu-
loba, romelic cnebiTi kategoriebis moSlas
mohyveba, daZleuli mxolod metaforul-
gadataniT konteqstSi SeiZleba iyos. amitomac,
aseTi viTarebis gamo, rogorc Cans, Tanamed-
rove kulturis konceptualuri safuZvlebis
kvlav gadaxedva mogviwevs...
aristotele metaforas, am `uCveulo~
da `gadataniTi mniSvnelobis~ sityvas (an
saxels), rogorc mraval naSromSi ganbneuli
msjeloba mowmobs, ZiriTadad, mainc nega-
tiurad afasebda.
1
misi SedarebiT dadebiTi
damokidebuleba mxolod erTgan _ `poeti-
kaSi~ _ vlindeba: gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT
sityvaTa gamoyenebis codna yvelaze ufro
1
topikaSi aristotele metaforas qaragmul
gaurkvevlobas uwodebs da miiCnevs, rom misi gamoyeneba
mxolod sadResaswaulo gamosvlasa da bundovan
gamoTqmaTa uaryofisas SeiZleba (ix.: topika, 139b
33-35 da 158b 9-12). imave sakiTxs aristotele sxva
naSromebSic exeba (meore analitika, sofistur
dasabuTebaTa uaryofis Sesaxeb da sxv.).
filosofiis mecniereba-
Ta doqtori, kinomcodne,
inJiner-fizikosi.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
`cifruli gamosaxuleba
da eidosuri xati~, `kos-
mosi, sivrce-dro da
virtualuri realoba~,
`perspeqtiva _ aRorZi-
nbidan cifrul gamosa-
xulebamde...~...
samecniero interesebi:
amJamad ori mimarTule-
biT vmuSaob: pirveli,
xmelTaSua zRvis kul-
turaTa da civilizacia-
Ta safuZvlebSi gan-
msazRvreli da dReisaT-
visac sagulisxmo msofl-
SegrZnebiTi, anu dro-sivr-
ciTi xasiaTis koncepte-
bis gamovlena-Sepiris-
pireba. da meore _
`arTroni, anu elinuri
azrovnebis is simboluri
winaforma, romelmac Sem-
dgomi, dasavluri kul-
turis msoflSegrZnebiTi
mimarTeba ganapiroba.
179
mniSvnelovania, `radgan am unaris oden sxvisgan gadmoReba SeuZlebelia,
es niWierebis niSan-Tvisebaa _ marTlac, msgavsebis SemCnevis unari
kargad `gadatanisaTvis~ aucilebelia~
1
.
aq, am gamonaTqvamSi da, sazogadod, metaforis raobasTan
mimarTebaSi siZneles an gaurkvevlobis pirobas sityva `msgavsebis~
aracalsaxa mniSvneloba warmoSobs. marTlac, ras gulisxmobs an
moicavs msgavseba _ analogias, Sedarebas, msgavsis an igives moxelTebasa
Tu ikonurobas? metaforis TeoriaSi am sakiTxis kvlevas erT-
erTi centraluri adgili ukavia, magram aRniSnuli sferos uSualo
wvdoma winamdebare statiis mizans namdvilad ar warmoadgens.
2
mocemuli TemisaTvis ufro mniSvnelovani, albaT, isev
aristoteles Sexedulebis moniSvnaa. msgavsebis erTaderTi mkacrad
gansazRvruli mniSvneloba, rogorc Cans, Seesabameba imas, rasac
aristotele analogiad moixseniebs. analogias ki is TanafardobaTa
tolobas uwodebs
3
(laTinuri pro-portio-s termin `analogiasTan~
gaigiveba mogvianebiT, albaT mainc, ciceronis iniciativiT moxda).
msgavsebis am ZiriTad (analogiur) mniSvnelobasTan axlos,
aristoteles mixedviT, Sedarebis (ekn) gagebaa.
Sedareba ki, gansxvavebiT analogiisgan, ara wyvil sidideTa
Tanafardobas, anu proporciis oTx wevrs, aramed _ SesadarebelTa
calsaxa damokidebulebas moicavs. swored amitom, aristotele
Sedarebas metaforas `uqvemdebarebs~, mas martiv, qmedebis armomcvel
konstruqciad miiCnevs. magaliTad, gamonaTqvami, `zneobrivi adamiani
oTxkuTxedia~, aristoteles ganmartebiT, metaforaa, magram, iseTi,
sadac orive Semavali cneba (zneobrivi adamiani da oTxkuTxedi)
miuxedavad srulyofilebisa, qmedebas ar gamosaxavs
4
(da, albaT, amis
gamo, `poetikaSi~ Sedarebas saerTod ar ixseniebs).
amgvari, erTob zedapiruli Semzadebis Semdeg mkiTxvelis
yuradReba erT metaforul gamonaTqvams gvsurs mivapyroT. naSromSi
`sulis Sesaxeb~, kerZod, im adgilas, sadac mamoZravebelisa da moZravis
urTierTobaze msjelobs, aristotele gakvriT SeniSvnavs: `axla ki
mxolod mokled mivuTiToT, rom organos meSveobiT mamoZravebeli
isaa, romlis sawyisi da bolo erTmaneTs emTxveva iseve, rogorc _
SenawevarSi~.
5
1
aristotele, poetika, 1459 5.
2
ufro dawvrilebiT am sakiTxs dainteresebuli mkiTxveli SeiZleba gaecnos,
magaliTad: . , . . , ., ,
1990, 435
3
ix.-T, aristoteles nikomaxes eTika, 1131a 30.
4
ix.-T ritorikis III wignis X, XI.
5
, , X, 433b 20.
metafora, msgavseba da `umSvenieresi kavSiri~, romelic samyaros sxeuls
srulyofilad aerTebs...
180
erTi SexedviT, SeniSvnis CarTuli saxe, TiTqos, mxolod
metaforul Sedarebas gulisxmobs. Tumca, ufro dawvrilebiTi
ganxilvis Sedegad SeiZleba davinaxoT, rom amgvarivea analogiis
(analogiuri mimarTebis) piroba. marTlac, Tu `Sedarebis~ orive
mxares davakvirdebiT, aRmoCndeba, rom iqac da aqac wyvil-wyvili
fardoba gvaqvs (miswrafeba/organo da foso/burculi). magram
aristotele am SemTxvevaSi proporciul Tanafardobas saerTod
ar exeba. Tumca ki, nawevaris moqmedebis principis aRweras sakmao
adgils uTmobs _ saxsari, misi xedviT, iseTi sivrculi erTianobaa,
sadac, rogorc wris SemTxvevaSi, erTi wertili mainc rCeba uZravi
(igulisxmeba wris centri), imisaTvis, rom moZraobis dawyeba
SesaZlebeli iyos.
sxvagan, sxva SemTxvevaSi ki, vTqvaT, `nikomaxes eTikaSi~,
aristotele `amCnevs~ da aRniSnavs kidevac proporciul
damokidebulebas _ `amrigad, samarTali raRac TanafardobiTi [e. i.
proporciuli] ramea. proporciaSi Sesvla ki _ ara mxolod ricxvis
TavisTavadi, aramed Tvladis Tvisebaa.~
1
aristoteles, wina magaliTTan
mimarTebiT aRniSnuli, TiTqos, ucnauri gaurkvevloba cxadi an axsnadi
swored am SeniSvnis Semdeg SeiZleba gaxdes.
`nikomaxes eTikaSi~ ganxiluli proporciis orive wyvili _
pirveli, _ samarTliani ganawilebis maZiebeli ori pirovneba da,
meore, _ Sesabamisi mflobelobis ori wili _ fardobadia, radgan
Tvladia (aq igulisxmeba, rom pirovnebasTan mimarTebaSi ganawilebis
principi `Rirsebis mixedviT~ unda dgindebodes, rac strati-
ficirebuli socialuri struqturisa da, Sesabamisad, Tvladi
kriteriumebiT aRweris pirobaa).
magram sulieri warmomavlobis aravrceuli fenomenis _ swrafvis
an miswrafebis da sxeulovani organos Tanafardoba arakoreqtulia,
radgan am oridan pirveli araTvladi bunebisaa (entelecheia/dynamis,
anu sinamdvile da SesaZlebloba Tvisebrivad gansxvavebulni arian).
swored amitomaa, rom naSromSi `sulis Sesaxeb~ proporcia an
analogia, ar gvxdeba. amis nacvlad, aristotele xSirad mimarTavs
Sedarebas rogorc miniSnebis saSualebas. aseTi `Setyobineba~ am
naSromSi yovelTvis iribia, maSinac ki, roca TiTqos uSualo gadatana
xdeba.
magaliTad, imave traqtatSi aristotele kvlav metaforul
Sedarebas mimarTavs: `suli TiTqos xelia; rogorc xeli iaraRTa
1
, , 1131 28.
irakli mWedliSvili
181
iaraRia, aseve goni formaTa formaa, xolo, SegrZneba _ SesagrZneblis
forma.~
1
ase rom, adamianis xeli SeiZleba `iaraRTa iaraRi~ iyos,
magram suli, ara _ `xelis xeli~, aramed `TiTqos xelia~.
mniSvnelovani am SemTxvevaSi, swored es `TiTqos~-aa. cnobilia,
rom azrovnebis ganviTarebis adreul etapze metaforis enobrivi
xorcSesxma or safexurad xdeboda _ Tavidan iyo mtkiceba da
Semdgom _ uaryofa. Cvens dromde moRweul uZveles wyaroebSi
amgvar SedarebaTa bevri magaliTia: `magari, magram ara klde~, `mdinare
bRavis, magram xari ar aris~, `mefe keTilia, magram mama ar aris~ da
a. S.
aristotelesTan ki metaforuli mtkiceba-uaryofa erTdroulad
xdeba, xolo sityva `TiTqos~ swored am `Tan aris da Tan arc
aris~ funqciis matarebelia. es SemTxveviT an arqauli inerciis
gamo ar xdeba. sxva naSromebSi, sadac aristotele analogiasa da
proporciul damokidebulebaze saubrobs, sityva `TiTqos~ iSviaTad
gvxdeba. xolo naSromSi `sulis Sesaxeb~ amgvari `Tan/Tan~
konstruqcia ganbneuli yovel nabijzea: `goni TiTqos TvaliT
xedavdes~, `goni maTematikuri sagnebis moazrebisas maT sxeulisgan
gamocalkevebulad iazrebs, Tumca isini misgan gamocalkevebulni ar
arian~, `dro _ msgavsad ganfenisa _ dayofadia da dauyofadic~
2
da
mravali sxva
asevea im gamonaTqvamebSic, sadac aristotele TiTqos
Tanafardobas migvaniSnebs, magaliTad: `arc SegrZnebis unaris arseba
da arc SegrZneba sivrculi sidide ar aris, magram isini raRac
Tanafardobasa da SemgrZnebis SesaZleblobas warmoadgens.~
3
aq, albaT,
yuradReba erT mniSvnelovan moments unda mieqces. aristoteles
modelis Tanaxmad, SegrZneba sulis Semadgenlobis is erTaderTi
donea, sadac gare sagnobriv-materialur samyarosTan (an garemosTan)
uSualo `Sexvedra~ xdeba.
SegrZneba, aristoteles azriT, iseve moqmedebs rogorc azrovneba
(Wvreta). gansxvaveba ki isaa, rom SegrZnebis moqmedeba mimarTuli
gareT, erTeuliskenaa, xolo, codna an azrovneba _ im zogadisaken,
romelic sulis SigniT arsebobs. imisaTvis, rom sulis erTianoba
ar dairRves, SegrZnebidan sulis SemadgenlobaSi ara sxeulovani
anabeWdi (anu sivrcul-geometriuli sidide), aramed sagnis garkveuli
Tvisebrioba, anu forma (logos-i) Semodis.
1
, , VIII, 431b 30.
2
Ibid., 431b 8, 431b 16, 430b 9.
3
Ibid. 424a 27.
metafora, msgavseba da `umSvenieresi kavSiri~, romelic samyaros sxeuls
srulyofilad aerTebs...
182
magram Tu arc SegrZneba da arc, sazogadod, suli sivrculi
bunebis araa, maSin ras efuZneba sulis arsebis logosuri wesrigi?
da am kiTxvaze arapirdapiri pasuxi, isev aristoteles amave naSromSi
(`sulis Sesaxeb~) unda veZioT. rogorc Cans, pasuxi `amofarebuli~
qmedebisa da moZraobis cnebaTa ukan aris. sagulisxmo miniSnebas
swored moZraobis aRmZvrelis, `wminda~ sulieri fenomenis, swrafvis
an miswrafebis aRwera gvaZlevs.
aristoteles Tanaxmad, miswrafebis ukan survili, vneba da
neba igulisxmeba. amitom, sulis `sivrceSi~ erTdroulad SeiZleba
erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdego miswrafebani arsebobdes. es im SemTxvevaSi,
`roca goni survilebs ewinaaRmdegeba, da es ki maTTan xdeba, visac
drois grZnoba aqvs.~
1
ase rom, survilebs, romelTa aRmZvreli wadili
myisier, amwamier ganxorcielebas, siamovnebis miRebas iswrafvis, goni
swored momavali sikeTis an madlis, anu drois niSnis mixedviT
aferxebs da awesrigebs. aqedan ki SeiZleba sruliad calsaxa daskvna
gakeTdes _ sulis velSi, sulis sferoSi, aristoteles mixedviT,
droiTi mowesrigeba daSvebulia.
magram am SemTxvevaSic problema kvlav gadauWreli rCeba. Tu
goni erTdroulad arsebul miswrafebebs (an, sazogadod, sulier
fenomenebs) Soris droiT `gadarCevas~ axdens, es droiTi dinebidan
gasvlasa da mimdevrobis wyvetas niSnavs. amitom, kvlav gasarkvevia,
rogor xdeba, erTi mxriv, droiTi Tanmimdevrobidan `gasvlis~
pirobebSi TviT erTiani drois warmodgenis SenarCuneba da, meore
mxriv, am xan erT, xan meore da a. S. sulier movlenebze gadarTuli
gonis _ kvlav erTian droiT TanmimdevrobaSi CarTva?
am kiTxvas pasuxi am naSromis mixedviT (da albaT, aristoteles
sxva wyaroebis mixedviTac) ver gaecema. Tumca, VI TavSi azrovnebis
Sesaxeb gaSlili msjeloba raRac miniSnebas mainc gvaZlevs. `dro
_ ganfenis msgavsad _ dayofadic da dauyofadic aris~.
2
ras niSnavs es? imas, rom aristotele am SemTxvevaSi sulier
procesebs SesaZleblobis sferos miakuTnebs (sivrcec da droc
xom sinamdvileSi daunawevrebadad miiCneva, xolo moZraoba,
aristoteles Tanaxmad, SesaZleblobis ganxorcielebisaken swrafvis
tendenciad moiazreba)? met garkveulobas mainc isev moZraobis
saxeTa aristoteleseuli dayofa unda iZleodes.
Tu, aristoteles mixedviT, sivrciTis garda yvela sxva saxis
moZraoba wyvetadia, maSin, Sesabamisad, sulieri swrafvebiT aRZruli
1
Ibid. 433b 5.
2
Ibid. 430b 9.
irakli mWedliSvili
183
moZraobaca da misi `zomac~, anu droc wyvetadi unda iyos. es ki
imas unda niSnavdes, rom aristotele sulis sferos uSualod
drois zogad TanmimdevrobaSi, anu uwyvet ganzomilebaSi ar moiazrebs.
rac Seexeba azrovnebis aqts, rogorc Cans, aq dro ukve modalur
mimarTebas iRebs. radgan goni calkeul saazrovno sagnebs (an formebs)
akavSirebs da amasTan, am procesSi yovel nawils `calke iazrebs,
[is] amavdroulad drois dayofasac axdens.~
1
meore mxriv, aristotele
iqve gveubneba, rom imas, rac saxeobis mixedviT dauyofadia, `goni
dauyofad drosa da sulis dauyofad nawilSi moiazrebs~
12
.
ase rom, am erTob `CaxlarTuli~ msjelobis Sedegad, met-
naklebi danamdvilebiT ori ram mainc SeiZleba iTqvas. pirveli, is,
rom azrovnebis sfero da albaT, mTlianobaSi, sulis velic,
aristoteles naazrevidan gamomdinare, droiTi niSniT mowesrigebul
fragmentul (wyvetil) erTianobad warmogvidgeba; da meore, _
sasazRvro areebSi (SegrZnebis organoebi da mamoZravebeli _ swrafva/
organo), iq, sadac suli sivrcul-sxeulovan obieqtebs `xvdeba~,
aristoteles, marTalia metaforulad, msgavsebiT, magram mowesrigebis,
anu morgebis ukve sivrciTi (sxeulovani saxsari) principi Semoaqvs.
aqve, dawvrilebiTi ganxilvis an kvlevis gareSe, mxolod varaudis
saxiT SeiZleba gamoiTqvas mosazreba, rom Semdgomi periodis `droiTi
koncepciebi~, didwilad, aristoteles amgvari ganazrebis Sedegi
iyo. kerZod, rogorc Cans, sivrcul-sxeulovani warmonaqmni, nawevari,
anu saxsari, aristoteles `mimdevrebma~, universalur kvanZad miiCnies
da wyvetil (fragmentul) droTa damakavSirebladac gadaaqcies.
aristoteles mier calsaxa metaforuli mniSvnelobiT
Semotanili sityvis, `nawevaris~ (saxsris) laTinuri Sesatyvisi
artikulusi (articulus) da misgan nawarmoebi artikulacia (articulatio
_ danawevreba, dasaxsvra) saazrovno kulturaSi, romidan da adreuli
qristianobidan dawyebuli _ dRevandlamde, myarad mkvidrobs. amasTan,
isic sagulisxmoa, rom es Tavdapirvelad sivrculi mimarTebis
termini Tanamedrove gamoTqmebSi, umeteswilad, swored droiTi niSniT
mowesrigebas gulisxmobs (mag.: `artikulirebuli ena, sityva an
metyveleba~, `azrovnebis artikulacia~ da a. S.).
arada, miuxedavad imisa, rom arc aristotelesa da arc sxva
elin moazrovnes `saxsari~ cnebis an Tundac, terminis mniSvnelobiT
naxsenebi ar aqvs, ueWvelia, rom es saazrovno warmonaqmni Semdgom
1
Ibid. 430b 12.
2
Ibid. 430b 15.
metafora, msgavseba da `umSvenieresi kavSiri~, romelic samyaros sxeuls
srulyofilad aerTebs...
184
da Tanamedrove Zireul `sakvanZo~ warmodgenebTan ganmapirobebel
kavSirSia. magram imisaTvis, rom es kavSiri ufro naTlad iyos
gamokveTili, enis droTa ganmavlobaSi danaleq gamyarebul
asociaciaTagan nawilobrivi gamonTavisufleba mainc xdeba saWiro.
sityva `nawevaris~ berZnuli Sesatyvisis _ `arTronis~ (arthron)
SemoReba, upirveles yovlisa, artikulusis dadgenil, Cveul konteqsts
agvaridebs, da, meorec, _ misi elinuri `ieri~ antikur saazrovno
sivrceSi TiTqos xelovnur-pirobiTad CarTvisas (sinamdvileSi,
dabrunebisas) warmoqmnil `saCoTiro kuTxeebs~ moamrgvalebs da
rac aseve mniSvnelovania, es termini elinuri azrovnebis simbolur
xasiaTs ufro naTlad gamoavlens.
es bolo momenti mniSvnelovani da yovelTvis gasaTvaliswinebeli,
ra Tqma unda, aristoteles naazrevTan mimarTebaSic unda iyos,
magram gansakuTrebuli datvirTva sivrcul simbolos mainc platonis
warmodgenaTa ganxilvisas eZleva.
SeiZleba sityva `analogias~ mniSvneloba platonTan, iseve
rogorc aristotelesTan msgavsebis cnebasTan uSualo kavSirSia,
magram, sxva mxriv, am termins gadataniT, anu metaforul gamoTqmasTan
raime saerTo ar aqvs. platonur teqstebSi sityva `analogia~
swored sawyisi Tu Zireuli mniSvnelobiT (an _ msgavsad, + logia)
xSirad Cndeba. amasTan, msgavsebis SemCnevis unari, anu STabeWdilebaTa
gamocalkeveba-Sedareba aq gonierebis, azris dabadebis uSualo pirobas
warmoadgens
1
.
magram mocemuli TemisaTvis ufro mniSvnelovani termin
`analogias~ is gansxvavebuli datvirTvaa, romelsac Cven ciceronis
wyalobiT SemoRebuli sinonimis, `proporciis~ qveS vgulisxmobT
_ es ricxviTi Tanafardobaa. Tumca, aqve unda iTqvas: miuxedavad
imisa, rom termin `proporcias~ msgavsebis mniSvneloba Camocilebuli
aqvs platonis Sesabamis teqstebSi mas mxolod calsaxa, Tanamedrove
gagebiT maTematikuri mniSvneloba ar unda mieces. `timeosSi~ naxsenebi
proporciis oTxive tipidan wminda maTematikuri, anu iseTi, romelsac
aristotele `ricxvis, an Tvladis TavisTavad Tvisebad~ da erTaderT
SesaZlebel (oTxwevrian, a/b=c/d,) proporciad Tvlis, mxolod erTia
(Tanac kvlav ariTmetikul, geometriul da harmoniul qvetipebad
dayofili).
platoni ZiriTadad piTagorelTa mier Camoyalibebul ricxviTi
harmoniis moZRvrebas eyrdnoba. amitomac danarCeni sami ti pi
1
magaliTisaTvis ix.-eT platonis: Theaet. 186c da Crat. 399.
irakli mWedliSvili
185
proporciisa _ wesier geometriul sxeulTa (kubi, ikosaedri,
oqtaedri, piramida), musikalur-oqtavuri (toni, kvarta, kvinta) da
ZiriTad fizikur elementTa (miwa, wyali, haeri, cecxli) _ swored
samyaros harmoniuli wyobis piTagorul-esTetikuri modelis
uSualo gamovlenaa
1
.
garda amisa, platoni proporcias gnoseulogiur funqciasac
aniWebs. sinamdviles, romelic platonis modeliT realobis xarisxis
mixedviT gansxvavebul Sreebad iyofa Semecnebis aseve sxvadasxva
saxe Seesabameba. `...Cven mogvwons... rom pirvel saxes [Semecnebisa]
codna (epistemen) daerqvas, meores _ gansja (dianoian), mesames rwmena
(pistin) da meoTxes damsgavseba (eicasian)., amasTan, or ukanaskenls
erTad _ warmodgena (doxan)..., xolo pirvel ors _ azrovneba
(nosin) /daerqvas/. saxeldobr, warmodgena qmnadobas, azrovneba ki
arsebas miekuTvneba. da rogorc arseba qmnadobas efardeba, aseve
azrovneba _ warmodgenas da rogorc azrovneba warmodgenas, aseve
codna _ rwmenas da gansja _ damsgavsebas~
2
.
amrigad, platonis mixedviT, Semecnebis saxeebs Soris iseTive
proporciuli damokidebulebaa, rogoric sinamdvilis doneebs Soris
aris. yvela zemoTqmulis erTianad gaTvaliswinebisas SeiZleba iseTi
STabeWdileba Seiqmnas, TiTqos platonTan `yvelaferi proporciaa~.
da aseTi azri WeSmaritebisgan arcTu Sors iqneba, radgan piTagoruli
moZRvreba, romelsac platoni eyrdnoba da romelic amtkicebda,
rom `yvelaferi ricxvia~ swored `vizualur ricxvebs~, struqturul,
anu iseT mowesrigebul warmonaqmnebs gulisxmobda, sadac
postulirebuli `wesieri~, Tvladi Tanafardoba iyo.
piTagoruli xedviT ki `ricxviTi harmonia~ ara marto kosmiur
wesrigs, aramed yvela sagnisa da sulis imanentur struqturasac
apirobebs. amitomac, albaT ar SevcdebiT Tu vigulisxmebT, rom
Semecnebis saxeTa Soris mimarTebis msgavsi, anu proporciuli
damokidebuleba platons daSvebuli `sulis sivrceSic~ unda qondes.
am mosazrebis marTebulobis safuZvels `timeosSi~ sulis grZnobadi
Semecnebis meqanizmis aRweris garda, arapirdapir, sulis or _
ukvdav da mokvdav _ nawilad platoniseuli dayofac unda iZleodes.
Tu platonuri xedviT maradiul, inteligibelur sinamdvilesa
da grZnobad, warmaval sinamdviles Soris proporciuli damo-
kidebulebaa, maSin igive mimarTeba sulis ukvdav da mokvdav nawilebs
1
ufro dawvrilebiT es sakiTxi ganxilulia: ..,
, . 1963, . 263.
2
platoni, saxelmwifo, 533e534a.
metafora, msgavseba da `umSvenieresi kavSiri~, romelic samyaros sxeuls
srulyofilad aerTebs...
186
Sorisac unda moiazrebodes. es ki SeiZleba niSnavdes, rom `uZravi
da erTaderTi maradisobis xatad Seqmnili moZravi da maradmedini
xatebis~
1
, drois ricxvTa kanonis Tanaxmad mimdinareoba sulis
wiaRSic (mis mokvdav nawilSic) unda xdebodes. magram, amgvar
mosazrebas platoni arc gamoTqvams da arc gulisxmobs _
maradisobisa da drois mimarTebis sakiTxs is Tavs dumiliT aridebs.
garkveulad mxolod is SeiZleba iTqvas, rom, radgan piTagoruli
modeliT makrokosmosisa da mikrokosmosis wyoba erTgvarovani
unda iyos, amitomac, proporciuli damokidebuleba maradiul da
warmaval sinamdvileebs an doneebs Soris sulis wiaRSic unda
arsebobdes. rac Seexeba dros, am sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi platonisa
da aristoteles xedva erTmaneTisgan didad ar gansxvavdeba _
droiT faqtors sulis wiaRSi orive aRiarebs, Tumca `ricxvTa
kanonis Tanaxmad mimdinare~ droiT struqturas sulis imanentur
Tvisebad arc erTi miiCnevs.
Tu es asea, maSin zemoT, dasawyisSi wamoWril sakiTxs kvlav,
ganmeorebiT SeiZleba davubrundeT: maS, saidan Semovida antikurobis
Semdgom periodSi dasaxsvris, artikulaciis principi? nuTu am
models sababad mxolod aristoteles TiTqos SemTxveviT moxmobili
metaforuli Sedarebis, arTronuli kavSiris sulis wiaRSi SecdomiT
gadatana da droiT mowesrigebaze ganvrcoba daedo?
da aqve, argumentirebis gareSe, winaswar da garkveulad SeiZleba
gacxaddes _ aRniSnuli, antikurobis Semdgomi periodis `xedviTi
cToma~ inspirirebuli ufro platonis `wyalobiT~ unda iyos.
yovlismomcveli da `umSvenieresi kavSiri~, anu proporcia iseTi
cnebiTi Tu simboluri warmonaqmnia, romelic arsobrivad swored
rom dasaxsvris princips gulisxmobs. yvela zemoT moxseniebuli
struqturuli proporcia, romelic 1 2 simboloTi aRiniSneba _
kubi-piramida, oqtava, miwa-cecxli da aseve gnoseologiuric _ ara
Cveul ricxviTi Tanafardobas an raodenobriv cvlilebas, aramed
Tvisebriv gadasvlas gulisxmobs.
piTagorelTa diaduri sawyisi (erTi _ monada, ori _ diada)
zomadi an vrcul-ariTmetikuli ganzomilebidan gasul yvela
alogikur qmnadobas (sivrcul, droiT, moZraobiT...), anu gadasvlas
gansazRvravda. diadur gadasvlas platonTanac igive datvirTva
aqvs, magram amasTan, swored imis gamo, rom diaduri sawyisi
universaluria, anu radgan mas mimarTeba Tu `naTesaoba~ orive, idealur
1
platoni, timeosi, 37d.
irakli mWedliSvili
187
da materialur obieqtebTan aqvs, sinamdvilis platonur ierarqiaSi
is Sualedur, maTematikur saganTa dones ganekuTvneba.
aristoteles moZRvrebis mixedviT ki materias mowyvetili
raime formis an formalur-geometriuli warmonaqmnis arseboba
SeuZlebelia. amitomac sasazRvro areSi (SegrZneba, organo), iq, sadac
ori gansxvavebuli arsis, sulier da materialur obieqtTa morgeba
unda moxdes aristoteles arTronuli kavSiris, anu bmis zogadi
principi arapirdapir, `iZulebiT~, metaforul-gadataniTi saxiT
Semoaqvs. platoni ki mTeli `dasaxsruli~ sinamdvilis iseTi
struqturul-geometriul warmodgenas gvaZlevs, sadac ganyenebul
cnebiT warmonaqmnTa (diada, `vizualuri proporcia~) simboluri
Zalmosileba arTronul (artikulaciis) princips Tavad moicavs.
platoni uSualod sxeulovan saxsars (nawevars) `timeosSi~
mxolod erTgan da isic Zalze zedapirulad exeba. kerZod _ iq,
sadac adamianis Zvlovani struqturis Seqmnas aRwers: `...xolo
Semdgom /RmerTma/ masSi CaaSena saxsrebi, romelTa SeqmnisTvisac
damxmare saSualebad gamoiyena `sxvisi~ Zala, raTa uzrunvelyo maTi
moZraoba da moqniloba.~
1
da es nawyveti swored zemoT gamoTqmul
mosazrebas adasturebs: platonis `timeosis~ mixedviT, `... marad
ucvleli da TviTidenturi arsi daaxloebiT igivea, rac piTagorelTa
`monada~, absoluturi `erTi~; ... maSin rodesac `sxva~ _ maradiuli
qmnadobis es idealuri principi, piTagorelTa ganusazRvreli `oriT~
_ `diadiTaa~ gamoxatuli, radgan `diada~ arsebiTad sxva ara aris
ra, Tu ara `monadas~ TviTgansxvavebis, yovelgvari simravlis, dayofisa
da gansxvavebis dasabamieri sawyisi.~
2
ase rom, Cveulebrivi, sxeulovani saxsris funqciur bmulobas,
platonis mixedviT, swored `sxvisi~, anu `diaduri~ kavSiris Zala
ganapirobebs. anu sxvanairad, Tu mxolod warmavali sinamdvilis
donidan ganvsjiT, `umSvenieresi bma~ CvenTvis, grZnobadi samyaros
mcxovrebTaTvis gamovlenili swored sxeulovan saxsarSi iqneba.
amitomac, SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom Tu antikurobis Semdgom
periodSi gamovlenili `droiTi artikulaciis~ koncepciis war-
moSobas uneburi biZgi aristoteles metaforulma Sedarebam misca,
platonurma `umSvenieresma kavSirma~ (diadurma gadasvlam), anu
arTronuli bmis ganyenebulma simbolom, rogorc Cans, amgvar
warmodgenas struqturuli simwyobrec SesZina.
Tumca, aqve, kvlav unda aRiniSnos, rom arc aristotelesa da
miT ufro, arc platonis xedva aseT droiT mimarTebas arc cnobs
1
Ibid. 74a.
2
baCana bregvaZe, komentarebi. wignSi, platoni, timeosi, Tb. 1994, gv. 402.
metafora, msgavseba da `umSvenieresi kavSiri~, romelic samyaros sxeuls
srulyofilad aerTebs...
188
da arc gulisxmobs. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom piTagoruli tradiciiT
diadur gadasvlas (1 2 proporcias) xSirad `vizualur
proporciasac~ uwodeben. es ki niSnavs, rom piTagorul-platonur
`ricxviT harmonias~ safuZvlad sivrciT-geometriuli xedva udevs.
amitomac antikuri geometriuli xedvis Cem mier adre
Catarebulma kvlevam, berZnuli azrovnebis, ase vTqvaT, winaformis an
saxasiaTo xatis (Spengleruli praformis) Ziebis mcdelobam
`arTronul~ warmonaqmnTan, rogorc axla irkveva, sruliad
kanonzomierad mimiyvana. ori idealuri formis, sferosa da sxivis
urTiermorgebis Sedegad swored saxsruli an arTronuli
konfiguracia miiReba. da es konfiguracia safuZvlad ara mxolod
antikur kosmiur struqturas, aramed Tanamedroveobamde mosul
dro-sivrciT warmodgenebsac daedo.
1
ase rom, winamdebare statia ara, rogorc zogjer ityvian,
mwignobruli an sqolastikuri `Cxrekvis~ magaliTi, aramed ufro,
CanafiqriT mainc, Tanamedroveobis Zalzed mniSvnelovani problemis,
`axali sinamdvilis~ msoflSegrZnebiT, kulturul-konceptualur
winapirobaTa gadaazrebisa da raRacis dRevandelobis konteqstSi
kvlav dadgena-gagebis kidev erTi mcdelobaa...
Irakli Mchedlishvili
Metaphor, Similarity and the Finest Union which in
Perfection Connects a Body of the Universe...
Aristotele in work On the Mind metaphorically transfers a principle of
articular connection on the union of soul and corporal body of sensation. There is
supposition, such representation has allowed an occasion to the subsequent thinkers
to enter the term articulation (lat. articulus a joint) mainly in sense of time
ordering. Though Aristotele supposes concept of time of sphere of soul, but about
continuous time sequence in it nothing speaks...
Plato too means presence concept of time in structure of soul (immortal
and mortal parts of soul), but - and he does not mention time sequence. But
then, the basic, finest union, or a proportion (1 : 2, a monad-dyad) at Plato
geometrically repeats a principle of articulate connection.
Therefore, for a designation of concept which in an obvious kind in antique
philosophies did not exist and for delimiting it from later articulus, I suggest to
enter the term arthron (Greek arthron - a joint). This term or a principle keeps
great value for the present the subsequent behind antiquity and todays spacial-
temporal representations grow just from this mental designs
1
ufro dawvrilebiT SegiZliaT ixiloT: irakli mWedliSvili _ `dro-sivrciTi
paradigmebi da maTi monacvleoba vizualur kulturaSi~, sadisertacio naSromi,
Tsu, 2005, I Tavi.
irakli mWedliSvili
189
manana kvaWantiraZe
Carlz pirsi da Tanamedrove
semiotikis problemebi
filosofiuri azris istorias TiTqmis
ori saukune dasWirda imisaTvis, rom xorci
Sesxmoda jon lokis mosazrebas niSanTa
sagangebo Teoriis Seqmnis aucileblobaze
(` ,~ wigni III). es
amocana warmatebiT ganaxorciela amerikelma
mecnierma Carlz sanders pirsma (1839-1914)
zogadi semiotikis SeqmniT da safuZveli
Cauyara niSanTa sistemebis, komunikaciuri
aqtebis, meqanizmebisa da procesebis Seswavlas
Tanamedrove movlenebis araerT sferoSi
xelovnebidan dawyebuli biologiiT
damTavrebuli. Carlz pirsi ar yofila
saTanadod Sefasebuli Tavisi Tanamedroveebis
mier, samagierod, dRes igi amerikuli
filosofiis umniSvnelovanes figuradaa
aRiarebuli. mis mier dawerili asobiT
gamokvlevis sistematizaciasa da publikacias
samecniero gamomcemlobebma gardacvalebidan
oci wlis Semdeg mohkides xeli. TxzulebaTa
pirveli krebuli 1935-1966 wlebSi gamoica.
a rsebobs rCeuli na Srom ebis ori
komentirebuli gamocema (1955, 1956); ufro
farTodaa cnobili mokle fragmenti pirsis
naSromisa `logika, rogorc semiotika: niSanTa
Teoria~, romelic semiotikis 1985 wels
gamocemul anTologiaSi gamoqveynda.
dasavleTSi pirsis mimarT daintereseba
s e m i o t i k i s i s t o r i a s e m i o t i k i s i s t o r i a s e m i o t i k i s i s t o r i a s e m i o t i k i s i s t o r i a s e m i o t i k i s i s t o r i a
d a T e o r i a d a T e o r i a d a T e o r i a d a T e o r i a d a T e o r i a
filologiis mecnie-
rebaTa doqtori, SoTa
rusTavelis saxelobis
literaturis institu-
tis qarTuli litera-
turis ganyofilebis gamge,
Jurna l `kritikis~
mTavari redaqtori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi: ,,me
Cems sakuTar Senobas
vageb, ,,oTar WilaZis
mxatvruli sistemis
semiologiuri aspeqtebi,
`werilebi litera-
turaze, ,,gameoreba.
interesTa sfero:
literaturaTmcodneoba,
kritika, semiotika.
190
ukanasknel aTwleulebSi imdenad didia, rom saubroben `pirsisken
Semobrunebaze~, `pirsis xazze~ da a. S. am interess mowmobs masze
gamoqveynebuli veeberTela literatura, romelic specialur
sacnobaro bibliografiaSia Tavmoyrili. pirsis Sesaxeb amomwuravi
informaciis miReba SesaZlebelia indianas universitetis semiotikuri
kvlevebis institutSi, romelsac Tomas a. sabeoki xelmZRvanelobs.
pirss mieZRvna Jurnal `The Monist~-is specialuri nomeri 1982
wels da a. S.
sabWoTa samecniero sivrceSi pirsi 1968 wels gamoCnda i. k.
melvilis avtorobiT gamosul wignSi `Carlz pirsi da pragmatizmi~.
1983 wels krebulSi `semiotika pirvelad gamoqveynda misi `logikis
elementebi~, 1996 wels ki ` ~-s # 12-Si daibeWda
pirsis ori cnobili statia: `rwmenis ganmtkiceba~ da `rogor
gamovxatoT Cveni ideebi naTlad~. 2000 wels rusulad gamoica
pirsis rCeuli naSromebis ori tomi.
pirsis semiotika, upirveles yovlisa, logikosebisaTvis Seiqmna.
igi sosiuris lingvisturi semiotikisagan damoukideblad
viTardeboda da filosofias, logikasa da Semecnebis Teoriebs
eyrdnoboda. semiotikis lingvisturi mimarTulebisagan gansxvavebiT,
romelic mis praqtikul gamoyenebaze iyo orientirebuli da enis
models iyenebda, pirsis semiotika gnoseologiur da metafizikur
universalurobazea orientirebuli (noTi 2001: 6). amis gamo pirsis
Sromebi semiotikaSi upirvelesad filosofiisa da niSanTa zogadi
Teoriis farglebSi iqna aRiarebuli. am garemoebis gamo pirsisa
da sosiuris Teoriebis Sedareba araerTi samecniero naSromis
Temaa. maTi avtorebi ZiriTadad sosiuris diaduri da pirsis
triaduli modelebis SepirispirebiT interesdebian.
semiotikas pirsi gansazRvravda, rogorc moZRvrebas bunebaze
da niSnobrivi procesebis ZiriTad saxesxvaobebze. man pirvelma
daaxasiaTa iseTi semiotikuri cnebebi, rogoricaa niSani da mniSvneloba,
niSnuri damokidebuleba da a. S. pirsis umTavresi Tavisebureba,
sosiurisagan gansxvavebiT, isaa, rom igi yuradRebas amaxvilebs
semiozisze, rogorc obieqtisa da masze azrobrivi warmodgenis
SeuRlebis dausrulebel dinamiur procesze maSin, roca sosiuri
niSnis struqturas statikur mdgomareobaSi ganixilavda.
pirsis ideebi farTod dainerga hermenevtikaSi, naklebad
postmodernizmSi, romelmac gamoyenebiT semiotikas mianiWa
upiratesoba da sosiuris xazs mihyva (Tumca mizezi, vfiqrobT,
marto es ar yofila da amaze sxva dros). pirsis semiotika
manana kvaWantiraZe
191
erTgvari logikuri safuZvlis rols asrulebs xelovnebisa da
literaturis im TeoriebSi, romlebic aRqmaze, intepretaciaze,
recefciazea orientirebuli. pirsis gavlenas aRiarebdnen greimasi,
morisi, derida, lakani, eko da sxv. miuxedavad imisa, rom greimasi,
struqturalizmis arsebiTi postulatidan gamomdinare, TandaTan
uars ambobs obieqtze, rogorc semiozisis procesis erT-erT
korelatze, mecnierebi mainc pouloben Tanxvedris wertilebs maT
poziciebs Soris. pirsis usasrulo semiozisis idea gavlenas axdens
deridas dekonstruqciazec. paralelis gavleba SeiZleba lakanis
triadis (warmosaxviTi, realuri da simboluri) da pirsis pirveladis,
meoreulisa da mesameulis kategoriebs Soris. lakanisaTvis niSnis
interpretacia da mniSvnelobis warmoqmna socialur process
warmoadgens, anu simboluri rigis ideaa, Tumca, Tu tereza de
lauretisis dakvirvebas gaviziarebT, amisagan maincdamainc Sors
arc pirsis interpretanta dgas, miuxedavad imisa, rom pirsis
warmodgeniT, igi mentaluri xatia da ara socialuri. imis gamo,
rom niSnis safuZveli yvelasaTvis saerToa, misi interpretireba,
rogorc socialuri xatisa, gansakuTrebul siZneles ar warmoadgens
(beli... 1996: 554).
germaniaSi, 1960 wlebidan dawyebuli, ,,Stutgartis skola
(maqs benze, elizabeT valteri) sistematurad amuSavebs semiotikis
`sabaziso Teorias~, romlis mizansac pirsis Teoriis sistematuri
rekonstruqcia da ganviTareba warmoadgens. abduqciasa da usasrulo
semiozTan dakavSirebiT pirsis ideebis mniSvnelovani gavlenis Sesaxeb
saubrobs umberto ekoc. rogorc ukve vTqviT, araerTi samecniero
kvlevis Temaa pirsis triaduli da sosiuris diaduri modelebis
Sedareba-Sepirispireba. mecnierebi paralelebs eZeben baxtinis
dialogurobisa da pirsis usasrulo semiozisis princi pebis
Sorisac. es oden nawilobrivi CamonaTvalia im didi gavlenisa, rac
pirsis Teoriam iqonia rogorc lingvisturi niSnis, ise, zogadad,
niSnuri procesebis kvlevis mdgomareobaze Tanamedrove humanitarul,
saxelovnebo, sabunebismetyvelo da maTematikur mecnierebebze (noTi
2001).
pirsis semiotikis ontologiuri da fenomenologuri
safuZvlebis arsebiT nawils warmoadgens misi Teoria xarisxis,
mimarTebisa da reprezentaciis sami universaluri kategoriis
Sesaxeb. am definiciis mixedviT, niSani da niSnuri procesebi mesame
reprezentaciis kategorias ganekuTvnebian, Tumca semiotikuri
aspeqtebi danarCen orsac gaaCniaT. ase rom, samyaros, rogorc mTliani
Carlz pirsi da Tanamedrove semiotikis problemebi
192
niSnuri universumis gaazreba, myar safuZvels qmnis samyaros, rogorc
teqstis, Teoris Semdgomi damuSavebisaTvis: `mTeli universumi
gamsWvalulia niSnebiT, Tuki mTlianad am niSnebisagan araa Semdgari~.
am mosazrebis fonze semiotika universalur mecnierebad iqceva.
amis Sesaxeb werda kidec pirsi ledi uelbisadmi miweril werilSi
1908 wels: `me jer arasodes gamomikvlevia rame ise, rom ar ganmexila
es sagani, rogorc semiotikuri Studiebis obieqti maTematika,
eTika, metafizika, gravitacia, Termodinamika, optika, qimia, SedarebiTi
anatomia, astronomia, fsiqologia, fonetika, ekonomika, mecnierebis
istoria, qalebi da kacebi, Rvino da metrologia~(noTi 2001).
adamianis cnobierebis fenomenebi (pirsi maT faneronebs uwodebs),
rogorebicaa aRqma, iluzia, winaTgrZnoba, samyaros azrobrivi
intepretacia pirss sam universalur kategoriamde dahyavs
(cnobilia, rom aristotele gamoyofda aT, kanti ki _ Tormet
ontologiur kategorias) da maT pirvelads, meoreuls da mesameuls
uwodebs (vinaidan am terminologiis Sesabamisi cnebebi, ramdenadac
CvenTvis cnobilia, qarTulad ar damuSavebula da isini, Targmanis
saxiT, pirvelad Semogvaqvs. siamovnebiT gaviTvaliswinebT
SemoTavazebul SeniSvnebsa da rCevebs am mimarTulebiT).
`pirveladoba~ esaa `imis yofierebis meTodi, romelic yofnobs
ise, rogorc yofnobs, dadebiTi saxiT da damoukideblad raime
sxvisgan~. esaa damoukidebeli SegrZnebis, sufTa SesaZleblobis,
uSualobis, spontanurobis, Tavisuflebis, jer kidev aradiferen-
cirebuli xarisxisa da damokidebulebis kategoria (,,sainformacio
eridan ,,nanoteqnologiurSi gadasvlis Tanamedrove etapze, vfiqrob,
samyaros wonasworobis, harmoniulobis SenarCunebis mizniT
kacobriobis yvelaze aqtualur amocanad swored am tipis niSanTa
dacva rCeba).
`meoreuli~ vlindeba pirvelis meoresTan mimarTebaSi raime
kanonzomierebis gareSe. esaa drosa da sivrceSi mimarTebis, reaqciis,
qmedebis, uxeSi Zalis, realobisa da Semecnebis kategoriebi. meoreuls
ganekuTvnebian iseTi faqtebi, romlebic, pirveladebisagan gansxvavebiT.
Tavs iCenen ara wminda SesaZleblobebis saxiT, aramed mxolod
raRac sxvasTan opoziciaSi, amitom meoreuls vxvdebiT iseT
movlenebSi, rogoricaa `sxva, mimarTeba, iZuleba, qmedeba, damokidebuleba,
damoukidebloba, uaryofa, realoba, Sedegi~.
`mesameuli~ akavSirebs meores pirvelTan. esaa kategoria
gaSualebis, gaxsenebis, Cveulebis, aucileblobis, kanonzomierebis,
uwyvetobis, sinTezis, komunikaciis, reprezentaciis, semiozisisa da
manana kvaWantiraZe
193
niSnebis. miuxedavad imisa, rom TviT niSnebi pirsisTvis mesame
kategorias ganekuTvnebian, igi semiotikur aspeqtebs pirvelad da
meoreul kategoriebSic xedavs, Tumca maT ganixilavs, rogorc e. w.
`naklovani~, arasakuTari (gadagvarebuli) semiozisis SemTxvevebs.
niSnobriobis sayovelTaobis aRiarebas, rogorc zemoTac vaxseneT,
pirsi samyaros pansemiotikur gaazrebasTan mihyavs, romlis mixedviTac
Semecnebas, azrovnebas da TviT adamiansac niSnuri (semioturi) buneba
aqvT. rogorc nebismieri niSani, ise nebismieri azric dakavSirebulia
samyaros obieqtebTan da sxva azrebTan, radgan `yvelaferi, razedac
vfiqrobT, warsuls Seicavs~. metic, pirsisTvis `yovelgvari fiqri
niSans warmoadgens~. azris es niSnuri xasiaTi da is faqti, rom
cxovreba sxva araferia, Tu ara azrTa dineba, pirss saSualebas
aZlevs amtkicos, rom `adamiani niSania~. pirsis Sexedulebebis
fonze SeiZleba Semdegnairad wavikiTxoT vaJas erTi cnobili
poeturi gamonaTqvami: nisli mTebis fiqria, anu mTebis azrovnebis
niSani. samyaro, buneba iseve azrovnebs nisliT, rogorc adamiani
fiqriT. adamianis, rogorc niSnis amokiTxva aq samyaros, rogorc
teqstis universalur konteqstSi xdeba, Sinagani poeturi xedva
swored am universalur konteqstzea mipyrobili, erT-obasa da
erTian-obazea orientirebuli, poeturi ena ki am darRveuli
konteqstis aRdgenasa da gamTlianebas emsaxureba.
pirsis es semiotikuri Sexeduleba adamianze da adamianur
Semecnebaze exeba awmyos, warsulsac da momavalsac. amdenad yvelaferi,
rac adamianma icis samyaros obieqtebis Sesaxeb, rasac grZnobs
maTTan urTierTobisas, is, rasac obieqtis forma Caagonebs da isic,
ra saSualebiTac mas Seimecnebs _ adamianobis niSani da adamianis
interpretanataa. adamianis yvelaze uCveulo interpretantebi, am
azriT, poeziaSi daiZebneba. me-16 s-is sparsi poeti muhamed fizuli
wers: `me _ me ara var. is, rasac me `me~-s veZaxi, es Sen xar~.
miuxedavad imisa, rom pirsis Teorias ar hqonia sakuTriv
lingvisturi mimarTuleba, misi semiotikuri postulatebidan
gamomdinare, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom xsovna TviT enaSia akumulirebuli
da rogorc azrovnebis, ise adamianobis niSans warmoadgens. ena
Seicavs da universaluri ganmasaxierebelia pirsis samive kategoriisa
erTianobaSi: ena pirveladia, rogorc uSualo, spontanuri da
Tavisufali; meoreulia, ramdenadac Semmecnebeli, moqmedi da Zalis
mqonea; da mesameulia, ramdenadac gaxsenebis, Cveulebis, sinTezis,
komunikaciis, reprezentaciis, semiozisis procesebs awesrigebs da
meores pirvelTan ara mxolod garegnulad, aramed Sinaganadac
Carlz pirsi da Tanamedrove semiotikis problemebi
194
akavSirebs drosa da sivrceSi. samiozisi swored enisa da azrovnebis,
rogorc sicocxlis formaTa damakavSireblis, uwyveti funqciaa.
vfiqrob, pirsis Teoriis fonze savsebiT logikuria davsvaT
kiTxva risi niSania literatura; rogor gamoiyureba igi pirsis
SexedulebaTa Suqze, ra gansakuTrebul niSnebs atarebs, rogorc
semotikuri universumis nawili? sakiTxi unda damuSavdes ara
mxolod imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom literaturis Semoqmedi, rogorc
adamiani, TviTonve warmoadgens niSans, aramed im kuTxiTac, rom am
samyaroSi literaturis erTaderTi aRmqmelic mxolod adamiania.
amasTan, sakiTxis ganxilva unda daiwyos swored pirvelad, meoreul
da mesameul kategoriebTan literaturis Sesabamisobis sakiTxis
dasmiT. rogorc pirveladi kategoria, literaturis ena `muSaobs~
Tavisufal spontanul reJimSi. rogorc meoreuli, esaa mimarTebac,
reaqciac, qmedebac raRac aRsaniSnis, referentis mimarT, Semecnebis
procesic da realobac. igi ara marto sufTa SesaZleblobaa
(pirveladoba), aramed iseTi movlenac, romelic realobasTan
opoziciaSi dgindeba, rogorc warmosaxvis, SesaZleblobis ena.
literaturis ena, misi emociuri xasiaTidan gamomdinare, meoreuli
kategoriaa `sxvasTan~ mimarTebis konteqstSic, rogorc enis diqtantis,
Zalisa da zemoqmedebis gamovlineba.
mesameuli meoreuls pirveladTan akavSirebs. am azriTac
literaturis ena xasiaTdeba yvela im niSniT, romelsac pirsi
mesameuls akuTvnebs. aq igi arsebulsa da SesaZlebels Soris
gamaSualebeli, gaxsenebis, aucileblobis, Cvevebis, komunikaciis, sinTezis
da reprezentaciis kategoriaa, aq iZens srul saxes da avlens Tavis
SesaZleblobas, rogorc niSani, niSanTa sistema da semiozisis saxeoba.
literaturuli semiozisis uwyvetoba SenarCunebulia rogorc
horizontalur-sintagmatur WrilSi (kiTxvis procesSi), ise
vertikalur-paradigmatul ganaserSi (rogorc azrTa ganviTarebisa
da interpretaciebis istoria) da maT sinTezs axorcielebs. es
imas niSnavs, rom igi vlindeba, jer erTi, rogorc mniSvnelobaTa
gafarToebis uwyveti procesi individualur aRqmaTa gansxvavebis
safuZvelze, da meore, rogorc kulturul mniSvnelobaTa _ istoriis
cvalebadobaSi gamotarebul (gadarCenil, damaxsovrebul)
mniSvnelobaTa Sexvedris adgili.
literaturis semiotikis fonze sainteresoa xsovnisa da
mxatvruli enis urTierTmimarTebis Seswavla, ramdenadac mxatvruli
ena, rogorc erTdroulad samive kategoriis matarebeli da
ganmasaxierebeli, kvlevaTa farTo SesaZleblobebs gvTavazobs. amas
manana kvaWantiraZe
195
garda, ena imTaviTve atarebs xsovnas, romelic akumulirebulia
mniSvnelobaSi da axlavs mas. enis codna swored dakargul
mniSvnelobaTa faruli xsovnaa. mxatvruli ena ki im dakarguli
codnis Sexsenebaa, romelsac mxatvruli forma inaxavs da romelic
mniSvnelobaTa konotaciur doneze aqtalizdeba. semiozisis procesi
literaturaSi sxva araferia, Tu ara xsovnis gacocxleba da
gafarToeba _ urTulesi procesi, romlis drosac aracnobieri
mudmivad aregulirebs dasaviwyebel, dasamax-sovrebel da Sesacvlel
zonebs.
sosiurisTvis niSani sistemis nawilia, romelic dgindeba mxolod
sistemis sxva elementebTan opoziciurobaSi an maTgan
gansxvavebulobiT. pirsTan ki niSans triaduli kavSiri warmoSobs,
romelic interpretaciis dinamiur procesSi gadadis. es triaduloba
pirsis semiotikis fundamenturi cnebaa. igi niSans axasiaTebs rogorc
samnawilian mTlianobas: niSani, aRsaniSni sagani da Semecneba, romelic
gonebaSi mimdinareobs. semiozisis es sami pozicia ase gamoiyureba:
1. niSani anu reprezentanti _ aRqmisTvis misawvdomi elementi,
romelic enacvleba obieqts; 2. interpretanti _ am obeqtis
mentaluri xati; dabolos, 3. referenti anu TviT obieqti. arsebiTad,
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom pirsis semiotikis kvlevis obieqts warmoadgens
ara niSani, aramed semiozisis TviT procesi. semiozisi esaa
`triaduli qmedeba niSnisa~, procesi, romlis drosac niSani
kognotiur zemoqmedebas axdens TviT intepretatorze. termini
`semiozisi~ pirsma filosofos-epikurelis filodemis traqtatidan
isesxa. niSani erTdroulad warmoadgens: a. azris niSans; b. obieqtis
niSans; g. damokidebulebis niSans. es imas niSnavs, rom igi warmoadgens:
a) misive mainterpretirebeli azris niSans; b) im obieqtis niSans,
romlis eqvivalentadac aris miCneuli am azris mixedviT da g) im
mimarTebisa da xarisxis niSans, romlis wyalobiTac dgindeba kavSiri
massa da obieqts Soris. pirsis Tanaxmad, obieqti anu referenti,
romelic niSnis miRma amoikiTxeba, principulad subieqturia da
damokidebulia aRmqmelze.
SeniSnulia, rom niSanze pirsi Tavisi Sromebis araerT adgilas
laparakobs, xSirad urTierTgansxvavebuli da bundovani
aRwerilobiTac. mas ekuTvnis niSnis cnobili gansazRvreba, romelic
dRemde fundamentur definiciad aris miCneuli yvela ti pis
komunikaciuri TeoriisaTvis: `niSani anu reprezentameni esaa is, rac
garkveuli azriT an moculobiT aRniSnavs raimes viRacisTvis. igi
mimarTulia, anu am viRacis gonebaSi aRZravs Sesabamis niSans an,
Carlz pirsi da Tanamedrove semiotikis problemebi
196
SesaZloa, ufro ganviTarebul niSans. im niSans, romelsac igi qmnis,
me vuwodeb am niSnis interpretantas. niSani enacvleba raRacas,
saxeldobr, Tavis obieqts, magram warmoadgens mas ara yvela mimarTebaSi,
(mTlianad, yvela aspeqtiT, mTeli moculobiT m. k.), aramed im
ideasTan SesabamisobaSi, romelsac me vuwodebdi bazisurs, anu niSnis
safuZvels~ (pirsi 2000: 177). amrigad, niSani obieqtebis raime
gansazRvruli klasi ki ar aris, aramed nebismieri ram, rac
uzrunvelyofs gaSualebis SesaZleblobas (mediacias) pirveladi
da meoreuli kategoriis obieqtebs Soris. niSnis magaliTebad
pirsi asaxelebs: naxatebs, simptomebs, wignebs, sityvebs, winadadebebs,
biblioTekebs, signalebs, brZanebebs, mikroskopebs, parlamentis
deputatebs, koncertebsa da maT Sesrulebas. magram, Tuki, erTi
mxriv, nebismier fenomens SeuZlia Seasrulos niSnis funqcia, meore
mxriv, `is yvelaferi, rac ar interpretirdeba rogorc niSani, ar
warmoadgens niSans~. gamodis, rom TviT iseTi sayovelTaod
aRiarebuli niSanic ki, rogoricaa sityva an winadadeba, niSnad ver
CaiTvleba, Tuki ar moxdeba misi interpretireba, anu komunikaciis
aqtSi ar Seiqmneba misi mentaluri xati interpretanta.
interpretanta (pirsi xSirad mas interpretaciasac uwodebs),
anu azri interpretaciis momentSi warmoadgens niSnurobis pirobas
da interpretatoris rangSi, SesaZloa, adamianis garda cxovelsac
gulisxmobdes. araa aucilebeli azrovneba ukavSirdebodes adamianis
tvins: ,,igi Tavs iCens futkrebis saqmianobaSi, kristalebSi da
yvelgan fizikur samyaroSi~. am aramentaluri movlenis
dasaxasiaTeblad pirsi iyenebs `qvazicnobierebis~ cnebas da niSanTa
gamovlinebebs xedavs ara mxolod azrobriv, aramed biologiur,
qimiur da fizikur procesebSic. amitomaa, rom pirsisTvis mTeli
universumi niSnebiTaa gamsWvaluli.
obieqtis problema erTerTi umniSvnelovanesia aramxolod
pirsis, aramed mTel semiotikaSi da periodulad igi seriozuli
diskusiis sagnad iqceva xolme, gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca Zlierdeba
winaaRmdegoba `obieqturisa~ da `realuris~ cnebiT Sinaarsebs
Soris. sosiurisTvis obieqti (aRsaniSni) ar gulisxmobs realur
sagans an movlenas, rogorc substancias (substituts). igi mxolod
formaa: `enobrivi niSani aerTianebs ara sagansa da mis saxels,
aramed azrsa da akustikur xats (konceptsa da fonemaTa akustikur
rigs _ m.k.) sosiuri 1977: 99). roman iakobsoni da `praRis
skola~ semiozisisaTvis aucileblad miiCnevs mesame pirobasac
obieqtis, rogorc realobis arsebobas (iakobsoni 1983: 107).
manana kvaWantiraZe
197
obieqti pirsisTvis sulac araa ubralod sagani, romelic
niSans upirispirdeba rogorc materialuri aramaterialurs, aramed
is yvelaferi, ris reprezentaciasac niSani axdens. masSi igulisxmeba
materialuri sagani an saganTa klasi, romelic CvenTvis
gamocdilebidanaa cnobili. Tumca, amave dros, obieqti SeiZleba
iyos oden azrobrivi an warmosaxviTi, aramaterialuri konstruqti.
amrigad, niSans SeuZlia mxolod obieqtis reprezentireba an masze
laparaki, magram ar SeuZlia uzrunvelyos am obieqtis cnoba
komunikaciis aqtSi, Tumca es cnoba aucilebelia, raTa niSanma SeZlos
momdevno informaciis mowodeba, anu aqtualur niSnad CarTva
semiozisis procesSi. amrigad, obieqti Tavisi niSnuri funqciiT
gansxvavdeba niSnisagan mxolod imiT, rom warmoadgens naklebad
ganviTarebul niSans. im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tuki niSani da misi obieqti
hi poTeturad erTmaneTs emTxveva, obieqti mainc raRac sxvis
reprezentacias axdens, vidre misive niSani. aseTi damTxveva naklebad
bunebrivia niSan-indeqsisaTvis, romelic emyareba nawili-mTelis an
mizez-Sedegobriv urTierTobas. samagierod, igi Cveulebrivi movlenaa
ikonur niSanSi, romelic aq wminda SesaZleblobis aRmniSvnelad
gvevlineba; aseve, esTetikur niSanSi, romelic sakuTar Tavs aRniSnavs,
anu TviTreferencialuria.
pirsi obieqtebis or saxes ganasxvavebs. erTia `obieqti niSanSi~,
anu obieqti, rogoradac mas niSani warmoadgens da romlis arsebobac
mxolod niSanSi mis reprezentaciazea damokidebuli. meorea obieqti
anu referenti, e. w. dinamiuri obieqti, romelic niSnis miRma
amoikiTxeba, subieqturia da mxolod aRmqmelzea damokidebuli.
pirsi mas `niSnis gareSe~ (gareT, miRma) obieqtsac uwodebs. Tu
maTi daxasiaTebiT vimsjelebT, am tipis referentebi gansakuTrebiT
mravladaa mxatvrul enaSi da literaturas swored am tipis
obieqtebTan aqvs saqme. `niSanma SeiZleba ar asaxos es obieqti,
aramed mxolod miuTiTos masze, xolo interpretatorma es obieqti
damatebiT cdaSi unda Seimecnos. esaa miuRweveli referencia anu
obieqti, romelsac ar gaaCnia saboloo saxe. SesaZloa, es obieqti
fiqciac iyos~.
interpretantis cneba pirsTan mniSvnelobis klasikur gagebas
Seesabameba. mis nacvlad pirsi xandaxan signifikaciisa da
interpretaciis terminebsac iyenebs. interpretanta aris is, `rac
warmoiqmneba interpretatoris cnobierebaSi~. gamomdinare iqidan,
rom pirsisTvis azric niSania, xolo interpretacia ki semiozisis
procesi, pirsi interpretantasac niSnad miiCnevs: `niSani mimarTulia
Carlz pirsi da Tanamedrove semiotikis problemebi
198
viRacisken, anu igi adamianis cnobierebaSi warmoqmnis eqvivalentur
niSans, an SesaZloa, ufro gafarToebul niSans. niSans, romelsac is
warmoqmnis, me vuwodebdi pirveli niSnis interpretacias~. gamodis,
rom TiToeuli niSani warmoqmnis interpretacias, romelic, Tavis
mxriv, momdevno niSnis reprezentatad gvevlineba. semiozisis procesi,
amrigad, `interpretantebis Tanmimdevruli seriaa. am usasrulo
procesSi ar arsebobs `pirveli~ da `ukanaskneli~ niSani. pirsisTvis
azrovneba yovelTvis xorcieldeba azrTa urTierTmimarTebis, anu
dialogis formiT `me-s sxvadasxva fazebs Soris. ase rom, azrovneba,
ramdenadac igi dialoguria, niSnebisagan Sedgeba (Sdr.: holderlini:
,,adamianis arseboba dialogidan iwyeba). sxvaTa Soris, es niSnebi
ar warmoadgenen aucileblad sityvebs, gansakuTrebiT ki _
SemoqmedebiT-mxatvruli da mecnieruli azrovnebis dros. a. ainStaini
maTematikos J. adamars werda: `sityvebi im saxiT, rogorc isini
iwereba an gamoiTqmis, rogorc Cans, araviTar rols ar TamaSoben
Cemi azrovnebis meqanizmSi. azrovnebis elementebad gvevlinebian
metnaklebad mkafio saxeebi da niSnebi fizikuri realobisa. es
saxeebi da niSnebi TiTqos TavisTavad warmoiqmnebian da kombinirdebian
cnobierebis mier. bunebrivia, azrovnebis am elementebsa da Sesabamis
logikur cnebebs Soris arsebobs garkveuli kavSiri. miswrafeba,
bolos da bolos, mivides cnebaTa logikurad urTierTdakavSirebul
rigTan, gvevlineba im sakmaod gaurkveveli TamaSis emociur safuZvlad,
romelsac cnobiereba warmarTavs zemoTnaxseneb azrovnebis
elementebTan. fsiqologiurad es kombinaciuri TamaSi proteqtuli
azrovnebis arsebiT mxares warmoadgens~.
SeiZleba davuSvaT, rom adamianuri azrovnebis es Sinagani
dialoguri buneba samyaros niSnobriobis homologiuri movlenaa
da, Tavis mxriv, arsebobisa da yofierebis dialogurobis
reprezentantia. ar SeiZleba semiozisi odesme dasruldes iseve,
rogorc mniSvnelobis matarebel sicocxlis formaTa warmoqmnis
procesis Sewyvetaa SeuZlebeli. igi SeiZleba mxolod droebis
Seneldes (Sdr.: barti: `mniSvnelobis warmoqmna Zalze ioli saqmea
da mTeli maskultura dilidan saRamomde amiTaa dakavebuli; misi
Seyovneba _ ukve usazRvrod Zneli da es marTlac rom `xelovnebaa~.
(WeSmariti literatura swored amas akeTebs m.k.); azris
,,ganadgureba ki sruliad uimedo saqmea, radgan amis miRweva
SeuZlebelia (barti 1989: 288).
interpretaciis tipebis klasifikaciisas pirsi sam jgufs
gamoyofs: uSualo niSnis warmoqmnis savaraudo SesaZlebloba,
manana kvaWantiraZe
199
zogadi STabeWdileba niSanze yovelgvari refleqsiis gareSe;
dinamiuri niSnis faqtobrivi, pirdapiri qmedeba interpretatorze
da finaluri anu saboloo, romelic warmoadgens interpretaciis
ara realur, aramed mxolod Teoriulad SesaZlebel Sedegs _
interpretaciis idealTan, finalur interpretantasTan miaxloebas.
finaluri interpretaciis magaliTia mniSvnelobis dadgena
leqsikonebSi. Sesabamisad, masTan daSorebis magaliTad SeiZleba
davasaxeloT dekonstruqciuli intepretaciebi, sadac varaudebis
usasrulo gafarToeba SeuZlebels xdis raime, Tundac miaxloebiTi
mniSvnelobis dadgenas. am tipis niSnebi dinamiur niSnTa rigs
SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT, Tumca pirsisgan gansxvavebiT, dekonstruqciaSi
saerTod uaryofilia aRsaniSni, rogorc raime mniSvnelobis
matarebeli, interpretacia ki mTlianad TviTnebur subieqtur
qmedebad da saTamaSo praqtikadaa miCneuli.
niSnebis klasifikaciisas pirsi niSanTa sam triqotomias
gvTavazobs, romlebSic niSnis maxasiaTeblebi klasificirdebian
pirveladobis, meoreulobisa da mesameulobis TvalsazrisiT. niSani
sruli triadulobiT miCneulia namdvil niSnad, xolo arasruliT
naklovanad anu gadagvarebulad.
pirveli triqotomia niSans ganixilavs, rogorc monadas, rogorc
niSans TavisTavad, raime gareSesTan mimarTebis gareSe, meore rogorc
diadurs, obieqtTan damokidebulebis TvalsazrisiT. aseTi niSani
warmoadgens obieqtis aRmniSvnels, anu masTan dialogur
damokidebulebaSi myofs; mesame tipis niSnebi asaxaven triadul
damokidebulebas obieqtis reprezentaciisa interpretantaSi. amave
triqotomiaSi erTiandebian xarisxobrivi, erTeuli da zogadi niSnebi.
pirsis semiotikis yvelaze arsebiT klasifikacias meore
triqotomia warmoadgens, romelic gansazRvravs niSans obieqtTan
mimarTebaSi. am triqotomiaSi niSanTa sami klasi erTiandeba: ikonuri
niSani (pirveladi), indeqsi (meoreuli) da simbolo (mesameuli).
ikonuri niSani `migviTiTebs aRniSnul obieqtze mxolod da
mxolod misTvis (niSnisTvis) damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebis safuZvelze~.
indeqsi iseTi niSania, romelic damokidebulia Tavis obieqtze
dro-sivrcul mimarTebaSi an mizezob-riobiT; simbolo ki akavSirebs
niSans obieqtTan `kanonis an regularulobis~ safuZvelze
(igulisxmeba Cveva, SeTanxmeba, norma _ m.k.). miuxedavad imisa, rom
droTa ganmavlobaSi semiotikis ganviTarebam niSanTa axali
klasifikaciebi warmoSva, pirsis aRniSnul triqotomias dRemde
ar daukargavs klasikurisa da fundamenturis statusi da misi
Carlz pirsi da Tanamedrove semiotikis problemebi
200
gavlenis amokiTxva, erTi SexedviT, sruliad gansxvavebul Tanamedrove
TeoriebSic SeiZleba. magaliTad, bartis semiologia aRsaniSnsa da
aRmniSvnels Soris sami tipis damokidebulebas gulisxmobs. pirveli
Sinagani da virtualuria, danarCeni ori ki _ garegani da aqtualuri.
pirvels barti simbolurs uwodebs, Tumca mas marto simboloebiT
ar Semofarglavs. meore tipis damokidebuleba sistemaSi niSnis
sakuTar, Tundac minimalurad gansxvavebul adgils ganapirobebs da
barti am tipis niSnebs paradigmatuls uwodebs. mesame tipis
niSnebi sintagmaturia, radgan aq niSani Tavs avlens ara sxva niSnebTan
virtualur urTierTobaSi, aramed _ aqtualur mezoblobaSi.
sintagmaturis magaliTad SeiZleba davasaxeloT damokidebuleba
winadadebis wevrTa Soris (barti 1989: 246-247). vfiqrob,
gansakuTrebul sirTules ar warmoadgens bartis sintagmatur tipSi
niSan-indeqsebis, simbolurSi ki _ ikonuri da simboluri niSnebis
aRmoCena. rac Seexeba paradigmatuls, aq ufro bartis Teoriis
lingvisturi, kerZod, sosuriseburi aqcentebi igrZnoba.
mivubrundeT pirss: ,,niSani ikonuria, Tuki mas gaaCnia mniSvneloba
imis miuxedavad, arsebobs Tu ara misi aRsaniSni obieqti (pirsi
2000: 196). niSnis ikonurobis piroba aRsaniSnTan msgavsebaa, romlis
safuZvelzec am aRsaniSnze grZnobad-konkretuli warmodgena Cndeba.
aseTia, magaliTad, palmis, lotosis msgavsi kolonebi arqiteqturul
nagebobebSi; atlantebi, romlebic ikaveben Senobis TaRebsa da aivnebs
da a. S. ikonuria portretuli ferwera, qandakeba da a. S. pirsis
mixedviT, ikonurobisaTvis sakmarisia gaCndes msgavsebis aRqma,
miuxedavad imisa, arsebobs Tu ara, an vicnobT Tu ara Sesadarebel
obieqts, magaliTad, atlants. naturmorti ikonuri niSania, Tumca
msgavseba aq SeiZleba gansxvavebul warmodgenebs daeyrdnos: zogisTvis
igi konkretuli xilis aRqmas aCens, zogisTvis ki misi Sesrulebis
stilis gamo me-19 saukunis sufris an salonuri kulturis
asociacias aRZravs da a. S.
indeqsi ,,gamoxatavs cdis ori nawilis kavSirs. igi kargavs
mniSvnelobas obieqtis ararsebobis dros, samagierod, misTvis
aucilebeli ar aris intepretantis arseboba (pirsi 2000: 206).
magaliTad, rom ar momxdariyo gasrola, ar iqneboda arc natyviari.
gasrolasa da natyviars Soris mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiri arsebobs.
natyviari rCeba imis miuxedavad, movaxdenT Tu ara mis interpretacias,
anu mivaniWebT Tu ara mas mniSvnelobas, rogorc srolis niSans.
simbolo niSania, romelic kargavs Tavis statuss
interpretantis ararsebobisas (pirsi 2000: 212-213). aseTia enobrivi
manana kvaWantiraZe
201
gamonaTqvamebi. am tipis niSani funqcionirebs mxolod maSin, Tuki
mas gaigeben, rogorc mniSvnelobis gadamcems. am SemTxvevaSi, cxadia,
rom niSnis arebobis piroba mxolod interpretantis (mniSvnelobis)
arsebobaa.
pirsis mixedviT, indeqsi azrobrivad ikonuri niSnis
sapirispiroa, ramdenadac niSani-xati (xatebrivi niSani) ar saWiroebs
obieqtis arsebobas, indeqsisaTvis ki obieqtis arseboba aucilebeli
pirobaa.
indeqsaluri niSani, rogorc vTqviT, niSansa da obieqts Soris
mizez-Sedegobriv princips efuZneba, anu obieqtTan an azrTan indeqsis
uSualo kavSiridan aRmocendeba, Tumca sulac araa aucilebeli, es
kavSiri realobis sivrceSi arsebobdes. igi SeiZleba gaCndes Tundac
tiloze an cariel furcelze. pirsis Teoriidan gamomdinare,
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ferwera ar daiyvaneba mxolod ikonur niSnebze.
portretis magaliTma SeiZleba gvafiqrebinos, rom niSani, rac ufro
realisturia, miT ufro ikonuria. magram ase araa. ikonur niSans
SeuZlia gamoiwvios warmodgena ararsebul obieqtze, romelic TviT
ikonuri niSnis msgavsia. maSasadame, ikonuroba, upirvelesad, esaa
aRqmis meTodi, xerxi, romelic niSansa da obieqts Soris rame
tipis msgavsebas emyareba. nebismieri, vTqvaT, geometriuli figura
SeiZleba miCneuli iqnas ikonur niSnad, Tuki CavTvliT, rom igi
raRac ideas (da ara maincdamainc konkretul sagan)s Seesabameba.
magaliTad, xelis TiTebis garkveuli konfiguracia mogvagonebs saxls
da es idea, rogorc saxlis ikonuri niSani. warmatebiT iqna
gamoyenebuli `iberia hilsis~ reklamaSi. ase rom, ikonuri niSani
SeiZleba emyarebodes ara marto vizualur, aramed nebismier grZnobad-
sensorul msgavsebas, romelsac intuicia aRmoaCens. zustad am
grZnobadi aRqmis vizualizacia, gansivrceba da ganxateba xdeba ikonur
niSanSi imisda miuxedavad, ferwerasTan gvaqvs saqme Tu poeziasTan.
me-17 saukunis germanuli barokos warmomadgenlis iohan
helvigis kalams ekuTvnis leqsi `qviSis saaTi~, romlis grafikuli
gamosaxuleba _ striqonebisa da sityvebis ganlageba _ qviSis
saaTis grafikul gamosaxulebas iZleva. aq es gamosaxuleba leqsis
ikonur niSans warmoadgens, romlis funqciac leqsis SinaarsisaTvis
damatebiTi mniSvnelobis miniWebaa. erTi mxriv, igi ikonuri niSania,
meore mxriv, azrobriv doneze ki _ niSan-indeqsi, leqsis SinaarsTan
mizezobrivad dakavSirebuli warmosaxvis Sedegi. ase rom, TviT
leqsi SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc erTdroulad rTuli, erTeuli
da xarisxobrivi niSani. am SemTxvevaSi, da es upiratesad xelovnebis
Carlz pirsi da Tanamedrove semiotikis problemebi
202
`enebs~ exebaT, mizanSewonilia saubari kompleqsur, sinTetur niSnebze.
amdenad, esTetikuri niSani aRsaniSnTan niSnis da interpretantis
damokidebulebis ara calsaxa, aramed rTuli, mravaldonani
gamoxatulebaa, sadac gansakuTrebul rols TamaSoben ara mxolod
mniSvnelobaTa formebi, aramed formis mniSvnelobebic. magaliTad,
violinos aJRereba filmis sasiyvarulo epizodSi imdenadve ikonuria,
ramdenadac galaktionis leqsis ritmika, intonacia da leqsika
ubrwyinvales bolodroindel leqsSi `qari dacxra siboboqris~...
aseT SemTxvevaSi lingvisturi anu konvenciuri niSnebi (pirsis
mixedviT, simboloebi) da `mimeturi~, analoguri niSnebi
dapirispirebul mxareebad ki ar unda warmovidginoT, aramed
urTierTSemavseblebad, semiozis uwyvet procesSi kombinaciuri bmebis
ganmaxorcieleblebad. g. leoniZis striqonebSi `mcxeTas vumtvrie
saketurebi, vlewe taZrebi kelaptriani~ _ `t~-s aliteraciiT
Zlierdeba mtvrevis, lewvis SegrZneba. am SemTxvevaSi damatebiTi
mniSvnelobebi iqmneba aramxolod leqsikur, aramed fonetikur
donezec, Tumca maTi funqcia arc amiT amoiwureba. momdevno striqonSi
mocemulia fraza _ `TviTonac daileweba~ da naTeli xdeba, rom
emocia da aRqma mzadaa aRiaros aramarto mizez-Sedegobrioba
(indeqsaluri niSani), aramed analogiuroba-msgavsebac (ikonuri niSani)
or situacias Soris: `vlewe taZrebi~... da `TviTonac daileweba~[is,
vinc lewavs].., ase rom, semiozisi ufro Rrma doneze grZeldeba.
roman iakobsonis azriT, `poeziis safuZvelSi devs msgavsebis
principi. metrikuli paralelizmi an gariTmuli sityvebis xmovani
ekvivalenturoba badebs SekiTxvas semantikur msgavsebasa da
kontrastze~ (iakobsoni 1990: 130). Tu ufro Sors wavalT, igi
badebs SekiTxvas saerTod poeturi enis bunebis, enis moqmedebis am
gansakuTrebuli reJimis mimarT, romlisTvisac misaRebia msgavseba-
gansxvavebaTa gacilebiT farTo da mravlismomcveli speqtri, vidre
konvenciuri (sasaubro) enisaTvis. am speqtris kidev ufro
gasafarToeblad axali, uCveulo semantikuri msgavseba-gansxvavebebis
gaTvalsaCinoebis mizniT, poeturi ena maqsimalurad iyenebs yvela
donis SesaZleblobebs genetikuridan dawyebuli (Sinaarsis
substancia) fonetikuriT damTavrebuli (gamosaxvis forma),
rogorc mniSvnelobaTa formebis, ise formaTa mniSvnelobebis
aqtualizebuli niSnebis saxiT.
rogorc niSani, kompozituri bunebisaa munkis cnobili
eqspresionistuli ferweruli tilo `yvirili~. aq adamianis
gaRebuli piri ara mxolod ikonuri niSania, anu vizualurad
manana kvaWantiraZe
203
gamoxatavs yvirilis aqts, aramed indeqsaluric, ramdenadac yvirils
miRma sulier tkivils da samyaros mSfoTvarebasac gadmogvcems
(nawili-mTelisa da mizez-Sedegobrivi damokidebuleba). mxtvris
xelmowera naxatze indeqsaluria iseve, rogorc misi gamosaxuleba
naxatis romeliRac kuTxeSi wina an ukana planze, mxolod am
ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi, ra Tqma unda, saubari ikonurobiT unda
daviwyoT. SegaxsenebT, rom Jak deridasaTvis, magaliTad, weriloba
swored kvlebis datovebaa da am azriT, xatva, ferwera _ werilobis
saxeebia. yovelgvari kvali indeqsaluri niSania. igi mimzidvelia
imiT, rom aRsaniSnis (obieqtis) SesaZlo ucnobobis SemTxvevaSic
ki Cven SegviZlia movaxdinoT interpretacia, metic, igi TiTqos
mogviwodebs am `kvalis~ gaSifvrisaken, misi saidumlos amoxsnisaken.
pirsis klasikuri ganmartebisagan gansxvavebiT, niSanTa Tanamedrove
TeoriebSi indeqsi Txoulobs interpretacias, romelic
dakavSirebulia intuiciasTan, aRmqmelis kulturul TvalsawierTan
da a.S. bartis konotaciuri aRmniSvnelebi, am azriT, Zalian
uaxlovdebian indeqsalur niSnebs, romelTac ar gaaCniaT pirdapiri
da gacnobierebuli sakomunikacio daniSnuleba, samagierod, isini
gaucnobierebelad da farulad monawileoben ideologiur-
RirebulebiT urTierTobebSi sociokulturul jgufebsa Tu
individebs Soris (barti 1989: 19).
pirsis mixedviT, simbolo mTlianad damokidebulia
intepretatorze. intepretaciis gareSe simbolo, rogorc niSani
daniSnulebas kargavs. niSnis interpretants ayalibebs `enis
matarebeli~ molaparake subieqti, romelmac icis, ra igulisxmeba
mocemul sistemaSi niSnis miRma. simboluri interpretacia yvela
sxva intepretaciis safuZvelSi devs da poeturi Tu samxatvro
tradiciisa da stilis, aseve sxva tipis kulturuli ganpirobe-
bulobis saukeTeso arguments warmoadgens. magaliTad, ideografuli
damwerloba SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc kulturis mexsierebis
niSanTa matrica, am niSnebiT moqsovili kulturis teqsti. igi
uZveles xanaSi Seiqmna niSan-simboloTa meSveobiT. mas Semdeg, rac
kacobrioba ganviTarebis axal safexurze, saxeldobr, fonetikur
damwerlobaze gadavida, ideografia, rogorc simbolizebis principi,
ar gadaugdiaT, igi gamoiyenes qristianuli simbolizaciis adreul
etapze (I-IV ss.). Sua saukuneebSi amave princi ps iyenebdnen
alqimikosebi, naturfilosofosebi. isini cdilobdnen am simboloebis
meSveobiT SeeqmnaT epoqis mTliani mecnieruli Senobis erTgvari
ideografuli kodi (florenski 1971: 521-527).
Carlz pirsi da Tanamedrove semiotikis problemebi
204
gamosaxulebis SemTxvevaSi simboluroba warmoadgens
pirobiTobis sakmaod Znelad mosaxelTebel tips, ramdenadac igi,
jer erTi, imaleba ikonurobis ukan, meorec indeqsalurobis ukan.
pirveli Sexeduleba uyrdnoba varauds, rom, Tuki arsebobs
gamosaxuleba, e.i. realur samyaroSi unda arsebobdes Sesatyvisi
obieqtic, meore ki im mosazrebas, rom gamosaxulebis elementebsa
da Cvens Soris arsebobs realuri kavSiri mizez-Sedegobrivi an
nawili-mTelis tipisa. cxadia, yoveldRiuri azrovneba ar svams
kiTxvebs am pirobiTobebze, radgan ubralod ver amCnevs maT, samagierod,
am problemebiT interesdeba filosofia, kultu-rologia, sociologia,
xelovnebamcodneoba, literaturaTmcodneoba, fsiqologia da a. S.
isini swored semiotikur procesebze dakvirvebiT adgenen, Tu rogor
icvleba konvencionaluroba erTi epoqidan meoreSi. magaliTad,
kulturuli epoqebi gansxvavdebian ara mxolod modasTan
damokidebulebis TvalsazrisiT, aramed TviT adamianis fizikuri,
fsiqologiuri, moraluri monacemebisadmi damokidebulebis
Tvalsazri-siTac. magaliTad, erT epoqaSi moswonT tansruli qalebi,
sxvaSi piriqiT. modernizmma saerTod Tqva uari harmoniulobis
klasikur gagebaze, postmodernizmma ki TviT am gagebis parodireba
scada. me-18 s-is bolos racionalizms sakmaod ubodiSod Caenacvla
emocionaluroba, rogorc adamianis dadebiTi maxasiaTebeli, mTeli
me-20 saukune ki qristianul kodeqsis pragmatuli aTeizmiT
agresiuli Canacvlebis niSniT WarimarTa da a. S. arsebiTad,
sociokulturuli epoqebis analizs swored simboluri kodis
analizi udevs safuZvlad.
kidev ufro Znelad mosaxelTebelia simboluroba sasaubro
enis SemTxvevaSi. literaturaSi niSan-simbolo ufro abstraqciisken
migviZRveba, vidre grZnobad-konkretulisaken da swored am bunebis
gamo kulturis sakmaod daSorebuli sivrceebis xsovnasac inaxavs.
amave mizeziT, rigi simboloebi kulturuli kodis maradiul
binadrebad gvevlinebian da maradiul RirebulebaTa mikro-modelebsac
warmoadgenen. simbolo literaturaSi arc ikonurobis miRma imaleba
da arc indeqsalurobisa, igi maT aRiarebs da Tavis SemadgenlobaSi
Semohyavs. amis saukeTeso magaliTia arqauli simboloebi anu
miToidebi. maTTan Sexvedrisas Cven arasodes gvepareba eWvi, rom
aRmniSvnel-aRsaniSnis kavSirs realuri kulturul-istoriuli an
sxva tipis safuZveli aqvs, rac aisaxeba kidec simboloSi, rogorc
mis ikonur niSanSi. mag. jvari qristianobis simboloa imitom, rom
qriste jvars acves. jvari jvarcmis ikonuri xsovnaa. wyali ganmwmendi,
manana kvaWantiraZe
205
sicocxlis momniWebeli Zalis simboloa, wre erTianobis,
usasrulobis. yvela magaliTSi ikonurobis safuZveli sakmaod
TvalsaCinoa da damajerebeli. rac Seexeba indeqsalurobas, simboloSi
es Tvisebac aSkaraa. simbolosa da aRsaniSns Soris arsebobs ara
mxolod ikonuri, aramed indeqsaluri anu realuri kavSiric
mizez-Sedegobrivi, nawili-mTelis an sxva tipisa, yovel SemTxvevaSi,
am kavSiris rwmena mainc, gnebavT, enisa (sityvisa) da yofierebis
onTologiuri erTianobidan gamomdinare. ra safuZveli aqvs wyals,
rogorc macocxlebeli da ganmwmendi Zalis simbolos, ra codnas
emyareba kavSiri wyalsa da mis simbolur niSnebs Soris, magaliTad,
folklorSi an mxatvrul literaturaSi? aRmoCnda, rom wylis
qimiuri formula mis am `indeqsalur~ parametrsac akmayofilebs
da simbolos am SemTxvevaSic aqvs realobasTan obieqturi kavSiri.
simboloTa gamZleoba kulturuli mexsierebis gamZleobazec
migviTiTebs da kulturis teqstis elementebs (niSnebs) Soris
kombinirebuli kavSirebis arsebobasac adasturebs. es
kombinirebuloba (erTdroulad ikonurobac, indeqsa-lurobac da
simbolurobac) am teqstis gamZleobis garantia da TviTdacvisa
da TviTganaxlebis pirobaa. igi istoriul procesSi organizdeba
ise, rom uzrunvelyos mravalganzomilebiani SeWiduloba kulturis
teqstis fragmentebs Soris umciresidan udidesamde.
mecnierebi aRniSnaven, rom niSanTa Soris yvelaze didia niSan-
indeqsebis gayalbebis SesaZlebloba, ramdenadac, rogorc mizez-
Sedegobrivi damokidebulebis referenti, indeqsaluri niSani yvelaze
realuri da materialuria niSanTa Soris. magaliTad, ferwerul
tiloze esaa mxatvris xelmowera, mwerlis biografiasa da misi
nawarmoebebis personaJebs Soris mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiris niSnebi,
kulturis tipsa da istoriul procesebs Soris kavSiris niSnebi
da a. S., amdenad, interpretaciis procesSi am damokidebulebebis,
kavSirebis Canacvleba Tu gayalbeba mowadinebuli interpreta-
torisaTvis gansakuTrebul siZneles ar warmoadgens. Tuki li-
teraturis ena upiratesad niSan-indeqsebiT aigeba, maSin, cxadia,
dekonstruqciuli kritikisaTvis arc meTodolgiurad, da miT ufro,
arc praqtikulad iqneba miuRebeli hiperinterpretacia, anu avtoris
Canafiqrze, teqstis ZiriTad aRsaniSnze an aRsaniSnebze
principialurad uaris Tqma, wakiTxvis sruli Tavisufleba da
aqedan, `avtoris sikvdilis~ Teza. sabednierod, literaturuli
azrovnebaze radikaluri eqsperimentebis etapi Cavlilia da misma
Carlz pirsi da Tanamedrove semiotikis problemebi
206
Teoretikosebma Tavadve aRiares gadaWarbebebis Sesaxeb (Jeneti
2001: 52).
umberto ekom, xumrobiT (an princi pialurobas niRbavda
xumrobiT), niSani gansazRvra, rogorc is yvelaferi, rac emsaxureba
WeSmaritebis dafarvas, ramdenadac niSani, jdeba raRac sxvis adgilas,
anu, pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT, am sxvas malavs (eko 1998: 14-15).
magram niSnis pirsiseul gansazRvrebebSi yuradReba unda mivaqcioT
erT principul moments: `niSani warmoaCens obieqts ara yvela
damokidebulebaSi, aramed raRac gansazRvrul idesTan mimarTebaSi~.
es mimarTeba, vfiqrob, unda warmoadgendes erTgvar garantias, romelic
icavs niSans interpretaciaTa zedmeti Tavisuflebisagan. `niSani
unda warmoaCendes raRacas, Tavis obieqts~, anu niSani ara mxolod
malavs, aramed aCens kidevac. es `gamoCena~, anu warmoCena, xdeba ara
yvela, aramed mxolod gansazRvrul ideasTan mimarTebaSi da
gansazRvravs rogorc niSnis komunikaciaSi CarTvis princips, ise
misi interpretaciis mimarTulebasac. amdenad, savsebiT marTebulad
unda miviCnioT ekos mosazrebebi Teoriuli polisemiisa da realuri
interpretaciis gamijvnis aucileblobaze (eko 1998). pirsis niSnis
gansazRvreba imTaviTve gulisxmobs am gamijvnas.
semiozisis uwyvetobidan, sawyisi da finaluri interpretantis
SeuZleblobidan gamomdinare, xsovnas inaxavs, anu mexsierebis fenomeni
igulisxmeba samive tipis niSanSi, oRond ikonuri amas axdens
aRmniSvnelisa da aRsaniSnis grZnobadi msgavsebis safuZvelze, indeqsi
maT Soris realuri kavSiris kodirebiT, simboluri ki
kulturuli SeTanxmebiT da am SeTanxmebis xsovnis SenaxviT.
literatura
barti 1989: . . . . . :
, 1989.
beli1996: . , . . .
, . IX, 2, 1996.
eko 1998: . . .
, 1998. Tavi A. 3,4,5; . XIV.
iakobsoni 1990: .
. kr. . . : , 1990.
iakobsoni 1983: . . kr. .
.: , 1983.
manana kvaWantiraZe
207
noTi 2001: . . . .
3-4. , 2001. http://www.nsu.ru/education/
virtual/cs34net.htm
pirsi 2000: . .. . .
. ., .: , 2000.
Jeneti 2001: J. Jeneti. aRaravin uwyis, ra aris struqturalizmi.
J. kriteriumi. Tb.: literaturis institutis gamomcemloba,
#3, 2001.
sosiuri 1977: . . . :
, 1977.
florenski 1971: . . .
. . .5. . 1971.
Manana Kvachantiradze
Charles Peirce and problems of modern semiotics
In this work the modern communication problems are considered using
Charles Sanders Peirces general theory of signs. The applicability of Pierss theory
to explain different peculiarities of artist and poetic languages is evaluated. His
pan-semiotic vision of the universe of signs, of human beings and human
consciousness is discussed, together with primary, secondary and tertiary categories.
Using the Peirces theory the author makes attempt to find answer to the
following questions: what represents literature as a sign and as a part of semiotic
universe; how can be solved the problem of memory and art language
interrelationship in the process of continuous semiosis.
In this work the state-of the-art in Peireces theory is assessed. The
theories of signs developed by Peirce and Saussure are compared. Also several
semiotic problems are discussed based on relevant examples: the tips of
interpretation and the process of significance development, the internal dialogical
character of thinking, problems of object and so on. The most important second
tricotomy of signs which determines the relation between the sign and the object
is analyzed.
Carlz pirsi da Tanamedrove semiotikis problemebi
208
levan cagareli
metafiqcia rogorc
semiotikuri fenomeni
Sesavali
metafiqcionalobas ganmartaven rogorc
garkveuli ti pis mxatvruli teqstebis
Tvisebas, imsjelon literaturaze
1
. meta-
fiqcionaluri literaturis ZiriTad ma-
xasiaTeblebad miiCneva sakuTari xelov-
nurobis gaSiSvleba, literaturuli konven-
ciebiT TamaSi da ontologiuri sazRvrebis
darRveva
2
, avtorefleqsiuri mTxroblis
(igive self-conscious narrator, romelsac
gaazrebuli aqvs Txrobis aqti) arseboba,
eqsplicituri mkiTxvelis rogorc moqmedi
piris gamoCena teqstSi da e.w. Cinuri
kolofis (chinese box) struqtura erTma-
neTSi moqceuli ambebisa, romlebic erTmaneTs
ireklaven
3
.
mocemuli narkvevis mizania, rolan
bartis Sexedulebebze dayrdnobiT
iv.javaxiSvilis sax. Tbi-
lisis saxelmwifo uni-
versitetis humanitaruli
fakultetis dasavleT
evropis enebis da lite-
raturis mimarTulebis
profesor-asistenti.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
Die Besonderheiten der
Realittskonstruktion in
Arno Schmidts Abend mit
Goldrand (Literatur im
Unterricht. Texte der Mo-
derne und Postmoderne in
der Schule. 3, Wissenschaft-
licher Verlag Trier 2006);
fiqcia, fantastika, ara-
sando Txroba (monogra-
fia, Tbilisi, 2006 w.); av-
gust strindbergi, ro-
gorc arasando mTxrobeli
(jojoxeTis naratolo-
giuri analizi) da sxv.
amJamad muSaobs sadoqto-
ro disertaciaze (arno
Smitis gviandeli proza
rogorc metafiqcia).
interesis sfero:
XX s-is germanuli lite-
ratura da literaturis
Teoria.
1
Sdr. verner volfis ganmarteba: metafiqcionaluria
avtorefleqsiuri gamonaTqvamebi da moTxrobis
elementebi, romlebic miznad isaxavs ara warmosaxuli
sinamdvilis gadmocemas, aramed ubiZgebs recipients,
gaacnobieros teqstualoba da `fiqcionaloba~
`xelovnurobis, gakeTebulobis~ an `gamonagonis~
mniSvnelobiT da maTTan dakavSirebuli fenomenebi.
[aq da Semdeg Targmani Cemia l.c.] Werner Wolf:
Metafiktion. In: Ansgar Nnning: Grundbegriffe der
Literaturtheorie. Stuttgart: Metzler, 2004, S. 172-174
2
Mirjam Sprenger: Modernes Erzhlen. Metafiktion im
deutschsprachigen Roman der Gegenwart. Stuttgart;
Weimar: Metzler, 1999, S. 125
3
ix. iqve, gv. 151, 162, 154-155
209
SevimuSavoT metafiqciis semiotikuri modeli. igi mogvcems
saSualebas, erTian sistemaSi movaqcioT teqstobrivi Taviseburebebi,
romlebsac literaturaTmcodneebi tradiciulad ukavSireben
metafiqciis fenomens, da ganvmartoT, romeli struqturuli meqanizmis
safuZvelze warmoiqmneba TiToeuli maTgani. am miznis misaRwevad
mizanSewonilia, davyoT naSromi sam nawilad. pirvel TavSi zogadad
ganvixilavT metafiqcionalobis fenomenisa da postmodernizmis
urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxs. meore Tavi daeTmoba metafiqcionalobis
tipologiur aRweras. mesame TavSi ki konkretul semiologiur
koncefciaze dayrdnobiT SevecdebiT metafiqcionalobis semiotikuri
modelis SemuSavebas.
sanam metafiqcionalobaze msjelobas SevudgebiT, saWiroa
davazustoT, ra aris fiqcionaloba. esaa Tavisebureba teqstebis
garkveuli jgufisa, romlebic umetesad Txrobis fiqtiur aqts
gadmoscemen da swored amiT gansxvavdebian sxva (arafiqcionaluri)
teqstebisgan. fiqcionaluri, igive mxatvruli teqstebis konvenciuri
Taviseburebebi am ukanasknelis semiotikur bunebas efuZneba.
literaturuli teqsti, rogorc rTuli (super-)niSani, ganirCeva
rogorc sintaqtikis, ise pragmatikisa da semantikis doneebze.
pragmatikuli TvalsazrisiT, mas axasiaTebs gaormagebuli saTxrobi
situacia
gare sakomunikacio situacia avtori teqsti mkiTxveli
Sida sakomunikacio situacia mTxrobeli ambavi fiqtiuri adresati
gamosaxuleba 1. gaormagebuli sakomunikacio situacia
da ama Tu im kulturul garemocvaSi damkvidrebuli
samomxmareblo praqtika. literaturuli teqstis semantika
aRsaniSnavia denotaciis naklebobiTa da konotaciis dominanturobiT,
ris Sedegadac misi TiToeuli elementi zedeterminirebulia, teqstis
saerTo Setyobinebas eqvemdebareba da swored masTan mimarTebaSi
iZens garkveul funqcias.
literatura: gamoxatuleba Sinaarsi
ena: gamoxatuleba Sinaarsi
gamosaxuleba 2. literaturuli fiqciis konotaciuri
struqtura
metafiqcia _ rogorc semiotikuri fenomeni
210
gamosaxuleba 3. enobrivi niSnebis zedeterminirebuloba meorad
sistemaSi literatura
aRniSnuli Taviseburebebis erToblioba sintaqtikuri deviaciis,
erTgvari normatiuli anomaliis saxes iZens da ganasxvavebs mxatvrul
nawarmoebs ara-mxatvrulisgan
1
.
1. metafiqcia da postmodernizmi
metafiqcionalobam, rogorc literaturulma tendenciam,
gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba moipova postmodernizmis konteqstSi.
Tumca metafiqconaluri elementebi (rogoricaa, magaliTad,
avtorefleqsiuroba) gvxvdeba ufro adrec lorens sternis
romanSi tristram Sendi, migel de servantesis romanSi don
kixoti, da TviT ariostos poemaSi Smagi orlando
2
. Tanamedrove
literaturaTmcodneobaSi metafiqcias ukavSireben post-istoriisa
(posthistoire) da poststruqturalizmis koncefciebs; samive maTgani
warmoiqmna masobrivi sazogadoebis sabolood Camoyalibebisa da
globalizaciis pirobebSi
3
.
4
fiqcionalobis mocemuli modeli detalurad aris ganxiluli Cems sadisertacio
naSromSi, arno Smitis gviandeli proza rogorc metafiqcia [savaraudod
2007]
2
ix. Matias Martinez/Michael Scheffel: Einfhrung in die Erzhltheorie. 2. Aufl.
Mnchen: Beck 2000 S. 16f.; Michael Scheffel: Formen selbstreflexiven Erzhlens. Eine
Typologie und sechs exemplarische Analysen.Tbingen: Niemeyer, 1997, S. 62f.; agreTve
Sprenger, iqve, gv. 126, 294
3
ix. Hanns-Josef Ortheil: Perioden des Abschieds: Zum Profil der neueren und jngsten
deutschen Literatur. In: German Quaterly, Bd. 63, 1990, S. 367-376, S. 372; agreTve, Matei
Calinescu: Modernitetens fem ansikten. Modernism. Avantgarde. Dekadens. Kitsch.
Postmodernism. vers. av Dan Shafran och ke Nylinder. Dualis 2000, s. 127 (Orig. Matei
Calinescu: Five faces of modernity. Modernism, avant-garde, decadence, kitsch,
postmodernism. Durham: Duke Univ. Press, 1987)

enobr.
niSani/m
otivi

enobr.
niSani/m
otivi
enobr.
niSani/m
otivi

enobr.
niSani/m
otivi

enobr.
niSani/m
otivi

subteqsti

konotacia

meoradi

sistema:




pirveladi

sistema:
levan cagareli
211
post-istoriis koncefcias safuZvlad udevs istoriulobis
cnebis gaqroba. igi gamsWvalulia skefsisiT totaluri azrovnebis
mimarT da istoriuli amowurulobis grZnobiT. am koncefciis
Tanaxmad, aRar arsebobs absoluturi WeSmariteba; arsebobs mxolod
Cveni warmodgenebis, suraT-xatebis, moTxrobebisa da warsulTan
dakavSirebuli stereotipebis istoria, romlebic sruliad Ta-
nasworia da romelTa urTierTgamijvnac mxolod qronologiuradaa
SesaZlebeli.
1
amrigad, istoria iqceva fiqciad. sinamdvile ki sxva
araferia, Tu ara konstruqciebisa da fiqciebisgan Semdgari
warmonaqmni. Sesabamisad, faqtebi da fiqciebi erTnair midgomas
moiTxovs, midgomas, romelic Rirebulebebis, wiaRsvlebis, qmedebebis,
gamonaTqvamebis urTierTCanacvlebadobasa da ganusxvavebulobas
2
emyareba.
poststruqturalizmis farglebSi sinamdvilesa da fiqcias
Soris sazRvari kidev ufro bundovani gaxda. poststruqtu-
ralistebis azriT, yvelaferi rogorc xelovneba, ise istoria da
sindamvile mxolod teqstia
3
. yovelive aman gamoiwvia erTi mxriv,
Semoqmedi subieqtis sruli ugulebelyofa (e.w. avtoris sikvdili),
xolo meore mxriv, mkiTxvelis wina planze wamoweva. mkiTxveli
miiCnies gadamwyvet instanciad nawarmoebisTvis azris miniWebis
procesSi, kiTxva ki sruliad gautoles weras, radgan kiTxvis
dros mkiTxveli teqsts axal-axal mniSvnelobebs aniWebs da
Sesabamisad, teqstis yoveli ganmeorebiTi wakiTxvisas warmoiqmneba
axali teqsti. xolo mniSvneloba, rogorc stabiluri, myari kavSiri
aRsaniSnsa da aRmniSvnels Soris, poststruqturalizmis koncefciis
mixedviT, saerTod ar moipoveba. aRniSnuli mimarTeba xasiaTdeba
nebismierobiT da, Sesabamisad, nebismieri signifikanti SeiZleba
davukavSiroT nebismier signifikats. amrigad, komunikacia gvevlineba
erTgvar Tavisufal TamaSad, TamaSad signifikantebiT.
zemoxsenebulma Teoriebma didi gavlena moaxdina postmoder-
nizmis literaturasa da xelovnebaze. Semoqmedi subieqtis
ugulebelyofiT warsuls Cabarda individualobis, originalurobisa
1
Wilfried Barner (Hg.): Geschichte der deutschen Literatur von 1945 bis zur Gegenwart.
Mnchen: Beck, 1994, S. 817
2
Peter V. Zima: Moderne/Postmoderne. Gesellschaft, Philosphie, Literatur. 2. berarb.
Aufl. Tbingen; Basel: Francke, 2001, S. 267; Vgl auch Calinescu, S. 272f.
3
ix. Michaela Kopp-Marx: Zwischen Petrarca und Madonna. Der Roman der
Postmoderne. Mnchen: Beck, 2005, S. 113
metafiqcia _ rogorc semiotikuri fenomeni
212
da auTenturobis moTxovnac. postmodernizmis epoqis xelovnebasa
da literaturaze vkiTxulobT erT-erT germanel mkvlevarTan:
mas Semdeg, rac davrwmundiT, rom mudmiv eqsperimentebSi
gatarebuli saukunis Semdeg im didi SesaZleblobebis miuxedavad,
romlebsac mediebi gvTavazobs, faqtobrivad aRar dagvrCa Sansi,
SevqmnaT raRac axali, rogorc Zvelisgan radikalurad gansxvavebuli,
Cven gavTavisufldiT gavlenis SiSisgan [anxiety of influence], SiSisgan
ukve arsebuli xelovnebis gavlenis qveS moqcevisa, romelic jer
kidev XVIII saukunis geniis esTetikidan moyolebuli arsebiTad
gansazRvravda dasavlur xelovnebasa da literaturas. axla ki
sruliad daufaravad daviwyeT xelovnebis Seqmna xelovnebisgan,
literaturisa ki literaturisgan, eqneba amas pastiSis saxe Tu
romelime Zveli mimdinareobebis ganaxlebuli saxesxvaobisa, romelic
aRiniSneba TavsarTiT neo. ase warmoiqmna variaciis literatura
da xelovneba, romelSic siaxle ukve nacnobis cvlilebas gulisxmobs
da gansxvavebuloba rafinirebul xasiaTs iZens.
1
postmodernistuli xelovneba da literatura efuZneba ukve
nacnobis gardaqmnas. amgvari gardaqmna xorcieldeba sxvadasxva,
tradiciulad SeuTavsebeli stilisa Tu Janris aRreva-kombinaciis
saxiT, an yoveldRiuris, banalurisa da trivialuris xelovnebaSi
Semotanis meSveobiT. am mizniT postmodernisti mwerlebi xSirad
mimarTaven e.w. trivialuri literaturis sqemebs da axali SinaarsiT
avseben maT. radgan niSani daiSala da xelSi mxolod signifikanti
SegvrCa, yuradRebas imsaxurebs ara Sinaarsi, mniSvneloba, aramed
stili da teqstis zedapiri. avangardistuli mimdinareobebis
Tanmimdevruli monacvleoba postmodernizmis epoqaSi Seicvala
gansxvavebuli mimdinareobebis TanaarsebobiT: dRevandeli viTareba
xasiaTdeba pluralizmiT, romelic zogjer nebismierobis sazRvars
aRwevs.
2
nebismieroba gamoixateboda ara mxolod Sinaarsobrivad
da Tematurad rogorc kulturul RirebulebaTa da esTetikur
konvenciaTa nebismieroba, aramed formaluradac nawarmoebidan
misi Seqmnis procesze yuradRebis gadataniT. literaturuli teqstis
1
Herbert Grabes: Einfhrung in die Literatur und Kunst der Moderne und Postmoderne.
Die sthetik des Fremden. Tbingen; Basel: Francke, 2004, S. 104. termini gavlenis
SiSi literaturis TeoriaSi daamkvidra amerikelma literaturaTmcodnem, harald
blumma. ix. Harald Bloom: The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry. New York:
Oxford U.P. , 1973. (dt. Einfluangst, Basel: Stroemfeld/Nexus, 1995)
2
Klaus Honnef: Die Kunst der Gegenwart. Kln: Taschen, 1992, S.7; zit. nach Grabes, S.
122
levan cagareli
213
procesualuri xasiaTis gamokveTis mizniT postmodernisti mwerlebi
arRveven Txrobis standartul Tanmimdevrobas da mkiTxvels miandoben
calkeuli monakveTebis urTierTSekavSirebas. nebismierobis
ukiduresi gamoxatuleba gaxlavT, magaliTad, e.w. hiperteqsti,
agreTve nawarmoebebi, romlebSic SemTxveviTobasa da gegmas Soris
sxvaobis dadgena SeuZlebelia.
Tviseba, romelic mkafiod ganasxvavebs postmodernistul
mwerlobas modernistulisagan, gaxlavT ara ltolva radikaluri
ganaxlebisa da tradiciebis msxvrevisaken, aramed swrafva, Zvelisa
da gardasulis aRdgena-ganaxlebisaken. mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi
SeiniSneba interteqstualobis mxrivac. xorvati literaturaTmcodne
dubravka oraiC toliCi
1
gamoyofs citatis or ZiriTad saxeobas:
ilustraciulsa da iluminaciurs. pirveli maTganisaTvis
damaxasiaTebelia imitacia, sakuTari teqstis daqvemdebareba
ucxosaTvis, mkiTxvelis gamocdilebis gaTvaliswineba da ucxo
teqstisa Tu kulturis reprezentaciis principi. iluminaciur
citats ki piriqiT, polemikis an dialogis xasiaTi aqvs, masSi
moqmedebs koordinaciis principi, romlis mixedviTac teqstebs
Tanaswori uflebebi eniWebaT. iluminaciuri citati sruliad ar
uwevs angariSs recefciis arsebul normebs da upirispirebs teqsts,
romelSic gvxvdeba, yvela winare nawarmoebs. ilustraciuli citatis
SemTxvevaSi kulturuli tradicia gaiazreba saganZurad, iluminaciuri
citatis SemTxvevaSi ki tabula rasa-d. mkvlevris azriT, modernistuli
xelovneba da literatura iluminaciuri iyo, xolo sakuTari
tradiciebisaken dabrunebisa da TviTSenarCunebis survilTan erTad
postmodernizmis epoqaSi citati iluminaciur xasiaTs iZens
2
.
amrigad, citati postmodernistul literaturasa da xelovnebaSi
erTgvari katalogis, muzeumisa Tu arqivis funqcias asrulebs da
miznad isaxavs kulturuli memkvidreobis SenarCunebas.
warsulisadmi interesis zrdasTan erTad igrZnoba realisturi
tendenciebis dabrunebac, Tumca es axali realizmi gansxvavdeba
Zvelisagan da Zalze mravalferovania:
axali realizmi, romelic nawilobriv eqsperimentuli
realizmis saxeliT cdilobs TviTdamkvidrebas, warmoadgens
variaciis xelovnebas, radgan masSi marTalia realisturi Txrobis
1
ix. Dubravka Orai Toli: Das Zitat in Literatur und Kunst.Versuch einer Theorie. Aus
dem Kroat. bers. v. Ulrich Dronske. Wien, u.a.: Bhlau 1995
2
iqve, gv. 86
metafiqcia _ rogorc semiotikuri fenomeni
214
normebi TiTqmis SenarCunebulia, samagierod sinamdvilis
adekvaturad gadmocemis unari eWvs iwvevs.
1
postmodernistuli realizmi uaryofs realistur tradicias,
radgan igi aRar (an veRar) mogviTxrobs simarTles samyaros Sesaxeb,
aramed mogviTxrobs simarTles TviT literaturis Sesaxeb, mis
imanentur kanonzomierebebsa da fiqcionalobaze. swored amiT aris
ganpirobebuli postmodernistuli teqstebis kidev erTi Tviseba,
romelic sruliad ucxo iyo klasikuri modernizmisTvis, esaa
kiTxviT mogvrili siamovneba, anu plaisir du texte rogorc mas rolan
barti uwodebs.
radganac postmodernistulma mwerlobam gansjis sagnad aqcia
ukve arsebuli teqstebis normebi, motivebi da struqtura, savsebiT
gasagebia, rom metafiqcionaloba, rogorc literaturuli tendencia,
swored am epoqis mxatvrul xerxebs Soris ikavebs dominantur
adgils. Tumca aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom metafiqcia araerTgvarovani
fenomenia. magaliTad, moi poveba metafiqcionaluri romanebi,
romlebSic fiqcionaloba mxolod Tematur doneze ganixileba;
gvxvdeba agreTve nawarmoebebi, romlebSic metafiqcionaloba
formaluri da ontologiuri gaurkvevlobis saxiT vlindeba, Tumca
maTi struqturis dadgena mainc SesaZlebelia; da bolos, gvaqvs
teqstebi, romlebSic realizmi sruliad uaryofilia, mxatvruli
samyaro ki warmogvidgeba rogorc dapirispirebuli semiotikuri
sistemebis brZolis veli, sadac realuri mniSvnelobis dadgena
SeuZlebelia.
2. metafiqcionalobis zogadi maxasiaTeblebi
germaneli mkvlevari verner volfi
2
gamoyofs metafiqcionalobis
Semdeg saxesxvaobebs:
1. gadmocemis formis mixedviT: eqsplicituri da implicituri
metafiqcia. eqspliciturad metafiqcionaluri teqsti Tu teqstis
monakveTi Tavisi SinaarsiT aris metateqstobrivi, xolo impli-
cituri metafiqcia moicavs ti pografiul eqsperimentebsa da
urTierTgamomricxav, winaaRmdegobriv elementebs, romlebic teqstis
fiqcionalobaze amaxvileben recipientis yuradRebas.
1
Grabes, S. 110
2
ix. Werner Wolf: sthetische Illusion und Illusionsdurchbrechung in der Erzhlkunst.
Theorie und Geschichte mit Schwerpunkt auf englischem illusionsstrenden Erzhlen.
Tbingen: Niemeyer, 1993, Kap. 3.2.
levan cagareli
215
2. moculobis mixedviT: nawilobrivi da eqstensiuri metafiqcia.
am ukanasknelis SemTxvevaSi metafiqcionaluria mTeli teqsti, masSi
waSlilia zRvari kritikasa da fiqcias Soris (ingl. critifiction).
3. Sinaarsis mixedviT:
a)e.w. fictum-metafiqcia da fictio-metaficia. pirveli maTgani
eWvis qveS ayenebs teqstis Sesabamisobas simarTlesTan, mis
referencialur funqcias; ukanaskneli ki gamokveTs xelovnurobas,
teqstobriobas, medialobas, magram ar exeba monaTxrobis verifikaciis
problemas (mag. calkeuli Tavebis saTaurebis auqtoruli
Tematizeba).
b) pirdapiri, anu avto-metafiqcia, iribi da zogadi metafiqcia.
avto-metafiqciaSi yuradRebis centrSi eqceva TviT is teqsti,
romelSic metafiqcionaluri gamonaTqvami gvxvdeba; iribi metafiqcia
gulisxmobs interteqstobriv kavSirs sxva teqstebTan (Cveulebrivi
interteqstisgan gansxvavebiT metafiqcionaluri interteqsti
gvacnobierebinebs winare teqstis fiqcionalur statuss); zogad
metafiqciaSi ki moiazreba meta-esTetikuri msjeloba zogadad
literaturaze da ara erT romelime mxatvrul teqstze, Tumca
amgvari msjelobis dros gamoTqmuli Sexedulebebi, cxadia, mocemul
teqstsac exeba, radgan es ukanaksnelic fiqcionaluri literaturis
nawilia. zogadi da iribi metafiqciis farglebSi SeiZleba movaqcioT
agreTve intermedialobis SemTxvevebi, rodesac gansjis sagnad qceulia
sxva Janrebi Tu mediebi (saxviTi xelovneba, kino-xelovneba da a.S.),
an xelovneba zogadad.
g) kritikuli da afirmaciuli metafiqcia. kritikul
metafiqciaSi fiqcionalobis gamoaSkaravebisas igrZnoba erTgvari
distancia, kritikuli damokidebuleba (mag. parodia). afirmaciuli
metafiqcia ki amgvar kritikul damokidebulebas moklebulia.
verner volfi aRniSnavs, rom metafiqciis mxatvruli daniSnuleba
ar Semoifargleba monaTxrobis sandoobis eWvis qveS dayenebiTa da
esTetikuri iluziis rRveviT. metafiqcia, amave dros, qmnis
poetologiuri gansjisTvis saWiro sivrces, aris komentirebis
araCveulebrivi saSualeba da xSirad gvexmareba teqstis gagebisas
(gansakuTrebiT, Tu teqsti inovaciuria).
amrigad, metafiqcionaloba Zalze farTo speqtris movlenaa.
igi moicavs tipografiul eqsperimentebs, poetologiur eseistikas,
interteqstobriv mimarTebaTa mravalferovnebasa da iseT naratiul
xerxebs, rogoricaa arasando da avtorefleqsiuri Txroba.
metafiqcia _ rogorc semiotikuri fenomeni
216
3. metafiqciis semiotikuri struqtura
zemoxsenebul teqstobriv maxasiaTeblebs erTi SexedviT araferi
aqvs erTmaneTTan saerTo. ibadeba kiTxva: ratom moiyara Tavi yvela
am literaturulma xerxma erTi fenomenis metafiqciis farglebSi?
am kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad gamogvadgeba frangi literaturaT-
mcodnis, rolan bartis mier Tavis erT-erT adreul naSromSi
SemuSavebuli modeli. aq mkvlevari cdilobs semiologiur
principebze dayrdnobiT daadginos, ra aris konotacia da meta-ena.
konotaciur sistemas igi gansazRvravs rogorc sistemas,
romlis gamoxatulebis donesac mniSvnelobis matarebeli sistema
qmnis
1
. amgvari sistema meorad, zednaSen xasiaTs atarebs, mas safuZvlad
udevs sxva sistema, romelic mxolod gamoxatulebis doneze,
aRmniSvnelis funqciiT gamoiyeneba. amgvari konotaciuri sistemaa,
magaliTad, mxatvruli literatura, miTosi, xelovnebis sxvadasxva
dargebi da sxv. amrigad, mxatvruli literatura aris meoradi
sistema, romelic enobriv sistemas Tavisi Sinaarsis gadmosacemad
iyenebs.
aRmniSvneli aRsaniSni
aRmniSvneli aRsaniSni
gamosaxuleba 4. konotaciuri sistemis semiologiuri sqema.
xolo meta-enas rolan barti ase gansazRvravs: meta-ena, esaa
sistema, romlis Sinaarsis donesac mniSvnelobis matarebeli sistema
qmnis.
2
meta-enis SemTxvevaSi pirveladi sistema iqceva meoradi
sistemis ara aRmniSvnelad, aramed aRsaniSnad.
aRmniSvneli aRsaniSni
aRmniSvneli aRsaniSni
gamosaxuleba 5. meta-enis semiologiuri sqema.
1
Roland Barthes: Elemente der Semiologie. Aus dem Franz. v. Eva Moldenhauer. 2. Aufl.
Frankfurt a.M.: Syndikat, 1981, S. 76
2
iqve
levan cagareli
217
gamosaxuleba 6. metafiqciis semiotikuri modeli
Cveni azriT, semiotikur sistemas _ literaturuli metafiqcia
_ swored amgvari, sami Srisagan Semdgari struqtura gaaCnia. sistemis
safuZvels warmoadgens ena. meoradi sistemis literaturuli
fiqcia farglebSi igi asrulebs aRmniSvnelis daniSnulebas da
esTetikuri Setyobinebis gadmosacemad gamoiyeneba. aq enobrivi niSnis
konvenciuri mniSvneloba (e.i. mimarTeba aRmniSvnelsa da aRsaniSns
Soris) sruliad sxva mniSvnelobis gamoxatvas isaxavs miznad.
amrigad, fiqcionaluri literaturis semiotikur meqanizms safuZvlad
udevs swored konotaciis princi pi. metafiqciis doneze ki
mniSvnelobis warmoebis procesi sapirispiro mimarTulebiT viTardeba.
aq TviT fiqciis konotaciuri sistema iqceva metafiqcionaluri
gamonaTqvamis Sinaarsobriv mxared.
teqstis semantikuri moculobis amgvari gafarToeba, cxadia,
mniSvnelovan cvlilebebs iwvevs nawarmoebis semiotikur
maxasiaTeblebSi ara mxolod semantikis, aramed pragmatikisa da
sintaqtikis doneebzec.
pragmatikis mxriv metafiqcionaluri teqsti xasiaTdeba gare
da Sida sakomunikacio situaciis TematizebiT. amgvari Tematizeba
xorcieldeba, rodesac mxatvrul samyaroSi teqstis adresati
(mkiTxveli) da adresanti (avtori) moqmedi pirebis saxiT gvxvdeba,
an rodesac yuradReba maxvildeba TviT weris aqtze. pragmatikuli
mimarTebis ukidures gaucxoebas emsaxureba avtorefleqsiuri
Txrobis formebic, romelTa drosac mTxrobeli daufaravad
warmoaCens Tavs mTeli ambis Semoqmedad, moqmedi pirebi saubroben
avtoris Sesaxeb da a.S. fiqcionaluri komunikaciis gaormagebuli
xasiaTi agreTve SeiZleba iqces gansjis sagnad, Tu ambavi arasando
moyvanili sqemebis Serwymis Sedegad iqmneba Semdegi modeli:
literaturuli
metafiqcia:

aRmniSvneli

aRsaniSni
literaturuli
fiqcia:
aRmniSvneli
aRsaniSni
ena:

aRmn. aRsan.

metafiqcia _ rogorc semiotikuri fenomeni
218
mTxroblis mier aris moTxrobili. aseT SemTxvevaSi (iseve, rogorc
ironiis yvela sxva saxesxvaobis SemTxvevaSi) gansakuTrebiT mkafiod
Cans gansxvaveba avtors, rogorc Setyobinebis namdvil adresantsa,
da mTxrobels, rogorc fiqtiur konstruqcias Soris
1
. amdenad,
arasando Txroba SegviZlia miviCnioT fiqcionaluri komunikaciis
pragmatikuli aspeqtis Tematizebad.
arasando Txrobis xerxi aRsaniSnavia metafiqcionaluri
sistemis semantikis mxrivac. vinaidan arasando mTxroblis naambobi
ar Seesabameba mxatvrul samyaroSi namdvilad momxdar ambavs da
garkveulwilad ayalbebs kidec mas, yuradReba maxvildeba denotaciis
naklebobaze, rac saerTod literaturuli fiqciisTvisaa
damaxasiaTebeli. arasando mTxroblis naambobi xom mxolod
SezRudulad asaxavs fiqtiur movlenebs, riTac mxatvrul
literaturaSi referencialuri funqciis naklebobasa Tu
ararsebobas aaSkaravebs. gamokveTili metafiqcionaluri potenciali
gaaCnia e.w. mimeturad ganurCevel Txrobasac; am ukanasknelis
SemTxvevaSi Tavs iCens garemoeba, romelic Cveulebriv dafaruli da
avtomatizirebulia, saxeldobr, is, rom mxatvruli samyaroebi sxva
araferia, Tu ara sityvebiT agebuli konstruqciebi. Sesabamisad,
mimeturad ganurCeveli Txroba literaturul fiqcias warmogvidgens
rogorc xelovnurad Seqmnil konstruqcias.
konotaciis dominanturoba, rogorc fiqcionaluri diskursis
kidev erTi semantikuri niSanTviseba, warmoCindeba avtorefleqsiuri
Txrobis garkveuli saxesxvaobis, kerZod mizanabimis (mise en
abyme) meSveobiT. mizanabimi gulisxmobs moTxroba-CarCos gameorebas
CarTul moTxrobaSi an iseTi wignis xsenebas, romelic mTels
eqstradiegetur moqmedebas asaxavs. mizanabimis xerxis gamoyenebiT
aSkara xdeba, rom mTeli moqmedeba sxva araferia, Tu ara erTaderTi
subteqstis gavrcobili versia, romlis farglebSic TiToeuli
elementi mTlian teqsts ukavSirdeba
2
.
literaturuli sistemis semantikuri Taviseburebebi vlindeba
interteqstobrivi miniSnebebis saxiTac
3
. aseT SemTxvevaSi
1
Sdr. Martinez/Scheffel, S. 101: aseT SemTxvevaSi eqsplicituri mTxrobeli
gadmogvcems eqsplicitur Setyobinebas, xolo mTxroblis miRma avtori mkiTxvels
sruliad sxva, mTxroblis gamonaTqvamebis sapirispiro Setyobinebas sTavazobs.
mTxroblis eqsplicituri Setyobineba ar Seesabameba nagulisxmev azrs, xolo
avtoris implicituri Setyobineba swored nagulisxmev azrs asavaxs.
2
subteqstis Sesaxeb ix. Michael Riffaterre: Fictional truth. The Johns Hopkins
University Press, Baltimore and London, 1990, s. 28: moTxroba subteqstisTvis igivea,
rac sagani niSnisaTvis.
3
Sdr. Scheffel, gv. 48: avtorefleqsia gaxlavT fenomeni, romelic markirebul
miniSnebebsac SeiZleba moicavdes, romelTa adgilic calkeuli moTxrobis
interteqstobrivi konteqstia.
levan cagareli
219
sagrZnoblad icvleba avtorefleqsiis moculoba, igi amjerad moicavs
mTlian fiqcionalur literaturas, rogorc mediums. Tu mxatvrul
nawarmoebSi gvxvdeba moqmedi piri raime sxva teqstidan, an fsevdo-
interteqstobrivi miniSneba mogvepoveba ararsebul teqstze, maSin
(principiT pars pro toto) aqtualizdeba Sesabamisi winare teqstis
mTliani fiqcionaluri konteqsti da, Sesabamisad, SiSvldeba
preteqstis fiqcionaluri xasiaTic.
1
orive SemTxvevaSi fiqciona-
lobis fenomeni wina planze iwevs, aSkara xdeba, rom teqstorbivi
elementebis ukan ara realoba, aramed sxva teqstebis fiqtiuri
sinamdvile dgas da, amrigad, teqstis semantika fiqtiur referents
emyareba.
interteqstobrivi mimarTebebis meSveobiT xorcieldeba teqstis
sintaqtikuri TviTTematizebac. magaliTad, e.w. sistemuri
referentulobis (germ. Systemreferenz)
2
interteqstobrivi fenomeni
safuZvlad udevs fantastikur literaturas. fantastika, rogorc
diegeturad manifestirebuli darRveva tradiciuli literaturuli
konvenciebisa SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc wminda metafiqcionaluri
movlena. fantastikuri elementebi aaSkaraveben avtomatizirebuli
literaturuli xerxebis deviaciur xasiaTs da yuradRebas amaxvi-
leben mxatvruli samyaros konvenciur agebulebaze. fantastikuri
elementis saxiT diegezisis doneze vlindeba literaturuli teqstis
specifikuri, deviaciaze (enobrivi normebis darRvevaze) damyarebuli
sintaqtika. fantastikuri literaturis metafiqcionaluri
potenciali isaa, rom misi Tema impliciturad Tavad literaturaa
3
.
mxatvruli teqstis Sida sintaqtika gamoixateba markirebuli
motivaciuri struqturis saxiT. ormagi motivacia SesaniSnavad
gamodgeba Sinagani urTierTkavSiris gamosaxatavad, romelic yovel
literaturul teqstSia mocemuli
4
. rodesac moTxrobili xdomileba
1
Sdr. Wolfgang Karrer: Intertextualitt als Elementen- und Struktur-Reproduktion. In:
Ulrich Broich, Manfred Pfister (Hg.): Intertextualitt: Formen, Funktionen, anglistische
Fallstudien. Unter Mitarbeit von Bernd Schulte-Middelich. Tbingen: Niemeyer, 1985, S.
98-116; fsevdo-interteqstobriobis Sesaxeb ix. Heinrich F. Plett: Sprachliche
Konstituenten einer intertextuellen Poetik. In: Ulrich Broich, Manfred Pfister (Hg.):
Intertextualitt: Formen, Funktionen, anglistische Fallstudien. S. 78-98
2
sistemuri referentulobis Sesaxeb ix. Ulrich Broich: Bezugsfelder der Intertextualitt.
In: Intertextualitt: Formen, Funktionen, anglistische Fallstudien. S. 52-58
3
ix. Uwe Durst: Theorie der phantastischen Literatur. Tbingen [u.a.]: Francke, 2001, S.
333-336; uve durstis Teoriis mokle mimoxilva ix. Cems narkvevSi levan
cagareli: ra aris fantastikuri literatura? J. sjani. SoTa rusTavelis
qarTuli literaturis instituti. Tbilisi 2006.
4
naratiuli teqstebis ormagi motivaciuri struqturis Sesaxeb ix. Matias
Martinez: Doppelte Welten: Struktur und Sinn zweideutigen Erzhlens. Gttingen 1996,
S. 29-32; ix. agreTve Matias Martinez: Formaler Mythos. Skizze einer sthetischen Theorie.
In: Ders. (Hg.): Formaler Mythos. Beitrge zu einer Theorie sthetischer Formen.
Paderborn: Schningh, 1996, S. 7-24
metafiqcia _ rogorc semiotikuri fenomeni
220
koherentul axsnas ar eqvemdebareba, mkiTxveli iwyebs mxatvruli
teqstis Sida struqturis aRqmas. am dros teqsti iqceva
metateqstad, e.i. teqstad literaturis imanenturi kanonzomierebebis
Sesaxeb.
metafiqcionaloba SeiZleba imaSic gamomJRavndes, rom
literaturuli mediumis masala (anu ena) Tavad iqceva mediumad
(anu Setyobinebis matareblad). nabeWd gverdze sityvebis ganlageba
da Sriftis forma SeiZleba teqstis mniSvnelobis matarebeli
iyos
1
. garkveuli tipografiul-vizualuri xerxebis gamoyenebiT
sityvas ZaluZs Tavis Tavze miuTiTos, gaxdes avtorefleqsiuri da
teqsts damatebiTi kodi Sehmatos. amgvarad, Tavad dawerili sityva
iqceva konotatorad. magram, amasTan, igi abrkolebs teqstis recefcias,
ris gamoc mkiTxveli (metakomunikaciur doneze) Sriftis konotaciur
muxts acnobierebs.
zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare SeiZleba iTqvas, rom metafiq-
cionaluri teqstebi erTgvari saxeobaa fiqcionaluri teqstebisa,
romlebic mkiTxvels literaturuli fiqciis pragmatikul,
semantikur an sintaqtikur gamorCeulobasa da gansakuTrebulobas
acnobierebineben da swored amiT aaSkaraveben TavianT xelovnurobas.
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J. sjani. SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis
instituti. Tbilisi, 2006
volfi 1993: Wolf, Werner: sthetische Illusion und Illusionsdurch-
brechung in der Erzhlkunst. Theorie und Geschichte mit
Schwerpunkt auf englischem illusionsstrenden Erzhlen. Tbingen:
Niemeyer, 1993, Kap. 3.2.
volfi 2004: Wolf, Werner: Metafiktion. In: Ansgar Nnning: Grundbegriffe
der Literaturtheorie. Stuttgart: Metzler, 2004, S. 172-174
zima 2001: Zima, Peter V.: Moderne/Postmoderne. Gesellschaft, Philosphie,
Literatur. 2. berarb. Aufl. Tbingen; Basel: Francke, 2001
Levan Tsagareli
Metafiction as a Semiotical Phenomenon
The metafiction is a concept that became particularly popular in connection
with the postmodern discussion. In the numerous studies we may see the
classifications of the general properties of the phenomenon. However, its structural
features have never been described. In this essay we work out the model of
metafiction in accordance with the concepts of connotation and metalanguage,
introduced into the literary theory by Roland Barthes. We define the metafiction
as a special type of the literary fiction, whose content is the fiction itself. This
structure causes certain changes for the semantics, pragmatics and syntactic of
the text: The metafictional text exposes the specific fictional features of all the
semiotic relations in one way or another.
levan cagareli
223
givi alxaziSvili
sami semiotikuri esse
uneblie damTxveva Tu...
erT leqsSi, romlis saTauria ,,kvira-
Zalis dila~ (igi rva monakveTisagan Sedgeba),
mexuTe monakveTSi stivensi wers: ,,sikvdili
_ dedaa mSvenierebis~. didi xniT adre vaJa-
fSavela werda: ,,Seni Wirime sikvdilo,
sicocxle mSvenobs SeniTa.~
eSberis aqvs erTi saxe leqsSi ,,cisfer-
gitariani adamiani~: ~iWeren bavSvebs mindvre-
bi~... SoTa CantlaZe ki erT Tavis leqsSi
wers: ,,patara bavSvebs yvavilebi iWeren
xelad.~
vaJa-fSavelasa da stivensis striqonebs
Soris aris msgavseba. stivenss rom qarTuli
scodnoda da vaJa-fSavela hqonoda wakiT-
xuli, SeiZleba vaJas cnobili leqsis
aluziad CagveTvala misi ~sikvdili dedaa
mSvenierebis~, magram araferi gamova aqedan,
orma gansxvavebulma poetma, sxvadasxva dros,
erTmaneTis teqstebis ucodinrad miakvlies,
erTnairs Tu ara, mimsgavsebul aRmoCenas.
eSberis ,,iWeren bavSvebs mindvrebi~ da
SoTa CantlaZis ~patara bavSvebs yvavilebi
iWeren xelad~, absoluturad erTi da igive
xatia da amas ukve aluzia ki ara, sxva saxeli
hqvia, magram am striqonebis avtorebmac ara
Tu erTmaneTis teqstebis, erTmaneTis
arsebobis Sesaxebac araferi icodnen. vaRiareb,
s e m i o t i k a d a s x v a . . . s e m i o t i k a d a s x v a . . . s e m i o t i k a d a s x v a . . . s e m i o t i k a d a s x v a . . . s e m i o t i k a d a s x v a . . .
mwerali, avtori mravali
poeturi krebulisa:
`warsulis sarkmeli~,
`ucxo frinveli~, `dia-
logi fiqrSi~, sinaTle
wv e TSi~, `ga m osv la
udroobidan~, `qoro-
nikoni~ da sxva.
Targmnili da gamocemuli
aqvs aTanas fetis, vla-
dimir soloviovis, aleq-
sandr blokis, Aandrei
belis, tudor argezis,
rilkes, haimis da vislava
Simborskas leqsebi;
avtoria sami romanisa:
`amodis Tu Cadis mze?!~,
`sodomidan sodomamde~,
`rkinis kars aqeT da
iqeT~ da esseebis krebu-
lisa _ `sityvebSi gaxiz-
nuli fiqri~.
1999 wels poeturi
krebulisaTvis `gamosvla
udroobidan~ mieniWa
saqarTvelos saxelmwifo
premia.
224
CemTvisac eSberi herald blumis wignSi citirebuli leqsebiT
gaxda cnobili.
rusulad gamocemuli amerikuli poeziis anTologiaSi stivensi
ramdenime leqsiTaa Setanili, magram eSberi _ ara. misi ramdenime
leqsi saqarTveloSi pirvelad Targmna daTo barbaqaZem (,,evropuli
da amerikuli poezia~. wigni meore. 1993 w.).
gasagebia, roca erTmaneTisgan damoukideblad msgavs saxeebs
miakvleven poetebi, erTmaneTis arsebobac rom ar ician, sxvadasxva
kontinentze, sxvadasxva enobriv sivrceSi, sxvadasxva dros rom
moRvaweobdnen, magram ra gamarTlebas mouZebnis kaci im movlenas,
roca mwerlebi erT qalaqSi, erTsa da imave droSi. lamis erT
ubanSi cxovroben da...
Tumca, SeiZleba uneblie damTxveva CvenSic moxdes, es sruliadac
ar aris gamoricxuli. aseT SemTxvevaSi qronologia gansazRvravs
yvelafers, radgan sxva kriteriumi, albaT, ar arsebobs.
borxesi, kortasari da zogi sxva ram...
kortasaris kiTxvisas SeuZlebelia ar gagaxsendes borxesi,
ara mxolod im mizeziT, rom 1985 wels, kortasaris gardacvalebidan
erTi wlis Semdeg, buenos_airesSi gamoica misi ,,rCeuli moTxrobebi~
xorxe luis borxesis winasityvaobiT; arc imis gamo, rom imave
wels (1985) gardaicvala ,,Tanamedroveobis legendaruli mwerali~
borxesi, anu erTi wlis Semdeg, rac parizSi leikemiiT suli ganuteva,
aseve Tanamedroveobis udidesma mweralma xulio kortasarma; arsebobs
sxva, aranakleb mniSvnelovani faqtori, rasac TviTon kortasari
gulwrfelad aRiarebda evelin pikon harfildTan saubrebSi (am
saubrebis fragmentebi da agreTve,kortasaris ,,eseebi da moTxrobebi~
gamoqveynda ,,inostrannaia literaturas~ 2001 wlis ivnisis nomerSi).
...aq ar SeiZleba ar vaxsenoT borxesi, Tumca, sabednierod, gavlena,
romelic Cemze moaxdina borxesma, ar iyo Tematuri da arc _
stilisturi; gavlena, upirveles yovlisa, eTikuri iyo. borxesma
maswavla me da mTel Cems Taobas mkacri momTxovneloba sakuTari
Tavis mimarT, gvaswavla fxizlad Segvefasebina sakuTari Tavi,
gvaswavla, ar dagvebeWda araferi, rac ar iyo profesiuli
TvalsazrisiT arc Tu ise kargad Sesrulebuli...
Semdeg kortasari saubrobs or urTierTsapirispiro,
polarulad gansxvavebul mwerlebze _ roberto arltsa da borxesze
givi alxaziSvili
225
da askvnis, rom arlts ar gaaCnda nasaxi TviTkritikulobisa... mas
ar SeeZlo obieqturad Seexeda sakuTari Tavisadmi. misi ena gaugebari
da stilisturi SecdomebiT aWrelebuli iyo. samagierod, masSi
imaleboda warmoudgeneli SemoqmedebiTi Zala. borxesi, Tu mas
SevadarebT, aseT mxatvrul energias ar flobda da amis kompensirebas
aRwevda iseTi donis, iseTi siRrmis gonebrivi SromiT, rom Cemze
SemaZrwunebeli STabeWdileba moaxdina da me, TiTqmis daufiqreblad,
gadavwyvite im drois literaturis superinteleqtualur frTas
movkedlebodi. Tumca, sxva kuTxiTac SeiZleba SevavloT Tvali
warsuls.im drosve aRmovaCine CemTvis orasio kiroga da roberto
arlti _ ,,yvelasTvis gasagebi~ mwerlebi...
gasagebia, rasac gulisxmobs kortasari: or gansxvavebul sawyiss,
Znelad gasageb, inteleqtualur prozas, sadac prevalirebs
universaluri ,,gonebrivi Sroma~ (borxesi) da yvelasTvis misawvdomi,
gasagebi mxatvruli azrovneba, romlis SemoqmedebiTi Zala upiratesad
,,intuicias~ eyrdnoba, vidre mkacr kritikulobas, anu ,,gonebis~
primats. me SemTxveviT ar Camisvams brWyalebSi ori TiTqosda
urTierTgamomricxavi, magram sinamdvileSi erTarseba, erTmaneTTan
Serwymuli ori sityva _ ,,goneba~ da ,,intuicia~, radgan maTi
semantika, erTi SexedviT gamijnuli, gamudmebiT Tanaarsebobs da es
Tavs iCens iseT teqstebSi, romlebic TiTqos konkretuli piris
mier ki ar aris dawerili, aramed ,,yoveli kacis~ mier, anda ,,mTeli
kacobriobis mier~ (borxesi _ ,,RvTismetyvelni~, ,,enigmaTa sarke~.
Targmani Tamaz Cxenkelisa). ioane eriugenas panTeisturi moZRvrebis
ganmartebisas borxesi aRniSnavs, rom ,,sagnebi warmoadgenen Teofaniebs
(RvTaebriv gamocxadebebs, RmerTCinebebs), maT ukan dgas Tavad RmerTi,
romelic erTaderTi realobaa, Tumca man ar icis, rom is aris,
imitom, rom igi ar aris aranairi ,,raime~ da igi TavisTvisac
miuwvdomelia da, maSasadame, miuwvdomelia yovelgvari gonebisTvis.
igi ar aris gonieri, imitom rom aRmatebulia yovelgvar keTilobaze.
ucnauri da uTqmeli _ igi ukuaqcevs yovelgvar atributs, raki
yovelgvar atributze aRmatebulia. RmerTis gansazRvrebis Ziebisas
ioane eriugena moixmobs sityvas nihil, anu ~araras~. RmerTi dasabamieri
araraa, romlisganac warmodinda qmnili, creation ex nihilo (qmnili
ararasagan)~.
SeuZlebelia ar gavixsneoT XVII saukunis germaneli poetis
angelus sileziusis gamonaTqvami: ,,ucnobi RmerTi~, romelic, rogorc
eriugenas naazrevi, Sors dgas saeklesio orTodoqsulobisagan da
eZebs RmerTs ara caSi, aramed _ bunebasa da adamianSi.
sami semiotikuri esse
226
sayuradReboa borxesis erTi gamonaTqvamic: ,,nakvalevi, rasac
droSi tovebs adamiani, dabadebis dRidan sikvdilamde, erTgvar
Seucnobel suraTad ixazeba~. adamianis mier droSi datovebuli
nakvalevi, kvali, gzis gakvleva, sxva sinonimebic SegviZlia movixmoT,
erT_erTi sayrdenia Jak deridas gramatologiisa, saerTod,
dekonstruqciuli meTodisa. borxesiseuli nakvalevisa da deridas
,,kvalis~, ,,gzis gakvlevis~ pirvelwyaroa, albaT, zigmund froidi,
romelic aRniSnavda ,,STabeWdilebaTa gaucnobierebel Segrovebas~
_ nakvalevTa~ saxiT.
rogorc Cans, yovlis Secnoba, an yovlis Semecneba, yovlis gageba,
yovlis SegrZneba, Cveulebriv, miuwvdomelia nebismieri adamianisTvis,
da rac ufor genialuria igi, ufro mZafrad ganicdis am gardauval
adamianur sisustes da meti siSmagiT ganagrZobs Ziebas, an, iqneb,
sulac ar eZebs da, rogorc pikaso ambobda: ,,me ar veZeb, me vpoulobo~,
aseve ,,ubralod~ poulobs ,,raimes~ gansakuTrebuli Zalisxmevis
gareSe.
maxsendeba. quTaisSi zogierTebi rogor dascinodnen cnobil
mkvlevars, petre Wabukians: ,,ras akeTebs iseTs, yvelas rom gikvirT?
Seyo xeli romelirac xvrelSi da gamoiRo mexuTe saukunis Subi,
dabodialobda tyeSi da dinozavris nakvalevs gadaawyda. morigi
xetialisas saTafliis gamoqvabuls miadga~. pirvelaRmomCenTa
misamarTiT gamoTqmuli sayvedurebi bunebrivi gamoZaxilia adamianTa
umadurobisa, romlebic arc eZeben da arc pouloben, an, iqneb, eZeben
da ver pouloben. Cven xom kargad vicnobT aseTebs, TavianTi
,,gansakuTrebulobis~ warmosaCenad araferi rom ar gamouvidaT da
TavianTi ,,sxvagvarobis~ damtkicebas yvelafris dawunebiT an abuCad
agdebiT cdiloben.
gavagrZeloT adre dawyebuli Tema. kortasari askvnis, rom
moraluri da eTikuri TvalsazrisiT didi gakveTili miiRo
borxesisagan, xolo miwieri, erotikuli, mgrZnobelobis TvalsazrisiT,
maswavleblad roberto arlts aRiarebs, aRniSnavs, rom borxesi da
arlti simboloebia ori sapirispiro tendenciisa. Cvenc unda
daveTanxmoT, rom es ori tendencia nebismier drosa da nebismieri
qveynis literaturaSi arsebobda da arsebobs. Tumca, arc is unda
daviviwyoT, rom literaturis istoriaSi sayovelTaod cnobilia
mwerlebi, romlebmac warmatebiT ganaxorcieles am ori tendenciis
Serwyma. ufro sworad rom vTqvaT, es ori tendencia mogvianebiT
gaemijna urTierTs, maTi Tanaarseboba eWvs ar iwvevs kacob-
riobisaTvis umniSvnelovanes wignebSi. rogorc Cans, xulio
givi alxaziSvili
227
kortasaris swrafvac aqeTken iyo mimarTuli, igi didad afasebda
orive maswavlebels, Tumca, maT ,,naklzec~ aSkarad miuTiTebda. es
Cveulebrivi procesi iyo, moswavle cdilobda eswavla
maswavleblisgan da ,,aRmateboda~ (iqneb, sworad ar vambob?!),
gansxvavebuliyo maTgan, maTi ,,nakli~ ar gaemeorebina. ,,nakli~ aq
pirobiTi mniSvnelobis sityvaa da konotaciurad ufro
,,maswavleblis~ SesaZleblobebis, Tvalsawieris, anu individualur
TvisebaTa sinonimad gamodgeba im literaturuli ,,samefos~
sazRvrebis aRsaniSnavad, romelsac borxesi an arlti erqva da
romelTa Semdegac kidev bevri ram iyo gasakeTebeli, rac warmatebiT
ganaxorciela kidec xulio kortasarma borxesis sicocxleSive.
borxesi masze TxuTmeti wliT ufrosi iyo da kortasarze
erTi wliT gvian gardaicvala 1985 wels. misi winaTqma kortasaris
,,rCeul moTxrobebs~ rom waumZRvara gamomcemelma, romelic
buenos_airesSi gamoica kortasaris sikvdilidan erTi wlis Semdeg,
maswavleblisgan moswavlis Semoqmedebis udidesi aRiareba iyo. es
imas niSnavda, rom kortasarma SeZlo mieRwia im simaRleebisTvis,
saiTkenac iswrafoda. Tumca me, rogorc mkiTxvels, erTgvarad, eWvi
mepareba, rom borxesis gavlena kortasarze mxolod
moralur_eTikuri iyo, vgulisxmob mis adrindel Semoqmedebas.
borxesma laTinur_amerikul literaturaSi ganumeorebeli da didi
skola Seqmna. am skolam ganapiroba, erTi mxriv, mimbaZvelebis _
,,miniborxesebis~ (kortasaris sityvebia) gamoCeka, meore mxriv,
ganapiroba uniWieresi, jiuti da sruliad gansxvavebuli talantis
mqone kortasarisTvis niadagis Semzadeba, romelmac 1981 wels, parizSi,
erTdroulad gaigo, rom man safrangeTis moqalaqeoba miiRo da
isic, rom ganukurnebeli seni, leikemia sWirda.
erT_erT interviuSi igi aRniSnavda, rom ,,...argentinaSi verc
erTma, vinc cdilobda miebaZa borxesisTvis da werda wignebs
labirinTebiT, sarkeebiTa da im gmirebiT gamotenils, romelTac
esizmrebaT, rom isinic, amave dors, viRacas esizmrebaT, veraferi
Rirebuli ver Seqmna...~
sizmarSi sizmris naxvis Temas _ anri miSos erTi cnobili
leqsis rusul Targmans _ gacilebiT adre gavecani (,,me damesizmra,
rom meZina da damesizmra...~), vidre borxesis gaxmaurebul siuJetebs
sizmris Tematikaze. Tumca, sizmris moTxrobad qceva, an, ase vTqvaT,
sizmareuli xilvebi, Cvens yoveldRiur yofaSi rom aRweven gamudmebiT,
sul sxva rakursiT, sxva mxatvruli xerxebiT warmoCenili, arc
kortasarisTvis ar aris ucxo. albaT, amitomac, arc Tu iSviaTad
sami semiotikuri esse
228
axsenebs Tavis interviuSi iungs da gulwrfelad aRiarebs, rogor
karnaxoben Rameuli koSmarebi moTxrobis mTlian monaxazs, an
mianiSneben realurisa da irealuris zRvarze, im erT uxilav nabijze,
am or samyaros rom aSorebs, an, iqneb, arc aSorebs da isinic
erTdorulad arseboben CvenSi.
rogorc Cans, ,,enigmaTa sarkesac~ ufro Soreul warsulSi
mivagnebT: ,,wminda pavles gamonaTqvami: ,,aw vxedavT viTarca sarkiTa
da saxiTa~ _ fardas xdis adamianis sulis namdvil ufskruls.
caTa wiaRSi dafaruli auracxel ufskrulTa SemaSinebeli simravle
moCvenebiTia, radgan is Cveni Sinagani samyaros mxolodRa ,,sarkeSi~
Cenili anareklia. Cven gvmarTebs SigniT mivmarToT mzera da urTulesi
astronomiuli gaTvlebi movaxdinoT gulis Tvaluwvdenel siRrmeebSi,
risTvisac sasikvdilod Tavi dado ufalma~. rogorc borxesi
gvauwyebs, leon bluam gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miapyro pavle
mociqulis korinTelTa mimarT gagzavnil epistoles Semdeg muxls
(13,12): ,,axla Cven vxedavT sarkeSi bundovnad, xolo maSin vixilavT
pirispir. axla me vici mxolod nawilobriv, xolo maSin SevimecnebT
imgvaradve, rogorc me viqnebi Semecnebuli~ (borxesi, ,,enigmaTa sarke~).
Cveni Tvalsawieri wvdeba pirvelwyaros (pavle mociqulis
,,korinTelTa mimarT~), ufro iqiT gaxedva rom SegveZlos, iqneb,
gacilebiT Zveli sawyisisTvis migvekvlia, Tumca, orTodoqsebisTvis
Cemi varaudi miuRebeli iqneba da amitomac aqve davZen: wminda wignebis
Tu apokrifuli teqstebis sxvadasxvagvari interpretacia saukuneebis
ganmavlobaSi saTaves udebda sxvadasxva seqtas, magram vis SeuZlia
mospos am teqstebis sxvadasxvagvarad wakiTxvis SesaZlebloba da
aiZulos yvela, ise ikiTxos, an gaigos esa Tu is postulati, igavi,
sentencia, rogorc mxolod orTodoqsebs esmiT?!
ase ganmartavdnen sizmars Teologebi: sizmari zmanebaa da ara
arsi. aSkaraa, mwerlebs (leon blua, borxesi, anri miSo, kortasari
da mravali sxva) sizmris amgvari axsna ar akmayofilebT da ufro
Sors midian, Tumca, am SemTxvevaSi ,,Sors~ da ,,axlos~ saeWvo
sizustis sityvebia da badebs SekiTxvas: saidan Sors da rasTan
axlos?
kortasaris publikaciebis kiTxvisas ratomRac Jiul laforgi
gamaxsenda, ki ar gamaxsenda, amekviata. kiTxva meore dRisTvis gadavde,
radgan SuaRame karga xnis gadasuli iyo da laforgze fiqrSi
CameZina. Cems gakvirvebas sazRvari ar hqonda, roca kiTxva ganvaaxle
da mivadeqi im gverds, sadac kortasari wers: xatovnad, ra Tqma
unda, rogor esrola laforgma Subi mzis diskos, an rogor mimarTa
givi alxaziSvili
229
mTeli Tavisi grZnobebi sasowarkveTis momgvrel kosmosis gamocanas...
da citirebulia laforgis erTi soneti, romlis erT_erT striqonSi
,,mze~ Sedarebulia ,,gaberil~, ,,gasivebul~ limonTan, romelic, anu
mze, ,,dacinvas gvCuqnis~; erTma Tanamedrove qarTvelma poetma, ramdenime
wlis winaT ,,mze~ konservis kolofTan gaaigiva, romelic man fexiT
atyorcna caSi. ar SeiZleba am striqonebis sworxazovnad kiTxva
da aseve erTmniSvnelovnad gageba. saerTo daskvnis gamotana mainc
SeiZleba: es aris mcdeloba dausabamobis SiSis daZlevisa, survili
miwaze myarad dgomisa. xolo, rac Seexeba imas, rom mze ,,dacinvas
gvCuqnis~ _ an, iqneb, ajobebs, vTqvaT: ,,mze dagvcinis~ (samwuxarod,
rusuli TargmaniT vsargeblob da frangul teqsts ar vicnob),
sruliad logikurad maxsendeba rusTavelis rva saukunis winandeli
,,mze sworad moefinebis~. am striqonSi sityva ,,dacinva~ ar aris
naxsenebi, magram ufro didebuli da damcinavi mze arsad minaxavs,
radgan rusTavelis striqonSi ara mxolod mzis ,,gulgrilobasa~
da ,,dacinvazea~ saubari, an kosmosis mier CveniT dauintereseblobaze,
albaT, imazec, rom es WeSmaritebaa, romelsac ver gaveqceviT. ase iyo
Tu ise, akviatebul laforgsac wavawydi kortasaris teqstSi, magram
Cemi biblioTeka amaod gadavqeqe, frangi simbolistebis krebuls
versad mivageni, is ki aRmovaCine, rom wignebis uneblie gadaadgilebis
mere cxovreba TiTqos Tavdayira dadga.
amasobaSi aivanze mezoblis kata gamoCnda. kortasarma Tavis
katas erT_erT nawarmoebSi adorno daarqva. personaJebis azriT,
oci wlis win msgavs mizezTa gamo sxva katisaTvis rainer maria,
alberti an uiliami, Semdeg ki, iqneb, sen_Jon persi unda daerqmiaT.
mkiTxvels ar egonos, rom kortasari adornos, rilkes, albert
ainStains, uiliam Seqspirs an sen_Jon perss dascinis; ara, misi
personaJebi vaisociologebsa da vaiJurnalistebs amasxaraveben
sakvirao gazeTebis kiTxvisas, sadac xsenebul avtorTa uazro da
uadgilo citirebebiT gadatenilia statiebi da citatebi
gamoyenebulia, rogorc samkaulebi. sabolood mainc Teodor adorno
daarqves katas, radgan ,,adorno~ _ espanurad ,,samkauls~ niSnavs.
kortasari wuxs laTinur amerikaSi Tavisuflebisa da
SeuboWvelobis naklebobaze, iumoris uqonlobaze da miaCnia, rom
swored SeuboWvelobisa da iumoris grZnobis wyalobiT yalibdeba
normalur sazogadoebaSi mwerlis pirovneba.
Jerar Jenetic erT_erT Tavis interviuSi wers: ,,auRebeli
cixe_simagre, rogoric sorbonaa... sorbona dRemde rCeba
literaturuli istoriisa da biografizmis burjad; gviwevs imis
sami semiotikuri esse
230
aRiareba, rom universiteti, literaturaTmcodneobis TvalsazrisiT,
iseTive darCa, rogoric iyo igi 50_ian wlebSi~.
kiTxva, romelic am opusis werisas gamiCnda (gansakuTrebiT
kortasarisa da Jenetis ,,aRsarebaTa~ citirebis Semdeg, rom
argentinaSi Tavisuflebis naklebobaa, xolo ,,sorbona iseTive darCa,
rogorc 50_ian wlebSi~), upasuxod rCeba da Cven, qarTvel
literatorebs, mwared gveRimeba.
sxva gza aRar damrCa, kortasaris kata adornos unda vkiTxo,
sad veZeboT gamosavali?! ,,adorno~, SegaxsenebT, rom espanurad Turme
,,samkauls~ niSnavs.
haeris saflavi
gasuli saukunis samocian wlebSi mandelStamis leqsebs sabeWd
manqanaze beWdavdnen da ise avrcelebdnen. egreT wodebuli -
i mis Semoqmedebas nawilobriv Seexo da 1973 wels `poetis biblioTekis~
seriiT mandelStamis leqsebis wigni gamoica 15 000- iani tiraJiT .
manamde, peterburgidan ( maSindeli leningradidan ), aw gansvenebulma
poetma dali caavam mandelStamis is leqsebi Camoitana TbilisSi
(manqanaze gadabeWdili ), CvenTvis saerTod rom ar iyo cnobili da,
gasagebi mizezebis gamo, sabWoTa cenzura maT gamoqveynebas krZalavda.
2006 wels zaza SaTiriSvilma maCuqa osip mandelStamis rCeuli
_ Semdgeneli, winasityvaobisa da SeniSvnebis avtori nerleria. es wigni
1989 welsaa gamocemuli da ufro Tamami da srulia winare gamocemebTan
SedarebiT.
osip mandelStamis Semoqmedeba Tavdapirvelad Salva alxaziSvilma
gamacno. mTxovda , meTargmna cnobili leqsi Tbilisze _
... maSin ymawvili viyavi da es
aviTvalwune , erT -erT versiad ganvixilavdi `mTawmindiani Tbilisis~
variants , magram arc es damijda WkuaSi da am leqsis Targmna gadavifiqre.
2006 wels xelaxla da guldasmiT wavikiTxe nerleriseuli rCeuli
da kidev erTxel davrwmundi mandelStamis poeziis genialobaSi .
jer kidev 1915 wels mandelStami erT-erT moxsenebaSi
winaswarmetyvelurad aRniSnavda: mxatvrisTvis sikvdili, SesaZloa ,
misi umTavresi SemoqmedebiTi aqtia. nerleri wers (da aramarto is ),
rom mandelStamis gareSe SeuZlebelia warmovidginoT meoce saukunis
rusuli poezia, saerTod, rusuli poezia .
givi alxaziSvili
231
mandelStami 1939 wels gardaicvala sabWour sakoncentracio
banakSi, vtaraia reCkaSi, vladivostokis maxloblad.
saocaria poetis meuRlis nadeJda mandelStamis da saerTod misi
megobrebis, gansakuTrebiT ki natalia Stempelis Tavdadeba, gadaerCinaT
poetis memkvidreoba. bolo periodis leqsebi maT mexsierebaSi
CabeWdiliyo da xelnawerebi ki aRar arsebobda. ase gadaurCa ganadgurebas
mandelStamis mravali leqsi, uaxloes adamianTa xsovnis furclebze
aRbeWdili. xsovna ki, mogexsenebaT, oficialuri cenzurisTvis
sabednierod xelmiuwvdomeli iyo.
Tqvens yuradRebas SevaCereb osip mandelStamis erT leqsze _
`leqsi ucnob jariskacze~, romelic daiwera 1937 wlis Teberval-
martSi . Cemamde sxvac SeamCnevda erT saintereso garemoebas , kerZod
imas, rom mandelStamis am leqsSi ramdenimejer meordeba metad ucnauri
metafora _ .

...
.....................

.
es leqsi mravalplaniania, mraval dinebaTa da SenakadTa mTlianobaa
da sakmaod rTulia. magram sruliad logikurad
maxsenebs celanis ( paul leo anCelis) ucnobiles leqss _ `sikvdilis
fugas~, mis pirvel wignSi rom daibeWda da 1948 wels venaSi gamoica.
haerSi viTxriT saflavebs Cvensas. iq adgili yvelas eyofa...
.............
RrublebSi Tqveni saflavebia. iq adgili yvelas eyofa...
...............
is Cven saflavebs gvCuqnis haerSi......
( zviad ratianis Targmanidan)
cnobilia, rom celani aqtiurad Targmnida rus poetebs _
aleqsandr bloks, sergei esenins, osip mandelStams da a. S. savaraudoa,
mas wakiTxuli hqonda mandelStamis `leqsi ucnob jariskacze~.
`sikvdilis fugaSi~ `haeris saflavi~ srul metamorfozas
ganicdis, igi arc aluziaa da arc reminiscencia _ ufro interpretaciaa,
citaciaa, ase rom aZlierebs im saSinel gancdas, rasac celani `sikvdilis
fugaSi~ gadmogvcems da mandelStamis ` haeris saflavi~ gansxvavebul
datvirTvas iZens.
sxvagvaradac SeiZleba davaskvnaT: SesaZloa, msoflio istoria
ramdenime metaforis sxvadasxvagvari interpretaciiT warmoTqmis
istoriaa (borxesi).
sami semiotikuri esse
232
cira barbaqaZe
semiotika da kritika
`vinc wvimis saidumlo icis...~
(guCa kvaracxelias verlibri)
dumilis nakrZalebSi
*
is gamoCndes, visac mkacri dumilis
nakrZalovan sivrceSi Seesvleba.
guCa kvaracxelia
sxva ver gaigebs, sxva ver igrZnobs, sxva ver axsnis, Tumca
poeziis enas axsna sulac ar sWirdeba, is Tavad axsnis bevr rames,
roca adamianSi SeaRwevs... roca... manamde ki poeziis Widan wylis
amoReba unda viswavloT mTvaris sxivebiT, mere am wylis dagemovneba
_ neba_neba, mzis Tu mTvaris sxivebis TanxlebiT Sesma ise, rom
wyurvilis yvela nervi gacocxldes da datkbes RvTiuri siTxiT.
Cvens aCqarebul samyaroSi ki wyalic ise swrafad amogvaqvs Widan,
rom naxevarze meti gzaSi gveqceva, xan_mTvaris sxivebic gviwydeba,
Wis kedlebidan Camoyrili xavsi uRimRamod dayrila saTlis
fskerze... aba, aseT wyals ra gemos gaugeb?!..
leqsic im wyaliviTaa, gnebavT, RvinosaviT, romelic kargad
unda daigemovnoT! kargad unda SeigrZnoT... TiToeul striqons xom
Tavisi gansakuTrebuli feri, gemo, aromati aqvs.
is gamoCndes,
visac mkacri dumilis
nakrZalovan sivrceSi
Seesvleba.
bevrs ifiqrebT _ SegesvlebaT Tu ara... nu ifiqrebT, Tqven
igrZnobT... metafora mxolod imitom ar arsebobs, lamazi samkauliviT
daamSvenos leqsi. metafora usasrulobisaken gvityuebs, `kanonebis
* `dumilis nakrZalebSi~ dabeWdilia literaturul gazeT `Cvens mwerlobaSi~.
233
samyaros~ angrevs, daukavSirebels akavSirebs da axal realobas
gvaziarebs. aba, wesiT da rigiT, ra saerTo aqvs `dumils~
`nakrZalebTan?~ ise, poetisa ar iyos, ras ar wamoedebi, `roca
sakuTar TavSi sakuTar Tavs eZeb~(`ucnauri ambavi~).
aq SexvdebiT `wvimiT gaJeJil Crdilebs, Suqi rom
qsaqsavda~(`ariTmia~). sityvis mniSvnelobaTa jamiT am saxes ver
axsniT. marTali arian semiologebi, roca leqsikons `mniSvnelobaTa
sasaflaos~ uwodeben. sityva cocxldeba winadadebaSi, frazaSi da
aTasgvar niuanss iZens. `wvimiT gaJeJili Crdilebis~ aRqmisas ki
cnobierebaSi vizualuri xatic Cndeba, erTgvari ferweruli tilo,
swored amaSia am sityvebis Zalac, rasac, Tavis mxriv, iwvevs poetis
vizualuri azrovnebis cxovelmyofeloba. rusi fsiqologi zinCenko
vizualur azrovnebas gansazRvravda, rogorc adamianTa imgvar
Semoqmedebas, romelic warmoSobs axal xats, axal vizualur formebs,
romlebic mniSvnelobas xilvads qmnian.
aba, es suraTi Tu ginaxavT odesme, Tu ara, aucileblad dainaxavT
am striqonebis wakiTxvis (ara, SegrZnobis) Semdeg:
nigvzis sqel foTlebSi
RiRvela bartyiviT
farTxalebs sxivi _
fexs ver ikidebs rtoze,
saidan sad mosuli,
aq ar Camovardes, sawyali!
(`aRwera trafaretuli stilistikiT~)
am saxem axlaxan wakiTxuli paruir sevakis leqsis fragmenti
gamaxsena:
mzis sxivebs mwvane WinWrianSic
undaT SeRweva,
magram cvivian aqeT_iqiT _
dasusxulebi.
(Targmna givi Sahnazarma)
sivrcesa da droSi daSorebul SemoqmedTa Soris yovelTvis
arsebobs idumali ram kavSiri.
guCa kvaracxelias metaforuli azrovneba uamravi axali gancdis,
SegrZnebis wyaroa da, rac mTavaria, misi poezia ukidegano, dausazRvrav
sivrces gvTavazobs. poetis SemoqmedebaSi arc erTi tropi ar
iqceva imgvar simbolod, erTi, erTaderTi mniSvneloba rom hqondes.
vinc wvimis saidumlo icis... (guCa kvaracxelias verlibri)
234
andrei tarkovski erT-erT interviuSi aRniSnavda: xSirad
meubnebian, Tqvens filmebSi uamravi simboloao da aravis sjera, rom
iq erTi simboloc rom ar aris... ra aris simbolo? es aris Sifri,
kodirebuli idea, cneba, romelic SeiZleba erTmniSvnelovnad
gaiSifros. roca ki mWvreteli mas Sifravs, yvelaferi damTavrebulia,
usasrulobis iluzia banalobad, gacveTil saxed, truizmad iqceva.
qreba saidumlo da mTlianobis gancda.
arc guCa kvaracxelias am saxes minda movparo saidumlo:
batknis cxviriviT
notio nisli
Caimuxlebs aseT mindorze
da miwas kocnis.
(`bukolikuri~)
ramxela sinazesa da sifaqizes matebs batknis cxviris sinotive
im nisls, miwas rom kocnis.
ase yofila Turme:
roca sakuTar TavSi
sakuTar Tavs eZeb,
maSin wamoedebi xolme
manamde SeumCnevels.
gvian, magram mainc amCnev, rom
uTqmeloba,
vici, uTqmeloba
gvaSoriSorebda...
(`qali~)
`upasuxobis koncxebma~ daamsxvria `usityvo xomaldebi~... qalis
saflavs ki amasobaSi `bamba daaTovs~. nuTu? ... aiSleba safiqrali...
sainteresoa, xan Tqma aSorebT, xan_uTqmeloba adamianebs, es TiTqos
isec ici, magram poeziiT gancdili mainc sxva dasturia.
is movides,
vinc wvimis saidumlo icis.
aseTia `xalxis moTxovna mitingze~ vin? vin icis wvimis
saidumlo? an aseTi ra saidumlo aqvs wvimas? poetma icis, gveubneba
kidec _ oRond sxvagvarad, okrobokrod, mixveul_moxveulad,
orazrovnad, ai, ase:
cira barbaqaZe
235
cocxlebi tyuian,
daimowmeT mkvdrebi!
xlebnikovi adamianis mier enis gamoyenebas bavSvebis TojinebiT
TamaSs adarebs. is wers: TojinebiT TamaSis dros bavSvma SeiZleba
gulwrfelad itiros, roca misi `naWris gunda~ avadaa an kvdeba.
TamaSisas es `naWris gundebi~ cocxali, namdvili adamianebi arian _
Tavisi guliTa da grZnobebiT.
ena `aSualebs~ adamianis Sinagan emociebsa da grZnobebs, magram
albaT `TamaSis xarisxzea~ damokidebuli, ramdenad zustad gamoxatavs
`niSani~ (ena) poetis saTqmels, ramdenad gulwrfelad TamaSobs
Semoqmedi sityvebiT, rogorc naWris TojinebiT.
Tqven dainaxavT `sityvebis momReral siluetebs~, roca guCa
kvaracxelias leqss: `visac Cveni saxelebi gerqmevaT~_ CaikiTxavT.
raze mRerian `sityvis siluetebi~, romlebic `Tqveni xmebis grZel
derefnebSi~ Casaxlebulan? aqvea pasuxic:
Cveni sityvebi Casaxldebian Tqvens xmebSi,
rom mogiTxron,
rogor gavediT mexuTe mxares
da davcineT nacradqcevis SiSs;
gaswavlian foTlis morcxvobas,
rtoebis rokvas menuetis mokle nabijiT,
Tavis dakvriT da reveransebiT...
guCa kvaracxelias leqsebis kiTxvisas, misive Tqmis ar iyos,
`bevr rames wamoedebiT, manamde SeumCnevels~, iqneb Zalisxmevac ar
geyoT, leqsi bolomde CaikiTxoT, radgan poetis rTuli sintaqsi,
azrovneba, datvirTuli asociaciebiT, romelic erT winadadebaSi
daaxvavebs CarTulebs, detaluri aRweris manera ki imdenad vrcels
xdis winadadebas, rom zog SemTxvevaSi wertils mxolod leqsis
bolos dainaxavT... manamde ki, sakmaod Rrmad unda CaisunTqoT, rom
Zala geyoT, aRiqvaT da gaigoT _ jer sad mTavrdeba winadadeba, mere
_ romelia mTavari winadadeba, ... Semdeg _ azri, qveteqsti, miniSneba
da a. S. riTac mdidaria guCa kvaracxelias poeturi teqstebi,
magram damerwmuneT, Tu bolomde CaikiTxavT leqsebs, Tqven mas meored
da mesamed aucileblad miubrundebiT.
Tanamedrove mkiTxveli _ Tavbrudamxvevi ritmebis samyaros
mkvidri, moangariSe goneba, lirizmisagan daclili, magram lirikis
TeoriiT datvirTuli... erTi sityviT... mkiTxvelTa umravlesobas,
vinc wvimis saidumlo icis... (guCa kvaracxelias verlibri)
236
iolze, martivze, adviladaRsaqmelze rom aris orientirebuli, ra
Tqma unda, guCa kvaracxelias leqsebis wakiTxva gauWirdeba.
poetis azrovneba, iseve rogorc misi Sesabamisi weris
stilistika, paradigmulia. is paralelurad uamrav miZinebul azrs
da fiqrs aRviZebs, grZnobas giforiaqebs, SegrZnebebs gixalisebs,
emociebs gicocxlebs, warmosaxvasa da fantaziebs agiSlis da bolos,
yvelafers erT mTlianobaSi Sekravs Semoqmedi, sakuTar sulSi (da
mkiTxvelis sulSic) moixelTebs da risTvis sWirdeba es yvelaferi?
misi leqsebis kiTxvisas refreniviT Cagesmis sokrateseuli: `Seican
Tavi Seni~, amas poetic ar gvimalavs:
roca sakuTar TavSi
sakuTar Tavs eZeb,
maSin wamoedebi xolme
manamde SeumCnevels.
frazaSi uamravi azris Catevis maneriT guCa kvaracxelias
Semoqmedeba ponJs magonebs, saganTa Sinagan arss maTTan identifikaciiT
rom gamoxatavda. ponJi erTgan wers, rom adamians wonasworobisaTvis
sityva sWirdeba (Semoqmeds, miT ufro), gamoTqmuli sityviT axali
realobis kars vaRebTo. marTlac, romel Semoqmeds ar aRmouCenia,
rom werisas, azri rom yalibdeba da formdeba, CvenTvisve ucxo
dagvinaxavs im enis meSveobiT, Cven rom gamogvTqva da gamogvxata.
ase xdeba nebismieri kargi leqsis wakiTxvis Semdegac. zogjer
ki qreba sityvebiT gamoxatuli Sinaarsi da isev `ucxo karibWesTan~
aRmovCndebiT, manamde ucnobi SegrZneba dagvipyrobs da iqneb sul es
aris, rasac WeSmaritma Semoqmedebam unda gvaziaros. maSin, vikmaroT
poetis am striqonebis miRma Tu TanxlebiT gacocxlebuli unazesi
sevda_tkivili:
...roca erTxelac,
Sens maRal totebs,
varskvlavebs rom iWeren axla,
metyeve moswvdeba,
gagaxsendes:
me viyavi, me,
gzaabneuli da caluRela,
sxiviviT rom dagtrialebdi...
(`qali~)
cira barbaqaZe
237
guCa kvaracxelias verlibri erT did mdinares magonebs uamravi
SenakadiT _ es Senakadebi gansxvavebulia siTbo_siciviT,
sigrZe_simokliT, siCqariT, feriT, gemoTi... zogi mTidan Camorbis
kisrismtvreviT, zogi baridan uerTdeba dinji xmauriT, zogs damdnari
Tovli moaqvs, zogs_ayvavebuli atmis rto, zogs_Semodgomis
foTlebi...
is didi mdinare Tavad poetis sulia, striqonebiT rom
sxvadasxva Senakadis xmas gvasmeninebs, zogi Senakadi Cavlilia, zogi
_ Casavleli da zogic _ Cauvlelad gubdeba...
mainc kargad icnob
Cavlilsac da Cauvlelsac
TavianTi saxelebiT,
dabadebis adgilebiTa da TariRebiT.
Zalian Zveli da mkvidri ki,
romlis amosacnobi
arcerTi niSani ar ici,
im siRrmeSia usxeulod Cafenili,
romlis apki usasrulobas atarebs,
ori siRrme erTmaneTs ereva
da kidev ufro wyviaddeba
erTmaneTSi gazavebuli...
(`ucnauri ambavi~)
da bolos, patrik ziuskindis `literaturuli amnezia~ rom
dagvemarTos guCa kvaracxelias poeziaze, waiSalos yvela teqsti
Tavisi SinaarsiT, gaqres yovelgvari azri, erTi xom mainc gadarCeba:
is movides,
vinc wvimis saidumlo icis...
da davamatebdi: guCa kvaracxelias leqsebic man waikiTxos:
visac mkacri dumilis
nakrZalovan sivrceSi Seesvleba,
rom wvimis saTqmeli
gafiltros da gareT gamoitanos...
vinc wvimis saidumlo icis... (guCa kvaracxelias verlibri)
238
manamde ki... gTavazobT blic_intervius guCa kvaracxelias
lirikul gmirTan, `damontaJebuls~ wignidan: `qalaqi qalaqSi~ (guCa
kvaracxelia, leqsebi, `qalaqi qalaqSi~, gamomcemloba `qarTuli ena~,
Tbilisi, 2005).
`veZeb awmyoSi Camalul momavals...~
_ qalbatono guCa, gamodis, rom vatyueb mkiTxvels, radgan
vTavazob arSemdgar dialogs... ras mirCevdiT?
_ advilad gadaaqcev tyuils simarTled,
oRond unda Seuloco...
(`Ramis fiqrebi~, gv. 108)
_ maSin intervius bolos Sevulocav, yvela tyuili rom
simarTled gadavaqcio...
axla ki mainteresebs, saiT midis poeti guCa kvaracxelia?
_ Cven Cveni gza gvaqvs
gasacveTi Cveni nabijiT,
damRupvelic rom iyos es gza,
am gorakebze mainc mivdivarT...
(`ekologiuri striqonebi~, gv. 99)
_ yvelaferi ise xdeboda Tqvens cxovrebaSi, rogorc gegmavdiT?
_ sulyvelaferi ise ver iqneba,
rogorc Cven vgegmavdiT.
Cveni xomaldi saxifaTo marSruts
irCevs moulodnelad...
(`bneli kvamli~, gv. 92)
_ ra vqnaT, roca `Cveni xomaldi saxifaTo marSruts
irCevs moulodnelad...~ roca raRac gvawuxebs, roca problemebi
gvaqvs?
_ daviZinoT. ZilSi mokvdeba
Cveni problemebi da Cveni ocnebebi.
(`bneli kvamli~, gv. 95)
cira barbaqaZe
239
_ bevris mnaxvels kidev gikvirT rame?
_ mxolod uRimRamoebs ar ukvirT araferi...
(`wuxel wyvdiadi Rame iyo~, gv. 88)
_ da mainc... ra ar unda gagikvirdes?
_ ar unda gagikvirdes, roca
erT mSvenier dRes getyvian,
Sen vina xar, saidan moxvedio?
(`Sen da isini~, gv. 81)
_ marTalia, rom Tqven ambobT: warsuli ganvlili ar ariso?
_ visac warsuli ganvlili hgonia,
is arc warsulSi arsebobs,
arc myofadSi...
bedi qarebisTvis miundvia...
(`qalaqis erT ubanSi~, gv. 153)
_ ras gvaswavlis buneba?
_ foTlebi Turme imdagvarad msxdaran totebze,
mze rom erTmaneTs ar dauCrdilon.
amas rqmevia mozaikuri ganlageba.
buneba marto zomierebas ar gvaswavlis,
Sewyalebasac.
(`ori mozaika~, gv. 29)
_ ki, magram rodis gaigebs amas adamiani?
_ zemoTqmuls kargad gaigebs, roca
xis yovlismimtevebel CeroSi,
umateriod rom gvefineba,
daZinebuls gaeRviZeba.
(`ori mozaika~, gv. 29)
_ geSiniaT sikvdilis?
vinc wvimis saidumlo icis... (guCa kvaracxelias verlibri)
240
_ marto mkvdrebs ar eSiniaT sikvdilis,
SiSis qvevrs Zirs veravin gamoaclis.
(`wuxel wyvdiadi Rame iyo~, gv. 87)
_ ras gamimxelT iseTs, sxva rom ver metyvis?
_ imasac aravin gagimxels Cem meti,
rom dro fuli ar aris...
(aba, gamoitane bankidan...)...
(`nawyveti megobris werilidan~, gv. 7)
_ mainc ra aris cxovreba?
_ ukanmouxedavi siyvarulis siSlege...
(`SemTxveviTi mZRoli~, gv. 18)
_ mdinaris garda kidev sad irekleba Rrubeli da barem isic
gviTxariT, rogori amindi iqneba xval?
_ marto mdinareSi ki ara,
gaxelil TvalebSic irekleba
saRamos Rrubeli, romelic
xval diliT usaTuod wvimad wamova...
(`SemTxveviTi mZRoli~, gv. 23)
_ risTvis madlobT ufals?
_ gmadlob, ufalo (reJisoro),
rom maTqmevine satrfosaTvis,
sanam suls gamafrTxobinebda,
lamazi fraza:
de, niaRvrebma SenTan erTad gadamiaron!
(`pirovnebis gaoreba~, gv. 52)
_ ras etyodiT satrfos?
_ vgrZnob, rom aRarsad aRara var,
minda, Seni dumili viyo!
(`neli daviwyeba~, gv. 58)
cira barbaqaZe
241
_ ra dakargeT?
_ ar vici, ra davkarge,
magram vici, rom veZeb...
(`zRvaze~, gv. 67)
_ rogor gamoxatavdiT Tqvens rwmenas?
_ TaviT fexamde yofaSi Cafluli,
kisers vigrZeleb,
rom davinaxo ukeTesi samyaro,
romelic sadRac usaTuod unda arsebobdes...
(`rwmena~, gv. 105)
_ sad waxvidodiT da ra SemTxvevaSi?
_ wavidodi qviSis saTesad Soreuli zRvis
Sor napirze, Tuki iq vinme damiZaxebda,
Tundac iseTi, vinc kvdeba da ver momkvdara.
vapovninebdi bunebrivsa da utanjvel
gardacvalebas.
(`nu daynosav yayaCoras~, gv. 71)
_ minda vicode Tqveni mizani....
_ yvela sityva gamoviyeno,
Cems fiqrsacavSi upatronod
rom melodeba.
(`wuxel wyvdiadi Rame iyo~, gv. 90)
_ rodis unda gaCerdes adamiani?
_ ....rodesac Senive nakvalevi Semogxvdeba gzaze,
xom unda gaCerde?
(`situaciuri samyaros daZleva~, gv. 137)
_ diax, roca nakvalevi Semogxvdeba, unda gaCerde da mere gahyve
nakvalevs, sakuTar TavTan Sesaxvedrad da... ras eZebs guCa kvaracxelia?
vinc wvimis saidumlo icis... (guCa kvaracxelia verlibri)
242
_ gaSiSvlebuli stepebidan mosuliviT
iRbals ar veZeb,
aqauri var.
arc im filmSi vmonawileob,
sadac Semodian da gadian gmirebi
ubiografiod.
mkvidri mosaxlis SiSnarevi sifrTxiliT
Tvals vadevneb
istoriis avangardul damontaJebas
da veZeb awmyoSi Camalul momavals.
(`Ramis fiqrebi~, gv. 111)
P.S. didi madloba, qalbatono guCa, da me axla Savtarian
danas movimarjveb, am yvelafers rom Sevuloco da simarTled vaqcio,
Torem aravin damijerebs...
da mainc, Tu aRmoCndeba aseTi mkiTxveli, vTxov, Tqveni pasuxebi
Cems SekiTxvebze gadaamowmos wignSi _ `qalaqi qalaqSi~, ra Tqma
unda, miTiTebuli gverdebis mixedviT.
cira barbaqaZe
243
levan bregaZe
semiotika da ganaTleba
rogor vaswavli semiotikas or
saaTSi
(gamocdileba)
ocdaaTsaaTian kursSi, romlis saxel-
wodeba iyo `mxatvruli teqstis analizis
meTodebi~ da romelsac eqvsi wlis ganmav-
lobaSi (2001-2006 ww.) vukiTxavdi qarTuli
filologiis fakultetis IV kurselebs ivane
javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxel-
mwifo universitetSi, semiotikas (niSanTa
Teorias) ori 50-wuTiani leqcia eTmoboda
(aTwuTiani SesvenebiT leqciebs Soris). meore
leqciis damTavrebis Semdeg msmenelebisTvis
naTeli iyo semiotikis anu niSanTa Teoriis
arsi, mniSvneloba, misi kavSiri struqtu-
ralizmTan da mxatvruli teqstis analizisas
niSanTa Teoriis gamoyenebis meTodika.
viwyebdi niSanTa Teoriis fuZemdeblebis
_ amerikeli Carlz sanders pirsis (1839-
1914) da Sveicarieli ferdinand de sosiuris
(1857-1913) _ moZRvrebaTa urTierTSedarebiT.
am orTagan sisiuris saxeli TiTqmis yvelas-
Tvis nacnobi iyo, pirsis gvari ki umetesobas
pirvelad esmoda. amitom Zalian mokled
vacnobdi studentebs amerikeli moazrovnis
biografias, vixsnebdi roman iakobsonis
naTqvams mis Sesaxeb: `igi imdenad didi iyo,
rom misTvis adgili verc erT universitetSi
ver moiZebna~, da Zalian lakoniurad vaxdendi
filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, SoTa rusTa-
velis qarTuli lite-
raturis institutis
mTavari mecnieri Tanam-
Sromeli, gelaTis mecni-
erebaTa akademiis wevri.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
postmodernizmi qarTul
mwerlobaSi, antimimesisis
ideologia, postsabWouri
kulturis sivrce da
literaturuli procesi,
kavkasiuri Tematika gazeT
`kaukziSe postis~ furc-
lebze (1906-1914), fran-
guli Jurnali TbilisSi,
fsiqoanalizi da mxatv-
ruli Semoqmedeba, recef-
ciuli esTetika, sadRegr-
Zelo da misi kompensa-
toruli buneba, qarTuli
Jargonis leqsikoni.
interesTa sfero:
literaturis Teoria da
istoria, Jurnalistikis
Teoria da istoria, Tar-
gmanis Teoria da praqtika,
Tanamedrove literatu-
ruli procesebi, lingvis-
tika.
244
pirsis ori genialuri dakvirvebis arsis gadmocemas:
a) im mimarTebaTa Sesabamisad, rac aRsaniSnsa da aRmniSvnels
Soris arsebobs, niSani SeiZleba iyos samgvari: 1. ikoni, anu
gamosaxuleba (naxati, sqema, gegma, diagrama, piktograma), 2. indeqsi,
anu miniSneba (magaliTad, kvamli cecxlis indeqsia, kvamlis arseboba
cecxlze migvaniSnebs) da 3. simbolo, anu pirobiTi (daTqmuli)
niSani (sityva, xmovani signali da a. S.).
b) wminda saxiT arc erTi maTgani ar arsebobs _ yoveli niSani
Seicavs ikonis, indeqsisa da simbolos elementebs, oRond amaTgan
erT-erTi dominirebs.
niSanTa Teoriis meore fuZemdeblis sisiuris Sexedulebis
naTelsayofad mis xatovan gamonaTqvams viyenebdi:
`yvelas, vinc fexs daadgams enis teritoriaze, SeuZlia
Tqvas, rom igi zeciur Tu miwier yovelgvar analogias
gamoeTxova~ (123. sosiuris es citata da qvemoT damowmebuli
pirsis citatebi momyavs r. iakobsonis naSromTa germanuli
gamocemidan: R. Jakobson, Semiotik. Suhrkamp, 1992. ricxvebi aRniSnavs
am gamocemis gverdebs), da ganvmartavdi, ras gulisxmobda amiT
Sveicarieli enaTmecnieri: sosiuris mixedviT, enobriv niSansa da
aRsaniSns Soris araviTari logikuri (bunebrivi) kavSiri ar SeiZleba
arsebobdes, kavSiri enobriv niSansa da aRsaniSns Soris pirobiTia,
adamianTa SeTanxmebis Sedegia; igi bunebrivi ar aris imGgagebiT, rom
bunebaSi, sadac mizezSedegobrioba arsebobs, mas analogi ar moepoveba.
sosiuris am mosazrebas pirsis ufro Rrma dakvirvebebi
abaTilebs, magram msmenels ar unda darCes iseTi STabeWdileba,
TiTqos Sveicarieli lingvisti urigo moazrovne iyo da uxeSi
Secdomebi mosdioda. aramc da aramc! sosiuris maxvilgonivruli
dakvirvebebi damajerebeli, logikuri da saRi azrisTvis erTob
misaRebi Cans.
marTlacda, ra daewuneba Tundac am msjelobas: sityva `didi~
qarTul enaSi ufro pataraa, vidre sityva `patara~ (es ukanaskneli
pirvelze ori fonemiT mets Seicavs), rac xels ar gviSlis, am
sityvebiT is Sinaarsebi gamovxatoT, rasac gamovxatavT.
es magaliTi Zalian moswondaT msmenelT, misi meSveobiT erTbaSad
xdeboda maTTvis gasagebi sosiuris Teoriis arsi (rac Tvalebzec
etyobodaT). magram kidev ufro did efeqts axdenda erTi
semiotikuri anekdoti, romelsac akaki wereTeli iyenebs efTvime
wereTelTan polemikisas:
`kurdReli marto sam dRes wovs [ZuZus], ai am mizeziT: Turme,
dedam hkiTxa, rom daebada bocori: _ Svilo, sam Tves gawovoo?
levan bregaZe
245
(Cqara hkiTxa) Tu saaam dReees (gaugrZela). sawyals Svils sami
dRe meti egona da miaZaxa (imanac gagrZelebiT), rasakvirvelia saaam
dReeeso (akaki wereTeli, Txz. 15 tomad, t. II, gv. 16-17).
es anekdotic, erTi SexedviT, sosiuris mosazrebis
marTebulobaze metyvelebs. msmenelebs uCndebaT STabeWdileba, TiTqos
sworia sosiuris Tvalsazrisi imis Sesaxeb, rom enobriv niSansa da
aRsaniSns Soris araviTari logikuri kavSiri ar SeiZleba arsebobdes,
kavSiri enobriv niSansa da aRsaniSns Soris pirobiTia da marTlac
`yvelas, vinc fexs daadgams enis teritoriaze, SeuZlia Tqvas, rom
igi zeciur Tu miwier yovelgvar analogias gamoeTxova~.
axla, am STabeWdilebis gasaqarwyleblad, msmenelebi `saRi azris~
sauflodan dialeqtikuri azris saufloSi unda gadaviyvanoT,
risTvisac viyeneb roman iakobsonis msjelobas. pirsis Sesaxeb
daweril naSromSi r. iakobsoni erTi SexedviT Zalian ucnaur
rames gveubneba: TviT morfologiis sferoSic blomad moiZeveba
movlenebi, sadac SeimCneva simbolos (enobrivi niSnis) miswrafeba
ikonurobisken (mimeturobisken). magaliTad, mravlobiTi ricxvis
formebi, rogorc wesi, ufro vrcelia, ufro meti fonemisagan Sedgeba,
vidre mxoloobiTisa (saxli, saxlebi; aSenebs, aSeneben).
rac Seexeba sintaqss, misi swrafva ikonurobisken dauokebelia.
da aq roman iakobsoni imowmebs pirsis frazas: `winadadeba rom
gavigoT, sityvaTa wyoba winadadebaSi ikoniseburi unda iyos~
(80), anu realobas raRacnairad unda Seesabamebodes.
pirsis am azris sailustraciod r. iakobsons mohyavs fraza:
`mivedi, vnaxe, davmarcxe~ da aRniSnavs, rom sityvaTa amgvari dalageba
iulius keisris qmedebaTa droSi Tanmimdevrobaze gvawvdis
informacias, anu am TvalsazrisiT ikoniseburad warmosaxavs realobas.
iakobsonis sxva magaliTis moSveliebiT kidev ufro naTels
vxdiT pirsis mosazrebas imis Taobaze, rom wminda saxiT arc erTi
niSani (aRmniSvneli) ar arsebobs _ yoveli niSanSi SeimCneva ikonis,
indeqsisa da simbolos Tvisebebi, oRond amaTgan erT-erTi dominirebs.
magaliTi: `prezidenti da saxelmwifo mdivani monawileobdnen
konferenciis muSaobaSi~. iakobsonis sityviT, es Tanmimdevroba _
jer prezidenti da Semdeg saxelmwifo mdivani _ bevrad ufro
bunebrivia, vidre Sebrunebuli (jer saxelmwifo mdivani da Semdeg
prezidenti), vinaidan winadadebaSi prezidentis pirvel adgilze
dayeneba asaxavs (Seesabameba) mis pirvelobas oficialur ierarqiaSi
(85), anu realobas Seesabameba.
amis Semdeg aseT kiTxvebs vsvamdi: ra gamoyeneba SeiZleba povos
enobrivi struqturis am Tvisebam esTetikis sferoSi? anu: SeiZleba
rogor vaswavli semiotikas or saaTSi (gamocdileba)
246
Tu ara enobrivi niSnis es Tviseba (misi midrekileba ikonurobisken)
gamoyenebul iqnes esTetikuri Rirebulebis mqone teqstis
Sesaqmnelad?
enobriv niSanTa (simboloTa) ikonurobisken swrafvaze
dafuZnebuli esTetikuri efeqtis warmosaCenad viyenebdi gamonaTqvams,
romelic kompozitor Sarl gunos miewereba:
`axalgazrdobaSi vambobdi: me. Sua xnisa rom gavxdi, vambobdi:
me da mocarti. Sua xnis asaks rom gadavcildi, vambobdi: mocarti
da me. axla vambob: mocarti~.
aSkaraa, rom am gamonaTqvamis esTetikuri efeqti didwilad
enobrivi niSnis (pirveli piris nacvalsaxel `me~-s) `xatovan~
(ikonur) prezentaciazea dafuZnebuli. oTxi `xatia~ warmodgenili
da isini am gamonaTqvamis avtoris Sexedulebis dinamikas warmoaCenen:
1. `me~ da araferi mis gverdiT, rac Zaldautaneblad ase iSifreba:
Cemi toli kompozitori ar arsebobs;
2. jer `me~ da Semdeg mocarti, rac niSnavs: me pirveli var,
magram Cems Semdeg mocartis xsenebac SesaZlebelia;
3. jer mocarti da Semdeg `me~, anu: pirveli mocartia, magram
Semdegi me var;
4. `me~-s nulovani prezentacia (rCeba mocarti, qreba `me~): mocarti
imdenad didia, rom masTan SedarebiT me saxsenebelic ar var.
am gamonaTqvamis gaanalizebis Semdeg msmenelTaTvis advili
gasagebia debuleba, rom esTetikuri Rirebulebis mqone teqstSi
informaciis didi nawili sityvaTa organizebiT gadaicema
da mniSvnelovanwilad amas efuZneba mxatvrul teqstTa
maRalinformaciuloba (`grZeli sityva mokled iTqmis, Sairia
(waikiTxeT: esTetikuri Rirebulebis mqone teqstia. _ l. b.) amad
kargi~.
aq mxatvruli teqstis imdenad mniSvnelovan TaviseburebasTan
gvaqvs saqme, rom misi ilustrirebisas anekdotur gamonaTqvams,
Tundac metad maxvilgonivrulsa da efeqturs, ver davjerdebiT,
amitom movixmobdi erT strofs saiaTnovas leqsidan `damexseni~:
Cemi sityva Seni dasajer iyos,
Seni kalTa Cemi dasaWer iyos!
Cemi Tavi Seni miwa-mtver iyos,
Seni baRi Cemi baRis gverdT iyos,
SuaSia gadaRoba ar minda!
msmenelTa yuradRebas mivapyrobdi im movlenas, rom damowmebul
strofSi pirveli da meore piris kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelebis
ganlageba Wadrakulia: oTx taepSi pirvel da mesame sityvebad
levan bregaZe
247
monacvleobiT sxedan `Cemi~ da `Seni~. warmosaxviTi (gnebavT, realuri)
xazebiT rom SevaerToT am strofis yvela `Cemi~ da Semdeg yvela
`Seni~, erTmaneTSi gadawnul-gadaxlarTul or zigzags miviRebT,
rac imis grafikul gamosaxulebad gamodgeba, rasac leqsis lirikuli
gmiri natrobs: misi da leqsis adresatis bed-iRbali erTmaneTs
gadaeWdos da gadaewnas.
* * *
mas Semdeg, rac cxadvyofT, rogor xdeba informaciis esTetizacia
enobriv niSanTa ikonis TvisebebiT aRWurvis Sedegad, leqciis meore
saaTs mxatvruli teqstis struqturalisturi analizis arsis
garkvevas vuZRvniT, aRvniSnavT, rom niSanTa Teoriam biZgi misca
struqturalisturi analizis meTodis gamoyenebas literatu-
rismcodneobaSi. mxatvruli Txzulebis struqturis yvela doneze,
teqstis yovel elementSi SeiZleba aRmovaCinoT simbolos, indeqsis
da ikonis Tvisebebi. magaliTad, riTmebi (gariTmuli sityvebi),
upirveles yovlisa, raRac konkretuli Sinaarsis matarebeli
leqsikuri erTeulebi, anu enobrivi simboloebia, magram leqsis
indeqssac warmoadgenen (riTma, rogorc leqsis erT-erTi umTavresi
atributi) da, amavdroulad, isic SeuZliaT, rom ikonisaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli funqciac itvirTon, anu mimeturad warmosaxon leqsis
SinaarsTan (gnebavT, mxatvrul ideasTan) dakavSirebuli raRac niuansic.
amgvarad xdeba mxatvrul teqstSi formis semantizacia.
amiT bolo moeRo formisa da Sinaarsis erTmaneTisagan
izolirebul analizs literaturismcodneobaSi.
amis naTelsayofad ganvixilav grigol robaqiZis mier qarTveli
poetebis mimarT gamoTqmul erT sayvedurs.
qarTuli riTmisadmi miZRvnil werilSi (1918 w.) grigol
robaqiZe wers:
`rusTavelis garda ar arsebobs qarTveli poeti, romelic
riTmiT xSirad ar amsxvrevdes ritms. aq raRac ucnaurobaa, xolo
sinamdvile mainc ar icvleba~.
cota qvemoT ki aRniSnavs:
`erTi sityviT, qarTuli leqsi am mxriT metad koWlobs~.
(citirebas vaxden gr. robaqiZis statiis gaz. `kalmasobis~ 2002
wlis me-9 nomerSi gadmobeWdili teqstidan).
roca am sayvedurs gamoTqvams, gr. robaqiZes mxedvelobaSi aqvs
is movlena, rom Cveni poetebi zogjer sxvadasxvamarcvlian sityvebs
rogor vaswavli semiotikas or saaTSi (gamocdileba)
248
riTmaven. mas iqve mohyavs amgvari riTmis nimuSebi paolo iaSvilis
leqsidan: perangis : hangis; uzangis : zangis.
marTlac, raki aq or- da sammarcvliani sityvebi eriTmeba
erTmaneTs, am ukanasknelTa (sammarcvlianTa) bunebrivi maxviliT
wakiTxvis SemTxvevaSi riTmac dakoWldeba da ritmic `daimsxvreva~.
xolo Tu gvinda riTma ar dakoWldes da ritmi ar `daimsxvres~,
maSin sammarcvliani sariTmo sityvebi qarTuli enisTvis arabunebrivi,
bolodan meore marcvalze dasmuli, maxviliT unda wavikiTxoT, rac
gr. robaqiZes yovlad dauSveblad miaCnia da savsebiT marTebuladac.
magram gr. robaqiZe p. iaSvilis am leqsis riTmebs Sinaarsisgan
izolirebulad ganixilavs. is ar svams kiTxavs: iqneb riTmis aseTi
dakoWleba da ritmis `damsxvreva~ raRacnairad leqsis SinaarsiT
iyos gamarTlebuli, motivirebuli?
TiTqosda gr. robaqiZis sayveduris sapasuxod am statiis
gamoqveynebidan ramdenime wlis Semdeg tician tabiZe wers leqss
`ocdasami aprili~, romelSic aseTi striqonebia:
var dalewili, viT Cemi riTma,
(oh! es ar aris bodiSi marTla),
ver gaditanos cxeni jiriTma,
bedo, mixmare TviTon kamaTlad.
aqac koWlia riTma _ ormarcvliani da sammarcvliani sityvebi
eriTmeba erTmaneTs, aqac `damsxvreulia~ ritmi, magram poetsac Turme
es unda _ amgvari formismieri dasharmonia kargad esadageba,
ekorespondireba, mis sulier diskomforts _ `var dalewili, viT
Cemi riTma~.
magram poeti rodia valdebuli gangvimartos, ratom mimarTa
ama Tu im Sinaarsis gamosaxatavad ama Tu im formas; metic: es
SeiZleba mas TviTonac ar hqondes gacnobierebuli; forma-Sinaarsis
aseTi kavSirebi analitikosma, interpretatorma unda amoicnos.
davubrundeT paolo iaSvilis im leqss, romlis riTmebic
grigol robaqiZem daiwuna. es gaxlavT `feradi soneti~ `elene
darianis dRiurebidan~. leqsis lirikuli gmiris sulier mRelvarebas
(`sanatrel moymis dabruneba me TrTolviT vcade, avtirdi Cumad,
roca raSi tyes moefara~) aqac gamoxatvis Sesatyvisi forma upovia
araTanabarmarcvliani riTmebiTa da `damsxvreuli~ ritmiT
Sesrulebuli leqsis saxiT.
levan bregaZe
249
es magaliTebi aTvalsaCinoebs pirsis debulebas, rom `yvelaze
srulyofili is niSnebia, romlebSic ikonuri, indeqsuri da
simboluri Tvisebebi rac SeiZleba Tanabrad arian erTmaneTs
Serwymuli~.
rasac pirsi am citataSi `yvelaze srulyofils~ uwodebs,
xelovnebis sferoSi imas maRalmxatvruli, maRalesTetikuri
Seesatyviseba.
* * *
dasasruls, oriode sityviT ikonis simbolizaciasac vexebi.
ganvmartav, rom ara marto simbolos SeiZleba aRmoaCndes ikonis
niSnebi, aramed _ ikonsac simbolosi. rom araferi vTqvaT diagramebsa
da piktogramebze (romlebSic aSkarad aris Serwymuli ikonuroba
da simboluroba), TviT yvelaze realistur ferwerul naxatSic ki
aRmovaCenT simbolos elementebs (ufro kompoziciaSi), romelTa
mniSvneloba naTelia maTTvis, vinc im xanaSi mcxovrebi adamianebis
warmodgenebs, Sexedulebebs, konvenciebs, mokled, im epoqis konteqsts
icnobs, romel epoqaSic mxatvari cxovrobda.
* * *
gamocdilebam gviCvena, rom zemoTqmuli sruliad sakmarisia
niSanTa Teoriisa da mxatvruli teqstis struqturalisturi
analizis arsis warmosaCenad.
momdevno leqcia struqturalizms eZRvneboda _ misi mosmena
am leqciaze SeZenil codnas ganamtkicebda.
Levan Bregadze
How I Teach Semiotics in Two Hours
The author shares his experience as to how he gives his students an essential
understanding of semiotics and the particularities of its application in the structural
analysis of a text during two 50-minute lectures. The paper is of algorithmic
character: it represents a succession of the material and its analysis (citations
from the works of the founders of semiotics and structural analysis, semiotic
anecdotes, citations from the critical and poetic texts of the Georgian poets), which,
as the author believes, ensures the achievement of the above-mentioned purpose.
rogor vaswavli semiotikas or saaTSi (gamocdileba)
250
amiran gomarTeli
`meranis~ qaragma
(interpretacia)
sakuTari SedevrisaTvis nikoloz bara-
TaSvils `merani~ ar uwodebia. avtograful
xelnawerebSi igi ZiriTadad usaTauroa da
iwyeba striqoniT: `mirbis, mimafrens...~
erTaderT SemTxvevaSi, romelic `meranis~
daweris wliT (1842) TariRdeba, poets leq-
sisaTvis `Tavganwiruli mxedari~ uwodebia.
roca me-19 saukunis 60-iani wlebidan
Jurnalma `ciskarma~ mkiTxveli sazoga-
doebisaTvis xelaxla aRmoCenili poetis
leqsebis publikacia daiwyo, `meransa~ da
zogierT sxva usaTauro leqss saTaurebi
misces. es faqti `ciskris~ redaqtors, ivane
kereseliZes miewereba. 1860 wlis `ciskris~
me-6 nomerSi pirvelad Cndeba saTauri `Cems
merans~.
1863 wels daviT CubinaSvilma peter-
burgSi gamocemuli `qarTuli qrestomaTiis~
me-2 wignSi leqss `merani~ uwoda da dRemde
yvela am saTauriT ixseniebs qarTuli
lirikuli poeziis mSvenebas (`meranis~
dasaTaurebis Sesaxeb ix. simon sxirtlaZe,
`vin SeurCia baraTaSvilis ukvdav leqss
saTauri?~).
baraTaSvilis poeziis yovelma mkiT-
xvelma icis, rom `meranis~ daweris sababi
poetTan TanSezrdili megobrisa da biZis,
iliko orbelianis, datyveveba gamxdara
Samilis mier. sami dRe Zalzed Sewuxebuli
filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
literaturul-kriti-
kuli werilebis krebuli
`WirTa Tqma sjobs~ (1985
weli), qarTuli simbo-
listuri proza (monogra-
fia, 1997 weli), lite-
raturuli werilebi da
eseebi (2005 weli).
interesTa sfero:
literaturaTmcodneoba,
saliteraturo da kino-
kritika.
251
da gabruebuli viyavo, _ auwyebs baraTaSvili ufros biZas grigol
orbelians da, roca es leqsi davwere, `TiTqos aman raRac Sveba
momcao~.
`meranis~ mkiTxvels isic kargad moexseneba, rom leqsis
Rrmaazrobrivi Sinaarsi ar amoiwureba oden iliko orbelianis
Tavsdatexili ubedurebiT. baraTaSvilis poezia xom, upirvelesad,
`meraniT~ exmianeba iliaseul gansazRvrebas poetis sakacobrio
safiqralsa da satkivarze. magram aqve Cndeba kiTxvac: rodesac
leqss `merans~ varqmevT, xom ar vaviwroebT mis Sinaarss? marTalia,
leqsSi meranisadmi mimarTva araerTgzisaa gacxadebuli, magram leqsis
lirikuli gmiri Tavganwiruli mxedaria da ara misi taiWi! nuTu
es uxerxuloba verc ivane kereseliZem igrZno da verc daviT
CubinaSvilma? an egeb sruliad sxva parolisa Tu sxva qaragmis
Semcvelia merani? magram, vidre am kiTxvas pasuxs gavcemdeT, erT
sakiTxs unda SevexoT.
qristianul literaturaSi kargadaa cnobili `wminda mxedris~
ideali. igi macxovris modelzea proecirebuli da, amdenad, `wminda
mxedris~ qmedeba sulier da fizikur dabrkolebaTa daZlevas
gulisxmobs. am azriT, ara marto wminda mxedris zeciuri pirvelsaxe
_ miqael mTavarangelozi an amqveyniuri iersaxe _ wminda giorgi
arian `wminda mxedrebi~, aramed `wminda mxedaria~ yoveli wmindani,
romelic sulierebis maxviliT ibrZvis. amdenad, Cvens samecniero
literaturaSi `wminda mxedrebad~ moiazrebian wminda SuSaniki, abo
Tbileli, grigol xanZTeli, qeTevan wamebuli, tanjvis gziT mavali
daviT guramiSvili... isic aRniSnulia, rom `wminda mxedris~ ideali
daedo safuZvlad raindobis instituts da am xasiaTis literaturas.
aqedan gamomdinare, `vefxistyaosnis~ gmiri raindis, avTandilis (`vis
sikvdili moyvrisaTvis TamaSad~ da uCans mRerad) arqetipic `wminda
mxedaria~.
Tu am logikas mivyvebiT, advilia baraTaSvilis `Tavganwirul
mxedarSi~ sazogadod `wminda mxedris~ idealis danaxva da, gnebavT,
urjuloebTan mebrZoli ilia orbelianisac; oRond am ukanasknelis
dasaxva `meranis~ lirikul gmirad, rogorc iTqva, cxadia, gaaRaribebda
leqsis azrobriv Sinaarss. amis Taobaze TviTon poetic xumrobs
grigol orbelianisadmi gagzavnil werilSi. roca axlobelTa wreSi
leqsi wavikiTxe, qalebma imdeni itires, TiTqos amas iliko ambobs
da ara meo. n. baraTaSvilis leqsis lirikul gmirad `wminda
mxedris~ dasaxvas da, saTaurad `Tavganwiruli mxedrisaTvis~
upiratesobis miniWebas win TiTqos aRaraferi eRobeba (amgvari
`meranis~ qaragma
252
Tvalsazrisi aqvs gamoTqmuli nino evgeniZes narkvevSi _ `wminda
mxedris idealis poeturi eqo qarTvel romantikosTa SemoqmedebaSi~),
magram mainc pasuxgaucemeli rCeba kiTxva, Tu sabolood ratom
amjobina poetma leqsis usaTaurod datoveba an SemdgomSi
gamomcemlebma ratom uwodes leqss _ `Cems merans~ an `merani~?
rogorc Cans, amas garkveuli mizezi Tu safuZveli hqonda da amis
amocnobaa aucilebeli. aq ki upirvelesad imas unda mieqces yuradReba,
Tu ratom gakeTda aqcenti meranze, am ucnaur huneze, ra Sinaarsia
masSi daqaragmebuli da daunjebuli? egeb, baraTaSvilma imitomac
Tqva uari `Tavganwirul mxedarze~, rom aseTi dasaTaurebis SemTxvevaSi
iCrdileboda meranis saxe.
magram vidre aRniSnul sakiTxze vimsjelebdeT, imis gaxseneba
gvmarTebs, Tu raoden Rrmad religiuri poetia n. baraTaSvili.
gulisTqma misi gamudmebiT `zenaarT samyofs~ aris mimarTuli, Tvalnic
zecad miiswrafvian. amqveyniuri mSvenierebac imitomaa `naTeli, zeciT
mosuli~, rom `uxrwnelis~, maradiulis, RvTaebrivi harmoniis
gamokrTomaa. poeti gamudmebiT RvTaebrivi taZris maZiebelia, sadac
daviTis qnari ikvris da uzenaesis winaSe arcTu iSviaTad locvad
aris muxlmoyrili (`Cemi locva~). RvTaebriv eqstazs xan metyveli
locviT, xanac dumiliT eziareba (`maSa dumilic mimiTvale Sendami
locvad~). Jamidan Jamze, marTalia, axelebs miwieri silamaze _
ekaterines sayuris xilva anda Tavad katina, fortepianozed momRerali,
magram amgvari trfoba mainc iSviaTia. n. baraTaSvili upiratesad
RvTaebrivi trfialebiTaa gamsWvaluli, amitomac pasuxobs banovans
Tamami pirdapirobiT: `rad hyvedri kacsa, banovano, pirumtkicobas?~
poets masze didi mijnuri hyavs _ RvTaebrivi mijnurobiTaa
gaxelebuli da iq, sadac n. baraTaSvilTan zogjer Cveulebriv
satrfialo lirikas xedaven, `sazeo~, saRvTo trfialeba unda
davinaxoT. laJvardSi igi mxolod RvTaebrivs Wvrets (`magram ra
Tvalni laJvards gixilven, myis fiqrni Senda moiswrafvian~), radgan
iq uxrwneli, RvTismSobliseuli mSveniereba eguleba (`magrama
mSveniereba gaqvs, cisiero, uxrwneli~).
am yaidis cnobiereba romelime konkretul `Tavganwirul
mxedarze~ ver SeCerdeba, maT Soris, bunebrivia, verc ilia orbelianze.
gulisTqma misi uSualod macxovris misteriazea proecirebuli. es
gacxadda `meranSi~.
RvTaebrivi sauflosaken, transcendenturisaken miqcevas Cveni
poetisaTvis amqveyniuri amaoebis SegrZneba ganapirobebs. `bedis
samzRvris~ gadalaxva, sadac `Savi yoranis~ Cxavili ismis, uflis
amiran gomarTeli
253
nebis daZleva ki ara, uflis wiaRSi dabrunebaa. miuRebeli realoba
rwmeniT gadailaxeba. racionaluri Semecnebis Sedegad ki oden `Savi
yornis~ samyaro warmoudgeba poets. aqve unda iTqvas, rom yorani
sakmaod mdgradi paradigmaa. edgar posTanac yorani racionalur
azrovnebas ganasaxierebs, anu imas, rac rwmenas upirispirdeba. aseTivea
n. baraTaSvilis `TvalbediTi Savi yorani~.
rogorc ukve iTqva, racionaluri azrovnebiT ver daiZleva
amqveyniuri yofis SezRuduloba, is, rac ase awuxebda baraTaSvils.
grigol orbelianisadmi gagzavnil baraTSi vkiTxulobT: `Cvenis
daniSnulebis miznis miuRwevloba... da mTeli cisqveSeTis amaoeba
Cems suls saSineli sicarieliT avsebs~. amaoebis daZleva mxolod
rwmenas, rwmeniT aRvsebul Tavganwirul suliskveTebas SeuZlia. am
mxriv poeturi cnobiereba ufro rwmenasTanaa wilnayari, vinem
racionalur azrovnebasTan. `meranis~ avtori miuRebeli empiriuli
sinamdvilisagan mowyvetas swored rwmenasTan wilnayari poeturi
cnobierebis meSveobiT axerxebs.
kvlav grigol orbelianisadmi miwerili baraTidan: `tfilisi
isev is qalaqia, usargeblo gonebisa da gulisaTvis~. am saocrad
tevad da ymawvili kacis pirobaze gonier frazaSi marto tfilisi
ar igulisxmeba, aramed mTeli garemomcveli empiriul-materialuri
sinamdvile, `bedis samzRvrisgan~ SemosazRvruli. swored es
usargeblo yofa, es sicariele, es RvTisgan dacilebuloba-miusafroba
unda gadailaxos, raTa poeti mSobliur samyofels, naTelqmnil
RvTaebriv wiaRs daubrundes. amgvar miusafrobas galaktioni
`ubinaobas~ eZaxda da isic RvTaebriv wiaRSi dabrunebas eltvoda
(`momwyurdi axla, ise momwyurdi, viT ubinaos yofna binaSi~). orive
poetisaTvis swored es RvTaebrivi wiaRia maTi bina, maTi `Sin~. ase
filosofosoben Cveni poetebi. aki Tqva novalisma: filosofosoba
Sin yofnis gamudmebuli nostalgiaao. `bedis samzRvris~ msgavsad,
pirvelqmnil, idealur samSobloSi dabrunebis nostalgiac rwmeniT
gadailaxeba. baraTaSvilic swored rwmenas unda daemyaros iseve,
rogorc misi mxedari _ merans.
magram kvlav unda davubrundeT kiTxvas, ra aris merani? ratomaa
ase aqcentirebuli meranisadmi mimarTva? arsebiTad xom merani
warmarTavs leqsSi mxedris nebas (`mirbis, mimafrens...~), mis qrolva-
Wenebas mihyveba igi. poets xom swored merani miaCnia moZmisaTvis
gezis damsaxavad da jerac uvali gzis gamkvalavad (`da gza uvali,
Sengan Telili, merano Cemo, mainc darCeba~). magram aq sxva kiTxvac
ismis: ra gzaa is, romlis pirvelgamTelavic merania?
`meranis~ qaragma
254
religiuri poetis mier uvali gzis pirvelgamkvalavis xseneba
saxarebiseul asociacias aRZravs. WeSmaritad uvali gza xom
gankacebuli Ze RvTisas mier gakvaluli gzaa. Tavadve brZanebs
macxovari: `me var gzai da me var WeSmaritebai da cxovrebai~ (ioan.
14,6). yovelive zemoTqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT, gamodis, rom
moyvasisaTvis vnebuli da gzis gamkvalavi macxovris saxe
identifikacias meranTan povebs. amdenad, meranic macxovris saxe-
simbolod aRiqmeba. Tumc saboloo daskvnis gamotana jer mainc
naadrevia, meti argumentaciaa saWiro.
himnografiasa Tu hagiografiaSi ganswavlulma mkiTxvelma
macxovris araerTi saxe-simbolo icis. maTi CamoTvla Sors wag-
viyvanda. sxva rom ara vTqvaT, amis dasturad `abos wamebac~ ikmarebda,
sadac macxovris saxe-simboloTa Zalze vrceli CamonaTvalia.
samwuxarod, qarTuli Teologiuri saxismetyvelebiTi azrovneba ar
asaxelebs merans macxovris saxe-simbolod. arada, meranic qristes
iseTive simboloa, rogoricaa, vTqvaT, kravi an martorqa.
magaliTisaTvis: martorqa, rogorc macxovris saxe-simbolo,
mkafiodaa ganmartebuli `Satberdis krebulSi~ moTavsebul basili
kesarielis TxzulebaSi. movusminoT: `saxismetyvelman Tqva
martorqisai... ismineT, romel-igi Tquas saxarebasa, `rameTu aRgvidgina
rqai cxorebisai Soris saxlsa daviTis, monisa Tvisisa...~ vidremde
movida saSod mariamis qalwulisa, RmrTismSobelisa `da sityuai
igi xorciel iqmna da daemkvidra Cuen Tana~ (gv. 187).
`martorqis simbolika gansakuTrebul rols iZens Sua sau-
kuneebis qristianul TxzulebebSi. momdinareobs ra `fiziologosis~
berZnuli teqstidan (swored aRniSnuli naSromis qristianuli
gardaTqmaa basili kesarielis zemonaxsenebi Txzuleba _ a. g.).
`fiziologosis~ Tanaxmad, martorqis moSinaureba SeuZlia mxolod
wminda qalwuls. aqedanaa SedarebiT mogviano qristianuli tradicia,
romelic erTmaneTs ukavSirebs qalwul RvTismSobelsa da ieso
qristes~ (msoflios xalxTa miTebi, t. I, gv. 429, mosk., 1998).
raoden ucnauradac unda moeCvenos qarTvel mkiTxvels, Sua
saukuneebis qristianul mxatvrobaSi (ufro adreul heraldikaSic)
gamosaxulia ara is ZuZumwovara cxoveli, romelsac Cven martorqas
vuwodebT, aramed cxenis Tavisa da tanis mqone irmisCliqebiani
arseba, Sublze zecisken mimswrafi rqiT.
saqme isaa, rom qarTuli, sxva enebiviT, rodi mijnavs erTmaneTisagan
imas, rasac magaliTad, rusebi ` ~-s da ` ~-s uwodeben.
Cven orive SemTxvevasi martorqas vambobT. is rac Satberdis
amiran gomarTeli
255
krebulSia moxseniebuli, aris _ `edinorogi~, iseTive ararealuri,
fantastikuri cxoveli, rogoricaa, magaliTad, kentavri. samwuxarod,
Cvens leqsikonebSi es sxvaoba gaTvaliswinebuli ar aris.
martorqis ( ) simbolika Zalian Soridan modis.
mogvianebiT iqca igi qristes saxe-simbolod. rqa (`xsnis rqa~)
simbolurad ganasaxierebs qristes Zalauflebas, romelic codvas
anadgurebs. orfad dagrexili erTi rqa niSnavs qristes erTobas
mama RmerTTan; amave dros, mianiSnebs macxovarze, rogorc mxolodSobil
Zeze RvTisa (ix. Ic. Cooper, Lexikon alter Symbole, Leipzig, 1986, s. 42-
43).
rogorc iTqva, qristianul mxatvrobaSi gamosaxuli martorqa
vizualurad ufro meranis STabeWdilebas tovebs, vinem afrikuli
cxovelisa. erTi aseTi nimuSi am wignis garekanzecaa gamosaxuli.
mas `qalwuli martorqiT~ ewodeba da mis saxismetyvelebiT SinaarsSi
igulixmeba RvTismSobeli macxovriT (domeniko vampieris freskis
detali, romi, palaco forneze).
marTalia, martorqis saxismetyveleba, vizualuri msgavsebis
gamo, Zalian axlosaa meranis simbolikasTan, magram Cveni kvlevisaTvis
gadamwyveti ar aris. Cven sakuTriv meranis simbolika gvainteresebs.
amitom bunebrivad wamoiWreba kiTxva: martorqis msgavsad meranic
xom ar aris macxovris simbolo? am TvalsazrisiT Zalze mniS-
vnelovania Tu rogor aris gaazrebuli cxenis (meranis) saxis-
metyvelebiTi Sinaarsi Zvelsa da axal aRTqmaSi, razec, samwuxarod,
ar iZleva pasuxs `Satberdis krebuli~, romelic praqtikulad
Zveli saqarTvelos saRvTismetyvelo saxelmZRvanelo iyo.
Zvel aRTqmaSi cxeni araerTgzisaa moxmobili Seupovrobis,
uflis Semweobisa da RvTaebrivi marTva-gamgeblobis
simbolod. zaqarias winaswarmetyvelebis Tanaxmad (10,3),
`moxedavs cabaoT ufali Tavis faras _ iudas saxls da
Tavis didebul raSad gaixdis mas brZolaSi~. aq swored
raSis simbolikiTaa gamoxatuli uflisadmi Tanadgoma da
Semweoba.
winaswarmetyveleba abakumisa gvamcnobs: `nu mdinareTa zeda
ganhrisxne, ufalo, anu mdinareTa zeda guliswyromai Seni, anu
zRuasa zeda mimarTeba Seni, rameTu zeda ahxed cxenTa zeda SenTa
da cxenianoba Seni macxovreba~ (3,8). bibliis komentarebSi
`cxenianoba~ RvTaebrivi wesrigis gamovlenadaa ganmartebuli.
axla isev `merans~ mivubrundeT. baraTaSvilTan, rogorc
aRniSnaven, `ara Cans meranis feri, magram Cans `Savi yorani~. amitom
misdami SepirispirebiT meranis ferad warmosadgenia TeTri,
`meranis~ qaragma
256
ZvelqarTulad `spetaki~, sulTa `feri~ (revaz siraZe). swored
TeTri cxeni ixsenieba ioane RvTismetyvelis gamocxadebaSi. `vixile
ca gaxsnili da TeTri cxeni da misi mxedari~ (apok. 19.11). am
muxls vrclad ganmartavs II-III saukunis saeklesio avtori origene
Tavis saxelganTqmul SromaSi: `qeba qebaTas ganmarteba~, romlis
nawili Semonaxulia rufinusis laTinur TargmanSi (Origenes, in
Cauticum Cauticorum; teqsti ix. Patrologia Graeca). origenes naSromis
gacnobaSi SemweobisaTvis madlobas movaxseneb Teologiis Cinebul
mcodnes, b-n ediSer WeliZes.
origenes naSroms maRal Sefasebas aZleven wminda mamebi. SeniSnaven:
am naSromSi igi aramc Tu sxvebs, sakuTar Tavsac aRematao (wm.
ieronime).
aRniSnul ZeglSi origene `mxedars~ ganmartavs, rogorc `Ze
RvTisas~, anu `RvTis sityvas~, yovladwminda samebis meore pirs,
hipostass, xolo `TeTr cxens~ iazrebs rogorc qristes kacebriv
bunebas (amgvari ganmatebisas origene sxva RvTismetyvelTa azrsac
iTvaliswinebs da maTze miuTiTebs).
baraTaSvilis meranis Tavganwirvac, macxovris darad, RvTaebrivi
wesrigis aRsrulebas emsaxureba. isic tarigia RmrTisai. leqsis
lirikuli gmirisaTvis merani is sayrdeni Tu saSualebaa, riTac
xorcieldeboda jvarcmis misteria. aseTia leqsis irealuri plani.
aq Tanagancda da Tanatanjvaa. cxeni da mxedari erTad kvalaven
uval gzas. metic, aq absoluturi erTianobaa. amitom, ioanes
gamocxadebis analogiiT, baraTaSvilis mxedarsa da meranSi (oriveSi
erTad) macxovris rogorc RvTaebrivi, ise gankacebuli saxe-simbolo
igulisxmeba. rogorc iTqva, amaze mxedrisa da hunes erTianoba da
tarigoba miuTiTebs. moyvasis saxsnelad xom wminda samebis nawili,
misi erTi hipostasi gaiwira da jvars evno. meti Tavganwirva
warmoudgenelia. aseTia `meranis~ suliskveTebac.
metic, uflis msxverplSewirvis darad, baraTaSvilis leqsis
finalic tragikuli optimizmiTaa gamsWvaluli:
`cudad xom mainc ar Caivlis es ganwirulis suliskveTeba
da gza uvali, Sengan Telili, merano Cemo, mainc darCeba;
rom Cems Semdgomad moZmesa Cemsa siZnele gzisa gauadvildes...~
aq mimarTvis pirdapiri adresatic merania da analogiac
gamWvirvalea: meranis mier gakvalul gzaSi moyvasTa sulieri
amiran gomarTeli
257
xsnisaTvis kacobriobis istoriaSi yvelze didi Tavganwirulis _
gankacebuli Ze RvTisas suliskveTeba igulisxmeba.
Cans, imxanad, tfilisis keTilSobilTa gimnaziaSi
RvTismetyvelebas safuZvlianad aswavlidnen. swored es codna
gardaisaxa `meranis~ gasaocar poetur xatovanebad.
* * *
esec erTi wakiTxvaTagania `meranisa~. literaturuli
interpretaciebic xom imiTaa saintereso, rom wakiTxvaTa nairgvarobas
iZleva. swored es sZens azrsa da lazaTs eseistikasa Tu
literaturaTmcodneobas. sxvagvarad aramcTu isini, aramed mxatvruli
qmnilebebic ki Sewyvetdnen arsebobas. literaturuli klasikis
Zalmosileba da cxovelmyoflobac swored isaa, rom sxvadasxva
epoqis, sxvadasxva donisa Tu inteleqtis mkiTxveli gansxvavebul
Sinaarss debs da kiTxulobs mxatvrul qmnilebaSi. Torem imis
Tqma, zustad ra igulisxma mweralma, ara marto Wirs, aramed arcaa
saintereso, rameTu arafers matebs nawarmoebs. rogorc iTqva, amaSia
xelovnebis qmnilebis sirTuleca da cxovelmyoflobac.
sworad SeniSna osip mandelStamma: `gacilebiT iolia mTeli
ruseTis eleqtrifikacia, vinem wera-kiTxvis yvela mcodnes waakiTxo
puSkinis `evgeni onegini~ ise, rogorc puSkinma dawera~. RmerTma nu
qnas es, Torem puSkini imwamsve Sewyvetda arsebobas. magram nu
daRondebiT, didi mwerlebi amis uflebas ar iZlevian. baraTaSvilic
asea!
`meranis~ qaragma
258
gia joxaZe
semiotika da istoria
XX saukunis istoriuli
narativi da miTologia
sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebaTa
miRwevebisa da teqnikuri progresis
miuxedavad, XX saukunis adamianis yofaze
aRibeWda arqauli miTi. Tanac, ise mkafiod,
rom is (yofa, cnobiereba) semiotikis
sakbilo gaxda; semiotika yru da brma unda
yofiliyo, rom ar SeemCnia XX saukunis enas
iseTi Tavisufleba misca, rom saswrafod
gadaisinja istoriuli narativis adgili
da mniSvneloba: man dakarga WeSmaritebis
ukanaskneli instanciis privilegia _ piriqiT,
kritikuli refleqsiis veqtori swored
misken miimarTa. Tu tradiciuli formis
istoria Zeglis dokumentad gadaqcevaa, XX
saukunis istoriam dokumentis Zeglad
gardasaxvis funqcia ikisra. es semiotikis
bralia. istoriulma narativma dakarga
WeSmaritad faqtobrivi wyaros mniSvneloba.
samagierod, radgan istoria Txrobis
xelovnebas daukavSira, poetikisa da
ritorikis obieqtadve aqcia. gamonagoni da
istoria erTi klasis fenomenebad gamocxadda.
am debulebis popularizebam istoria da
literatura daukavSira erTmaneTs. istoria
literaturis artefaqtad iqca, radgan
istoriac iseve iTxzveba, iseve iwereba
(istorio-grafia!), rogorc _ literatura.
Tumc, aristoteleseuli Sefaseba dRemde
ZalaSia: istorikosi da poeti imiT
istoriis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, ilia WavWava-
Zis saxelmwifo univer-
sitetis humanitarul
mecnierebaTa da kultu-
ris kvlevebis fakul-
tetis asistent-profe-
sori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
XIII_XIV saukuneebis
saqarTvelos istoriidan,
avgustineseuli provi-
dencializmi da JamTa-
aRmwerlis religiuri
msoflmxedveloba da
istoriuli esseebi.
interesebis sfero:
eklesiisa da religiis
istoria da istoriuli
anTropologiis proble-
mebi.
259
gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisgan, rom pirveli namdvilad momxdars aRwers,
meore ki imas, rac SeiZleba momxdariyo. amgvarad, istoriuli
narativi Tavs ikatunebs _ is faqtebis sistemis im mantias irgebs,
romlis miRmac miTi imaleba. faqtebis sistemad miCneuli miTi,
sinamdvileSi, semiologiuri sistemaa.
Tanamedrove miTi, cxadia, arqauli miTis tolfasi rodia:
Tanamedrove miTi sxvagvarad warmoiSoba d amavenairad gamoiyeneba.
arqauli miTi stiqiurad ibadeboda. XX saukunem ki miTologiuri
azrovnebis namdvili teqnika gamoimuSava. termin teqnikis gamoyenebam
Tanamedrove miTis warmoqmna saomar teqnikas daukavSira. sxvaTa
Soris, Tanamedrove miTic aCaRebs saSinao Tu sagareo omebs; sxvaTa
Soris, am miTs gansazRvruli jgufebi da partiebi meoreTa winaaRmdeg
iyeneben; Tanamedrove miTologia ideologiad iqceva, istoriuli
narativi ki _ mis msaxurad, mis saSualebad. is iqceva ambad, istoriad,
dasrulebul miTologiur siuJetad.
magaliTad gamoviyenoT sabWoTa istoriuli narativi, romelsac
axasiaTebda:
a)permanentuli omi burJuaziul istoriografiasTan (klasikur
istoriul narativTan);
b) gadaWarbebuli aqsiologizmi, roca Sefaseba faravs movlenis
mimdinareobas;
g) reduqcionizmi: faqtebis sagangebo SerCeva maTi xvedriTi
wilis gasazrdelad, roca faqti erTgvar nimuSad, erTgvar magaliTad
iqceva; meore mxriv, faqti asustebs argumentacias, teqsts miTologiad
gardaqmnis;
Tu utrirebul skrupulozurobad aravin CagviTvlis, es sami
niSani sabWoTa istoriografiul narativs literaturis
artefaqtidan miTologiur struqturad ayalibebs.
saxeli
saxeli miTologiuri sistemis arsebiTi komponentia. saxelis
gareSe miTi ar arsebobs. sabWoTa istoriuli narativi
miTologizebulia. am konteqstSi saxels gansakuTrebuli yuradReba
eqceva: xorcieldeba ararsebuli piris saxeldeba; ukuagdeben saxels,
roca denotats konotati STanTqavs; tabu cxaddeba ama Tu im
saxelze...
erTi ilustracia: XX saukunis Suaxanebamde mTels sabWoeTSi
mkvidrdeboda azri vinme kriakutnoize, romelmac TiTqos, msoflioSi
XX saukunis istoriuli narativi da miTologia
260
pirvelad (ufro ukeT _ pirvelma!) imogzaura sahaero burTiT. am
miTiT unda ganmtkicebuliyo ruseTisa da rusebis primati.
aucilebeli ganmarteba: akademikos d. lixaCovis ganmartebiT,
1731 wlis teqstSi msgavsi araferi weria. metic: kriakutnoi saerTod
ar aris saxeli. sinamdvileSi aq ewera rusuli sityva monaTluli
_ . Tanac, es monaTluli, romelsac riazanSi sahaero
burTi daumzadebia, erovnebiT germaneli, gvarad ki furceli yofila.
miuxedavad am mtkicebisa, rusebis prioritetis gasaxazad gamogonili
saxeli XX saukunis bolo aTeulamde mogzaurobda sahaero burTiT...
samecniero-popularul literaturaSi.
XX saukunis istoriul narativSi saxeli gansakuTrebiT
konotatiuri xdeba. gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom konotacias nebismieri
is saxeli eqvemdebareba, romelic ki istoriografis narativSi
xvdeba. es naambob ambavs mkveTri miTologizebis safrTxis win
ayenebs. magram rac ufro mcirdeba droiTi distancia, konotaciurobac
izrdeba. rac ufro axlosaa istorikosi aRsawer movlenasTan, miT
ufro bundovani xdeba denotati.
erTi ilustracia: sabWoTa istoriul narativSi Tu Tavidan
mxolod anti partiuli dajgufebebi, mimdinareobebi da a.S.
eqvemdebareboda konotacias, Semdeg, safinalo nawilSi, mTeli saxelebi
konotirdeboda. Cndeboda aseTi figurebi: TeTrgvardieli pigmeebi,
usaxuri araraobebi, faSisti laqiebi, sabWoTa xalxi da a.S.
opozicionerTa saxelebi, Cveulebriv, mxolobiT ricxvSi aRar
ixmareboda: rikovebi, zinovievebi, kamenevebi...
aucilebeli ganmarteba: roca saxelis denotats misi
konotati STanTqavs xolme, izrdeba winaaRmdegoba narativebsa da
mis sapirispiro diskursebs Soris. teqstis dasawyisidan
dasasrulisken midrekili istoriuli narativis energetika cxreba,
sustdeba, diskursuli energia ki izrdeba. warmoiSoba axali problema,
romelsac originalurad wyvets XX saukunis istoriografia.
cnobilia, rom yovelgvari diskursuli sawyisis eskalacia Zliers
xdis teqstSi avtoris sunTqvas da piriqiT, diskursuli sawyisis
Sesusteba teqsts wminda narativad aqcevs _ iq pirebi ar arseboben.
amis gaTvaliswinebiT, sabWoTa narativs, romlis avtoris vinaoba
ubralo mkiTxvelisTvisac ki cnobili iyo, eqsplicirebuli avtori
ar hyavda. partiul teqstebs, ZiriTadad, centraluri komitetis
komisia qmnida, teqstebis avtorebis vinaoba ki tabuirebuli gaxldaT.
iqmneboda anomaliuri situacia: opoziciebi stalinia sabWoTa
gia joxaZe
261
narativis avtori an stalini ar aris sabWoTa narativis avtori,
erTdroulad, simarTlec iyo da sicruec.
amgvarad, sabWoTa istoriul narativSi tabuirebis ori saxe
ganiWvriteba: tabuirdeba CamogdebulTa da samudamo daviwyebisTvis
ganwirulTa saxelebi _ 1980 wlamde opoziciis warmomadgenelTa
gvarebi ar ixsenieboda. Camoyalibda paradoqsuli viTareba, romelSic,
vTqvaT, trockizmi arsebobda, magram ar arsebobda lev trocki. maS,
tabu edeboda demonTa saxelebs, Tumc, tabus verc teqstis demiurgi
acda. misi saxelis warmouTqmeloba demiurgs orakulis, misnis
reputacias uqmnida, TviTon teqsti ki absolutur WeSmaritebad
iqceoda. es emTxveoda koleqtiur survils. yalibdeboda erTgvari
magiuri sivrce, roca adamians sakuTari Tavisadmi, sakuTari
SesaZleblobebisadmi urwmunoba uCndeboda. imave dros, is TiTqmis
aRmerTebda koleqtiuri survilebisa da moqmedebis Zalmosilebas.
jadosani, misani imiT Zlierdeboda, rom calkeul pirovnebasaviT ar
iqceoda _ masSi mTeli tomis energia iyo akumulirebuli. pirovnebis
kulti magiis kultad iqceoda.
dabadeba
sabWoTa narativis klasikur (burJuaziul) narativTan brZolis
erTi mTavari TemaTagania normanTa Teoria. klasikuri istoria
ara mxolod mSvidad uyurebda variagebis mowvevis faqts, aramed
mas pozitiuradac ki miiCnevda. xazi esmeboda normanTa xelsayreli
da mSvidi mmarTvelobis stils. es rusebs keTildReobis perspeqtivas
uSlida da iolad aviwyebda erovnuli siamayis gancdas. amitom
slavebma, romlebmac novgorodis uxucesisa irwmunes, variagebs
mTavrobis daweseba Txoves. gaCnda daqucmacebuli slavuri tomebis
gamaerTianebeli xelisuflebis Seqmnis imedi. klasikuri istoria
am nabijisTvis novgorodis uxucess didebas da ukvdavebas uqadda.
sunTqvas iwyebda rusuli istoria.
SesaZloa vamtkicoT, rom sabWoTa istoriografia mxolod
imitom ebrZoda klasikur istoriul narativs, rom irRveoda misi
miTologiuri sistema: dauSvebeli iyo sabWoTa xalxis (igulisxme:
didi rusi xalxis) saxelmwifoebriobis mesaZirkvled normanebis
dakanoneba. aman naratiuli simetria daarRvia. saqme is aris, rom
imaSi, gvjera Tu ara normanTa Teoriis, gansxvaveba ara mxolod
msoflmxedvelobrivia, aramed _ naratologiuric. am gadmocemis
dajerebiT Cven gveZleoda saSualeba, istoriuli diskursi
XX saukunis istoriuli narativi da miTologia
262
literaturul artefaqtad gardagveqmna, radganac oriveSi warsuli
dro feTqavs da cdilobs, faqtebis samefoSi ierarqia SeinarCunos.
gadmocemis ukugdebiT Cven uarvyofT warsul dros, masTan
erTad ki _ istoriuli diskursis naratologiur potencias.
SesaZloa, gvwamdes an ar gvwamdes imis, Tu vin daudo safuZveli
rusul saxelmwifoebriobas, magram SeuZlebelia imis dajereba an
daujerebloba, vin ar aris saxelmwifoebriobis fuZemyreli.
antinormanulobis mankiereba is ki ar aris, rom arsebuli
gadmocemisadmi skefsiss avlens, aramed is, rom klasikuri narativis
ganadgurebiT, alternativis saxiT, sicarieles gvTavazobs.
narativi da predikati
ra ganapirobebda sabWoTa narativis cxovelmyoflobasa da
xanierebas?
klasikur istoriul narativSi intriga erTmaneTs ukavSirebs
da xsnis urTierTsawinaaRmdego faqtebs. am dros istoria
filologiasaviT irjeba. roca cnobili teqsti ar Seesabameba sxva
sayovelTaod dadgenil faqtebs, filologi xelaxla awesrigebs
detalebs, gadawers (wers) teqsts. sabWoTa istoriul narativSi
intrigas hbadebs ara faqtebis konfiguracia, aramed _ referenciis
veli, romelsac safuZvlad udevs metabola _ gansxvavebuli metyveleba,
romlis wyalobiTac erTi da igive movlena SesaZloa sxvadasxva
urTierTsawinaaRmdego poziciebidan aRiweros imis gaTvaliswinebiT,
es movlena globaluri ganzogadebis magaliTad ganixileba Tu
kerZo, konkretul SemTxvevad! istoriografi am SemTxvevaSi im
adamianis rols TamaSobs, roca igi sakuTar Tavs sTavazobs gamocanebs
da TviTve gamoicnobs xolme maT.
amgvari naratiuli strategiis realizaciisTvis saWiroa ormagi
predikati.
klasikuri istoriuli narativi icnobs am paradoqss: xalxi
yovelTvis marTalia im SemTxvevebis garda, roca is cdeba.
gamovyofT sam Teziss, romlebic Tan sdevs 1930-1980 wlebis
sabWour narativs:
a)yvela mefe reaqciulia maT garda, romlebic progresulebi
arian;
b) aznauruli kulturis yvela warmomadgeneli proletariatis
mteria maT garda, vinc am kulturis gmiroba ikisra;
g) yvela teroristi mosawonia TanamedroveTa garda;
gia joxaZe
263
es debulebebi 1920-30-ian wlebSi gaCnda, maSin, roca Zveli
formebis msxvreva dasrulda da axali saxelmwifos mSenebloba
daiwyo. sazogadoebis didi nawilisTvis es misaRebi aRmoCnda.
saintereso mxolod isaa, rogor gaaerTiana aseTma politikurma
miTologiam socialurad gansxvavebuli klasebi! ase iyo Tu ise,
kargma mefeebma, kargma memamuleebma TavianTi adgili daimkvidres
kinosa da literaturaSi. albaT, aq im miRwevebs iTvaliswinebdnen,
romlebic maT qveynis winaSe miuZRodaT. yvela am teqstSi
ganixileboda urTierToba gmirsa da xalxs Soris, romelic
safuZvlad edeboda axal miTs. gmirisa da xalxis urTierTobis
naratiuli modeli mxatvruli diskursidan istoriulad gardaisaxa,
magram Tan iaxla mxatvruli diskursis mTxrobelobiTi forma,
gaiTavisa mTxrobelobiTi intenciebi. amasTan, aRsaniSnavia, rom Tu
mxatvruli Txrobisas ormagi predikatebi gadailaxa, es movlena
istoriul narativSi, TiTqmis, Cvens dromde SemorCa.
meore niSnad unda miviCnioT kulturuli miTis ideologiurad
gadaqceva. mag; ilia WavWavaZis kulturuli miTi ideologiurad
iqca. ase moxda ruseTSic _ puSkini xan memamulebTan brZolisTvis
gamoiyenes, xan _ Tavisive Tavis winaaRmdeg. poeti gaxda miTologiuri
gmiri, romelic xalxis gaTavisuflebas eswrafvoda.
sabWoTa narativis mTavar personaJad xSirad Cans teroristi.
es, cxadia, bolSevikebis mier xelisuflebis xelSi Cagdebamde moxda,
rasac, sxvaTa Soris, taSi daukra inteligenciam. teroristi heroikul
narativSi Caiwera. inteligenciis naqadagebi humanizmi da
teroristis qmedeba gaerTianda.
warsulis teroristebs sabWoTa narativi xotbas asxams, magram
Tanamedrove miTologia, romelic ideologiur sistemas qmnis,
Tanamedrove teroristebis mimarT daundobelia. opozicia: humanizmi
_ terorizmis nacvlad gaCnda axali binaruli wyvili: warsulis
terorizmi _Tanamedrove terorizmi. sabWoTa narativma amiT
mTlianad gamoavlina Tavisi miTologiuri buneba.
sabWoTa istoriuli narativi ormag predikatTan SejaxebiT
uxerxul mdgomareobaSi aRmoCnda, magram maleve ipovna gamosavali:
ori, radikalurad gansxvavebuli dadebiTi gmiris funqciebi ganasxvava:
grigol orbeliani da nikoloz baraTaSvili ruseTis imperias
TanaugrZnobdnen, magram maT mxolod didi poetoba daukanona; arsena
oZelaSvili teroristi iyo, magram memamuleebTan brZolisTvis
gafetiSda da a.S;
XX saukunis istoriuli narativi da miTologia
264
principSi, amiT gansxvavdeba sabWoTa istoriuli narativi
arqauli miTisgan. am ukanasknelSi semiozisis pragmatuli ganzomileba
gvevlineba, rogorc _ sintaqsur da semantikur ganzomilebaTa
urTierTqmedebis Sedegi; Tanamedrove miTologiaSi pragmatika
srulad imorCilebs sintaqss da semantikas. is universalur
meqanizmad iqceva, romelic naratologiur sqemas adgens. es gansxvaveba
aisaxa enasa da sametyvelo komunikaciebze, romelic calke Seswavlis
sagania.
literatura
barti 1989: . . . . . ,
1989
fuko 1996: . . , 1996
rikiori 2000: . . . 1; , 2000
aristotele 1957: . . ., 1957
toporovi 1994: . . / / . .4.
1994
lixaCovi 1983: .. , . 1983
( -
). . ., 1997
karamzini 1998: . . ,
. 1, . 1998
soloviovi 1988: .. , . 1., 1988
Gia Jokhadze
Historical narrative and XX c. mythology
The Metamorphosis done by semiotics with historical narrative, has lowered
its value as authentic source of the facts, but has simultaneously strongly connected
with art of a narration in a broad sense, having made object of poetics and
rhetoric.The history inherently is historiography, or being expressed in frankly
provoking style, - a literary artifact.
Thus, nothing prevents historical narrative to pretend to system of the facts,
being as a matter of fact system of meanings and to function in ordinary
consciousness as a myth. However, modern myths differ from archaic as on the
genesis, and various pragmatics.
gia joxaZe
265
Myths of the newest time are myths with the newest pragmatics, distinctly
focused on the certain group, a party of people in a counterbalance to other group.
Mythology of XX century in the organic image develops into ideology, in that time
as historical narrative - means of service of the ideology, transforming a story in
the completed mythological plot. Soviet historical narrative had a number of the
features distinguishing it from other historical narratives:
Permanent discursive war with classical historical narrative (a bourgeois
historiography ); the estimation of events prevails of their coherent statement;
selection of the facts is carried out exclusively in process of their importance for
semiotic systems owing to what relative density of each fact increases, and the
fact becomes some kind of an example, the sample; on the other hand, the fact
weakens the argument, transforming the text in mythological plot.
It is possible to approve, that owing to three named features narrative,
peculiar to the Soviet historiography, it developes from an artefact of the literature
to mythological structure. Display of such movement can be found out precisely
enough in several significant parameters: Historical narrative and a problem of a
name; Historical narrative and a problem of genesis; Narrative and a predicate.
XX saukunis istoriuli narativi da miTologia
266
Tamar yuraSvili
semantema ~gzis~
konceptualuri veli qarTulSi
samyaro CvenTvis mocemulia enobriv
suraTebSi. TiToeul ers Tavisi enobrivi
samyaro aqvs, romelic specifikuria da
Tavsdeba konkretuli enis sazRvrebSi.
ludvig vitgenSteini Tavis `logikur-
filosofiur traqtatSi~ wers: `Cemi enis
sazRvrebi gansazRvravs Cemi samyaros
sazRvrebs~. ena axdens sinamdvilis kons-
truirebas, romelic unikaluria konkretuli
enisa da konkretuli kulturisaTvis.
`epistemurma revoluciam~ lingvisturi
azrovneba enobrivi niSnis Sinaarsobrivi
mxaris adeqvaturi aRmniSvneli terminis
SemuSavebis aucileblobis winaSe daayena,
romelic tradiciuli mniSvnelobisa da
azris funqciur SezRudulobas moxsnida
da romelSic organulad iqneboda Serwymuli
logikur-fsiqologiuri da enaTmecnieruli
kategoriebi. am aucileblobam sxvadasxva
nominanturi erTeulebi warmoSva, romlebsac
erTmaneTTan `mouxelTebeli xalxis sulis~
mniSvnelobebSi asaxvisaken swrafva aerTia-
nebda. mas uwodebdnen `koncepts~, `lingvo-
kulturemas~, `miTologemas~, `logoepisTemas~.
am CamonaTvalidan yvelaze ufro marTebuli
da sicocxlisunariani `koncepti~ aRmoCnda.
lingvistikasa da filosofiaSi kon-
cepti moiazreba, rogorc `idealuri~ obieqti,
romelic asaxavs adamianis kulturul-
RirebulebiT warmodgenebs samyaroze.
d e b i u t i d e b i u t i d e b i u t i d e b i u t i d e b i u t i
ilia WavWavaZis saxe-
lmwifo universitetis
humanitarul mecniere-
baTa da kulturis kvle-
vebis fakultetis doq-
toranti semiotikis mi-
marTulebiT (mecnieri
xelmZRvaneli cira barba-
qaZe).
naSromi _ `semantema
`gzis~ konceptualuri
veli qarTulSi~ _ wakiT-
xulia qarTveluri enaT-
mecnierebis mimarTulebis
doqtorantTa da magis-
trantTa I respublikur
samecniero konferenciaze
(quTaisi, 2007 weli).
naSromi dasabeWdad war-
moadgina prof. cira
barbaqaZem.
267
koncepti adamianis mier samyaros Secnobis procesSi iqmneba
da swored amitom masSi adamianTa gamocdileba da realoba aisaxeba.
aseT SemTxvevaSi koncepti uSualod ki ar asaxavs obieqtur
sinamdviles, aramed ayalibebs mis garkveul saxes. adamianis idealuri
cnobiereba materialur samyaros enobrivi niSnebiT gamoxatuli
konceptebiT gamosaxavs.
koncepti samyaros enobrivi suraTis ZiriTadi erTeulia,
erTgvari `gasaRebi sityvaa~, romlis meSveobiTac xdeba kulturis
axsna.
rodesac ana veJbicka semantikur universaliebze saubrobs,
miuTiTebs, rom sazogadoebriv cxovrebasa da leqsikas Soris arsebobs
sruliad mWidro kavSiri. `Zalian mniSvnelovania, rom is, rac
sazogadoebis materialuri kulturisa da sazogadoebrivi
ritualebis kuTvnilebaa, aris, agreTve, am xalxis Rirebuleba da
ideali, rogor fiqroben isini samyaroze da am samyaroSi TavianT
cxovrebaze.~ (veJbicka 1999: 264).
garkveuli azriT, sityvebi gansakuTrebuli, kulturospecifikuri
mniSvnelobebiT asaxaven da gadmoscemen ara mxolod sazogadoebis
cxovrebis wess, aramed am xalxis azrovnebis stilsac.
koncepti SeiZleba gaviazroT, rogorc `gasaRebi sityva~,
gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani kulturisaTvis.
rogor unda gamovicnoT `gasaRebi sityvebi?~ ar SeiZleba, rom
enaSi arsebuli yvela sityva koncepti iyos. amis dadgena, upirvelesad,
sixSireTa leqsikonebiT aris SesaZlebeli. agreTve, enis
frazeologiasa da idiomatikaSi romelime leqsikis aqtualizaciiT,
misi unariT, Seqmnas myari Sexameba meore sityvasTan.
erT-erTi aseTi `gasaRebi sityva~ aris `gza~. is warmodgenebi,
romlebic am sityvis analiziT iqmneba, mravlismomcveli da
mravalmniSvnelovania.
gzis modelis gaazreba sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxvagvarad
xdeboda. Zveli aRTqmis adamianisTvis droSi ganfenili gzis saTaveSi
winaprebi arian, xolo maT misdeven STamomavlebi, anu Semdegi Taobebi,
romlebic winamorbedTa cxovrebis wesiTa da kanonebis dacviT
cxovroben, maTTvis Rirebuli warsulia, romelic arqeti pebSia
dapresili. `arqauli kacobrioba siaxlisgan da istoriuli
Seuqcevadobisagan rogorc SeeZlo, Tavs icavda. (eliade 1987: 64)
eklesiaste werda: `rac yofila, igive iqneba da rac momxdara, igive
moxdeba, araferia mzis qveS axali.~ (ekl.1:9)
semantema `gzis~ konceptualuri veli qarTulSi
268
nina aruTiunova gzis modelis ganxilvisas gamoyofs or, Zvel
aRTqmiseulsa da qristes dabadebis Semdegdroindel models. orive
modelis gzis mTavar figuras mgzavri warmoadgens, romelic
tradiciul anu Zvel aRTqmiseul gzaze arasdros ar aris marto.
gzaze midis xalxi, tomi, Taoba... isini mTlianad emorCilebian bedsa
da drois uSualo moTxovnebs, cxovroben Tavisi winaprebis msgavsad.
(gamosvla, levianni, ricxvni, meore rjuli), rasac ver vityviT axali
aRqTqmisdroindeli adamianis Sesaxeb.
`axalma aRTqmam mTlianad Secvala gzis modeli. ioane
naTlismcemeli ieso qristes Sesaxeb malaqia winaswarmetyvelis
sityvebiT saubrobs: `aha, movavlen Cems angelozs da gaamzadebs
gzas Cems winaSe~. (mal. 3:1). ioanes, maTes, markozis saxarebebSi
vkiTxulobT: `ioane mowmobs misTvis da RaRadiT ambobs: es aris
igi, visTvisac vTqvi: Cems Semdeg momavali Cemi winamorbedia, vinaidan
Cemze uwinares iyo~. (ioan. 1:15). ieso ioanes Sesaxeb ambobs: `es
aris igi, visTvisac daiwera: aha, me vgzavni Cems angelozs Sens winaSe,
romelic ganamzadebs Sens gzas Sensav winaSe~. (luka, 7:27). ioanes
misia iesos mosvlis damowmebaa. tradiciuli gzis modelSi mTavari
Rirebuleba eniWeba pirvelobasa da pirmSoobas, amitom qristes
ioanes win dayeneba motivirebulia imiT, rom qriste manamdec iyo,
ioanemde. `uTxra maT iesom: WeSmaritad, WeSmaritad geubnebiT Tqven:
abraamze uwinares me var~. (ioan. 8;58) `axla ki Sen ganmadide, mamao,
imave didebiT, romelic SenTan mqonda qveynis Seqmnamde~. (ioan.
17:5). qveynis Seqmnamde ieso qriste iwodeba `dasabam sityvad~,
logosad.
samyaros ganaxleba iwyeba axal aRTqmaSi. `xolo aw rjulisTvis
mkvdarni, romliTac Sekrulni viyaviT, gavTavisufldiT misgan, raTa
vmonebdeT RmerTs sulis siaxliT da ara asos siZveliT~. (rom.,
7:6) axlis mosvliT ecema Zvelis prestiJi. `ase rom, vinc qristeSia,
axali qmnilebaa; Zveli warxda, da, aha, yovelive aris axali~ (2kor.5:17).
axali aRTqmisTvis mniSvnelovania TanmimdevrobaSi siaxle. `mravali
pirveli iqneba ukanaskneli da ukanaskneli - pirveli~ (maTe, 19:30).
pirveloba ganisazRvreba piradi damsaxurebis mixedviT.
qristianobam adamians misca Tavisufleba gzis arCevanSi. gzam
Seicvala mimarTuleba. adamianma zurgi aqcia warsuls da daiZra
momavlisken. gzis modelSi gaCnda mizandasaxeloba. miznebis (gegmebis,
Canafiqrebis, proeqtebisa da prognozebis) lokalizeba mxolod
momavalSia SesaZlebeli. miznisken swrafva aris swrafva momavlisken.
Tamar yuraSvili
269
am modelis centralur figuras aqtiuri pirovneba, axali adamiani
warmoadgens. (aruTiunova 1998: 693).
ioanes saxarebaSi qristes erT-erTi epiTeti aris gza. `me var
gza da WeSmariteba da cxovreba. ara vin movides mamisa, garna Cem
mier~ (ioane, T.14:6). rodesac esaia winaswarmetyveli uflis
Surisgebaze saubrobs da am Surisgebis Semdeg morwmuneTa da
marTalTa xsnaze, gzas rogorc samudamo da saimedo TavSesafars
ganixilavs. `Saragza iqneba iq da wmida gza daerqmeva mas; uwmiduri
iq ver gaivlis; gzianad mavalisaTvis iqneba igi da briyvebi ar
iyialeben~.
`Sua saukuneTa xelovnebaSi yoveli gza simboluria. nebismieri
gzis fizikurad gavla raRac sulier plansac gulisxmobs. sanimuSod
miuTiTeben xolme, rom dantes `RvTaebriv komediaSi~ cebze svla
sinamdvileSi sulieri gancdaa, fiqria da ocneba sakuTari sulis
safexurebze~ (siraZe 1987: 82).
gzis gavla yovelTvis siZneleebis daZlevasTan aris
dakavSirebuli da swored amis gamo gza iniciaciis, miuwvdomel
codnasTan ziarebisa da yofieri Tu sakraluri sibrZnis mopovebis
simbolod gvevlineba.
gzis dasawyisi SeiZleba iyos materialuri (saxli) an figu-
raluri (v.propis terminologiiT, `naklebobis gancda~). saboloo
wertili ki ganixileba rogorc sakralur RirebulebebTan ziareba
dabrkolebaTa gadalaxvis Semdeg.
rac Seexeba semantema gzis konceptualuri vels, misi kvleva
enis idiomatikasa da frazeologiaze dakvirvebiT aris SesaZlebeli,
mis masStaburobasa da polisemiurobaze warmodgenas ki mxatvruli
teqstebis analizi iZleva.
`gza ars zomieri kacTa savali, xolo Sara - vrceli, da
biliki - viwro, xolo qaSani - SambnarTa anu TovlTa zeda gatkecili
savali da wavarna - kldeTa zeda viwro rame nadirTa warsavali.~
- ase ganmartavs sivrceSi arsebul mimosvlisaTvis gankuTvnil xazs
sulxan-saba orbeliani (orbeliani 1991: 158).
radgan gza savali nawilia, Sesabamisad, am semantemis Semcveli
umravlesi idiomebis zmnuri nawilic moZraobis gamomxatvelia.
magaliTad, wanwali (gzaTa ukan wanwali) uTavbolod, ugzo-ukvlod
xetials, tyuilad drois kargvas niSnavs. gzis avla raimesTvis an
vinmesTvis Tavis aridebis gamomxatvelia. gzis gadavla dabrkolebis,
xelis SeSlis, winaaRmdegobis gawevis aRmniSvnelia. umoZraobas,
semantema `gzis~ konceptualuri veli qarTulSi
270
umoqmedobasa da usaqmurobas xatovani gamoTqma gzis abalaxeba
gamoxatavs.
vinaidan leva, galeva, daleva raimes dasrulebas, moklebas,
dauZlurebas, dasustebas niSnavs, amis Sesabamisad, gamoTqma gzis
galeva mgzavrobis an sicocxlis dasrulebis xatovani gamoxatulebaa.
(`naxevari sicocxlis gza gavlie, sitkbozeda mware meti davlie~,
a.wereTeli).
iseTi sawyisebi, rogoricaa moWra, gadaWra, Sekvra, dagdebineba,
gadagdeba, gadaRobva, gamrudeba, daxSoba `gzasTan~ SeTanxmebiT xelis
SeSlas, dabrkolebis Seqmnas, akrZalvas, winaaRmdegobis gawevas
gamoxataven.
xelis Sewyobis, daxmarebis aRmoCenis, Wkuis darigebisa da
magaliTis mimcemi idiomebi gzasTan erTad Semdegi sawyisebis
SesityvebiT iqmneba: Camocla, gakafva, gagneba, dayeneba, gaxsna, Cveneba,
gatana, yofa, ganaTeba.
gzad da xidad gadeba winamZRvrobas, cxovrebis gaiolebasa da
daxmarebis aRmoCenas gulisxmobs.
raime gadawyvetilebis miRebisas orWofobasa da yoymans
gzasayarze dgoma gamoxatavs.
gza da kvali asaval-dasavals aRniSnavs, xolo gza-kvalis
areva/dabneva vinmes SecdomaSi Seyvanas gulisxmobs.
Zvel dros, rodesac gzebis nakleboba iyo da Tavisuflad
gadaadgileba mTel rig siZneleebTan iyo dakavSirebuli, gziani
gamosadegi, gonivruli, samSvidobos gamyvani da gaWirvebidan Tavis
daRwevis aRmniSvneli zedsarTavi saxeli gaxda. (`sZraxavdnen kaxTa
batonsa, saqme ver moyavs gzianad~, d.guramiSvili). gzianis antonimia
ugzo, rac winadauxedav, ugunur, uWkuo da gamousadegars aRniSnavs.
ampartavnebisa da qedmaRlobis gamosaxatavad iyenebdnen gamoTqmas
`mTis wverze gzis daqna.~ (`xevs vinRac ivasebaa,/ mindors bubunebs
xario,/ ar iareba dabalze,/ mTis wverze daqna gzanio.~ p.umikaSvili).
qarTul enaSi gza Ziridan nawarmoebi sityvebia: mgzavri, mogzauri,
mogzauroba, megzuri, megzuroba, namgzavri, Tanamgzavri, sagzao, sagzuri,
sagzali, sasagzle, gzavnili.. nawilaki -gzis, romelic daerTvis
ricxviT saxels, aqcevs mas zmnisarTad da moqmedebis ganmeorebas
gamoxatavs. (orgzis, samgzis, mravalgzis).
`gzasTan~ dakavSirebuli myari da dauSleli Sesatyvisebi,
romlebic iqcnen dauSlel kompozitebad aris gzamkvlevi,
gzajvaredini, gzatkecili, gzadakarguli, gzaabneuli, gzagamtari,
gzispira, fuZis gaorkecebiT aris miRebuli gzagza, an gzadagza..
Tamar yuraSvili
271
gza, rogorc wasvlasTan, mogzaurobasTan, aseve dabrunebasTan
da lodinTanac asocirdeba. gzisken Tvalebi damawyda viRacis an
raRacis didi xnis molodins gamoxatavs.
rogorc sicocxle, aseve sikvdilic gzasTan aris dakavSirebuli.
iseTi gamoTqmebi, rogoricaa marilze wasvla, Sabze wasvla, avi
dRis waReba vinmes gardacvalebas aRniSnavs.
siaruli, sirbili, gaqceva, waqceva, CanCali, wanwali, Zrwola,
gorva, xoxva, forTxva, gaswreba, daweva uSualod gzasTan dakavSirebuli
sawyisebia da maTi gamoyeneba andazebSi sakmaod xSiria.
`gaiqca da kidec gaifrcqvna~, `gamoqceulis mosvlas armosvla
sjobiao~, `gaswie, xaro, nislao, patronTan ginda misvlao~, `gamoudeq
simarTlesa, gamogilevs sinaTlesa~, `gaWirveba maCvene, gaqcevas gaCvenebo~,
`wasvla sjobs warmavalisa, ardayovneba xanisa~, `sasaflaos uTqvams
kacisTvis - bevrjer waxval, magram erTxelac moxval da veRar
waxvalo~, `Sori gza moiare da Sin mSvidobiT modio~, `sadac aris
bedi Seni, iq migiyvans fexi Seni~ da a.S.
gzis SemecnebiTi, komunikabeluri da esTetikuri funqcia
mravalgvaradaa gaazrebuli qarTul mwerlobaSi da amis erT-erT
saukeTeso magaliTs oTar WilaZis romanebi iZleva.
upirvelesad, gza aris moZraoba, sivrcis aTviseba, gadaadgileba
sawyisi wertilidan saboloosken. samoqmedo asparezi, erTgvari
direqcia, mimarTuleba Rirebulebebis transformaciisa da
realizaciisaken, pirovnebis swrafva individualizaciisaken.
`magram magaliTi mibaZvas, ganmeorebas ki ar avaldebulebda,
aramed mesame, sakuTari gzis Ziebas, radgan misma mSoblebma, dedamac
da mamamac TavianTi gza icodnen mxolod, ise cxovrobdnen, rogorc
is gza aiZulebda, rogorc im gzas Seefereboda, xolo viRacis,
Tundac mSoblis mier ukve ganvlil gzas, Zalianac rom moindomos,
Zalac rom mosdevdes saamisod, veRaravin gaivlis xelmeored, Tundac
im ubralo mizezis gamo, am qveynidan yvela Tavis gzianad rom
qreb.~.(o.WilaZe, ~rkinis Teatri~).
nina aruTiunova erTmaneTisgan ganasxvavebs adamianis cxovrebiseul
gzasa da bedisweras naSromSi: `bedis gageba sxvadasxva kulturis
konteqstSi~. `gza, rogorc adamianis cxovrebis koncepti, dayofilia
etapebad, is, bedisgan gansxvavebiT, iwyeba maSin, rodesac adamiani
cxovrebaSi pirvel arCevans akeTebs. Tu bedi, bediswera adamians
aTavisuflebs pasuxismgeblobisgan, cxovrebiseuli gza, piriqiT, mas
am pasuxismgeblobas akisrebs. adamians SeuZlia bedis samduravis
semantema `gzis~ konceptualuri veli qarTulSi
272
Tqma, ubedobis Civili, magram cxovrebisul gzasTan dakavSirebuli
terminebiT is amas ver gamoxatavs.~
oTar WilaZe ki bediswerasa da cxovrebiseuli gzas erTmaneTTan
aigivebs da gzas, rogorc gardauval aucileblobas ganixilavs.
`yvela adamiani Tavisi sakuTari, erTaderTi, ganumeorebeli gziT
ibadeba da Tavcocxali ver gadauxvevs am gzidan~. (o.WilaZe, ~go-
dori~).
gzis konceptualur velSi oTar WilaZe moiazrebs rogorc
imeds (`vidre bilikis es nagleji mainc arsebobs, arc Cven gvaqvs
far-xmlis dayris ufleb.~. `godori~), aseve - uimedobas, daRupvas,
ganwirulobas (`ai, erTaderTi gza, romelic man cxovrebiT daimsaxura
- arsaidan momavali da arsaiT mimavali - gza ki ara, gzis nagleji,
gzis monarCeni, asfaltmosxmuli da wablis mwvane burZglebiT
mofenili~. ~godori~).
grZnobis, sindisis, mogonebis gareSe cxovrebas o.WilaZe
simbolurad `ugzoobis qveyanas~ uwodebs, ~sadac xelmocarulni,
ganwirulni, ufesvoni da umomavloni sakuTari fexiT Sedian, cocxlad
rom Caimarxon Tavi Zvel codvebSi, amazrzen, Semzarav mogonebebSi,
CvenebebSi, koSmarebSi, radgan sicocxlec iseTive uazrobaa imaTTvis,
rogorc sikvdili, sicocxlisac iseve eSiniaT, rogorc sikvdilisa.
amitom, aRarafers aRar elodeba, aRarafris aRar sjera, garda
aRsasrulisa, romelic dRiTidRe axlovdeba, dRiTidRe gardauvali
da bunebrivi xdeba, imitom ki ara, megzuri rom ar Cans, megzurma rom
daaRalata, anda ver amoaRwia aqamde, aramed imitom, TviTonve rom
moiWra erTaderTi gza~. (`rkinis Teatri~). da es erTaderTi gza
oTar WilaZisTvis im dakarguli gzis Ziebaa, `romelic iq miiyvanda,
sadac unda misuliyo, aucileblad, ara viRacis jibriT, aramed
bunebis kanonis ZaliT - Tavis fuZeze, Tavis WerqveS, Tavis akvanTan
da Tavis samaresTan~ (`rkinis Teatri~).
gzas oTar WilaZe ganixilavs rogorc tradicias (`met-naklebad
yvelani erTnairad iyvnen gadamcdarni Zveli gzidan, ramdenadac Tavad
Zveli gza aRar arsebobda da Tu awuxebdaT, siaxlis SegrZneba
awuxebdaT mxolod, rogorc jer kidev moutexavi fexsacmeli~
(`rkinis Teatri~), aseve cxovrebis wess an Cvevas: `ara, gzis meti
raa, magram umal axali gzis maZiebeli moinaTleba moRalated, vidre
Zvelis erTguli mimdevari~, (`godori~).
gza aris arCevani, alternativa, varianti, versia, xerxi, meTodi,
saSualeba da gamosavali. `iqneb, mxolod dumili da Segueba iyo
Tamar yuraSvili
273
erTaderTi gza, romelic adamianisTvis daeTmoT RmerTebs~ (`gzaze
erTi kaci midioda~).
oTar WilaZisTvis siyvarulsa da veragobasac TavTavianTi gza
aqvT: `natoc siyvarulis gzidan TandaTan, TiTqmis SeumCnevlad
veragobis gzaze gadadioda~; oTar WilaZe sikvdilis gzas daRupvis
gzisgan ganasxvavebs. `sikvdilis gza ki ar iqneba igi, romelic adre
Tu gvian yvelam unda gaiaros, aramed daRupvisa, romelic mxolod
imisTvisaa gankuTvnili, visac bedma umuxTla, anda vinc beds aujanyda~.
(`yovelman Cemman mpovnelman~).
gzis modeli mgzavris moZraobisa (midis, modis, gadis, axlovdeba,
dgeba) da adgilis (win, ukan, Semdeg...) metaforebze aris dafuZnebuli,
is sivrcisa da drois kategoriebTan uSualod aris dakavSirebuli
da, Sesabamisad, is leqsika, romelic gzasTan erTad qmnis myar
Sesityvebebs, Cveulebriv, drosac miemarTeba.
`marTlac, didi dro gasuliyo, gasuliyo, radgan es iyo misi
mTavari Tviseba, daudevrad miabijebda Tavis gzaze... misTvis sul
erTi iyo, vis abijebda, an ras abijebda fexs, ra unda gaesrisa, ra
unda gaecamtverebina, risTvis unda Seetovebina samudamod SiSveli
terfebis anabeWdi~. (`gzaze erTi kaci midioda~).
oTar WilaZis yvela romani sakuTari Tavis Semecnebis,
WeSmaritebasTan ziarebisa da sinamdvilesTan dabrunebis gzaze
Semdgari maradiuli mgzavrebis erTi didi moZraobaa. misi erT-
erTi romanis saTauri `gzaze erTi kaci midioda~ am gzaze bedisweris
pirispir myofi adamianis martoobis gamomxatvelia. TiToeuli
adamiani martoa, Tavisi piradi, sakuTari gzisa da daniSnulebis
ZebnaSi.
`gzasac povna unda, gzas unda swored povna, ufro zustad rom
vTqvaT, yvelaferi unda aitanos, vidre sabolood aexileba gzis
dasanaxi Tvali. kidev ufro zustad, vidre sinamdvilisgan Tavis
dasacavi movlenebi, sizmrebi Tu mogonebebi isev sinamdviles dauTmoben
adgils~ (~martis mamali~).
es aris adamianis xelaxla dabadebis, kaTarzisis gza.
`gamwarebuli gamorbis sxvaTa warsulidan, Teslis bnelsa da idumal
gzas mihyveba araraobidan sicocxlisaken, raTa iSvas, daibados,
aRmocendes da Tavidan daiwyos yvelaferi~. (~martis mamali~).
magram oTar WilaZis romanebSi ganfenil gzebs mxolod
momavlisken ar aqvT gezi, aris gza, romelic ukan, warsulSic abrunebs
da `warsulamde arsebul droSic,~ iniciaciis sferoSi.
semantema `gzis~ konceptualuri veli qarTulSi
274
`farnaozma im dRes dahkarga ino, im dRes gaswira sabolood,
radgan swored im dRes unda gamoeyvana, ZaliT unda gamoeTria aTasi
kacis gaxrwnili vnebiT aSmorebuli oTaxidan da masTan erTad
dasdgomoda usasrulo gzas, romelic warsulamde arsebul droSi
gadaiyvanda, patara mRvimeS~ (`gzaze erTi kaci midioda~).
warsulSi Sebruneba ki oTar WilaZisTvis maradisobasTan
dakavSirebis aqtia. `Tuki rodisme warsulSi Sebruneba SesZeli,
mere ki warsulic gadalaxe, maradisobaSi aRmoCndebi Turme da
aRarasodes mokvdebi~ (`martis mamali~).
oTar WilaZe gzis globalur metaforizacias axdens da misTvis
gza mTavar saxe-simbolod, saxe-idead iqceva.
`gzas imitom hqvia gza, usasrulod rom gagrZeldes, yvelafers
miswvdes, fiqriviT, yvelaferze gadaiaros, dro-JamiviT da isic
pirnaTlad asrulebdes aqamde Tavis movaleobas - urCxuliviT
Semoxvevia qveyanas, sakuTari kudi pirSi Caudia da mSvidad sZinavs,
radgan aRaraferi arsebobs misTvis moulodneli, ganucdeli,
gauTvaliswinebeli... Tavic iq udevs, sadac bolo - iq iwyeba, sadac
mTavrdeba, xolo visac jer erTic gasarkvevi aqvs da meorec, iqamde
unda iaros, vidre urCxulis xaxidan isev urCxulis xaxaSi
dabrundeba~ (`martis mamali~).
Tu gaviTvaliswinebT im faqts, rom mecnierebi koncepts
metaforulad `qolgisebur termins~ uwodeben, romelic gulisxmobs
niSnis azrobriv mniSvnelobas, araCveulebrivad dinamiur, variantulsa
da mravalganzomilebian warmonaqmns, mudmivad cvlads gare
informaciis zegavleniT, maSin oTar WilaZesTan semantema gzis
qolgisebur arealSi moqceul sxvadasxva gagebebs erT did, mTavar
ideasTan mivyavarT, romelic RmerTTan, absolutTan Sexvedris imeds
iZleva.
literatura
aruTinova 1998: . . , , .
veJbicka 1999: ,
, .
ivanovi 1999: . . ,
, . I , .
siraZe 1987: siraZe revazi, literaturul-esTetikuri narkvevebi,
1987.
Tamar yuraSvili
275
orbeliani 1991: sulxan saba orbeliani, leqsikoni qarTuli, t. I,
Tbilisi.
teqstebi:
oTar WilaZe, gzaze erTi kaci midioda, Tb., 1979.
oTar WilaZe, yovelman Cemman mpovelman, Tb., 1976.
oTar WilaZe, rkinis Teatri, Tb., 1987.
oTar WilaZe, avelumi, Tb., 1990.
oTar WilaZe, godori, Tb., 2006.
Tamar Kurashvili
Conceptual field of the semanthema wey in Georgian
language
In liguistics and philosophy, the term concept implies an ideal object. The
term reflects cultural and value-based of the human perceptions of the world. It is
a kind of key word that explains culture. Obviously, not all the words of a language
are concepts in iteself. These key words are being identified by using the dictionaries
of frequently used terms as well as through inquiries into lexics and fraseology.
Way is one of such key words. The perceptions that are revealed through
analysis imply multiple meanings. The study of the conceptual field of way is
possible through the study of idiomatics and fraseology, that is, inquiry of the words
that stem from this semantheme including composites, idiomatic expressions
and popular sayings.
The perceptional, communicative and aesthetic functions of way found in
Georgian literature are rather diverse. Works of Otar Chiladze can serve as an
illustrative example in this regard.
The way implies movement, exploring the phisical space, and respectively,
the domain or an operational area for action and the pursuit of individalization.
Importantly, it also implies the lifetime journey and pnes fate. Conceptual field of the
way in Otar Chiladzes work implies hope and hopelessness, tradition, habit the way of life
as well as a choice, alternative, version, method, the means and a way out.
Taking into accout the fact that the scholars metaphorically call concept an umbrella
term that is an excessively dynamic, multivariate and multidimensional set of meanings
that permanently reshaped by external information the multiple meanings of the
semanthema of the way in Otar Chiladzes works altogether lead to an overencomompassing
theme and idea that offers a hope of reaching out God as the absolute.
semantema `gzis~ konceptualuri veli qarTulSi
276
iuri lotmani
poeturi teqstis struqturuli analizis
amocanebi da meTodebi*
struqturuli analizis safuZvelia Tvalsazrisi
literaturuli nawarmoebis, rogorc organuli mTlianobis Sesaxeb.
amgvari analizisas teqsti ar ganixileba, rogorc misi Semadgeneli
elementebis meqanikuri jami. TviT am elementebis `kerZoobiToba~
ki kargavs absolutur xasiaTs: TiToeuli maTgani realizdeba mxolod
teqstis sxva elementebTan da struqturul mTlianobasTan
mimarTebaSi. am gagebiT, struqturuli analizi Seesabameba Cveni
saukunis mecnierul ZiebaTa saerTo suliskveTebas da upirispirdeba
pozitivisturi kvlevis am atomarul-metafizikur tradiciebs,
romlebic mecxramete saukunes axasiaTebda. SemTxveviTi araa, rom
analizis struqturulma meTodma Tavisi adgili daikava mecnieruli
codnis sruliad gansxvavebul sferoebSi: lingvistikasa da
geologiaSi, paleontologiasa da samarTalmcodneobaSi, qimiasa da
socialogiaSi. aq wamoWrili problemebis maTematikur aspeqtebze
yuradRebis gamaxvileba da struqturaTa Teoriis, rogorc damouki-
debeli mecnieruli disciplinis Seqmna mowmobs, rom sakiTxma
calkeuli disciplinis meTodologiis sferodan saerTo-mecnieruli
codnis Teoriis sferoSi gadainacvla.
amgvarad gagebuli struqturuli analizi ar warmoadgens raime
siaxles. specifikuria TviT mTlianobis gageba: mxatvruli nawarmoebi
garkveuli realobaa da, rogorc aseTi, SeiZleba, danawevrdes;
ganvixiloT teqstis romelime nawili; davuSvaT, esaa poeturi
teqstis erTi striqoni an adamianis Tavis ferweruli gamosaxuleba.
axla warmovidginoT, rom es fragmenti CarTulia ufro vrcel
teqstSi. Sesabamisad, Tavis erTi da igive gamosaxuleba SeiZleba
warmoadgendes suraTis erT-erT detals, SesaZloa, man suraTis
zeda nawili daikavos an mTlianad Seavsos tilo (vTqvaT, eskizebi).
T a r g m a n e b i T a r g m a n e b i T a r g m a n e b i T a r g m a n e b i T a r g m a n e b i
* mkiTxvels vTavazobT or qveTavs wignidan . . ,
. . . . 1972. gv. 11-23. maTSi ganxiluli sakiTxebi dResac
inarCunebs Tavis aqtualobas. mTargmneli Tamar lomiZe.
277
es magaliTebi cxadyofs, rom teqstobrivad igiveobrivi detali,
ufro zogadi saxis mTlianobebSi CarTvisas, ar emTxveva xolme
sakuTar Tavs.
am mxriv sayuradRebo daskvnebis gamotanis saSualebas iZleva
kinokadris aRqma. firze aRbeWdili erTi da igive gamosaxuleba,
romelic gansxvavebul (magaliTad, saerTo, saSualo da wina) planebzea
warmodgenili, kinofiris mxatvrul konstruqciaSi sxvadasxva
gamosaxulebis saxiT warmoCndeba, rac ganpirobebulia ekranis
Sevsebuli nawilis mimarTebiT misi carieli nawilisa da CarCosadmi
(TviT planebis gansxvaveba mxatvrul mniSvneloba gadmocemis
saSualebad iqceva). amasTan, gamosaxulebis sididis cvalebadoba,
romelic damokidebulia ekranis zomebze, darbazis moculobasa da
kinogaqiravebis sxva pirobebze, ar warmoqmnis axal mxatvrul
mniSvnelobebs. amgvarad, esTetikuri efeqtis wyarod da mxatvrul
realobad am SemTxvevaSi iqceva zoma ara rogorc absoluturi
sidide, romelic Tavisi Tavis igiveobrivia (mxatvrul garemocvasTan
kavSiris gareSe), aramed detalisa da kadris sazRvrebis
urTierTmimarTeba.
es dakvirveba SeiZleba ganvavrcoT da zogadi kanonzomierebis
saxe mivceT. mxatvruli realobis erT-erTi ZiriTadi Tavisebureba
Tavs iCens maSin, rodesac miznad visaxavT nawarmoebis arsis, misi
ganuyofeli nawilis gamijvnas im (zogjer Zalze mniSvnelovani)
niSnebisagan, romlebic ar cvlis nawarmoebis specifikas. Cveulebriv,
eWvi ar gvepareba `evgeni oneginis~ yvela gamocemis igiveobriobaSi,
maTi formatis, Sriftisa da qaRaldis xarisxis miuxedavad
1
. aseve
vaigivebT musikaluri an Teatraluri piesis yovelgvar
saSemsruleblo gaazrebebs. bolos, rodesac vakvirdebiT suraTis
Sav-TeTr reproduqcias an mis graviuras (XIX saukunemde ferweris
sxvagvari reproducireba SeuZlebeli iyo), mas, garkveulad, gaigivebT
dedanTan (ase magaliTad, graviurebis gadaxatva didi xnis
ganmavlobaSi xatvisa da kompoziciis swavlebis erTaderT formas
warmoadgenda. mkvlevars, romelic aanalizebs ferwerul tiloze
figurebis ganlagebas, SeuZlia mimarTos teqstis Sav-TeTr
reproduqciebs da gaaigivos isini TviT suraTTan). ZvelisZvel
freskaze daCneuli nafxaWni an laqebi SeiZleba ufro TvalsaCino
1
amgvari gaigiveba axasiaTebs teqstis Cveneul aRqmas, magram is sulac ar
warmoadgens sayovelTao kanonzomierebas. magaliTad, o. uaildis `dorian greis
portretSi~ gmiris biblioTekaSi Sekrebil urTierTgansxvavebul wignebs erTnairad
anawyobi teqsti da sxvadasxva feris qaRaldi aqvT. bevr arqaul sazogadoebaSi
qvaze an spilenZze amotvifruli teqsti ise Seefardeba amgvarad gauformebel
teqsts, rogorc wminda profanuls, WeSmariti ki _ yalbs.
poeturi teqstis struqturuli analizis amocanebi da meTodebi
278
iyos, vidre TviT naxati, magram freskis aRqmisas `wavSliT~ xolme
mas (an vcdilobT wavSaloT. tkboba meoreul xasiaTs atarebs,
esTeturia. esaa mxolod danaSrevi aRqmaze, romelic teqsts
xarvezebisagan aTavisuflebs). amgvarad, teqstis realoba ar moicavs
yovelive imas, rac misTvis materialurad damaxasiaTebelia, Tu
vigulisxmebT materialurobis cnebis gulubryvil-empiriul an
pozitivistur mniSvnelobas. teqstis realobas warmoqmnis
mimarTebaTa sistema, is, rasac niSnadi antiTezebi gaaCnia, e.i. is, rac
gaerTianebulia nawarmoebis struqturaSi.
struqturis cneba gulisxmobs, pirvel yovlisa, sistemuri
mTlianobis arsebobas. xazs usvamda ra am niSans, klod levi-
strosi werd: `struqturis sistemuri xasiaTi aqvs. misi Semadgeneli
elementebis Tanafardoba imgvaria, rom romelime maTganis cvlileba
iwvevs danarCenTa Secvlasac
1
.
zemoaRwerili dakvirvebebis meore arsebiTi Sedegia Sesaswavli
movlenis struqturuli (sistemuri) da arasistemuri elementebis
urTierTgamijvna. struqtura yovelTvis warmoadgens models. amitom
is teqstisgan meti sistemurobiT, `sisworiT~, abstraqtulobis
siWarbiT gansxvavdeba (ufro zustad, teqsts upirispirdeba ara
erTiani abstraqtuli sistema-modeli, aramed struqturaTa ierarqia,
romelic organizebulia abstraqtulobis gaZlierebis niSnis
mixedviT). TviT teqsti struqturasTan mimarTebaSi gvevlineba,
rogorc gansazRvrul doneze misi realizacia an interpretacia
(ase, magaliTad, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, Seqspiris `hamletis~
nabeWdi an scenaze gaTamaSebuli variantebi erTi nawarmoebia
sumarokovis `hamletsa~ an Seqspiris `makbetTan~ antiTezaSi; meore
mxriv, esaa piesis erTiani struqturis interpretaciis ori
gansxvavebuli done). maSasadame, teqsti ierarqiulia. is
ierarqiulobac Sinagani organizaciis, struqturulobis arsebiTi
niSania.
sistemisa da teqstis gamijvnas (enis Sesaxeb msjelobisas
erTierTs upirispireben `enasa~ da `metyvelebas~, amis Sesaxeb
dawvrilebiT ix. Semdgom TavSi) fundamenturi mniSvneloba eniWeba
struqturuli ciklis yvela disciplinis Seswavlisas. am midgomidan
gamomdinare, ar SevexebiT SesaZlo Sedegebs, magram winaswari
ganxilvisas ramdenime maTganze unda SevCerde. upirveles yovlisa,
xazgasmiT aRvniSnav, rom teqnikisa da sistemis urTierTdapirispireba
1
Claude Levi-Strauss. Anthropologie structurale. Paris, 1958, p. 306.
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279
absoluturi rodia. is SefardebiTi da zogjer wminda evristikuli
xasiaTisaa. jer erTi, am cnebebis zemoT miTiTebuli ierarqiulobis
gamo erTi da igive movlena SeiZleba garkveul mimarTebebSi teqstis
saxiT mogvevlinos, sxvebSi ki ufro dabali donis teqstebis
gasaSifri sistemis saxiT. ase, magaliTad, saxarebiseuli igavi an
klasicisturi araki warmoadgens zogierTi religiuri an zneobrivi
debulebis amxsnel teqsts, magram imaTTvis, vinc am SegonebebiT
unda isargeblos, isini modelebia, romelTa interpretacia
xorcieldeba mkiTxvelTa yofiTi praqtikisa da qcevis doneze.
`teqstisa~ da `sistemis~ cnebaTa kavSiri sxva SemTxvevebSic
iCens Tavs. umarTebuli iqneboda maTi imgvari dapirispireba, rom
teqsts realurobis Tviseba mivaweroT, struqtura ki ganvixiloT,
rogorc raRac gonebaWvretiTi mocemuloba, romlis arseboba
gacilebiT ufro problemuria. struqtura arsebobs teqstis
empiriul realobaSi, magram ar unda vifiqroT, rom kavSiri aq
calsaxaa da empiriuli arsebobis faqti realobis garkvevis
umaRlesi kriteriumia. empiriul samyaroSi Cveni gamocdilebidan
gamudmebiT ukuvagdebT da gamovricxavT garkveul faqtebs. vTqvaT,
mZRoli, romelic qarsarid minaSi Tvalyurs adevnebs quCas, amCnevs
fexiT mosiaruleTa jgufs, romelic quCas gadakveTs. is myisve
afiqsirebs maTi moZraobis siCqaresa da mimarTulebas, amCnevs im
Tvisebebs, romelTa saSualebiTac SesaZloa qvafenilze fexiT
mosiaruleTa Semdgomi qcevis gansazRvra (`bavSvebi~, `mTvrali~,
`usinaTlo~, `provincieli~). is ver aRiqvams yuradRebis gamfantvel
detalebs, romlebic misi sakuTari qcevis strategiis SerCevaze
gavlenas ver moaxdens. ase, magaliTad, is unda gaiwafos, raTa ar
SeamCnios kostiumebisa da Tmis feri, saxis nakvTebi. amave dros,
quCaze myofi sisxlis samarTlis policiis agenti an mSvenieri
sqesis moyvaruli ymawivili sruliad sxva realobas dainaxaven.
dakvirvebis unari gulisxmobs, rom zogierTi ram ver SeniSno da
imasac, rom sxva ram SeamCnio. TiToeuli am gulisyuriani damkvirveblis
winaSe empiriuli realoba gansakuTrebuli ieriTaa aRWurvili.
koreqtori da poeti erTsa da imave furcels gansxvavebulad
aRiqvamen. verc erT faqts ver SevamCnevT, Tu ar arsebobs maTi
SerCevis sistema, isive rogorc ver gavSifravT teqsts, Tu kodi ar
viciT. teqsti da struqtura urTierTs ganapirobebs da mxolod
am urTierTTanafardobis meSveobiT iZens realurobas.
quCis Sesaxeb moyvanili magaliTi SeiZleba ganvmartoT, rogorc
erTi da imave situaciis farglebSi arsebuli sami teqsti (xalxiTa
poeturi teqstis struqturuli analizis amocanebi da meTodebi
280
da manqanebiT savse quCa am SemTxvevaSi teqstis saxiT gvevlineba),
romlebic sami gansxvavebuli kodis saSualebiT iSifreba. amasTan,
is SeiZleba avxsnaT, rogorc erTi teqsti, romlis mimarT dasaSvebia
dekodirebis sami gansxvavebuli xerxis gamoyeneba. aseT magaliTebs
qvemoT sakmaod xSirad wavawydebiT. aranakleb sainteresoa magaliTi,
rodesac erTi da imave struqturis xorcSesxma ramdenime
gansxvavebul teqstSi SesaZ-lebeli.
humanitarul mecnierebebSi struqturuli meTodebis specifikis
swori gagebisaTvis saWiroa kidev erTi sakiTxis gamoyofa.
informaciis gadacemisa da dacvisaTvis yovelgvari struqtura ar
gamodgeba, magram informaciis Semcveli nebismieri mocemuloba
struqturas warmodgens. amgvarad, saqme exeba semiotikuri sistemebis
struqturul Seswavlas. es is sistemebia, romlebic niSnebs iyenebs
da emsaxureba informaciis gadacemasa da dacvas. struqturuli
meTodebi gamoiyeneba Tanamedrove mecnierebaTa umravlesobaSi.
humanitaruli mecnierebis mimarT ufro marTebulia msjeloba
struqturul-semiotikuri meTodebis Sesaxeb.
* * *
poeturi teqstis, rogorc gansakuTrebuli saxiT organizebuli
semiotikuri struqturis ganxilvisas daveyrdnobiT winamorbedTa
mecnieruli azrovnebis miRwevebs.
amosavali mecnieruli principebis sxvaobasa da mravalferovnebas
ganapirobebs rogorc ideologiis (da, ufro farTod, kulturis)
gansazRvrul tipTan TiToeuli sakvlevi meTodis mimarTeba, aseve
maTi kavSiri Semecnebis winsvlis kanonebTan. amasTan, arsebiTad,
mxatvruli nawarmoebis Seswavlisadmi orgvari midgomaa SesaZlebeli.
pirveli maTgani eyrdnoba warmodgenas imis Sesaxeb, rom xelovnebis
arsi TviT teqstSi mdgomareobs, xolo yoveli nawarmoebi imiTaa
Rirebuli, rom is aris is, rac aris. am SemTxvevaSi yuradReba
maxvildeba xelovnebis nawarmoebis agebis Sinagan kanonebze; meoregvari
midgoma gulisxmobs nawarmoebis rogorc iseTi nawilis ganxilvas,
romelic TviT teqstze ufro mniSvnelovani mocemulobis
gamoxatulebaa: es SeiZleba iyos poetis pirovneba, fsiqologiuri
momenti an sazogadoebrivi situacia. aseT SemTxvevaSi mkvlevars ar
ainteresebs sakuTriv teqsti. es ukanaskneli masalaa zemoCamoT-
vlili ufro abstraqtuli donis modelebis asagebad.
literaturaTmcodneobaSi iyo periodebi, rodesac TiToeul
am tendencias yvelaze ufro aqtualuri mecnieruli amocanebis
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gadaWra ekisreboda. Semdgom, mecnierebis ganviTarebis mocemuli
doniT gansazRvruli SesaZleblobebis amowurvisas, is adgils
uTmobda sapirispiro mimarTulebas. ase, XVIII saukuneSi
literaturaTmcodneoba iyo, pirvel rigSi, mecniereba teqstis agebis
Sinagani wesebis Sesaxeb. da, rasac ar unda ambobdnen XIX saukunis
esTetikosebi meTvramete saukunis literaturaTmcodneobis
antiistorizmis, normatiulobisa da metafizikurobis Sesaxeb, ar
unda daviviwyoT, rom swored am dros daiwera bualos `poeturi
xelovneba~, lomonosovis `ritorika~ da lesingis `hamburgis
dramaturgia~. winamorbedi mecnierebis msjelobebs xelovnebis Sesaxeb
XIX saukunis Teoretikosebi `wvrilmans~ uwodebdnen. isini
fiqrobdnen, rom XVIII s. mkvlevrebs zedmetad itacebda samwerlo
ostatobis teqnologia. amasTan, ar unda daviviwyoT, rom swored
XVIII saukuneSi literaturis Teoria, rogorc arasdros, ise iyo
dakavSirebuli kritikasa da cocxal literaturul cxovrebasTan.
teqstis agebis sakiTxze yuradRebis gamaxvilebasTan erTad XVIII
s. Teoretikosebi qmnidnen mxatvruli kulturis uzarmazar kapitals,
romelic, faqtiurad, XIX s. evropuli literaturis arsebobis
safuZvelia.
momdevno epoqis Teoriulma azrovnebam gadaWriT uaryo
Tvalsazrisi nawarmoebis, rogorc TviTkmari mocemulobis Sesaxeb.
teqstSi eZiebdnen istoriis, epoqis an romelime gareSe arsis sulis
gamoxatulebas. teqstis gareT arsebuli substancia cocxali da
usasrulo warmoedginaT, xolo TviT nawarmoebi gaazrebuli iyo,
rogorc misi nawilobriv adekvaturi samosi, rogorc `sulis tyveoba
materialur gamoxatulebaSi~, rogorc usasrulobis sasruli xati.
mkiTxvelisa da mkvlevris mizans (winandeburad igulisxmeboda, rom
es erTiani mizani iyo, xolo mkvlevari kvalificirebul mkiTxvels
warmoadgenda) Seadgenda teqstis miRma arsebuli substanciebis
mikvleva. am TvalsazrisiT, gadamwyveti mniSvneloba SeiZina teqstis
mimarTebam sxva teqstebTan, agreTve maTma gaerTianebam erTiani
uZravi nakadis saxiT an teqstis mimarTebam mis gareT arsebul
realobasTan. es ukanaskneli esmodaT, rogorc msoflio sulis
ganviTareba an sazogadoebriv ZalTa brZola. TavisTavad teqstis
mniSvneloba mcirdeboda. igi `Zeglis~ doneze daiyvaneboda.
XX saukunis literaturuli Sexedulebebis Widils epoqis
saerTo xasiaTma Rrma dramatizmis didi daasva. swored am periodSi
aRiniSna rogorc erTi, aseve meore zemonaxsenebi tendenciis
mankierebis Sesaxeb. SeumCneveli darCa is faqti, rom TiToeuli
poeturi teqstis struqturuli analizis amocanebi da meTodebi
282
maTgani asaxavda Sesaswavli masalis gansazRvrul mxares da
mecnieruli azris ganviTarebis garkveul etapebze win wamowevda
xolme mZlavr da nayofier koncefciebs, sxva dros ki qmnida epigonur
da doqtrinul Teoriebs.
mTeli rigi istoriuli mizezebis gamo XX saukuneSi am ori
tendenciis konfliqtma gansakuTrebiT mZafri xasiaTi miiRo.
akademiuri literaturaTmcodneobis degradaciam sapasuxo reaqcia
gamoiwvia e.w. `formaluri skolis~ axalgazrda warmomadgenelTa
naSromebSi~ (`moskovis lingvisturi wre~ moskovSi; `opoiazi~
petrogradSi; futurizmis, mogvianebiT ki `lef~-is kritikosebi
da Teoretikosebi). am mimarTulebis amosaval debulebas da ZiriTad
damsaxurebas warmoadgenda Tvalsazrisi, rom xelovneba araa mxolod
damxmare masala fsiqologiuri an istoriuli StudiebisaTvis, xolo
xelovnebaTmcodneobas kvlevis sakuTari obieqti gaaCnia. obieqtisa
da kvlevis meTodikis damoukideblobis deklarirebis meSveobiT
`formalurma skolam~ pirvel planze wamoswia teqstis problema.
mis momxreebs egonaT, rom materializmis niadagze idgnen. isini
amtkicebdnen, rom mniSvneloba ar arsebobs misi materialuri
substratis niSnis gareSe da rom is damokidebulia am niSnis
organizaciaze. am mkvlevarTa saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli bevri
brwyinvale migneba mxatvruli teqstis niSnobrivi bunebis Sesaxeb.
formaluri skolis bevrma debulebam winaswar ganWvrita
struqturuli literaturaTmcodneobis ideebi. maTi interpretacia
struqturuli lingvistikis, semiotikisa da informaciis Teoriis
uaxlesma ideebma ganaxorciela. praRis lingvisturi wrisa da r.
iakobsonis naSromebis meSveobiT, rusuli formaluri skolis Teoriam
Rrma zegavlena moaxdina humanitarul mecnierebaTa ganviTarebaze
mTel msoflioSi.
amasTan, ukve axalgazrda literaturaTmcodneTa naSromebis
garSemo wamoWrili polemikis dasawyisSi miTiTebuli iyo formaluri
skolis koncefciis bevri xarvezi. formalistebis kritikas, pirvel
yovlisa, xeli mihyves simbolizmis burjebma, romlebmac TvalsaCino
adgili daikaves 1920-iani wlebis literaturaTmcodneobaSi (v.i.
briusovi da sxva). isini ganixilavdnen teqsts, rogorc Rrma da
faruli sazrisebis garegnul niSans da ar eTanxmebodnen ideis
dayvanas konstruqciaze. formalizmis sxva aspeqtebma gamoiwvia im
mkvlevarTa protesti, romlebic klasikur germanul filologiasTan
iyvnen dakavSirebulni (g. Speti) da kulturaSi teqstebis jams ki
ar gulisxmobdnen, aramed sulis moZraobas. bolos, 1920-iani
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wlebis kritikam miuTiTa, rom formalistebis literaturaT-
mcodneobiTi analizis imanenturoba mis ZiriTad nakls warmoadgens.
formalistebisTvis teqstis ganmarteba daiyvaneba pasuxze, romelic
unda gaeces kiTxvas: `rogoriaa agebuli?~, sociologebisTvis yovelive
es ki gansazRvrulia sxvagvarad: `riTaa ganpirobebuli?~.
formaluri skolis dramatuli istoriis gadmocema
dagvacilebda Cveni uSualo amocanis farglebs. amasTan, unda aRiniSnos,
rom formaluri skolis rigebSi iyvnen gamoCenili sabWoTa mkvlevrebi:
b.m. eixenbaumi, v.b. Sklovski, i.n. tinianovi, b.v. tomaSevski; misi
principebis zegavlena ganicades v.o. vinokurma, g.a. gukovskim, v.v.
gipiusma, p.a. skaftimovma, v.m. Jirmunskim, m.m. baxtinma, v.v. vinogradovma,
v.i. propma da mravalma sxva mecnierma. formaluri skolis evolucia
dakavSirebuli iyo Sidateqstobrivi analizis imanenturobis
gadalaxvis tendenciasTan; metafizikuri warmodgena `xerxze~, rogorc
xelovnebis safuZvelze, unda Seecvala mxatvruli funqciis
daileqtikur cnebas. aq calke unda gamovyoT i.n. tinianovis naSromebi.
formalizmis gardaqmna funqcionalizmad aSkarad vlindeba
literaturaTmcodneobis SesaniSnavi Cexuri da slovakuri skolis
magaliTze i. mukarJovskis, i. grabakis, m. bakoSisa da praRis
lingvisturi wris sxva wevrebis, agreTve maTTan mWidrod
dakavSirebuli n.s. trubeckoisa da r. iakobsonis naSromebSi.
jerovnad SevafasebT ra `opoiazis~ Teoretikosebis mier
gamoTqmul ideebs, gadaWriT unda uarvyoT xSirad gamoTqmuli
Sexeduleba formalizmis, rogorc struqturalizmis ZiriTadi
wyaros Sesaxeb. am or mecnierul mimarTulebas zogjer aigiveben
kidec. struqturuli ideebis kristalizeba ganxorcielda rogorc
formalistebis, aseve maT mowinaaRmdegeTa naSromebSi. Tu erTni
saubrobdnen teqstis struqturis Sesaxeb, meoreni ikvlevdnen ufro
farTo gareteqstobriv mTlianobebs: kulturas, epoqas, samoqalaqo
istorias. formaluri skolis farglebSi ver gavaerTianebT iseT
mkvlevrebs, rogorebicaa: m.m. baxtini, v.i. propi, g.a. gukovski, v.m.
Jirmunski, d.s. lixaCovi, v.v. gipiusi, s.m. eizenSteini, iseve rogorc
andrei belis, b.i. iarxos, p.a. florenskis da mraval sxvas. amasTan,
maTi naSromebis mniSvneloba struqturalizmis ganviTarebisTvis
ueWvelia.
struqturul-semiotikuri literaturaTmcodneoba mTeli
winamorbedi mecnierebis gamocdilebas iTvaliswinebs, magram Tavisi
specifikac gaaCnia. is warmoiSva im mecnieruli revoluciis
garemocvaSi, romelic daemTxva XX saukunis Sua wlebs da organuladaa
poeturi teqstis struqturuli analizis amocanebi da meTodebi
284
dakavSirebuli struqturuli lingvistikis, semiotikis, informaciis
Teoriisa da kibernetikis meTodikasa da ideebTan.
struqturuli literaturaTmcodneoba ar warmoadgens
Camoyalibebulsa da sabolood gaformebul mecnierul mimarTulebas.
bevri, metad mniSvnelovani problemis Sesaxeb ar arsebobs
SexedulebaTa aucilebeli erTianoba an mecnieruli sicxade.
winamdebare wignSi avtors kargad aqvs Segnebuli, rom mecnierebis
amgvari mdgomareoba axal xarvezebs daumatebs imas, rac ganpirobebulia
misi, rogorc mecnieris, nakliT. amasTan, is ar iTvaliswinebs teqstis
struqturul-semiotikuri analizis yvela sakiTxis srul da
sistemur gadmocemas. mas surs gaacnos mkiTxvels problemebi da
maTi gadaWris meTodebi, gamoavlinos ara imdenad saboloo Sedegebi,
ramdenadac maTi miRwevis SesaZlebeli gzebi.
ena, rogorc literaturis masala
literaturis sagangebo adgils xelovnebaSi mniSvnelovanwilad
gansazRvravs mis mier gamoyenebuli masalis specifikuri Tvisebebi.
ar SevexebiT enis, rogorc sazogadoebrivi movlenis rTul problemas,
SevCerdebiT mxolod mis im mxareze, romelsac CvenTvis arsebiTi
mniSvneloba aqvs.
ena literaturis masalaa. am gansazRvrebidan unda davaskvnaT,
rom literaturis mimarT ena materialuri substanciis rolSi
gvevlineba, iseve rogorc saRebavi ferweraSi, qva qandakebaSi,
bgera musikaSi.
amasTan, TviT enis materialurobis arsi sxvagvaria, vidre
xelov-nebis danarCeni masalisa. saRebavi, qva da a.S., sanam xelovanis
gankargulebaSi aRmoCndeba, socialurad indiferentulia, sinamdvilis
SemecnebasTan araviTari mimarTeba ara aqvs. TiToeul maTgans sakuTari
struqtura gaaCnia, magram is bunebisganaa naboZebi da ar ukavSirdeba
sazogadoebriv (ideologiur) procesebs. am gagebiT, ena gansa-
kuTrebuli masalaa, romelsac maRali socialuri aqtivobis unari
manamdec axasiaTebs, vidre mas xelovani gamoiyenebs.
semiotikuri ciklis mecnierebebSi ena ganisazRvreba, rogorc
niSnobrivi komunikaciis meqanizmi, romelic informaciis dacvisa
da gadacemis mizans emsaxureba. yoveli enis safuZvelia niSnis
cneba esaa mocemuli enis niSnadi elementi. niSans ormagi arsi
aqvs: garkveuli materialuri gamoxatulebis garda, rac mis formalur
mxares Seadgens, mocemuli enis farglebSi mas gansazRvruli
mniSvnelobac gaaCnia, es ki misi Sinaarsis saxiT gvevlineba. ase,
magaliTad, sityvisTvis ` ~ rusuli enis fonemaTa garkveuli
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285
Tanmimdevroba da garkveuli morfogramatikuli struqtura
gamoxatulebas warmoqmnis, xolo leqsikuri, istoriul-kulturuli
da sxva mniSvnelobebi Sinaarss. Tu mivmarTavT TviT ordens,
magaliTad, wm. giorgis I xarisxis ordens, maSin misi regaliebi -
niSani, varskvlavi da bafTa gamoxatulebaa, xolo am jildosTan
dakavSirebuli pativi, misi socialuri Rirebulebis mimarTeba
ruseTis sxva ordenebTan _ warmodgena damsaxurebis Sesaxeb, romlis
mowmobasac warmodgens es ordeni anu misi Sinaarsi.
aqedan SeiZleba gamovitanoT daskvna, rom niSani yovelTvis
Senacvlebaa. socialuri urTierTobis procesSi is enacvleba im
gansazRvrul arss, romelic misi meSveobiTaa warmodgenili.
Semcvlelis mimarTeba Sesacvlelisadmi anu gamoxatulebisa da
Sianaarsis urTierTdamokidebuleba warmoqmnis niSnis semantikas.
vinaidan semantika yovelTvis garkveuli mimarTebaa, amitom Sinaarsi
da gamoxatuleba igiveobrivi ver iqneba komunikaciis aqtis
gansaxorcieleblad gamoxatuleba unda gansxvavdebodes Sinaarsisgan.
amasTan, gansxvaveba met-naklebi simZafrisaa. Tu gamoxatulebas da
Sinaarss araferi aqvT saerTo da maTi gaigiveba realizdeba mxolod
mocemuli enis sazRvrebSi (magaliTad, sityvisa da misi Sesabamisi
sagnis gaigiveba), maSin amgvar niSans pirobiTi ewodeba. sityvebi
pirobiTi niSnebis yvelaze gavrcelebuli tipia. Tu Sinaarssa da
gamoxatulebas Soris SeiCneva garkveuli msgavseba magaliTad,
romelime mxare, asaxuli geografiuli rukiT, saxe da portreti,
adamiani da fotosuraTi aseT niSans ewodeba saxviTi anu ikonikuri
niSani.
pirobiTi da saxviTi niSnebis praqtikuli gansxvaveba araa
dakavSirebuli sirTuleebTan; maTi Teoriuli Sepirispireba
aucilebelia kulturis, rogorc mTliani sakomunikacio organizmis
funqcionirebisTvis. amasTan, niSnisa da aRniSnuli obieqtis `msgavseba~
Zalze pirobiTia da yovelTvis ganekuTvneba mocemuli kulturis
postulatebs: naxatSi samganzomilebiani obieqti organzomilebian
gamosaxulebas utoldeba; topologiis TvalsazrisiT, nebismieri
kvadrati nebismieri wrewiris homomorfulia; scena asaxavs oTaxs,
magram mayurebelTa mxares kedlis ararseboba _ misi mocemulobaa.
msaxiobis monologi asrulebs gmiris azrTa nakadis ikonikuri
niSnis funqcias, Tumca aRmniSvnelisa da aRsaniSnis msgavseba aq
pirobiTobaTaA mTeli sistemiT, e.i. Teatris eniTaa ganpirobebuli
1
.
enobrivi niSnebi araa mravali damoukidebeli arsis meqanikuri
naerTi. isini sistemas warmoqmnis. ena, Tavisi bunebiT, sistemuria.
1
ix. dawvrilebiT. . , . . .
, . 5, ., , 1970, . 287-288.
poeturi teqstis struqturuli analizis amocanebi da meTodebi
286
enis sistemurobis safuZvelia garkveuli wesebi, romlebic
gansazRvraven elementebis urTierTmimarTebas.
ena ierarqiuli struqturaa. is iSleba gansxvavebuli doneebis
elementebad. kerZod, lingvistika ganasxvavebs fonemaTa, morfemaTa,
leqsikis, sityvasSeTanxmebebis, winadadebebis, zefrazobriv
erTobliobebs (es yvelaze zogadi danawevrebaa. mTel rig SemTxvevebSi
aucilebelia marcvlebrivi, intonaciuri da sxva doneebis gamoyofa).
TiToeuli done organizebulia gansakuTrebuli, misTvis imanenturad
damaxasiaTebeli wesebis sistemis mixedviT.
ena organizebulia ori struqturuli RerZis meSveobiT. erTi
mxriv, misi elementebi danawilebulia sxvadasxvagvar ekvivalentur
klasebad, rogorebicaa: mocemuli arsebiTi saxelis yvela brunva,
mocemuli sityvis yvela sinonimi, mocemuli enis yvela Tandebuli
da a.S. ama Tu im enis romelime realuri frazis agebisas
ekvivalentobaTa yoveli klasidan virCevT erT saWiro sityvas an
saWiro formas. enis elementebis aseT mowesrigebulobas
paradigmatika ewodeba.
meore mxriv, imisTvis, raTa SerCeulma enobrivma elementebma
warmoqmnas am enis Sesabamisi, marTebuli (am enis TvalsazrisiT)
mwkrivi, isini gansazRvruli wesebis mixedviT unda davalagoT
sagangebo morfemebis meSveobiT urTierTs SevaTanxmoT sityvebi,
sintagmebi da a.S. enis aseT mowesrigebulobas sintagmatika hqvia.
yovelgvari teqsti mowesrigebulia paradigmatuli da sintagmaturi
RerZebis mixedviT.
teqstis nebismieri donis ganxilvisas gamovlindeba misi
zogierTi elementis ganmeorebadoba da sxvebis variireba. ase,
magaliTad, rusul enaze Seqmnili yvela teqstis ganxilvisas
aRmovaCenT rusuli anbanis 32 bgeris mudmiv ganmeorebas, roca
anbanis moxazuloba sxvadasxva Sriftsa da sxvadasxva adamianis
xelnawerebSi mkveTrad gansxvavebuli iqneba. metic, realur teqstebSi
Segvxvdeba mxolod rusuli anbanis asoTa variantebi, xolo sakuTriv
asoebi struqturuli invariantebi iqneba. esaa idealuri
konstruqtebi, romlebsac miewereba bgeraTa mniSvnelobebi. invarianti
struqturis niSnadi erTeulia da ramdeni variantic ar unda
hqondes mas realur teqstebSi, maT mxolod erTi sakuTar
mniSvneloba eqnebaT.
amis gacnobierebis Semdgom TiToeul sakomunikacio sistemaSi
SeiZleba gamovyoT invariantuli struqturis aspeqti (romelsac
f. de sosiuris kvalobaze enas vuwodebT) da misi variaciuli
iuri lotmani
287
gansxvavebebis aspeqti (romlebic imave samecniero tradiciis mixedviT
ganisazRvreba, rogorc metyveleba). enisa da metyvelebis doneebis
gamijvna ganekuTvneba Tanamedrove lingvistikis yvelaze fundamentur
debulebebs. informaciis Teoriis terminebSi mas daaxloebiT
Seesabameba kodis (ena) da cnobis (metyveleba) dapirispireba.
enis (kodi) da metyvelebis (cnoba) Tanafardoba paraleluria
Tanafardobisa: sistema teqsti. am TanafardobaTa arsis wvdomisTvis
mniSvnelovania molaparakisa da msmenlis enobrivi poziciebis gamijvna,
romelTa safuZvelze aigeba: a) sinTezuri (warmomSobi anu
generaciuli) da b) analitikuri enobrivi modelebi, romlebic
principulad gansxvavdeba urTierTisgan
1
.
movlenaTa klasebi, romlebic Cvens gansazRvrebas akmayofilebs,
semiotikaSi kvalificirebulia, rogorc enebi. aSkaraa, rom termini
`ena~ aq ufro farTo mniSvnelobiT ixmareba, vidre misi sayovelTao
gagebaa:
1. bunebrivi enebi niSnobrivi sistemebi. isini adamianis
mieraa Seqmnili da emsaxureba misi moRvaweobis viwro-specializebul
sferoebs. maT ganekuTvneba yvela samecniero ena (pirobiTi niSnebisa
da maTi xmarebis sistema magaliTad, algebraSi an qimiaSi miRebuli
niSnis, - semiotikis TvalsazrisiT, enis tolfasi `obieqtebisa~)
da sagzao signalizaciis tipis sistemebi. xelovnuri sistemebi
bunebrivi sistemebis safuZvelze aigeba maTi meqanizmis Segnebuli
gamartivebis Sedegad.
2. meoradi mamodelirebeli sistemebi bunebrivi enis
safuZvelze agebuli semiotikuri sistemebi, romelTac ufro rTuli
struqtura aqvs. esenia: rituali, socialuri da ideologiuri
niSnobrivi komunikaciebis yvela erToblioba, xelovneba. isini
warmoqmnian erTian, rTul semiotikur mTlianobas kulturas.
bunebrivi enisa da poeziis urTierTmimarTeba mocemuli
kulturis mTlianobaSi ganisazRvreba pirveladi da meoradi enebis
Tanafardobis sirTuliT.
1
aq warmodgenilia enis struqturis aspeqtTa Zalze arasruli da zedapiruli
nusxa misi mizania, mkiTxvels gavacnoT Cvens naSromSi gamoyenebuli zogierTi
termini; vinaidan aucilebelia Tanamedrove enaTmecnierebis ZiriTadi debulebebis
codna. mkiTxvels vurCevT, mimarTos wignebs: .. , . . .
. , (244 .); .. .
. ., 1966. ufro specialuri
literatura miTiTebulia wignSi: .
. ., 1965.
poeturi teqstis struqturuli analizis amocanebi da meTodebi
288
bunebrivi enis, rogorc xelovnebis masalis specifikuroba,
mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvravs poeziis (da, ufro farTod
sityvakazmuli xelovnebis) gansxvavebas mxatvruli Semoqmedebis
sxva saxeobebTan.
msoflios xalxTa enebi kulturis Camoyalibebis saqmeSi pasiuri
faqtorebis rolSi rodi gvevlineba. erTi mxriv, TviT enebi
rTuli mravalsaukunovani kulturuli procesis produqtebia.
uzarmazari, uwyveti garemomcveli samyaro enaSi warmogvidgeba, rogorc
diskretuli, mkafio struqturis mqone mocemuloba. samyarosTan
Sefardebuli bunebrivi ena mis modelad gadaiqceva. esaa sinamdvilis
proeqcia enis sibrtyeze. vinaidan ena erovnuli kulturis erT-
erTi wamyvani faqtoria, samyaros enobrivi modeli warmogvidgeba,
rogorc samyaros erovnuli suraTis maregulirebeli faqtori.
erovnuli enis wamyvani roli meoradi mamodelirebeli sistemis
CamoyalibebaSi realuri da eWvmiutaneli faqtia
1
. is gansakuTrebiT
mniSvnelovania poeziaSi.
meore mxriv, erovnuli tradiciis safuZvelze poeziis
Camoyalibebis procesi rTuli da winaaRmdegobrivia. Tavis droze
formalurma skolam wamoayena Tezisi enis, rogorc im masalis
Sesaxeb, romlis winaaRmdegobas gadalaxavs poezia. am debulebasTan
brZolisas warmoiSva Sexeduleba, TiTqos poezia enobrivi kanonebis
avtomatur realizacias warmoadgens da is enis erT-erTi funqciuri
stilia. b.v. tomaSevski epaeqreboda erT-erT ukidures Tvalsazriss,
romlis mixedviT, yvelaferi, rac poeziaSia, enis meSveobiT winaswaraa
mocemuli. mecnieri SeniSnavda, rom ena, marTlac, Seicavs yovelives,
rac poeziaSia, TviT poeziis garda. amasTan, ukanasknel naSromebSi
TviT tomaSevski xazgasmiT aRniSnavda enobrivi da poeturi kanonebis
erTianobas.
amJamad orive (rogorc `enasTan brZolis~, aseve bunebriv
enasTan SedarebiT poeziis Tvisebrivi Taviseburebebis uaryofis)
Teoria mecnierebis adreuli etapisaTvis damsaxasiaTebel gardauval
ukiduresobad warmogvidgeba.
ena ayalibebs meorad sistemebs. amis gamo sityvakazmuli
xelovnebis dargebs, ueWvelia, yvelaze mdidari mxatvruli
SesaZleblobebi gaaCnia. amasTan, ar unda daviviwyoT, rom enis swored
es mxare (romelic momgebiania xelovnebisaTvis) warmoqmnis
1
saintereso nimuSebi da faseuli Teoriuli mosazrebebi. ix. .. .
. , . 3, . .
. -, . 236, 1969.
iuri lotmani
289
mniSvnelovan dabrkolebebs. ena, mTeli Tavisi sistemiT, mWidrodaa
gadajaWvuli cxovrebasTan, baZavs mas, iWreba masSi. amitom adamiani
veRar ganasxvavebs sagans misi saxelisagan, sinamdvilis Sres
enaSi asaxuli misi Srisagan. analogiuri TvisebiT xasiaTdeba
kinematografi; is, rom fotografia mWidrod, avtomaturad ukavSirdeba
Tavis obieqts, didi xnis ganmavlobaSi xels uSlida kinematografis
gadaqcevas xelovnebad. magram gamoigones montaJi da moZravi kamera,
rac erTi obieqtis Tundac ori xerxiT fotografirebis saSualebas
iZleoda, xolo cxovrebaSi obieqtebis Tanmimdevroba ukve
avtomaturad aRar gansazRvravda firze aRbeWdili gamosaxulebebis
Tanmimdevrobas. amis Semdeg kinematografi sinamdvilis aslis nacvlad
mis mxatvrul modelad iqca, sakuTari eniT ametyvelda.
poeziis mier sakuTari, bunebrivi enaze dafuZnebuli (magram
ara misi tolfasi) enis SemuSaveba, misi xelovnebad qceva, advili
rodi iyo. sityvakazmuli xelovnebis riJraJze warmoiWra
kategoriuli moTxovna: literaturis ena unda gansxvavdebodes
yofiTisgan, xolo enobrivi saSualebebiT sinamdvilis mxatvruli
asaxva unda ganirCeodes informaciulisagan.
Targmna
Tamar lomiZem
poeturi teqstis struqturuli analizis amocanebi da meTodebi
290
iuri lotmani
uflis gamocxadeba Tu azartuli TamaSi?
(kanonzomieri da SemTxveviTi istoriul procesSi)
konkretuli masalis Semswavleli istorikosi Cveulebriv
rankes formuliT kmayofildeba xolme: istoriis mizani warsulis
aRdgenaa. Tumc, am amocanis mTeli gulubryvilobis miuxedavad, misi
gadaWra Zalze rTuldeba, Tuki es saerTod SesaZlebelia. cneba
warsulis aRdgena gulisxmobs yvela mecnierebisTvis saerTo
proceduras: faqtebis gamorkvevasa da Sekrebas da maT Soris
kanonzomieri kavSiris dadgenas. amasTan, faqti yovelTvis raRac
pirveladadaa miCneuli, istorikosisa da misi analizis miRma
arsebulad. aseTia mocemuloba.
ra mdgomareobaSia istorikosi? istorikosi ganwirulia,
teqstTan iqonios saqme. movlenebs _ rogorc es iyo _ da
istorikoss Soris dgas teqsti da es Zireulad cvlis mecnierul
situacias. teqsti yovelTvis viRacis Seqmnilia da warmoadgens
momxdar movlenas, romelic romeliRac enazea Targmnili. erTi da
igive realoba, romelic sxvadasxva saSualebiTaa kodirebuli,
sxvadasxva _ xandaxan urTierTsawinaaRmdego _ teqstebs gvaZlevs.
teqstidan _ faqtis, ama Tu movlenis aRweridan _ movlenis amoReba
deSifrirebis procesia. amgvarad, acnobierebs Tu vera amas,
istorikosis semiotikuri manipulaciebi misi pirveladi masalidan
_ teqstidan momdinareobs. amasTan erTad, Tu am operaciebs
Seugneblad axorcielebs da mkvlevars, darwmunebuls dokumentis
WeSmaritebaSi, miaCnia, rom enis codna da WeSmaritebis intuituri
gancda, romelsac muSaobis gamocdileba aniWebs, sakmarisia teqstis
gasagebad, maSin, wesisamebr, istoriul auditorias is bunebrivi
cnobiereba Caenacvleba xolme, romelsac TviT istorikosis
kulturul-istoriuli gadmonaSTebiT aRsavse cnobiereba amowmebs.
gansxvavebuli Janrebis TvalsazrisiT _ sxvadasxva kulturis da,
erTi kulturis farglebSic ki, erTi da igive realuri movlena
SesaZloa imsaxurebdes werilobiT fiqsacias, teqstad qcevas an _
ar imsaxurebdes amas. magaliTad, skandinavur Suasaukuneobriv
291
qronikebsa da rusul matianeebSi aRibeWdeboda samxedro Setakebebi,
urTierTangariSsworebani, sisxliani Tavgadasavlebi... da Tu msgavsi
ram ar xdeboda, miaCndaT, rom saerTod araferi xdeboda. amgvar
SemTxvevebSi islandiuri saga ambobda: simSvide idga; rusul
matianeebSi, roca mematiane ama Tu im wels uTiTebda, adgils an
cariels stovebda an werda: mSvidad cxovrobdnen. Sexeduleba
imaze, Tu ra iTvleba istoriul movlenad, kulturis ti pis
gaTvaliswinebiT, TviTonaa mniSvnelovani tipologiuri maxasiaTebeli.
amitom, roca istorikosi teqsts daswvdeba xolme, iZulebulia,
ganarCios _ TviTon ras miiCnevs movlenad da teqstis avtori da
Tanamedroveni ras miiCnevdnen moxseniebis Rirsad.
amgvarad, istorikosi imTaviTve ucnaur viTarebaSi vardeba xolme:
sxva mecnierebebSi mkvlevari faqtebiT iwyebs. istorikosi ki am
faqtebs iRebs, rogorc gansazRvruli analizis Sedegs da ara
rogorc _ maT sawyis xarisxs. Tumc, ufro rTulia kanonzomierebis
dadgena.
istoriuli kvlevis sawyis wertilad teqstis miCnevas Tan
sdevs sxvadasxvagvari Sedegi, romlebic uSualod moqmedebs imaze,
Tu rogor warmogvidgenia istoriuli kavSiri movlenaTa Soris.
yovelgvari teqsti, upirvelesad, bunebriv enazea gamoTqmuli
(bunebrivi enis cnebis Taobaze mimarTeT semiotikur leqsikonebs)
da Sesabamisad, mocemuli enis struquturaTa kanonebis mixedviTaa
organizebuli. Tumc, jer kidev roman iakobsoni, naSromSi enis
sazrisis ZiebaSi (1965), bunebriv enaSi ikonizmis elementebze
miuTiTebda da aRniSnavda, rom arsebobs msmenelTa tendencia, aRiqvan
formaluri kavSirebi Sinaarsis matareblad da Sesabamisad, enis
struqtura obieqtis struqturaze gadaitanon. zefrazul doneze
teqstis organizebis kanonebi kidev ufro arsebiTia _ ritorikis
kanonebs vgulisxmob. swori teqstis ageba, rogorc ki frazis
farglebs vcdebiT da ufro farTo erTeulebisken miviwevT,
siuJeturobas gulisxmobs. siuJets ki Tavisi logikuri kanonebi
aqvs. imisTvis, rom romelime movlena aRvweroT, aucilebelia, Cveni
monaTxrobi am logikis kanonebs davumorCiloT anu epizodebi
gansazRvruli TanmimdevrobiT ganvalagoT da teqstis miRma arsebul
realobaSi siuJeti SevitanoT; erTdroulad momxdari an, SesaZloa,
erTmaneTTan sruliad dacilebuli movlenebi Tanmimdevrul jaWvad
SevkraT.
da bolos, umaRles doneze teqstis ideologiuri kodireba
xdeba. politikuri, religiuri, filosofiuri kanonebi, Janruli
uflis gamocxadeba Tu azartuli TamaSi?
292
kodebi, etiketiT gansazRvruli mosazrebebi, romlebic istorikosma
imave teqstebis mixedviT unda aRadginos, xandaxan logikurad mankier
wreSi xvdeba _ yovelsave amas damatebiT kodirebasTan mivyavarT.
gansxvaveba teqstis avtorisa da teqstis wamkiTxveli istorikosis
cnobierebis donesa da samoRvaweo miznebs Soris warmoqmnis
dekodirebis umaRles mijnas. istoriuli mecnierebis zemoT
CamoTvlili sirTuleebis gadalaxvisken swrafvas garkveulad
apirobebs ukanaskneli ormocdaaTi wlis manZilze frangul
istoriografiaSi warmoqmnili mimarTuleba, romelic dRes axal
istoriul skolad, didxniani monakveTebis Semswavlel skolad
gaformda. am mimarTulebas xangrZlivi sunTqvis mimarTulebasac
uwodeben.
samecniero kvleva-Ziebis axali mimarTulebiT warmarTvisTvis
uSualo impulsad iqca pozitivisturi politikuri istoriis
aSkara krizisi. jer kidev XX saukunis II naxevarSi SeimCneoda
kompilatorobisa da Teoriuli siRatakis recidivebi. swrafvam,
CamoecilebinaT istoriisTvis xelisufalTa Rvawlisa da did
adamianTa cxovrebis mkvlevris statusi, Sva masebis cxovrebisa da
anonimuri procesebis Seswavlis interesi. maT winamorbedTa Soris,
romlebmac istoriaze amgvari Sexeduleba daamkvidres, Jak le gofi
CamoTvlis volters, Satobrians, gizos da miSles. Cveni mxriv ki, am
sias lev tolstois davumatebdiT, romelic jiutad imeorebda,
rom WeSmariti istoria kerZo cxovrebasa da masebis gaucnobierebel
qmedebebSia da dauRalavad aqilikebda did adamianTa apologiebs.
amas ukavSirdeba cnobili lozungi: adamianis istoria _
uadamianod! moTxovna upirovno, koleqtiuri impulsebis Seswavlisa,
romelTac masebis qmedeba warmarTavs, masebisa, romlebic maTze
zegavlenis momxden Zalebs ver acnobiereben, gansazRvravs am skolis
novatorul Tematikas da istorikoss Cveuli rutinuli sakvlevi
Temebis miRma gadaisvris.
istoriul mecnierebaSi am mimarTulebam sufTa haeri daamkvidra
da is ukve klasikadqceuli mTeli rigi gamokvlevebiT gaamdidra.
Tumc, SeukamaTeblad arc am skolis yvela principis ataceba Rirs.
istoria mxolod cnobieri procesi ar aris, magram is arc
mxolod gaucnobierebli procesia. istoria erTisa da meoris
urTierTdaZabulobaa. Tu politikurma istoriam arad Caagdao
orsaxa istoriuli procesis erTi mxare, axali istoria mis
meore mxares ar imCnevs. nebismieri dinamikuri procesi, romelSic
adamiani monawileobs, meryeobs neli cvlilebebisa (maTze adamianis
iuri lotmani
293
goni da neba ver zemoqmedebs, maT xSirad, saerTod ver amCneven
Tanamedroveni, radgan maTi perioduloba ufro xangrZlivia, vidre
_ Taobebis sicocxle) da gacnobierebuli adamianuri moRvaweobis
polusebs Soris. orive maTgans piradi neba da inteleqtualuri
Zalisxmeva ganapirobebs. urTierTdapirispirebuloba maTive arsebobis
pirobaa. da rogorc baironis genialur individualobaSi SeiZleba
gamovyoT anonimuri masobrivi procesebis bloki, ise XIX saukunis
dasawyisis evropuli baironizmis `masobrivi kulturis~ nebismieri
moRvawis pirovnebaSi SeiZleba mivagnoT SemoqmedebiTi
ganumeoreblobis elementebs. yovelive, rasac xalxi sCadis da da
raSic xalxi monawileobs, SeuZlebelia, ama Tu im saxiT, pirovnul
sawyiss ar miekuTvnebodes. es gansazRvrulia adamianis kulturisadmi
damokidebulebis arsiT _ universumisadmi misi izomorfulobiT
da mxolod mis nawilad yofnis aucileblobiT.
cnobieri adamianuri Zalisxmevis Tanabari xarisxiT arseboba
sxvadasxva donis erTian istoriul procesSi erTdroulad exeba
erTi mxriv, SemTxveviTobebs da meore mxriv, pirovnebis SemoqmedebiTi
SesaZleblobebis gansxvavebul Sefasebasac. amocanam _
`gavaTavisufloT istoria didi adamianebisagan~ _ istoria, SesaZloa,
Semoqmedebisgan, azrisgan, Tavisuflebisgan, ese igi arCevanis
SesaZleblobisgan ganZarcvos. am gzaze yvela sxva urTierTobaSi
anti podebi _ hegeli da `axali skolis~ istorikosebi _
moulodnelad axlovdebian. hegelis istoriosofia efuZneba
Sexedulebebs Tavisuflebisken, rogorc _ istoriuli procesis
miznisken svlas. magram imTaviTve windasaxuli mizani Tavisuflebis
winaaRmdegaa mimarTuli da es naTlad gamomdinareobs germaneli
filosofosis msjelobidan. SemTxveviTi ar aris hegelis mtkiceba,
rom `TviTSemmecnebeli da gonieri samyaro SemTxveviTobaze ar aris
damokidebuli~. hegelisTvis goni realizdeba didi adamianebis
meSveobiT, `axali skolis~ istoriul ganviTarebaSi ki mTavari
rolis Semsrulebeli anonimuri Zalebi aracnobier masobriv
gamovlinebaTa meSveobiT realizdeba. orive SemTxvevaSi istoriuli
qmedeba arCevanis gareSe warimarTeba.
am skolis meTodologiaSi ganiWvriteba is aswlovani mecnieruli
fsiqologia, romelic emyareboda mtkicebas, rom iq, sadac determinizmi
mTavrdeba, mecnierebac qreba. ybadaRebuli `laplasis demonidan~
einSteinis mtkicebamde, rom `RmerTi kamaTels ar agorebs~, ganfenilia
swrafva, ixsnas samyaro SemTxveviTobisgan anda, ukidures SemTxvevaSi,
mecnierebis farglebs gareT gaitanos igi.
uflis gamocxadeba Tu azartuli TamaSi?
294
Cven ukve vnaxeT, rogor deformirdeba teqstis miRma arsebuli
realoba, rogor iqceva is istorikosis teqst-wyarod. isic vnaxeT,
rogor cdiloben istorikosebi am safrTxis Tavidan acilebas.
realobis deformirebis sxva wyaros qmnis ara dokument-wyaros
avtori, aramed _ misi interpretator-istorikosi. istoria drois
veqtoris (isris) mimarTulebiT viTardeba. es mimarTuleba
ganisazRvreba moZraobiT warsulidan _ awmyosken. istorikosi ki
Sesaswavl teqstebSi awmyodan warsulisken imzireba. miCneulia,
rom movlenaTa jaWvis arsi ar icvleba imis Sedegad, Tu rogor
vuyurebT mas _ drois isris Tu misi sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT.
mark bloki, romelmac Tavisi fuZemdebluri wignis ori Tavi
simetriulad daasaTaura _ awmyos Secnoba warsulis meSveobiT
da warsulis Secnoba awmyos meSveobiT _ TiTqos, gaxazavda
istorikosisTvis drois mimarTulebis simetriulobas. metic, mas
miaCnda, rom retrospeqtuli mzera istorikoss saSualebas aZlevs,
ganasxvaos arsebiTi da SemTxveviTi movlenebi. mark bloki, roca
istorikosis mier aRdgenil warsuls kinofilms adarebda, iyenebda
metaforas: filmSi, romelsac is (istorikosi, i. l.) uyurebs,
mxolod ukanaskneli kadri gadarCa. danarCeni waSlili kadrebi
rom aRvadginoT, Tavdapirvelad, saWiroa, kadri davabrunoT im
mimarTulebis sawinaaRmdegod, romliTac films iRebdnen (mark
bloki. istoriis apologia anu istorikosis xeloba, moskovi, 1986,
gv. 29)
SesaZloa, amTaviTve SegveniSna, rom am filmSi ukanasknelis
garda, yvela kadris aRdgena SeiZleba da es kadrebi, Sesabamisad,
sruliad usargeblo aRmoCndeboda. magram asec rom ara, mniSvnelovania
imis aRniSvna, rom yalbdeba istoriuli procesis arsi. istoria
asimetriuli, Seuqcevadi procesia. Tu mark bloks davesesxebiT, es
iseTi ucnauri kinofilmia, romelic sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiTac
rom daatrialo, sawyis kadrTan ar migviyvans. es aris Cveni
winaaRmdegobis safuZveli. blokis Tanaxmad _ da es retrospeqtuli
SexedulebisaTvis bunebrivi Sedegia _ warsulis movlenebs
istorikosi unda ganixilavdes ara mxolod rogorc yvelaze
sarwmunos, aramed _ rogorc erTaderT SesaZlebel movlenasac. Tu
gaviTvaliswinebT Sexedulebas, rom istoriuli movlena yovelTvis
alternativis erT-erTi nawilis rezultatia da istoriaSi erTi
da igive pirobebi jer kidev ar niSnavs calsaxa Sedegs, maSin
masalasTan midgomisas gansxvavebuli xerxebi unda gamoviyenoT. sxva
iuri lotmani
295
Cvevac dagvWirdeba: realizebuli gzebi ararealizebul
SesaZleblobaTa garemocvaSi warmogvidgeba.
warmovidginoT kinofilmi, romelic gviCvenebs adamianis
cxovrebas dabadebidan siberemde. Tu mas retrospeqtulad vnaxavT,
vityviT: am kacs erTaderTi SesaZlebloba hqonia da rkinisebri
kanonzomierebis gaTvaliswinebiT, man Sesabamisad daamTavra cxovreba.
am Sexedulebis mcdaroba kadrebis retrospeqtuli xilviT ukeT
gamoCndeba: filmi iqceva ambad xelidangamsxltar SesaZleblobebze
da cxovrebis arsis Rrmad Sesacnobad ramdenime paraleluri
alternatiuli gadaRebac gaxdeba saWiro. SesaZlebelia, rom erT
variantSi gmiri 16 wlisa daiRupos barikadebze, meoreSi 60 wlisam
uSiSroebis organoebSi mezoblebi daasminos. frangi filosofosi-
ganmanaTlebeli mari Jan antuan kondorse, ukanonobaSi braldebuli,
TviTmkvlelobamde ramdenime kviriT adre iakobinelTa tribunals
rom emaleboda, muSaobda wignze istoriuli progresis Sesaxeb,
romelSic ganmaTleblobis mTeli optimizmia Tavmoyrili. mark
blokic msgavs mdgomareobaSi iyo: antifaSisturi iatakqveSeTis
meomari, romelsac daxvretam citirebuli Sroma ar daamTavrebina,
mTlianad uqcevs gverds sakiTxs pirad aqtiurobasa da
pasuxismgeblobaze, rogorc _ istoriul kategoriebs. es kidev
erTxel adasturebs, rom ideebi myaria da maT TviTganviTarebis
tendencia axasiaTebT. isini pirad qcevaze ufro konservatulebi
arian da garemoebaTa zemoqmedebiT, Zalze nela icvlebian. amgvarad,
istoria Seuqcevadi (uTanabro) procesia. msgavs procesTa arsis
gansaxilavad da imis gasagebad, Tu ras warmoadgenen isini istoriis
SemTxvevaSi, uaRresad mniSvnelovania im movlenaTa analizi, romlebze
i. prigoJinis SromebSia saubari. i. prigoJini swavlobda dinamikur
procesebs qimiur, fizikur da biologiur doneze. am Sromebs zogadi
TvalsazrisiT, Rrma revoluciuri mniSvneloba eniWeba: maT SemTxveviTi
movlenebi mecnierebis interesTa sferoSi daamkvidres da ufro
metic: ganmartes maTi funqcia da adgili samyaros zogad dinamikaSi.
dinamikuri procesebi, romlebic Tanabar pirobebSi mimdinareobs,
determinizebul mruds mihyveba. Tumc, radgan moZraoba wonasworobis
entropiul wertilebs scildeba, im kritikul wertilebs aRwevs,
romlebSic procesTa nawinaswarmetyvelebi ganviTareba irRveva.
(prigoJini maT bifurkaciis (laT. bifurcus orkbila, gaorebuli)
wertilebs uwodebs imis aRsaniSnavad, rom es wertili mogvcems
mrudis alternatiul gagrZelebas. am wertilebSi procesi aRwevs
moments, roca momavlis erTmniSvnelovani winaswarmetyveleba
uflis gamocxadeba Tu azartuli TamaSi?
296
SeuZlebeli xdeba. Semdgomi ganviTareba gulisxmobs
TanabradSesaZlebeli ramdenime alternativis erT-erT realizacias.
mxolod imis miTiTeba ZalgviZs, Tu romel erT-erT mdgomareobaSi
SeiZleba gadasvla. am momentSi gadamwyveti roli, SesaZloa,
SemTxveviTobam iTamaSos, Tumc, SemTxveviToba umizezobad ki ar unda
miviCnioT, aramed _ sxvagvari mizezobriobis gamovlenad. Zlier
uTanabro pirobebSi TviTorganizebis procesebi Seesabameba
urTierTqmedebas SemTxveviTsa da aucilebels Soris, fluqtuaciebs
(laT. Fluctus _ boboqroba, grigali; SegaxsenebT, rom horaciusi am
sityvas qariSxlis aRsaniSnavad iyenebda: O navis, referent in mare to
novi fluctusi, i. l.) da determinizebul kanonebs. migvaCnia, rom
bifurkaciis axlos mTavar rols TamaSoben fluqtuacebi da
SemTxveviTi elementebi, maSin, roca bifurkaciaTa intervalebs Soris
dominirebs determinizebuli aspeqtebi (ilia prigoJini, izabela
stingersi. qaosuri wesrigi. qaosuri wesrigi, moskovi., 1986, gv.
54).
amgvarad, SemTxveviTi da kanonzomieri erTmaneTisTvis
SeuTavsebeli ki ara, erTi da imave obieqtis ori SesaZlo mdgomareobaa.
roca obieqti determinizebul velSi moZraobs, igi wertilad
warmogvidgeba wrfiv ganviTarebaSi, xolo Tu fluqtuaciur sivrceSi
xvdeba, obieqti potenciur SesaZleblobaTa kontinuumad gvevlineba
da gamSveb meqanizms emsgavseba. dinamikuri procesebis saerTo Teoriis
gaSuqebisas, i. prigoJinis ideebi Zalze nayofierad gveCveneba
istoriuli ganviTarebis Sesaswavlad. isini iolad eqsplicirdeba
msoflio istoriis faqtebTan da spontanurad aracnobier da piradad
gacnobierebul moZraobaTa urTules nazavTan dakavSirebiT. l.
scilardma jer kidev 1929 wels gamoaqveyna naSromi deklaratiuli
saTauriT: entropiis Semcireba terminologiur sistemaSi moazrovne
arsebis Carevis Sedegad. es niSnavs, rom bifurkaciis wertilebSi
moqmedebs ara mxolod SemTxveviTobis meqanizmi, aramed _ Segnebuli
arCevanis meqanizmic, romelic istoriuli procesis umTavresi
obieqturi elementi xdeba. amis axleburad gageba warmoqmnis
istoriuli semiotikis aucileblobas _ saWiroa analizi, Tu rogor
warmoudgenia samyaro adamianur erTeuls, romelic arCevanis winaSe
dgas. garkveulad, es imas uaxlovdeba, rasac axali istoria
mentalitets uwodebs. Tumc, am sferoSi kvlevis Sedegebi da imis
Sepirispireba, rac rusma mkvlevrebma v.n. toporovma, b.a. uspenskim,
viaC. vs. ivanovma, a.a. zalizniakma, a.m. piatigorskim, e.v. paduCevam, m.i.
lekomcevam da sxvebma miaRwies sxvadsxva eTnokulturuli
iuri lotmani
297
cnobierebis tipebis rekonstruqciisas, gvarwmunebs, rom aRniSnuli
mimarTulebis yvelaze perspeqtiuli gza istoriuli semiotikaa.
istoriuli procesis drois isris mimarTulebiT ganxilvisas
bifurkaciis wertilebi istoriul momentebad gvevlineba, roca
urTierTsawinaaRmdego struqturuli polusebis daZabuloba
umaRles xarisxs aRwevs da mTeli sistema wonasworobas kargavs.
am dros sxva adamianebis qceva, iseve, rogoc _ masisa, aRar aris
avtomaturad nagulisxmevi, determinizeba meore planze gadadis. am
momentebSi istoriuli moZraoba unda ganvixiloT ara traeqtoriad,
aramed _ kontinuumad, romelsac potenciurad ZaluZs ramdenime
variantad Camoyalibeba. Sesustebuli winaswarmetyvelebis es kvanZebi
iqceva revoluciur momentebad an mkveTr biZgebad.
im gzis SerCeva, romelic marTlac realizdeba, damokidebulia
garemoebaTa kompleqsze da ufro metad _ aqtantebis cnobierebaze.
SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom aseT momentebSi sityva, metyveleba, propaganda
gansakuTrebul istoriul mniSvnelobas iZens. amasTan erTad, Tu
manamde, vidre adamiani arCevanis winaSe dadgeboda, arsebobda
gaurkvevlobis gancda, arCevanis Semdeg principulad iseTi axali
viTareba myardeba, romlisTvisac arCevani aucilebelia; es viTareba
Semdgomi qmedebisTvis mocemulobad iqceva. is, rac realizebamde
SemTxveviTi iyo, realizebis Semdeg determinizebuli xdeba.
retrospeqtuloba amZafrebs determinizebas. Semdgomi moZraobisTvis
arCevani kanonzomierebis pirveli rgolia.
ganvixiloT calkeuli adamianis qceva. wesisamebr, es qceva
ramdenime stereotipis mixedviT realizdeba (tradiciebi, kanonebi,
eTika da sxv.), romlebic gansazRvraven misi saqcielis normalur
nawinaswarmetyveleb ganviTarebas. Tumc, stereotipebis raodenoba
mocemul sociumSi ufro farToa, vidre is, rasac realizebuls
xdis calkeuli pirovneba. zogi SesaZlebloba principulad uariyofa,
sxva saSualebebi naklebad momxiblavad iTvleba, mesameni dasaSveb
variantebad ganixileba. im momentebSi, roca istoriuli, socialuri,
fsiqologiuri daZabuloba piks aRwevs, roca adamianisTvis samyaros
suraTi imcroba (wesisamebr, umaRlesi emociuri daZabulobisas),
adamians ZaluZs stereotipis Secvla; is, TiTqos, qcevis gansxvavebul
orbitaze gadafrindeba xolme, romelic misTvis normalur
pirobebSi sruliad warmoudgeneli iqneboda _ ra Tqma unda,
warmoudgeneli im mocemuli personaJisTvis, sxva SemTxvevaSi ki
_ sruliad SesaZlebeli. magaliTad, mas SeuZlia Teatraluri gmiris,
romaeli moqalaqis, istoriuli pirebis qcevis normebis aTviseba.
uflis gamocxadeba Tu azartuli TamaSi?
298
istorikosebisTvis, romelTac miaCniaT, rom adamiani, rogorc _
klasicizmis epoqis tragikuli personaJi, yovelTvis moqmedebs,
yovelTvis inarCunebs xasiaTis erTobas, bunebrivi iqneboda
sankiulotis iseTad warmodgena, rogorc is C. dikensma daxata
ori qalaqis moTxrobaSi. miT ufro moulodnelia imis aRmoCena,
rom adamianebi, romlebic bastilias utevdnen da seqtembris
mkvlelobebis monawileni, savsebiT keTilsindisieri saSualo
Semosavlis mqone burJuebi da ojaxis mamebi iyvnen.
ra Tqma unda, Tu am momentSi brbos moqmedebas ganvixilavT,
garkveul ganmeorebadobas aRmovaCenT imaSi, rom bevrma adamianma
Seicvala Tavisi qceva, gansxvavebul pirobebSi misTvis warmoudgeneli
orbita airCia. saSualod, is, rac brbosTvis dasaSvebi iyo, calkeuli
pirovnebisTvis warmoudgeneli aRmoCnda. amaze dayrdnobiT SesaZloa
dagveskvna, rom individualuri movlenebis SedegTa winaswarmetyveleba
naklebadaa SesaZlebeli da swored amiT gansxvavdeba masobriv
movlenaTagan. Tumc, aseTi varaudi, SesaZloa, naadrevi iyos. TviT
empiriulma istorikosmac ki icis, Tu ra xSirad SeiZleba brbos
qmedebis winaswar amocnoba, vidre _ calkeuli pirovnebis reaqciis
gaTvla.
mocemuli SemTxvevisTvis ufro met interess warmoadgens i.
prigoJinisa da i. stengersis Sexeduleba imaze, rom bifurkaciis
wertilebis axlos sistema individualur reJimze gadasvlis
tendencias avlens. rac ufro uaxlovdeba normas, miT metad SeiZleba
sistemis qcevis winaswar gansazRvra. Tumc, am sakiTxs kidev erTi
mxare aqvs: iq, sadac SeiZleba movlenis Semdegi rgolis warmodgena,
SeiZleba vamtkicoT, rom, TanabarSesaZleblidan arCevanis aqti ar
ganxorcilebula. magram cnobiereba yovelTvis arCevania. amgvarad,
arCevanis gamoricxviT (roca Sedegis winaswar gamocnoba SeuZlebelia,
garedamkvirvebeli amas SemTxveviTobad aRiqvams) istoriuli
procesidan cnobierebas gamovricxavT. istoriuli kanonzomierebani
ki swored imiT gamoirCeva sxva danarCenTagan, rom maTi gageba
adamianTa Segnebuli qmedebis gamoricxvis xarjze, maT Soris _
semiotikuri qmedebebisac _ SeuZlebelia.
am TvalsazrisiT, gansakuTrebiT samagaliToa SemoqmedebiTi
azrovneba. SemoqmedebiTi cnobiereba aris teqstis avtomaturi
algoriTmebiT dauSveblis, warmoudgenlis warmoqmnis aqti. magram,
vTqvaT, baironuli romantizmis ubaironod warmoqmnis dabali
albaToba situacias mxolod mis warmoSobamde gansazRvravs. metic,
kulturis sferoSi rac ufro moulodnelia esa Tu is fenomeni,
iuri lotmani
299
miT ufro Zlieria misi gavlena kulturul situaciaze realizebis
Semdeg. uCveulo teqsti realobad iqceva da Semdgomi ganviTareba
ukve am faqtidan gamomdinareobs. moulodneloba qreba, geniis
originaloba mimbaZvelTa rutinad gardaiqmneba, bairons baironistebi
mohyvebian, bremels _ mTeli evropis pewenikebi.
retrospeqtuli wakiTxvisas qreba am procesis dramatuli
diskretuloba da baironi warmogvidgeba pirvel baironistad,
Tavis mimdevarTa mimdevrad anda, rogorc amas Cveulebriv istoriul-
kulturul nakvlevebSi uwodeben xolme _ winamorbedad.
fridrix Slegelma Tavis fragmentebSi aseTi gamoTqma gamoiyena:
istorikosi iseTi winaswarmetyvelia, romelic warsuliskenaa
pirmiqceuli. es gonebamaxviluri SeniSvna sababs gvaZlevs, SevniSnoT
gansxvaveba momavlis winaswarmetyvel misanTa da warsulis
winaswarmetyvel istorikosTa poziciebs Soris. verc erTi misani
an winaswarmetyveli ver xsnis momavals, rogorc _ calsaxad
gardauvals an erTaderT SesaZlebels: winaswarmetyveleba an
orsafexurian pirobiTobas emyareba (vTqvaT, Tu amas Caviden, esa da
es momiva) anda sagangebod gaurkvevlad formirdeba, damatebiT
axsna-ganmartebas moiTxovs. yovel SemTxvevaSi, winaswarmetyvelebas
yovelTvis axlavs gaurkvevlobis, alternativebs Soris arCevanis
amouwuraobis maragi.
istorikosi, warsuliT winaswarmetyveli, mkiTxavisgan imiT
gansxvavdeba, rom xsnis gaurkvevlobas; is, rac de facto ar moxda,
arc SeiZleboda, rom moxdariyo. istoriuli procesi kargavs Tavis
ganusazRvrelobas anu informaciulobas kargavs.
amgvarad, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom teqstebze dayrdnobis
aucilebloba istorikoss ormagi gayalbebis garduvalobis winaSe
ayenebs. erTi mxriv, teqstis sintagmaturi mimarTuleba formas
ucvlis movlenas, naratiul struqturad aqcevs mas, meore mxriv,
istorikosis mzeris sawinaaRmdego mimarTuleba aseve, ayalbebs
aRsawer obieqts.
Targmna
gia joxaZem
uflis gamocxadeba Tu azartuli TamaSi?
300
alfred barkovi
`winaaRmdegobebis~ roli literaturul
SedevrebSi
debatebis gamomwvevi cnobili nawarmoebebi Seicaven imden
winaaRmdegobas da logikur Seusabamobas, rom uneburad ibadeba
kiTxva imis Taobaze, Tu ramdenad SeswevT maT avtorebs unari
sworad aagon nawarmoebis gegma. amisda miuxedavad, aseTi literaturis
didi mowoneba mkiTxvelTa mxridan, mowmobs, rom `gaugebrobis~ da
mxatvrulobis metad dabali donis miuxedavad, aseTi nawarmoebebi
intuitiur doneze aRiqmeba rogorc potenciurad srulyofili da
swored mkiTxvelis intuitiuri aRqma, romelic ar eqvemdebareba
logikas da raime samecniero klasifikacias, warmoadgens mxatvru-
lobis gansazRvris erTaderT kriteriums. vinaidan aseTi nawarmoebebi
kvlavac iwveven interess, es niSnavs, rom maTSi aris raRac iseTi,
rac jerjerobiT mkiTxvelma ver gamoavlina da ar moaxdina klasi-
ficireba filosofiuri esTetikis mixedviT. SeiZleba Tu ara,
CaiTvalos Seqspiris `hamleti~ maRalmxatvrul nawarmoebad? am
teqstis winaaRmdegobebma SeakrTo Seqspiris mkvlevarTa ara erTi
Taoba. me marto erTi magaliTi vici, rodesac adamianma patiosnad
da Riad yvela Tu ara, misTvis cnobili yvela winaaRmdegobebis
moxazviT hamletis gamosaxvaSi, yvelanairi orazrovnebis gareSe
ganacxada, rom msoflioSi yvelaze cnobili nawarmoebi xasiaTdeba
mdare mxatvrulobiT. aseT gabedul daskvnas aravin miaqcevda
yuradRebas da CaTvlida kuriozul gancxadebad, rom ara erTi ram:
es gaakeTa ara SemTxveviTma adamianma, aramed niWierma poetma da
brwyinvale eseistma, momavalSi nobelis premiis laureatma
literaturis sferoSi T. s. eliotma (The Sacred Wood, 1920).
sawyenia, rom aseTi mosazreba ar gaxda amosavali wertili arc
eliotisTvis mis Semdgom ganazrebebSi, da arc sxva mkvlevarebisTvis.
m. a. bulgakovis ` ~ (cruwmindanebis mZime xvedri),
-is interpretaciiT, aRfrTovanebas iwvevs yvelaSi, vinc ki
naxa es dadgma; rogorc mayurebeli, mec aRfrTovanebuli var. magram
martooden rogorc mayurebeli. rogorc analitikosi, me kargad
vacnobiereb, rom am nawarmoebis zogadmiRebuli warmodgena
301
warmoadgens mixeil bulgakovis naTeli xsovnis Seuracxyofas, misi
moqalaqeobrivi sindisierebisadmi undoblobis gamoxatulebas.
` ~ interpretirebulia rogorc mwvave satira,
mimarTuli saeklesio pirebis mimarT, maSin, rodesac es mwerali
uSualod am antireligiuri saagitacio piesis Seqmnamde (da swored
aseT interpretacias aZleven ` ~-s) Zalian mkveTrad
gamovida im `uRmerToebis~ winaaRmdeg, romlebic partiis da mTavrobis
davalebiT lanZRaven religias. Znelia daveTanxmoT mtkicebas, rodesac
bulgakovs faqtobrivad akereben matyuaris iarliys, romelic Tavisive
Sexedulebebs uaryofs, `fexiT Telavs Tavis simReras~ oficialuri
ideologiis sasargeblod.
`TeTri gvardia~ yvelas aRafrTovanebs asea miRebuli. `wminda~
kritikosebis Sexedulebas aravin ar iTvaliswinebs: rogorc
SemoqmedebiTi profesiis warmomadgenlebs, maT SeuZliaT
TavianTi subieqturi azris gamoxatva. magram, Tu daveyrdnobiT
Sinaarsis sayovelTaod miRebul interpretacias, unda vaRiaroT,
rom kompoziciis TvalsazrisiT, `TeTri gvardia~ metad araTanabradaa
dawerili. amaRlebuli da mediduri ganwyoba, romelic dekla-
rirebulia pirvel gverdze, mkveTr da usiamovno konstrastSia
frivolur tonTan da aSkara qilikTan teqstis sxva adgilebSi.
analogiuri viTarebaa `ostatsa da margaritaSi~, sadac
avtoriseul gazviadebul paTetikas ~samudamo, erTguli~ siyvarulis
Sesaxeb enacvleba mZafri `avtoriseuli~ ironia imave `siyvarulis~
Taobaze. ratomRac ar aris miRebuli, rom yuradReba mieqces `marTali
mTxrobelis~ aSkarad damcinav damokidebulebas misive amaRlebuli
gandidebis mimarT. kargadaa cnobili am `samudamo erTgulebis~
analizi v. g. belinskis cnobil naSromSi, romelic werda, rom aseTi
`erTguleba~ siyvarulis gareSe amoraluria, da rom tatiana
zneobrivi embrionia. miuxedavad imisa, rom bevri komentatori xedavs
`ostatsa da margaritaSi~ gamoZaxils puSkinis Semoqmedebisa,
qrestomaTiuli momenti ratomRac maTi yuradRebis miRma rCeba.
erTaderTi adgili romanSi, rodesac `marTali mTxrobeli~,
stovebs ostatsa da margaritas marto xangrZlivi ganSorebis
Semdeg da aZlevs mkiTxvels saSualebas darwmundes, Tu rogor
gamoixateba es `samudamo-erTguli~ siyvaruli, sinamdvileSi ratomRac
ignorirebulia komentatorebis mier, maSin, roca am SemTxvevaSi
SeyvarebulTa qceva sruliad ar pasuxobs ra siyvarulis ele-
mentarul cnebas, mTlianad angrevs Teziss `mudmiv erTgulebaze~
mis sayovelTaod miRebul interpretaciaSi. gavixsenoT _ ostatis
`winaaRmdegobebis~ roli literaturul SedevrebSi
302
`gamoyvanis~ Semdeg fsiqiatriuli saavadmyofodan, margaritasTan
darCenili is maSinve wveba dasaZineblad da stovebs Seyvarebul
qals marto; diliT, ise rom piric ar daubania, qveda sacvlebSi
jdeba SeyvarebulTan da svams koniaks. amasTan, margarita ara marto
ar grZnobs Tavs Seuracxyofilad, aramed cdilobs moeferos kidec
Seyvarebuls, Tumca es ukanaskneli ratomRac am alerss Tavs aridebs.
`belkinis moTxrobebis~ mxatvrul simwireze jer kidev belinski
werda da puSkinistikas dRemde ar gauqarwlebia es mosazreba.
bevrma, da maT Sorisi. m. lotmanma, gamoavlina winaaRmdegoba `evgeni
oneginis~ fabulaSic da mTavari personaJebis gamoxatvaSic. SeiZleba
ki visaubroT am nawarmoebis Sinaarsis wvdomaze, Tu ar amoixsna is
winaaRmdegoba, romelic aq arsebobs? lotmani erT-erT ukanasknel
naSromSi pirdapir werda `oneginis~ Sinaarsis usasrulod bevri
interpretaciis SesaZleblobaze, metic, man gamoTqva mosazreba, rom
romanis daweris Semdeg imdeni xani gavida, rom misi arsi albaT arc
iqneba amoxsnili. magram mtkiceba imis Taobaze, rom SesaZlebelia
arsebobdes mravali interpretacia, niSnavs sxva arafers, Tu ara
imis aRiarebas, rom ar arsebobs mkafio saavtoro Canafiqri. aseTi
avtori ki sityvis xelovani Tu ara, yovel SemTxvevaSi, realisti
mainc ar aris. da yvelaze uaresi isaa, rom Tezisi `ararsebobis~
Sesaxeb Semotanilia sayoveldReo xmarebaSi. ara erT wamyvan puS-
kinists miuqcevia yuradReba imis aRwerisTvis, Tu rogor ecvleboda
puSkins esTetikuri Sexedulebebi (`gadadioda romantizmidan
realizmze~) `evgeni oneginis~ Seqmnis procesSi, da viTomda aman
gamoiwvia winaaRmdegobebi. aseT mtkicebebSi aSkaraa meTodologiuri
nakli: dasawyisSi `oneginis~ `gaugebrobidan~ dgeba varaudi avtoris
esTetiuri Sexedulebebis cvlilebebis Taobaze, Semdeg es varaudi
SemoaqvT literaturis istoriaSi rogorc dadgenili faqti, bolos
ki ufro ganzogadebuli saxiT iyeneben imave `oneginis~ struqturis
analizisTvis _ ise, TiTqos es Tezisi damtkicebuli yofiliyo
raRac sxva masalaze dayrdnobiT. (Tumca, damtkicebis sakiTxi
sazogadod literaturaTmcodneobis susti adgilia, vinaidan ar
arsebobs mkafio formulirebac ki, romelic gansazRvravda am cnebas).
magram mTeli saqme imaSia, rom sicocxlis bolo dRemde puSkini
ebrZoda `antiromantikosebs~. Tu gaviziarebT zogadmiRebul
Tvalsazriss, maSinac iZulebulni viqnebiT vaRiaroT, rom `gadasvla
realizmze~ moxda ara romanze muSaobis procesSi, aramed dasawyisSive
_ satira lenskis misamarTiT SeimCneva ukve meore TavSi. amasTanave,
Tavad puSkinis gamonaTqvamidan gamomdinareobs, rom `romantizmad~
mwerali miiCnevda imas, rasac Cven dRes veZaxiT `realizms~ _
alfred barkovi
303
ubralod, im dros ar arsebobda aseTi termini (mis leqsikonSi
saerTod ar arsebobda sityva `real~-is fuZiT). diax, satiruli
pozicia, romliTac gamosaxulia lenski, winaaRmdegobaSia puSkinis
mimarTebasTan romantizmisadmi. magram aqedan srulebiTac ar
gamomdinareobs, rom poetis biografia aucileblobiT unda
mivusadagoT wminda fabulur elements _ amasTan romans, romelSic
mravali winaaRmdegobaa da gaugebari arsi; ubralod, unda gaverkvioT
`evgeni oneginis~ struqturaSi da gamovarkvioT aseTi gaugebrobis
mizezi, romelic arsebobs puSkinis esTetikuri kredos mimarT.
samwuxarod, am romanis yvela `winaaRmdegoba~ rodia gamovlenili.
yvelaze cudia is, rom bevri maTgani, romelic Seqmnilia Tavad
romanis komentatorebis mier, teqstis realiebis miuxedavad, ukve
damkvidrda samecniero literaturaSi rogorc viTomda dadgenili
faqti, rac SinaarsSi nebismieri sicxadis Semotanis blokirebas
axdens.
marTlac, SeiZleba Tu ara vendoT cnobil mtkicebebs, rom
fabulis moqmedeba TariRdeba 1819-1825 wlebiT, maSin, rodesac
siuJetSi ar arsebobs araviTari mcire miTiTebac ki dekembris
movlenebze? ra vuyoT imis mtkicebas, rom romani _ `rusuli
cxovrebis enciklopediaa~? ramdenad SesaZlebelia, rom oneginis
tatiana _ pirveli bavSvi rusul ojaxSi _ dabadebuliyo, rogorc
amtkicebda v. nabokovi, 1803 wels, mSobelTa jvrisweridan meSvide
wels, rasac adgili hqonda araugvianes 1796 wlisa (amas mowmobs
sabrigado Cini dimitri larinis saflavis qvaze, es Cini gauqmebul
iqna 1796 w; anu tatianas mSoblebi daqorwindnen am TariRamde)?...
SeiZleba Tu ara, 1820 wels aJRerebuliyo nevis napirebze sasayviro
musika, maSin, rodesac ruseTSi erTaderTma sasayviro Seremetievis
orkestrma arseboba Sewyvita 1812 w. . . . garda amisa, yvela nawarmoebi,
romelsac tatiana kiTxulobda, ruseTis wignis daxlebze gaCnda
1812 wlis omamde . . . aRweril epoqas ufro zustad aTariRebs
zareckis biografia, romelic parizSi moxvda ara rogorc 1812
wlis gamarjvebuli, aramed rogorc `patimari~ _ anu, 1805 wels
austerlicTan damarcxebis Semdeg. maSasadame, is SeiZleba yofiliyo
sekundanti lenskis duelze araugvianes 1812 wlisa.
morig siurprizs gvTavazobs oneginis daTariReba (`amrigad, im
dros odesaSi vcxovrobdi . . .~; romanis korpusSi es ukanaskneli
striqonia). srulad sandod iTvleba, rom gmirma imogzaura odesaSi
lenkisTan duelis Semdeg, magram romanis pirveli Tavi Seicavs
mkafio miTiTebas, rom odesa oneginma moinaxula bevrad adre (LI-LII
_ strofebi) _ jer kidev moxuci biZis gardacvalebasa da sofelSi
`winaaRmdegobebis~ roli literaturul SedevrebSi
304
wasvlamde (meore Tavis mesame strofiT es movlena zustad TariRdeba
1808 wliT). anu, jer iyo mogzauroba, romlis drosac moxda mamis
gardacvaleba, Semdeg gardaicvala biZa da marto amis Semdeg iwyeba
fabulis `ZiriTadi~ moqmedeba (` ...~).
dasaSvebia ki, rom romanis Sinaarsis Cveni mcdari Sefasebebi
aviyvanoT dadgenili faqtebis rangSi, romelic axasiaTebs puSkinis
SemoqmedebiT kredos, Tu, rogorc aRmoCnda, dRemde Cven ar SegviZlia
davadginoT romanis arqiteqtonika da masSi aRwerili movlenebis
Tanmimdevrobac ki?
Semdgom, literaturis istoriaSi damkvidrda anekdoti imis
Taobaze, rom daasrula ra romanis merve, damamTavrebeli Tavi, puSkinma
gamoxata Tavisi erTgvari gakvirveba imis Taobaze, rom tatianam
uari uTxra onegins. es legenda mohyavT imas sailustraciodac ki,
rom mxatvruli saxe viTomda cxovrobs `sakuTari mxatvruli
logikis~ Sesabamisad da ar emorCileba avtoris `TviTnebobas~.
magram rogorc aRmoCnda, tatianas es `moulodneli~ saqcieli puSkins
Cafiqrebuli hqonda romanze muSaobis dawyebisTanave. miTiTeba am
viTarebaze CarTulia romanis epilogSi, sadac aRwerilia, Tu rogor
moaqvs `evgeni oneginis~ moxucebul `avtors~ Tavisi opusi puSkinis
_ `gamomcemelTan~. da yvelaze saintereso imaSi ki ar mdgomareobs,
rom romanis prologi (`oneginis mogzauroba~) puSkinma gamoaqveyna
martooden 1833 wels, bolo Tavis gamosvlis Semdeg, sityva
`dasasrulis~ Semdeg, aramed imaSi, rom epilogi gamoqveynda 1825
wlis dasawyisSi, pirveli Tavis win da masTan erTiani garekaniT!
poetis aseTi nabiji TxzulebaTa krebulis redaqtorebma ver
gaiges, maT Soris akademiurma, da gamoaqveynes is romanisgan calke,
1824 wlis leqsebs Soris. am epilogis Sinaarsidan, romelic win
uswrebs romanis pirvel Tavs, aSkarad gamosWvivis daberebuli,
martoxela da dakargul siyvarulze dadardianebuli oneginis bedi.
roman `evgeni oneginis~ epilogi _ es aris yvela CvenganisTvis
kargad cnobili (asea ki?!) `saubari wignis gamyidvelsa da poets
Soris~ da misi damamTavrebeli avtoris `saZulveli proza~: `Tqven
savsebiT marTali xarT. ai Cemi xelnaweri. SevTanxmdeT~ warmoadgens
kidec a. s. puSkinis romanis `evgeni oneginis~ namdvil dasasruls.
advilia davinaxoT, rom aseTi realiebis gamosavlenad ar aris saWiro
araviTari Teoria, saWiroa, ubralod, yuradRebiT wavikiTxoT teqsti,
da maSin sruliad aSkara gaxdeba, rom sayovelTaod miRebul
interpretaciaSi darRveulia ara marto fabulis movlenebis datireba,
aramed movlenebis Tanmimdevrobac ki. Teoria saWiroa sxva ramisTvis
_ kompoziciis im elementebis gamosavlenad, romlebic qmnian msgavs
alfred barkovi
305
efeqts, da romelTa arsebobis gacnobiereba yvelafers Tavis adgilze
ayenebs. anu Teoria aucilebelia imisTvis, rom moxdes struqturuli
elementebis erTian `koordinatTa sistemaSi~ aRwera im saxiT, rogorc
isini gamovidnen avtoris mxatvruli Canafiqris mixedviT.
Tu erTad SevagrovebT yvela winaaRmdegobas TiToeuli cnobili
nawarmoebis mixedviT, TavisTavad gamomdinareobs daskvna, rom: an
Seqspiri, puSkini da bulgakovi srulebiTac ar arian geniosebi, an
es nawarmoebebi ar miekuTvneba maT kalams. sakiTxis aseTi dayeneba
am saxiT ukve Seicavs aSkara pasuxs: nawarmoebis korpusSi arsebobs
mTxrobeli rogorc sruluflebiani personaJi, romelic raRac
mizeziT amaxinjebs aRwerili movlenebis arss. es (da mxolod es)
qmnis menipeis _ rTuli Sinagani struqturis mqone nawarmoebis
fenomens. fabulaSi seriozuli winaaRmdegobebis, Seusabamobebis da
Txrobis stilis SeuTanxmeblobebis arsebobis faqti swored mowmobs
`Sinagani avtoris~ arsebobas, romelic, Tavisi fsiqologiidan, weris
ostatobisa da piradi mikerZoebis poziciidan gamomdinare, (yovelive
es warmoadgens mxatvruli gamosaxulebis obieqts), uRmerTod
ayalbebs aRweril movlenebsa da personaJebis daxasiaTebebs. amitom
yvela Seusabamoba da winaaRmdegoba sinamdvileSi warmoadgens
satitulo avtoris mxatvrul xerxs da mowmobs imaze, rom is
flobs kompoziciis ufro maRal dones.
nebismieri menipeis struqturis (Sinaarsis) analizi unda
daviwyoT mTxrobelis pirovnebis dadgeniT. im mizezebis dadgena,
romelTa gamoc is amaxinjebs moTxrobilis Sinaarss (anu, misi
intencia da fsiqologiuri dominanta) arsebiTad warmoadgens
menipeis analizis struqturul safuZvels. imitom, rom es faqtorebi
sxva araferia, Tu ara mTxrobelis xatis SigTavsi; vinaidan es
personaJi yovelTvis aris meni peis mTavari gmiri, misi xati
usasruloa obieqtis mixedviT. xSirad isec xdeba, rom nawarmoebi,
romelic aseTi `Sinagani avtoris~ mier iqmneba, TavisTavad warmoadgens
`Sinagan menipeas~ (`hamleti~, `Wirveulis morjuleba~, `belkinis
moTxrobebi~, `ostati da margarita~, `TeTri gvardia~), es ki, kidev
ufro arTulebs nawarmoebis struqturas, aniWebs mas veeberTela
romanul siRrmes. (pirvelad konstruqcia `menipea menipeaSi~ gamoiyena
Seqspirma Tavisi romanis `Wirveulis morjulebis~ (1594 w.) da
`hamletis~ _ 1602-1603 w. Seqmnisas. ufro dawvrilebiT am
sakiTxebze SeiZleba waikiTxoT Cems naSromSi: `hamleti~: Secdomebis
tragedia Tu avtoris tragikuli bedi?~)
Targmna
Tamar berekaSvilma
`winaaRmdegobebis~ roli literaturul SedevrebSi
306
vladimer toporovi
saxeli, rogorc kulturis faqtori
(saWirboroto sakiTxi)
1. adamianis sulieri cxovrebis yvela sferoSi (religiur,
providencialur-profetur, spekulaciur-filosofiur, mxatvrul-
esTetikur, socialur-sazogadoebriv sferoSi) saxelis roli ara
Tu didia, aramed gansakuTrebulad aRniSnuli da is, rac eqvemdebareba
aRricxvas da Sinaarsis gadmocemas, Txrobas mxolod im saidumlos
zedapirul Sres qmnis, romelic saxelTan aris dakavSirebuli.
magram aRniSnul SresTan odnav Sexebac ki sakmarisia, rom gveuwyos
am saidumlos siRrme da siZliere, romelic misgan ganuyofelia.
saxelis axsnis erT-erTi adrindeli (Tu pirveli ara) versia
aris Sesaqmis miTebSi misi Sedareba misi (saxelis) Cenis momentTan.
marTlac, saxeli amgvar miTebSi nebismierad ar Semodis ( dasawyisSi
ar Semodis, Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miiReba Zlier filosofizebuli
da sakmaod mogviano xanis SemTxvevebi, magaliTad, rogoricaa
dasawyisSi iyo sityva...), aramed Sesaqmis romeliRac gansazRvrul
etapze da saxelis dabadebis amgvari kavSiri mTel konteqstTan, ra
Tqma unda, SemTxveviTi ar aris. SeiZleba gavixsenoT, rom Sesaqme
umeteswilad iwyeba qaosis gardaqmniT, romelic gaigeba, rogorc
entropiis maqsimumi _ imis mixedviT, iqneba is sayovelTao Serevis
Sedegi Tu warmoiSveba am ze-CaxlarTulobidan, aRreulobidan, Tu
piriqiT, absoluturi ufskrulidan, universaluri araras
sicarielidan; demiurgi an asufTavebs am qaoss (pirvel SemTxvevaSi)
an avsebs (meore SemTxvevaSi). detalebis ugulebelyofiT,
xazgasasmelia mTavari: Semoqmedi energiis isari im adgilidan ki ar
modis, sadac adamiani (anu Sesaqme visTvisac xorcieldeba) imyofeba,
aramed garedan, zemodan. Tavdapirvelad wesrigi myardeba stiqiebSi
da iqmneba kosmologiuri wesrigis ZiriTadi parametrebi-principebi
_ xmeleTi da ufskruli, zeda da qveda, naTeli da bneli, forma da
uformoba (saxe da usaxoba) da a.S. Sesaqmis yoveli nabiji
damaaxloebelia centrTan imasTan, rac mis SigniTaa da romelmac
unda Seimecnos yvelaferi, rac ki ganxorcielda da, maT Soris,
sakuTari Tavic. rodesac am intensiurma moZraobam Tavisi Sedegebi
307
gamoiRo, Seiqmna samyaros zonebi, ganisazRvra sul ufro da ufro
gamkvrivebuli samyaros bunebriv-materialuri Semadgenloba; bolos,
rodesac adamiani da pirveli socialuri institutebi gaCnda, demiurgma,
sanam igi adamians sakuTar Tavs miandobda, ganaxorciela onomateturi
aqti _ saxeli daarqva yvelafers Seqmnils da yvelafers, rac
samyaros Seadgens. aqedan moyolebuli, unda iTqvas, mTavrdeba
kosmologia, bunebriv-materialuris batonoba da iwyeba semiologia,
cxovreba niSanSi, rogorc pirveli safexuri pnevmatologiisa,
cxovrebisa sulSi.
2. aRniSnuli onomateturi aqtis arsi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom
samyaros mTeli materialuri Semadgenloba aRmoCnda TiTqos-da
niSnobrivad (niSniT) dublirebuli: saxelma gaaormaga da gaaZliera
igi, yovel saganSi erTgvari Sinagani adgilis aRniSvniT, romelSic
am sagnis xateba unda moTavsebuliyo. sagnis saxelis Cena aRmniSvnelia
ara marto faqtisa, rom mas aqvs Tavisi moculoba (tevadoba),
aramed sakuTari mniSvneloba-azric, romelic saganTan aris
dakavSirebuli, magram ideaSi misi meSveobiT ki ar ganisazRvreba,
aramed im saxeliT, romelic meoradia (yovel SemTxvevaSi empiriul
doneze) saganTan mimarTebaSi. amgvar pirobebSi ixsneba ori
sapirispiro mimarTuleba: yoveli sagani an unda gadaiqces
absoluturad pirobiT, TviTnebur indeqsad an, piriqiT, unda daiTesos
am saxelSi azris marcvlebi, romelnic Tavisi potenciiT iswrafvian
simbolos statusisken, anu umaRlesi energiis niSnisken, romelic
ara marto mianiSnebs movlenaze, aramed TviTon aRmoaCens sakuTar
Tavs, rogorc am movlenas, rogorc erTgvar epifanias, rogorc
fenomenaluri Sris garRvevas sxva saxis Zalis mier. swored am
pirobebSi Cndeba im idealuri yofis azri, romelic miecema mxolod
ukidures situaciebSi da ver gamodis empiriuli kerZo azrebis
jamidan, ramdenic ar unda iyos is. yoveli saxeli _ sityvaa, xolo
yoveli sityva Tavis sawyisiT da Tavisi maqsimumiT _ saxelia.
TviTon saxeldebis faqtiT demiurgi didad endoba adamians; saxeli
misTvisaa gankuTvnili, eZleva mas dasaxmareblad, rogorc uZvirfasesi
resursi mis momaval yvela saxis peripetiaSi. magram, SesaZloa,
kidev ufro mniSvnelovani is iyo, rom onomateturi aqti adamianSi
Tavisufali nebis aRiarebas gulisxmobs. darqmeuli saxeli Tavis
Tavad kargia, magram araviTar SemTxvevaSi saboloo ar aris da
adamiani arCevanis winaSea. saxeli adamians saSualebas aZlevs imuSaos
ori mimarTulebiT: igi SeiZleba dayvanil iqnas konvencionalobamde
saxeli, rogorc kulturis faqtori
308
da, am konvencionalobis garda, sxva arafriT motivirebul niSnamde
(rogorc mecnierebis rig xelovnur enaSia, an iq, sadac mniSvnelovania
ara pozitiuri azri, aramed kontrastis an gansxvavebis meSveobiT
garCeva da cnoba); magram saxelis ayvana SesaZloa im doneze, sadac
is gamodis umaRlesi azris matareblad da am TvalsazrisiT,
(rogorc es religiur gancxadebebSi an poeziaSia) iswrafvis
absoluturi motivirebisken. bunebrivi ena orive am Taviseburebas
iTavsebs sakuTar TavSi, magram sxvadasxva viTarebaSi (gare da Sina)
xan dreifs iwyebs TviTneburobisken, xan miemarTeba Suagulisken,
siRrmuli azrobrivi plastebisken. cnobiereba da aracnobiereba, am
procesebSi, saxeldobr TviT TviTneburobis da motivirebulobis
sawyisTa dozirebisas, erT uRelqveS arian da maTi wili erTi
SexedviT yovelTvis naTeli ar aris. upriania kidev erTxel xazgasma,
rom bevri ram damokidebulia ara mxolod gare ZalTa ganzraxvaze,
aramed TviTon Tavisuflebazec, romelsac TviTon saxeli aZlevs
sakuTar momxmarebels. sakuTari zRvruli mdgomareobiT, romelic
imyofeba cnobierad aqtiursa da aracnobierad pasiurs Soris,
Sinaarssa da formas Soris, sulsa da materias Soris. Uufro
metic, saxeli enis is paradoqsuli nawilia, sadac mizezi da Sedegi
ver ganirCeva erTmaneTisgan, sadac bolo azri formas ucvlis
pirvels; saxeli kulturis impulsia, ramdenadac mas adamiani
Sehyavs niSanTa kosmosSi, magram igi misi Sedegicaa, ramdenadac misi
azrebi izrdeba kulturis sivrceSi, misi meSveobiT arian daculni
da mismierve mowmdebian (kulturis ti pisTvis swored es
Taviseburebani xdian saxels erT-erT umniSvnelovanes indikatorad).
sityva, iseve rogorc demiurgi, gaxsnilia adamianisTvis, romelsac
SeuZlia axsnas is, rogorc azrisgan ukiduresad daclili
zedsaxeli sagnisa da, aseve, rogorc azrisa da azris Seqmnis
umaRlesi zRvari da saSualeba, erTdroulad. sityva saxelisTvis
SemTxveviT ar gaigeba, rogorc Sig Cadebuli gansazRvra im arsisa,
romelsac es sityva gaaTamaSebs. mxolod sulis udides energiasa
da mis Zalebs SeuZliaT saxelis erTianobaSi SeinarCunos es garegnuli
im SinaganTan, anu CvenTvis advilad asaxsneli gare niSani da is
Zneli da sakuTar idumalebaSi mudam amouwuravi azri, romelTan
miaxloebisas TiTqos da TavisTavad aRar aris saWiro garegnuli-
niSnoba da ixsneba perspeqtiva daZleuli niSnobisa mdumareba
da sxva formebi nulovani qcevisa.
3. sxvadasxva situaciaSi adamiani saxelis mimarT gansxvavebul
pozicias irCevda. Tavisi Semoqmedebis saukeTeso periodebSi igi
vladimer toporovi
309
yovelTvis cdilobda gaexsna saxelSi misi umaRlesi azri _
usasrulo perspeqtiva azrebisa, romelic gzamkvlevi iqneboda
sulisTvis. mdabal cxovrebaSi da Znel pirobebSi adamiani mets
fiqrobda imaze, Tu rogor SeenarCunebina enaSi is saxelebi
azrebi, romlebic mas praqtikulad esaWiroeboda saaqaoSi, Tundac
miaxloebiT mainc yofiliyvnen isini misi Sesabamisi da erTgvarad
adamianuri. ufro uares droSi adamians SeeZlo cinikuri poziciis
dakavebac ki; igi mzad iyo saxels mopyroboda xativiT: varga _
RmerTs locavde, ar varga _ qoTnebs faravde. isec xdeboda, rom
boroti Zalebi moiTxovdnen saxelis, masSi yvelaze Zvirfasis (rasac
misTvis cxovrebiseuli azrebisa da naTesauri, intimuri kavSirebis
Sinaarsi gaaCnda) uaryofas an mis Secvlas anti-saxeliT, anti-
sityviT, TeTris Savad darqmevis gziT da piriqiT. magram Znelia
gaxseneba, Tu rodis unda gaSliliyo amgvari totaluri agresia
saxeli-azris, saxeli-mexsierebis, saxeli-sindisis winaaRmdeg, saxelis
mimarT, romelic Tavisi bunebiT adamians hgavs da adamianTan
Sefardebulia, rogorc es Cvens qveyanaSi iyo gasul aTwleulebSi.
gvaxsovs ra tragikuli danakargebi, momavlis winaSe mTeli
pasuxismgeblobiT unda iTqvas, rom: onomateturma inJineriam,
romelic enobrivi politikis ZiriTadi nawili gaxda, Cvens kulturas
didi danakargi moutana ( cru saxels cru saqme mohyva). magram
borot ZalTa xelSi, romelnic acnobiereben situacias, amgvari
onomateturi inJineria SesaZloa kidev ufro saSiS iaraRad iqces,
romelic Tavdapirvelad mimarTuli iqneba kulturis mimarT, xolo
misi meSveobiT da mis Semdeg adamianis mimarT, msgavsad genuri
inJineriisa, imave uwmindur xelebSi moxvedrili. revoluciis Semdgom
Catarebulma denominaciam, romelmac ase radikalurad daarRvia
da daangria saxelis adrindeli ekologia, makro planSi rom
ganvixiloT, mas Tan sdevda is miznebi, rac yvelanair Zaladobas
axlavs Tan. sazarel masStabebsa da tempSi niu-spiqis SeqmniT, igi
Tavis axal miznebs emsaxureboda _ gaeognebina adamiani, daeeWvebina
igi Zveli sityvaris keTil safuZvlebSi, daeviwyebina sakuTari Tavi
ara marto sakuTari Tavis gadaxazviT, waSliT, amoRebiT, adamianisa
da sulieri kulturis materialuri ganxorcielebis ganadgurebiT,
aramed enis dabinZurebiT, ara misi materiis gauqmebiT, aramed
masSi anti-azrebis meqanizmebis CarTviT, romelic xrwnis
TvalsaCinod da uCinrad _ winandel mniSvnelobebs, TviT rwmenas
enisa, cxovrebis gaazrebulobis Sesaxeb im umaRles azrs, romelic
cxovrebas auwonav niWad aqcevs.
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imisTvis, rom sicocxlis wyarosTan mimavali gamqrali bilikebi
vipovoT, unda aRdges dakarguli, dasaxiCrebuli, naxevrad
miviwyebuli da yvela SemTxvevaSi deficituri azrebi. AaRniSnulis
ganxorcieleba Znelia, iseve, rogorc Znelia warmoidgino yvela
dabrkoleba am gzaze. veranair demiurgs ZaluZs Seqmnas da mogvaniWos
mza saxiT axali sityvari: saWiroa saerTo Zalisxmeva, xangrZlivi
erToblivi Sroma da paralelurad TviTganwmenda. amitom axali
onomateturi aqti jerjerobiT ver iqneba sruli; saukeTeso
SemTxvevaSi, is iqneba pirobiTi. magram misi pirveli nawili naTelia.
yvelafer imas, rac mimarTuli iyo adamianis, sicocxlis, enis sulis,
saxelis azris winaaRmdeg (sityvis, saxelis, sibrZnis didi tradiciis
xsovniT _ slavi pirveli maswavleblebidan dawyebuli vl.
soloviovamde, bulgakovamde, florenskimde da mecxramete saukunis
saxelTa madideblebamde) eTqvas mtkice _ganved.
Targmna
nino abakeliam
vladimer toporovi
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