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ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universiteti


humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis
fakulteti

semiotikis kvlevis centri

semiotika
samecniero Jurnali

III
SEMIOTICS
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
2008

2
UDC 8122

saredaqcio kolegia

Editorial Board

mTavari redaqtori
cira barbaqaZe

Editor-in-Chief
Tsira Barbakadze

nomris redaqtori
Tamar lomiZe
pasuxismgebeli mdivani
Tamar berekaSvili
nino abakelia
izabela qobalava

Editor
Tamar Lomidze
Executive Secretary
Tamar Berekashvili
Nino Abakelia
Izabela Kobalava

nomris recenzentebi
zurab kiknaZe
mixeil qurdiani
merab RaRaniZe

References
Zurab Kiknadze
Mikheil Kurdiani
Merab Ghaghanidze

Address:
Georgia 0179 Tbilisi
Cholokashvili st. #3
Researching Centure of Semiotics
E-mail: tsira_barbakadze@iliauni.edu.ge

misamarTi:
saqarTvelo 0179 Tbilisi
ColoyaSvilis q. #3
semiotikis kvlevis centri

garekanis dizaini: daviT maWavariani

ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universiteti 2008

ISSN 1512-2409

Sinaarsi
filosofia da semiotika
gigi TevzaZe
paradigma da urCxuli (filosofiuri gonebis saqmis gamoZieba) 7

enisa da literaturis semiotika


cira barbaqaZe
lirikuli subieqtis identifikacia
anu koncepti sisxli muxran maWavarianis poeziaSi

36

qeTevan bezaraSvili
saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da
qarTuli saero literaturis warmoSobis problema

51

manana kvaWantiraZe
vin aris petre? (niSnisa da konceptis
urTierTmimarTebisaTvis ilias moTxrobaSi sarCobelazed~)

97

Tamar lomiZe
feris mxatvruli gaazrebis Taviseburebebi
nikoloz baraTaSvilis poeziaSi

115

nana lolaZe
emociebis gamoxatvis enobrivi suraTi

122

merab RaRaniZe
dasavluri qristianoba aRmosavluri Tvalsawieridan:
romis sakiTxi ilia WavWavaZisa da fiodor tiutCevis
politikur publicistikaSi

127

kulturis semiotika
nino abakelia
`daimonebi~ qarTul

miTo-ritualur sistemaSi

Tamar berekaSvili
postmodernizmi da masobrivi kultura

151

167

zurab kiknaZe
Zveli aRTqmis istoriis ritmebi
lela patariZe
moqalaqeoba qarTlis samefoSi

176

qristianizaciis konteqstSi

203

marina qavTaraZe
miTo-poeturi simbolikis Sesaxeb musikaSi
(zaqaria faliaSvilis `abesalom da eTeris magaliTze)

227

rusudan canava
agresia da rituali

235

semiotikis Teoria da istoria


mamuka biWaSvili
rolan bartis semiologiuri koncefciisaTvis

248

levan cagareli
interteqstualoba rogorc fiqcionalobis signali

260

gia joxaZe
rolan barti da qarTuli istoriuli diskursi

270

semiotika da sxva...
naTela arvelaZe
Teatris ena

285

cira barbaqaZe
dialogSi (ga)darCenilebi
(gigi TevzaZis filosofiuri proza `aq da yvelgan~)

298

levan bregaZe
niSani da sistema

307

zaza SaTiriSvili
qarTuli leqsi nacionalizmis xanaSi: 1859-1916 ww

312

CONTENTS
Philosophy and Semiotics
Gigi Tevzadze
Paradigm and The Beast

35

Semiotics of Language and Literature


Tsira Barbakadze
The Identification of a Lyrical Figure or
the Concept Blood in Mukhran Machavarianis Poetry

50

Ketevan Bezarashvili
The Thinking Models of Byzantine Culture, Hellenophilism and
the Problem of Development of Georgian Secular Literature

95

Manana Kvachantiradze
Who is Peter?

114

Tamar Lomidze
Originality of Colour Interpretation
in Nikoloz Baratashvilis Poetry

121

Nana Loladze
Linguistic picture of expressing emotions

125

Merab Ghaghanidze
The Western Christianity from the Point of View of the Orient
The Roman Question in the Political Articles
by Ilia Chavchavadze and by Fyodor Tyutchev

150

Semiotics of Culture
Nino Abakelia
Daemons in Georgian mythico-ritual system

166

Tamara Berekashvili
Postmodernism and popular culture

175

Zurab Kiknadze
The Rhythms in the Old Testament History

201

Lela Pataridze
Citizenship in Kartli Kingdom in the Context of Christianization

226

6
Marina Kavtaradze
On mythico-poetic symbolism in music

234

Rusudan Tsanava
Aggression and Ritual

247

History and Theory of Semiotics


Mamuka Bichashvili
Rolan Barts Semiological Conception

258

Levan Tsagareli
Intertextuality as a signal of the fictionality

269

Gia Jokhadze
Rolan Barth and the Georgian Historical Discourse

282

Semiotics and . . .
Natela Arveladze
The Expressive Language of the Theatre

297

Tsira Barbakadze
Escaped Thoughout the Dialogue

306

Levan Bregadze
Sign and System

311

Zaza Shatirishvili
Georgian Verse in an Age of Nationalism: 1859 -1916

317

f i l o s o f i a
d a
s e m i o t i k a
gigi TevzaZe

paradigma da urCxuli*
(filosofiuri gonebis saqmis gamoZieba)

filosofiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, profesori. ilia
WavWavaZis saxelmwifo
universitetis reqtori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi: Cveni
dro, sfinqsi da Zenonis
isari (cnobierebis esTetika)(1993);
momavlis
niSnebi (yofierebis esTetika)(1995); saqarTvelo:
Zalauflebis simulaciebi
(1999); instituciuri
cvlilebebis sociologia
(2002); saqarTvelo: Zalauflebis dabruneba
(2003);
`aq
da
yvelgan~(2006).
interesTa sfero: filosofia, politologia,
sociologia.

...SeiZleba vinmem SeniSnos, rom aq daskvna


win uswrebs dasabuTebas. magram gana
vinme daiwyebs imis mtkicebas, risic ar
jera da ris gavrcelebaSiac ar aris
dainteresebuli
borxesi iudas Ralatis sami versia

gamoZieba istoriis kvleviT unda


daiwyos. istoria msoflmxedvelobebis
urTierTCanacvlebaa. iseve, rogorc SeuZlebelia warmoidgino adamiani msoflmxedvelobis gareSe, aseve SeuZlebelia warmoidgino
istoriuli movlena, romelsac ara aqvs
msoflxedvelobrivi safuZveli.
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom pirveli msoflmxedveloba _ miTi _ mTlianad moicavda
samyaros da masSi paradigmuloba(1) srulad
iyo gamoxatuli; erTi mxriv, rogorc nimuSi,
da, meore mxriv, rogorc msoflmxedvelobis
gverdiT mdgari. amitom, miT ufro sakiTxavia,
Tu ratom xdeba am msoflmxedvelobis
totaluri arsebobis sxviT Canacvleba.
gamosakvlevia, Tu ra iwvevs msoflmxedvelobis cvlilebas, ra aiZulebs srul da
* naSromi pirvelad gamoqveynda 1998 wels Jurnal
`axal paradigmebSi~. ganmeorebiT ibeWdeba mkiTxvelTa TxovniT.

gigi TevzaZe

yovlismomcvel msoflmxedvelobas, ukan daixios da sxva formebs


dauTmos adgili.
aseTia paradigmulobis saqmis kvlevisas warmoSobili pirveli
rigis problemebi. miTebi srulad aRweren samyaros. yoveli miTi
aris garkveuli kanoni. am kanonebis erTianoba iZleva Cveni garemos
srul axsnas.
am ganmartebaSi organuladaa CarTuli miTebis ritualuri
Sesruleba, romlis saSualebiTac xorcieldeba samyaro. ritualis
gareSe miTSi aRwerili SemTxveva ar ganxorcieldeba. miTur samyaroSi,
ise, rogorc sxvagan arsad, adamiani da garemomcveli samyaro
organizmul erTobas warmoadgens. isini uerTmaneTod ver arseboben.
msoflmxedveloba am garemoSi gamoixateba tradiciulobiT; yoveli
movlena aris rogorc odesRac momxdaris anarekli-gameoreba.
am harmoniul, kosmosur samyaroSi, paradigmulobis am srul
da unaklo gamoxatvaSi, sadac scenari, nimuSi da sanaxaobis
ganmsazRvreli erT fenomenSi aris moqceuli, xdeba raRac, rac
paradigmulobas samyaros axleburad gadawyobas aiZulebs(2).
erT-erTi aseTi movlenaa tragedia.
tragediaSi saqmis viTareba sxvagvaradaa, vidre eposSi. tragedia
ar aris Tanasworuflebiani subieqtebis urTierTqmedebiT Sedgenili
siuJeturi qarga. tragediaSi siuJeti da misi ganviTareba
protagonistis garemosTan araadekvatur urTierTobas eyrdnoba;
tragediis garemo Cveulebrivi, lamis yoveldRiuri mimdinareobaa,
romelsac tragediis gmiri arRvevs Cveulebrivi mimarTulebis
sawinaamRdgo moZraobiT. SemTxveva, romelic xorcieldeba tragediaSi,
rogorc misi kulminacia, mTlianad protagonistis damsaxurebaa.
anu _ movlenis Semoqmedi aris erTi subieqti, romelic Tavisi
gansakuTrebulobis gamo, yvela Tanamonawileze maRla dgas da siuJetis
SigniT maTi bedis ganmapirobeblad da ganmsazRvrelad gvevlineba.
amave rangis movlena antikur saberZneTSi aris filosofia,
romelic Tavisi metafizikuri SinaarsiT miuTiTebs raRac erT
ganmsazRvrelze (magaliTad _ formis formaze. aristotele).
aseTi msoflgageba, mowesrigebis wesi, Cndeba mogvianebiT,
qristianuli religiis gatotalurebasTan erTad. Semodis
SemTxvevebis arsebobis axali wesi. Tuki adre xdomilebas ramdenime
subieqtis (elementis) Tanasworuflebiani moqmedeba ganapirobebda,
axla yvelaferi, rac xdeba, erTi, gansakuTrebuli subieqtis mieraa
gamowveuli da mTeli samyaro mis biografiaSia CarTuli(3).
aqac, am epoqaSic, SeimCneva Seusabamo movlenebi, romlebic iseve,
rogorc tragedia da antikuri filosofia, sxvis BSesaxeb
gvelaparakebian(4).

piradigma da urCxuli

am epoqaSi aseTi movlena aris, upirveles yovlisa, panTeizmi;


is gveubneba, rom yvelaferi aris RmerTi, anda, yvelaferi aris
RmerTSi (pan-en-Teizmi. koplstonis termini). samyaros aseTi gawyoba
subieqtis da movlenis igiveobaze migviTiTebs. anu, subieqti ki ar
gansazRvravs SemTxvevas, TviTon subieqtia SemTxveva, misi parametrebi.
amitom, subieqtica da SemTxvevac erTad xdeba. es gawyoba, struqtura
samyaros aRqmis qronikuli wesidan ar gamoiyvaneba. amitomac
SemTxveviTi ar aris aseTi moZRvrebebis eresad monaTvla.
amgvari movlenebi mravlad daiZebneba. TvalsaCinoebisaTvis
gamovyoT ori maTgani, romlebic Tavisi SinaarsiT, formiT,
mimarTulobiT, ar jdebian im dros arsebul totalur da eqstotalur msoflmxedvelobebSi. esenia X saukuneSi qarTveli beris
ioane-zosimes mier Seqmnili mcire teqsti qebai da didebai
qarTulisa enisa da kopernikis heliocentruli sistema.
ptolemeosis geocentrizmi absoluturad misaRebi iyo Sua
saukuneebis ideologiisaTvis, romelic subieqts (iqneboda es moqmedi
Tu damkvirebeli) ayenebda SemTxvevis centrSi, rogorc am SemTxvevis
Semoqmeds da mTavar moqmed pirs.
heliocentruli sistema, romelic mecnierulad daasabuTa
kopernikma, antikur saberZneTSic arsebobda (Zv. w.a. III s. aristarqe
samoseli). magram is ubralod daiviwyes. es Teoria winaswarmetyvelebs samyaros ganxilvis axal wess, romlis mixedviTac konkretuli subieqti raRac zogadis da mTlianobis mxolod erT-erTi
rigiTi monawilea da TavisTavad arafers gansakuTrebuls ar
warmoadgens. aseTi msoflmxedveloba adgens mTlianobas, erTs, romlis
WanWikebic konkretulad arsebulebia. aseT aRweras renesansuli
epoqa da konkretuli adamianis xsnaze mimarTuli eklesia ver
miiRebda. amitom ar aris SemTxveviTi, rom traqtati ciur sxeulTa
brunvis Sesaxeb mxolod avtoris sikvdilis Semdeg gamoqveynda.
damarxul ars enai qarTuli dRemde meored mosvlisa misisa
sawameblad, raiTa yovel enasa RmerTman amxilos amiT eniTa...
...viTarmed yoveli saidumlo amas enasa Sina damarxul ars..
...da ese ena Semkuli da kurTxeuli saxeliTa uflisaiTa, mdabali
da dawunebuli, moelis dResa mas meored mosvlisa uflisa...
Sua saukuneebis msoflxedvelobaSi, ideologiaSi, ver vi poviT
vercerT kuTxes, romelSic am frazebis umtkivneulo moTavseba
iqneba SesaZlebeli. ioane zosimes es teqsti qarTul enas acxadebs

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gigi TevzaZe

istoriis subieqtad, adarebs lazares. mTeli istoria am erTgverdian


traqtatSi warmodgenilia, rogorc qarTuli enis biografia: istoria
aris qarTuli enis aRdgomis molodini. rac niSnavs, rom istoria
aq gvevlineba zogadi subieqtis Sinagan kanonad da, rom ara es
subieqti, istoriac ar iarsebebda.
aq, erTi SexedviT, SeumCnevlad uaria naTqvami konkretuli
adamianis unikalurobaze, konkretul subieqt-RmerTze. miuxedavad
imisa, rom formiT am teqstis Sinaarsi aris RmerTis molodini,
pirvel adgilze (Tundac saTauris mixedviT) qarTuli enaa
dayenebuli.
konkretuli adamiani, eTnosis miuxedavad, rac aris im dros
qristianuli eklesiis zrunvis sagani, ar Cans. qarTuli ena zogadi,
yovlismomcveli subieqtia da teqsti, erTi mxriv, miuTiTebs am
zogadis upiratesobas sxva zogadobebis (enebis) mimarT, meore
mxriv ki, axal wesrigze saubrobs, romelSic subieqtebi aseTi
zogadobebi iqnebian da samyaroc maTi urTierTobis mixedviT
mowesrigdeba.
es myvirala Seusabamoba, romelic Sua saukuneebis paradigmasa
da msgavs movlenebs Soris arsebobs, maleve iWreba da ixsneba im
epoqis dadgomiT, romelsac axal dros, mecnierebis aRzevebis da
ganmanaTleblobis xanas uwodeben.
axali wesrigi, romelic ganmanaTleblobaSi iRebs saTaves da
romelSic bolo dromde vcxovrobdiT, gulisxmobs subieqtis,
SemTxvevis da dro-sivrcis erTianobas. am msoflxedvelobiT
yvelaferi rac ki xdeba, aris raRac saerTos, zogadis mcire nawili.
es saerTo ki aris erTaderTi avtonomiuri arseba(5).
yovelRiurobaSi aseTi paradigma nacionalizmis saxes iRebs;
nacionalizmi sxva araferia, Tu ara istoriis subieqtad eris
dasaxva, rac niSnavs rogorc konkretuli adamianis, aseve sxva erebis
daqvemdebarebul statusSi gadayvanas.
rogorc irkveva, istoriis garkveul adgilebSi warmoiqmnebian
movlenebi, romlebsac im momentSi uparadigmoebi SeiZleba vuwodoT.
magram, rogorc vnaxeT, paradigmuloba saswrafod qmnis am axali
SemTxvevis Sesabamis paradigmas, iTavsebs mas.
istoriaSi siarulisas aRmoCnda movlenebi, romlebic maTi
konkretuli garemosTvis arian sxva. es faqtebi paradigmis Zaladobas
adasturebs.

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piradigma da urCxuli

* * *
M...mTqmelebi, romlebmac gansazRvres,
rom damxmare cxoveli SeiZleba iyos
mxolod sami da daadgines sasjeli imaTTvis, vinc
gabedavda akrZalvis darRvevas
antonia s. baieti jini bulbulisTvlis
SuSidan damzadebuli boTlidan
TiTqosda mivediT mizanTan, aRmovaCineT dazaralebuli, romlis
povnis imedic gamoZiebis specifikuri xerxis SemuSavebisas gvqonda.
magram sakiTxavia, Tu ramdenad aris dazaraleba, Zaladoba, iSviaTis
sayovlTaod qceva; zaraldeba Tu ara aristotele ideologiis
avtoritetad qceviT, anda koperniki imiT, rom yvelam icis
heliocentruli sistemis Sesaxeb, an ra akldeba ioane-zosimes misi
teqstis lamis identur frazebs msoflios nebismier kuTxeSi rom
gahyvirian? ra Tqma unda, SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom zaraldeba unikaluroba,
auTenturoba, magram es debulebebi argumentebi ki ara, keTili
survilebia. amitom gamosakvlevia, xom ar aris paradigmulobis
aseTi moqmedeba Zaladoba, Tundac sakuTari Tavis, anda arsebuli
paradigmis mimarT.
irkveva, rom aq Zaladobis faqts adgili ar hqonia.
paradigmuloba Tavis gasamarTleblad kosmogoniur miTze migviTiTebs;
kosmogoniur miTSi paradigmis yvela SesaZlo mdgomareoba
winaswar mocemulia; nebismieri kosmogoniuri ambavi, iqneba es
hesiodes Teogonia Tu popol-vuxi, SeiZleba sam struqturul
momentad davyoT: yvela kosmogoniuri miTi iwyeba gaurkveveli da
ganurCeveli garemos aRweriT, romelSic yovelive (ukve) arsebuli
gaerTianebulia da erT organizmad warmogvidgeba. Semdeg, am
erTianobidan warmoiSoba erTi _ Semqmneli, RmerTi, romelic iwyebs
damxmare RmerTebis (elementebis) Seqmnas. Semdeg, am elementebis
(damxmare RmerTebis) urTierTganlagebiT (RmerTebis
urTierTqmedebiT) iqmneba samyaro(6).
es niSnavs, rom Zaladoba ar momxdara. miTis paradigmaSi ukve
mocemulia yvela sxva msoflmxedveloba. TviTon miTSi, romlis
empiriuli, grZnobadi gamoxatva aris tradiciuloba, arsebobs sxva
ambebis konstruirebis SesaZlebloba. mTlianad kosmogoniuri miTi

12

gigi TevzaZe

ki SeiZleba warmovidginoT, rogorc miTisaTvis myari tradiciuli


safuZvlis dadgenis warmatebiT ganxorcielebuli mcdeloba.
amrigad, raki kosmogoniuri miTi arsebobs, yvela epoqaSi aris
samive msoflxedvelobis ganxorcielebis potencia. amitom, unda
iTqvas, rom ideologia aris ara absoluturad centraluri
msoflmxedveloba, aramed mxolod totalurad.
paradigmulobis yovel moduss aqvs Tavisi sisuste, romelic
amave dros mis Zalasac warmoadgens: es aris msoflmxedvelobis
yvelgangamWolobis unari; totaluri msoflmxedveloba (ideologia)
imdenadaa totaluri, anu epoqa imdenadaa raRac epoqa, ramdenadac
Sesabamisi paradigma yvelganmyofi da grZnobadad mocemuli xdeba.
anu is totalurad igulisxmeba, Tanmyofia da grZnobad-aqsiomaturi
xdeba.
swored am dros, rodesac mis Sesaxeb ukve aRar fiqroben,
imitom rom, is namdvili para-deigma _ mudam gverdiT myofi gaxda;
rodesac azrovnebaSi misi adgili Tavisufldeba, iwyeba axali
samyaros Zebna.
Zebnis safexurebi da mimdevroba paradigmulobis modusiT _
kosmogoniuri miTiTaa gansazRvruli.
ase rom, uparadigmo movlenebi, romlebic istoriaSi vi poveT,
arian ara sxva, ucxoni, romlebzec paradigma Zaladobs da romelTac
isrutavs, aramed scenariT gansazRvruli moqmedeba(ebi), romelic
uzrunvelyofs axali drois dawyebas.
Tumca, uparadigmo movlenebSi arsebobs mcire uzustobani _
Zalian adre warmoSobili formebi; SeiZleba scenaris mesame nawilis
winamorbedi pirvelis dasasrulSi gaCndes. magram es arafriT bRalavs
paradigmulobis moqmedebas. jer erTi, rogorc ukve vTqviT, paradigmis
yvela forma yovelTvis mocemulia potenciurad, anu, centraluri
msoflmxedvelobis gverdiT yovelTvis SeiZleba vivaraudoT
marginaluris arseboba, romelic miCqmaluli da dafarulia. meorec,
empiriulad, ideologiur doneze, aseTi gaCenilis aucilebeli
daviwyeba xdeba (mag. antikur saberZneTSi heliocentruli sistema).
da kidev _ aseTi gadaxvevebi paradigmulobis aramc Tu damnaSaveobaze,
aramed mis poetur sulze metyvelebs, romelic viTomda mkacri
scenaridan mcire gadaxras uSvebs (rac avtoris maRal xelovnebaze
metyvelebs). aucilebel mimdinareobaSi warmoSobili mcire disonansi
_ ra unda iyos amaze kargi moqmedebis gasacocxleblad da mayureblis
dasaintereseblad! (7).

13

piradigma da urCxuli

* * *
istoria jer iwereba da Semdeg xdeba
robert muzili
am winaswari gamoZiebis safuZvelze ukve SeiZleba vilaparakoT
paradigmulobis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb uSualod Cvens garemoSi.
axali dro, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, aris mecnierebis epoqa,
romelsac istoriuli (ara-JamTaaRmwerluri) xana SeiZleba vuwodoT.
mecnierebis paradigmis empiriuli gamoxatva aris nacionalizmi.
nacionalizmi, iseve, rogorc sxva paradigmebis empiriuli modusebi,
odesRac, jer kidev XX saukunis dasawyisSi gaxda empiriulad
grZnobadi, TavisTavad gasagebi da TavisTavadnagulisxmevi. amaze, Tundac
misi faSisturi piki miuTiTebs.
nacionalisturi struqturis gareSe XX saukunis dasawyisidan
moyolebuli, arc saxelmwifo da arc konkretuli adamiani ar
moiazreboda.
aseTive movlenebi axlda wina paradigmebis gagrZnobadebas
Sua saukuneebis bolos, rodesac yvelaferi religiur prizmaSi
Canda. aseve unda yofiliyo sakuTriv-tradiciuli epoqis
dasasrulic.
es imas unda niSnavdes, rom paradigma, romelsac paradigmuloba
gvaCvenebda, rogorc bolos, sakuTari modusebis mimdevrobaSi
damTavrda. kosmogoniurma miTma gangvisazRvra ara marto es mimdevroba,
aramed samyarosadmi istoriuli midgomac; yvela paradigmaSi
istoriuloba raRacnairi formiT mainc arsebobs, iqneba es tradiciis
dasawyisis (miTis) aRwera, qronikebi Tu istoriul-mecnieruli
Txzulebebi, romlebic Cvens garemoSi imyofebian.
istoriuli paradigmis ganxorcieleba kosmologiuri miTis
aqtualuri gadmocemis damTavrebas niSnavs (potenciurad is yvela
droSi arsebobda). logikurad rom mivyveT paradigmebis mimdevrobas
da Semdeg miRebuli sqema SevudaroT kosmologiur ambavs, aRmoCndeba,
rom Semdegi safexuri aris araferi, is, rac iyo manam, sanam qaosi
warmoiSoboda, anu, gaqroba, sicariele.
amasve gveubnebodnen Tanamedrove mecnieruli (fizikuri)
kosmogoniebi arc Tu ise didi xnis winaT.
iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom paradigmulobas sakuTari Tavi
daRupvisaken mihyavs.

14

gigi TevzaZe

magram es ase ar aris. es saocari scenari kidev gvimzadebs


moulodnel SemTxvevas. amis gaTvalsaCinoebisaTvis sakmarisia Cvens
garemos movavloT Tvali.
dResdReobiT, rodesac paradigmulobis bolo, totaluri forma
gasrulebulia, ucnauri SemTxvevebis mowmeebi vxdebiT: Cvens garemoSi
SesaZlebelia samive paradigmis cocxlad Wvreta. erTmaneTis
gverdiT Tanaarseboben miTiuri (tradiciuli), religiuri
(JamTaaRmwerlobiTi) da mecnieruli (nacionalisturi) msoflmxedvelobebi. totalurad arcerTi maTgani ar aris. maT yvelas arsebobis
Tanabari uflebebi aqvT. msoflios centri aRar gaaCnia. centri,
romelic paradigmis totalurobas ganapirobebs. teqnikis gamo
centri aris yvelgan, imdenad gaauqmes sivrce informaciulkomunikaciurma saSualebebma. erTsa da imave dros xdeba sivrcis
ganTavisufleba CarCoebidan da misi gauqmeba.
es gauqmeba ki sxva araferia, Tu ara ganadgurebis, katastrofis
ritualuri Sesruleba, romliTac realuri procesia Canacvlebuli;
swored sivrcis parametrebis (centri-periferia) anulirebis gamo
aris SesaZlebeli sxvadasxva paradigmebis erTmaneTis gverdiT
Tanasworuflebiani arseboba; paradigmulobam aRmoaCina, rom
aqtualuri paradigmisaTvis srulebiT ar aris saWiro centris
(sivrcis) gageba. amiT is, marTalia, kargavs totalurobas, romelic
aqamde misi aucilebeli niSani iyo, magram es danakargi mTlianad
nazRaurdeba katastrofis acilebiT, anu, misi maradiuli Tan-yofniT
(es is mdgomareobaa, romelsac umberto eko maradiul gardamaval
periods uwodebs, da romlis gatotalurebasac cdilobs Jak
derida Tavis teqstebSi. Tu eko [tradiciul] gamomZieblad gvevlineba,
iseve, rogorc bekoni da haidegeri, dekonstruqtivizms,
filosofosobis am axal saxes, advokatobas anda lobirebas Tu
daarqmev).
swored sivrcis parametrebis anulirebis gamo SeuZlebeli
xdeba mxolod sivrcis moazreba da Cndeba axali aRwerebi, romlebic
geo-mentalurad warmoidgenen samyaros, radganac cal-calke arc
azrovneba da arc garemo, sivrce aRar arsebobs. azrovneba imitom,
rom azris sayovelTaoba, anu azris transcendenturoba saeWvodaa
miCneuli, sivrce ki imitom, rom arc ruka da arc am rukis originali,
sivrce-buneba komentarebis gareSe aRar arsebobs. maT dakarguli
aqvT TavisTavadi Sinaarsi. samyaros erTaderTi aRwera, romelic
SesaZlebelia, aris geo-mentaluri deskrifcia, rodesac sivrce

piradigma da urCxuli

15

sakuTari sazRvrebis moazrebaSi, xolo azri sakuTari gavrcelebis


sivrceSi poulobs gamarTlebas, dadasturebas da centrs.
katastrofulobis maradiuli Tan-yofna niSnavs katastrofisagan maradiul Tavis daRwevas. paradigmuloba, romelic Tavis
arsebaSi miTiuria, amas aRwevs saukeTeso tradiciebis Sesabamisad
_ ritualis saSualebiT.
Tan-yofna sxva araferia, Tu ara para-deigma. paradigmuloba,
romlis saqmesac vikvlevT, aris katastrofulobis maradiuli
[ritualuri] Tan-yofna. amiT xdeba realuri dasasrulis acileba.
katastrofis ritualuri Sesruleba xdeba katastrofuli
ritualebis modelirebiT, romlebic arasodes ar mTavrdeba
katastrofiT, globaluri katastrofulobis Sesaxeb yviriliT,
romlebic arasodes ar xdebian. mcire katastrofebi, romlebic
xorcieldeba, imwamsve anulirdeba, Rirebulebas kargavs saerTosa
da globaluris ganuxorcieleblobasTan SedarebiT(8).
paradigma sabolood yovlismomcveli xdeba. istoriaSi, anu
paradigmulobis ganxorcielebis procesSi, jer kidev iyo SesaZlebeli
sayovelTaodan [Tundac iluzoruli] Tavis daRweva uparadigmo
movlenis aRmoCeniT da masze orientaciiT (rogorc irkveva, esec
scenarSi yofila gaTamaSebuli). dRes aseTi mdgomareoba SeuZlebelia;
mojanyes SeuZlia mxolod erTi paradigmuli jgufidan (romelsac
Tanamedrove azrovneba neo-traibs uwodebs) meoreSi, Semdeg mesameSi
gadavides da ase usasrulod imogzauros Tavisuflebis wamis devnaSi.
paradigmuloba auqmebs Tavisuflebas, romelic yovelTvis iyo
realuri katastrofisken swrafva. amiT ixsneba da uqmdeba
katastrofis realuroba.
TandaTan yvelaferi, katastrofulobis kvalad, sruldeba
ritualurad. paradigmuloba sakuTari magaliTiT gviCvenebs, rom
daRupvis sawinaamRdego erTaderTi iaraRi aris ritualuri moqmedeba,
ritualuri Canacvleba (bodriaris mesame rigis simulirebuli) _
ritualis ritualuri Sesruleba. am mizans yvelaferi emsaxureba;
TamaSi, teqnika _ ai, ori mTavari iaraRi, riTac paradigmuloba
sakuTar Tavs maradiulad afuZnebs da amiT Cven gvSvelis, sicocxles
gvinarCunebs.
am bolo ganxilviT paradigmulobis kidev erTi niSani aRmoCnda:
sakuTari formis ritualuri Sesrulebisaken swrafva. es mimarTuleba
mTavrdeba saocar, vagneris operebis msgavs laitmotivebis simravleSi,
romelic dRes sruldeba da romelSic yvela paradigma saxezea;

16

gigi TevzaZe

yvelas aqvs SesaZlebloba, maT Temebs miadevnos Tvalyuri da CaerTos


maTSi (rac gardauvalia).
paradigmuloba saboloo katastrofulobas ritualiT
upirispirdeba(9).
paradigmuloba yovelmxriv gvicavs, gvifrTxildeba, gviqmnis karg,
myudro saxls, romelSic Tavi kargad unda vigrZnoT. is win gvilagebs,
gadmogviSlis sanaxaobebs (deigma); romel maTganSic ar unda
gadavwyvitoT Sesvla, yvelgan vigrZnobT mis damcav Tanyofnas. amitom
momavlis (katastrofis) ar unda gveSinodes. momavlis, romelic
Caiketa Sesabamisi SelocviT, ritualiT. amjerad _ yvelaferi ukve
gansazRvruli da winaswarnagulisxmevia awmyoSi.
araferi ar moxdeba iseTi, rac ar momxdara, yvelaferi axla
xdeba da es axla iqneba maradiuli _ ambobs paradigmuloba.
es sityvebi Selocvas waagavs. magram Cven am SelocvaSic ar
unda SevitanoT eWvi. esec mxolod ritualia, Cvens sasikeTod
momarTuli.
es suraTi, romelic Zalian hgavs hegelis mier Seqmnil
sworupovar alibis, gvawynarebs da garemos simyudroves
gvagrZnobinebs. rac ar unda moxdes _ globaluri, damRupveli
SemTxveva ar ganxorcieldeba, yvelaferi kargad iqneba, sazRvrebi,
CarCoebi waiSleba da yvelani erTad, mSvidobianad da Zmurad
vicxovrebT(10).
brZola, omi, siyvaruli, kompleqsebi, laparaki yvelaferi xdeba
ritualSi. iseve, rogorc daixvewa pirvelyofili ritualebi da
sisxlis Rvridan da msxverplTSewirvidan uwyinar moqmedebad iqca,
aseve moxdeba Cvens garemoSic _ mTavaria mivyveT paradigmulobas
da mis xmas yuri davugdoT.
* * *
...gmirSi xdeba procesi, romelsac SeiZleba vuwodoT
paradigmuli dacema. ori elementi, gayofili gadaulaxavi
sazRvriT.. uecrad erwymis erTmaneTs erT saxeSi: xdeba ...
SeuZlebeli gaerTianeba.
rolan barti S/Z
jerjerobiT veranairi msxverplis kvali ver aRmovaCineT. es
ki niSnavs, rom Zaladobas adgili ar hqonia. rogorc Cans,

piradigma da urCxuli

17

paradigmuloba aramc Tu Zaladobs, aramed mTel Tavis Zalauflebas


mimarTavs Zaladobis gauqmebisaken, misi ritualur sivrceSi
gadatanisaken, arsebuli mtkivneuli winaamRdegobebis moxsnisaken.
paradigmuloba cdilobs yvelanairi ritualis rituali
Seasrulos da am moqmedebiT maT mnSvneloba da aqtualoba daukargos.
meore donis rituali yvelaferSi xorcieldeba _ yvelaferi
miiswrafis am mdgomareobisaken:
adamianis aqtivobis yvala sfero SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc
rituali, im intersubieqturi xasiaTis gamo, romelic, erTi mxriv,
dafiqsirebulia, meore mxriv ki _ gamocalkevebuli da detalurad
damuSavebuli. am fonze, rodesac arsebobs wigni megobrobis
damyarebis Sesaxeb, wigni seqsis Sesaxeb, sxvadasxva teqnikuri
gamaZliereblebi da gamaumjobeseblebi, romlebic ukeTesad da ufro
efeqturad asruleben Tavdapirvel aqtviobas, moqmedeba iqceva
ritualis ritualad, romelic ufro kargia, ufro sasiamovnoa,
uxinjod mimdinareobs. rac mTavaria, yovelTvis arsebobs saSualeba
meore rigis ritualurobas amoefaro; ganuxorcielebloba
daabralo ara sakuTar Tavs, aramed teqnikas, romelic srulyofili
ar aris, anda TamaSis formulaSi daimalo (TamaSi, romelic
mogvewodeba kompiuteruli TamaSebiT dawyebuli, Tanamedrove sportiT
damTavrebuli, sxva araferia, Tu ara meta-rituali, ritualis rituali,
romelic sruldeba pirveli, saerTo, intersubieqturi ritualidan
romeliRac momentis gamoyofiT da misi hi perbolizaciiT; ase _
kompiuteruli TamaSSi xdeba bavSvis yuradRebis, reaqciis,
destruqciulobis proeqcia, sportSi _ romelime fizikuri anda
gonebrivi aqtivobis damuSaveba da a.S.), Tqva, rom yvelaferi TamaSia
da avtoritetebad Seqspiri da heizinga daasaxelo.
magram samyaroSi am mogzaurobiT, romelSic araferi ar aRmoCnda
paradigmulobis garda, gasxlta raRac, romelic, erTi SexedviT,
paradigmulobis Cveulebrivi fenomenia da sxvaTagan arafriT
gamoirCeva.
ganxilvis da kvlevis ritualur doneze gadataniT,
paradigmulobis kuTxeSi migdebuli, rogorc Cveulebrivze ufro
Cveulebrivi Zvelmani, romlis gadagdeba genaneba bavSvobis mogonebebis
gamo, aRmoCnda zRapari.
zRapari ratomRac ar aris dajildoebuli meore rigis
ritualiT, Tumca, lamis pirveli paradigmis droidan arsebulad
iTvleba.

18

gigi TevzaZe

es eWvis safuZvelia. ratom ar xdeba Cvens garemoSi zRapris


kvlav ritualuri gaTamaSeba, nuTu misi araseriozulobis gamo?
paradigmulobam yvelaferi gaaTamaSa, mis yovlad mzrunvel
moqmedebas araferi gamorCenia, magram sakuTriv zRapris kvlav
gaTamaSeba ar xdeba, an _ xdeba da ver vamCnevT.

* * *
...... ,
;

iosif brodski, odisevsi telemaqesadmi
zRapari iqmneba paradigmebis zRvarze, rodesac miTis forma
amTavrebs arsebobas da horizontze religiuri anu JamTaaRmwerluri
epoqa Cans. paradigmulobis erTi formidan meoreze gadasvlisas
gansakuTrebuli viTareba iqmneba; jer kidev ar aris dasrulebuli
erTi paradigmis totaluroba, Tanac aqtiurdebian Semdgomis niSnebi.
totaluri paradigma xdeba grZnobadi samyaros ekvivalenturi: misi
SegrZneba-danaxva yvelgan da yvelaferSi SeiZleba. am SegrZnebebs
Tavze efareba axali, momavali paradigmis inteleqtualuri bade:
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am dros inteleqtualuri da empiriuli ebrZvian
erTmaneTs: axal formebs axal grZnobadobaze aqvT pretenzia, xolo
arsebuli, gamjdari SegrZnebebi amas mTeli ZalebiT uSlian xels.
savsebiT SesaZlebelia, zRapari aseTi marginaluri mdgomareobis
anareklad CavTvaloT. gansxvavebiT paradigmuli fenomenebisagan, is
miuTiTebs sakuTar ararealurobas. personaJebi, romlebic aqamde
mxolod kanonSemoqmedebaSi (miTSi) iRebdnen monawileobas, aq
JamTaaRmwerluri ambis monawileni xdebian. miTis SemTxvevebi,
romlebic ar Tanaobdnen am samyaroSi da iyvnen rogorc arsebuli
xdomilebebis ukan, gverdiT, sadRac mdgomni, gadmovidnen da grZnobad
samyaroSi dasaxldnen.
magram zRapari mudam aRniSnavs, rom es axali mobinadreni,
mTlianad samyaro, romelsac is gviyveba, ararealuria.
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom zRapari marginaluri arsebaa. is iqmneba
zustad iq, sadac realobis parametrebi simyares kargaven da ori
samyaro erTmaneTs ejaxeba. zRapari aqamde atarebs am dajaxebis
mkveTr kvals: is erTsa da imave dros JamTaaRmwerlobaa (jadosnuri

piradigma da urCxuli

19

zRapris Sinaarsi gmiris biografiaa) da miTi (misi personaJebi


miTis mcxovreblebi arian).
zRapris struqturis da Sinaarsis Sesaxeb bevri dawerila.
CvenTvis mTavari isaa, rom yvela zRapars, msoflios nebismier kuTxeSi
erTi da igive ganzomilebebi gaaCnia.
zRapari arasodes kvdeba (mxolod mis Sesaxeb mecnieruli
naSromis furclebze); man myari adgili daikava bavSvebis aRzrdaSi
da misi gaCenis dRidan yvela bavSvi saukuneebis manZilze ismens
erTi da imave struqturis mqone ambebs. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom maT
erTnairad uxariaT, erTnairad swuxan da Semdeg, rodesac izrdebian,
erTnairad miiCneven zRapris Sinaarss ararealurad da
araseriozulad.
zRapris warmoSobis Semdeg masze yuradRebis gamaxvileba
marginalur, sazRvriT situaciaSi xdeba; religiis da mecnierebis
epoqebis sazRvarze amis magaliTia Zmebi grimebis Sroma. sazRvriTi
gawyoba qvecnobierad mimarTavs adamians zRaparze, rogorc Zvel
nacnobze, romelic axal situacias Seesabameba da amitom ufro
maxlobeli da Rirebuli xdeba.
zRapari arasodes kvdeba. uyuradRebobis miuxedavad, nebismier
qveyanaSi (garda miTis epoqaSi mcxovrebi tomebisa, romlebisTvisac
jer ar damdgara zRapris dro) nebismier bavSvs zRapars uyvebian.
aseTi daJinebuli gameoreba, jiutad erTi da imaves Sesruleba
saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi niSnavs, rom zRapari mniSvnelovani da
sayuradReboa paradigmulobisaTvis da misi roli bevrad aRemateba
damamSvideblis da didaqtikosis rols.
es maradiuli gameoreba migviTiTebs, rom zRapari aris rituali,
romelsac paradigmuloba asrulebs. rituali, rogorc CvenTvis
cnobili gaxda paradigmulobis mokle istoriidan, sruldeba,
rogorc raRacis gameoreba (warmarTuli ritualebi imeoreben
miTiur SemTxvevebs, anu gadmoaqvT moqmedeba sivrceSi, romelic im
moqmedebam gamoiwvia). ritualis mizani iyo an raRacisaTvis xelis
Sewyoba, an raRacis destruqcia, dangreva. magiuri ritualebi,
romelTac Cven dromde moaRwies da romelTa dRes ganxorcielebas
win aRaraferi daudgeba, orive am funqcias atareben(11).
zRapari, Tu is ritualia, raRacisken unda iyos mimarTuli.
Tqma, rom is aris Selocva, mimarTuli axali paradigmis ganxorcielebisaken, ar iqneba amomwuravi pasuxi: radganac maSin zRapris sul
mcire ori, erTmaneTis Semdeg ganxorcielebuli saxe unda iyos
cnobili, da isini erTmaneTs unda cvlidnen marginaluri situaciebis

20

gigi TevzaZe

Sesabamisad. e.i. jer jadosnuri zRapari unda arsebobdes da


Semdeg, mecnierul epoqaSi gardamaval sazRvarze mas sayofacxovrebo
zRapari unda Caenacvlos.
magram zRapris es orive forma erTad arsebobs da axalaxali variaciebiT kvlav da kvlav iqmneba. SeiZleba es iyos zRapris,
rogorc ritualis, mizani, magram zRapris SenarCuneba da yofna
aramarginalur epoqebSi gvaiZulebs am Selocvis namdvili mizezi
sxvagan veZioT.
* * *
mojadoebuli sofeli, jadosnuri mTa,
zRvis samyaro: los anJelesi garSemortymulia
am warmodgeniTi sadgurebiT, romlebic
kvebaven realobas, im qalaqis realurobis
energias, romlis saidumlo mdgomareobs mxolod
imaSi, rom is sxva araferia, Tu ara Seuwyveteli,
ararealuri cirkulaciis qseli: fabulis
proporciebis qalaqi, magram sivrcis,
anda ganzomilebis gareSe.

Jan bodriari simulirebulebi da simulaciebi


zRapari ar aris raimes ganxorcieleba-arganxorcielebisken
mimarTuli rituali. is imTaviTve gvauwyebs, rom Cven, mis msmenelebs
da mkiTxvelebs aranamdvilTan, ararealurTan gvaqvs saqme.
samyaro, romelic zRaparSi aRiwereba, aris Seqmnili ara odesme
arsebobisaTvis, aramed raRac sxva, gansakuTrebuli miznisaTvis. am
samyaroSi erTsa da imave dros Tanaarseboben Cveni garemos
grZnobadi Sinaarsebis sxvadasxva gawyobebi, romlebic erTad zRapris
garemos qmnian. amitom, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom zRapari Tavis TavSi
moicavs paradigmulobis yvela formas. maTi erTianoba qmnis ucnaur
garemos, romelic sxva araferia, Tu ara Cveni saxlebisagan (romlebSic
gvicxovria da vcxovrobT) agebuli Senoba. zRapris saocroba da
jadosnuroba swored am saxlebis sxva-da-sxva agurebis, kedlebis
jadoqrul urTierTSesabamobaSi mdgomareobs. ase aSenebul saxlSi
xdeba ambavi, romelsac bavSvobaSi vismenT xolme.
ratom iqmneba aseTi garemo ritualis Sesasruleblad, jerjerobiT ucnobia. sxva ritualebs paradigmuloba Cveulebriv
sivrceSi atarebs xolme.

21

piradigma da urCxuli

raki am Selocvis mizezi, mizani ritualis gareT ver vi poveT,


is mis SinaarsSi ganxorcielebis wesSi unda veZioT;
jadosnuri zRapris siuJets rom gadavxedoT, masSi saintereso
kanonzomierebas davinaxavT: is yovelTvis gvevlineba keTili da boroti
Zalebis brZolad. keTili Zala personificirebulia Zlier da
keTilSobil gmirSi, boroti ki _ urCxulSi. urCxuli SeiZleba iyos
absoluturi, romelic wyaros TavSi zis, SeiZleba fardobiTi _
jadoqari, romelic gmirTan sabrZolvelad urCxulis formas iRebs.
urCxulTan brZola marto zRaparSi ar xdeba. zRapari
memkvideobiT iRebs am konfliqts miTidan, da aseve memkvidreobis
kanoniT gadascems am orTabrZolas saraindo romans. es Setakeba
Cvens droSic xorcieldeba paradigmul fenomenebSi, oRond aq is
metaforis CrdilSi imaleba (12).
urCxulTan brZola kulturis erT-erTi ZiriTadi Temaa,
kulturis, romelsac laitmotivad zRapari gasdevs. zRapari am
Temis maradiuli samyofelia. Temisa, romelic sxvadasxva adgilebSi
cocxldeba da viTardeba, izrdeba _ saWiroebis mixedviT.
paradigmuloba saocari daJinebiT atarebs am rituals
dasabamidan. ise, rom misi aranairi modifikacia, gadafarva, miviwyeba
ar xdeba; Cven yvela am rituals erT-erT pirvels vswavlobT.
dauZlevel da saSiS winaamRdegobasTan Sejaxebisas isev da isev es
metafora mogvdis TavSi. Cvens warmodgenebSi urCxuli yovelTvis
dgas gmiris gzaze da sikeTis, wesrigis gamarjvebisaTvis saWiroa
misi mokvla-gandevna.
unda gairkves, Tu ra aris es urCxuli, romlis mokvlis
ritualsac aTeulobiT saukunea atarebs paradigmuloba.

* * *
mniSvneladi sxvebi individualur
cxovrebaSi subieqturi realobis
SenarCunebis mTavar agentebad gvevlinebian
bergeri, lukmani realobis socialuri
konstruireba
aviRoT mecxvare ZaRlis Tavi, SevuerToT mas katis Tvalebi,
bus yurebi, mwevari ZaRlis cxviri, lomis warbebi, beberi mamlis
safeTqlebi da wylis kus kiseri...

22

gigi TevzaZe

leonardo da vinCis am aRweriT cxadi xdeba, rom urCxuli


Sedgeba sxvadasxva arsebebis nawilebisagan, romlebic erTmaneTTan
harmoniul kavSirSi arian ise, rom erT, gansakuTrebul mTlianobas
qmnian.
yvela arseba, romlis atributebsac sesxulobs urCxuli,
gansazRvruli da Cveulia. ZaRli, lomi, mamali, ku _ yvela es fenomeni
Cvens garemoSia ganlagebuli da aRiqmeba, rogorc miRebuli da
Sinauri. urCxulSi es Cveuli komponentebi uCveulo gawyobad
warmogvidgeba.
urCxuli Sedgeba paradigmuli fenomenebisagan. misi organizmis
yoveli niuansis gansazRvra SesaZlebelia nacnobi paradigmiT. magram
TviTon urCxuli aris sxva, vidre am paradigmebis meqanikuri jami.
is warmoadgens mTlianobas, romlis arc erTi paradigmuli nawili
TavisTavadobas ar kargavs, magram, miuxedavad amisa, isini erTad
garkveul arsebas qmnian(13).
urCxuli princi pulad sxva arsebobis Sesaxeb gvesaubreba;
Tavis TavSi sxvadasxva paradigmuli fenomenebis gaerTianebiT is
sxva arsebobaze migviTiTebs, arsebobaze, romelic am paradigmulobaSi
ar da ver xorcieldeba: aseTi gaerTianeba paradigmulobis
katastrofas niSnavs.
aq ukve SeiZleba paradigmulobis aucileblobasa da
sayovelTaobaSi eWvis Setana. saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi is
mogvewodeboda, rogorc erTaderTi da gardauvali, Tanac rogorc
iseTi ram, rasac SeuZlia katastrofa agvacilos da daRupvas
gadagvarCinos.
urCxuli gveubneba, rom SesaZlebelia sxvagvarad yofna, romelic
albaT dagvaSorebs katastrofulobis maradiul rituals(14).
urCxuli aris is arseba, razec paradigmuloba Zaladobs
saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi. is aris sxva, romlis ganxorcielebasac
ebrZvis paradigmuloba. saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi mimdinare urCxulis
mokvlis rituali migviTiTebs, rom urCxuli ar momkvdara.
paradigmulobas aqvs ritualuri brZolis gamocdileba, rac
warmatebiT xorcieldeba katastrofulobis mimarT; katastrofis
yoveldRiuri gaTamaSeba Tavidan gvacilebs da auqmebs katastrofas.
paradigmuloba cdilobs urCxulis, rogorc katastrofulobis
warmoCenas. magram Tuki urCxuli marTlac katastrofaa, anu wminda
negaciaa da sxva araferi, unda arsebobdes ara misi mokvlis, aramed
yoveldRiuri ganxorcielebis rituali. es ki migviTiTebs, rom
urCxuli da katastrofa erTi rigis movlenebi arian.

piradigma da urCxuli

23

urCxuli paradigmulobis dasasrulis maniSnebelia. is


migviTiTebs sxva arsebobaze, romlis SesaZleblobac, rogorc irkveva,
arsebobs, da metic, paradigmulobis mTeli istoriis manZilze
arsebula.
ukve gasagebi xdeba, ratom iqmneba zRapari paradigmebis sazRvarze;
urCxulis ganxorcielebis saSiSroeba swored marginalur
situaciaSi arsebobs. maSin, rodesac moSlilia totaluri paradigmis
ierarqiuli diqtati gverdiTi movlenebis mimarT, erTmaneTSi ireva
centri da periferia.
amitom swored sazRvarzea aucilebeli urCxulis mokvlis
ritualis Catareba; manamde es brZola miTSi mimdinareobs _ gmirebi
warmatebiT xocaven urCxulebs. magram rodesac centri yanyalebs
da totaluri ganwyoba ukve aRar gulisxmobs urCxulis mokvlas,
paradigmuloba qmnis specialur, universalur rituals _ zRapars.
paradigmuloba urCxuls uqmnis samyofels, am ukanasknelisaTvis
nacnob sivrces, romelic mis msgavsad Sedgeba grZnobadobis sxvadasxva
formebidan. amiT paradigmulobas ori kurdRlis daWera aqvs
gadawyvetili: erTi mxriv, is qmnis urCxulis garemos (e.i. paradigmas),
meore mxriv ki, klavs urCxuls am garemoSi.
magram, rogorc vTqviT, urCxulis mokvlis maradiuli rituali
am ritualis araqmedunarianobas migviTiTebs.
urCxuli ar eqceva paradigmaSi. piriqiT, is iqcevs Tavis TavSi
yvela paradigmas da gviCvenebs Tavis Tavs, rogorc paradigmaze, da
maSasadame, paradigmulobaze ufro mets. amitom zRapari, romlis
funqciac urCxulis paradigmad yofnaa, ver i pyrobs mas bolomde.
paradigmuloba iZulebuli gaxda zRapris bolod (urCxulis
mokvlis Semdeg) gmiris dabruneba SemoeRo: sxvadasxva samyaroebi,
rac ar unda gahyve maT, yovelTvis mTavrdeba aq, im yofaSi, saidanac
gmiri wavida urCxulis mosaklavad, da sadac is sabolood
dasaxldeba. aseTi gza ki garkveuli garemos, samyaros pirveladobas,
centralurobas gulisxmobs.
paradigmulobas zRapris sxvanairi struqtura rom SeemuSavebina,
anu, saerTod gamoericxa ierarqiulobis momenti (mag. gmiri ar
brundeba, zRapari ar mTavrdeba), maSin is warmatebiT moklavda
urCxuls, magram imav wams axali urCxuli gaCndeboda (aseTi viTareba
dafiqsirebulia Cinur zRaprebSi, Tumca, sabolood romelime gmiri
mainc brundeba saxlSi. gmiri, romelmac daamarcxa urCxuli, magram
ar darCa urCxulTan erTad), an TviTon paradigma gadaiqceoda
urCxulad(15).

24

gigi TevzaZe

urCxulis SiSiT paradigmuloba bolomde ver klavs urCxuls.


es ki iZleva urCxulis aRmoCenis imeds. Tu ar momkvdara, igi
raRacnairi, Tundac miCqmaluli da Secvlili saxiT unda cxovrobdes,
rogorc istoriaSi, aseve Cvens gverdiT. zRapris aqtualoba
migviTiTebs, rom urCxuli arsebobs, da rom mas paradigmuloba
dasdevs da mis sawinaamRdego Selocvas atarebs.
urCxuli SeiZleba iyos rogorc adamiani, aseve SemTxveva. maTi
aRmoCena ar iqneba Zneli, Tuki maTi ganadgurebis rituals
davakvirdebiT; amgvari rituali SeiZleba orgvari iyos: an saerTod
daviwyeba da urCxulis aseTi gaqroba, anda gasanadgureblis yovel
wuTs Tvalwin dayeneba, rac igive efeqts iwvevs.
pirveli TvalSisacemi urCxuli, romelic zRapris axlos
imyofeba, aris TamaSi, romelsac bavSvi TamaSobs manam, sanam es
TamaSi gansazRvruli wesebis da kanonebis erTianoba gaxdeba. bavSvi
TamaSobs uwesod, uwesrigod. yvelaferi, rasac is aRiqvams da
rac mis samyaros warmoadgens, TamaSSi harmoniulad erTiandeba da
erT arsebad gvevlineba. es TamaSi aris is, rac imTaviTve ikrZaleba
paradigmulobis mier, romlis aqtualuri gamoxatva mSoblebi da
aRmzrdelebi arian: sjobia, bavSvma sasargeblo TamaSi iTamaSos,
anda zRapars mousminos. es fraza, ra Tqma unda, mzrunvelobis da
STamomavlobaze fiqris Sedegia, da amave dros, paradigmulobis
dadebuli jadoa, romelic urCxulis mokvlis Seswavlisken
mouwodebs bavSvebs da mSoblebs.
es is jadoa, romelic sabolood TamaSs aqcevs teqnikad da
teqnikurad, ritualad, romelic raRacis daxvewas da dauflebas
emsaxureba. urCxulis ukvdavebas Tavdapirveli TamaSi miuTiTebs,
romlis Cakvlac maleve xdeba.
urCxuli SeiZleba iyos romelime filosofosi, magaliTad,
heraklite, romlis fragmentebis siWrele da daulagebloba swored
urCxulur bunebas unda miuTiTebdes. meore mxriv, ganadgurebis
rituali aris am fragmentebis ontologiur-dialeqtikuri
interpretacia, romelic heraklites mxolod istoriul safexurad
aqcevs, da romelsac mosyidul-motyuebuli filosofosebi hegelis
droidan warmatebiT axorcieleben.
urCxuli SeiZleba iyos Tundac romelime fraza, debuleba,
romelic miviwyebuli da miCqmalulia. dakvirvebuli kvleviT SeiZleba
aRmovaCinoT, rom urCxulebiT garSemortymulni varT(16).

25

piradigma da urCxuli

* * *
aRmoCnda, rom TeTri qviT
mokirwyluli gza, romelsac
mivuyvebodiT, iyo urCxulis kudi
g.k.Cestertoni
erTi SexedviT, urCxuli Cvens dRevandel garemos waagavs; Cvens
samyaroSi, iseve, rogorc urCxulSi, sxvadasxva saxis paradigmebi
Tanaarseboben ierarqiis gareSe. magram urCxulis umTavresi
maxasiaTebeli aris ara es mravalferovneba, aramed gansakuTrebuli
Sinagani kavSiri, romelic am mravalferovnebidan qmnis sxvas, sxva
arsebobas. Cvens garemoSi aseTi kavSiri SeuZlebelia; es gaTiSuloba,
qaosuri viTareba katasrofulobis ritualis aucilebeli nawilia,
romlis gareSec paradigmuloba arsebobas gaqrobiT daamTavrebs.
Cven WeSmaritad zRaprul garemoSi vimyofebiT. iseve, rogorc
zRapari, Cveni garemoc Sedgeba sxvadasxva paradigmuli grZnobadi
formebisagan, romelTa Soris CvenTvis (aseve sxvisTvisac) mTavroben
isini, romlebSic Cven (agreTve sxvebic) vcxovrobT.
aseTi garemo, Tavisi zRaprulobis gamo, aRniSnavs, xazs usvams
garSemo myofis ararealurobas da umniSvnelobas. garemos
zRapruloba, zRapari, ganxorcielebuli ritualebis kvlav
ritualuri SesrulebiT, aris garanti, rom aq dabadebuli urCxuli
araseriozulad iqnes aRqmuli da sabolood ganadgurdes(17).
am uyuradRebobiT urCxuli jadovdeba. urCxuli romlis
dabadebac aravis ukvirs, da rodesac ar arsebobs sarke, romelSic
urCxuli Tavis urCxulobas daakvirdeba, ijerebs Tavis Cveulebriobas,
da raki masSi yvela formaa, igi erT-erTi paradigmuli arseba
xdeba. rac ufro didxans rCeba urCxuli am erT, romelime formaSi,
miT ufro Zneli xdeba misi namdvili arsebis SemCneva-dabruneba:
sxva paradigmuli Sinaarsebi atrofirdeba da Cveulebrivze ufro
Cveulebriv movlenad iqceva.
es aris paradigmulobis bolo, kargad gaTvlili da amave
dros, ganwiruli nabiji. Cvens garemomde ar xdeboda urCxulTan
pirispir Sexvedra; paradigmulobas yovelTvis mzad hqonda
totaluri paradigma, romelic urCxuls periferiaze agdebda. dRes
totaluri paradigma, Tuki saerTod SeiZleba mis Sesaxeb vilaparakoT,
aris zRapari, romelSic urCxuli centraluri personaJia. arc is
ar unda iyos SemTxveviTi, rom Cvens droSi parodiuli zRaprebis

26

gigi TevzaZe

Seqmna daiwyo (boroti boroti ar aris da aucileblad


gamoswordeba, anda, aseT sabavSvo zRaprebSi saerTod ar aris
borotebis Tan-yofnis aucilebloba).
paradigmulobis ormxrivi politika, yvelafris ritualad
qcevasa da urCxulis ritualuri mokvlisaken mimarTuli, gaerTianda:
urCxuli aRmoCnda im ritualSi, romelic erTaderTi realobaa.
Cven garSemortymuli varT maqciebiT, romlebic, erTi mxriv,
Cveulebrivi paradigmuli fenomenebi arian, meore mxriv ki _
urCxulebi. Tuki kargad davakvirdebiT, urCxuls davinaxavT. magram
sxva sakiTxia, moxerxdeba Tu ara ase _ urCxulebis ganjadoeba.
ar SeiZleba da fuWi Sromaa, urCxuli struqturebis, ideebis
da paradigmebis doneze eZebo. struqtura, forma, idea, paradigmulobis
movlenebi arian. urCxuli maT Soris sxlteba(18).
adamianis aqtivobis yvela sferoSi unda arsebobdnen maqciebi.
uazrobaa universaluri Selocvis damuSaveba, romlis wakiTxvisTanave
xidan, wignidan, saxlidan, cidan, Cvengan, urCxulebi daiwyeben gamosvlas.
aseTi kanonebisaTvis zrunva isev paradigmulobaSi Cagvagdebs, romelic
zogadobebis da wesebis saufloa.
yoveli urCxuli cal-calke unda ganjadovdes. es, ki upirveles
yovlisa, konkretuli adamianis saqmea, oRond ara im adamianisa,
romlis Sesaxebac eqsistencialuri filosofia, anda hermenevtika
laparakobs. es azrovneba (mag. a-sein-uri azrovneba) azrovnebs
konkretulis Sesaxeb da amiT auqmebs mas.
* * *
%^&^%798870^&^%^&%$$%&^
)(*()&*&^*&^%&&*(*7878$%^%
*&^789

paradigmuloba aRmoCnda moZalade. ZaladobaSi xelis SemwyobTa


Soris filosofiac moeqca. filosofiis saSualebiT mosyiduli
Tu motyuebuli gamomZieblebi da advokatebi amkvidrebdnen Zaladobas
yvelgan da yvelaferSi (am damkvidrebis kulminacia aris
dekonstruqtivizmi, romelic diskursebis [Zaladobebis] simravles
uwyobs xels. amis Sedegad yvela adgili ukve Zaladobis
[diskursuli] adgili xdeba)(19).

27

piradigma da urCxuli

paradigmulobam Tavisive Seqmnil kanons daujera, raki mis


alibis swored aseTi konkretuli adamianebi qmnidnen, sxvebze
Tavi aRar Seuwuxebia.
filosofiam danaSauli unda gamoisyidos da darCenili dro
urCxulebis ganjadoebas unda moaxmaros. oRond es ganjadoeba
unda moxdes ara konkretulis Sesaxeb azrovnebiT (aseTi mimarTuleba,
rogorc vnaxeT, aucileblobiT iwvevs paradigmulobis alibis Seqmnas),
aramed imis Sesaxeb laparakiT, rac paradigmulobas gverdiT rCeba,
rogorc yvelgangamWolobis da yovlisSemZleobis safasuri(20).

SeniSvnebi:
1. paradigma _ para _ gverdiT, deigma _ magaliTi, nimuSi, Cveneba
_ aris is, rac movlenis, SemTxvevis gverdiT dgas da aCvenebs, amtkicebs
mas, rogorc magaliTs da nimuSs. is aZlevs fenomens magaliTad,
yofnis Zalas. Zalauflebis aseTi miniWeba ki nimuSs, magaliTs
amravlebs da SemTxvevebis ganmsazRvrelad, xdomilebis aucilebel
wesad aqcevs.
paradigma gvevlineba rogorc wesi, kanoni, romlis mixdviTac
ewyoba garemo, romlis mixedviTac Cvens garemoSi raRaca xdeba.
aseTi ganmartebiT _ paradigmebi arian samyaros kanonebi, miTebi,
yvelaferi is, rac SemTxvevis ganxorcielebis wess gansazRvravs.
paradigma -para _ gverdiT, deigma _ sanaxaoba, bazroba, aris is,
rac sanaxaobis, xilulis gverdiT dgas da gvixsnis mas. anu, apirobebs
mis aseTad da ara sxvagvarad aRqmas. am SemTxvevaSi paradigma
msoflmxedvelobrivi fenomenia, is, rac aris msoflmxedvelobis, anu,
samyaroSi Semomxvedrebis garkveuli interpretaciis safuZveli.
paradigmis am modusis magaliTebia istoriuli epoqebi. yvelaze
zerele ganxilviTac ki istoria kacobriobis cxovrebis gzas sam
periodad warmogvidgens: antikuri xana, Sua saukuneebi, axali dro.
droSi gaSlili adamianebis moqmedebebis etapebad dayofis safuZveli
aris sxvadasxva msoflmxedveloba. am msoflmxedvelobebze
dayrdnobiT yoveli epoqis adamiani sxvadasxvanairad aRiqvams samyaros.
paradigmebis am ori mniSvnelobis SejerebiT miviRebT, rom
paradigma aris arsebulis gverdiT mdgari. is, rac aiZulebs arsebuls
iyos aseTi, da ara sxvanairi. es iZuleba movlenis da sanaxaobis
gerdiT dgomiT, mudmivi kontroliT xorcieldeba. erTi mxriv,

28

gigi TevzaZe

paradigma aris scenari, meore mxriv ki, is, vinc am scenaris zust
ganxorcielebas Tvalyurs adevnebs, is, vinc mudam imyofeba movlenebis
gverdiT.
raki paradigma yvelganmyofi da yvelgangamWolia, is raRac
zogad da saerTo fenomens unda warmoadgendes. magram, amave dros,
arseboben konkretuli paradigmebi, iqneba es kanonebi Tu
msoflmxedvelobebi. amitom cnebaTa aRreva rom aviciloT Tavidan,
im zogads da saerTos SeiZleba paradigmuloba vuwodoT.
paradigmuloba, es makontrolebeli da sakuTari
ganxorcielebisaTvis mzrunveli arseba, rogorc Cans, sami formiT
gamoixateba: 1. paradigmuloba gveubneba, rom samyaro xdeba kanonebis
(paradigmebis) mixedviT; 2. paradigmuloba gveubneba, rom istoria
aris paradigmebis monacvleoba; 3. paradigmuloba gveubneba, rom
paradigma aris aucilebeli da gardauvali.
gavyveT TiToeuli am debulebis kvals da vnaxoT, rogor xdeba
maTi ganxorcieleba, rogor xdeba am sami ZiriTadi wesis CvenSi
Semosvla.
pirveli formis ganxorcieleba iwyeba miTebis qmnadobasTan
erTad. (manamde ra xdeboda, SeuZlebelia CavwvdeT, momxdaris kvali
vnaxoT da gavyveT). Cveni gamocdilebis pirveli mocemuloba
aris miTi.
miTi aris SemTxveva, romelic xorcieldeba gansazRvrul sivrceSi
sul, drois mdinarebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe ramdenime
Tanasworuflebiani subieqtis mier. magaliTad, persefonas miTi
aris SemTxveva, romelSic monawile personaJebi weliwadis droTa
monacvleobas gansazRvraven. es ambavi xorcieldeba yovel weliwads.
miTi gevlineba rogorc magaliTi, nimuSi, romlis mixedviTac
Sesabamisi movlena xdeba.
aseTive struqtura gaaCnia imasac, rasac Cvens garemoSi kanoni
ewodeba; yoveli kanoni SemosazRvravs Tavisi moqmedebis sivrces
da xdeba masSi drois miuxdavad. anu kanoni gevlineba magaliTad,
romlis mixedviTac xorcieldebian, an unda ganxorcieldnen Sesabamisi
movlenebi.
kanonebi (albaT miTebic) aRmoCndebian xolme. magram is, rac
aseTi gawyobis saSualebas iZleva, rac gvaiZulebs samyaros, rogorc
asxmuls, wesrigs, kosmoss, anda rogorc naqsovs, teqsts vuyuroT
da masSi bolomde kanonebis arseboba vigulisxmoT, aris
paradigmuloba.

piradigma da urCxuli

29

paradigmuloba migviTiTebs, rom yvelaferi raRac wesis mixedviT


xorcieldeba, is, rac yoveli movlenis gverdiT dgas da amtkicebs
mas, rogorc magaliTis, nimuSis erT-erT kerZo SemTxvevas.
paradigmulobis meore forma sxva doneze moqmedebs. misi
sfero adamianebis urTierTobis da urTierTmoqmedebis ganzomilebaa.
anu, sanaxaobis, bazrobis aRqmis sivrce. bazroba aris adgili, sadac
yvelaferi warmodgenilia, manufaqturuli nawarmidan Teatralur
sanaxaobamde. aseTi siWrele da mravalferovneba kargad gadmoscems
garemos xasiaTs, Sinaarss, garemosas, romelic mosawesrigebeli da
dasalagebelia, Tundac imitom, rom bazrobis stumars Tavgza ar
aebnes da yayanSi gza gaikvlios.
samyaros bazrobaSi gzamkvlevis, gidis rols msoflmxedveloba
asrulebs. am cnobariT SeiaraRebuli mogzauri daculia
moulodnelobebisagan da icis, sanaxaobis romel nawilSi ra daxvdeba.
msoflmxedveloba miuTiTebs sakuTar matarebels, ra gaakeTos, ra
iyidos, ras miaqcios yuradReba da ra CaTvalos umniSvnelod.
rogorc ukve vTqviT, msoflmxedvelobebi istoriaSi arsebuli
epoqebis mixedviT SeiZleba sam ti pSi gavaerTianoT; am sam sanaxaobas
sami sxvadasxva istoriuli periodi _ antikuroba, Sua saukuneebi
da axali dro Seesabameba. am sam cnobars, gzamkvlevs SeiZleba
miTi, religia da mecniereba vuwodoT.
yovel maTgans sanaxaobis aRweris da maSasadame, gagebis sakuTari,
sxvebisagan gansxvavebuli wesi gaaCnia. magram srulebiT ar aris
aucilebeli, romelime erT bazobaze yvelas erTi da igive gzamkvlevi
ekavos xelSi. savsebiT SesaZlebelia vinmem sadRac, ori an sami
gzamkvleviTac ki iaros. am SemTxvevaSi is mogvagonebs turistbibliofils, romelsac axali bukletebis gamosvlis Semdegac Zvelis
gadagdeba enaneba. misi gamocdili Tvali amCnevs im niSnebs, romlebic
axal gzamkvlevSi ar meordeba _ iqneba es gauqmebuli marSruti Tu
dangreuli sastumro.
jerjerobiT paradigmulobis am mxriv moqmedebac gairkva; is
mdgomareobs ara imdenad romeliRaca konkretuli msoflmxedvelobis
aucilebel arsebobaSi, aramed saerTod, sanaxaobis
msoflmxedvelobrivi interpretaciis aucileblobaSi. Sen winaSe
sami wignia, airCie, romelic ginda!
ase _ cxadi xdeba paradigmulobis aqtivobis ori sfero,
romlebic erTad samyaros qmnian. aseTi ganxilviT paradigmas
moqmedebisaTvis sxva adgili aRar rCeba. mesame forma, romelic
dasawyisSi aRvniSneT, aris paradigmulobis ara fenomenuri daxasiaTeba,

30

gigi TevzaZe

aramed paradigmulobis arsebobis wesi, romelic gvauwyebs, rom is


aris scenari.
paradigma _ para _ gverdiT, deigma _ magaliTi, nimuSi, sanaxaoba,
bazroba _ aseTi ganxilviT warmogvidgeba, rogorc movlenaTa da
SemTxvevaTa gverdiT mdgomi, mudam Tanmyofi, ganmsazRvreli.
scenari winaswar awesebs moqmedebis gegmas, iTvaliswinebs
yvela SesaZleblobas, niuanss, gvaZlevs mosaxdenis detalur aRweras.
scenari ar aris gegma _ zogadi monaxazi, romelSic momavali SemTxveva
unda moeqces. arc _ reziume _ informacia ZiriTadi azris Sesaxeb.
scenari aris zusti da Seuvali ganmsazRvreli, romelic awesebs
movlenaTa urTierTganlagebas, rogorc erTmaneTis gverdiT, aseve _
erTmaneTis Semdeg.
paradigma rogorc scenari, moiTxovs piruTvnel morCilebas.
erTi SexedviT, es moTxovna zedmeti unda iyos; Tuki paradigma
,erTi mxriv, gvevlineba rogorc kanonebi da miTebi, xolo, meore
mxriv, rogorc msoflmxedvelobebi, Cvens garemoSi sxva araferi
arsebobs. aseTi ganxilviT paradigmuloba aris gardauvali
aucilebloba, romlis gareSec araferi ar arsebobs da romlis ar
miyolac ubralod SeuZlebelia.
magram kvlevis da kvalze siarulis farTo gamocdileba gveubneba,
rom zedmetad damtkicebuli alibi, daJinebuli miTiTeba
udanaSaulobaze yovelTvis iwvevs eWvs da yovelTvis qmnis ganwyobas,
eZebo raRac am daungreveli alibis ukan, is, erTi SexedviT, SeuZlebeli
danaSauli, romelic alibis mflobelma Caidina da romelic
ostaturad imaleba sxva variantis SeuZleblobis ukan.
scenari, rogorc ukve aRvwereT, aris Zaladoba movlenebze, maTi
mxolod erTi, garkveuli gziT wayvana da sxva mimarTulebis
gamoricxva. SesaZlebelia, raki paradigma ZiriTadi parametrebiT
emTxveva scenars da scenurobas, Zaladobis momentis Semcvelic
iyos.
Tavisuflebis filosofiuri kvlevis istoriidan CvenTvis
cnobilia misi, rogorc Segnebuli aucileblobis gansazRvreba.
SeiZleba esec paradigmulobisaTvis alibis Seqmnaa, romelic hegelis
did avtoritets efareba. SeiZleba aseTive rigis movlenebad
aRmoCndes is msjeloba, romlis Tanaxmadac, Tavisufleba yovelTvis
aris Tavisufleba raRacidan (hartmani), anda man-idan (haidegeri).
aseve, Tanamedrove filosofiis erT-erTi ZiriTadi mimarTuleba,
romelic centraluri diskursis gauqmebisaTvis iRvwis da am

piradigma da urCxuli

31

mimarTulebiT moZraobas erTaderT SesaZlebel gamosavlad acxadebs


(derida).
SesaZlebelia, gaCenili eWvis fonze, yvela es debuleba
paradigmulobisaTvis alibis Seqmnis nebiTi Tu uneblie surviliT
iyos gamowveuli.
isic unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom realurad paradigmuloba
aravis gamouZaxebia sasamarTloze. sasamarTlomde yvirilis atexva,
avtoritetebis moxmoba, mtkiceba, rom Zaladoba ar momxdara da
arc SeiZleboda momxdariyo, imitom rom Zaladobis obieqti ar
arsebobs da arc SeiZleba arsebobdes, damafiqrebelia.
amitom es kvleva-Zieba unda daiwyos. savsebiT SesaZlebelia
paradigmuloba udanaSaulo aRmoCndes. aseTi deteqtiuri qronika
CvenTvis cnobilia martin haidegeris Sromebis saxiT, romelmac
tradiciuli skrupulozurobiT gamoikvlia yofierebis gagebis saqme,
Ziramde Cawvda mas. daskvna, romelic am Rrma da safuZvliani gamoZiebis
gvirgvinia, gveubneba, rom sxva yofierebis gageba ar arsebobs da ar
SeiZleba arsebobdes. rac niSnavs, da es ukve informaciaa Cveni
gamoZiebisaTvis, rom Zaladobis faqts adgili ar hqonia.
TiTqosda, yvelaferi naTelia magram gamoZieba mainc Casatarebelia.
magram ara im kvalze siaruliT, romelic ukve gamoikvlia germanelma
filosofosma. am ukve Catarebul gamoZiebaSi eWvis Setana, mis
logikaSi, anda miukerZoeblobaSi, sasaciloa. me unda gamoviZio ara
paradigmulobis gza, aramed sxvisi kvali, romelic, Tuki arsebobs,
aucileblad aRmoCndeba Zaladobis msxverpli. anu, misakvlevia is
sxva, romelic ar `jdeba~ paradigmis arcerT modelSi, mis arcerT
diskursSi, arcerT mis procesSi. pirdapir da yovelgvari gadaxvevebis
gareSe, unda moiZebnos dazaralebuli. Tuki sxva ar arsebobs, faqti
Cvens gverdiT mdgomis udanaSaulobas kidev erTxel daadasturebs.
2. miTi aris Tanasworuflebiani subieqtebis moqmedebis samyaro.
oRond es subieqti aris ara yoveli, aramed swored is, romelic
sxvebis gverdiT am ambavSi monawileobs.
CvenTvis am epoqidan yvelaze ufro axlobeli antikuri xanis
berZnuli kulturaa. am kulturis SigniT rom mimovixedoT, aRmovaCenT,
rom am viTomda absolutur miTiurobaSi uecrad Cndebian movlenebi,
romlebic aranairad ar jdebian arsebul scenarSi da sxva
wesrigis Sesaxeb gvesaubrebian.
3. aseTia samyaros religiuri suraTi. samyaro aRiwereba, rogorc
RmerTis moqmedebis gamovlena arsebobis sxvadasxva doneze. ra
Tqma unda, individualur, yoveldRiur msoflmxedvelobaSic Zireuli

32

gigi TevzaZe

cvlileba xdeba; cxovrebis wesi aRar aris dialogi an polilogi,


aramed monologia. yuradReba gadadis konkretul subieqtze (amis
sailustraciod ix. qronikebi da saraindo romanebi, agreTve wmindanTa
cxovrebebi).
4. (SeiZleba am pirvel, anda, ufro sworad, pirvel-wvdomad
sxvaoba-siaxleSi Zevs antikuri filosofiis saidumloebis da xiblis
lomis wili, romelic dResac sagrZnobia da maradiuli dabrunebisaken
gvibiZgebs).
5. aseTi msoflmxedvelobis Sedegi aris mecniereba (an piriqiT
_ empiriulad rogor xdeboda am struqturebis warmoqmna, am
teqstisaTvis ara aqvs mniSvneloba). mecniereba moiTxovs erTxel
da samudamod dadgenil subieqts, romlis sakvlevadac, mimarTavs
Tavis Zalebs. aseTi subieqti, axali msoflaRqmis mixedviT, aris
samyaro. sxvadasxva mecnierebebi swored am sagnis sxvadasxva
nawilebis istorias swavloben (istorias imitom, rom sxvanairi
mecnieruli kvleva, anu kvleva, romelic am msoflmxedvelobis wiaRSi
daibada, warmoudgenelia. mxolod sagnis warmoSobis, ganviTarebis
da dasasrulis codniT gveZleva sakvlevis mecnieruli arseba).
6. struqturebis am monacvleobaSi paradigmulobis yvela
formis aRmoCena SeiZleba; pirveli gawyoba emTxveva mecnierul, anu
istoriul msoflmxedvelobas, romelic samyaros erT mTlian
organizmad warmogvidgens da romelic mxolod am erTianobas miiCnevs
istoriis subieqtobis Rirsad. meore siuJeti religiuri, anu
JamTaaRmwerluri ideologiis igiveobrivia, romelSic konkretuli
subieqtia aRiarebuli samyaros Semqmnelad da istoriaSi moqmedad.
mesame ambavSi miTis aRnagobas vxedavT, romlis mixedviTac samyaro
ramdenime Tanasworuflebiani subieqtis moqmedebis Sedegia.
7. aseTi droebiT uparadigm movlenebi yvela istoriaSi unda
arsebobdnen. amas, ra Tqma unda, kosmogoniuri miTi ganapirobebs. iq,
sadac aseTi ambavi ar aris mocemuli, uparadigmo movlenebsac ver
SevamCnevT. aseTi kultura, erTi mxriv, SeiZleba gaxistebul, gaqvavebul
formad, meore mxriv ki, paradigmulobis srul formalur gamovlenad
CavTvaloT, romelSic paradigma erTsa da imave dros, erTi da igive
formiT, erTi da imave fenomenebiT, aris kanonic da msoflmxedvelobac.
8. Cvens garemoSi realuradaa mocemuli paradigmulobis yvela
niSani, forma da modusi. anu is sabolood xorcieldeba _ xelSesaxebi
da gverdiT mdgomi xdeba. ar arsebobs mdgomareoba, romelic aRiwereba
Cvens garemoSi da romelsac ver movunaxavT paradigmas.

piradigma da urCxuli

33

9. paradigmulobis paradigmuli gamocdileba ritualis saSualebiT am ritualis sivrcis gareT myofis Tavidan acilebis Sesaxeb
gvesaubreba. es aris uebari wamali-saSualeba, Tavi aSkara safrTxeSi
ar Caigdo da Tanac mazans miaRwio.
10. es mxolod sityvebi ar aris; evropis saxelmwifoebs
Soris sazRvrebis gaqarwyleba da intermecnieruli disci plinebis
gamoCena horizontze am procesis dasawyisis utyuari niSania.
11. rituali aris moqmedeba aqtivaciisaTvis, warmatebiT dasrulebisaTvis maSin, rodesac uSualod ver erevi da realuri ambis
realuri Tanamonawile ver xdebi. anu, rituali, erTi mxriv, niSnavs
uZlurebas, meore mxriv, mZafr dainteresebas (rogorc es ukve vnaxeT,
paradigmulobis da katastrofulobis SemTxvevaSi; paradigmuloba
verafers uxerxebs katastrofulobas, radgan is paradigmulobis
nawili da logikuri Sedegia. amisaTvis paradigmuloba asrulebs
katastrof[is]ul ritualebs, raTa saxelis mudmivi gameorebiT
Seqmnas katastrofis iluzia da amiT realuri katastrofa aicilos,
umniSvnelo da ganuxorcielebeli gaxados).
12. urCxulTan brZola politikaSi mimdinare procesebis
aRmniSvneli gaxda; SeiZleba ebrZolo faSizmis urCxuls, sibnelis
urCxuls, bolos da bolos _ leviaTans.
13. paradigmebis aseTi erToba princi pulad gansxvavdeba
paradigmulobis bolo gawyobidan, romelsac Cvens garemoSi
vakvirdebiT: rogorc ukve vnaxeT, Cvens garemoSi yvela paradigma
gveZleva, magram maTi gaerTianeba erT organizmSi ar xdeba. piriqiT,
aseTi mocemuloba maqsimaluri daSlilobisaken da ucentrobisakenaa
mimarTuli. es mimarTuloba aris swored is rituali, romelic
katastrofis winaamRdeg tardeba. katastrofa xom sxva araferia,
Tu ara centris gauqmeba-dakargva da nawilebis TavisTavadi tivtivi
cariel sivrceSi.
14. es miTiTeba guSin Seqmnili ar aris: urCxuli Cveni
yofnis iseTive Zveli personaJia, rogorc _ miTi. kulturis erTerTi uZvelesi Temaa urCxulis mokvla-Caketvac (romelic aucileblad
unda ganxorcieldes, sanam miTiuri RmerTebis ierarqia Camoyalibdeba),
romlis rituali Cvens droSic xorcieldeba. paradigmulobas ar
ezareba am ritualis Catareba.
15. am xinjiani cixis gamo, romelic paradigmulobam urCxuls
Seuqmna, urCxulis mokvla ar xerxdeba. ase rom ar iyos, ra saWiroa
am ritualis aseTi daJinebiT zepiroba.

34

gigi TevzaZe

16. magram es istoriuli interesia, romelic axals verafers


SegvZens. saWiroa vnaxoT, Tu ra xdeba dRes, Cvens garemoSi. rogoria
paradigmulobis, urCxulis da Selocvis saqme.
17. Cveni arseboba, romelic Semwynareblobisaken da kulturaTa
dialogisaken mogviwodebs, aris bolo maxe, romelic paradigmulobam
urCxuls daugo, da bolo xerxi, romliTac mas urCxulis sabolood
damarcxebis imedi aqvs. Cvens garemoSi, romelic princi pulad
ritualuria, realurad zRapari xorcieldeba. es is sivrcea,
romelSic urCxuli sabolood unda mokvdes. urCxuli, gveubneba
paradigmuloba, aris omebi, nacionalizmi, mafia, romelsac axali
azrovnebiT, SemwynareblobiT, axali wesrigisaken mimarTulebiT unda
moverioT. zRapris aseTi gaTamaSebiT, am fsevdo-urCxulebTan
(romlebsac aSkara paradigmuli xasiaTi aqvT) dapirispirebiT,
xerxdeba mTeli samyaros CarTva am fsevdo-brZolaSi, am N xarisxis
ritualSi. amis Sedegad namdvili urCxuli, romelic ibadeba da
aris, uyuradRebod rCeba.
18. aseTi maqcia aris rojer jeliaznis amberis qronikebi,
romelmac moaxerxa Fantasy-dan (Tanamedrove zRapris totaluri
formidan) Tavis daRweva: gaauqma dasasruli, dabruneba da Tavisi
Txroba princi pulad usasrulo gaxada.
aseTive maqcia aris inflaciuri kosmologia, romelic Tavs
aRwevs tradiciuli Teoriuli fizikis aucilebeli dasasrulis
mtkicebas da mTel samyaros dausruleblobas da usawyisobas uwesebs.
aseT samyaroSi maradiulad iqmneba axal-axali mikro-samyaroebi,
sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT da sxvadasxva kanonebiT.
19. is filosofia, romelic laparakobda transcendentalur
apercepciaze, Da-sein-ze, am gamoZiebis Sedegad diskreditebuli
aRmoCnda. paradigmulobam filosofiis daxmarebiT yvelaferi `SeWama~,
rac zogadis da sayovelTaobis saxeliT iyo cnobili. magram, misi
yovlisSemZleoba amave dros misi sisustec aRmoCnda. mas daaviwyda,
xeli aRar miuwvda konkretul adamianze, ara Da-sein-ze, aramed vinme
X-ze, Y-ze, konkretuli saxelisa da gvaris mqone pirovnebaze,
romelic, raki is zemoT naxsenebi zogadobis kerZo SemTxvevadaa
gamocxadebuli, daculi iyo paradigmulobis dartymebisagan.
20. filosofiam unda imetyvelos konkretuli adamianis Sesaxeb,
konkretuli adamianidan. unda aRiweros ara Da-sein-i, an raRacnairi
subieqti, anda iseTi pirovneba, romelSic raimes (mag. filosofiis)
obieqtivacia xdeba. aramed, Tundac, rojer jeliazni, an iuda
iskarioteli.

35

piradigma da urCxuli

Gigi Tevzadze

Paradigm and The Beast


(Philosophical Reason Case)
This text says that
...The Paradigm guards and cares us from every side. It creates for us a
comfortable and nice home where we must feel ourselves well. It unfolds pictures
(deigmas) before us; we can stand under any of these pictures and feel its [paradigms] guardian existence. Thus we must not fear the future (catastrophe). The
Future which has been closed by the corresponding ritual of incantation. Now
everything and everyone has define and mean in Present.
Nothing new will happen; everything happening now and this now is eternal says the paradigm.
This words looks like an incantation. But we must spread our suspicion over
this incantation too. This too is only ritual relating to and working for our welfare.
and that
...A Beast can be a philosopher i.e. Heraclitus; His multiform and disorder
fragments may indicate the nature of the beast. In this case the ritual of destruction (deconstruction) appears to us as an ontological-dialectical interpretation of
this fragments which transforms Heraclitus in historical (historic) step and which
[interpretation] was descending by mistaken and grafted philosophers from the
time of Hegel (Aristotle?).
A Beast can be any phrase or proposition which is forgotten and hidden. By
observant investigation we can discover that we are surrounded by beasts..
In the end of this text author announces, that
...Philosophy must redress its wrongs and must reincantate beasts for the
rest of time. And this reincantation must be developed not through speculations
about concrete and concretness (this direction as we have already seen necessarily constructs an alibi of Paradigm) but through the discourse about something
which stands beside the Paradigmatic as the price for omnipotence and pervasiveness.

36

e n i s a

d a
l i t e r a t u r i s
s e m i o t i k a
cira barbaqaZe

lirikuli subieqtis
identifikacia anu
koncepti s i s x l i muxran
maWavarianis poeziaSi
filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis
saxelmwifo
universitetis humanitarul
mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
qarTuli mWevrmetyvelebis lingvopragmatika,
folkloruli ritorika,
Tanamedrove politikuri
diskursis ritorikuli
Taviseburebani, qarTuli
sakanonmdeblo stili...
interesTa sfero:
semiotika, ritorika, stilistika, kritika.

koncepti* `sisxli~




:
,


` _ ici, ram mogiyvana, babua?
_ ara! _ upasuxa SviliSvilma.
_ me getyvi, aba: sisxlma mogiyvana, babua,
saswaulia sisxli. . . . . . . . . . . .
mxolod sisxli laparakobda da fiqrobda,
xolo ras laparakobda da fiqrobda sisxli,
_ RmerTma uwyis! ~
nodar dumbaZe `sisxli~

* termin koncepts ganvixilavT kognitiuri lingvistikis farglebSi, romlis mixedviTac, koncepti samyaros enobrivi suraTis safuZveli, `mravalganzomilebiani~ warmonaqmnia, romelic Tavis TavSi moicavs
ara mxolod denotaciur, aramed konotaciur mniSvnelobaTa mTel speqtrs.

lirikuli subieqtis identifikacia anu koncepti sisxli muxran maWavarianis poeziaSi

37

`sisxli~ arqeti puli simboloa, romelTanac erTdroulad


aris dakavSirebuli rogorc dadebiTi, aseve uaryofiTi konotaciebi. mniSvnelobaTa abmivalenturoba aris konceptis erT_erTi damaxasiaTebeli niSani (gansxvavebiT sityvisagan).
unda aRiniSnos, rom qarTuli enis frazeologiaSi sisxlTan
dakavSirebiT uaryofiTi Sinaarsis konotaciebi sWarbobs. aseTebia:
sisxli aemRvra (brazi moeria), sisxli moawva (boRma axrCobs),
sisxli gaeyina (elda eca, SeeSinda), sisxli gauSra (gaitanja), sisxli TavSi auvarda (metismetad gabrazda), sisxli marTebs (vinme
hyavs mokluli), sisxls eZebs (vinmes mosaklavad dasdevs) da ase
Semdeg.

, , .
, ,
, _ ,
_ , - ...
(uilraiti 1990:99).

sisxli aris simbolo sicocxlis, sikvdilis da siyvarulis;


dakavSirebulia dabadebasan, qorwinebasTan, omTan... koncepti `daatarebs~ bibliur codvasac, rac ase gamoxata ana kalandaZem leqsSi:
`da Tqva ufalman...~
da Tqva ufalman kaenis mimarT:
sad aris abel, Zmai Seni...
kaen, sad aris, abel?
sisxlis ikvreba rkali...
sxvisas... ar iRebs zeca,
sakuTars iTxovs, kaen!

(xazgasma Cemia_c.b.)

sisxli qristianuli simbolocaa: iesom `aiRo sasmisi, madli Seswira, misca maT da uTxra: yvelam SesviT aqedan, vinaidan es
aris Cemi sisxli axali aRTqmisa, mravalTaTvis daRvrili codvaTa
misateveblad~ (maTe, 26, 27-28).
`sisxlis yivili~ _ es metafora dakavSirebulia yovelive mSobliurTan, romelic ganuyofelia adamianis `me~_sgan. Aamitom, Tu
adamiani tovebs samSoblos, is tovebs sakuTar Tavsac, garkveuli
azriT, radganac adamiani koleqtiur_istoriuli sxeulis, samSoblos nawilia.
vaJa_fSavela `aluda qeTelaurSi~ sisxlis aRebis wess ase
aprotestebs:
visac mteroba maswyurdes,
gaaRos saxlis karia,

38

cira barbaqaZe

sisxl daigubos keraSi,


TviTonac Sigve mdgaria.
Rvinodac imas dahlevdes,
puradac mosaxmaria.
pirjvari daiwerodis,
miTam saydarSi aria.
sisxlSia hqondes qorwili,
iq daiweros jvaria,
dai patiJos stumrebi,
daamwkriodes jaria.
sisxlSi daigos logini,
gverds daiwvinos calia,
bevri iyolos Svilebi,
bevri vaJi da qalia;
iqve saflavi gaTxaros,
iq daimarxos mkvdaria.
Sen ro sxva mahkla,
Senc mogkvlen,
mkvlels ar SaarCens gvaria.

warmodgenil nawyvetSi mterobis mosurne da SurismaZiebeli


adamianis mTeli cxovreba sisxlis foniT aris warmodgenili da
naCvenebia cxovrebis am wesis Seuqcevadi xasiaTi. Kkonceptis amgvari gaazreba, ra Tqma unda, uaryofiT konotaciebs qmnis.
sisxli iTxovs sisxls, sisxli wyvets... zogjer is adamianze
metia... aleqsandre yazbegis `xevisberi goCa~ SeiZleba davimowmoT am konteqstiT: `moZmeT sisxli caSi RmerTs SesCuxCuxebs da
samarTals iTxovs, gadaswyvite, Temo!~
qarTul poeziaSi sisxlis sxva mniSvnelobebic gvxvdeba. sainteresoa, ilia WavWavaZis mier poeziis ganmarteba: `poezia niWia,
madlia, romelic eZleva kacTa, mxolod RvTiv rCeulTa, madlia,
magram, amasTanave, tvirTic aris, radganac igi movlenilia, raTa Wrilobidan sisxlis Seuwyveteli dena kacTa sicocxles Seuyenos!~
poeziis sisxlTan dakavSireba saintereso saxes badebs. erTi mxriv,
sisxldena mtkivneuli procesia da, meore mxriv, leqsis dabadeba _
didi sixaruli. amgvar ambivalentur konotacias qmnis sisxli
tician tabiZis eseninisadmi miZRvnil leqsSi:
gdioda leqsi, Sen rogorc sisxli,
mourCeneli gulis iara,

lirikuli subieqtis identifikacia anu koncepti sisxli muxran maWavarianis poeziaSi

39

Tavis sikvdiliT Tavs ver daixsni


da sisxli mxolod sisxls eziara.

`sisxlis sisxlTan ziareba~ _ es aris poeziis, rogorc sisxlis, da fizikuri sisxlis urTierTSerevis mistikuri aqti.
garkveuli azriT, yoveli civilizaciis kulturuli stereotipebis sistema wesrigdeba im enis meSveobiT, romliTac mocemuli
civilizacia gamoixateba... ena _ sepiris mixedviT _ es aris `socialuri sinamdvilis~ gzamkvlevi. Aadamianebi cxovroben ara mxolod materialur da socialur samyaroSi, rogorc es miRebulia
vifiqroT, mniSvnelovani xarisxiT yvela isini imyofebian konkretuli enis gavlenaSi.... SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom enaTmecnierebas aqvs
xelmZRvanelis roli kulturis `fsiqologiuri geografiis~ SeqmnaSi (sepiri 2003:130).
A`adamiani samyaros Seicnobs umTavresad Tavisi fizikuri
gamocdilebis safuZvelze. Ees gamocdileba Cvens xuT grZnobas
emyareba.Bbunebrivi enis semantikaze sinamdvilis proecirebis Sedegad warmoiqmneba `proecirebuli samyaro~, romlis realurisagan
gansxvaveba ganpirobebulia adamianis TaviseburebebiTa da konkretul kulturaTa specifikiT~ (gamyreliZe 2003:465).
vfiqrobT, rom calkeul poetTa SemoqmedebaSi konceptebis
gamovlena_analizi dagvexmareba agreTve poeziis `fsiqologiuri
geografiis~ SeqmnaSi.
koncepti s i s x l i muxran maWavarianis
poeziaSi
poeziiT yofierebis dafuZneba `RmerTis miniSnebebs~
ukavSideba da, amave dros, poeturi sityva gadmocemaa
`eris xmisa~
martin haidegeri
holderlini da poeziis arsi
`o, ra Tqma unda, cxedrebi mudam
sdumano, magram sisxli mwardeba,
sisxli iZaxis: mkvleli, iuda!
sisxli arasdros ar dawynardeba!

Ggalaktioni

40

cira barbaqaZe

teqstTan dakavSirebiT identifikaciis gansxvavebuli formebi


arsebobs, ramdenadac teqsti dinamiur damokidebulebaSia avtorTan da mkiTxvelTan. baxtini ori ti pis avtors ganasxvavebs. erTi,
romelic teqsts qmnis da meore, romelsac teqsti aRadgens, anu
warmosaxviTi (lirikuli subieqti). mkiTxveli Zalian xSirad namdvil avtorTan aigivebs lirikul subieqts. Bbaxtinis mixedviT ki,
lirikuli me ar SeiZleba gavaigivoT avtoris me_sTan, radgan avtori yovelTvis `TamaSobs~ da xSirad emijneba kidec warmosaxviT
avtors, zog SemTxvevaSi, amisTvis is irCevs fsevdonimebs da axdens
mistifikacias...
SesaZloa, rom baxtinis es Sexeduleba sxvagvaradac gaviazroT.
xSirad poeziiT Seqmnili dro_sivrce arsebiTad gansxvavebulia
realuri dro_sivrcisagan, amitom SeiZleba gaCndes iluzia, rom
warmosaxviTi avtori realurs ar SeiZleba emTxveodes, magram amgvari damTxveva_daumTxvevlobac mxolod pirobiTia. Tu poezia `sxva
droa~ an, ufro zustad, sxva ganzomileba, romelSic dros sxva
siCqare aqvs, an saerTod ara aqvs siCqare, maSin realuri avtori,
romelic realur drosa da sivrceSi cxovrobs, SeiZleba warmovidginoT im Semoqmedad, romelic axal_axal samyaroebs qmnis da
amravlebs (anawevrebs) sakuTar Tavs... aris Tu ara, warmosaxviTi
avtori `simulakri~, romelsac `dedani~ ara aqvs, es sxva msjelobis sagania.
rogorc barti ityoda edgar pos erTi teqstis analizisas,
Cveni kvlevis mizania ara nawarmoebis mTeli stuqturis aRwera,
aramed moZravi struqturebis aRmoCena, romlebic icvleba mkiTxvelidan mkiTxvelamde istoriis manZilze; mTavaria, nawarmoebis
azrobriv sivrceSi SeRweva, semiozisSi wvdoma. `Cveni amocanaa _
wers barti, movixelToT ara yovelgvari azri teqstisa (es SeuZlebelic iqneboda, ramdenadac teqsti usazRvrod gaxsnilia usazRvroebaSi: aranair mkiTxvels, aranair subieqts, arcerT mecnierebas ar Seswevs Zala, gaaCeros teqstis moZraoba), aramed is formebi,
is kodebi, romelTa meSveobiTac warmoiSoba teqstis azri~ (barti
1989:425).
am miznisa da amocanebis gaTvaliswinebiT, ganvixilavT lirikuli subieqtis identifikacias poetis SemoqmedebaSi individualuri
konceptebis gamokvlevis gziT. albaT, qarTveli mkiTxvelisaTvis
ar iqneba moulodneli, Tu vityviT, rom muxran maWavarianis poeziis
erT_erTi mTavari koncepti sisxlia. (am tipis kvlevis Sedegad, ana
kalandaZe varskvlavebis poetia, terenti graneli_qaris da a.S...).

lirikuli subieqtis identifikacia anu koncepti sisxli muxran maWavarianis poeziaSi

ganvixiloT muxran maWavarianis leqsi: `Sen, sisxlo Cemo~,


romelSic:
sisxli _ saqarTveloa / saqarTvelo _ poeti / sisxli = poeti
Sen _
sisxlo Cemo _ sad ar daRvrilo...
Sen _
sad ar gxvrepda Savi yorani...
vin gagakvirvos,
ram gagakvirvos,_
nadidgorali,
naSamqorali.
Sen _
sisxlo Cemo _
Seni Rvawlia,
ramac aqamdec ki moaRwia:
sveticxoveli,
xanZTa,
varZia
da isic, _
rac mters warutacnia.
Sen _
sisxlo Cemo _
Seni dineba
vefxistyaosniT xSirad migrZvnia...
sityva,
romelic geCoTireba _
vcdilob _ gaSoro, _
rac SemoZlia,
Sen _
sisxlo Cemo _
sisxlo xniero,
daucxromelo da ucnauro...
sabednierod,
sabednierod, _
hai, hai, rom
kidev xmaurob.

41

42

cira barbaqaZe

leqsSi identifikaciis saintereso formaa: poeti identificirebulia saqarTvelosTan, xolo, Tavis mxriv, saqarTvelo sisxlia,
romelic poetis sisxlZarRvebSi Cqefs. Llirikuli gmiri II piris
nacvalsaxeliT mimarTavs sakuTar (saqarTvelos) sisxls: `Sen,
sisxlo Cemo!~
sisxlis metaforizaciis maRali xarisxi mravali faqtoriT
SeiZleba aixsnas: is aris mTavari mkvebavi gulisTvis da adamianis
(qveynis) sicocxlis wyaro (sisxlis gaSroba adamianis sikvdilia), Txevadia, denadi, wiTeli feris, genetikuri kodis (informaciis)
matarebeli...
yvelaferi sisxlis damsaxurebaa, ramac aqamde moaRwia... xolo
poetisTvis `vefxistyaosniT~ misi dineba kidev ufro sagrZnobi
xdeba.
saqarTvelo erTi mTliani, cocxali organizmia, romelSic
qarTvelebis `daRvrili~ da `dasaRvreli~ sisxlia...
daRvrili sisxli _ `Sen, sisxlo Cemo, sad ar daRvrilo~.
`xmiTa uxmoTi SebRavis zecas
sisxli, _ ZeTaTvis daRvrili ZeTa.~
`mamuli sisxliT gaajeres imdenad mtrebma, _
wvimas ver itans...
drodadro cremli ise wveTavs
sabas wveridan...~
`unda daRvaro ramdeni sisxli...
kaci rom gaxde kuTvnilis Rirsi~.
`Txeva sisxlisa maTisa _
Rvari wvimisa viTa...~
dasaRvreli sisxli _ `magram, jer kidev,
RvTiT, SemogvrCa sisxli imdeni, _
kvlav rom davRvaroT,
dasWirdeba samSoblos Tuki!~
`sisxlze godeben sxvebi daRvrilze,
me dasaRvreli medardvis sisxli~.

lirikuli subieqtis identifikacia anu koncepti sisxli muxran maWavarianis poeziaSi

43

koncepti sisxli muxran maWavarianTan ZiriTadad, daRvril da


dasaRvrel sisxlTan, raimes sisxliT mopovebasTan aris asocirebuli, riTac SeiZleba aixsnas qarTvelTa eTnokulturuli Taviseburebani.
sisxli informaciis matarebelia,
poetma:

sisxlis fasic

icis

namyo me ar meeWveba,
sisxlis vici Cemis fasi;
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ris beWedi! ra beWedi! _
mTavaria, sisxli! sisxli!..
namyo me ar meeWveba,
sxvaTaSoris, arc mermisi.

cnobilia, rom Zvel saqarTveloSi yvela socialuri fenis warmomadgenels Tavisi `sisxlis fasi~ hqonda (aqedan _ cisferi
sisxli _ yvelaze maRali fasis mqone). magaliTad, vaxtangis `samarTalSi~ TavadTa sami xarisxis sisxli arsebobda. `didebuli
Tavadis~ sisxli 1536 Tumans udrida, `Sua Tavadisa~ _ orjer
naklebs, `mesame xarisxis Tavadisa~ ki _ oTxjer naklebs. Aaznaurebic sam xarisxad iyofodnen, vaWrebis, msaxurTa da glexTa sisxlis
fasic gansazRvruli iyo.
roca poeti ambobs, rom: `sisxlis vici, Cemis fasi!~ _ misi
sisxli yvelaze ufro Zvir fasTan identificirdeba, radgan metaforulad igi mxolod gmirebis da samSoblosaTvis Tavdadebuli
adamianebis sisxls daatarebs, romelTa sisxli fasdaudebelia. vin
arian isini, romelTa sisxlic poetis sisxlSi `bolTas scems?~
davimowmoT isev muxranis leqsi:
SenSi uTuod scems bolTas sisxli,
SoTa rom iyo,
rusTveli,
misi.
SenSi uTuod scems bolTas sisxli,
saba rom iyo,
sulxani,
misi.

44

cira barbaqaZe

sxvaTani SenSi sisxli Cqefs visi, _


arca msurs codna
da arca vici.

Kkidev vin `mimodis~ poetis sisxlSi? Aam kiTxvaze pasuxi isev


leqsSi unda amovikiTxoT:
yvelaze uwin vinc gasxla vazi,
qva sxvaze uwin vinc dasva qvaze,
vinc sxvaze uwin gasWeda rkina,
vinc sxvaze uwin ixmara ina,
qristes Sobamde vinc Seqmna wigni, _
sisxlad mimodis
dRes
CemSi
igi.
moi poveba ra! _Qqveyanaze!
moi poveba ra! _ Tugind caSi!
rom CemTan igi ar iyos bavSvi
da sisxlis Cemis rom iyos fasi?!
(xazgasma leqsebSi yvelgan Cemia_c.b.)

sisxli yvelafers imaxsovrebs, sisxlma yvelaferi icis... poeti qmnis sakuTar asls (Tu dedans) poeziis saxiT, romelSic iseve
xmaurobs sisxli, rogorc fizikur sxeulSi:
samagierod, _
odes xorci mieca miwas,
odes leqsSiRa xmaurobda poetis sisxli, _
qveyana SeZra sikvdilma misma...

raki, leqsebSi sisxli moZraobs da xmaurobs, qarTul lirikaSi


Cndeba imgvari metaforuli saxe, rogoricaa `sulis kardiograma~.
sisxlia Semoqmedi, zRvasaviT boboqari:
Zal_Rone
sisxlsac zRvasaviT erCis,
zRvasaviT
brdRvinavs xandaxan isic:

lirikuli subieqtis identifikacia anu koncepti sisxli muxran maWavarianis poeziaSi

45

viT zRva qviSidan akeTebs kenWebs,


sityvebs
akeTebs fiqridan sisxli.

sabolood, sisxli wyvets:


rom ara xorci iyo,
aramed
iyo uxorco sicocxlis Rirsi! _
veravin getyvis,
aravin icis, _
Tvinier sisxlis, _
Senive sisxlis!

sisxli uwyvet cikls qmnis _warsulidan modis awmyoSi da


gadaedineba momavalSi. Esisxlis uwyvetoba (qarTuli genis ukvdavebis metafora) kargad gamoixata muxran maWavarianis leqsSi:
`viTarca mtkvari...~
viTarca Rvino _ qvevridan xapSi _
xapidan doqSi _ doqidan jamSi _
qarTuli sisxli, qarTuli suli,
qarTuli sityva, qarTuli guli
gadadioda kacidan kacSi...
gzadagza svamdnen, amRvrevdnen, Rvridnen,
uRmerTod hryvnidnen, ugulod hyiddnen.
da . . . miuxedavad amisa,
mainc, _
gamoiara rusTvelis guli,
gamoiara vaxtangis guli,
gamoiara Tamaris guli,
gamoiara sulxanis guli...
da dRes _
SoTais naqoni sisxliT,
da dRes _
vaxtangis naqoni sisxliT,
da dRes sulxanis naqoni sisxliT _
Tbilisis farTo quCebSi dadis:
leila, londa, naTia, nani,
eliso, vaJa, giorgi, givi
da...
iaron! iaron! iaron!
amin!

46

cira barbaqaZe

warmodgenili leqsi erTgvari locva da sagalobelia qarTuli genisa. Aam simZafres avtori swored sisxlis poetikiT aRwevs. `kacidan kacSi~ sisxlis gadasvla `Tasidan TasSi~ gadasvlasTan asocirebuli, erTgvarad mistikur rituals emsgavseba da
`graalis Tasis~ simbolikasac gvaxsenebs. M
muxran maWavarianis am ganwyobas enaTesaveba osi p mandelStamis
leqsi batiuSkovisadmi miZRvnili:
! ,
, ,
, ,
.

Mmaradiuli sizmrebi asocirebulia isev sisxlTan. `Wiqidan WiqaSi~


gadasxma ki im ti pis metaforaa, rogoric `kacidan kacSi~ da
`Tasidan TasSi~ (Wiqa, Tasi, adamiani, _ WurWelia samive). Aam SemTxvevaSi mTavaria `gadasxma~, rogorc uwyvetobis, ciklurobis simbolo. Tavad batiuSkovis poeziisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia `gadasxmis~ da `Tasidan Sesmis~ poetika. magaliTad:
! ,
, ?
,
. . . ( )

Mmirza gelovani erT leqsSi wers:


Tqven Rvinos nu svamT sxva Tasidan, uari Tasebs!
uari yvelas... siyvaruli erTs aTasidan.
vinc ukvdavebas, rogorc xviTos, qveynad afasebs,
dalieT Rvino Cemi Tasidan.
vulkanis tkivils siyvaruli vinc Seavedros,
visac surs, Ramis naoWebSi cam gauRimos,
dalieT sisxli am Tasidan ualaverdod,
Cemi Tasidan dalieT Rvino.

mirza gelovanis damowmebul leqsSi sisxli da Rvino sinonimebia. `dalieT sisxli am Tasidan~ bibliuri aluziaa. kidev erTxel
davimowmebT zemomotanil citatas: iesom `aiRo sasmisi, madli Seswira,
misca maT da uTxra: `yvelam SesviT aqedan, vinaidan es aris Cemi
sisxli axali aRTqmisa, mravalTaTvis daRvrili codvaTa misateveblad~ (maTe, 26, 27_28).

lirikuli subieqtis identifikacia anu koncepti sisxli muxran maWavarianis poeziaSi

47

ratom maincdamainc sisxlis metaforizaciiT gadmoicema sulis


ukvdavebis idea? am movlenis asaxsnelad SeiZleba mivmarToT isev
sisxlis bibliur gagebas. magaliTad, bibliaSi vkiTxulobT: `radgan sisxlSia xorcielis suli...~ (levianni, 17:11) anda: `radgan
suli yoveli xorcielisa misi sisxlia, mis sulSia igi...~ (levianni,
17:14). am gagebidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba ukeT aixsnas ilia WavWavaZis gamonaTqvami: poezia movlenilia, `raTa Wrilobidan sisxlis Seuwyveteli dena kacTa sicocxles Seuyenos!~. maSasadame, poezia `sisxlis gadasxmaa~, Tan gamudmebuli gadasxma... ratom sisxlis? radgan sisxlSia suli! (bibliuri gageba).
sisxlis gansakuTrebulobasa da Zalaze metyvelebs Zvel
saqarTveloSi Zmadnaficobis sisxlis SereviT ganmtkicebis tradiciac.
zemomoyvanili asociaciebi gamoiwvia swored muxran maWavarianis leqsma: `viTarca mtkvari~.
Tanamedrove poezia winamorbedebisagan estafetasaviT iRebs da
svams RvTaebriv siTxes poeziis Tasidan im faqtis aRsaniSnavad,
rom axla masSi moedineba rusTavelis, Tamaris, vaxtangis... galaktionis, anas, muxranis... sisxli. Aam mxriv, sainteresod gveCveneba
axalgazrda poetis, rezo geTiaSvilis leqsi _ `mkvdrebis manifesti~, romelic poeturi (da ara mxolod) sisxlis erTgvari reinterpretaciaa da romelSic ismis muxranis: `me dasaRvreli medardvis sisxli~_s gacilebiT mZafri paToisi. ai, fragmenti am leqsidan:
modiT, davxocoT erTmaneTi, Tavisufleba,
sisxlis duRili, sisxlis madlma,
Tvalebs dasicxuls,
sisxlis aRebis, sisxlis wesiT, sisxlis sufrebad,
Sen, sisxlo Cemo, sisxlo sxviso, zogadad, sisxlo.
vinc gadarCeba, Caibarebs sul yvelas codvas,
Cveni sulebis saukunod gansasveneblad,
Cven ukve mzad varT vemsaxuroT samSoblos, hoda,
vaSa, am axal saqarTvelos, vaSa, Senebas!

istoriis manZilze zogjer qarTvelebs sisxlisRvris sabediswero moTxovna uCndebodaT da xSirad `ubralo sisxlic~ iRvreba...
amitom ambobs poeti: `modi, davxocoT erTmaneTi...~, rac, ra Tqma

48

cira barbaqaZe

unda, ukvalod ar Caivlis da `vinc gadarCeba, Caibarebs sul yvelas


codvas~*
Tumca, Tanamedrove qarTul poeziaSi gvxvdeba iliaseuli `sisxlis ZRveni~ da poetis Tavgameteba _ sakuTari sisxliT morwyas
samyaro:
mTebze xasxasebs dila sisxami,
axla sikvdili Znelia erTob...
da mainc, sisxlis erTi misxaliT
momarwyvevine samyaro, RmerTo!
(laSa nadareiSvili)

muxran maWavarianis poeziaSi sisxli RmerTis sinonimadac ki


gamoiyeneba. roca cxovrebisgan daRlil poets uneburad aRmoxdeba:
aRarc sisxli mwams,
aRarc grZnoba
da aRarc alRo...
RmerTmani, vera gavige ra
me am cxovrebis:
me Senze ufro aravisTan
vyofilvar axlo,
yvelaze ufro
me mainc Sen meucxovebi.

`aRarc sisxli mwams~ gamonaTqvamiT Canacvlebulia `aRarc RmerTi mwams~ gamonaTqvami. warmodgenili konteqstic gansazRvravs
sisxlis gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas poetisaTvis.
PP. S.
Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom arsebobs qarTuli sisxli da poeturi sisxli, maSin muxran maWavariani, metaforulad rom vTqvaT,
`cisfersisxliani~ poetia!~ Dda kidev erTxel davimowmebT
martin haidegers: `poeziiT yofierebis dafuZneba `RmerTis miniSnebebs~ ukavSideba da, amave dros, poeturi sityva gadmocemaa `eris
xmisa~. holderlinis poeziis gamo naTqvami ase morgebuli aRmoCnda muxran maWavarianis poeziisTvisac!

* amitom

iyo, rom ilia QWavWavaZe `aCrdilSi~ ase avedrebda ufals qvyanas: `Zliero
RmerTo, SenTvis brZodnen qarTvlisa Zeni, dasabamiTve ar ician, _ ra ars mSvidoba, ikmare
saRmrTod maT patiJni da sisxlis ZRveni, Tu ram Segcodes, _ Seisyides tanjviT Sendoba.~

lirikuli subieqtis identifikacia anu koncepti sisxli muxran maWavarianis poeziaSi

49

daskvnisTvis:
samyaros qarTuli enobrivi suraTis `dasaxatad~ mniSvnelovania qarTuli poeziis enobrivi suraTi, romelic, Tavis mxriv, gulisxmobs calkeul poetTa enobrivi suraTebis Seqmnas. individualuri
konceptebis gamovlena_analizi Cveni kvlevis erT_erTi amocanaa.
aRmoCnda, rom Tu ana kalandaZe `varskvlavebis~ poetia, terenti
graneli_`qaris~... muxran maWavarianis poeziis mTavari koncepti
sisxlia. Kkoncepti sisxli poetis SemoqmedebaSi avlens ara
mxolod ZiriTad saleqsikono da metaforul mniSvnelobebs, aramed
individualuri poetikis mTel speqtrs, rac, sabolood, nasazrdoebia am sityvis arqeti puli, bibliuri Tu miTologiuri SinaarsebiT.
unda aRiniSnos agreTve erTi detali, romelic kvlevisas gamoikveTa: Tu sisxli qarTul frazeologiaSi umetesad uaryofiT
konotaciebs aCens, muxran maWavarianis poeziaSi piriqiT, dadebiTi
konotaciebis siWarbea.
amdenad, koncepti sisxli gvevlineba im metaforul baded, romlis qsova ar damTavrebula da arc arasodes damTavrdeba, sanam ena
cocxalia da agrZelebs qmnadobas. ZiriTadi azri ki muxran maWavarianis sisxlisa, es aris poetis saqarTvelosTan da saqarTvelos sisxlTan identifikacia, romlidanac logikurad gamomdinareobs _ poetis sisxlTan identifikacia. Ees is sisxlicaa, romelic, rogorc ilia ityoda, `kacTa sicocxlis gasaxangrZliveblad~
aris movlenili.

literatura

barti 1989: , , ,
, ;
gamyreliZe... 2003: Tamaz gamyreliZe, zaza kiknaZe, inga Saduri, nana
Sengelaia, Teoriuli enaTmecnierebis kursi, Tbilisi.
sepiri 2003: , , .
: , , --.
uilraiti 1990: . , , :
, .
maWavariani 1989: muxran maWavariani, leqsebi, Tbilisi, merani.

50

cira barbaqaZe

qarTul_rusuli frazeologiuri leqsikoni, Tbilisi, 1966.


qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, VI, Tbilisi, 1960.
ilia abulaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni (masalebi), Tbilisi,
1973.
biblia, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos gamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 1989.
axali aRTqma da fsalmunebi, stokholmi, 1993.

Tsira Barbakadze

The Identification of a Lyrical Figure or


the Concept Blood in Mukhran Machavarianis Poetry
In order to draw the Georgian linguistic picture of the world, the linguistic picture of Georgian poetry is essential, which, in its turn, implies the construction of
linguistic pictures of individual poets. The identification and analyses of individual
concepts have been one of the objectives of my investigation. It has become
salient that, while Ana Kalandadze is a poet of Stars, and Terenti Graneli is of
Wind, the central concept of Mukhran Machavarianis poetry is Blood. In the
poets writings, the concept Blood reveals not only principal lexical and metaphorical meanings, but the whole spectrum of individual poetics, being ultimately generated by archetypic, biblical and/or mythological implications of the word.
The study has uncovered another detail: while, in Georgian phraseology, Blood
reveals mostly negative connotations, Mukhran Machavarianis poetry, on the contrary, demonstrates the abundance of positive connotations.
Thus, the concept Blood acts as a metaphoric grid, the knitting of which has not
been completed and will never be unless a language is alive and procedes creation. The subject matter of Mukhran Machavarianis Blood is the identification
of the poet with Georgia and and her blood, logically intailing the poets identification wioth blood. This is the blood which, as Ilia Chavchavadze has put it,
comes 'in order to prolong humans lives.

51

qeTevan bezaraSvili

saazrovno modelebi
bizantiur kulturaSi,
elinofiloba da qarTuli saero
literaturis warmoSobis
problema

filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis
saxelmwifo universitetis
pumanitarul mecnierebaTa da
kulturis
kvlevebis
fakultetis asocirebuli
profesori. xelnawerTa
erovnuli centris ufrosi
mecnieri TanamSromeli.
grigol
nazianzelis
TxzulebaTaASemswavleli
saerTaSoriso proeqtis wevri
(www. nazianzos.fltr.ucl.ac.be).
ZiriTadi naSromebi: grigol
RvTismetyvelis poeziis
qarTuli versia, 1990. miqael
fselosis
ritorikuli
traqtatebis Targmanebi, 1996.
ritorikisa da Targmanis
Teoria da praqtika grigol
RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTaYqarTuli Targmanebis
mixedviT, Tbilisi, mecniereba,
2004. (TanaavtorebTan) S.
Gregorii Nazianzeni opera.
Versio Iberica, I-V, in Corpus
Christianorum,
Turnhout,
Leuven, Brepols publishers,
1998-2007.
interesTa sfero:
kodikologia, wyaroTmcodneoba, bizantiuri da qarTuli
literatura,
qarTuli
samonastro da kulturis
kerebi (aToni, antioqia,
gelaTi), antikuri da Sua
saukuneebis ritorikis Teoria,
Targmanis Teoria.

kacobriobis kulturul memkvidreobaSi


qarTuli kulturis adgilisa da ganviTarebis perspeqtivebis warmosaCenad sayuradReboa misi Seswavla im kulturul-ti pologiur modelebTan mimarTebaSi, romlebsac
unda ganesazRvraT misi Camoyalibeba. analizis
marTebulobisaTvis, raTa gamoiricxos
kulturuli tradiciis individualuri aRqma
anda erTi ti pis kulturis Sefaseba sxva
kulturis poziciidan, aucilebelia kvlevis
imgvari kriteriumebis moZebna, rasac
safuZvlad udevs, rogorc semiotikur
mecnierebaSia aRniSnuli, normebis Sesaxeb
adekvaturi da erTiani Sexedulebebi da
mwyobri struqtura. kodifikatori da
aRmqmeli identuri kodebiT unda sargeblobdnen. mxolod aseTi analizis SemTxvevaSi
kvlav iZens semiotikur sicocxles
kulturuli mexsierebis Semnaxveli teqsti,
romelSiac enis makodirebeli meqanizmiT
Sesabamisi informaciuli Sinaarsia gadmocemuli.1
bizantiuri literaturis istoriulma
Seswavlam gamoavlina is kategoriebi, romlebic gavrcelebuli iyo masSi, ramac safuZveli Seqmna misi semiotikuri SeswavlisaTvis. samyaros aRqmis modelebs Soris
1

lotmani 2004: 6, 155-157; 162, 436, 447.

52

qeTevan bezaraSvili

samecniero literaturaSi gamoyofilia e.w. semantikur-simboluri


ti pi, rac Sua saukuneebisaTvis iyo damaxasiaTebeli. aRsaniSnisa da
aRmniSvnelis imgvari erTianoba, sadac aRmniSvnels ierarqiulad
daqvemdebarebuli funqcia aqvs, Sua saukuneebis kulturis kodia.2
qvemoT ganxiluli bizantiuri kulturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli
saazrovno modelebis ZiriTadi maxasiaTebelic es aris.
adreqristianul da bizantiur saazrovno modelebs da maT
kategoriebs udidesi mniSvneloba hqondaT aRmosavluri qristianuli
kulturisaTvis, romelic mWidrod iyo dakavSirebuli bizantiur
kulturasTan. am modelebs Rrma kvali daumCneviaT qarTul Teologiur
da mxatvrul literaturaze da gansazRvres kidec misi ganviTarebis
procesebi saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi.
am sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli paradigmebis gaazrebis gareSe
warmoudgenelia qarTuli azrovnebis ganviTarebis, erTi mxriv, mis
mier aTvisebuli ideologiuri da msoflmxedevelobrivi
maxasiaTeblebis, xolo meore mxriv, originalobisa da siaxlis
gansazRvra.
1. bizantiuri kulturis saazrovno modelebi da elinurobis
axali gaazreba
Sua saukuneebis kulturis modelebis sayovelTaod cnobili
kategoriebis garda, rac Seswavlilia samecniero literaturaSi3
(mag., droisa da zedroulobisa/Tu antidroisa, igive maradiulobisa;
soflisa da zesTasoflisa, anu transcendenturisa; vertikaluri
da horizontaluri, fizikuri da metafizikuri ganzomilebebisa,
zeda da qve kategoriebis antiTezisa da misT.) qristianuli
literaturis umTavresi saazrovno maxasiaTebeli, adreuli
periodidanve moyolebuli, iyo rwmenisa da codnis urTierTmimarTebis
da saero codnis miReba-armiRebis sakiTxi. pavle mociqulis
damokidebulebisa da Semdgom tertulianedan momdinare
formulirebis mixedviT, ierusalimisa da aTenis, anu qristianuli
litoni rwmenisa da saero maRali codnis, SeerTeba warmoudgeneli
iyo. miuxedavad amisa, qristianuli azrovneba swored am urTierTkavSiriT ganviTarda. am kavSiris ganmtkicebaSi gansakuTrebuli
roli miuZRviT aleqsandriuli saRvTismetyvelo skolis warmomadgenlebs (klimenti aleqsandrielsa da origenes) da kapadokiel
2
semiotikuri da istoriuli meTodebis nayofieri Tanaarsebobis Sesaxeb ix.
lotmani 2004: 392, 395-397. niSanTa sistemis klasifikaciisaTvis ix. lotmani
2004: 402-407.
3
gureviCi 1972 da sxv.

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

53

mamebs (basili kesariels, grigol RvTismetyvels, grigol nosels),


aseve ioane oqropirs, isidore pelusiels da sxvebs.
cnobilia, rom aleqsandrieli da kapadokieli mamebi iyvnen
erT-erTi pirveli qristiani avtorebi, vinc miiRo klasikuri
ganaTleba, gaiTavisa klasikuri literaturuli formebi,
filosofiuri terminologia da gamoiyena isini qristianobis
samsaxurisaTvis. am mniSvnelobiT aleqsandrieli da kapadokieli
mamebi SeiZleba TavianTi drois erT-erT pirvel elinofilebad
miviCnioT.4 maTi moRvaweobis Sedegad antikuri ritorikuli da
filosofiuri formebi da Teoriebi TandaTanobiT norma gaxda
qristianuli mwerlobisaTvis.
rwmenisa da codnis urTierTmimarTebis es sakiTxi ramdenime
aspeqts moicavs, romlebic SeiZleba bizantiur saazrovno modelebad
davaxasiaToT.
a) es aris patristikis warmomadgenelTa klasikuri
tradiciisadmi mimarTebis orgvaroba. erTi mxriv, isini aRiarebdnen,
rom bibliur winaswarmetyvelTa da mociqulTa sityva iyo umaRlesi
WeSmariteba da ganaqiqebdnen ritorikis mSvenieri ornamentebis
siyalbes da filosofiis daxvewil xelovnebas. meore mxriv, qristiani
avtorebi (gansakuTrebiT, kapadokielebi) Teoriuli poziciidan
uaryofdnen antikur ritorikul-filosofiur formebs, rogorc
saSualebas, rogorc cru mWevrmetyvelebas (eloquentia) da mecnierebas, magram iyenebdnen maT TavianTi klasikuri ganswavlulobis
Sesabamisad da qristianuli ideebis samsaxurisaTvis. zogjer isini
ritorikuladve gamodiodnen ritorikis winaaRmdeg.5
aRniSnuli orgvari damokidebuleba (dapirispireba ritorikafilosofiis miRebasa da uaryofas Soris, erTi mxriv, da warmarTuli
formisa da qristianuli Sinaarsis urTierTmimarTeba, meore mxriv)
mTeli bizantiuri literaturis safuZvelTa safuZvelia.6 zemoT
ganxiluli mimarTebebis dualizmi, rogorc modeli, cxadad Camoyalibda
IX-XI saukuneebis bizantiur literaturul-Teoriul azrovnebaSi
(fotiosi, basili minimusi, miqael fselosi da sxv.).7
4
rwmenisa da codnis urTierTmimarTebisaTvis wm. mamaTa nawerebSi ix. volfsoni
1956: 9-11; 12-15; 16-140. nordeni 1918 b: 498, 529, 534, 562-563 da sxv.
5
am dualizmis Sesaxeb ix. hungeri 1978 a: 65-233. hungeri 1969. beki 1969:
93. brauningi 1995. freibergi 1975. SevCenko 1982. muleti... 1982. lemerli
1986. gine 1911. demoeni 1996 da sxv. kapadokielTa gamonaTqvamebis wyaroebisaTvis
ix. bezaraSvili 2005 a: 276-277.
6
semiotikaSi miRebulia, rom erTi da igive niSani sxvadasxva doneze SeiZleba
sxvadasxvagvarad iqnes wakiTxuli (lotmani 2004: 407).
7
kustasi 1962. vaisi 1955. Smidti 2001. oTxmezuri 1989. maieri 1911. boisonade
1838. bezaraSvili 1996 a. bezaraSvili 1996 b. bizantiuri literaturulTeoriuli azrovnebis analizisaTvis da samecniero literaturisaTvis mis
Sesaxeb ix. bezaraSvili 2004.

54

qeTevan bezaraSvili

amave periodSi sagulisxmoa filosofiis ojaxis cnebisa da


terminTa orgvari gaazrebis dakanoneba. warmarTuli filosofiisa
da zogadad gareSe sibrZnis paralelurad, romelsac patristikaSi
yalbi da amao filosofia uwodes, filosofiis cneba aRniSnavda
agreTve qristianul RvTismetyvelebas, romelsac Cveni, anu saeklesio
sibrZne an WeSmariti filosofia ewodeboda. iustine, klimenti
aleqsandrieli, evsevi kesarieli, kapadokielebi, ioane oqropiri
amkvidreben filosofiis ojaxis terminebs am axali gaazrebiTa da
SinaarsiT.8
b) rwmenisa da codnis urTierTmimarTebis erT-erTi aspeqtia
e.w. orgvari sibrZne: gareSes, anu arasasuliero (qristianuli
gagebiT), saero, warmarTuli sibrZnisa da meore mxriv, Cvenis, anu
qristianulis, urTierTmimarTeba. 9 platonidan momdinare,
filosofiisa da ritorikis SeuTanxmebloba patristikasa da
sqolastizmSi Secvala RvTismetyvelebisa da filosofiis
SeuTanxmeblobam. filosofia da zogadad gareSe sibrZne iaraRis
funqciiT damkvidrda da RvTismetyvelebis, viTarca dedoflis,
msaxurad iqca.10 sayovelTaod miRebuli SexedulebiT, ganviTarebul
sqolastizmSi codnis funqciebi ufro mtkicdeba, rac gamovlinda
bizantiur da qarTul azrovnebaSic. codnis, anu antikuri filosofiis,
mecnierebisa da xelovnebis relatiuri mniSvnelobis, daqvemdebarebuli
funqciis moSla da damoukidebeli RirebulebiT aRdgena ki renesansis
winapirobas warmoadgenda.11
filosofiis mniSvnelobaTa Sesaxeb Sua saukuneebSi ix. hungeri 1978 a: 4-11,
42-54. nordeni 1918 b: 18-21, 670-685. kustasi 1973: 27-28, 119. volfsoni 1956:
17. lemerli 1986: 89, 186, 190, 199; 48-50, 112, 139, 341. diu kanJi 1958: 1678 (s.v.
filosofiva). leimpi 1968: s.v. filosofiva, filovsofo~.
9
e[xw(qen), xevno~, ajllovtrio~, rac niSnavs gareSes, ucxos, patristikul
literaturaSi aRniSnavda araqristianuls, araeklesiurs, warmarTul, saero an
eretikul moZRvrebas (Sdr. ebr. 13, 9; II petr. 1, 16; II kor. 1, 12; I kor. 2, 6; 3, 19;
mark. 7, 7; maT. 15, 9; 16, 23 da sxv.); hJmevtero~ - Cveni, meore mxriv, aRniSnavda
qristianul, eklesiur moZRvrebas, saRvTo sibrZnes (Sdr. I kor. 2, 7). ix. leimpi
1968: s.v. hJmevtero~, e[xw.
10
iaraRis da msaxuris saxeebisaTvis da formulirebebisaTvis patristikidan,
ioane damaskelis epistoledan kozma ierusalimelisadmi (dialeqtikis
meTodologiasTan dakavSirebiT), areopagitul korpusze da dialeqtikaze darTuli
efrem mciris kolofonebidan berZnul modelebTan mimarTebaSi ix. bezaraSvili
2001 a.
11
ix. Sen. 8; spec. nordeni 1918 b: 680-685. bizantiuri kulturis humanisturrenesansuli niSnebi Sefasebulia antikurobisadmi damokidebulebisa da axali
saazrovno procesisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli racionalisturobis mixedviT (dogmisagan
damoukidebeli logikuri argumentaciisa da filosofiis Teologiisagan gamoyofis
tendenciis Sesabamisad). ix. mWedliZe 2006: 3-20, 136-153.
8

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

55

gareSesa da qristianulis urTierTmimarTeba gamoxatulia


agreTve ZiriTadad gareSe filosofiur-literaturuli formisa
da qristianuli Sinaarsis tradiciulad Camoyalibebuli kavSiriT,
romlis ganmtkicebas da ganviTarebas saukuneebi dasWirda. es aris
warmarTuli filosofiuri cnebiT-terminologiuri aparatisa da
ritorikul-mxatvruli saxeebis, Janrebis, sazomis, siuJetisa da
sxva saliteraturo formebis gamoyeneba axali funqciiT. es
ukanaskneli (siuJeti) SeiZleba saliteraturo formadac moviazroT
(da ara tradiciul Sinaarsad), roca misi saSualebiT axali
msoflmxedveloba da ideologia aris gamoxatuli, anu Zvel modelSi
axali Sinaarsia Cadebuli.12 saxeobrivad es urTierTmimarTeba
gamoxatuli iyo, rogorc vTqviT, aTenisa da ierusalimis, aseve
atikurisa da patristikulis dapirispirebiTa da erTianobiT da
sxva msgavsi paradigmebiT.
marTalia, antikuri literaturisadmi interesi, antikuri
literaturul-filosofiuri formebi yovelTvis arsebobda
bizantiur literaturaSi, rogorc qristianuli berZnulis uSualo
winamorbedi kulturuli tradicia da baZvis saukeTeso sagani,
magram IX-X saukuneebidan iwyeba gansakuTrebuli damokidebuleba
antikurobisadmi, rac gansazRvravs makedonuri da komnenuri renesansis
periodebSi (IX-XII ss.) erTgvari dadebiTi damokidebulebis
gamomuSavebas gareSe sibrZnisadmi RvTismetyvelebis samsaxurisaTvis.
Seiqmna filosofiuri, ritorikuli, samecniero da gramatikuli
literatura (Camoyalibda qristianuli da klasikuri teqstebis
samecniero-kritikuli kvlevisa da komentirebis meTodologia,
gamovlinda literaturul-Teoriuli azrovnebisaken swrafva), moxda
antikuri esTetikis Serwyma qristianulTan. X-XII saukuneebidan
elinuroba xdeba maRali ganaTlebis da mxatvruli kulturis
gamomxatveli, Rrmavdeba antikuri ganaTlebis disci plinebis
(gramatikis, ritorikis, filosofiis, istoriis da sxv.) mecnieruli
Seswavla da swavleba, klasikuri saxeebisa da reminiscenciebis
gavrceleba. bizantieli ganmanaTleblebi _ fotiosi da miqael
fselosi amkvidreben interess mxatvruli sityvis teqnikisadmi,
safuZvels uyrian elinisturisagan gansxvavebul axal, bizantiur
literaturul kritikas.13
c) bizantiuri kulturis modelebis Semdgomi msoflmxedvelobrivi gavlenisaTvis umniSvnelovanesi iyo sityvisa da
cnebis eJllhnivzein (elinuroba) axleburi gaazreba da gageba. es
gulisxmobs am cnebis enobriv-kulturuli aspeqtis dacilebas
bezaraSvili 1998 a: 151-154.
reinoldsi, vilsoni 1991: 44-79. vilsoni 1967. hungeri 1978 b: 55-77, 231.
lemerli 1986. brauningi 1989 a: 19. brauningi 1963: 106. brauningi 1962: hasi
1963. samodurova 1989. freibergi... 1978. minisi... 2005: 670-690.
12
13

56

qeTevan bezaraSvili

religiurisagan da qristianobasTan misi mimarTebis axal paradigmas,


anu elinuri formisa da qristianuli Sinaarsis antiTeturi kavSiris
models. meore mxriv ki, elinurobis cneba xdeba klasikuri ganaTlebis,
maRali ritorikul-filosofiuri codnis modeli.
sagulisxmoa, rom sityvas da cnebas elinuri aqvs ramdenime
mniSvneloba bizantiur literaturaSi (ix. qvemoT, Sen. 15, 16). cnobilia,
rom bizantiuri kulturis adreul periodSi ideologiuri brZolac
ki mimdinareobda klasikuri ganaTlebisaTvis. imperator iuliane
gandgomilis 362 wlis ediqtiT qristianebs ekrZalebodaT
klasikuri ganaTlebis miReba. aman TandaTanobiT gamoiwvia
kontraprogramis Seqmna, romlis mizani iyo antikurisagan
gansxvavebuli qristianuli literaturis ganviTareba, romelic Tavisi
daxvewili formiT (klasikuri normebi, Janri, metri, poeturritorikuli xerxebi da sxv.) klasikur literaturas
gautoldeboda, xolo qristianuli SinaarsiT ki aRemateboda mas.
Tavis IV homiliaSi iuliane gandgomilis winaaRmdeg (Contra
Iulianum) grigol RvTismetyveli ganasxvavebs enobriv da kulturul
elinurobas religiuri elinurobisagan da msjelobs imaze, rom
elinuri ganaTleba (eJllhnivzein) qristiani berZnebis kuTvnilebacaa14
(Or. 4, c. 4-5. PG 35, 536 A 1 - B 13. Sdr. Vita Gregorii Nazianzeni. PG 35,
304 A 5 - B 5. Sdr. In suos versus. PG 37, carm. II, 1, 39, vv. 48-49: oujd ejn
~
lovgoi~ plevon divdwmi tou;~ xevnou~ hJmwn).
brZola enobrivi da kulturuli elenurobisaTvis, romelic
bizantiuri kuluturis dasawyisidanve mimdinareobda, imiT damTavrda,
rom elinuri, anu klasikuri literaturuli da filosofiuri
forma, qristianuli ideologiis samsaxurSi moeqca. termini E
{ llhn,
Tavisi axali aRTqmiseuli mniSvnelobisagan gansxvavebiT (rac aseve
adreuli bizantiuri periodidan moyolebuli warmarTs niSnavda),15
XI-XII saukuneebSi iRebs berZenis da e.w. bizantiuris
~
mniSvnelobas, rac manamde gamoxatuli iyo terminebiT graiko~,
~
R
J wmaio~
(rasac qarTulad berZeni, `berZuli~ Seesatyviseboda).
E
J llhnismov~ ukve identificirebulia qristianulTan da gagebulia
rogorc sazogado da Cveulebrivi qristianuli ganaTleba, romelic
ukve bizantiur kulturaSia CarTuli.16 klasikuri ritorikuli da
filosofiuri formebi da klasikuri ganaTleba misaRebi gaxda
qristiani avtorebisaTvis. faseuli informacia klasikuri ganaTlebis
hardi 1968. lemerli 1986: 63-66.
hetCi, redfasi 1954. multoni... 1950: s.v. e{llhn da sxv. diu kanJi 1958: s.v.
{Ellhne~ - Pagani, Gentiles; eJllhnismov~ - paganismus, paganitas; eJllhnivzein paganismum, profiteri. xaranisi 1953: 619-620.
16
vaisi 1983: 818-819. bernari 1976. dostalova 1985. brauningi 1989 b: 124.
14
15

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

57

didi mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb qristianTaTvis mocemulia basili didis


epitafiaSi, romelic grigol RvTismetyvels ekuTvnis (Or. 43, c. 1213. PG 36, 509 BC. Sdr. Or. 43, c. 14. PG 36, 512C-513A; Or. 43, c. 23.
PG 36, 528 A3-12. ix. agreTve am pasaJis basili minimusiseuli
komentarebi da maTi efrem mciriseuli Targmanebi: cod. Vat. Gr. 437,
s. XI, f. 18 v; cod. Iber. Tbilis. A 109, s. XII-XIII, f. 22r; amave pasaJis nikita
heraklielis komentarebisaTvis ix. qvemoT Sen. 60, 61).
amave periodis literaturaSi elada, aTeni, rogorc saero
sibrZnis simboloebi da kargi filosofiuri ganaTlebis wyaro,
moxseniebulia dadebiT konteqstSi. amgvar neitralur
damokidebulebas ganaTlebis warmarTuli kerebisadmi vxvdebiT im
patristikul teqstebSi, im mamaTa nawerebSi (gansakuTrebiT
kapadokielebis SromebSi), visac Tavad hqonda aseTi ganaTleba
miRebuli. mag., grigol RvTismetyvelis TxzulebebSi da maT
komentarebSi aTeni gamocxadebulia filosofiis da saero ganaTlebis
centrad, sadac basili didi da Tavad grigol RvTismetyveli
swavlobdnen (ix. Or. 43-is zemoT dasaxelebuli pasaJebi) .
d) rwmenisa da codnis urTierTmimarTebis imave Zirebs efuZneba
Semdegi cnobili paradigma, romelic aseve funqcionirebda
qristianuli literaturis arsebobis manZilze. es aris e.w.
meTevzurTa saliteraturo forma (Sermo piscatorius; aJlieutikov~) da
aristoteluri ( A
j ristotelikov~) ritorikul-filosofiuri forma.17
pirveli gamoxatuli iyo agreTve cnebebiTa da terminebiT: pirvel
mamaTa sisadave, litonoba, evangeluri sisadave, pavles sisadave da
sxva, meore ki _ terminebiT: atikuri, ritorikuli, filosofiuri,
gramatikuli da misT. am modelis saxeldeba momdinareobs grigol
~
RvTismetyvelis formulirebidan _ dogmatikw~,
aj l l j ouj k
~
~
~ 18 (efrem mciris
ajntilogikw~,
aJlieutikw~,
oujk ajristotelikw~
17

"meTevzurni mociqulTa simboluri saxelia (maT. 4, 18-19; mark. 1, 17. ix.


leimpi 1968: s.v. aJlieuv~, aJlieuthv~), rac gulisxmobda, erTi mxriv, maT ideologiur
daniSnulebas _ mTeli samyaro gaexviaT saRvTo sityvis badeSi, xolo meore
mxriv _ gamomsaxvelobiT formas, radgan maTi sityvebi stilisturi sisadaviTaa
gamorCeuli (Gr. Naz. Or. 41, c. 14. PG 36, 448 C 5; Or. 5, c. 25. PG 35, 693 B 9; Or. 5, c. 30. PG
35, 701 C 8-10 etc.). rogorc aRniSnaven, formulireba ara aristotelebr, aramed
~ ajll j aJlieutikw~.
~ Greg. Naz. PG 35, 1164C) igivea,
meTevzurebr (oujk ajristotelikw~,
~
~
rac ouj rJhtorikw~, ajll j aJlieutikw~ (= ara ritorikulad, aramed meTevzurebr) da
forma-Sinaarsis zemoT ganxilul problemas exeba bizantiur Teologiur
literaturaSi (beki 1963: 93). ase rom, termini meTevzurebri aRniSnavs mociqulTa
~ aJlieutikh/~ aJplovthti. meTevzurTa sisadaviT -Theod.
stilis sisadaves (mag., th/
Cyrrh. Is. 2, 6.ix. leimpi 1968: s.v. aJlieutikov~). ix. nordeni 1978 b: 512-516, 522-523.
18
am formulirebis wyarod patristikul leqsikonSi mxolod grigol
~
~
RvTismetyvelia dasaxelebuli (leimpi 1968: s.v. aJlieutikw~);
Sdr. A
j ristotelikw~
- Iamb. Comm. Math. 27 (lidel/skoti 1961: s.v. jAristotelikov~).

58

qeTevan bezaraSvili

TargmaniT sjulisdebiT, ara winaaRmdgomebiT, meTevzurebr, ara


aristotelebr _ Or. 23, c. 12. PG 35, 1164 C; cod. Iber. Tbilis. A 292,
1800 w., f. 254r), romelic Sua saukuneebSi xSirad citirebul sazogado
gamonaTqvamadac iqca. es formulireba gulisxmobda cnobil
gansxvavebas samonastro sulierebasa da dogmatur Teologias Soris,
meTevzurTa sisadavesa da filosofiur silogizms Soris. igi
niSnavda asketuri, aradiskursiuli, gamocdilebiTi Teologiis
dapirispirebas filosofiur, diskursiul, logikur azrovnebasTan,
sqolastikuri Teologiis inteleqtualur meTodTan.19 es aris
isev xsenebuli gansxvaveba codnasa da rwmenas Soris, filosofiur
gansjasa da gamocxadebis sibrZnes Soris, romelic aris sulieri
ganWvreta gonierTa, anu zeciur arsebaTa.
e) imave funqciisaa orgvari logosis, anu adamianurisa da
saRvTos, ritorikulisa da zebunebrivis, urTierTmimarTeba (lovgo~
- Lovgo~) da a.S. es modeli asaxavs ritorikisa da filosofiis,
xolo meore mxriv, ritorika-filosofiisa da RvTismetyvelebis
kavSirs, sxvadasxvanairad dawinaurebuls sxvadasxva epoqaSi. Lovgo~lovgo~-is, anu saRvTo sityvisa da ritorikuli/gareSe sityvis
antiTeza metad aqtualuri iyo adrebizantiuri patristikidan, mag.,
kapadokielebidan, moyolebuli sqolastikosTa, mag., miqael fselosis,
CaTvliT.20 amave paradigmaSi imave mniSvnelobiT Semodis tkbilisa
da mwaris, eklisa da venaxis/vardis antiTeza patristikaSi, rac
mravalgzis aris gamoxatuli bizantiuri literaturis sxvadasxva
konteqstSi da qarTul mwerlobaSic.21 Zalze gavrcelebuli iyo
tkbili esTetikuri formisa da saRvTo Sinaarsis simwaris, anu
transcendenturi samyaros miuwvdomlobis paradigma, rac mSvenierebis
cnebis (kavllo~, cavri~, hJduv~) esTetikuri aspeqtis ganmsazRvrelia,
ramdenadac glukuv~ (saamurobisa da sitkboebis aRmniSvneli) da
rJodwniva (feradovnebisa da yvavilovnebis gamomxatveli) am cnebaSi
Semavali kategoriebia klasikuri ritorikis Teoriebis mixedviT.
sxvagvar konteqstSi ki piriqiT, tkbili da vardi patristikaSi
gamoyenebuli saxeebia trancendenturis gamosaxatavad.22
terminis A
j ristotelikov~ gagebisaTvis Sua saukuneebSi ix. hungeri 1978 a: 43;
runia 1989.
20
ix. kustasi 1973: 124-125.
21
aRniSnuli magaliTebis analizisaTvis patristikidan (tkbili - mware, vardi ekali) ix. bezaraSvili, 2001 b. bezaraSvili 2002.
~
22
martini 1974: 169-170, 259, 274, 338-339, 342-345. ernesti 1962: s.v. a[nqo~, crwma.
leimpi 1968: s.v. a[kanqa, bavto~, glukuvth~, rJodwniva.
19

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

59

warmarTuli literaturuli formisa da qristianuli Sinaarsis


Tanaarsebobis problema uarsebiTesi iyo patristikaSi. grigol
RvTismetyveli amas uwodebs ritorikuli xelovanebis saSualebiT
~
mcnebaTa simwaris datkbobas (tevcnh/ glukavzwn to; pivkron twn
~
ejntolwn
- PG 37, carm. II, 1, 39, v. 41), raTa axalgazrda Taobas uCvenos
siwmindisaken mimavali gza (vv. 37-43). sityva yrma (nevo~) grigolis
TxzulebebSi gamoyenebulia pavle mociquliseuli sulieri
mniSvnelobiT (I kor. 3, 1-2; ebr. 5, 13-14). grigolis frazis wyaro
warmarTulia: lukreciusic apirebda filosofiis simwaris datkbobas
yrmaTaTvis (De rerum natura, I, 936-943). rogorc vTqviT, Teologias
iseTive upiratesoba hqonda Sua saukuneebSi, rogorc antikur
periodSi _ filosofias. mizezi is iyo, rom qristianTaTvis
mSvenierebis cnebam garegnuli formebidan, ritorikuli xelovnebidan
WvretaSi, saRvTo azrSi gadainacvla. CvenTvis, anu qristianTaTvis
mSveniereba WvretaSiao, _ ambobda grigol RvTismetyveli (to; kavllo~
hJmin ejn qewriva/ - Gr. Naz. PG 37, carm. II, 1, 39, v. 51). miqael fselosi
amas uwodebda saxarebiseuli Zvirfasi margalitis (maT. 13, 45-46)
movarayebas oqros CarCoTi. igi gulisxmobda mistikuri Wvretisa
da sibrZnis mSvenierebis gamoxatvas ritorikuli ornamentebiT
(Psellos, Ad Pothum, c. 585-90), anu mSvenierebis orive aspeqtis
Tanaarsebobas 23.. grigol RvTismetyveli da miqael fselosi
warmarTuli formisa da qristianuli Sinaarsis SeeerTebis am
gzas uwodebdnen ritorikis (lovgo~) gansxvavebul (a[llh) an
~
axal, uCveulo (kainhv) gzas: a[llhn twn
lovgwn oJdovn (Gr. Naz.
~
PG 37, carm. II, 1, 39, v. 22; 64); kaino;n tout
j a]n ei[h to; novhma (Psellos,
Ad Pothum, c. 232).
klasikuri literaturuli formisa da qristianuli Sinaarsis
Tanaarseboba eTanxmeba stilis axal cnebas, romelic miqael fselosis
mier Teologiurad (qeologiko;~ carakthvr) aris saxeldebuli
da romelsac samecniero literaturaSi saRvTismetyvelo-ritorikul
stils uwodeben.24 miqael fselosi gulisxmobda qristianuli sada
stilis Serwymas ritorikul da Teologiur maRalfardovnebasTan
grigol RvTismetyvelis SromebSi (Psellos, Ad Pothum, c. 227,30-31; c.
12214-216; 227-228; c. 13243-245; 340; c. 20377-383).
23
mSvenierebis cnebis (kavllo~, cavri~, hJduv~, glukuv~) esTetikuri da transcendenturi
interpretaciebisa da neoplatonuri wanamZRvrebis Sesaxeb, aseve magaliTebisaTvis
patristikidan da literaturis bizantieli Teoretikosebis Sromebidan ix.
tatarkieviCi 1972. biCkovi 1981: 231-232. bezaraSvili 2004: 536-580.
24
bezaraSvili 2004: 547-551. Sdr. SevCenko 1981: 296-300. ix. maieri 1911.

60

qeTevan bezaraSvili

f) zemoT warmodgenil paradigmebTan dakavSirebulia stilTa


doneebis axali, qristianuli Teoriuli modeli, gansxvavebuli
antikurisagan. masSi moazrebul evangelur sisadaves, romlis
literaturuli Rirebuleba gamoxatuli iyo terminiT aJplovth~
(litonoba), stilTa doneebis miRma arsebuli funqcia uWiravs da
tradiciul CarCoSi ver Tavsdeba. igi stilis saeklesio saxeobad
~ ... kata; th;n fravsin, ... kata; to;n
iwodeba fotiosis mier (aJplou~
~
ejkklhsiastiko;n th~ eJrmhneiva~ tuvpon. Phot. Bibl. 95a22, 95a41,
154a25).25 sagulisxmoa agreTve baZvis cnebis ori aspeqtis
Tanaarsebobis axali modeli da gaazreba. erTia pavles stilisturi
sisadavisa da dafaruli miRmuri Sinaarsis baZva, xolo meore _
klasikuri, saero da warmarTuli saliteraturo formis baZva. e.w.
saRvTismetyvelo-ritorikuli stili gulisxmobda Sinaarsobrivi
da formobrivi mifarulebisa da lakoniurobis Sesabamisi xerxebiT
gadmocemas.26
bizantiuri literaturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli zemoT
ganxiluli dualizmidan gamomdinare, saRvTismetyvelo-ritorikulma
stilma ganapiroba baZvis cnebis am ori aspeqtis Tanaarseboba.
ritorikis klasikuri Teoriebis normebis mixedviT, romelic
ritorikis bizantiurma Teoriamac imemkvidra, baZvis cnebis erTerTi gviandeli (elinisturi) gageba (demetriosi, dionise
halikarnaseli, hermogene da sxv.) gulisxmobda klasikuri avtorebis
~
saukeTeso ritorikuli xelovnebis baZvas (kata; zhlon
ajrcaivwn.
~
Psellos, Ad Pothum, c. 239; ejmimeito xuvmpanta. Psellos, Characteres, c. 2.
PG 122, 905 A9).27 bizantiuri literaturis ZeglebSi SeimCneva agreTve
baZvis cnebis axali, qristianuli gageba. igi gulisxmobda RvTaebrivi
azris, zeciuri sibrZnis baZvas pavle mociqulis analogiiT (Sdr.
I kor. 4, 16; 11, 1; 14, 1). Tavisi literaturul-Teoriuli mniSvnelobiT
es termini gulisxmobda agreTve mociqulTa sityvis Sinaarsobrivi
mifarulebis baZvas. wyaroebSi, erTi mxriv, es naCvenebia grigol
RvTismetyvelis magaliTiT, romelic baZavs Tavis pavles (Sdr. to;n
~
ejkeinou Paulon
mimouvmeno~ - Psellos, Ad Pothum, c. 15291-292), meore
mxriv, mociqulTa stilisturi sisadavis baZvis mniSvnelobiT.
~
~ aJploi~
kustasi 1962: 138-145, 156-157 (ix. Sen. 7). Sdr. II kor. 1, 12; toi~
rJhm
v asin. Greg. Naz. Or. 32, c. 26. PG 36, 204 A 13-B7. ix. amstuci 1968: 16-116, 118-119.
~ aJplovth~. SevCenko 1981: 296-299.
leimpi 1968: s.v. aJplou~,
26
bezaraSvili 2004: 260-318.
27
hungeri 1969. martini 1974: 7, 291. kenedi 1980: 25-40. kustasi 1973: 18, 30,
42, 57, 170. bezaraSvili 2004: 159-197.
25

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

61

magaliTebisaTvis kvlav grigol RvTismetyvelis Txzulebania


~
~
dasaxelebuli: ouj kata; tuvpon twn
e[xwqen sofwn,
ajlla; kata; mivmhsin
~
ajtecnw~
th;n ajpostolikhvn..., anu naTqvamia, rom grigoli werda ara
gareSe filosofosTa mixedviT, aramed mociqulTa moukazmveli
stilis baZviTo (Nicet.Paphl. Encomium Gr. Naz-ni).28
qristianul literaturaSi TandaTan normad iqca klasikuri
ritorikuli stilis Tanaarseboba wm. werilis sisadaveTan (xSirad
ritorikuli xelovaneba - tevcnh da apostoluri sisadave - aJplovth~
dapirispirebuli cnebebia dasaxelebuli wyaroebis mixedviT). miqael
fselosis formulirebiT, wm. grigolma (rogorc qristianuli
literaturis saukeTeso warmomadgenelma) moaxerxa SeuTavseblis
SeTavseba _ qristianuli sisadavis SeTavseba klasikur ritorikul
stilTan da berZnuli filosofiis cnebiT-terminologiur aparatTan
(Psellos, Ad Pothum, c. 20382-383). am gziT man gamoimuSava specialuri
stili, romelsac, rogorc vTqviT, saRvTismetyvelo an ritorikulfilosofiuri ewodeba.
g) ganxiluli modelebidan gamomdinareobs kidev erTi paradigma:
saeklesiosa da inteleqtualuris dapirispireba da urTierTkavSiri,
romelic iTvaliswinebs mkiTxvelTa da msmenelTa sxvadasxva dones:
gankuTvnils martivad moazrovne mrevlisaTvis Tu inteleqtualTa
viwro wrisaTvis an orives erTad. mag., wyaroebSi saubaria qristiani
avtoris orgvari ganswavlulobis Sesaxeb _ saero da saeklesio
sibrZneSi (smeon loRoTeti, kaci yovliTa sawarmarToTa da
gareSiTa sibrZniTa sruliad ganswavluli da egreve SinaganTa amaT
da CuenTa saeklesioTa wignTa Zuelisa da axlisa sjulisaTa
moswrafebiT wurTili.29 basili didis epitafiaSi, grigol
RvTismetyvelis mixedviT, sagangebodaa saubari basilisa da misi
mamis saero ganaTlebis Sesaxeb (Or. 43, c. 12-14, c. 23. ix. zemoT: C).
wyaroebSi saubaria agreTve, rom saero sibrZneSi gawafuli avtoris
Txzulebebi gamiznulia orive ti pis mkiTxvelisaTvis:
ganswavlulTaTvis da litonTaTvis, vis ramdenis aTviseba SeuZlia
da rogor. miqael fselosis mixedviT, svimeon loRoTeti ritmiTa
~
da sityvis simSvenieriT (tw/
me;n ga;r rJuqmw/ kai; to; kavllei) rCeul
~
msmenels (to;n ejllovgimon ajkroathvn) izidavs, sicxadiTa (safei)
da sisadaviT (potivmw/) _ gaunaTlebelT (ta;~ ijdiwvtida~ ajkoav~),
~
lakoniurobiTa da damajereblobiT ki (suntwvmw/ kai; piqanw/
), orive
Sdr. rico 1976: 19-20. interpretaciisaTvis ix. bezaraSvili 2004: 198-212.
efrem mcire, mosa senebeli mcire smeonisaTs loRoTetisa. ix. kekeliZe
1957: 223.

28

29

62

qeTevan bezaraSvili

saxis msmenels (ajmfwtevroi~) xiblavs (PG 114, 193 D10-15). wm. mamaTa
stilis es ambivalenturi Sefaseba damaxasiaTebelia miqael
fselosisaTvis grigol RvTismetyvelis stilis Sesaxeb daweril
traqtatSic (Psellos, Ad Pothum, c. 15294-295; grigoli msmenels aZlevs
imdenis aTvisebis saSualebas, ramdensac saWirod miiCnevs, danarCens
ki zeSTa saganZurSi itovebs).
h) yovelive zemoTqmuls Sesabamisad ukavSirdeba ritorikafilosofiis sakralurobis idea; poeziis sakralur xelovnebad
gaazreba, erTi mxriv, misi esTetikuri daniSnuleba, meore mxriv, da
orive am mimarTebis (sakralurobisa da esTetikurobis) igavurobiTa
da alegoriulobiT SekavSireba, mesame mxriv (es ukanaskneli damatebiT
moiTxovs kvlevas da gamovlenas).30
poeziis sakraluroba ritorikis sakralurobaze iyo
damokidebuli, radgan poezia ritorikis nawilad miiCneoda (Plat.
Gorg. 502d2; Hermog. De ideis).31 grigol RvTismetyvelis leqsi
sakuTari poeziis Sesaxeb (In suos versus. PG 37, Carm. II,1,39),
romelsac Ars Poetica-sac uwodeben, qristianuli poeziis am axali,
sakraluri daniSnulebis mauwyebeli iyo.32 Sua saukuneebis evropul
sqolastikaSi miRebuli SexedulebiT, romelic aristoteles
poetikis arabuli komentarebidan gavrcelda, poezia da ritorika
filosofiisa da logikis nawilebia.33
ritorika-filosofiis sakralurobis ideis umniSvnelovanesi
gamoxatuleba iyo XI saukunis bizantiaSi eklesiis sami ierarqis:
grigol RvTismetyvelis, basili didisa da ioane oqropiris
dResaswaulis damkvidreba. isini WeSmariti ritorikis warmomadgenlebad iyvnen aRiarebulni, rasac ganapirobebda ara mxolod maTi
stili, aramed agreTve maTi Txzulebebis saRvTismetyvelo Sinaarsi.34
es brZeni mamebi gaxdnen ara mxolod filosofiuri da Teologiuri,
aramed agreTve ritorikuli idealebi bizantiisaTvis. maT saxeSi
swored es ori done gaerTianda: maTi sityvebis momxibvleloba,
maTi adamianuri logosi da saRvTo logosis madli. rogorc
aRniSnaven, am wm. mamaTa saSualebiT aRdga sityvisa da sulis,
30

poeziis dakavSireba filosofiasTan alegoriis gziT Sua saukuneebis


literaturisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli (kurciusi 1953: 207).
31
kenedi 1980: 114. milovanoviCi 1997: 499.
32
bezaraSvili 2007.
33
minisi... 1988: 276-289.
34
rogorc cnobilia, kapadokielma mamebma da ioane oqropirma umaRles doneze
ganaviTares filosofiuri safuZveli qristianuli doqtrinebisaTvis. maT gamoiyenes
atikuri stili ganaTlebuli sazogadoebisaTvis. ix. kenedi 1983: 50, 185 da sxv.

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

63

ritorikisa da RvTismetyvelebis, bunebrivisa da zebunebrivis


WeSmariti harmonia.35 aRsaniSnavia, rom miqael fselosma daaxasiaTa
grigol nazianzelisa da svimeon metafrastis stili, rogorc
ritorikisa da filosofiis Tanaarseboba (Psellos, Ad Pothum, c.
13243-245,340; c. 17317-318; Psellos, Encomium in Metaphr. Symeonem. PG 114,
188 A 11). ritorika da filosofia, zogjer erT mTlianobad miCneuli
klasikur literaturaSi (Sdr. platonis WeSmariti ritorika,
rogorc filosofiuri ritorika - Plat. Gorg. 517a; Phaedr. 261a etc.),
qristianobaSi warmodgenilia Teologiisa da ritorikis kavSiriT
farTo gagebiT _ rogorc WeSmariti Teologiuri ritorika.36
zemoTqmuls SemdgomSi SeiZleba kidev daematos amave ti pis
modelebi da maTi saxeobebi, ufro gafarTovdebs kvlevis are, magram
amjerad warmodgenilic sakmarisia aRmosavluri qristianuli
azrovnebis erTgvari mimarTulebis Sesaxeb warmodgenis Sesaqmnelad
da misi gavlenis arealis dasazusteblad. SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom
Tu antikuri kulturis mTavari modeli iyo elinurisa da
barbarosulis, kulturisa da antikulturis dapirispireba da
elinuri civilizaciis gavrceleba mis sapirispiro dabali
civilizaciis samyaroSi, Sua saukuneebis bizantiuri kulturisaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli iyo sxvagvari antiTeturi modeli: qristianuli
sibrZne da araqristianuli cnobiereba, saRvTo sibrZne da e.w.
gareSe gamomsaxvelobiTi (literaturul-filosofiuri) formebi.
Sua saukuneebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli kodis _ ierarqiulobis zemoT
ganxiluli princi pis mixedviT, gareSe forma, romelic TavisTavad
miuReblad aris Sefasebuli, Rirebulia mxolod qristianul
SinaarsTan mimarTebaSi da mis gamosaxatavad. aqedan gamomdinare,
gasagebi unda iyos araqristianuli, umetesad antikuri kulturis
sxvadasxvagvari Sefaseba (uaryofiTi Tu neitraluri) sxvadasxva
konteqstSi erTi da imave bizantieli avtoris TxzulebebSic ki.

35
igulisxmeba ioane mavropusis xilva 1084 wels. ix. lagardi... 1882: 115. Sdr.
Syceliotes, Prol. Syll., 395, 10ff. beki 1963: 95-96. kustasi 1973: 124-125.
36
Sdr. kenedi 1983: 126-131. kenedi 1980: 41-82. kustasi 1973: 124.

64

qeTevan bezaraSvili

2. qarTuli literaturis elinofiluri maxasiaTeblebis


ganviTareba da bizantiuri saazrovno paradigmis aTviseba
qarTul Teologiur da literaturul azrovnebaSi
elinofiloba farTo mniSvnelobiT gulisxmobs zogadad
zemoaRniSnuli bizantiuri saazrovno tendenciebis aTvisebas
aRmosavlur qristianul kulturaTa mier, rac met-naklebad
yovelTvis xdeboda am kulturaTa istoriis manZilze (mag., qarTuli
mwerlobis adreul periodSi umetesad mTeli yuradReba ZiriTadi
Teologiuri da liturgikuli literaturis Targmnaze iyo
gadatanili). magram sakuTriv elinofiluri mimarTuleba, romelic
yvela aRmosavluri qristianuli literaturis istoriis garkveul
periodSi arsebobda, gulisxmobs gansakuTrebul process, kerZod,
kulturuli elinurobis gacnobierebas, Teoriul gaazrebas da
orientacias masze (rac siriul da somxur literaturaSi adreuli
periodidanve iwyeba, xolo qarTul mwerlobaSi _ mogvianebiT).
sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom aTonis saRvTismetyvelo skolam
da efTvime aTonelis moRvaweobam gansazRvres qarTuli kulturis
momavali mimarTuleba.37 efTvimes literaturuli moRvaweobis mizani
iyo qarTuli literaturis gaTanasworeba bizantiur normebTan.
rogorc cnobilia, berZnuli kulturis aTvisebis efTvimeseulma
gzam, bizantiur kulturaze misma mizandasaxulma orientaciam
(bizantiur literaturaSi mimdinare saazrovno procesebis
Taviseburma gamoxmaurebam) Tavisi ganviTarebis mwvervals miaRwia
elinofilebad wodebul gviandel qarTvel moRvaweebTan (Savi mTisa
da gelaTis skolebSi).38 magram bizantiur normebTan gaTanasworebis
aTonelebis mier dawyebuli procesi rodi iyo elinofiloba Tavisi
specifikuri maxasiaTeblebiT. am maxasiaTeblebs ufro gvian Sav mTaze
(antioqiaSi) eyreba safuZveli da misi saTavis damdebi efrem mcirea.
bizantiuri kulturis zemoT warmodgenili rogorc adreuli
modelebis, ise makedonuri da komnenuri renesansis periodis
modelebis Teoriuli gaazreba saqarTveloSi iwyeba SedarebiT
gvian _ XI saukuneSi. amisi umTavresi mizezi iyo qarTvelTa
37

qarTvel mecnierTa mixedviT, rom ara ivironis monasteri, qarTuli kulturis


istoria sxva xasiaTs da mimarTulebas miiRebda. ix. kekeliZe 1980: 101.
TarxniSvili 1955: 70-72. metreveli 1983. boederi 1983.
38
aq igulisxmeba bizantiuri ritorikis Teoriis problemebis efTvimeseuli
codna da Taviseburi gadamuSaveba misi ganmanaTlebluri miznebis Sesabamisad,
romelic elinofilebTan ukve specialuri interesisa da adekvaturi mibaZvis
sagani xdeba (ix. bezaraSvili 2004: 18-97, spec. 43-44).

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

65

kulturuli orientacia ganxilul bizantiur saazrovno procesebze:


saRvTo Sinaarssa da daxvewil warmarTul, klasikur ritorikulfilosofiur formas Soris mimarTebaze qristianul TxzulebebSi;
klasikur saleqsTwyobo formaze; hermenevtikul gramatikasa da
prosodiaze; saRvTismetyvelo-ritorikuli stilis axal Teoriasa
da baZvis cnebis axal, qristianul aspeqtze stilis tradiciuli
klasikuri Teoriebisa da baZvis tradiciuli klasikuri gagebis
paralelurad; mSvenierebis cnebis ori aspeqtis urTierTmimarTebaze
da sxv. es gamoixata agreTve axali, elinofiluri mTargmnelobiTi
koncefciis CamoyalibebiT; saRvTismetyvelo terminologiis
sistematizaciiT; saleqsikono muSaobisa da teqstobrivi kritikis
ganviTarebiT; samecniero-kritikuli aparatis, kolofonebisa da
sqolioebis maRal doneze damuSavebiT; bizantiuri prooimionebis
(Sesavali-epistoleebis) sakiTxebis Teoriuli gaSuqebiT:
literaturul-istoriuli da ritorikul-Teoriuli sakiTxebis
gaazrebiT, stilisturi, poetikuri, gramatikuli, leqsikologiuretimologiuri SeniSvnebis saxiT; elinizebuli qarTuli xelnaweri
wignis SeqmniT. efrem mcirem Teoriulad gaaanaliza es problemebi
da gamoiyena bizantiuri YTeoriebis analogiuri paradigmebi.39
bizantiuri literaturul-Teoriuli da gramatikuli azrovnebis
am problemebma (anu ritorikis Teoriam, rogorc mas uwodebdnen
Sua saukuneebSi) gavlena moaxdina qarTul literaturazec.
qarTuli literaturis elinofiluri maxasiaTeblebis
ganviTarebis meore mizezi qarTuli azrovnebis sulieri
moTxovnilebebis zrda iyo, rac daxasiaTebulia Tavad Zvel qarTvel
swavlulTa mier. giorgi aTonelis, efrem mciris, arsen iyalToelis
msjelobani cxadyofen, rom qarTvelTa rwmena da, Sesabamisad, maTi
literatura homogenuri da pirdapiri gziT warmarTuli iyo
yovelgvari eretikuli gadaxvevebis gareSe dasawyisidan XI-XII
saukuneebamde, anu xsenebulTa moRvaweobamde. am periodSi, maTi
ganmartebiT, araferi yofila Targmnili warmarTuli, saero Tu
eretikuli (e[xwqen - gareSe) literaturidan qarTveli mkiTxvelis
sulieri siCvilis gamo, am sityvis pavle mociquliseuli mniSvnelobiT
(I kor. 3, 1-2; ebr. 5, 12-13).40 efrem mciris mixedviT, qarTuli
literatura adioda axal simaRleebamde sisadavidan sirTulisaken,
39

ix. bezaraSvili 2004: 98-158.


Sdr. giorgi mcire, cxoreba da moqalaqoba wmidisa da netarisa mamisa
Cuenisa giorgi mTawmidelisa (abulaZe 1967: 12319-26; 1549-15 da a.S.); efrem mcire,
uwyeba mizezsa qarTvelTa moqcevisa (bregaZe 1959: 121-5). arsen iyalToeli,
cxoreba da moqalaqoba didida da Rirsisa dedisa Cuenisa ninosi
(lolaSvili 1978: 39510-20).
40

66

qeTevan bezaraSvili

sulieri simartividan inteleqtualuri srulyofilebisaken.41 amitom


aris, rom yvelaze rTuli Teologiur-filosofiuri Sromebi,
gansakuTrebiT, elinuri literaturul-filosofiuri formebis
Semcveli naSromebi, iTargmna qarTuli literaturis ara adreul
periodSi, aramed mogvianebiT. elinur literaturaze da filosofiaze
orientacia gaxda ufro mniSvnelovani XI saukunidan mkiTxvelTa
ufro maRali inteleqtualuri donis gamo wina periodebTan
SedarebiT. es mkiTxvelebi momzadebulni aRmoCndenen ritorikuli
da filosofiuri siRrmis gasagebad, romliskenac TandaTanobiT
moxda gadasvla. aseT mkiTxvels SeeZlo Seefasebina saero sibrZnis
swori gamoyenebis problema qristianobis samsaxurisaTvis (rogorc
sqolastikisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Taviseburebisa Sua saukuneebSi).
zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, bunebrivia, rom aRniSnuli paradigmebi
upirvelesad SeiniSneba XI saukunis qarTveli mecnierisa da
RvTismetyvelis _ efrem mciris naTargmn da originalur SromebSi,
radgan efremma, rogorc vTqviT, saTave daudo e.w. elinofilur
mimarTulebas qarTul mwerlobaSi (rac gansakuTrebiT gamoixata
zemoT CamoTvlil procesebze misi kulturuli orientaciiT).
bizantiuri ritorikis Teoriis umniSvnelovanesi problemebi da
gareSe sibrZnisadmi damokidebuleba SesaniSnavad aris gaazrebuli
efremis nawerebSi. efrems SeeZlo am ideebs gascnoboda berZen
mweralTa Sromebze darTul komentarebsa da sqolioebSi (basili
minimusis, miqael fselosisa da sxvaTa nawerebSi), agreTve Savi mTis
mdidar wignsacavebSi, sadac misi kolofonebis mixedviT, saeklesio
sakiTxavebTan erTad mravlad iyo gareSe Txzulebebic. 42 am
TvalsazrisiT metad mniSvnelovania ioane petriwis Sexedulebebic.
qarTvel moRvaweTa mier gamoyenebuli saazrovno modelebi da
paradigmebi Semdegia (ganvixilavTa zemoT warmodgenili
TanmimdevrobiT da numeraciiT):
a) Tavis Targmanebze darTul SeniSvnebsa da kolofonebSi
efrem mcire gansazRvravs qristian moRvaweTa mier elinurobisadmi
gamoxatul zemoxsenebul dualizms. erTi mxriv, igi saubrobs wm.
werilisa da pirvel qristian mamaTa nawerebis litoniTa sityTa
gamoxatul sisadaveze da uwodebs maT wmidaTa Tqumulsa da
marTlmadidebelTa mamaTa aRwerilsa.43 igi exeba agreTve elinofil
mamaTa Sromebis ritorikul-filosofiuri formis problemas da
uwodebs maT nawerebs gramatikuls da filosofiurs, gansxvavebiT
41

"mama Cueni efTme ... siCCoebasa Cuenisa naTesavisasa sZiTa zrdida da mxliTa,
xolo aw mis mier aRzrdili eri misiTave madliTa mtkicisa sazrdelisa moqene
iqmna (cod. Iber. Jer. 43, XII-XIII ss., f. 2v). ix., metreveli... 1998: XXXIII-XXXIV.
42
bezaraSvili 2004: 155-158. oTxmezuri 1999.
43
Cod. Iber. Tbilis. A 24, XIIs., f. 3v. ix. rafava 1976: 68. Cod. Iber. Jer. 43, f. 1v. ix.
metreveli... 1998: XXXII.

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

67

pirveldamaSuralTagan.44 efremis am ukanaskneli kolofonis mixedviT,


winamorbed mTargmnelTa naRvawi miekuTvneba swored pirvel maTgans,
anu pirveldamaSuralT, magram meores, anu gramatikuls da
filosofiurs, ekuTvnis efremisave sakuTari Targmanebi, romlebic
Sesrulebulia ritorikulad da filosofiurad daxvewili stiliT.
meore mxriv, efremi saubrobs sxva saxis dualizmze. igi uaryofs
Tavisi Sromebis ritorikul-filosofiur xasiaTs (ix. Sen. 44) da
amave dros (zustad imave kolofonSi) igi acxadebs, rom Tavis
TargmanebSi igi icavda filosofiis wesebs (sityvasityviT: karebsa
filosofosTasa;45 sityvaSi filosofosTa, misi Suasaukuneobrivi
mniSvnelobebis mixedviT, ritorikac igulisxmeba da piriqiT46). am
terminiT efremi gamoxatavs Tavis mier gamoyenebul ritorikulfilosofiur teqnikas da terminologias, aseve aristoteles
logikur meTodebs ioane damaskelis dialeqtikaSi, miTologiur
komentarebs da misT., romlebic manve Targmna qarTulad.
elinofilobamdel qarTul mwerlobaSi filosofiis ojaxis
terminebi mxolod gareSe sibrZnes aRniSnavda, amitom isini xSirad
damaxinjebuli enobrivi formiT moixsenieboda (filafozoba,
filafozi) da erTgvari negatiuri mniSvnelobis Semcveli iyo.
giorgi aTonelidan moyolebuli (romlis moRvaweoba Sav mTasac
ukavSirdeba), mkvidrdeba jer neitraluri damokidebuleba am
cnebisadmi, xolo Semdgom misi axali, qarTvelTaTvis manamde ucnobi
SinaarsiT gaazreba. efrem mcire Tavis kolofonebSi filosofoss
sasuliero pirebs uwodebs, xolo filosofias _ RvTismetyvelebas,
anu Semoaqvs am terminis is axali mniSvneloba, rac mas patristikaSi
mieniWa.47
44

"ara saRramatikosoTa, arca safilosofosoTa, aramed Semdgomni Targmanni


pirveldamaSuralTa TargmanTa wignebisagan ganviswavlebiT da viTarca RmrTisad,
egreTve CuenTad uwinaresTad SevhracxT madlsa mas... (cod. Iber. Jer. 43, XII-XIIIs.,
f. 1v). ix. metreveli... 1998: XXXII. am pasaJis interpretaciisaTvis (romelSic
gamoyenebulia ritorikuli uaryofisa da Tavis dakninebis gziT sapirispiros
Cvenebis xerxi) ix. bezaraSvili 2001 a.
45
"ukueTu lomi ver cidamtkavlebr xldeboda karebsa filosofosTasa... (cod.
Iber. Jer. 43, f. 3v). ix. metreveli... 1998: XXXIV. interpretaciisaTvis ix.
bezaraSvili 2004: 159-197.
46
samecniero SromebisaTvis Sua saukuneebSi filosofiis mniSvnelobebis Sesaxeb
ix. Sen. 8. gramatikisa da ritorikis mniSvnelobaTa Sesaxeb ix. gudemani 1912:
1780-1811. robinsi 1993. hungeri 1978 b: 10-50. hermenevtikuli gramatikis da
ritorikis Teoriis funqciebis kavSiris Sesaxeb Sua saukuneebis Teoriul
azrovnebaSi ix. brauningi 1963. brauningi 1995. konli 1986: 337, 349-355.
kasteri 1988: 35-50, 71-94. minisi... 2005: 285-290.
47
bezaraSvili 2004: 119, 125, 170-187, 280-285, 294-299, 448-450 da sxv.

68

qeTevan bezaraSvili

b) warmarTuli ritorikuli formisa da maRali saRvTo sibrZnis


Tanaarsebobis problema mravaljer aris ganxiluli bizantiel avtorTa
qarTul TargmanebSi (gansakuTrebiT, efrem mciris TargmanebSi). es
problema ganxilulia agreTve grigol RvTismetyvelis gnomur leqsebSi
da maT efrem mciriseul TargmanSi (PG 37, carm. I, 2, no. 3, 19, 39, 40),
romelTa saTauri Seqmnilia Tavad efremis mier: mulebi iambiko
saswavlosa wil warmarTTasa, romlisagan ganayenna qristianeni
ivliane gandgomilman. es saTauri Seicavs agreTve kulturuli da
istoriuli xasiaTis informacias da konkretulad exeba bizantiis
istoriis erT mniSvnelovan epizods _ qristianTa ganaTlebis
problemas imperator iulianes represiebis dros.
efrem mcires Semoaqvs agreTve erTgvari literaturul-Teoriuli
termini aRniSnuli opoziciis aRsaniSnavad. igi iyenebs ritorikul
xerxs, romelic farTod iyo gavrcelebuli im drois bizantiur
literaturaSi. kerZod, es iyo iSviaTi geografiuli da eTnikuri
terminebis gamoyeneba ufro farTo, ganzogadebuli mniSvnelobiT. es
aris termini hinduri, romelic gulisxmobs araqristianuls,
warmarTuls, saeros.48 grigol nazianzelis sityvebis efremiseuli
interpretaciis mixedviT, wm. grigoli warmoadgens umaRles saRvTo
qristianul sulier sibrZnes hinduri, anu warmarTuli,
literaturuli formis _ klasikuri metris saSualebiT
~
(tetrasticivhn de; gnwvmai~ pneumatikai~
mnhmovsunon fulavttw
sofivh~. oTxmuledisa hindurisa damcvel var, misacemelad cnobaTa
sulierTa da sibrZnisa mis yovlad WeSmaritisa. oTxmuxledis
epigrafi. PG 37, carm. I, 2, 33; cod. Iber. Tbilis. A 109, XII-XIIIss., 266r).49
48
Sdr. bolotovi 1910: 244-246. brokgauzi... 1894: 108 (s.v. ). kaJdani 1991: 992993 (s.v. India). popova 1974: 184, 218. sityva eTiopis, anu hindos, ganzogadebuli
mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb qarTul TarmanebSi ix. wereTeli 2000: 80-82, 89-95, 99, 102 da
sxv.
49
frazas oTxmuxledi hinduri aqvs igive mniSvneloba, rac basili didisadmi
miZRvnili grigol RvTismetyvelis leqsiTi epitafiis nikita paflaRonielis
mier Sedgenili parafrazis saTaurs (PG 38, carm. II, 1, 119: skordiliosi 1563: 53r),
romelic giorgi aTonelma Targmna: wmidisa mamisa Cuenisa grigoli RmrTismetyuelisa
dawerili saflavsa zeda didisa basilissa safilosofosoTa sityTa da nikita
filosofosisa Targmnili (cod. Iber. Ath. 49, XIs., f. 79 r; cod. Iber. Tbilis. A 55, XI-XIIs.,
f. 403v; cod. Iber. Jer. 15, XIIs., f. 77r etc.). termini safilosofoso sityua gamoiyeneba
giorgi aTonelis mier Tavisi ganzogadebuli mniSvnelobiT, kerZod, klasikuri
saliteraturo formis mniSvnelobiT (aRniSnavs metrs, saxeldobr, elegiur distiqs
~
_ stivcoi hJrwelegeioi).
giorgi aTonelma uciloblad icis, rom versifikacia
(maSindeli terminiT: poetika) aris zogadi ganaTlebis sagani, maSin roca termini
safilosofoso gulisxmobs zogadad saero ganaTlebas da konkretulad _
saero literaturas da mis formebs (termin filosofiis mniSvnelobebisaTvis
ix. zemoT Sen. 8, 46). qarTuli magaliTebis interpretaciisaTvis ix. bezaraSvili
1998 a: 123-154. bezaraSvili 1999.

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

69

efrem mciris kolofonebSi da TargmanebSi Camoyalibda erTgvari


damokidebuleba gareSe sibrZnisadmi. man gansazRvra filosofiis,
rogorc WeSmaritebis marcvlebis, msaxurisa da iaraRis funqcia
(ioane damaskelis dialeqtikis kolofonSi - cod. Iber. Tbilis. A 24,
f. 2v-3r); masve ekuTvnis cnoba, rogorc vnaxeT, gareSe sakiTxavebis
arsebobis Sesaxeb antioqiis wignsacavebSi (ix. igive kolofoni).50
efrem mcirem TiTqmis pirvelad Targmna gareSe sibrZnis
formis gamoyenebiT Seqmnili literatura qarTulad: sawarmarTo
terminologiis 51 Semcveli areopagituli korpusis saxiT da
aristoteles logikuri Sromebisa da maTi komentarebis
meTodologiis kompendiumis _ ioane damaskelis dialeqtikis
saxiT. masve ekuTvnis antiwarmarTuli poziciis gareSe, neitraluri
damokidebulebiT Sesrulebuli fsevdo-nones miTologiuri
komentarebis Targmani (gansxvavebiT imave Txrobebis nawilis efTvime
aToneliseuli tendenciuri Targmanisagan).52 mogvianebiT gelaTis
skolis moRvaweebisa da ioane petriwis mier iTargmna klasikuri
neoplatonuri filosofiuri Zeglebi _ amonios ermisis, nemesios
emeselis, prokle diadoxosis Txzulebebi. hermenevtikuli
gramatikuli literaturis codna Cans am meTodologiis gamoyenebiT
Sesrulebul komentarebsa da SeniSvnebSi, romlebic efremsa da
elinofilebs ekuTvnis. ritorikis elinisturi da bizantiuri
Teoriebisa da metafrastikis Teoriis gamoyeneba, aseve gramatikulfilosofiuri, leqsikologiuri da sxva samecniero komentarebi
ti puria am epoqaSi.53
maRalfardovani daxvewili saRvTismetyvelo-ritorikuli stili,
romelic gulisxmobda ritorikuli formisa da Teologiuri
terminologiis dafarul da lakoniur xasiaTs, gavrcelebuli iyo
am epoqaSi. es stili daxasiaTebuli iyo basili minimusis komentarebSi,
miqael fselosis traqtatebSi, efrem mciris kolofonebSi grigol
RvTismetyvelis TxzulebebTan dakavSirebiT. magram imave stiliT
SeiZleba daxasiaTdes maqsime aRmsareblis, ioane damaskelisa da
sxva wm. mamaTa Sromebi da maTi qarTuli Targmanebi, romlebic
gadmoiRes efremma da elinofilebma.
50

rafava 1976: 67-68. oTxmezuri 1999. bezaraSvili 2001 a.


"sawarmarToTave sityuaTa miscems dasa snelad sibrZnisa sawarmarTosa (cod.
Iber. Tbilisi. A 110, XIIs., f. 1-8). efrem mcire, winabWe sitysa _ Txroba didisa
dionsisTs da wignTa maTTs, mis mier aRwerilTa (lolaSvili 1983: 72, 74).
52
oTxmezuri 2002: XLI.
53
oTxmezuri 2004. TvalTvaZe 2002. doborjginiZe, 1995. doborjginiZe
2001.
51

70

qeTevan bezaraSvili

efrem mciris mosazrebebi (TargmanSi, komentarebSi, kolofonebSi)


bizantiuri azrovnebis simaRleze dgas da igi cdilobs qarTuli
literaturis ayvanas am donemde. Targmanebze darTul kolofonebSi
efremma Camoayaliba Tavisi literaturul-Teoriuli Sexedulebebi
bizantiuri ritorikis Teoriis safuZvelze (stilTa Teoria, baZvis
cnebis aspeqtebi, mSvenierebis cnebis aspeqtebi da misT.). 54
Tavisi azrovnebis stiliT efrem mcire berZen gramatikosTa
ti pis mwignobari iyo. man qarTveli mkiTxveli miaCvia abstraqtul
Teologiur azrovnebas. Tu giorgi aTonelTan dakavSirebuli
wyaroebis mixedviT imdroindeli antioqia qarTvelTa
TviTdamkvidrebis gamoxatuleba iyo, efrem mciris kolofonebSi
warmodgenili antioqia samecniero miRwevebis gamoxatulebaa. efrem
mciris xelidan gamosuli qarTuli xelnaweri krebulebi
Seesatyviseba bizantiuri xelnaweri tradiciis maRal dones.55
gareSesadmi damokidebulebis axali etapia gelaTis skola
da XII-XIII saukuneebis elinofili filosofosisa da mTargmnelis
ioane petriwis Sexedulebebi. fsalmunTa ganmartebis miseul
winasityvaSi ioane petriwi grigol RvTismetyvelis Teologiuri
homiliebis (Or. 31, Or. 29) damowmebisas am wm. mamas uwodebs Cems
RmrTismetyuels da Cems attikels56, raTa ganasxvavos igi
platonisagan, rogorc antikuri filosofosisagan, romelsac
ubralod moixseniebs, rogorc attikels. 57 kuTvnilebiTi
nacvalsaxelis gamoyeneba, romelic patristikul literaturaSi
niSnavda saeklesios, qristianuls, metad uCveulo Cans warmarTul
eTnikur saxelTan _ attikelTan erTad frazaSi Cemi attikeli.
ioane petriwi amiT naTelyofs grigol RvTismetyvelis SromaTa
elinur aspeqts _ maT savaraudo klasikur filosofiur wyaroebs.
amave dros qarTveli filosofosi gamoavlens Tavis pirad
damokidebulebas am aspeqtisadmi, rac rwmenisa da codnis
urTierTmimarTebis axali safexuria qarTul mwerlobaSi.
bezaraSvili 2004: 105-146, 147-155; 159-198; 530-588 etc.
oTxmezuri 1989. oTxmezuri 1991. bezaraSvili 2004: 139-147.
56
"acumides oqromZivTa maT TsTa Cemi igi attikeli, rameTu itys, viTarmed:
~
mxolo dasabamsave drka da vidre samobamdis dadga (Sdr. Mona;~ ajp j ajrch~
eij~
~
duavda kinhqeisa, mevcri Trivado~ e[sth. Gr. Naz. Or. 29, c. 2. PG 36, 76 B 9-10).
yauxCiSvili 1937: 20931-2101. saubari sawyis monadaze, romelic orobisken da
sabolood triadisken warimarTeba, miCneulia arapirdapir (anu mexsierebiT)
citirebad savaraudo neoplatonuri wyarodan _ plotines eneadebidan (V,2,1).
ix. norisi 1990: 134. moreskini 1974: 1390-1391.
57
WeliZe 1995 a. bezaraSvili 2005 a: 289-290.
54
55

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

71

c) berZen avtorTa (gansakuTrebiT, grigol RvTismetyvelis)


Sromebis da maTi Targmanebis gavleniT terminebi elini, elinuri,
elinizmi _ E
{ llhn, eJllhnikov~, eJllhnismov~ (romelTac axal aRTqmaSi
da wm. mamaTa nawerebSi hqonda warmarTulis, araqristianulis
mniSvneloba da misT., aseTive tendenciuri mniSvnelobiT gadmodioda
qarTulad, rogorc warmarTi, mekerpe da a.S.) kargaven TavianT
mkveTrad uaryofiT Sinaarss efremis originalur da naTargmn
SromebSi, iseve rogorc XI saukunis bizantiur da qarTul
literaturaSi sazogadod. terminTa es jgufi iRebs maRali
ritorikul-filosofiuri stilis mniSvnelobas qristianul
literaturaSi (Zveli tendenciuri mniSvnelobis paralelurad)
da kargi ritorikul-filosofiuri ganaTlebis aRmniSvneli xdeba
qristianTa Soris. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom elinur ganaTlebas,
romelic iyo qristianuli ganaTlebis nawili da romelsac hqonda
Teologiis msaxuris (ancilla theologiae) funqcia Sua saukuneebSi,
SenarCunebuli aqvs es gageba qarTvel elinofilTa naazrevSi.58
azrovnebis es gza, romelic saTaves iRebs kapadokielTa TxzulebebSi,
xolo qarTul mwerlobaSi efrem mciris mier iwyeba, ganmsazRvreli
aRmoCnda momdevno periodis qarTuli literaturis kulturuli
orientaciisaTvis. mag., sityva elinuri, elinuri enidan da misT.,
rac aRniSnavda berZnulidan qarTul enaze Targmnas, farTod
gavrcelda efremis Targmanebis Semdeg, maSin roca XI saukunemde
termini elinuri gamoxatavda warmarTuls (klasikur berZnul
samyarosaTan dakavSirebuls) da sityva berZuli gamoiyeneboda
ZiriTadad qristianuli gagebiT.59
elada da aTeni, rogorc saero sibrZnis simboloebi, farTod
gavrcelebuli gaxda qarTul naTargmn mwerlobaSic. mag., grigol
RvTismetyvelis homiliebis zemoT dasaxelebuli informacia aTenis,
rogorc filosofiisa da saero ganaTlebis centris Sesaxeb (Or.
58

am ganaTlebis mniSvneloba kargad Cans grigol RvTismetyveliseul basili


didis epitafiaSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom ara mxolod efrem mcirem, aramed efTvime
aTonelmac srulyofilad Targmnes is pasaJi grigol RvTismetyvelis am homiliidan,
sadac gareSe, saero ganaTleba iyo ganxiluli da gramatikis, ritorikisa da
filosofiis, rogorc saswavlo sagnebis, funqciebi iyo daxasiaTebuli (Or. 43, c.
23. PG 36, 528 A 3-10; cod. Iber. Tbilis. A 109, XII-XIIIss., f. 29r; cod. Iber. Tbilis. A 1, XIs.,
f. 145v); maSin, roca efTvime aTonelma gamotova sxva ritorikuli da gareSe
sakiTxebis Semcveli pasaJebi imave homiliis TargmanSi.
59
termini berZuli qarTul TargmanebSi umetesad berZnuli dednebis termin
~
R
J wmaio~-is
Sesatyvisad gamoiyeneboda. igi gulisxmobda kulturul kuTvnilebas
aRmosavleT romis imperiisadmi (ix. yauxCiSvili 2006). ar igulisxmeba is
SemTxvevebi, roca mag., queyana eladisa geografiuli saberZneTis mniSvnelobiT
gvxvdeba Zvel qarTul wyaroebSi, kerZod, Teofile xucesmonazvnis anderZSi (ix.
lolaSvili 1982: 54).

72

qeTevan bezaraSvili

43, c. 12. PG 36, 509 B 3-8. Or. 43, c. 14. PG 36, 513 A 5-8) Semonaxulia
grigolis TxzulebaTa orsave qarTul TargmanSi (efTvime aTonelisa
- E: cod. Iber. Tbilis. A 1, f. 139r da efrem mcirisa - M: cod. Iber. Tbilis.
A 109, f. 123v). igivea naTqvami grigol RvTismetyvelis cxovrebaSi
~
da mis qarTul TargmanebSi: th;n mhtevra twn
lovgwn ta;~ A
j qhvna~
metadiwvkei (PG 35, 248 D 5). dedad sitysa _ aTinasa misdevda M
(A109, 238r). da esreT muniT moiwia aTinad, romeli-igi deda ars
filosofosobisa E (A1, 139r).
grigol RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTa qarTulma Targmanebma
~
Semoitanes enis elinizaciis sakiTxi (glwssan
ejxellhnivzein ellenyofa enaTa. Or. 43, c. 23. PG 36, 528 A 3 - 12. Basil. Min. cod.
Paris. Coisl. Gr. 240, s. XI, f. 27r; cod. Iber. Tbilis. A 109, XII-XIIIss., f. 29r;
Nicet. Herakl. cod. Oxon. Coll. s. Trinit. Gr. 44, s. XII, f. 178v-179v; cod. Iber.
Tbilis. H 1337, XIIIs., f. 100v). amgvarad, terminis eJllhnivzein sxva
mniSvneloba (garda zemoT ganxilulisa) gramatikul-ritorikuli
xasiaTisaa. igi gulisxmobs stilur normebs, rogorc stilis
Rirsebis (ajretai; levxew ~) nawils ritorikul da poetikur
TeoriebSi aristoteledan moyolebuli (Rhet. III, 12, 1413 b 1; III, 5,
1407 a 19 etc.). elinurobis cneba SeiZleboda qarTveli
swavlulebisaTvis cnobili gamxdariyo ZiriTadad grigol
RvTismetyvelis XLIII homiliis _ basili didis epitafiisa da
misi komentarebis saSualebiT (basili minimusisa da nikita
heraklielisa; dionise Trakielis gramatikis ganmartebaSi enis
elinizaciis uSualo xseneba ar Cans). bizantiur ritorikul
TeoriaSi es termini gulisxmobda berZnuli civilizaciis
memkvidreobiTobas bizantiur literaturaSi, rac gamovlenili iyo
arqaizmebSi, aticizmebSi, literaturuli formis baZvaSi.60 igi
gulisxmobda agreTve maRali stilis, wminda enis codnas da
gamoyenebas (aiJ eJllhnikaiv. bohqo;~ givnetai th~ E
J llavdo~ glwvssh~),
warmarTul filosofiur terminologias da ritorikul xerxebs
~
(crasqai kai; lovgou~ touvtwn - umevad RrmaTa da sawarmarToTa
~
sityuaTa; twn
levxewn mh; ajgnovein - leqsTa wignurisa sitysaTa
ara umecrebad), aseve klasikur versifikacias (logometriva sitysmzomeloba; citirebulia grigol nazianzelis, basili
minimusis da nikita heraklielis zemoT dasaxelebuli Sromebidan).61
zemoxsenebuli ganmartebebis mixedviT, enis elinizacia qarTuli
kaJdani 1991: 911-912 (s.v. Hellenes, Hellenism). ernesti 1962: s.v. eJllhnivzein,
eJllhnismov~. martini 1974: 85, 249-259, 320. kustasi 1973: 65, 86.
61
hermenevtikuli gramatikis nawilebis funqciisaTvis ix. Sen. 46.
60

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

73

TargmanebisaTvis niSnavda maRali ritorikuli stilis, ritorikuli


ornamentebis gamoyenebas. igi gulisxmobda filosofiuri terminebis
lakoniurobas, romlebic Seqmnili iyo berZnuli sityvawarmoebis
modelebis safuZvelze da mSobliuri qarTuli enis mdidari
saSualebebis gamoyenebiT. enis elinizacia gulisxmobda agreTve
sintaqsur da lingvistur kalkebs frazis SemoklebisaTvis
berZnulis msgavsad. zogjer igi gulisxmobda klasikuri metris
Taviseburebebis interpretacias, Camoyalibebuls Targmanebze darTul
SeniSvnebSi da sxv.62
elinuri (anu saero) ganaTleba (gramatika, ritorika, filosofia,
astronomia, geometria, ariTmetika, musika an medicina), rogorc
prestiJuli ganaTleba qristianTaTvis, ufro da ufro mniSvnelovani
xdeba qarTul literaturaSi. grigol RvTismetyveliseuli basilis
epitafiis (Or. 43) fragmentis mesame (gelaTuri) Targmani nikita
heraklielis komentarebis TargmaniTurT, romelic am sakiTxs exeba,
SemTxveviTi ar aris. ritorikuli xerxebis, gramatikuli komentarebis,
filosofiuri terminologiis gamoyeneba ufro cxadi xdeba am
periodisaTvis. basili minimusis komentarebis efremiseul TargmanSi
da qarTveli mTargmnelis sakuTar SeniSvnebSi gamoiyeneba axali
ritorikuli da gramatikuli terminologia. klasikuri
filosofiuri Txzulebebi iTargmneba da gadaiwereba qarTuli
elinofiluri skolis (anu gelaTis Teologiuri skolis)
msmenelTaTvis da sxv.
d) zemoT ganxiluli bizantiuri kulturis erT-erTi modeli
_ meTevzurebri da aristoteluri gamoyenebulia ioane petriwis
SromaSi. rogorc vTqviT, grigol RvTismetyvelis cnobili frazis
~
~
nawili aristotelebr (aJlieutikw~,
oujk A
j ristotelikw~.
Or. 23, c.
12. PG 35, 1164 C12-D1. Sdr. efrem mciris Targmani: meTevzurebr,
ara aristotelebr. cod. Iber. Tbilis. A 292, f. 254r) sazogado gamonaTqvami
iyo Sua saukuneebSi. igi niSnavda RvTismetyvelebisaTvis
aristoteleseuli diskursiuli xasiaTis miniWebas, logikuri
dasabuTebis meTodis Seqmnas wminda WvretiTi TeologiisaTvis:
xedvamca filosofosTa gancdisa mearistotelura da
RmrTismetyueleba nivTisagan miuxebeli warmomeyena.63 am sityvebiT
62

bezaraSvili 1998 b. oTxmezuri... 2000: 207-239.


yauxCiSvili 1937: 22217-22. aseve iyo es gamonaTqvami interpretirebuli
samecniero literaturaSi (TevzaZe 1984: 85). terminis A
j ristotelikov~ gagebisaTvis
Sua saukuneebSi ix. Sen. 19-Si dasax. literatura. aristoteles terminis
~ u{lh~) gagebisaTvis ix. kavarnosi
nivTisagan miuxebeli (a[neu u{lh~, cwrista; th~
1989: 40-42. amonios ermisis komentarebisaTvis ix. rafava 1983: 1230-35. biusi
1895: 1127-28. toposis wyaroebisaTvis ioane petriwis SromaSi ix. bezaraSvili
2005 b.
63

74

qeTevan bezaraSvili

ioane petriwi aviTarebs misi winamorbedis _ efrem mciris


moRvaweobis mizandasaxulobas. ioane damaskelis dialeqtikis
miseuli Targmanis winasityvaSi (romelic warmoadgens aristoteles
logikur meTods qristianuli Teologiis samsaxurisaTvis) efrem
mcire ambobs, rom sxua arara odes Targmnila safilosofosoTa
wignTagani.64 ioane petriws ki surs, rom qarTuli azrovneba miiyvanos
dogmaturi, sqolastikuri Teologiisaken mas Semdeg, rac am azrovnebam
ukve gaiara asketikis, samonastro Teologiis gza. rwmenisa da
codnis urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxSi ioane petriwi da mTeli
qarTuli elinofiluri skola (anu gelaTis skola) efuZneba
aleqsandrieli da kapadokieli mamebis naazrevs.
e) orgvari logosis _ kacobrivisa da saRvTos (lovgo - Lovgo)
urTierTmimarTeba ritorikuli da saRvTo sityvis
urTierTmimarTebis gamosaxatavad, tkbilisa da mwaris, vardis/venaxisa
da eklis paradigma TargmanebiT gadavida Zvel qarTul literaturaSi
da originalur mwerlobaSic gavrcelda. mag., efrem mciris cnobili
kolofoni, romelic ioane damaskelis dialeqtikas erTvis, iyenebs
antiTezas gareSe da saRvTo sibrZnis urTierTmimarTebisa da
gareSe sibrZnis msaxuri funqciis Sesaxeb, sadac ekliani Robe
gareSe, anu antikuri filosofiis saxea, xolo venaxis mSveniereba
da sitkboeba ki _ qristianuli RvTismetyvelebisa.65 efremis antiTeza
agebulia klimenti aleqsandrielis formulirebis msgavsad, sadac
antikuri filosofia, romlis (logikuri) iaraRiTac sofisturi
mzakvrobebis mogerieba SeiZleba, saxeldebulia zRuded venaxisa
(Clem. Alex., Strom. I, 20). filosofiis, viTarca iaraRisa da msaxuris
funqcias ukavSirdeba misi stilisturi funqcia da ritorikulfilosofiuri stilisa da RvTismetyvelebis siRrmis gamoxatvis
problema.66 efrem mciris kolofonebSi tkbilis paradigma
gamoyenebulia fsalmunTa wignis saRvTo mSvenierebisa da
gamosaxvelobiTi formis mSvenierebis gamosaxatavad.67
f) stilTa Teoriis axali aspeqti tradiciulTan erTad efrem
mciris nawerebSic aris warmodgenili. tradiciul maRal
(metafrasul) da mdabiur (uSuer) stilTa doneebze msjelobisas
Cod. Iber. Tbilis. A 24, XIIs., f. 1v. ix. rafava 1976: 66.
"da amaTiTa eklovnebiTa mouzRudavs vena isa amis Tsisa nayofTa Sueniereba,
xolo uSinaganes ra vena isa SevidodeT ..., maliad movisTuloT sitkboeba
(cod. Iber. Tbilis. A 24, f. 1v). ix. rafava 1976: 67.
66
bezaraSvili 2001 a: 145, 156.
67
SaniZe 1968: 80, 97. bezaraSvili 2004: 573.
64
65

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

75

igi saubrobs mociqulTa da wm. mamaTa nawerebis sisadaveze (litoni,


Sdr. aJplov~) da maT xelSeuxeblobaze.68
efremi icnobs agreTve baZvis cnebis orgvar aspeqts: ritorikulfilosofiuri formis baZvas (ix. zemoT karebsa filosofosTasa
- cod. Iber. Jer. 43, XII-XIII ss., f. 3v) da saRvTo Sinaarsis mifarulebisa
da sisadavis baZvas pavle mociqulis analogiiT (pavlesgan eswava
ese - cod. Iber. Jer. 43, f. 3r; pavles msgavsad sZiTa mzrdelsa Cuenisa
siCCoebisasa (cod. Iber. Jer. 13, XIII-XIV ss., f. 250r).69 baZvis cnebis
ori aspeqti miniSnebulia efrem mciris kolofonSi grigol
RvTismetyvelis liturgikuli homiliebis Targmanebis mimoxilvisas.70
igive problema guldasmiT aris efremis mier gaazrebuli grigol
RvTismetyvelis poeziasTan dakavSirebiT. grigol RvTismetyvelis
cxovrebis TargmanSi efremi gvTavazobs am sakiTxis Taviseul
gagebas (rasac igi umatebs berZnuli originalis qarTul Targmans).
aq igi saubrobs klasikuri, saero literaturuli formis baZvis
Sesaxeb grigolis mier, romlis mizania qristianuli azris gadmocema
poeziaSi.71
g) saeklesiosa da inteleqtualuris dapirispireba da erTianoba,
rogorc mkiTxvelTa sxvadasxva donis gaazrebisa, gvxvdeba efrem
mciris nawerebSic. mag., erTsa da imave kolofonSi efremi saubrobs
sayovelTao saeklesio daniSnulebis (yovelTa eklesiaTa zeda
ganfenili) Targmanebis Sesaxeb da meore mxriv, ganswavlulTa viwro
wrisaTvis gankuTvnili sakuTari Txzulebebis Sesaxeb (iST
vieTTsme gulis mismyofelTaTs - cod. Iber. Jer. 43, f. 3rv ).72
h) ritorikis sakralur xelovnebad aRqma da esTetikuri funqcia
gadmocemulia efrem mciris mier bizantiuri modelebis Sesabamisad.
erTi mxriv, igi eTanxmeboda ritorikisa da filosofiis
urTierTmimarTebisadmi gamoxatul bizantiur damokidebulebas;
xolo meore mxriv, igi emxroboda ritorikisa da filosofiis
68

"wmida saxarebasa da ebistoleTa pavle mociqulisaTa, raodenca litoniTa


sityTa aRweril iyos, brZenTa da marTlmadidebelTagani vervin Seexebis (cod.
Iber. Tbilis. A 24, XIIs., 3v). ix. rafava 1976: 68.
69
bregaZe 1988: 149, 163.
70
bezaraSvili 2004: 159-197; 198-259.
~ ijdivoi~ lovgoi~ ajpetupwvsato (Vita Gr. Naz.-ni. PG 35, 265
71 ~
pan ei\do~ paideuvsew~ toi~
A 11 - B 9): add. gareSeTa amsgavsa guari, Sewyobileba da marcuali, xolo mizezi
sitysa SemoiRo saRmrToTa werilTa moZRurebisagan ... da yovelgan ganhTesa ...
swavla RmrTismetyuelebisaTs (qeologivan. cod. Iber. Tbilis. A 109, XII-XIIIss., f.
245rv).
72
bezaraSvili 2004: 346.

76

qeTevan bezaraSvili

daqvemdebarebul mimarTebas RvTismetyvelebisadmi (rac Cans mis


zemoT ganxilul kolofonebSi).
zemoT naxsenebi sami ierarqis avtoritetma didi gavlena iqonia
literaturis Semdgom ganviTarebaze. saRvTismetyvelo-ritorikuli
stilis, rogorc baZvis sagnis, ideam Camoayaliba axali mimarTuleba
bizantiur literaturaSi _ metafrastika. amitom aris sami wmindanis
xilva (erTi RvTismosavi pirovnebis mier) efrem mciris kolofonSi
naxsenebi svimeon metafrastTan dakavSirebiT. aq svimeonis ritorikulfilosofiuri stili miCneulia sami ierarqis stilis
TanabarZalovnad.73 efrem mciris Sexedulebebi warmoaCenen ara mxolod
im drois bizantiaSi SemoRebul religiur kults grigol
RvTismetyvelisas, aramed isini cxadyofen agreTve grigolis
Teologiuri doqtrinebis da ritorikis mniSvnelobas Sua
saukuneebisaTvis. amave dros, efremis Sexedulebebi (grigol
RvTismetyvelis 16 liturgikuli homiliis miseul Targmanebze
darTul kolofonSi) grigolis Teologiur-filosofiuri ideebis
Sesaxeb, romlebic mxolod iST vieTTsme gulismismyofelTaTs
yofila gasagebi, TanxmobaSia miqael fselosis ideebTan filosofiisa
da ritorikis Tanaarsebobis Sesaxeb. grigol RvTismetyvelis
SromebSi miRweuli es iSviaTi Tanaarseboba, fselosis mixedviT,
aseve ar yofila gankuTvnili ubralo mrevlisaTvis.74 efremi
axasiaTebs metafrastikas, rogorc ritorebriv gangrZobas da
filosofosebriv Semkobilebas, riTac gamoxatavs ritorikafilosofiis aRniSnul kavSirs da exmaureba Tanamedrove bizantiur
ideebs.75
ritorikis sakralurobis ideas exmianeba ioane petriwic. igi
eklesiastes imowmebs imis dasamtkiceblad, rom sityvieri xelovneba
(qceva enisa) gamocxadebulia sibrZnis nawilad (kerZod sibrZnisad
- i. petriw. Sr. II, 22025-27). petriwis mixedviT, morTulad da
mokazmulad unda gvqondes enis arsebis (aobis) aRmniSvneli
garemosili [sityva] da misi saSualebiT SevaRwioT Sinagani sulieri
logosis sazRvrebSi, raTa es Sinagani sityva wargviZRves zesTaarsis
Secnobisaken (II, 220-221). maSasadame, sityvis garegnuli xelovnebis
floba aucilebelia Sinagani sityvis, anu saRvTo logosis, saRvTo
sibrZnis Sesacnobad. ioane petriwis am formulirebidan erTi nabijiRa
73
efrem mcire, mosa senebeli mcire smeonisaTs loRoTetisa. ix. kekeliZe
1957: 212-226; 219; 224-225.
74
Psell. ep. 174; Mes. bibl. ed. C. Sathas, 1876. ix. kustasi 1973: 27, 85, 146.
75
efrem mcire, mosa senebeli, ix. kekeliZe 1957: 224. bezaraSvili 2004: 578.

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

77

rCeboda rusTavelis prologis sakamaTo formulirebamde sibrZnis


dargad gaazrebuli poeziis Sesaxeb.
3. qarTuli saero literaturis aRmocenebis winapirobebi
azrovnebis is gza, romelic saTaves iRebs qarTvel elinofilTa
SemoqmedebaSi, ganmsazRvreli aRmoCnda momdevno periodis qarTvelTa
kulturuli orientaciisaTvis. gza sisadavidan maRalfardovan
elinofilur stilamde, samonastro Teologiidan dogmaturi
Teologiis sqolastikur meTodamde, martivi azrovnebidan rTul
filosofiur azrovnebamde, romelmac gaiara rwmenisa da codnis
urTierTmimarTebis axali safexuri ioane petriwTan, originalur
qarTul mwerlobamde misasvleli xidi aRmoCnda. aman gansazRvra
qarTuli saero literaturis metad maRali done da msoflmxedveloba XII-XIII saukuneebisaTvis. ganviTarebis am gzaze azrovnebis
ganxiluli modelebi ase gamoiyureba:
a) orgvari damokidebuleba filosofia-ritorikis miRebaarmiRebis Sesaxeb aisaxa saero mwerlobaSic. mag., mexotbeebTan, erTi
mxriv, antikuri moRvaweni da antikuri mWevrmetyveleba da mecniereba
ususuria Tamaris Sesaqebad (varskvlavTmricxvelno, sxvaT brZenT
mkicxvelno, ver Zal-gicT qebad, Tavs hyofT vnebulsa - SavT. v. 2, 4;
umiros, platon sityva damaton, TviT vera mihxvden Sesatyviersa
- Caxr. v. 1, 4), meore mxriv ki, ritori da brZeni erTad moiazreba
da ritorika aucilebeli saSualebaa saRvTo sibrZnis gamosaTqmelad
(ritori, brZeni; brZeni ritorebs; sibrZnis ufskruli, ena _
ritori - SavT. vv. 4, 4; 8, 1; 59, 4; ritorebrivca Tqva - Caxr. v.
94, 26).
filosofiis ojaxis cnebebi da terminebi axali, manamde
ucnobi mniSvnelobiT ixmareba saero ZeglebSic, mag., kreacionistuli
Teoriis Semqmneli RvTismetyvelnic filosofosebad iwodebian
(filosofosni, winaswar mgrZnobni, ityvian Jamsa Sesaqmiersa Caxr. v. 101, 3). rusTaveli xmarobs termin filosofoss
RvTismetyvelis aRsaniSnavad: vis xatad RmrTisad gityvian
filosofosni winani (v. 837); ara viqm, codna ras margebs
filosofosTa brZnobisa (v. 790). filosofosTa brZnoba aq,
SesaZloa, Tavisi orive mniSvnelobiT iyos naxmari _ saRvTo da
saero (radgan Sua saukuneebSi mas orive am sibrZnis gamoxatvis
funqcia ekisreboda. ix. zemoT: Sen. 8).
b) orgvari sibrZne, ufro sworad, gareSe sibrZnis aucilebloba
qristianulis paralelurad da mis Sesacnobad, aqtiuri xdeba am

78

qeTevan bezaraSvili

periodis TxzulebebSic. mag., grigol noseli am orive sibrZnis


mflobelad aris dasaxuli gelaTuri skolis anonimi avtoris
iambikoSi: mRvdelTmTavrobs qristebr, attikelobs sokratebr
(Gr. Naz. Or. 11-ze darTuli iambiko: cod. Iber. Tbilis. A 109, f. 116 r; cod.
Iber. Tbilis. A 85, XIII s., f. 210r). istoriansa da azmanSi ioane SavTeli
daxasiaTebulia, rogorc kaci filosofosi da ritori, leqsTa
gamomTqmeli. atikuri da patristikuli xedva erTad aris naxsenebi
orgvari sibrZnis (klasikurisa da qristianulis) gamosaxatavad
ioane SavTelis poeziaSi (atikulisa, patrikulisa xedvis - SavT.
v. 53, 1). Cans, rom rusTavelis avTandilic orgvar sibrZneSia gawafuli.
Tavisi mosazrebebis dasabuTebas rostevanisaTvis igi cdilobs
rogorc antikuri, ise qristianuli moZRvrebebis mixedviT: me sityvasa
erTsa gkadreb platonisgan swavla-Tqmulsa; 76 wagikiTxavs
siyvarulsa mociqulni ragvar weren?77
saero literaturisadmi interesis gaRviveba damaxasiaTebelia
am periodisaTvis. gansakuTrebiT kargad icnobdnen klasikur
mwerlobas qarTveli istorikosebi, da sazogadod am drois qarTveli
mwerlebi.78 fsevdonones miTologiuri komentarebis krebuli iyo
erT-erTi saukueTeso saSualeba klasikuri samyaros da berZnuli
miTologiis gasacnobad. antikuri miTologiuri saxeebi, personaJebi
da klasikuri reminiscenciebi bibliurTan erTad, warmarTuli
RmerTebi, romlebic naxsenebia am komentarebis TxrobebSi, agreTve
berZen filosofosTa saxelebi gvxvdeba XII-XIII saukuneebis qarTul
originalur literaturaSi _ poeziasa da istoriografiaSi
(CaxruxaZisa da SavTelis odebSi, mefeTa-mefe daviTis cxovrebaSi
da istoriansa da azmanSi).79
elinofilurma enam da terminologiam gavlena moaxdina
Semdegdroindel originalur mwerlobaze (petre gelaTeli, iezekieli,
arsen bulmaisimisZe, nikoloz gulaberisZe). rogorc cnobilia, ioane
petriwis enasa da stils, mis terminologias gavlena mouxdenia da
asaxula vefxistyaosanSi, TamarianSi, abdulmesianSi, istoriansa
da azmanSi; agreTve daviTis istoriaSi.80
76

wyarosaTvis ix. aleqsiZe 1990.


wyaroebisaTvis ix. nozaZe 1974: 130. nozaZe 1963: 488-489. Sdr. vaxtangiseuli
1712: tl(=338). ix. agreTve bezaraSvili 2000: 128.
78
yauxCiSvili 1973/74.
79
oTxmezuri 2002: LXI-LXV.
80
WeliZe 1995 b: 79. meliqiSvili 1986: 229. fiqroben, rom qarTul saero
literaturas (saero-saxotbos da saistorio-panegirikuls) saTave daedo gelaTuri
skolis meore periodSi. ix. meliqiSvili 1993.
77

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

79

c) rogorc vTqviT, elada da aTeni, rogorc saero sibrZnis


simboloebi, aseve farTod gavrcelebuli gaxda qarTul mwerlobaSi
da naTargmni literaturidan gadavidan originalurSi. mag., qarTul
wyaroebSi XII saukunis umaRlesi saswavlebeli gelaTSi iwodeba
meored ierusalemad ... sxuad aTinad. amiT saRvTismetyvelo da
saero swavlebis erTianoba aris cxadyofili (daviT aRmaSeneblis
istorikosi). amave periodSi gelaTi iwodeba agreTve eladad:
vnatri eladsa _ TT mas gelaTsa (ioane SavTeli, v. 105, 4).
elini, aTeneli brZenni _ filosofosni da ritorni aqeben Tamars
saero poeziaSi (SemokrbiT brZenno, aTinelT Zeno, Tamars vaqebdeT
- SavT. v. 2, 1; he, filosofni, dawyebad myofni, goneba-vrcelni
ritorTa wvevad, elenTa Svilni, elads swavlilni, ena-mzeobdes
sityvaTaArCevad - Caxr. v. 38, 1-2; aTens brZenTa xams aqebdes ena
bevri - rusTaveli, v. 694, 4) da sxv.81
d) qarTuli saero mwerloba TiTqmis mTlianad e.w.
aristotelurobis gamoxatuleba gaxda Sinaarsobrivadac da
formobrivadac. Sinaarsobrivad igi iyo maRali RvTismetyvelebis
Semcveli, filosofiuri terminologiis farTod momxmarebeli, xolo
formobrivad maRalfardovani, e.w. aristoteluri da atikuri, anu
elinuri, stilis gamomxatveli. evangeluri sisadave am periodisaTvis,
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom TiTqmis aRar aris misabaZi.
mag., elinofilur skolaSi didi iyo interesi iambikuri formis
filosofiuri poeziis mimarT. formisa da Sinaarsis TvalsazrisiT
es poezia epoqis literaturul gemovnebasa da moTxovnebs
exmaureboda. igi Seicavda qristianuli RvTismetyvelebis uarsebiTes
sakiTxebs, xolo formobrivad Seesabameboda elinofilTa swrafvas
lakoniurobisaken, enis gaelinurebisaken da maRalfardovani
ritorikuli stilisaken. am poeziis iambikuri ucxouri sazomiT
(klasikuri berZnuli iamburi trimetridan warmoSobili bizantiuri
12-marcvliani leqsis qarTulSi SemotaniT) Sesrulebuli qarTuli
Targmanebi gansxvavdeboda qarTuli liturgikuli poeziis bunebrivad
xatovani enisagan, sayovelTao saeklesio daniSnulebisagan da
ganswavlul mkiTxvelTa viwro wrisaTvis iyo gankuTvnili. rogorc
saleqsTwyobo forma, ise berZnulis mibaZviT Seqmnili enobrivi
formebi (mimReoburi da uSemasmenlo konstruqciebi, nasaxelari
zmnebi da sityvaTqmnadoba, mag., attikel-mneobs, iSdgzisebs, imzebs,
amaRnintebs, enaTelciskrovnebis, asulobs _ gelaTuri skolis
81
cxoreba mefeT-mefisa daviTisi, SaniZe 1992: 175. Zveli qarTveli mexotbeni,
lolaSvili 1957/1964. interpretaciisaTvis ix. bezaraSvili 1998 a: 128.

80

qeTevan bezaraSvili

iambikoebSi, mexotbeebTan, rac rusTavelmac imemkvidra) gamoxatavda


berZnuli filosofiuri enis lakoniurobas da maRalfardovnebas,
metaforul stils. aRsaniSnavia elinofilur periodSi klasikuri
saleqswyobo formis baZvisa da misi Teoriuli ganxilvis tendencia,
rac berZnuli ganaTlebis, bizantiuri ritorikis Teoriisa da
hermenevtikuli gramatikis SesaniSnavad aTvisebis erT-erTi
gamovlineba iyo qarTul elinofilur tradiciaSi.82
amgvari ena, stili da forma erTgvar literaturul gatacebad
iqca da farTod gavrcelda originalur qarTul poeziaSic. aseTi
iambikoebiT werdnen TavianTi pirovnuli religiuri gancdisa da
Sexedulebebis gamomxatvel Sesxmebs, miZRvnebsa da locvebs demetre
mefe, Tamar mefe, anonimebi, arsen iyalToeli, iezekieli, petre gelaTeli,
ioane petriwi (XII-XIII ss.) da sxv. rig SemTxvevebSi (mag., demetre
mefis himnebis SemTxvevaSi) qarTulma iambikom araCveulebriv
gamomsaxvelobas miaRwia.
maRali ritorikul-filosofiuri stili gansakuTrebul
ukiduresobas aRwevs mexotbeebTan, sadac iqmneba erTgvari bundovanebis
esTetika. is musikaloba da mSveniereba, rac panegirikisaTvis,
odisaTvis unda yofiliyo damaxasiaTebeli (da rac araerTgzisaa
aRniSnuli mexotbeTa teqstebSi), gamoxatulia uCveulo saSualebebiT.
samecniero literaturaSi aRniSnulia, rom es aris, erTi mxriv,
sityvaTa desemantizacia, antienis Seqmna (ena uaryofs Tavis Tavs
uazro gamonaTqvamSi); leqsis struqtura semantikuri
kanonzomierebiTaa gamowveuli da majamur-omonimuri riTmis nawilebi
neoplatonuri da areopagituli stiliT gamoxatavs sityvieri
usityvobis, uTqmelobisa da predikaciis, antiSinaarsisa da Sinaarsis,
dumilisa da metyvelebis/enawylianobis antiTezas.83 erTi sityviT,
es aris ritorika-filosofiis zemoT ganxiluli kavSiris kidev
erTi Taviseburi gamoxatuleba.
meore mxriv, aRniSnulia, rom es informaciuli bundovaneba
aris mSvenierebis esTetikuri kategoriisa da amaRlebuli stilis
Semqmneli ritorikuli figuris, metabolis, mravalferovani (misi
ramdenime saxeobis Warbi) gamoyenebisa da enobriv normasTan
dapirispirebis saSualebiT, mag., afiqsTa iZulebiTi SenacvlebiT
(gancvifrebare, maciskrebare, gamaTenali, Suq-mosieri, saSvebieri) da
a.S., rac ucnauris STabeWdilebas tovebs. es movlena axsnilia
ara rogorc enaze Zaladoba, aramed enis SesaZleblobebis, misi
Sinagani bunebis farTod realizeba.84
82
83
84

bezaraSvili 1995. bezaraSvili 1998 b.


lomiZe 1988: 7-28.
bolqvaZe 2005: 61-73. bolqvaZe 2007: 158. Sdr. danelia 1998: 400-442.

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

81

aRsaniSnavia, rom swored am niSnebiT qarTuli saxotbo poezia


ukavSirdeba elinofilur literaturas, sadac (gansakuTrebiT ioane
petriwTan) enaSi dafaruli sityvaTqmnadobis SesaZleblobebi uxvad
aris gamoyenebuli qarTuli ZirebiTa da istoriulad Camoyalibebuli,
zogjer mkvdari modelebis, arqauli da dialeqturi iSviaTi
afiqsebis gaaqtiurebis gziT.85 amgvari leqsikuri derivacia emsaxureba
samecniero meta-enis, berZnuli filosofiuri cnebis adekvaturi
terminis Seqmnas. amave dros, ritorikis saSualebebis farTod
amoqmedeba aseve elinofiluri literaturisaTvis aris
damaxasiaTebeli.86
dabolos, msoflmxedvelobrivadac es poezia elinofiluri
literaturis gagrZelebaa antikuri filosofia-ritorikis da misi
Teoriis gamoyenebiT, rac im droisaTvis saswavlo disci plinas
warmoadgenda. ritorikis Teoriidan aRsaniSnavia, rom mSvenierebis
Semqnel elementebs Soris aristotele swored ucnauri, ucxo da
uCveulo sityvebis gamoyenebas, miniSnebebs da enigmebs (Arist. Rhet. III,
12), xolo misi neoplatonikosi komentatorebi ki stilistur da
Sinaarsobriv bundovanebas ganixilavdnen.87
e) saliteraturo sityva rom saRvTo sityvis gamoxatvis
saSualebad iqca, es azri yvelaze ukeTesad saero poezias miesadaga.
esTetikuri saliteraturo formis sitkboeba mTlianad Tu ara,
nawilobriv mainc ritorikis antikuri Teoriebis mixedviT aris
gamoTqmuli: Sesxma-mkobani, musikobani - SavT. v. 107, 3; platon
musiki mwyobr-Senasxmevad - Caxr. 51, 2; kvla aqaca eamebis; enamusikobdes (rusT. vv. 12, 3; 18, 4). Sdr. mSvenieris, saamurobis,
sitkboebis, musikalobis cnebebi kavllo~, cavri~, glukuv~, hJduv~,
mousikhv elinisturi ritorikis Teoriis cnebebia88. amave Teorias
exmaureba orgvari mSvenierebis _ formobrivisa da arsobrivis
Tanaarseboba. mag., gavixsenoT turfa saWvretelis, rogorc
transcendenturi mSvenierebis, Teologiuri mniSvneloba
vefxistyaosanSi.89
f) misabaZad, rogorc vTqviT, saero mwerlobaSi aRar aris
dasaxuli evangeluri formobrivi sisadave, magram saRvTo Sinaarsi
maradiuli baZvis sagnad rCeba. orgvari baZva, saukeTeso saero
85

meliqiSvili 1999: 31-32.


bezaraSvili 2004: 530-672.
87
bezaraSvili 2004: 260-290.
88
isini Txzulebis garegnul gamomsaxvelobiT saSualebebs da maT esTetikur
aRqmas Seesabameba (martini 1974: 338-339, 342-345; 169-170, 259 da sxv. ernesti
1962: s.v. mousikhv, ejnarmovnion, rJuqmov~. nordeni 1918 a: 55-57, 50). am mniSvnelobiT
isini bizantiuri ritorikis Teoriamac imemkvidra da saRvTo Sinaarsis mSvenierebas
daupirispira _ ix. bezaraSvili 1996 a: 124.
89
bezaraSvili 2000/2003.
86

82

qeTevan bezaraSvili

formisa da qristianuli Sinaarsisa, warmmarTvelia qarTuli saero


poeziisaTvisac. sagulisxmoa, rom swored amitom uwodebs rusTaveli
Tavis poemas sparsul ambavs, romelic unda iqnes gagebuli, rogorc
saukeTeso saero literaturuli forma saRvTo WvetisaTvis, saRvTo
siyvarulis baZvisaTvis (Sdr. I kor. 14, 1).
rusTavelis frazaSi ese ambavi sparsuli qarTulad
naTargmanebi (v. 9) termini sparsuli ar aris gamoyenebuli misi
pirdapiri leqsikuri mniSvnelobiT, rogorc geografiuli an eTnikuri
saxeli. igi ar miuTiTebs aq poemis nacionalur warmomavlobaze.
mecnierebaSi ukve cnobilia, rom msgavsi siuJeti ar aris napovni
sparsulenovan literaturaSi. sparsuli aq niSnavs araqristianuls, saeros am literaturul-Teoriuli terminis
ganzogadebuli mniSvnelobiT (Sdr. hinduri rogorc literaturulTeoriuli termini msgavs konteqstSi efrem mciris aseul
iambikoSi).90 sagulisxmoa, rom rusTavelis pirvel komentators
mefe-poet vaxtang VI-s (XVII-XVIII ss.) sworad esmoda rusTavelis
xsenebuli formula, rogorc sparsuli literaturuli formis
baZva da amtkicebda poemis arasparsul warmomavlobas (aw imas
ambobs, sparsulis mibaZviT radgan aTqmevina Tamar mefem, rom sparsTagan
vsTargmneo; Tvaram sparsSid es ambavi arsad i poeba; ambavic TviTan
gaakeTa da leqsadac imisTvis ubnobs, rom sparsis leqsis baZzed
rom sTqva, sparsuli ambavi qarTulad vTargmneo). mizezi
literaturuli formis baZvisa iyo is, rom sparsuli poezia
saukeTesod miiCneoda im periodisaTvis (sparsT kai meleqseoba
icodnen), da igi nacnobi iyo qarTveli mkiTxvelisaTvis.91 meore
mxriv, rusTavelis frazebi saRvTo xedvis Sesaxeb (saRmrTod
gasagoni- v. 12, 2), pirveli, umaRlesi, zeciuri (saRvTo) mijnurobis
Sesaxeb (vTqva mijnuroba pirveli da tomi gvarTa zenaTa- v. 20, 1)
da misi baZvis Sesaxeb (marT masve hbaZven - v. 21, 4) gulisxmobs
miwieri mijnurobis mier mociqulTa qebuli saRvTo siyvarulis
baZvas (I kor. 13; I kor. 8, 1-3; I petr. 4, 8; I ioan. 4 da sxv.),
romelic avTandilis anderZSi aqvs warmodgenili rusTavels
(wagikiTxavs, siyvarulsa mociqulni ragvar weren?... - v. 791).92 es
aris poemis ZiriTadi azri da idea.
amgvarad, baZvis cnebis ori aspeqtis Tanaarseboba cxadi xdeba
am saero TxzulebaSic. poema dafuZnebulia bizantiur esTetikaze,
90

ix. zemoT: Sen. 48,49. bezaraSvili 1998 a: 134-138.


ix. vaxtangiseuli 1712: sJe-sJv (= 295-296).
92
rusTaveli... 1957.
91

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

83

iseve rogorc misi qristianuli Sinaarsi ZiriTadad dafuZnebulia


patristikul RvTismetyvelebaze.
g) qarTuli saero mwerloba ZiriTadad ganswavlul mkiTxvelTa
viwro wrisaTvis iyo gankuTvnili, garda vefxistyaosnisa, romelic
yvela donis mkiTxvels iTvaliswinebda, yvelasaTvis gasagebi iyo,
visac rogor da ramdenad SeeZlo misi gageba, rasac mowmobs xalxis
mier misi zepirad codna. amitom martivi mkiTxveli oden esTetikurad
tkbeboda (kvla aqaca eamebis, vinca ismens), ganswavlul da
RvTvganbrZnobil mkiTxvels ki misi dafaruli saRvTo alegoriuli
Sinaarsis Semecneba evaleboda (sibrZnis dargi, saRvTo saRvTod
gasagoni). ritorikul-filosofiuri maRalfardovnebiT poema
saRvTismetyvelo-ritorikuli stilis gamoxatulebaa, xolo
Teologiuri siRrme da mifaruleba ki, romelic saxismetyvelebiT,
alegoriulad misaxvdomia, misi Sinaarsia. sakiTxi poeziis umaRles
sibrZnesTan wilnayarobis Sesaxeb an demokratiulobis Sesaxeb
filosofiasTan/RvTismetvelebasTan SedarebiT, rac stilisturad
gamoxatulia am cnebebTan mimarTebiT gamoyenebuli saxelzmnuri da
zmnuri formebiT: gagoneba, anu Semecneba, da eamebis, vinca ismens,
anu saamuri bgeris mosmena (Sdr. ena-musikobdes da misT.) ufro
farTod moiTxovs ganxilvas; paralelurad gamovlenas moiTxovs
rusTavelis am problemisadmi mimarTeba msoflio literaturis
konteqstSi.93
h) Sesabamisad, poezias saero mwerlobaSic sakraluri funqcia
eniWeba, iseve rogorc ritorikas _ RvTismetyvelebaSi (mag., ramdenadac
ritorika da Teologia erTiani iyo bizantiaSi, amdenad, ritorikac
sakralur xelovnebad miiCneoda - ix. zemoT). rogorc vTqviT, qarTuli
elinofiluri literaturis Semdgomi ganviTareba imis naTeli
dadasturebaa, Tu rogor moxda ritorikisa da filosofiis kavSiris
damkvidreba qarTul literaturaSi (efrem mcire, ioane petriwi).
es tendencia ganviTarda agreTve originalur qarTul mwerlobaSi.
qarTuli saero poeziis SedevrSi, rusTavelis vefxistyaosanSi,
poeziis xelovneba (romelic yovelTvis gaigeboda, rogorc
enamWevrobis xelovneba ritorikis TeoriebSi94) miCneulia saRvTo
sibrZnis, RvTismetyvelebis nawilad (Sairoba pirveladve sibrZnisaa
erTi dargi - v. 12, 1).
rogorc vnaxeT, bizantiuri kulturis saazrovno modelebi da
elinofiluri orientacia naTargmni literaturidan originalurSi
93
94

am problemis ganxilvisaTvis dantes SemoqmedebaSi ix. ladaria 2007.


hungeri 1972: 3-27.

84

qeTevan bezaraSvili

gadavida. forma-Sinaarsisadmi amgvari damokidebuleba erTgvar


literaturul gatacebad iqca da epoqis gemovnebas miesadaga.
yovelive aman Seqmna axali TvalTaxedva Sua saukuneebis qarTveli
mkiTxvelisaTvis. elinofilTa kulturulma orientaciamac da
dadebiTma damokidebulebam gareSe sibrZnisadmi, rogorc
literaturul-filosofiuri formisadmi, Tavisi kvali daamCnia da
safuZveli moumzada qarTuli saero mwerlobis Camoyalibebas da
ganviTarebas.95
amgvarad, wamoiWreba qarTuli saero literaturis aRmocenebis
mizezebis sakiTxi. am procesis gamomwvev sxva mizezebTan erTad,
romlebic ganxilulia qarTul mecnierebaSi, unda vaxsenoT kidev
erTi da mTavari mizezi. es aris zemoxsenebuli orgvari
damokidebuleba klasikuri saliteraturo formebisadmi.
warmarTulisa da qristianulis urTierTmimarTebis patristikuli
da sqolastikuri modelebi, agreTve qarTvel elinofilTa moRvaweoba,
dafuZnebuli aleqsandriul da kapadokiur azrovnebaze, rogorc
Cans, metad mniSvnelovani iyo literaturuli procesebis
ganviTarebisaTvis qarTul kulturaSi. elinofilTa azrovnebis
mimarTulebam safuZveli moumzada dadebiTi mimarTebis damkvidrebas
elinuri ganaTlebisadmi da misi literaturuli da filosofiuri
formebisadmi originalur qarTul literaturaSi (amis
gamoxatulebaa, mag., ritorikuli da miTologiuri paradigmebis
gamoyeneba qarTul saero literaturaSi: ix. zemoT mematianeebTan,
mexotbeebTan). amave procesebma ganapiroba qarTuli saero
literaturis yvelaze mniSvnelovani Zeglis, SoTa rusTavelis
vefxistyaosnis, msoflmxedveloba. qristianuli Sinaarsi cnobil
klasikur saero formaSi (an nebismier warmarTul/saero formaSi)
gaxda mTavari safuZveli alegoriis SemotanisaTvis qarTul saero
literaturaSi (rac ukve calke gaRrmavebuli da argumentirebuli
kvlevis sakiTxia).
klasikuri formisa da qristianuli Sinaarsis urTierTmimarTebis xsnebuli ZiriTadi modeli SeiZleba moicavdes samecniero
literaturaSi qarTuli saero literaturis warmoSobis manamde
ganxilul yvela sxva mizezs: sparsuli poeziis gavlenas96 (romelic
yvaoda im periodisaTvis da romelic aseve gareSe - e[xwqen iyo
qristianuli kulturisaTvis), erovnuli pre-qristianuli
95
96

bezaraSvili 2005 a: 290-296.


mari 1899: 251.

saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

85

warmarTuli xalxuri literaturis ganviTarebas,97 saeklesio


mwerlobis saxeebis, Janrebisa da zogi sxva literaturuli formis
gadasvlas saero literaturaSi98 (Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom Tavis
droze es saliteraturo formebi swored klasikuri
literaturidan SeiTvisa qristianulma), literaturuli fiqciis,
anu mxatvruli gamonagonis mniSvnelobas99 da a.S.
cxadi xdeba, rom zemoxsenebuli patristikuli da sqolastikuri saazrovno modelebi da paradigmebi gvexmareba ganvsazRvroT vefxistyaosnis erovnuli warmoSoba da adgili
qristianuli literaturis konteqstSi. rogorc aRniSnaven, sabWoTa
ideologiis matarebelma literaturulma kritikam, romelic
akritikebda sakiTxisadmi evropocentrul damokidebulebas
(uaryofda ra literaturis evropul ti ps) mcdarad miakuTvna
qarTuli Zegli sparsuli romanuli eposis ti ps (v. Jirmunski, v.
SiSmariovi, e. meletinski).100 modeli _ qristianuli Sinaarsi
araqristianul, warmarTul saero formaSi, romelic farTod iyo
gavrcelebuli patristikul nawerebSi (gansakuTrebiT
kapadokielebTan), cxadyofs rusTavelis imave esTetikur Sexedulebas,
rac gvxvdeba bizantiur literaturaSi.
ase rom, marTalia, elinofiluri mimarTuleba gvian daiwyo
qarTul mwerlobaSi, magram misi Sedegebi gacilebiT nayofieri
aRmoCnda, vidre sxva aRmosavlur qristianul literaturebSi (mag.,
siriulSi, somxurSi), sadac man, mwerlobis adreuli periodidan
dawyebulma, adreve Sewyvita Tavisi arseboba. qarTul mwerlobaSi
ki misma ganviTarebam, rasac mohyva bizantiuri kulturis modelebis
Teoriuli gaazreba, mogvca maRalmxatvruli saero literatura.

ingoroyva 1938: 1-2.


kekeliZe 1981: 5-25.
99
siraZe, 1975: 190-195. siraZe 1978: 238. literaturuli fiqciis Sesaxeb
rusTavelis poemaSi ix. agreTve karbelaSvili 2000.
100
ix. karbelaSvili 1996.
97
98

86

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~ ~ Grhgorivou tou
~
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saazrovno modelebi bizantiur kulturaSi, elinofiloba da qarTuli saero...

95

Ketevan Bezarashvili

The Thinking Models of Byzantine Culture,


Hellenophilism and the Problem of Development of
Georgian Secular Literature
The significance of the thinking models of Byzantine culture for the processes
in Old Georgian ecclesiastic literature reasoning the development of secular literature
are studied in the article. These are the models based mainly on the interrelation
of faith and reason: the dual attitude of the representatives of patristic literature
towards the classical paradigms that reveal the interrelation of Christian contents
and classical literary-philosophical forms, the double meaning (outer and Christian)
of the terms philosophy, philosopher, hellenization and the like. Another
model is the antithesis of fishers way and Aristotelian way wide-spread in the
Middle Ages for distinguishing monastic, ascetic theology from intellectual method
of scholastic theology, also for making difference between the levels of style _ the
Evangelic, Apostolic plainness (aJplovth~) and the rhetorical-philosophical refined
style. The antithesis of rhetorical logos and divine Logos, of the images of bitter
and sweet, thorns and roses/grapes implying the same opposition of aesthetic and
transcendental is also analyzed as one of the models wide-spread in Byzantine
and Georgian literature. The two aspects of the concept of mimesis (traditional,
Classical and new, Christian), also two kinds of listeners: simple and intellectual,
and finally the idea of sacralization of rhetoric and poetry against the background
of their relation to philosophy and theology are studied as the thinking models and
paradigms which were also widely used.
The cultural orientation on the thinking processes of Byzantium, i.e. on the
critical study of ecclesiastic and classical texts, on the commentatory activities, on
the tendency to literary-theoretical thought, also the great interest in secular wisdom,
namely in grammatical, rhetorical, philosophical studies, the neutral attitude to it
and appreciation of its educational and pedagogical value, etc. were reflected in
the Greek and Georgian schools of the Black Mountain (Antioch) in the 11-th
century. It is noteworthy that the concept and term Hellenic, Hellenism (eJllhnivzein)
that in early Christian literature had cultural-theological meaning denoting pagan,
and consequently in Georgian literature before the 11th century had pejorative
meaning showing anti-pagan attitude, in the translations and original works looses
its strictly negative content and receives the meaning of high rhetorical-philosophical
style and good education since that period..
The method of accepting Greek culture developed on the Black mountain
reached its height in Gelati school. The term Hellenic in linguistic and cultural
meaning became wide-spread in Hellenophile Georgian literature expressing the
interrelation of faith and reason. Introducing the philosophical literature with the

96

qeTevan bezaraSvili

help of the works of saint fathers was turned into the method of studying directly
the classical sources, the commentaries of Neo-Platonic philosophers etc. This
was the method of Byzantine scholarship of the 11th century (Michael Psellos,
etc.).
The language and style of Gelati school was reflected in the writings of the
Georgian authors of the 12th-13th centuries: in the Life of David the Builder, in the
History and Eulogy of the Monarchs, in the verses of the eulogists Chakhrukhadze
and Shavteli, in the hymns of Arsen Bulmaisimisdze, Nikoloz Gulaberisdze, and in
Rustavelis poem. The Byzantine model of interrelation of secular/outer literary
form and Christian contents (taking its origin from Alexandrian and Cappadocian
schools) became the most important feature of Georgian secular literature.
Regarding these data it may be concluded that the models of Byzantine
culture revealed on the basis of historical study of the problem makes a sound
ground for semiotic study of the ancient texts keeping the special cultural information
with the help of codifying means of language. Revealing the codes and models of
the Middle Ages and adequate interpretation of them excludes the individual
perception of them; it also excludes the evaluation of this culture according the
criteria of another culture (mainly the modern one). The main antithetic model of
Byzantine culture _ Christian wisdom and outer, i.e. secular, literary-philosophical
form analyzed against the background of hierarchical principle as the code of the
Middle Ages makes it obvious that the outward form which is not acceptable
from Christian point of view becomes relevant only in the relation to divine wisdom.
That is why the dual attitude to it _ the pejorative and neutral evaluation of one
and the same classical sources is characteristic of the Byzantine texts transferred
into Georgian translations, too. Turning from the pejorative evaluation to neutral
and positive attitude towards outer wisdom in the service of Christian ideas,
significance of the Classical heritage for Christian literature against the background
of Byzantine renaissance that was introduced in Hellenophile Georgian thought
was one of the main reasons of development of secular literature.

mcenareTa samyaros protoqarTveluri da protoindoevropuli saxelebi

97

manana kvaWantiraZe

vin aris petre?


niSnisa da konceptis
urTierTmimarTebisaTvis
ilias moTxrobaSi `sarCobelazed~

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa


rusTavelis saxelobis
literaturis institutis qarTuli literaturis ganyofilebis gamge,
Jurnal `kritikis~
mTavari redaqtori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi: ,,me
Cems sakuTar Senobas
vageb, ,,oTar WilaZis
mxatvruli sistemis
semiologiuri aspeqtebi,
`werilebi literaturaze, ,,gameoreba.
interesTa sfero:
literaturaTmcodneoba,
kritika, semiotika.

sanam uSualod ilia WavWavaZis aRniSnuli teqstis semiotikur analizze gadavidodeT, yovelgvari meTodologiuri gaugebrobis Tavidan asacileblad, windawinve vityviT, rom Cven gverds avuvliT Tanamedrove
wakiTxvebSi aRiarebul nawarmoebis/teqstis
opoziciurobis paradigmas da Tumca vaRiarebT teqstis Riaobas interpretaciis mimarT, magram, imavdroulad, angariSs gavuwevT
nawarmoebis aRsaniSnis realobasac, romlis
arsebobac iliasa da zogadad, realisturi
prozis SemTxvevaSi, gardauvalia. ilias teqsts Cven ganvixilavT, rogorc semoizisis
Tanamdevi, cnobieri da aracnobieri procesebis Tanaarsebobis sivrces, anu, arc mxolod
aracnobier movlenas, rac, realisturi prozis
SemTxvevaSi, ubralod, gaugebroba iqneboda, da
arc mTlianad winaswarganzraxul, racionalurad dalagebul simboloTa rigs, rac SemoqmedebiTi procesis mimarT iqneboda araadekvaturi Sefaseba.
imisaTvis, rom vupasuxoT ilias mier
moTxrobis bolos dasmul kiTxvas _ `marTlacda Cveni beberi petre ra SuaSi unda
iyos~, da zogadad, kiTxvas mainc vin aris
petre aucileblad gasaTvaliswinebelia
ilias Semoqmedebis erTi niSani, romelzedac

98

manana kvaWantiraZe

grigol kiknaZe miuTiTebs Tavis werilSi: `Cvens mSobliur literaturaSi pirveli kaci, romelmac qarTveli xalxis Tvisebebis wvdoma daisaxa Tavisi Semoqmedebis mTavar miznad, ilia WavWavaZe iyo~
(gr. kiknaZe 1999:205). ase rom, petres saxe iseve, rogorc ilias
sxva personaJebi oTaraanT qvrividan dawyebuli daTikoTi damTavrebuli qarTuli xasiaTis gamovlinebebad unda CaiTvalos. amdenad,
petres problemis yvela aspeqti maT Soris fsiqologiuric, im
socialuri da eTnokulturuli garemos niSanTa moZiebiT unda
daviwyoT, romelSic es xasiaTi Camoyalibda. Tu am gzas gavyvebiT,
petres xasiaTisa da cnobierebis latentur fenebSi aucileblad
aRmoCdeba urTierTdakavSirebul mniSvnelobaTa sakmaod farTo
speqtri, romelic aramarto mis mimarT wayenebuli braldebebis
amoxsnaSi dagvexmareba, aramed mniSvnelovnad gaafarToebs am saxis
kulturul-istoriul perspeqtivaSi wakiTxvis SesaZleblobas da
zogadad, am mravalmxriv saintereso, uCveulo moTxrobis aRqmisa
da Sefasebis arealsac. pasuxebi dasmul kiTxvebze da azri moTxrobis
Sesaxeb yalibdeba arsebuli da winamorbedi kulturuli teqstebis gadakveTisas.
ukanasnel xans moTxrobis teqstTan dakavSirebiT Cvens literaturaTmcodneobaSi gamoTqmuli araerTi sayuradRebo mosazrebis miuxedavad (niniZe 2000, ratiani 2007, xarbedia 2007 da sxv.)
ilias es moTxroba, misi rTuli Sinaarsobliv-formaluri struqturidan gamomdinare, kvlav da kvlav aRZravs kiTxvebs aRsaniSnTa
zemodasaxelebuli kompleqsis mimarT, upirvelesad ki, cxadia, petres mimarT da misi `teqstis~ konotaciur doneze amokiTxvis
aucileblobas badebs.
ilia `faqtebis mweralia~ da swored faqtebis miRma iSleba
is semantikuri sivrce, romelmac problemis gaazrebasTan da SesaZlo pasuxTan unda migviyvanos. amdenad, arc faqtebis dalagebaa
SemTxveviTi da arc maTi xedvis rakursi. moTxrobaSi gafantuli
met-naklebi mniSvnelobis faqtebidan ilia sul ufro did semantikur blokebs kravs rogorc teqstis SigniT, ise gareT, ufro
farTo kulturul konteqstTan, romelic nebismieri teqstisaTvis
warmoadgens garegan semiotikur fons. petres fiqris Sinagani logika,
garegani Seusabamobebis miuxedavad, sakmaod mwyobria da amas, sxva
saorientacio faqtorebis garda, moTxrobis siuJetur-kompoziciuri arqiteqtonikis gaazrebis Sedegadac vaskvniT. davakvirdeT:
siuJeti da kompozicia dro-sivrceSi Tanmimdevrul process aRwers, Tumca SefasebiT planSi es siuJeti sxva mimdevrobiT lagdeba:

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pirveli epizodi gaqurdvaa, meore dasja, mesame gasamarTleba.


kompoziciurad dasja win uswrebs gasamarTlebas. CamoxrCobis
mizezebs swored dasjis Semdeg vgebulobT. moTxrobis finaluri
nawili, praqtikulad, dasjilis gamarTleba ufroa, vidre gasamarTleba, xolo msjavrdebulad ukve petre iqceva. amdenad, mkiTxvelis dilemaa Seafasos sasjelisa da danaSaulis Tanafardoba da
es moaxdinos petresa da sazogadoebis moraluri Sefasebis fonze.
am Tanafardobidan gamomdinare da am fonis gaTvaliswinebiT, man
unda gamoitanos samarTliani daskvna, radgan petres brali ki
pirdapir edeba, magram samxili arapirdapiria, gansxvavebiT sikvdilmisjilisagan, sadac yvelaferi piriqiTaa samxili pirdapiria, magram braleuloba arapirdapiri.
xedvis rakursebis monacvleoba moTxrobaSi gadmocemuli faqtebisa da finaluri kiTxvis Sejerebiskenaa mimarTuli. pirvel epizodSi, romelsac pirobiTad `SemTxveva loWinis xevTan~ SeiZleba
vuwodoT, ilia ZiriTadad garedan aRwers movlenebs. is xedavs imas,
rac SeiZleboda daenaxa avtorsac, petresac da yvela im meurmesac,
qalaqSi savaWrod wasulebi biWebs rom gadaeyarnen: bunebis aRwerac, biWebis daxasiaTebac, petres gulistkivilic. xedvis es rakursi SenarCunebulia pirvel scenaSi. meore epizodi, anu axali scena,
ukve qalaqia. am monakveTSi mzeris kuTxe icvleba da ilia `Signidan~
miyveba petres fiqrsa da gulis moZraobas. guli da goneba aq
opoziciur wyvilad warmodgeba da goneba mkafiod Seaxsenebs petres Tavisi guliswadilis uxerxulobas. es sindisis xmaa
sulxan-saba orbelianis ganmartebiT, `mamxilebeli goni~, romelic
petres eubneba, rom guls codviani saqmisken gauwevia: `kacis guli
malia, mali codvis saqmezed. kacis darCobis sanaxavad gamouqnel
mozversaviT ki gamomiwia da!.. am patara gulSi ramodena codva da
madli trialebs~. petres es TviTSefaseba am momentSi da mxolod
aq _ `mamxilebeli gonis~ aqtiurobaze metyvelebs. mis legitimurobaze miuTiTebs is, rom igi xalxuri sibrZnis idiomaturi
formiTaa mowodebuli. saxrCobelis epizodis bolos ilia ukve
gadaWriT ityvis, rom am codva-madlis trialSi codvam gaimarjva
(`swore giTxraT~... da a. S.), xolo bolo scenaSi biWis piriT
ilia ukve qristianul normas Tu doqtrinas Seaxsenebs da sabolood wauyenebs braldebas petres: `RmerTi guls ufro sinjavs,
minam saqmes~. saboloo damnaSave petre swored am momentidan da
swored RmerTis samarTlis poziciebidan xdeba, Tumca avtoris

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manana kvaWantiraZe

remarka ukve manamde, meore epizodis bolosve amzadebs niadags


braldebisaTvis.
SevajamoT: jer Tavad petre afasebs kritikulad Tavis gadawyvetilebas cxovrebiseuli gamocdileba `gaimdidros~ CamoxrCobis cqeriT, Tumca mainc ar ambobs uars Tavis guliswadilze,
sabolood umcrosi Zma, Tavisi sastiki braldebiTa da RvTis
samarTalTan apelaciiT, SuaSi ki iliaa Tavisi remarkiT: `gulSi
didi eWvi Cauvarda. axla marto imis dardi hqonda, Seetyo, raSi
tyuvdeba. imaSi, rom es marTali TvalTmaqcobaa da tyuili CamorCoba, Tu marTali CamorCobaa. swore giTxraT, pirvelSi motyuebas
ufro hTakilobda misi guli: aba, TvalTmaqcobam tyuili marTlad
rogor unda maCvenos am droul kacsao da marTali ki rom tyuili
gamomdgariyo, eg araferi, magas rogorRac ufro advilad hyabuldeboda Cveni petre~. ai, sastiki simarTle, `swore~ sityva, romelic
iliam rbili da damzogavi ironiiT, magram gadaWriT da yovelgvari
damatebiTi komentaris gareSe gviTxra `Cveni~ petres gulis dafarul zraxvaze. `rogorRac~-o magram mainc rogor xdeba is, rac,
ilias TqmiT, `rogorRac~ xdeba? rogor `hyabuldeba~ qristianruli mrwamsiT aRzrdili `Cveni beberi petre~ am mrwamsisTvis sruliad
miuRebel situaciaSi monawileobas da rogor ascdeba misi `mamxilebeli goni~ swor, am SemTxvevaSi, qristianul veqtors?
petres `gulis~ problema iliasaTvis TiTqos marTlac gaugebaria. mTeli siuJeti ise viTardeba, rom petres danaSauli mkafiod ar Cans. igi iseTi rakursiTaa mowodebuli, rom damajerebeli
SeiZleba aRmoCndes orive mxaris argumenti - biWis braldebac da
petres Tavis marTlebac. amitomac gaaqvs ilias samsjavro socialuri samsjavros gareT (sxvaTa Soris, imitomac, rom TviT es
sociumia braleuli). petres braleuloba mkiTxvelisa da saRvTo
kanonis instanciam unda gadawyvitos. biWis argumentebi da TviTSefaseba kategoriulia: `me Cemi gza marTlis gza mgonia~. rac Seexeba
saRmrTo ganaCens, esec viciT saxarebidan: `darCiT CemSi, da me davrCebi TqvenSi. rogorc lerwi TavisTavad ver gamoiRebs nayofs, Tu
ar SerCeba vazs, aseve Tqvenc, Tuki ar darCebiT CemSi~ (ioane 15,4).
`Cvens beber petresa~ da petres, rogorc niSnsa da saxarebiseul citatas Soris Cndeba sxvaoba, dapirispireba; dabolos, ganxeTqileba, romelzedac aigeba kidec siuJeti. niSanTa mTeli wyeba
aSkarad migviTiTebs moTxrobis farTo da Rrma konteqstze, ilias
teqstis kulturul-religiur mexsierebaze. citataSi vgulisxmobT ara imdenad saxarebis teqstis erT romelime konkretul

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amonarids, ramdenadac funqciur-msoflmxedvelobrivi kodis iseT


fragments, romlis miRmac Tavs iCens arsebuli azrovnebis wesi da
tradicia. magaliTad, saqristiano saqarTvelos~ konceptualuri
citata religiur onToteqsts saxarebas Seaxsenebs mkiTxvels.
misi struqturebi mudmivad msWvalaven ilias teqsts, qmnian gadaZaxils kulturul- istoriuli gzis sxvadasxva monakveTebs Soris
da afarToeben moTxrobis aRqmis kuTxes. aq aRwerili, xazgasmiT
socialuri datvirTvis mqone saxeebsa da situaciebs miRma mkafiod ikiTxeba araerTi religiuri konceptis gadaSlili prasaxe,
erTgvari ~kvali~ da socialur-moralur dapirispirebaTa amxsneli winaresafuZveli. sxvadasxva teqstebisa da kodebis Serevis
gamo ilias saTqmelsa da naTqvams, aRsaniSnsa da teqsts, rogorc
niSanTan sistemas Soris Cndeba faruli plasti, romlis amocnobac
garkveul kulturul da religiur kompetencias gulisxmobs.
aRniSnul konceptebs Soris yvelaze mniSvnelovania petre. petre
kldea: `rameTu Sen xar klde, da amas kldesa zeda aRvaSeno eklesiai Cemi da bWeni jojoxeTisani ver ereodian mas~ (maTe 16,18),
`Cveni beberi petre~ ki cvili. petre samgzis uaryofs qristes,
ilias petre ki mravalgzis. saxarebiseuli petres movaleoba
dakargul TanamoZmeTa mogrovebaa `qristes taZarsa Sina~. ilias
petre ki im erTaderT sulsac kargavs, RmerTma erTgulebis gamosacdelad gzaze rom Seaxvedra. pasuxsac is erTaderTi suli Txovs, magram yvela danarCenis saxeliT. es `danarCenebi~ araorazrovnad
ikiTxeba biWis sityvasa da braldebaSi iseve, rogorc `Cveni petrec~ warmoadgens niSans yvela misi msgavsisa, romelTac evalebodaT erTguleba, magram piroba ar Seasrules: `maminacvalma ki ara,
Tqven yvelam gagvZarcveT Cven, Tqven yvelam mogviReT bolo~. pasuxismgebloba gansakuTrebulia imitom, rom petre saqristiano saqarTvelos saxeliT laparakobs: `es qveyana saqristiano saqarTveloa~.
swored saxarebiseuli petres fonze ikiTxeba yvelaze kargad ilias
petres faruli misia, misi enigma da gamocana. kontrasti petres
niSansa da mis Tavdapirvel mniSvnelobas Soris iliasTan realisturi gziT aris mowodebuli da ara vTqvaT, groteskuli, an raime
antiesTetikuri xerxiT, rogorc es, Cveulebriv, niSansa da mniSvnelobas Soris mkveTri asimetriulobis SemTxvevaSi gvxvdeba xolme.
sxvaTa Soris, am fonze semiotur datvirTvas iZens umcrosi Zmis
saxe da misi asociaciuri kavSiri im avazakTan, romelsac qriste
Tavis gverdiT sasufevelSi pirdeba adgils (luka 23, 42-43), radgan codvebis miuxedavad, erTbaSad irwmunebs ufalsac da mis ucod-

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velobasac. morwmune niSnavs rwmenis, RmerTis erTguls, anu qristes


moZRvrebis mimdevars: `Tqven Cemi megobrebi xarT, Tu asrulebT imas,
rac gamcneT Tqven~ (ioane 15, 14). biWis piriT ilia swored erTgulebis dakargvaSi, swored RalatSi sdebs brals petres: `gana
Sen ki amxanagi ara xar Cemis maminacvlisa~.
TiTqos paradoqsia, rom mZarcveli, mkvleli, yaCaRi axalgazrda kaci darwmunebulia Tavis simarTleSi da imaSic, rom RmerTi
sworad gansjis mis codvebs _ mSromeli, patiosani, keTili petre
ki eWvebs Seupyria da ar icis, marTalia Tu mtyuani. bolo braldebaSi da petresa da ilias SekiTxva-replikebSi urTierTmimarTuli
frazebis fonze problemis sami instancia ikiTxeba: biWisa petres
mimarT; petresi sakuTari Tavis mimarT da iliasi mkiTxvelis
mimarT, anu bralmdeblis, braldebulisa da mosamarTlis instanciebi. ilia mza saxiT araviTar daskvnas ar gvTavazobs. igi im warmosaxviTi dro-sivrcis Sevsebas iTxovs mkiTxvelisagan, rac petresa
da `petres~ mniSvnelobas, zogadad, qristianobasa da ilias Tanamedrove saqarTvelos Soris Camoyalibda; sarwmuneobas, rogorc
triadis `mamuli, ena, sarwmunoeba~ - mesame wevrsa da am rwmenis
saxeliT molaparake sazogadoebas Soris gaCnda. moTxrobis mxatvrul pirobiTobaSi esaa oTxi weliwadi (`gavida oTxi weliwadi~). is epizodi, romelic petres braldebulad aqcevs, pirvelisagan oTxi wliTaa daSorebuli. swored am droSi xdeba petres,
rogorc niSnis daSoreba mniSvnelobisagan. is oTxi weli, zustad
rom axsovT biWsac da iliasac, da romelmac ugzo-ukvlod waSala
petres cnobierebaSi ori patara mawanwalis saxe, biWebisTvis danaSaulidan sasjelamde, petresTvis ki sikeTidan codvamde da braldebamde ganvlili wlebia, romelTa Sefasebac TiTqos ilias sxva
teqstidan xdeba: `ici ki, mkiTxvelo, es oTxi weliwadi ra oTxi
weliwadia?~ (`mgzavris werilebi~). es is wlebia, romelSic petres sikeTes SeeZlo nayofi gamoeRo, `qristeSi rom darCeniliyo~,
sakuTari sikeTis fasi rom scodnoda, `kaci rom yofiliyo~ da
`Rrmad ar daeZina~.
pirvel epizodSi petres Zilis simboluri datvirTva aSkaraa,
radgan imdenad Rrmaa, rom `jibeebis moWrasac~ ver gebulobs. erTi
mxriv, es is Rrma Zilia, saqarTvelo rom Seupyria, meore mxriv ki
isaa, rac klde-petrem ufals ver Seusrula. am Zilis mniSvnelobas
biWis sabraldebo sityvidanac vgebulobT, radgan swored am dros
Cadian biWebi codvas da aq marcxdeba petres sikeTec.

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kacobriobis gza ar wasula gulisa da saqmis daaxloebis


gziT, igi maTi opoziciisken wavida. isini jer daSordnen, Semdeg ki
daupirispirdnen erTmaneTs. ilia gviCvenebs qristianul cnobierebaSi gaCenil ufskruls, yoveli mxridan aTvalierebs petres, misi
sulis yovel kuTxe-kunWuls amzeurebs, raTa simarTle daanaxos
mkiTxvels. gadaWriT Znelia Tqma, rogor afasebs TviT ilia petres mier Cadenil im sikeTes, romelic biWs ver dauviwyebia. ilias
eWvi isev saxarebiseul sityvas ukavSirdeba: `yovelTa saqmeTTa
iqmT saCueneblad kacTa~ (maTe 23,5) ambobs ieso farisevlebze.
TavismosaCvenebeli saqmis garda maT pirvelobac uyvarT (maTe 23,6)
da ilia am ukanasknelzec akeTebs frTxil miniSnebas Rvinian rumbze `gadabotnili~ petres saxiT, Zalian rom moswons Tavi Svilis
pirvelobiT. sxvaTa Soris, es erTaderTi mkafiod groteskuli
xatia moTxrobaSi (Tavisi `moculobiTi~ formiT igi luarsabTanac
ki asocirdeba) da cxadia, araSemTxveviTi.
sergei averincevis TqmiT, qriste aris `niSani sakuTari Tavisa,
kacobriobis Svilis movlineba. amasTan, niSani winaaRmdegobrivi...
anu iseTi `droSa~, romlis winaSec Tavs avlens rogorc erTguleba, ise Ralati. es droSa, Tavisi arsebobiT SesaZlebels xdis
rogorc erTgulebis aqts, ise Ralatisas, rogorc Tanamoazreobas,
ise dapirispirebas. igi erTgulebsac da gandgomilebsac aiZulebs, gamoavlinon sakuTari Tavi, amdenad, axorcielebs garkveul
`samsjavros~ (averincevi 1977: 322). magaliTad, iudas kocna dadasturebaa imisa, Tu rogor SeiZleba niSani sakuTar TavSi moicavdes
urTierTsapirispiro mniSvnelobebs: kocna, TavisTavad, warmoadgens
siyvarulisa da Tanadgomis niSans, magram iudas kocna mas imavdroulad aqcevs Ralatis niSnad, Tanac iseT niSnad, romelic swored am
radikaluri SeuTavseblobis wyalobiT sakuTar TavSi `Ralatis
mTel substancias~ moaqcevs (averincevi 1977: 322).
petres SemTxvevaSi Cndeba sikeTis ambivalenturobis eWvi. sikeTe
niSanSia gadasuli da ufro garegani qmedebis, `saqmis~ rangSia
warmodgenili, vidre `gulis~. amdenad, igi SeiZleba iyos WeSmaritic, magram iyos farisevluri, anu yalbic. sikeTis saxeliT (niSniT)
SeiZleba gamodiodes qristes erTgulic da moRalatec. petres
sikeTe biWs ki SeZravs, magram imdeni Zala mainc ar aRmoaCndeba, rom
codvaze xeli aaRebinos, anu codvas daupirispirdes. sikeTis fonze
ilia kacobis koncepts amowmebs: `eg rom kaci iyos, me ar gamaZarcvinebda meTqi~. petres SekiTxva `me ra SuaSi varo~ _ TiTqos
kacisa da kacobis WeSmariti mniSvnelobis problemas pasuxobs.

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petre marTlac `SuaSia~ _ arc aqeT, arc iqiT. arc sikeTis fasi
icis zustad da arc codvisa. moTxrobis orive epizodi _ `loWinis xevic~ da `maxaTas mTac~ zustad amaze metyvelebs. ai, biWi ki
zustad arqmevs saxels yvelafers, zustad icis, ras niSnavs kacoba,
sikeTe, samarTlianoba da isic, rom masTan dapirispirebisas yovelgvari codva uZluria. kedeli, romelsac sikeTe da kacoba aRmarTavs, gamoricxavs codvas Tavisi arsobis ZaliT, rogorc ar-arss.
xalxuri sibrZnis maqmisalizmi _ `gawydes, sadac wvrilia-meTqi~ _
am ontologiuri arsis erTguli kacis sityvaa. ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom es `mariliani sityva~ im `mariliani saxis~ mqone adamians
ekuTvnis, romlis piriTac ilia mTel qarTul sazogadoebas uyenebs
braldebas. es `mariliani saxe~ ilias miniSnebiT (da sakuTar
ZmasTan SedarebiT) im jgufisadmi mis kuTvnilebas mowmobs, romelsac saxareba `marili queynisais~ uwodebs. biWi im `sxva niSanwylis~ matarebelia, romelsac ilia aRar azustebs da romelic
isev saxarebiT ganimarteba: `nuTu ar amogikiTxavT werilSi: `qva,
romelic daiwunes mSeneblebma, kuTxis Tavad daidva~ (markoz 12,
10). swored am `dawunebuli~ biWis kompetencias andobs ilia
WeSmariti sikeTis garCevas yalbisagan, saqmisa _ `saqmisagan~, oRond
konteqsti da teqstSi swori orientacia saxarebis ori citatis
codnas moiTxovs, pirveli: `romelsa hrwmenes Cemi, saqmeTa romelsa
me viqm, manca qmnes~ (ioane 14,12) da meore: `keTilman kacman keTilisa saunjisa gamoiRos keTili da borotman kacman borotisagan
saunjisagan gamoiRos boroti~ (maTe 12,35). is, ra codvebsac biWebi sCadian, petres edeba bralad, radgan petrem verc saqmis miyola
da erTguleba SeZlo da verc `keTili saunjisagan keTilis gamoReba~.
moTxrobaSi TamaSdeba dauZlurebuli sikeTis drama, romelmac
sakuTari Tavis Zala da fasi ar icis, CvevaSia gadasuli, `saqmedaa~
(Jestadac ki!) qceuli da rogorc Cans, aklia is guliTadoba,
romelsac biWi eZebs. sikeTis niSani ufroa, vidre arsi da Zalagamoclili, gamofituli, veRarafers cvlis Tavis garSemo. `kinaRam
ar mominadirao~ - ise eubneba biWi petres, TiTqos safrTxes daaRwia Tavi, Tumca isic aSkaraa, rom sikeTes jer kidev aqvs SenarCunebuli Tavisi ontologiuri arsoba, biWs igi mudmivad axsovs da ar
eTmoba: `dRemde maxsovs~... `mominadira~ da sxv.
swored am xsovnis gamo finaluri kiTxva-fraza TiTqos Seicavs samomavlo intencias da Semobrunebis SesaZleblobas, Tumca
moTxrobaSi aRwerili situacia krizisis winadRea. ilias SeSfoTeba da radikalizmi saxarebiseuli gafrTxilebidan modis: `mov-

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als Rame, odes veravis xel-ewifos saqme~ (ioane 9,4). ilia ukve
xedavs im drois niSnebs, roca saqme veRar `isaqmebs~ da sikeTe
veRar `ikeTilebs~.
kidev erTi niSani, romelic wamoWril problemas ukavSirdeba
da romlis semioturobac teqstSi mkafiod ikiTxeba, aris valis
gadaxda, valis dabruneba, Tanac, aTmagad. `vinc marTlis saxeliT
Seiwynarebs marTals, marTlis sazRaurs miiRebs~ (maTe 10,41). es
aTmagad dabrunebuli marTlis sazRauri imaze migvaniSnebs, ramdenad kargad icis biWma sikeTis fasi, magram man sxva simarTlec icis
da swored misi ZaliT uyenebs braldebas petres: `gana Sen ki
amxanagi ara xar Cemis maminacvlisa~... `Tqven yvelam mogviReT bolo~.
petresadmi am ambivalenturi damokidebulebebis WrilSi, SesaZloa,
valis dabruneba TviT niSnis simbolurobis ZaliT, erTdroulad
orive planis miniSnebebs Seicavdes marTlis erTgulebis sazRaursac
da misi Ralatis sazRaursac.
qalaqi petresTvis ucxo, araTavisi sivrcea, romelic ilias
SeniSvniT, petres ar uyvars da ar endoba. maxaTas mTa am gaucxovebis centraluri lokusia, sadac yvela mniSvneloba radikaluradaa
daSorebuli niSans. am daSorebas teqsti ara mxolod petres
cnobierebis moZraobiT, aramed saxrCobelis teritoriaze petres
fizikuri gadaadgilebiTac gamoxatavs (`xelaxla gadainacvla adgili~. `adgili gadainacvla~). aq aSkarad areulia ganzomilebebi
da petresac orientacia uWirs sanaxaobac aforiaqebs, dacinvisac
eSinia da Tavsac uxerxulad (uadgilod) grZnobs. am sivrceSi
yvelaferi TiTqos Tavdayira dgeba: petre kacis CamoxrCobas TamaSad aRiqvams, CamoxrCobis adgils saTamaSo moednad, mRvdels
terterad, msjavrdebuls Tan cnobs, Tan vera. petres ver auxsnia,
`dedakacebi ase ra gaugiJebia~ da sxv. mniSvnelobis miugneblobiT
`aforiaqebuli~ sivrce petres fiqris gamoxatulebaa da misi
piriT metyvelebs: imeorebs SekiTxvebs da pasuxis miuReblobiT
Sewuxebuli, kvlav da kvlav imeorebs. mTeli am foriaqis mizani
isaa, rom misi aracnobieri petrem rogorme Tvali aaridos simarTles, radgan cxvenia imisi, rasac Tvali unda gausworos.
petres am sivrcis eSinia da cxvenia, radgan igi raRac iseTs axsenebs, ris gaxsenebasac gaurbis. petres gaurkveveli fiqri simarTlisken ki ar miiltvis, aramed isev gaurkvevlobaSi darCenas
cdilobs. mTel maxaTas sivrces, iseve rogorc petres _ es ormagoba, gaurkvevloba, mousvenroba msWvalavs.

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petres mTeli es mcdelobebi, gameorebebi, gadaadgileba, isic,


yvelaze gvian rom tovebs moedans, erTi sityviT, aSkarad datvirTuli semioturi sivrce migvaniSnebs, rom petre masSi qristes jvarcmis saxecvlil misterias grZnobs gaucnobiereblad. misi sircxvilis SiSic kacobriobis maradiuli sircxvilis nawilia uflis
jvarcmis da RvTis Zis vercnobis gamo, oRond veqtorSecvlili da
deformirebuli. es maradiuli scena orive petres sircxvilia
petre-kldisac da `Cveni beberi petresic~. Tu moTxrobas ase
wavikiTxavT, maSin SeiZleba saubari `sircxvilis kulturis~ (lotmani) erT saintereso mxatvrul gamovlinebazec ilias SemoqmedebaSi. petres sircxvilis SiSi sxva araferia, Tu ara arapirdapir
gamoxatuli sircxvilis gancda erTgulebis pirobis Seusruleblobis gamo, cru obieqtze (sofleloba, gansxvavebuloba) mimarTuli namdvilis Canacvlebis da Tavisi uZlurebis dafarvis mizniT.
SeuZlebelia, ilias ar scodnoda, rom qarTvelebs sZuldaT
maxaTas mTa swored imitom, rom iq mohyavdaT sisruleSi sikvdiliT dasjis ganaCeni. miuxedavad imisa, rom sul ori SemTxveva yofila CamoxrCobisa, xalxis mexsierebaSi es mTa usiamovno asociaciebs
aRZravda da amitomac eridebodnen Turme. ilia sasinj qvad swored
CamoxrCobis faqtisadmi adamianTa ambivalentur damokidebulebas
iRebs da am ormagi mimarTebis polarizacias petresa da brbos
Soris axdens (Tumca umcrosi Zma am suraTs sxvagvarad xedavs).
petres TiTqos awuxebda is, rasac xalxi cnobismoyvareobiT elodeba da sanaxaobad aRiqvams. magram petrec am xalxis Svilia, misi
nawilia da maT erTi nabiji aSorebT erTmaneTisagan. is erTi
nabiji, romelic Zafs hgavs da swored iq wydeba, sadac wvrilia.
ase rom, biWis braldebis kidev erTi argumentia mopovebuli: `Tqven
ideqiT da icinodiT, me videqi da viwvodi~. da Tumca petre ar
icinoda, magram ilia `swore giTxraSi~ mis farul gulisnadebs
gvauwyebs da petres swored am faruli gulisnadebisa cxvenia.
am epizodSi ilias daZabuli, Cafiqrebuli mzera, petres arc
erTi fiqri da moZraoba rom ar epareba, TiTqos vaJa-fSavelas
naRvlian xedvas exmianeba: `sikvdili yvelas gvaSinebs, sxvas Tu
hkvlen, cqera gvwadian. kacni ver grZnoben bevrjela, rogor did
codvas sCadian~.
maxaTas sivrce sacduria, romelic Tavisi boroti mimzidvelobiT uxmobs petres guls, `mamxilebeli goni~ ki uZluria
sacduris winaSe. saxarebis radikalizmi sacduris mimarT sxva
araferia, Tu ara misi boroti Zalmosilebisa da adamianis uZlure-

vin aris petre?

107

bis aRiareba mis winaSe: `ukueTu Tvalni Seni gacdunebdes Sen,


aRmoiRe igi da ganagde Sengan~ (maTe 5,29). petre am sivrceSi ukve
upatrono eklesiaa, macduri rom dapatronebia. aq kidev erTxel
SeiZleba gavixsenoT iesos mimarTva petresadmi maTes saxarebidan:
`rameTu Sen xar klde da amas kldesa zeda aRvaSeno eklesia Cemi
da bWeni jojoxeTisani ver ereodian mas~ (maTe 16,18).
petres semioturobis maRal xarisxs saxarebasTan ilias teqstis araerTi aluzia da interteqstualuri gadaZaxili mowmobs.
isic cxadia, rom moTxrobis poetika swored amocnobis poetikaa
da mkiTxvelis pasuxi petres braleulobaze mxolod am gziT
moiZebneba. rogorc neoplatonikosi porfire ambobs, `adamiani unda
flobdes niSnebisa da mniSvnelobebis codnas~. Tavisi semioturobiT ilias teqsti sarwmunoebis mimarT qarTvelebis erTgulebis
xarisxs amowmebs. magram semioturi arseboba, averincevis TqmiT,
sxva araferia, Tu ara `realuri arsebobis dasasruli~ (averincevi
1977: 312). kldepetre is realobaa, romlis arsebobac dasrulebulia. am dasasrulis semioturi niSani ki `Cveni beberi petrea~.
rac ar unda mZime iyos iliasaTvis amis aRiareba, igi aucilebelia,
radgan isev da isev petreSi xedavs mwerali im potencias, romelsac ganaxleba SeuZlia. axlis SekiTxvebs Zvelma unda upasuxos.
swored `Zvelis~ sikeTea biWisnairTa cxovrebisaken momabrunebeli
naperwkali da arc isaa SemTxveviTi, rom biWs swored petresTan
surs simarTlis garkveva. Tavis mxriv, petres gulisa da saqmis,
rogorc Zveli saqarTvelos erTgulebis Semowmeba swored saxarebasTan, rogorc religiur-kulturul ZirebTan, cnobierebis safuZvlebTan da erTaderT legitimur teqstTan, Sedarebis gziT SeiZleba: `Tquen xarT, romelni ganimarTlebT TavTa TvisTa winaSe kacTa,
xolo RmerTman icnis gulni Tquenni~ (luka 16,15). `me ra SuaSi
varo~ _ kiTxulobs acaxcaxebuli petre, ilia ki petres braleulobis problemas Tavisi finaluri replikiT `marTlacda, Cveni
beberi petre ra SuaSi unda iyos~-o _ xelaxla abrunebs teqstis
enigmatur sivrceSi.
saxarebis teqstTan da petres saxarebiseul paradigmasTan
Sedareba garkveul pasuxs iZleva am kiTxvebze:
zeTisxilis mTaze ieso Tavis mowafeebs mosalodnel gansacdelze esaubreba da sTxovs, masTan erTad ifxizlon. petre
hpirdeba: `yvela rom Secdes Sens gamo, me arasodes Sevcdebi~ (maTe
26,33); ieso pasuxobs: `amaRam, mamlis yivilamde, samjer uarmyof~o (maTe 26,34). verc petre, verc sxva mowafeebi ver Seusruleben

108

manana kvaWantiraZe

danapirebs TavianT maswavlebels da ver ifxizleben. petres msgavsad verc `Cvenma beberma petrem~ ifxizla da ver uerTgula ufals. marTalia, ucxo miiRo da uTanagrZno, aWama da asva,
magram ise `Rrmad daiZina~, rom sxvis codvaSi daido wili. ilia
petres gulSi ixedeba da moulodnelad iq pativmoyvare petres
aRmoaCens, romelsac `ususuri balRebis~ codvaze metad Tavisi
sibere da dacinva awuxebs.
meore scenaSi qalaqisaken mimaval gzaze ukve Tavmomwone petres vxedavT, ufro Rrmad rom `dauZinia~ da ufro metad rom
`gabneula Tavisi mwyemsisagan~. paraleluri, saxarebiseuli siuJeti farulad mihyveba petres dacemis meore epizods, rodesac petres kacis CamoxrCobis sanaxavad, ise, ubralod (`modi, erTi esaca
vnaxoo~) _ maxaTaze gauwevs guli. aranairi sxva komentari, sxva
mizezi ilias mier `CaWerili~ petres am fiqrze moTxrobaSi ar
Cans, TviT petres Tanxmobis garda, Tavisi ganzraxvis uxerxulobas
rom aRiarebs. im momentidan, seiris sanaxavad maxaTaze rom gauwia
gulma, petre imaT ricxvSia, vinc pirdapir Tu arapirdapir daimsaxura 30 vercxli: Tvalis moxuWvisaTvis, Tavis motyuebisaTvis, imisTvis, imis ardanaxvas rom cdilobs, rasac sakuTari TvaliT xedavs,
mayureblisa da Tanamonawilis statusebis igiveobas rom ver grZnobs.
TamaSidan, seiridan seriozulobamde, realobamde nabijis saxifaTo
simokles rom ver acnobierebs, imisaTvis, brZeni romaa da ugunurs
rom TamaSobs, raTa im pasuxismgeblobas daemalos, am daswrebam rom
daakisra. amdenad, es yvelaferi imdenad realobis grZnobis nakleboba araa, ramdenadac misgan Tavis arideba, misi Canacvleba sasurveliT, Zalze saxifaTo TamaSi sakuTar TavTan da cxovrebasTan.
`vTqvaT da movtyuvdi, TamaSa xom mainc vnaxeo~ - eubneba petre
sakuTar Tavs. realobisa da `scenis~, TamaSisa da seriozulobis
es ganurCevloba, nebayoflobiTi sibrmave Tu sakuTari Tavis motyuebis ucnauri unari sxva araferia, Tu ara `varjiSi CamoxrCobaSi~ TamaSis gziT, radgan TamaSi, miT ufro, sakuTar TavTan, TavisTavad `varjiSia TavisuflebaSi~. Semwynarebluri da saTamaSo-saseiro
ganwyoba TviT sikvdiliT dasjis mimarT, sikvdilis faqtTan uceremonio gaSinaureba sicocxlis, cxovrebis mimniWeblis, anu TviT macxovris Ralatia. iliam icis, petres namdvili CamoxrCobis cqera
rom urCevnia tyuils. amdenad, esec gacemis momdevno epizodia.
sxvaTa Soris, oTar WilaZis `martis mamalSi~ aris giJkolas
sizmris epizodi, sadac jaWviT dabmul kacs dascinian da abuCad
igdeben. es epizodi migviTiTebs, rom mijaWvuli kaci aRaravis

vin aris petre?

109

xsovnaSi aRar aRZravs amiranis asociacias (kvaWantiraZe 1999), anu


xdeba im arqeti puli idealis Sinagani damxoba, romelic koleqtiuri cnobierebis qvakuTxedia. amgvarive ram xdeba ilias moTxrobaSi kulturul-religiuri idealis mimarT.
vercnobis es niSnuri situacia kidev erTxel mowmobs imas,
rom, rogorc vTqviT, qristianobam Tavisi WeSmariti saxiT petreSi
arseboba daasrula da mxolod semioturad arsebobs: axsendeba,
magram ar icis _ ra, cnobs niSans, magram mniSvnelobas ver acnobierebs. aseTi petre, rogorc `namdvili qarTveli glexi~, Soreul
literaturul perspeqtivaSi aramarto moedanze dgomas da sikvdiliT dasjis cqeras SeZlebs, aramed TviT iliaze xelis aRmarTvasac.
SesaZloa, es perspeqtiva igrZno oTar WilaZem, roca `martis mamalSi~ wiwamurTan `namdvili qarTveli glexisa~ da eqskursantebis
aRfrTovanebuli Sexvedris scena daxata. sinamdvileSi ki es personaJi gogias biZa, anu `namdvili qarTveli glexi~ _ sxva aravinaa, Tu ara ilias mkvleli. mniSvnelobis sruli krizisis, niSnisa
da mniSvnelobis radikaluri daSorebis es magaliTi ilias `qarTveli
glexis~ (petres) Temis gagrZelebaa, ukve komunisturi saqarTvelos aqcentebiT gamdidrebuli da amdenad, uzneobaSic Sorswasuli. aq, albaT, unda gaviziaroT gadameris mosazreba, rom `yvelaferi,
rac iTqmis, atarebs WeSmaritebas ara mxolod sakuTar TavSi, aramed
miuTiTebs ukve naTqvamzec da jer arTqmulzec~ (gadameri 1988).
duqnis epizodSi ilia kidev erTxel amxels petres RalatSi, roca nabadSi gaxveul biWs ver icnobs. kidev erTxel ambobs
mexsiereba uars imaze, risi xsovnac evaleboda, `loWinis SemTxveva~
gulSi rom gaetarebina, samagierod, pativmoyvareoba fxizlobs: `xom
ver damcinebs~... vercnoba sxva araferia, Tu ara uaryofa: `TvisTa
Tana movida, da TvisTa igi ara Seiwynares~; `sofelsa Sina iyo da
sofelman igi ver icna~ (ioane 1,10-11).
ilia xSiard moixseniebs petres epiTetiT `Cveni~. petre iseTive Cveniania, rogorc luarsabia `Cveni~ da `moyvare~ (`moyvares
pirSi uZraxe~...), oRond sxva socialuri wridan. swored xasiaTis
es zogadoba aniWebs mis daxasiaTebas gansakuTrebul eTikur datvirTvas. isic gavixsenoT, rom qalaqSi Casul petres, nacvlad imisa, rom
sakuTari qveynis mimarT gaucxoeba daZlios, isev Zilisken miuwevs
guli da mxolod erTi alternativa aqvs: an CamoxrCobis sayureblad wavides, an `gemrelad gamoiZinos~. luarsabiviT, isic cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebis SeZenis mxolod or gzas icnobs, oRond
luarsabis SemTxvevaSi es wyvili Wamasa da ZilSi gamoixateba. es

110

manana kvaWantiraZe

`sul Zili, Zili~-a, saxadiviT rom Sehyria `Cvens~ Tavadsac da


glexsac. socialuri gaucxovebis xarisxze metyvelebs petres ganuwyveteli SiSic, qalaqelebis dasacini ar Seiqnes. dacinvis SiSi
ilias personaJis Cveuli mdgomareobaa ucxo garemoSi. am SiSiTa
da gaucxoebiT petre mxolod qalaqi/soflis radikalur dapirispirebaze ki ar migviTiTebs, aramed gansxvavebul sociokulturul
garemosTan Seguebis uunarobaze, masTan adaptirebis survilis arqonaze da mimikriis saocar niWzec, gaucxoeba, garkveulad, `xidCatexilobis~ problemis gamoZaxilia, magram `oTaraanT qvrivis~
socialur mxilebas aq religiur-sarwmunoebrivic emateba. problema Rrma fsiqologiur da kulturul datvirTvas iZens da erTisa da mravlis radikaluri dapirispirebis saxiT warmoCindeba:
`mZuls qveyana da adamiani ufro. Cven-Sua sabolood Cavtexe xidi:
me erTi aqeT napiras davrCi, Tqven mravalni iqiT... gankiTxvis dRem
gamoaCinos, saiT arian marTalni da saiT mtyuanni~.
dapirispireba `Cvensa~ da `Tqvens~ Soris (`Tqven yvelam~...
`Cven Sua~... `me erTi~ ... `Tqven mravalni~) aTvalsaCinoebs situacias, roca aRar rCeba adgili ontologiuri neitralitetisaTvis.
yvelaferi gayofilia orad. Tu socialuri teqstis sazRvrebs
gavafarToebT da religiur-kulturul qveteqsts gaviTvaliswinebT,
es ukve zogadad yofierebis realuri mdgomareobis suraTia. esaa
`wminda omi~ mTel xilul da uxilav kosmosSi aseTia saxarebis
paradigma da aseTi radikaluri bgera gaismis iliasTanac. adamiani
am omSi monawileobs rogorc erTguli an araerTguli meomari.
roca petre `saqristiano saqarTvelos~ saxeliT umaspinZlebs Zmebs,
is RvTis meomaria, misi saqmisa da saxelis damcveli. identoba aq
ori mimarTebiT iCens Tavs religiuriT da erovnuliT, dabolos,
maTi sinTeziT. `riTac SeewieT erTs am Cems mcire ZmaTagans, imiT me
SemewieT~ (maTe 25,40). petre `Seewia~ - umaspinZla da gaaTbo. ai, am
miRebisa da puris ganawilebis gamo rCeba biWis arsebaSi sikeTis
rwmena: `Senma gulkeTilobam kinaRam madlis Suqi ar Caawvdina Cems
bnels gulamde, kinaRam Senma gulkeTilobam ar mominadira~. gavixsenoT aleqsandres sityvebi oTar WilaZis romanidan `yovelman Cemman mpovnelman~: `Senma sikeTem dagvRupa~... `mkvlelebiviT vcxovrobT,
magram Cven ki ara vklavT, Cvena gvklaven~-o _ eubneba anas SviliSvili. oTar WilaZesTan es ukve `Sxamiani sikeTea~, romlis fesvzec
veraferi veRar xarobs. am sikeTis kalTaSi gamozrdilebi `kuti
purebiviT~ cvivian cxovrebis ToneSi~.

vin aris petre?

111

dauZlurebuli sikeTis drama anu sikeTe qarTulad esaa


ilia WavWavaZis saqarTvelos problema da oTar WilaZis problemac esaa, Tumca, semioturobis kuTxiT aq gansxvavebul SemTxvevebTan gvaqvs saqme: WilaZesTan sikeTis mniSvneloba mTlianad
daviwyebulia, amitomaa anas sikeTe umweo da gamouyenebeli, misi
niSnebi ki gaugebari. ilias personaJisTvis sikeTe isev mniSvnelobs, Tanac Zlierad, niSanic sacnobia, magram mniSvneloba niSanTan acdenilia. iliasTan aSkaraa niSnis gaufasureba mniSvnelobis
jer isev maRali Rirebulebis fonze; WilaZesTan ki saqme gvaqvs
niSnis vercnobasTan da mniSvnelobis srul krizisTan. biWis piriT
ilia petres im Ronier sikeTes Seaxsenebs, romelsac brZolaSi
(`wminda omSi~) gardatexis Setana SeuZlia da romelic petres
erTgulTa barakSi daabrunebs: `romelman ara aRiRos jvari Tvisi
da Semomidges me, igi ara ars Cemda Rirs~ (maTe 10,38).
ilia im niSan-Tvisebebis matarebel kacs sTxovs pasuxs, romelTac
Tavis SemoqmedebaSi mxatvrulSic da publicisturSic qarTvelTa
misabaZ, saukeTeso Tvisebebad miiCnevs: `siZunwe da qarTveli erTad
ar moTavsdeba~, `qarTveli Coxas gaixdis da Sen Cagacmevs~, `gulmodginea, dauzarebeli da xelmarTali~, `ise SeeWideba saqmes, TiTqos
Rreobasa da lxinSia~, `qarTvels arc qaris Semotanili unda da
arc qaris gatanili~.
maS, ra sWirs petres? ratom ar endoba sakuTar Tavs da
ratom icis ase cudad Tavisi sikeTisa da ubraloebis fasi, ratom
RrRnis aseTi eWvi Tavisi soflelobis, `gamousvlelobis~, miamitobis mimarT, ratom daviwyebia, rom `ubaneliTa xeliTa Wama ara
Seaginebs kacTa~ (maTe 15,20)? ratom ver mimxvdara, rom soflelobaze metad codvian speqtaklSi monawileoba amcirebs da agdebs
sircxvilSi?
ra SeiZleba ewodos amas? iqneb, ampartavnebis erovnuli forma
mkafio socialuri aqcentebiT. ilias oTaraanT qvrivisa da
giorgis mxatvruli saxeebis Semqmnels, kargad esmoda, rom WeSmariti Rirseba socialurobis miRma dgas. maSin, stumrad mosul
qvrivs keso megobrulad rom dahkravs kalTaze xels da ilia
oTraanT qvrivis wamier reaqcias gviCvenebs, igi glexi qalis mTel
pirovnul didebulebas aRwerda, kesos TavadiSvilur silaRes Rirsebis kedels rom aRumarTavs, SesaZloa, odnav daZabulsa da aqcentirebuls, magram iseTs ki, rom am Rirsebis fonze or qals Soris
socialuri daspirispirebis srul uniadagobas gausvas xazi.

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manana kvaWantiraZe

biWis gzavnili ubralod werili ki ar aris, aramed `wignia~


- gansakuTrebuli semioturi datvirTviT: `Tu Sen ar ici, waakiTxe
visme da yuri kargad daugde~... `Cemi guli ki iwevda, rom Sen win
gadaSliliyo aha, gadagiSale da lodi amecala~. es wigni orivesTvis
- biWisTvisac da petresTvisac kidev erTi SesaZleblobaa, gaacnobieron erTmaneTis miugneblobiT gamowveuli adamianuri da rac
mTavaria, sazogadoebrivi tragedia. biWis piriT ilia petres monaniebis gzas uCvenebs da Tavisi arsebobis gacnobierebis Sanss
aZlevs. biWi petres im codnas Seaxsenebs, rac man dakarga da
romlis gareSec misi sikeTe arasrulia, `gaunaTlebeli~, gonebaSi
gautarebeli da amdenad uZluri. da sanam aseTia umwifari da
arasruli iaraRad qceva ar uweria: `maSin gauxsna maT goneba,
raTa SeecnoT werili~ (luka 24,45). `wignis~ araCveulebrivad
damuxtuli, `mxurvale~ teqsti Tavisi energetikiT ufro ga-xmovanebuli sityvaa, vidre da-werili. amitom petrem igi gansakuTrebuli gulis-yuriT unda moisminos, uCveulo gulis-xmierebiT unda
amoikiTxos. radgan es is xmaa, gaRma napirze mdgomma rom unda
miawvdinos gamoRma napirze mdgoms. ilia aq petres guls ekiTxeba
da esaubreba, pasuxsac iq eZebs. petres pasuxs misi sxeuli iZleva
uxeSad, moulodnelad, TiTqos xeliskvriT gamoRviZebuli Tvlemidan acaxcaxebuli, SeSinebuli, civofldasxmuli. da Tumca
ambobs, me ra SuaSi varo ilias teqstma imTaviTve icis petres
pasuxic da Semdegi nabijic: `da gaaxsenda petres iesos naTqvami:
mamlis yivilamde samjer uarmyofo da atirda mwared~ (maTe 26,75).
iliam icis, rom gansakuTrebul istorias hyveba, romanuli
masStabis cxovrebiseul situacias aRwers, Tumca `patara ambavs~
uwodebs. amis Sesaxeb iqve, moTxrobis dasawyisSive gvaZlevs miniSnebas: `im dRes, ra dRidamac viwyebT Cvens ambavs~. iliam isic
kargad icis, rom qarTvel glexze laparakobs keTil, gamrje,
Tavmoyvare da patiosan kacze _ sircxvili da sikeTis madli
fulze metad rom uRirs. sicili aq uadgiloa, aq `gonebas _
Znelad Tu gaecineba~. piriqiT, petres Tavs datrialebuli absurduli situaciis Semyure, sasurvelis realobad gadakeTebaSi amxela Rones rom xarjavs, raTa simarTles arafriT ar gausworos
Tvali (`sul rom ase iqnivo fexebi, mainc ar dagijereb~), TiTqos
ilias ironiac sadRac qreba, striqons da striqons Soris imaleba,
misi mamxilebeli sityva uxerxulobas ebrZvis da Carevas ar Cqarobs, Tavidan iridebs, TiTqos akrZalul Temaze wamoiwyo saubari.

113

vin aris petre?

es `Cvenianebi~ da `moyvrebi~, es `bebrebi~ da `ymawvili biWebi~,


oTaraanT qvrivebi, giorgebi, arCilebi da kesoebi, daTikoebi da
gabroebi, es `dablandulebi~ da `gviristiT Sekrulebi~ - erTiani
saqarTveloa Tavisi RirsebiTa da nakliT, codva-madliTa da avkargiT, qarTuli xasiaTis mravalferovani gamovlinebebiT, mravalgvari problemiT. da radgan petre `Cvenia~ da `beberia~, rogorc
saqristiano saqarTvelo, amitom isic ilias sazrunavia, ilias gasaZlierebelia (`didis RmerTis sakurTxevlis misTvis Rvivis cecxli gulSi, rom erisa moZmed viyo Wmunvasa da sixarulSi~); da
radgan ers Zinavs (`sul Zili, Zili~...), codvasa da gaurkvevlobaSia
(`...am uTavbolo da uswormasworo wuTisofelSi~), iliam unda
Semoabrunos swor gzaze, saidanac gadauxvia - jer Seisvena, mere
Rrmad wauZina (loWinis xevTan); bolos ki sulac ascda gzas
(qalaqi, maxaTas mTa) da ucxo garemoSi aRmoCnda. iliam unda daabrunos igi iq, sadac ubralo iyo, pativic gaaCnda, Rirsebac da saqristianos saxeliT laparakis uflebac hqonda. iq, saidanac daiwyo
`cxvrebis~ `Txebad~ qceva, marcxnidan marjvniT gadasvla, mexsierebis dakargva, Tavisianis vercnoba, TamaSze da Tvalsaseiroze daxarbeba, tyuili, TvalTmaqcoba, ampartavneba, kacobidan kacur-kacobisaken da bolos, ara-kacobisaken dacureba. erTi sityviT, iliam
`mamxilebeli~ goni unda gamoaRviZos, rom petres WeSmariti sircxvili aaSoros.

literatura
averincevi 1977: . . wignSi: .
"".
axali aRTqumai... 1963: axali aRTqumai uflisa Cuenisa ieso
qristesi. sakaTalikoso sabWos gamocema. Tbilisi.
biblia 1989: biblia. saqarTvelos sapatriarqo. Tbilisi.
gadameri 1988: . . . .: "".
kvaWantiraZe 1999: kvaWantiraZe m. oTar WilaZis mxatvruli
sistemis semiologiuri apseqtebi. Tbilisi.
kiknaZe 1999: kiknaZe gr. Txzulebani. t. III. Tsu.
niniZe 1997: niniZe m. madlis wyaro. ilia WavWavaZis mrwamsi da
misi Semoqmedeba. Tb.: `lomisi~.

114

manana kvaWantiraZe

ratiani 2007: ratiani i. ilia da misi mkiTxveli. saiubileo


krebuli `ilia WavWavaZe 170~. Tbilisi.
WavWavaZe 1950: WavWavaZe i. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad. t. III. Tbilisi, saqarTvelos saxelmwifo gamomcemloba.
xarbedia 2007: xarbedia m. kenWgadajlapuli. masalebi ilia WavWavaZis qalaquri teqstisaTvis, saiubileo krebuli `ilia
WavWavaZe 170~. Tb.: 2007.

Manana Kvachantiradze

Who is Peter?
(To the interrelation of sign and concept in Ilia Chavchavadzes
story On the Gallow)
Ilia Chavchavadzes story On the Gallow has been analyzed by us as a
text, as a coexistence space of conscious and unconscious processes accompanying semiosis where the central concept is represented by Peter. An answer to
the question - who Peter is and in what relation to each other an accusation
brought against him and offence are, can be given with account of religious and
cultural subtext and certain signs of the text which create intertextual links with
other texts, primary from the Bible.
For the interpretation of connotational level of Peters image, it is necessary to make the classification of signs used in the plot and composition as well
as in the behavior and speech of other characters. It is also important to interpret
the meaning of those complicated blocks which are formed by correlation of
opposite signs. Illia Chavchavadzes text resonates with the Gospel text revealing deep semioticity of Peters image and as a sign its separation with the biblical
image Peter Stone. Peter is represented as manifestation of the Georgian character and unity of contradictory ethno-psychical and cultural /moral peculiarities.

115

leqtur terminTa semiotikuri wredi

Tamar lomiZe

feris mxatvruli gaazrebis


Taviseburebebi
nikoloz baraTaSvilis
poeziaSi

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilia


WavWavaZis saxelmwifo
universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da
kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli
profesori;
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
`qarTuli riTmis istoriidan~, `feris mxatvruli gaazrebis Taviseburebebi n. baraTaSvilis
poeziaSi~, `Teoriuli dafuZnebis problema poetikaSi, `me~-s koncefcia qarTvel romantikosTa SemoqmedebaSi~.
interesTa sfero:
semiotika, leqsmcodneoba,
literaturis istoria
da Teoria, mxatvruli
Semoqmedebis fsiqologia.

Cveulebriv, yoveli mwerali mimarTavs


saganTa feriTi daxasiaTebis xerxs. zogierTi Semoqmedis ena mdidaria feris aRmniSvneli saxelebiT. xdeba isec, rom ferTa palitris siZunwe, maTi SerCeviTi gamoyeneba
metyvelebs ama Tu im feris sagangebo Rirebulebaze konkretuli mxatvruli sistemis
farglebSi. am mxriv yuradRebas iqcevs nikoloz baraTaSvilis poezia.
aRiarebulia, rom `n. baraTaSvilis leqsebSi saganTa feriTi momentis gansazRvreba
minimumamdea dayvanili ...n. baraTaSvils ara
aqvs gamoyenebuli arc erTi speqtruli feri,
garda cisferisa da mxolod `bedi qarTlisas~ cnobil lirikul gadaxvevaSi _ `morbis aragvi, aragviani~ _ poeti mimarTavs mwvane fers~ (nucubiZe 1980:52,51). aSkaraa, rom
nikoloz baraTaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi cisfris (ufro zustad ki _ lurji feris)
funqcia gansakuTrebiT arsebiTia, xolo leqsi
`cisa fers~ sagangebo analizis sagnad unda
iqces.
lurji feri am leqsSi ar ukavSirdeba
konkretul sagnebs, ar gamoiyeneba epiTetis
Cveuli funqciiT. Tumca nawarmoebis teqstSi gvxvdeba ori sintagma _ `lurjsa cas~
da `ca lurji~, magram maT semantikaze
garkveul zemoqmedebas axdens pirvel strof-

116

Tamar lomiZe

Si lurji ferisa da cis cnebis gaazreba. kerZod, `lurji~ aq


daxasiaTebulia, rogorc "pirvelad qmnili", anu sxva ferebze ufro
adre Seqmnili feri. Aam konteqstSi "lurji" aRiqmeba, rogorc
gvareobrivi feri sxva ferebis mimarT.
Semdgom, "pirvelad qmnili~ feri unda miviCnioT aseve `pirvelad qmnili~ cis atributad. Bbibliis mixedviT, amgvari `ca~ _
esaa uxilavi zeciuri samyaro, RmerTis samyofeli. Sesabamisad, zemodasaxelebul sintagmebSi feris saxeli da cis cneba sagangebo
mniSvnelobiT aRiWurveba.
nikoloz baraTaSvili epiTetis funqciiT iyenebs mxolod feris
saxels _ `laJvardi~ _ xiluli cis aRsaniSnavad (leqsebSi
`SemoRameba mTawmindazed~ da `fiqrni mtkvris piras~). maSasadame,
xiluli da uxilavi ca aq gansxvavebulia feris mixedviT: pirveli
maTgani `laJvardia~, meore _ `lurji~.
xiluli da uxilavi cis gamijvna Tavs iCens `SemoRamebaSic":
he, cao, cao, xateba Seni jer kidev gulzed maqvs daCneuli!
....gulis-Tqma Cemi Sens iqiTa eZiebs sadgurs,
zenaarT samyofs, rom daSTos aq amaoeba...~
bunebrivia, lurjis, rogorc pirvelad qmnili feris daxasiaTeba ganapirobebs mis uSualo korelacias bibliasTan:
`dasabamad Seqmnna RmerTman cai da queyanai. xolo queyanai iyo
uxilav da ganumzadebel da bneli zeda ufskrulTa~.
ferTa semantikur eqsplikaciebSi, romelTac a. veJbicka gvTavazobs, xazgasmulia lurjis is Tviseba, rom esaa muqi feri:
`X _ lurjia.
zogierT momentSi SeuZlebelia Zalze bevris danaxva..
rodesac adamianebi xedaven raimes, rac X-is msgavsia, maT, SeiZleba, gaifiqron amgvar momentebze.~
aqve moviyvanT `muqis~ gansazRvrebas:
`X _ muqia.
zogierT momentSi Zalze cota ram Cans.
rodesac adamianebi xedaven X-is msgavs sagnebs, maT, SeiZleba,
gaifiqron amaze.~ (veJbicka 1997:259,249). veJbickaseuli eqsplikaciebi Seesabameba `lingva mentaliss~ anu gonebis, cnobierebis
siRrmiseul SreebSi ama Tu im feris gaazrebis arss. Aamdenad,
ferTa semantikisa da maTi mxatvruli funqciebis analizisas am
eqsplikaciaTa gaTvaliswineba aucilebelia.

feris mxatvruli gaazrebis Taviseburebebi nikoloz baraTaSvilis poeziaSi

117

aqedan gamomdinare, cxadia, rom baraTaSvilTan `lurji~ gvevlineba, rogorc samyaros dasabamieri mdgomareobis aRmniSvneli
sityva da ara rogorc garkveuli feris saxeli. Mmisi gamoyeneba
motivirebulia imiT, rom esaa muqi, bneli feri.
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom bneli, sibnele aq warmoadgens feris
arssa da pirvelsaxes. misi sinonimia `lurji~, romelic baraTaSvilis poetur sistemaSi arasodes aRniSnavs da arc SeiZleba aRniSnavdes konkretuli sagnis fers.
bneli samyaro, bibliis mixedviT, Tvisebrivad ganusazRvreli
iyo. is mxolod potenciurad gulisxmobda danawevrebisa da kerZo
obieqtebis Seqmnis SesaZleblobas. A amgvari sibnele, bneli warmogvidgeba, rogorc erTgvari substancia, romlisganac RmerTma Semdgom
Seqmna calkeuli sagnebi. Llurjis, rogorc `bneli~ feris substanciurobas nikoloz baraTaSvilTan adasturebs gamoTqma: `SeverTo
lurjsa fers~.
maSasadame, lurji feri simbolurad aRniSnavs samyaros pirvandel, Tvisebrivad ganusazRvrel mdgomareobas. rogorc mxatvruli saxe, simbolo metonimiuri bunebisaa _ mas gaaCnia nawilis
meSveobiT mTelis warmodgenis unari.
feris saxelebis upirates gamoyenebas simboluri funqciiT
ganapirobebs vizualuri aRqmis garkveuli specifika (aRqmis sxva
modalobebisgan gansxvavebiT). saxeldobr, `Cven ar gvesmis sagnebi,
aramed _ bgerebi, maSin, rodesac, meore mxriv, Cven vxedavT sagnebs da
ara mxolod ferebs~(veJbicka 1980: 114 ). marTlac, feri da Sesabamisi sagani imTaviTve sinTezurad aRiqmeba. amitom, Tumca adamians
ZaluZs feris ganyeneba sagnebisgan, magram amgvari ganyeneba metonimiuri xasiaTisaa _ ferebi konkretuli sagnebisganaa ganyenebuli.
meore mxriv, audialuri aRqmisas bgerebi ar ukavSirdeba garkveul
sagnebs da mxolod gamocdilebis SemuSavebis safuZvelze xorcieldeba smeniTi signalebis dakavSireba calkeul sagnebTan. Aaudialuri aRqmis aRmniSvneli sityvebi, Cveulebriv, gamoiyeneba metaforuli _ da ara metonimiuri _ funqciiT.
maSasadame, leqsSi `cisa fers~ lurji feris gaazreba emyareba
metonimizacias (rogorc mentalur aqts) anu ganyenebas; rogorc
mxatvruli saxe, `lurji~ warmoadgens gansazRvrul simbolos.
lurjisa da bnelis (rogorc sinonimebis) amgvari konceptualizacia Tavs iCens nikoloz baraTaSvilis meore SedevrSic _
`SemoRameba mTawmindazed~.

118

Tamar lomiZe

am nawarmoebSi vlindeba is stiluri Tavisebureba, romelic,


erTi SexedviT, arati piuria romantikuli stilisTvis _ bunebis
movlenebs poeti moixseniebs mravlobiTi ricxvis formiT: `cvarni~,
`ciagni~, `adgilni~, `yvavilni~, `napralT~, `niavni~, `ReleTa, `Semogareni~ _ da am gziT ganzogadebulad warmogvidgens maT, konkretuli niSan-Tvisebebis miTiTebis gareSe, rogorc erTgvarovani sagnebis simravleebs. maT msgavsebasa an gansxvavebaze msjeloba SeuZlebelia. zogjer poeti iyenebs mxolobiT ricxvsac: `kldev bundovano~,
`mTav Rrubliano~. Ees epiTetebi funqciurad mravlobiTi ricxvis
tolfasia _ maTi daniSnulebaa bunebis obieqtebis konkretuli
abrisis gamqrqaleba. sintagmebSi _ `lamazs velsa~ da `turfas
serzed~ _ Semfasebluri epiTetebi ver warmoaCens `velisa~ da
`seris~ damaxasiaTebel kerZoobiT niSnebs. Aamitom samyaro warmogvidgeba, rogorc erTgvarovani da Tvisebrivad ganusazRvreli realoba.
am leqsis analizisas g. asaTiani msjelobs `Segnebulad
gabundovanebuli fonis~ Sesaxeb (asaTiani, 1974:150), magram aq gabundovanebulia ara foni, aramed _ sagnebi, romlebic erwymian saerTo
fons.
yovelive zemoTqmulis safuZvelze SeiZleba iTqvas, rom bneli
(an lurji) nikoloz baraTaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi samgvari mniSvnelobisaa:
1. ferebis pirvelsaxe, maTi gvari, rodesac ar arsebobdnen
sagnebi, magram arsebobda bneli, rogorc ferebis arsi;
2. garkveuli substancia, romelic samyaros warmoqmnis safuZvelia;
3. bneli, muqi, lurji feri ubrunebs sagnebs pirvandel ganzavebulobas sivrceSi, potenciuri arsebobis statuss.
rogor aRiqmeba amgvari samyaro? SeiZleba Tu ara, sazogadod,
misi aRqma? aRqma xom sxva araferia, Tu ara `sxvisi wvdoma plus
sakuTari Tavis Secnoba. amasTan, pirveli maTgani mocemulia danawevrebulad, meoris Tviseba ki ganurCeveli denadobaa~ (losevi
1990:80). /xazgasma Cemia _ T.Ll./. `SemoRamebaSi~ asaxuli samyaro
swored daunawevrebelia, e. i. `araaRqmadia~. Ppoeti TiTqos ver
xedavs garesamyaros. misi mzera ar Cerdeba calkeul sagnebze, da
Tu Cerdeba, ver aRiqvams maT, rogorc sinamdvilis garkveul fragmentebs.
amis Sedegad warmoiSoba specifikuri urTierTmimarTeba leqsis teqstsa da mis Sesabamis realobas Soris.

feris mxatvruli gaazrebis Taviseburebebi nikoloz baraTaSvilis poeziaSi

119

Tvisebrivad ganusazRvreli samyaro ar SeiZleba warmoadgendes danawevrebuli teqstis denotats. teqsti ganicdis izolirebas denotatisgan. is upirispirdeba mas, rogorc danawevrebuli _
difuzurs, aqtualizebuli _ potenciurs, rogorc individualuri
movlena (metyveleba) _ zogads.
amgvari teqsti emyareba mxolod kombinaciurobis princi ps,
radgan Tavisufldeba saganTa samyarosTan mimarTebisgan. SesaZlebeli xdeba nebismieri niSnis an konceptis dakavSireba nebismier sxva
niSanTan an konceptTan e.w. `momijnaveobis princi pis~ mixedviT.
sazogadod, kombinaciuroba, anu, r. iakobsonis terminologiiT, `metonimiuri RerZis~ gamovlinebani nikoloz baraTaSvilis poeturi
azrovnebisa da mxatvruli enis ZiriTadi damaxasiaTebeli niSania.
kombinaciuroba aq mJRavndeba ara marto metonimiuri saxeebis
simravleSi. is Tavs iCens poeturi metyvelebis `dialogurobaSic~, romelsac (logikur planSi ganxilvisas) SeiZleba vuwodoT
predikaciis Tavisufleba. Nnikoloz baraTaSvilTan xSirad vxvdebiT erTi da imave movlenis urTierTsapirispiro niSnebiT daxasiaTebis SemTxvevebs. kerZod, `SemoRamebaSi~am mxriv sayuradReboa
ori ukanaskneli strofi:
`amgvari iyo mTawmindazed SemoRameba!
hoi, adgilno, maxsovs, maxsovs, rasac vhfiqrobdi
me Tqvenda Soris da an rasac aRmovityodi!
mxolod suli grZnobs, Tu viTari sZRveniT mas Sveba.
hoi, saRamov, myudrov, saamov, Sen damSTi Cemad sanugeSeblad!
ros mWmunvareba Semomesevis, Senda moviltvi gansaqarveblad~
mwuxri gulisa _ sevda gulisa _ nugeSsa ama Sengan miiRebs,
ros gaTendeba dila mziani da yovels bindsa is
gananaTlebs!~
aq predikati _ Svebis miniWebis, nugeSiscemis unari _ miewereba bunebis or urTierTgansxvavebul movlenas (`dila mziani~, e.i.
naTeli da bindi, saRamo, Cveulebriv, gaiazreba, rogorc antonimebi),
rac logikuri Seusabamobis STabeWdilebas tovebs.
Tavisufal predikacias mimarTavs poeti leqsebSic `xma idumali~ da `fiqrni mtkvris piras~, agreTve, garkveulwilad, `meransa~
da poemaSi `bedi qarTlisa~, romelTa analizze amjerad ar SevCerdebiT. aRvniSnavT mxolod, rom sinamdvilisa da misi amsaxveli

120

Tamar lomiZe

poeturi teqstebs specifikuri urTierTmimarTeba gansazRvravs am


teqstebis struqturirebis zemoaRniSnul princi ps.
teqstisgan `gaucxoebuli~ samyaro TiTqos gaucxoebuli unda
iyos lirikuli gmirisTvisac, magram es ase araa. Nnawarmoebis
mixedviT, lirikul gmirsa da samyaros Soris harmoniuli urTierTmimarTebaa:
`maxsovs igi dro, saamo dro...~
`zogjer Cumni Semogareni amiT Cems gulsa eTanxmebodnen~
`mxolod guli grZnobs, Tu viTari sZRveniT mas Sveba...~
saqme isaa, rom, garesamyaros msgavsad, lirikuli gmiris `me~-c
Tvisebrivad ganusazRvrelia. kerZod, nikoloz baraTaSvilis mTel
Semoqmedebas gasdevs idumali, `bneli~, `sakvirveli~ oreulis Tema.
es imas niSnavs, rom gmiris Sinagani samyaroc struqturirebulia kombinaciuri princi pis mixedviT da moicavs or Tvisebrivad
ganusazRvrel `me~-s.
aq, iseve, rogorc nikoloz baraTaSvilis mTel SemoqmedebaSi,
gamoixateba avtoris _ teqstis Semoqmedisa da lirikuli gmiris
`poziciaTa~ urTierTgansxvavebuloba. avtorisTvis teqsti da misi
Sesabamisi realoba gamijnulia erTmaneTisgan, lirikuli gmirisTvis
ki realoba mis Sinagan samyaros `eTanxmeba~. Aamjerad, kidev erTxelvlindeba avtorisa da gmiris urTierTgaucxoeba, rac baraTaSvilis sxva qmnilebebSic iCens Tavs.
bolos, rac Seexeba al. WavWavaZis mier naTargmni rusuli
romansis `fersa bnels~ mimarTebas nikoloz baraTaSvilis leqsTan
`cisa fers~; vfiqrobT, winamdebare naSromi aaSkaravebs, rom msgavseba am or nawarmoebs Soris amoiwureba wminda formaluri
niSan-TvisebebiT. `orive leqsis safuZvels Seadgens feris poeturi apologia, magram a. WavWavaZis leqsSi es Tema satrfialo
lirikis amocanebs eqvemdebareba~ (nucubiZe 1980:53), xolo nikoloz baraTaSvilTan lurji feris gaazreba simboluri, mravalSreobrivi semantikiT gamoirCeva.
amgvarad, feris funqciebis problema nikoloz baraTaSvilis
SemoqmedebaSi garkveuli sirTuliT gamoirCeva da ukavSirdeba sxva,
metad arsebiTi sakiTxebis mTel rigs. Fferi aq ar warmoadgens
mxolod mxatvruli enis garkveul komponents, aramed gansazRvravs
`samyaros suraTis~ im specifikas, romelic damaxasiaTebelia ni-

feris mxatvruli gaazrebis Taviseburebebi nikoloz baraTaSvilis poeziaSi

121

koloz baraTaSvilis, rogorc ganumeorebeli SemoqmedebiTi xelweris mqone poetisTvis.

literatura
asaTiani 1974 : asaTiani g. `vefxistyaosnidan~ `baxtrionamde~.
Tbilisi.
nucubiZe 1980 : nucubiZe T. feris poeturi funqcia qarTvel da
inglisel romantikosTa SemoqmedebaSi (SedarebiTi
analizi).Mmacne, enisa da literaturis seria. Tbilisi, #1.
veJbicka 1997: . . . . .
losevi 1990: . . , .
veJbicka 1980: Wierzbicka A. Lingua Mentalis. Sydney.

Tamar Lomidze

Originality of Colour Interpretation


in Nikoloz Baratashvili's Poetry
In Nikoloz Baratashvili's poetry blue colour is the synonym of dark.
This colour is the main predicate for the world which gives an effect of estrangement between the author and the world; it is the common tendency of the poet 's
creation.

122

nana lolaZe

emociebis gamoxatvis
enobrivi suraTi

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, arn. Ciqobavas enaTmecnierebis institutis mecnieri TanamSromeli.


ZiriTadi naSromebi: erTi
ti pis meSvelzmnian formaTa sakiTxisaTvis qarTvelur enebSi; zmniswinis polifunqciuroba dinamikaSi da zmnis modelirebis problemebi, aris
zmna qarTvelur enebSi;
arsebobisa da qona-yolis
zmnaTa mimarTebisaTvis;
grZnoba-aRqmis zmnebi
qarTulSi.
interesTa sfero: qarTvelur enaTa SedarebiTi
analizi, funqciuri gramatika, kognitiuri
lingvistika, korpusis
lingvistika.

samyaros enobrivi suraTi warmoadgens


sinamdvilis asaxvis erTian sistemas, romelic aucilebelia ama Tu im enobrivi koleqtivisaTvis. sinamdvilis konceptualizaciis enobrivi saSualebebi nawilobriv universaluria, nawilobriv ki erovnulad specifikuria. es TvalsaCinod vlindeba emociebis enobrivi gamoxatvis magaliTze.
emociebi samyaros aRqmis, Semecnebisa da
Sefasebis erT-erTi formaa. amasTan, emocia
adamianis Sinagan, araxilvad samyaros
ganekuTvneba da erT-erT yvelaze rTulad
organizebul sistemas warmoadgens. igi mecnierebis sxvadasxva dargis Seswavlis obieqtia. yvela mecnieri, romel dargsac ar unda
miekuTvnebodes da ra Tvalsazriszedac ar
unda idges, Tanxmdeba imaze, rom emociebi
umniSvnelovanesia motivaciis, socialuri
komunikaciis, samyaros Semecnebisa da saqmianobisaTvis.
gansakuTrebiT gaaqtiurda am sakiTxebis kvleva meoce saukunis meore naxevarSi.
ukanasknel xans fsiqologiaSi popularobiT sargeblobs emociebis diferenciuli
Seswavla. gansakuTrebiT unda aRiniSnos k.
izardis Sromebi. am Teoriis mixedviT, emocia
ganixileba, rogorc rTuli fenomeni, romelic moicavs neirofoziologiur da samoZraogamomxatvelobiT komponentebs da subieqtur
gancdas. am komponentebis gavlena intraindividualur procesze qmnis emocias, romel-

123

emociebis gamoxatvis enobrivi suraTi

ic evoluciur-biogenetikur movlenas warmoadgens. adamianSi emociis


gancdisa da gamoxatvis unari Tandayolilia, zogadkulturulia
da universaluri (izardi 2002: 69).
adamianuri emociis kvlevisas yvelaze myari aRmoCnda imis
rwmena, rom SesaZlebelia gamoiyos mcire jgufi Tandayolili _
bazisuri emociebisa. amdenad, emocia SeiZleba iyos pirveladi (bazisuri), meoreuli, mesameulic ki. mag., _
pirveladi
emocia

meoreuli
emocia

mesameuli emocia

siyvaruli

mijaWvuloba

simpaTia, sinaze, TanagrZnoba, Tayvaniscema...

sixaruli

kmayofileba

siamovneba, tkboba...

gakvirveba

gakvirveba

gaoceba, gancvifreba...

gabrazeba

mrisxaneba

aRSfoTeba, gamZvivareba...

mravali fsiqologis mtkicebas, rom garkveuli emociebi ufro


bazisuria, vidre danarCeni, xSirad sruliad gansxvavebuli safuZveli aqvs. erTi mxriv, angariSgasawevia idea, rom zogierTi emocia
adamianSi genetikurad aris Cadebuli, meore mxriv, enebSi maTi gamoxatvis suraTi araerTgvarovania. samarTlianad aris SeniSnuli, rom
grZnobaTa burusiT moculi samyaros interpretirebisas yoveli
ena sakuTar koordinatTa bades iyenebs. Tuki vinme Seecdeba TiToeul emocias, romelsac adamiani ganicdis, daarqvas saxeli, bunebrivia, igi gamoiyenebs sakuTar leqsikons. imdenad, ramdenadac TiToeulma xalxma miagno grZnobis iseT elfers, rogoric sxva xalxebis mier gamoyofili ar aris (jeimsi 1890).
eTnocentrizmis gamovlinebad miiCnevs a. veJbicka Semdeg magaliTs: taitelebis leqsikonSi inglisuri sad (sevdiani, dardiani)
sityvis Sesatyvisi ar arsebobs, miuxedavad amisa, maT aucileblad
unda moepovebodeT Tandayolili cnebiTi kategoria sevdisa, dardisa. unda vivaraudoT, rom sevda maTi emociuri gamocdilebisaTvis
aranakleb mniSvnelovani da relevanturia, vidre, magaliTad grZnobebi
toiaha an peapea, romlebic saxeldebulia maT enaSi (sagulisxmoa,
rom inglisurSi am sityvebis Sesatyvisi ar arsebobs). marTlac,
araviTari safuZveli ar arsebobs miviCnioT, rom taitelebs ar
aqvT sevdis gancdis unari, xolo ingliselebs toiaha an peapea-si
mxolod imitom, rom maT enebSi am emociebs saxelebi ar aqvs. rac

124

nana lolaZe

mTavaria, SeuZlebelia imis mtkiceba, rom sevda ufro mniSvnelovania


an ufro `universaluria~, vidre toiaha an peapea (veJbicka 1999: 505).
enis mier asaxuli warmodgena adamianis Sinagan samyaroze moicavs
TaobaTa gamocdilebas aTaswleulebis ganmavlobaSi. amitomac eniWeba gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba emociebis bunebis Seswavlisas
maTi enobrivi gamoxatvis saSualebebs ama Tu im enis semantikur
struqturaSi.
emociebis gamoxatvis enobrivi meqanizmis kvlevisas saWiroa
gansxvavdes emociis leqsika da emociuri leqsika. emociis leqsika
orientirebulia emociis obieqtivaciaze da moicavs sityvebs, romelTa
sagnobriv-logikuri mniSvneloba emociaTa cnebebs Seadgens. emociuri leqsika gamoxatavs mTqmelis emociebs da mas emociuri Seferilobis sityvebi miekuTvneba.
ra aris is zogadi princi pi, romelic emociis enobriv
gamoxatvas udevs safuZvlad. is, rom enis mier araxilvadi
Sinagani samyaros modelireba xilvadi, materialuri samyaros mixedviT xdeba. amdenad, araxilvadi samyaros konceptebis agebis ZiriTad meqanizms metafora warmoadgens.
es metaforuloba gansakuTrebiT TvalnaTliv Cans frazeologizmebSi. am frazeologizmebSi ZiriTadad monawileobs sxeulis nawilebi, Sinagani organoebi, rogorebicaa: guli,
naRveli, sisxli... agreTve, suli.
is faqti, rom guls gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia qarTul
msoflaRqmaSi, araerTgzis aris SeniSnuli. rogorc arn. Ciqobava
miuTiTebs: `guli warmodgenilia azrovnebiTi procesebis centrad,
grZnobebis wyarod, temperament-xasiaTis ganmsazRvrelad da organuli SegrZnebebis (gulis reva, gulis Semoyra) amTviseblad, erTi
sityviT, mas ekisreba tvinis, gulis, kuWisa da, nawilobriv, periferiuli nervuli sistemis magivroba gaswios _ sicocxlis matarebeli gulia (Ciqobava 1938: 66).
xatovan sityva-Tqmebze dakvirvebis safuZvelze T. saxokia
aRniSnavs: guli Cvens xalxs miaCnia Cveni nervebis Sesakrebel organod, romelzec uSualod moqmedebs yvela fsiqikuri gancda: siyvaruli, sixaruli, simamace, siZulvili, mwuxareba, dard-naRveli
(saxokia 1979: 119). qarTvelis warmodgeniT, dadebiTi Tu uaryofiTi emociebi: dardi, mwuxareba, sixaruli, siZulvili, javri `adamianis gul-mkerdSi grovdeba, xolo TviT gul-mkerdi, xatovnad, dadarebulia buxars, romelic, kvamlis msgavsad, maRla uSvebs gamosamzeveblad Sig dagrovil TiToeul am grZnobaTagans da ena-piris
saSualebiT sxvas uziarebs. (saxokia 1979: 110)
guli rom emociis (da ara mxolod emociis) gamoxatvis mniSvnelovani leqsemaa, sxva enaTa magaliTzedac aSkaraa, magram saintere-

emociebis gamoxatvis enobrivi suraTi

125

soa, ra qmnis sakuTriv qarTuli enobrivi suraTis specifikurobas?


rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, emocia moicavs neirofiziologiur
da samoZrao-gamomxatvelobiT (nervul-kunTovan) komponentebs.
sagulisxmoa, rom enebSi es komponentebi aseve garCeulia, saxeldobr, emociis leqsika asaxavs rogorc sakuTriv emocias, emociur
gamocdilebas, ise gviCvenebs organizmis reaqcias ama Tu im emociaze.
imdenad, ramdenadac guli Sinagan, araxilvad organoebs miekuTvneba,
rogorc wesi, ganixileba rogorc emociis gancdis centri. Tumca
igi monawileobs gamoTqmebSi, romlebic emociebis Tanmxleb fiziologiur cvlilebebze miuTiTeben. l. margvelanma sagangebod Seiswavla am ti pis frazeologizmebi da aCvena, rom qarTulSi guli-s
Semcveli frazeologizmebi meore funqciiT sakmaod farTod gamoyeneba, rac sxva enebisaTvis SedarebiT SezRudulia, kerZod, inglisurSi amgvar SezRudulobaze miuTiTebs a. veJbicka (veJbicka 1999:
540-41) garda amisa, warmodgenili masala iZleva kidev erTi daskvnis gakeTebis safuZvels. naSromi rusuladaa dabeWdili da frazeologizmebi, romelTac met-naklebad zusti rusuli analogi ar
moepovebaT da amitom Targmani xelovnuria, varskvlaviT aris aRniSnuli. TvalSi sacemia, rom moniSnuli frazebis umetesoba swored
guls Seicavs. aseTebia, mag., guli ukankalebs, guli wauvida, gulze
cecxli SemoenTo da sxv. (margvelani, 1978). amdenad, rogorc Cans,
am ti pis frazebi qarTulisaTvis specifikuria.
guli-s Semcveli frazeologizmebis originalurobas adasturebs Zveli qarTulis monacemebi. SeniSnulia, rom saxarebis teqstSi, xSir SemTxvevaSi, iq sadac garkveuli guneba-ganwyobileba Tu
grZnobaa gadmocemuli, qarTulSi gvxvdeba guli-s Semcveli frazeologizmebi, berZnulSi _ ara (beriSvili 2002: 108).
amdenad, guli emociebis qarTulenobrivi suraTis erT-erTi
mniSvnelovani komponentia. ra Tqma unda, emociebis gamoxatvis sruli suraTis warmosaCenad Semdgom kvlevas moiTxovs, Tu rogor, ra
saSualebebiT gamoixateba TiToeuli emocia, rogoria mimarTeba
pirvelad da meoreul, dadebiTi da uaryofiTi emociebis gamoxatvas
Soris da mravali sxva sakiTxi. dReisaTvis am mimarTulebiT
mimdinareobs araerTi enis semantikuri struqturis kvleva,
gamocemulia sxvadasxva ti pis leqsikonebi, romlebSic aRnusxulia
is enobrivi saSualebebi, romlebic emociaTa gamosaxatavad gamoiyeneba
(iordanskaia, paperno 1995). qarTul enaSi emociebis gamoxatvis
enobrivi meqanizmebis mravalmxrivi Seswavla, dReisaTvis ukve miRebuli
Sedegebis sistematizacia mniSvnelovania rogorc, zogadad, emociaTa
bunebis, maTi enobrivi realizaciis problemaTa kvlevebis
gasamdidreblad, ise samyaros qarTulenobrivi suraTis warmosaCenad.

126

nana lolaZe

literatura
beriSvili 2002: beriSvili e., frazeologizmTa erTi nawilisaTvis qarTuli saxarebis ori Zveli redaqciis mixedviT,
enaTmecnierebis sakiTxebi, 2 (14).
veJbicka 1999: .,
, .
izardi 1980: Izard C. E., The psychology of emotions, rusuli gamoc. .
iordanskaia, paperno 1995: The Russian-English Collocational Dictionary of human Body, Iordanskaya, Paperno.
margvelani 1978: . ., ,

,
, saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis
marTvis sistemebis institutis Sromebi, XVII: 2, 1978.
saxokia 1979: saxokia T., qarTuli xatovani sityva-Tqmani, 1979
Ciqobava 1938: Ciqobava arn., Wanur-megrul-qarTuli SedarebiTi
leqsikoni.
Jeimsi 1890: James W., The principles of psychology, New York, Dover, 1950.

Nana Loladze

Linguistic picture of expressing emotions


Linguistic picture of the world is a united system reflecting a reality that is
necessary for certain language groups. Linguistic tools expressing reality
conceptualization are partly of universal nature, and their other part has national
specifications. This is clearly shown when emotions are expressed linguistically.
A language makes a modeling of internal invisible world in accordance with
the material world. Therefore the major mechanism of forming invisible worlds
concepts is a metaphor.
The metaphoric nature is obviously shown in phrasal verbs that mainly include
parts of the body, internal organs. Analysis of phraseology expressing emotion
shows that the most significant component of Georgian language is a heart.
Study of language mechanisms expressing emotions in the Georgian language,
systematization of current outcomes is important both for enriching emotion
generally, researching its language realization challenges as well as for presenting
Georgian language picture of the world.

127

merab RaRaniZe

ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis


profesori; naSromebisa da
eseebis avtori literaturis, kulturisa da
religiis Sesaxeb, romelTa Soris aRsaniSnavia
monografia sinamdvile
da warmosaxva daviT
guramiSvilis `mxiarul
zafxulSi (2002) da
krebulebi: rwmenisa da
imedis gzaze (2003), wvdomisa da gamoxatvis
ostatoba (2004).

dasavluri qristianoba
aRmosavluri
Tvalsawieridan:
romis sakiTxi
ilia WavWavaZisa
da fiodor tiutCevis
politikur
publicistikaSi
1
safrangeTis revoluciidan moyolebuli, mTeli XIX saukunis ganmavlobaSi evropis sazogadoebriv-politikur cxovrebaSi
mwvaved idga romis sakiTxi, romelic kidev
ufro garTulda saukunis bolo mesamedSi.
aqtualur ganzomilebaSi is gulisxmobda
papis saxelmwifos _ romis wmida saydris
saeklesio saxelmwifos _ yofna-aryofnis
problemas, mis moTxovnaTa legitimurobis
aRiarebas an araRiarebas, am saxelmwifos
urTierTobas sxva evropul saxelmwifoebTan, _ pirvel yovlisa, italiis samefosTan,
romelic nel-nela ikrebda Zalas da, erTiani
italiis Seqmnis mizanswrafviT, TandaTan
eufleboda apeninis naxevarkunZulis mTel
teritorias. italiis samefom miznad daisaxa,
romi Tavisi erovnuli saxelmwifos nawilad
eqcia, papebi ki cdilobdnen, gadaerCinaT da
SeenarCunebinaT aTaswlovani saeklesio saxelmwifo _ rogorc kaTolike eklesiis meTauris saero mmarTvelTagan damoukideblobisa da xelSeuxeblobis sawindari. saeklesio saxelmwifos suverenitetsa da, Sesabam-

128

merab RaRaniZe

isad, eklesiis meTauris sruli Tavisuflebis SenarCunebas farulad Tu aSkarad upirispirdeboda jer safrangeTis revoluciuri
da Semdgom italiis samefo xelisufleba, romelTa qmedebas mniSvnelovanwilad ganapirobebda maTi saxelmwifo ideologiac. orsave SemTxvevaSi xelisufleba acxadebda, rom is mtkiced efuZneboda ganmanaTleblur, liberalur, antisaeklesio msoflmxedvelobas,
xolo xelisufalTa antisaeklesio da arcTu iSviaTad antiqristianuli ganwyobebi ki mniSvnelovanwilad nasazrdoebi iyo im masonuri loJebis zogadi suliskveTebiT, romelTa aqtiuri wevrebic iyvnen Tundac safrangeTis revoluciis, Tundac italiuri risorjimentos moRvaweebi.
amdenad, saqme isaa, rom msjeloba romis sakiTxis Sesaxeb
wamoWrida ara oden teritoriuli Tu saxelmwifoebrivi mowyobis,
anda saxelmwifoTaSorisi urTierTobis, Tundac eklesiisa da saxelmwifos uflebaTa gamijvnis problemebs, aramed _ ramdenadac
dapirispireba cxadad ideologiuri iyo _ gardauvalad moiTxovda damokidebulebis gamoxatvas evropis warsulisa da momavlis,
qristianobis misiisa da suliskveTebis, eklesiis adgilisa da
mniSvnelobis mimarT.
bunebrivia, rom xangrZlivi drois manZilze msoflios sxvadasxva qveynis sazogadoebrivi azri, politikuri publicistika,
presa dauRalavad exmaureboda romis sakiTxs, gansakuTrebiT mas
Semdeg, rac es sakiTxi kidev ufro gamwvavda, _ rodesac, ramdenimegzisi mcdelobis Semdeg, 1870 wlis 20 seqtembers, italiis mefis
erTgulma jarebma gaarRvies romis galavani da qalaqi daikaves:
papis saeklesio saxelmwifo imjerad gauqmda da romi italiis
samefos dedaqalaqad gamocxadda (papis saxelmwifo _ qalaq-saxelmwifo vatikanis saxiT _ mxolod 1929 wels aRdga lateranis
xelSekrulebaTa safuZvelze, pius XI-sa da benito musolinis Soris
SeTanxmebis Sedegad).
2
romis sakiTxs, sxva saWirboroto saerTaSoriso problemebTan erTad, Tavis politikur publicistikaSi gamohxmaurebia
ilia WavWavaZec. ukanasknel xanebamde am sakiTxis irgvliv cnobili
iyo misi mxolod erTi teqsti, romelic ilias TxzulebaTa pavle
ingoroyvaseul gamocemebSi moTavsebulia im nakrebSi, rasac gamomcemelma werilebi ucxoeTze uwoda. axla ki, mwerlis akademiuri

dasavluri qristianoba aRmosavluri Tvalsawieridan: `romis sakiTxi~...

129

octomeulis gamoqveynebasTan da axlebur teqstologiur midgomasTan dakavSirebiT, moimata im teqstebis raodenobam, sadac ilia
am sakiTxze an cnobas awvdis iveriis mkiTxvels, an Tavis Sexedulebas gamoTqvams.
rogorc Cans, pirvelad am sakiTxs, _ mkveTr dapirispirebas
romis papsa da italiis saxelmwifos Soris, _ ilia WavWavaZe
Seexo sapolitiko mimoxilvaSi, romelic kvireul gazeT iveriaSi gamoqveynda 1877 wlis 13-e nomerSi (cenzuris nebarTva gacemulia
am wlis 1 ivniss)1. sakiTxi ufro italiisa da safrangeTis urTierTobis garkvevas exeba, roca italiis mTavrobis meTauri (saministros moTave)2 calsaxad ucxadebs ndobas frang xalxs, romelmac evropas mianiWa Tavisuflebis saxareba da (didi revoluciis) dedaazrebi; igi mkveTrad emijneba rogorc frang, ise italiel
klerikalebs da maTze gamarjvebis imeds gamoTqvams. politikur
cnobaTa am monakveTis iliaseuli daskvna amgvaria: amisTana laparaki verafrad moewoneboda paps, romelic amJamad did yofaSia
(WavWavaZe 1997: 96).
amis Semdeg ilia uSualod papisa da monarqiis urTierTobas
exeba, ris Sesaxebac amgvarad wers:
_ 31 maiss (Cveneburad 19) romSi didi yriloba yofila im
pirTa, romelTac hsurT klerikalebis moZraobas bolo mouRon. am
yrilobaSi bevri cxare sityva Tqmula papis winaaRmdeg.
_ italiis mTavrobas gamoucxadebia papisaTvis, rom sastikad
movekidebi samRvdelois avmoqmedebaso. paps Tavis mxriT uTxovnia
viktor emmanuilisaTvis, _ sarwmunoebis winaaRmdeg politikas daanebe
Tavi, Torem Sen monarxias cudi bolo moeliso. garda amisa paps
uTqvams, rom saerTo3 mTavrobas mec winaaRmdegobas gavuwevo, Tu
rom igi samRvdeloebas ewinaaRmdegebao (WavWavaZe 1997: 97).

es statia Sesula ilia WavWavaZis sicocxlisdroindel xelnawer krebulSi,


magram TxzulebaTa krebulSi pirvelad gamoqveynda 1997 wels ilias octomeulis VI tomSi (WavWavaZe 1997: 92-101).
2
ilia ar asaxelebs mis vinaobas, magram, rogorc Cans, laparakia memarcxene
politikosis, italiis mTavrobis Tavmjdomaris, agostino depretisis, Sesaxeb,
romelsac es Tanamdeboba ekava 1876-1878 ww.
3
advili SesaZlebelia, rom saerTo-Si saero igulisxmebodes (Tu, saerTod,
koreqturasTan ara gvaqvs saqme; Sdr. msgavs konteqstSi: papma... ukve gaaba qseli
italiaSi saero mflobelobis dasacemad _ WavWavaZe 2005: 588).

130

merab RaRaniZe

sagangebo kvlevas saWiroebs ilias am informaciis wyaroTa


daZebna, magram amTaviTve SegviZlia gamovyoT ramdenime koncepti da
aSkarad davinaxoT ori sapirispiro mxare: papi / mefe, klerikalebi
(klerikalebis moZraoba) / saer(T)o mTavroba, sarwmunoeba
/ monarqia. am opoziciaTa Cvenebisas ilia TiTqmis neitraluria
da Tavis pirad damokidebulebas cxadad ar amxels, Tumca isic
saTqmelia, rom samRvdeloebis qmedebaTa avqmoqmedebad saxeldeba
da papis damuqrebis xseneba (daanebe Tavi, Torem Sens monarxias
cudi bolo moeliso), ganmapirobebeli motivebis gaTvaliswinebis
gareSe, Tan papisa, romelic amJamad did yofaSia, ilias mxridan
arc eklesiis poziciis mxardaWeras gamoxatavs da arc romis
sakiTxis mimarT kaTolikuri damokidebulebis gaziarebas. magram
ilia odnav sxvagvar ganwyobas gamoxatavs manamde, oriode kviriT
adre (iveria, 1877, nomeri 11, cenzuris nebarTva gacemulia im wlis
12 maiss) safrangeTis politikuri mdgomareobis mimoxilvisas,
roca aRniSnavs, rom amas wined klerikalebma qaRaldi Seadgines,
sadac moxsenebuli iyo Sesawuxari mdgomareoba papisa da Txovna
mTavrobisadmi, rom man miiRos monawileoba papis dasaxsnelad
(WavWavaZe 1997: 69). aq TvalSisacemia iliaseuli ori formulireba: Sesawuxari mdgomareoba da papis dasaxsnelad, rac romis
eklesiis meTauris winaaRmdeg saero xelisuflebis mier ganxorcielebul Setevaze metyvelebs, Tundac amgvari xedva imave
klerikalebis pozicias asaxavdes. magram solidarobis es mqrqali gancdac umal fermkrTaldeba, roca cnoba amgvari dazustebiT
mTavrdeba: am qaRalds atarebdnen da xelis momwerlebs agrovebdnen. bavSvebsac ki awerinebdnen xels, agebi rogorme xelismomweri
blomad SevagrovoTo (WavWavaZe 1997: 69), rac am peticiis sandoobas da miudgomlobas metad akninebs.
iveriis 1879 wlis 2-e nomerSi (cenzuris nebarTva gacemulia
im wlis 11 ianvars) anonimurad gamoqveynebulia sapolitiko mimoxilva, sadac ilia moixseniebs wina wlis miwuruls gardacvlil italiis mefes, viqtor emanuels, _ axasiaTebs mas daufaravi
aRtacebiT da metad gulTbilad (iyo keTilis da sayvarelis
xasiaTisa). mimoxilvaSi gansakuTrebuladaa aRniSnuli, rom italiis
erTobisaTvis maZZinis, garibaldisa da kavuris SromasTan SeerTebuli iyo misi Sroma (WavWavaZe 1997: 178). rogorc aRiniSna,
sayovelTaod iyo cnobili mefis (da masTan erTad CamoTvlili
saxelmwifo moRvaweebis) ukiduresi dapirispireba eklesiasTan da
papTan.

dasavluri qristianoba aRmosavluri Tvalsawieridan: `romis sakiTxi~...

131

romis saydris meTauris sakiTxi ilias publicistikaSi isev


wamoiWreba 1886 wels _ italiis samefosa da germaniis urTierTobis konteqstSi da amjerad papi warmodgenilia italiis saero
saxelmwifos mimarT ara marto dapirispirebul, aramed saxifaTo
da saSiS mxaredac: romis papi, msoflio kaTolikeTa mTavarmoZRvari, jer kidev imisTana mniSvnelobiani aris italiaSi, rom [bismarkis mxriv] imisi ase Tu ise gamxneveba da frTebis asxma italiisaTvis metad saSiSaria (WavWavaZe 2005: 377); papma, bismarkis
momxreobiT waqezebulma, rogorc gvauwyeben gazeTebi, ukve gaaba
qseli italiaSi saero mflobelobis dasacemad da Tavisis aRsadgenad (WavWavaZe 2005: 588).
imave 1886 wels ilia isev exmianeba romis sakiTxs4 sagangebo
mowinave weriliT gazeT iveriis (19 Tebervali, # 41) pirvel
gverdze. pavle ingoroyvaseul gamocemebSi es teqsti gaerTianebuli iyo mimoxilvaTa ciklSi evropa 1886 wels (WavWavaZe 1929:
132-135; WavWavaZe 1952: 472-474; WavWavaZe 1957: 92-94), octomeulSi ki is calkea gamoyofili da mas axali, redaqciismieri saTauri
aqvs miniWebuli: italia da romis papi (WavWavaZe 1997: 378-381).
sakiTxis mimarT iliaseuli poziciis ukeT warmosaCenad uprianad migvaCnia teqstSi ganxiluli problematikis, pirvel yovlisa, Tematurad dalageba (frCxilebSi miTiTebulia bolo gamocemis _ ilias octomeulis VII tomis _ Sesabamisi gverdebi).
italiis gansakuTrebuloba: italias erTi iseTi satkivari aqvs gvamSi, romelic sxva qveyanas Tavis dReSi arca hqonia da,
imedia, arc odesme eqneba (378), es aseTi ubedureba iyo italiisa
(379), romis papoba mosarCeni satkivaria italiisaTvis (381).
papis Zalaufleba: ucnauri wyobileba iyo (378), romSi
ijda da dResaca hzis mTelis msoflios kaTolikeTa RvdelmTavari, romelic erT dros iseTi Zlieri iyo, rom mefeni da xelmwifeni mis winaSe muxls idrekdnen (378), saero xelmwifebac
xelT epyra (378), sasuliero moZRvari amrigad xorcis batonadac Seiqmna (378), romis papi aramcTu saaqao bednierebas urigebda, rasakvirvelia, jerovanis sasyideliT, aramed saiqiosTvisac imisTana sigels aZlevda adamians, rom am sigelis mqonebelisaTvis
samoTxis kari Ria iyo (378).

amave wels ilia aqveynebs mimoxilvas, romelsac octomeulis gamomcemlebma


bismarki da romis papi uwodes (WavWavaZe 2005: 338-342), magram es teqsti
mxolod iribad ukavSirdeba romis sakiTxs.

132

merab RaRaniZe

papobis mxolod saxelmwifoebrivi da ara sulieri


safrTxe: papi... imiT ki ar iyo saSiSari, rom sasuliero xelisufleba xelT epyra, aramed imiTi, rom rom saero xelmwifebac eWira
italiaSi, da amrigad sasuliero wodebis saero batonoba hqmnida
italiaSi saxelmwifos saxelmwofoSi (379).
papoba da luTeriseuli reformacia: reformaciam, erTis
ubralo bermonazonisagan atexilma, es adamianis cdomilebazed aSenebuli Zliereba da dideba ZiriT Txemamde Searyia; axalma drom
reformaciisgan frTaSesxmulma, karga abru gautexa romis papsa
(379).
papi italiis samefos mier saeklesio saxelmwifos
okupaciis Semdeg: romis papi... italiis mefesTan umZraxad aris
da Wirveulobs... Cems saero xelmwifebasa ar davTmobo (380).
papis momxreebi: ...klerikalTa dass eZaxian da romelic
safrangeTSi, TiTqmis dResac, marto romis papis darigebisa da
brZanebisamebr iqceva (379), evropaSi jer kidev bevri imisTana
kaTolikea, romelic marto romis papis saxels hloculobs (381).
Cans, rom ilia calsaxad iziarebs italiis samefos liberalur, saero, antisaeklesio mimarTebebs, xolo imJamad gauqmebul
saeklesio saxelmwifosa da Tavad papobas Tundac istoriulad,
Tundac aqtualurad uaryofiT movlenad miiCnevs, amave dros, daufaravi TanagrZnobiT xatavs (swored xatavs!) martin luTersa da
protestantul reformacias (da imowmebs reformaciuli moZraobis erT-erT umTavres antikaTolikur arguments: indulgencias),
Tumca aRsaniSnavia, rom igi arafers ambobs papobis sulier cdunebaTa Sesaxeb, ugulebelyofs romauli da bizantiuri qristianuli
tradiciebis gansxvavebas, yuradRebis miRma tovebs egreT wodebul
kaTolikur-marTlmadideblur ganxeTqilebas, radgan misTvis romis problema, pirvel yovlisa, saxelmwifoebrivia da, amdenad, ilia
erTaderT safrTxes xedavs klerikalizmSi, _ sasuliero pirTa
da sasuliero Tvalsazrisis gavlenaSi qveynis saero cxovrebaze, _
riTac igi liberalur, samoqalaqo faseulobaTa gamoxatul damcvelad gvevlineba.
erTi SexedviT, faqtebis gadmocemisas ilia TiTqos ar ikavebs
mkveTr pirad pozicias, magram sakmarisia, avtoriseuli saTqmeli
gaCndes, rom igi umal gamoxatavs, Tu saiTaa mimarTuli aqtualur
dapirispirebaSi misi simpaTia, an, ufro zustad, misi anti paTia: jer
erTi, ilias miaCnia, rom papis pretenziebi italiis monarqiis mimarT da mis mier sakuTari Tavis tyved gamocxadeba aris mogonili

dasavluri qristianoba aRmosavluri Tvalsawieridan: `romis sakiTxi~...

133

da tyuili tyveoba da damwyvdeva (380), amas garda, igi erTgvar


moralitesac ki sTavazobs mkiTxvels papobis istoriuli
gamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebiT: papi brZandeba dRes kvirinalSi5
TiTqmis umwed da unugeS... esec daemarTeba yvelas, vinc cdomazed
daamyarebs Tavis didebasa (379). mwerlis sruliad usimpaTio
damokidebuleba aSkaraa!
mTeli am teqstis safuZvelze namdvilad SegviZlia davinaxoT,
rom ilia romis sakiTxSi liberalur pozicias iziarebs da
uyoymanod emxroba italiis mTavrobas, romelic ara marto umwvaves konfliqtSi iyo wmida saydarTan teritoriul-saxelmwifoebrivi mowyobis gamo, aramed ideologiuradac mkveTrad upirispirdeboda mas: Tu papi, bunebrivia, qristianul konservatiul
poziciebs icavda, italiis xelisufleba liberaluri ideologiis
medroSed iyo miCneuli evropuli masStabiT da es xelisufleba
arc imas malavda, rom misi ideologiuri Tvalsazrisebi masonur
sazogadoebaTa msoflmxedvelobrivi gavleniT Camoyalibda da warimarTeboda.
erTi wlis Semdeg, 1887 wels, ilia isev ubrundeba romis
sakiTxs: iveriis furclebze (4 ivnisi, # 110) anonimurad ibeWdeba misi mowinave werili, romelic pirvelad mwerlis nawerebs
Soris mis TxzulebaTa octomeulSi gamoqveynda da romelsac redaqciam amgvari saTauri misca: romis papebis brZola Zveli didebis aRsadgenad6 (WavWavaZe 2006: 377-381). sakiTxis mimarT iliaseuli damokidebulebis ukeT warmosaCenad arCeulia teqstis isev
Tematuri dalagebis princi pi (frCxilebSi miTiTebulia ilias
octomeulis IX tomis Sesabamisi gverdebi).
italia da papoba: mas aqed, rac italia gaerTda da
Tavisi dedaqalaqi romi Tavi sataxto qalaqad gaixada, romis paps
Zalauneburad CamoerTva saero mflobeloba da ufleba italiaSi
(377).
5

arazusti cnobaa, radgan am dros _ italiis samefo jarebis mier romis


okupaciis Semdeg (1870 wlidan) _ kvirinalis papiseuli sasaxle ukve italiis
mefes hqonda dakavebuli, papi ki am dros vatikanis sasaxleSi gadasaxlda,
saidanac igi aRar gamodioda da sadac man Tavi vatikanis tyved gamoacxada.
6
am ori ukanaskneli xelmouwereli teqstis erTiani atribuciisaTvis, SesaZloa,
zedmeti ar iyos papobis imJamindeli mdgomareobis msgavsi idiomiT daxasiaTeba:
axalma drom... karga abru gautexa romis papsa (WavWavaZe 1997: 379); gamoiyenos igi papobis dacemulis abrus aRsadgenad (WavWavaZe 2006: 379); abrum
papobisam... TandaTan Tavi iCina da win wamoiwia (WavWavaZe 2006: 380); papoba
evropaSi... abrusa da saxels ikeTebs (WavWavaZe 2006: 381).

134

merab RaRaniZe

papis odindeli Zalaufleba: papoba[...] erT dros hbatonobda da brZaneblobda TiTqmis mTels qveynierebaze (377).
papobis imJamindeli mdgomareoba (XIX s. 80-iani wlebi): marto saeklesio saqmeebSiRa SeixuTa da moZraobda (377).
klerikalizmi: safrangeTSi, germaniasa da sxvaganac... devna
dauwyes imisTana moZRvrebas kaTolikeTa samRvdeloebisas, romlebic kvlav etaneboda saero uflebis aRdgenas papisas (377).
dogmati: pio IX-s dros kaTolikeTa samRvdeloebis kreba
moxda da daadgines doRmati romis papis Seucdomelobisa da amiT
undodaT ZiriT Txemamde papobis Seryeulis didebisaTvis erTi
Zlieri sveti SeedgaT Sesamagreblad. daadgines es doRmati, magram
amiT bevri ara eSvela ra yvelasagan ganwiruls papobas (378).
papobis politikuri sargeblianoba: evropiis saqmeebi
metad aWiWynilia, awewilia da dRes iqneba Tu xval gaWireba romelsame
saxelmwifos moaxedebs papobazed da misgan Semweobas moiTxovs
Tavisi saqmeebis warsamarTeblad da dasalageblad (379).
papobis momavali: mniSvneloba papisa qveynis TvalSi izrdeba da hmatulobs (380), dRedadRe papoba evropaSi gaZlierdeba
da saxelsa da abrus ikeTebs, Tu am gzazed iara da saqmeTa
cvlilebam ar Seayena es siaruli, maSin evropis politikaSi romis
samRvdeloebac Tavis adgils daiWers da Tavis fersa da mimarTulebas daaCnevs (381), Znelad safiqrebelia, rom papobam uwindeli dideba da rixi daibrunos, magram evropiis koncertSi ki rom
amasac erTi xma eqneba, eg ki ueWvelia (381).
Tu 1886 wlis teqstSi ilia yuradRebas ZiriTadad wmida
saydrisa da italiis urTierTobaze amaxvilebda (safrangeTic am
mimarTebaSia moxseniebuli), 1887 wlis teqstSi ganxilulia romis
kaTedris urTierToba ara marto italiasTan, aramed germaniasTan,
avstriasTan, inglisTan. amdenad, avtors saSualeba eZleva, amjerad
ufro zogadad da farTod warmoaCinos papobis, misi Tanamedrove
mdgomareobisa da momavali perspeqtivis sakuTari xedva.
wina teqstisagan gansxvavebiT, ilias mkveTri pozicia papobis
mimarT aq odnav Serbilebulia; papobis momavalic ufro realisturadaa warmodgenili, Tumca is isev (da kidev metad) evropis
politikuri cxovrebis konteqstSia danaxuli. oRond mTlad naTeli
araa, ra igulisxmeba im sityvebSi, rom paps saero mmarTveloba da
ufleba Zalauneburad CamoerTva: Tu Zalauneburad an survilis
gareSe, uneblie qmedebas, an Zalis gamouyenlobas aRniSnavs, maSin
papis saeklesio saxelmwifos gauqmeba arc visme uneburad momx-

dasavluri qristianoba aRmosavluri Tvalsawieridan: `romis sakiTxi~...

135

dara da arc mSvidobiani SeTanxmebiT. is swored mizanswrafulad


da Zalismierad iqna mierTebuli italiis samefosaTvis!@
amave dros, wina statiaSi ilia ar Sehxebia papis pirovnebas
da arc ki uxsenebia misi (maTi) saxeli, aq ki dasaxelebulia
romis sakiTxis droindeli ori protagonisti _ pius IX (18461878) da leon XIII (1878-1903), amasTanave, mocemulia TiToeulis
daxasiaTebac: Tu pirveli maTganis mimarT teqstSi araviTari simpaTia araa gamoxatuli da mis qmedebaTa aRweridan mkiTxvels
STabeWdileba rCeba, rom igi aragulwrfeli, araSorsmxedveli, jiuti mmarTveli da pirovneba iyo, leon XIII, mis qmedebaTa mixedviT,
gonier adamianadaa warmoCenili, iqvea mocemuli misi pirdapiri
daxasiaTebac: Wkviani papi, Sormxedveli da gamWvreteli (378).
aRsaniSnavia, rom pius IX-is diskreditacia XIX saukunis liberaluri propagandis erTi Semadgeneli nawili iyo, xolo Tavad
romis eklesiis istoriaSi misi papoba, romelic 32 weli grZeldeboda, imiT Sefasda, rom is netarTa Sorisaa Seracxili.
wina statiaSi araferi iyo naTqvami romis eklesiis moZRvrebis, misi dogmaturi cxovrebis Sesaxeb, amjerad ki ilia moixseniebs vatikanis I krebis mier dadgenil dogmas papis ucdomlobis
Sesaxeb. es kreba, rogorc cnobilia, swored italiis samefo jarebis mier romis okupaciis Sedegad Sewyda, magram is, rac wmida
petres bazilikaSi Sekrebilma samRvdeloebam SeZlo, iyo sarwmunoebisa da zneobis sakiTxebSi papis ucdomlobis dogmis gamocxadeba. ilia ugulebelyofs am doRmatis sarwmunoebriv-saeklesio
mniSvnelobas da miaCnia, rom misi miRebis erTaderTi mizani papobisa da misi saero Zalauflebis gamyareba iyo, Tumca am mcdelobas
igi mainc uSedegod miiCnevs.
da mainc, statiis dasasruls ilias SeniSnavs, rom papobis
roli da mniSvneloba evropaSi, saero Zalauflebis dakargvis Semdeg, sul ufro izrdeba, rom, Tuki movlenebi amgvaradve warimarTa
da samRvdeloebamac ar dakarga Tavisi gavlena, dRedadRe papoba
evropaSi gaZlierdeba (380).
amgvarad xedavs ilia papobis perspeqtivas Zveli kontinentis
momaval cxovrebaSi, magram am momavali ganviTarebis sakuTari Sefasebisa da gansjisagan igi Tavs ikavebs da mis mimarT damokidebulebis arCevas _ teqstis bolo frazis mixedviT _ mwerali
mTlianad mkiTxvels miandobs: risi niSania esa: winmsvlelobisa
Tu ukan daxevisa, eg TviTon mkiTxvelma gamoicnos (381).

136

merab RaRaniZe

3
rogorc iTqva, aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi (faqtobrivad, 1929
wlamde) romis sakiTxi evropis politikur-sazogadoebrivi da
saeklesio cxovrebis mougvarebel problemad rCeboda. bunebrivia,
mas bevrgan da bevrjer gamohxmaurebian msoflios sxvadasxva adgilas. am sakiTxis mimarT iliaseuli poziciis gamosakveTad, siaxlovisa da siSoris Tvalsawieris gasaTvaliswineblad, kontrastuli
Tu monaTesave poziciebis kargad aRsaqmelad amjerad mivmarToT
mxolod erT teqsts, romelic, aseve, ganixilavs romis sakiTxs:
rusi poetis, publicistisa da saxelmwifo moRvawis, fiodor tiutCevis (1803-1873) statia, dawerili 1849 wels, romelic frangulad gamoqveynda saTauriT _ papoba da romis sakiTxi sanqtpeterburgis TvalsazrisiT (teqstis rusul Targmans romis sakiTxi
ewodeba)7. aRsaniSnavia, rom statiis gamoqveynebas didi polemika
mohyva mTeli evropis masStabiT, romelic TiTqmis meoTxedi saukune grZeldeboda8.
gaxmaurebuli statiis ZiriTadi koncefcia esaa (frCxilebSi
miTiTebulia tiutCevis eqvstomeulis III tomis Sesabamisi gverdebi): kaTolikobis mier qristes sauflos amqveyniur sauflod aRiarebam ganapiroba papobis swrafva saero Zalauflebisadmi; am swrafvaTa mimarT reaqcia reformaciur moZraobaSi gamovlinda, reformaciam ki Semoitana Tavdapirvelad antikaTolikuri da Semdgom, Sesabamisad, antieklesiuri muxti; antieklesiurobam male _ saero
sivrceSi _ antiqristianuli tendenciebis saxe miiRo, rac sabolood revoluciuri da liberaluri ideologiiT dagvirgvinda.
SemTxveviTi araa, rom amis gamo tiutCevi erTi wyebis sam rgolze
7

fiodor tiutCevis statia papoba da romis sakiTxi sanqtpeterburgis


TvalsazrisiT (La papaut et la question romaine au point de vue de Saint-Ptersbourg) pirvelad daibeWda frangulad 1850 wlis 1 ianvars, frangul Jurnal
Revues des Deux Mondes-is saaxalwlo nomerSi (Jurnali gamoirCeoda antirevoluciuri da antisocialisturi orientaciiT). rusulad is pirvelad gamoqveynda JurnalSi , 1886, nomeri 5; Targmanis saTauria: romis
sakiTxi (" "). teqstis ukanaskneli akademiuri gamocema ix.:
tiutCevi 2003: 55-74 (frangulad), 158-178 (rusulad).
8
am diskusiis mimoxilva ix.: leini 1988: 236-249; tarasovi 2003: 354-371;
ukanasknel xans gamoqveynebul naSromTagan, romelic tiutCevis am teqsts axleburad aanalizebs, sanimuSod ix.: cimburski 1995: 86-98 (teqsti ganxilulia
rusuli saxelmwifoebriv-imperiuli ideologiis konteqstSi); bezvinski 1997:
113-120 O(teqsti ganxilulia kaTolikuri poziciidan).

dasavluri qristianoba aRmosavluri Tvalsawieridan: `romis sakiTxi~...

137

(163) laparakobs, raSic kaTolikobas _ reformacias _ revolucias gulisxmobs.


Tavad romis sakiTxs tiutCevi niSnebriv movlenad miiCnevs,
radgan, misi azriT, romis sakiTxSi fokusiviT erTmaneTs xvdeba
da Tavs iyris yvela anomalia, yvela winaaRmdegoba da yvela dauZleveli siZnele, rasac ejaxeba dasavleTi evropa (158) da es
SemTxveviTi araa, radgan veravin Seedaveba roms mis sapatio
uflebaSi: Cvens dReebSi, iseve rogorc yovelTvis, swored isaa
dasavluri samyaros safuZveli (158).
pirvel yovlisa, gasaTvaliswinebelia tiutCevis religiuri
pozicia: misi TvalsazrisiT, gardauvali logika amqveyniur movlenebSi RmerTs Seaqvs (158). mas miaCnia, rom swored gangebismierma
logikam warmoSva papobis imdroindeli siZneleni da igi am problemaTa sawyiss, rogorc aRmosavluri saqristianos warmomadgeneli, im ganxeTqilebaSi xedavs, roca, misi sityvebiT, romma gawyvita
bolo rgoli, romelic mas akavSirebda msoflio eklesiis marTlmadideblur gadmocemasTan (161). misi TvalsazrisiT, ufskruli
warmoiSva ara or eklesias Soris, radgan msoflio eklesia erTia,
aramed or samyaros, or, ase vTqvaT, kacobriobas Soris, romelTac
sxvadasxva droSaTa qveS ganagrZes gza (161). mas miaCnia, rom maSin
romis saydari WeSmarit gzas ascda, ramac papoba, aucileblobidan gamomdinare, imdRevandel Sedegebamde miiyvana (162).
magram saqme isaa, rom tiutCevi, dasavluri qristianobis mimarT misi metad kritikuli damokidebulebis miuxedavad, kargad
acnobierebs papobis sulier mniSvnelobas evropis qristianuli
saxis SesanarCuneblad: papoba _ ai, erTaderTi erTgvari sveti,
romelsac avad Tu kargad eyrdnoba dasavleTSi qristianuli Senobis is nawili, rac gadarCa da SenarCunda meTeqvsmete saukunis
didi ngrevisa da mas modevnebuli didi msxvrevebis Semdeg. da ai,
swored am svetis dangrevas apireben axla (159).
rac Seexeba protestantobas, tiutCevis azriT, man Zlivs gaitana
Tavi sami saukunis manZilze da axla is kvdeba uZlurebisagan yvela
qveyanaSi, sadac aqamde batonobda, xolo Tuki is sadme kidev
avlens sicocxlis rame niSanwyals, es gamovlena miiswrafvis romTan
SesaerTeblad (158). swored protestantobam, eklesiis avtoritetis uaryofiT, daiwyo is procesi, romelmac evropaSi antiqristianuli sawyisi Semoitana: protestantizmis mier gaxvretili am
rRveuliT, ase vTqvaT, aracnobierad, mogvianebiT dasavlur sazogadoebaSi antiqristianuli sawyisi SemoiWra (164), radgan, eklesi-

138

merab RaRaniZe

is samoZRvro winamZRolobis gareSe, Tavis nebaze miSvebuli adamianuri me Tavisi arsiT antiqristianulia (164).
bunebrivia, aseve miuRebelia tiutCevisaTvis safrangeTis revolucia da misi faseulobebi, ufro metic, _ swored aq xedavs igi
evropis sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi antiqristianul nakadTa saZirkvels (164-165).
roca saxelmwifo acxadebs, rom mas ara aqvs religia, es, rusi
poetisa da publicistis azriT, Sefarulad (da xan araSefaruladac) imasac metyvelebs, rom aseTi saxelmwifo Tavisi arsiT araqristianulia (165), radgan, roca qristianobisagan miudgomlobas moikiTxaven, amiT misgan qristianobis uaryofas moiTxoven (166). Tanamedrove saxelmwifo krZalavs saxelmwifo religias mxolod imitom,
rom mas aqvs sakuTari religia: revolucia (167), papobasa da am
sawyiss Soris ki SeuZlebelia rame garigeba, radgan es iqneboda
ara ubralod Zalauflebis daTmoba, aramed namdvili gandgomiloba (167). revoluciur partias papoba Tavis pirad mtrad miaCnia,
imitom rom masSi qristianul sawyiss xedavs (172). Tu saxelmwifos revolucionerebi xelmZRvaneloben, amgvari saxelmwifo Tavis
ideologias antiqristianul, warmarTul sawyisebze afuZnebs, xolo
papis mxriv revolucionerTa mimarT daTmoba da arareligiuri,
sekularuli saxelmwifos ideologiis gaziareba gandgomilobisa
da Ralatis (176) tolfasi iqneba.
sxvaTa Soris, evropaSi eklesiis devnasTan akavSirebs tiutCevi iezuitebis devnas, romelTac, _ maT mimarT sakuTari arcTu
simpaTiuri ganwyobis miuxedavad, _ miiCnevs adamianebad, romlebic
aRsavseni arian mgznebare, daucxromeli, xSirad gmiruli TavdadebiT qristianuli saqmis mimarT (170), xolo am saxelganTqmuli
ordenis apologiaTa Soris, ra Tqma unda, yvelaze metyveli da
damajerebeli is gaafTrebuli da Seurigebeli siZulvilia, romelic mis mimarT aqvT qristianuli religiis mtrebs (169).
tiutCevis statia mainc mkrTali imediT mTavrdeba: erTi mxriv,
mas SeuZleblad miaCnia, qristianebs avukrZaloT eimedebodeT, rom
RmerTi inebebs Tavisi eklesiis Zalebis Sewonadebas misTvis gankuTvnili axali amocanisaTvis (177), xolo am eklesiad ki antiqristianuli ganwyobebiT mocul evropaSi mas romis eklesia miaCnia,
radgan ar eeWveba, rom qristianuli sawyisi arasodes gamqrala
romis eklesiaSi (177); meore mxriv, es aris imedi ruseTisa, misi
gansakuTrebuli misiisa qristianuli samyaros winaSe, da, amave dros,
imedi piradad ruseTis xelmwifisa. am imedis macned mas romSi,

dasavluri qristianoba aRmosavluri Tvalsawieridan: `romis sakiTxi~...

139

wmida petres bazilikaSi, wmida petres saflavTan daCoqili ruseTis imperatori miaCnia (imperatori nikoloz I 1846 wels stumrobda roms). poetsa da di plomats misi iq yofna _ marTlmadidebeli imperatoris gamoCena romSi mravalsaukunovani aryofnis
Semdeg! (178) _ providenciul movlenad miaCnia: muxlmoyrili
imperatori iq marto ar iyo _ masTan erTad daCoqili imyofeboda
mTeli ruseTi. imedi viqonioT, rom mas fuWad ar ulocia wmida
nawilebis winaSe (178).
amgvari aramkafio, bundovanebiT moculi sityvebiT sruldeba
fiodor tiutCevis Sexedulebani romis sakiTxisa da, ufro farTod, romis eklesiis Sesaxeb, sadac mkafiod Cans avtoris aRmosavlurqristianuli TvalTaxedva.
4
romis sakiTxis gamo ilia WavWavaZisa da fiodor tiutCevis poziciaTa Sedarebisas, pirvel yovlisa, aRsaniSnavia qronologiuri gansxvaveba: rusi poetis teqsti dawerilia maSin, 1849
wels, roca papis saeklesio saxelmwifo jerxnobiT myarad dgas
da win Tavisi arsebobis ori aTeuli weli elis, magram misi erTi
didi Seryeva statiis werisas sul axali, ramdenime Tvis winandeli ambavia: revolucionerTa mier romSi respublikis gamocxadeba,
garibaldis wiTelperangosanTa razmebis mxriv maTi SeiaraRebuli mxardaWera, papis ltolva romidan da Semdgom misi dabruneba
safrangeTis jarebis daxmarebiT, papis saxelmwifos Zalauflebis
aRdgena. xolo roca ilia wers romis sakiTxze, maSin es saxelmwifo ukve gauqmebulia da paps Tavi vatikanis tyved aqvs gamocxadebuli (Tumca aRsaniSnavia, rom ilias bolo statia romis
papebis brZola Zveli didebis aRsadgenad swored im wels _ 1886
wels _ gamoqveynda, roca ruseTSi tiutCevis statiis rusuli
Targmani daibeWda).
iliaca da tiutCevic romis eklesiasa da romis saydars
aRmosavleTidan uyureben, Tundac geografiulad. miuxedavad imisa,
rom cxovrebis didi nawili _ 22 weliwadi _ tiutCevma evropaSi
gaatara, Tavisi am statiis dawerisa da gamoqveynebisas igi ukve
ruseTSi cxovrobda da imperiis saxelmwifo moxeled msaxurobda.
da mainc, rusi poeti evropas uSualod icnobda da evropuli
wyaroebiTac pirdapir sargeblobda, ilias statiebi ki ucxoeTis
Sesaxeb, ra Tqma unda, meore xelis informacias eyrdnoba.

140

merab RaRaniZe

umTavresi msgavseba iliasa da tiutCevs Soris isaa, _ aRmosavluri TvalsawierisaTvis ganmsazRvreli, _ rom orive metad kritikulad arian ganwyobili romis saydrisa da papobis mimarT
(ilia _ kidev ufro metad9) da maTs arc erT teqstSi simpaTiis
wveTic ar Jonavs, Tumca maTi es damokidebuleba gansxvavebul ideur
wanamZRvrebs emyareba (amitom iliaseuli negatiuri paTosi TvalSisacemad naklebadaa ganpirobebuli aRmosavluri xedviT). magram
jer gasaTvaliswinebelia gansxvavebaTa gareSe mizezebic da garemoebanic: roca ilia werda statiebs romis sakiTxis irgvliv,
misTvis isini arsebiTi mniSvnelobis teqstebi ar yofila da, faqtobrivad, misi gansazRvruli mizani iyo mkiTxvelisaTvis sazRvargareTis siaxleTa miwodeba (Tundac _ da Tumca _ es teqstebi
ideologiurad Sekazmuli da, Sesabamisad, ideologiurad metyveli
iyos), tiutCevi ki _ rusi publicisti da saxelmwifo moxele _
Tavis statias did sazogadoebriv (da piradad _ aRmsareblobiT)
mniSvnelobas aniWebs, radgan am furclebze, erTi mxriv, rusul
saxelmwifoebriv pozicias gamoxatavs, meore mxriv ki, sakuTar konfesiur, ideur da politikur Tvalsawiers ayalibebs, Tavis gulisnadebs amxels, rac, sxvaTa Soris, amgvaradve aRiqva rusulma Tu
evropulma sazogadoebrivma azrma da swored amitomac mas xangrZlivi da safuZvliani saerTaSoriso diskusia mohyva (ix. leini
1988).
amas garda, qarTveli avtoris xedviT, sakiTxi arafriT exeba
mis samSoblos (nimuSadac ki ar gamodgeba!), xolo rusi avtori
darwmunebulia, rom misi samSoblosa da am qveynis adgilisa Tu
misiisaTvis msoflioSi sakiTxi metad angariSgasawevia.
gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom romis sakiTxis Sesaxeb msjelobisas iliasaTvis sakiTxis gadawyvetaa princi puli, tiutCevisaTvis
princi pulia Tavad sakiTxi. ilias yuradRebas i pyrobs, Tu rogor
gadawydeba sasuliero da saero ZalauflebaTa daZabuli urTierToba, tiutCevs aRelvebs romis saydris raoba da mniSvneloba, misi
warsuli da momavali.
magram mainc, mTavari, rac qarTvel da rus poets erTmaneTisagan ganasxvavebs, maTi imJamindeli ideuri sayrdenebia: iliaseuli
kritika marcxena poziciidan xorcieldeba, tiutCevisa _ mar-

9
sagangebo kvlevis gareSe Zneli saTqmelia, ramdenad ireklavs ilias amgvari
pozicia qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azris saerTo ganwyobilebas. Sdr. Tundac
akaki wereTlis SemTxveva (moiswrafiSvili 2002: 44-48).

dasavluri qristianoba aRmosavluri Tvalsawieridan: `romis sakiTxi~...

141

jvnidan; qarTveli publicisti liberalur safuZvelze dgas, rusi


_ konservatiulze; pirveli samyarosac da romis sakiTxsac sekularuli Tvalsawieridan xedavs, meore _ religiuridan.
iliasaTvis miuRebelia wmida saydris, rogorc damoukidebeli
saxelmwifos, arseboba, raSic igi imgvar _ saSiSar _ Zalauflebas xedavs, romelic italiis saero xelisuflebis qmedebaTa Tavisuflebas SezRudavs; tiutCevisaTvisac miuRebelia wmida saydris
saero Zalaufleba, magram mizezi isaa, rom papebis swrafva Zalauflebisadmi mas qristes mier naqadagebi, saxarebiseuli RmrTis
samefos Ralatad miaCnia. misi TvalsazrisiT, romis eklesia politikuri dawesebuleba, politikuri Zala gaxda da igic, iseve
rogorc SemdgomSi ilia, romis saydars moixseniebs saxelmwifod
saxelmwifoSi (tiutCevi 2003: 163; Sdr. WavWavaZe 2005: 379).
rac ilias papis sijiuted, axirebulobad da Wirveulobad
miaCnia, _ sakuTari saxelmwifosa da eklesiis damoukideblobis
SenarCunebisaTvis brZola, revolucionerTa mimarT dauTmobloba,
sekularuli saxelmwifos ideologiis miuRebloba, _ tiutCevis
azriT, papis bunebrivi movaleobaa, metic, nebismieri sxvagvari qceva
qristianul Rirebulebebze uaris Tqma da gandgomiloba iqneboda.
ilia, gansxvavebiT tiutCevisagan, saerTod ar exeba saukunovan
gamijvnas aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis qristianul samyaroebs
Soris, ar ganixilavs maTs dogmatur-eklesiologiur sxvaobebs,
aranair braldebad ar uyenebs roms bizantiuri tradiciis qristianobisagan daSorebas. magram, amave dros, ilia ugulebelyofs
dasavlurqristianul _ romaul-kaTolikur _ tradiciul xedvas
da evropuli liberalizmis Tvalsazriss iziarebs; tiutCevi upirispirdeba evropul liberalur Tvalsazriss da aRmosavlurqristianul _ bizantiur-rusul _ tradiciul xedvas irCevs.
amasaTanave, ilia, _ da am SemTxvevaSic igi gansxvavdeba tiutCevisagan, _ arc luTersa da misgan agizgizebul protestantobas, arc
safrangeTis revolucias, arc evropul revoluciur moZraobebs ar
ganixilavs tradiciuli qristianuli, miT umetes, eklesiuri cnobierebis poziciidan. Tu tiutCevisaTvis protestantoba dasavleT
evropaSi antiqristianuli nakadis saTave da sawyisia, ilia Seufaravi simpaTiiT laparakobs luTeruli reformaciis Sesaxeb.
rogorc konteqstidan Cans, ilia TanagrZnobiT imowmebs italieli
politikosis sityvebs, sadac, Tavisuflebis saxarebad, sagulveblad, safrangeTis (didi revolucis) dedaazrebi (WavWavaZe 1997:
96) cxaddeba (rac, sxvaTa Soris, sruliad sekularuli formu-

142

merab RaRaniZe

lirebaa: revoluciuri faseulobebi Caenacvleba saxarebas!10), tiutCevisaTvis ki safrangeTis revolucia antiqristianul ZalTa aRzevebaa
da mas araferi aqvs saerTo saxarebasTan.
isic aRsaniSnavia, rom iliaca da tiutCevic kargad icnobdnen
epoqiseul antiqristianul nakadebsa da qrolvebs, cxadad acnobierebdnen evropaSi momZlavrebul antiqristianul ZalTa Semtev
swrafvebs11.
rac Seexeba romis sakiTxs, _ kerZod, viwro mniSvnelobiT, _
ilia yovelTvis TanagrZnobiT wers italiis revoluciuri moZraobis,
misi beladebis, italiis gaerTianebis gamo. marTalia, maSin, roca
tiutCevi werda Tavis statias, romi jer isev damoukidebeli saeklesio saxelmwifo iyo, magram Zneli warmosadgeni araa, Tu vis
dauWerda mxars rusi publicisti SemdgomSi _ mefe viqtor emanuel II-is jarebis mier romis okupaciisa da italiis gaerTianebuli saxelmwifos dedaqalaqad misi gamocxadebis Semdeg.
da kidev: tiutCevis statiaSi, gansakuTrebiT mis finalSi, aSkarad
Jonavs rusuli saxelmwifo ideologiisaTvis fundamenturi idea
_ mesame romis idea, miuxedavad imisa, rom es cneba aq naxsenebi
araa. poeti da publicisti mkrTalad mianiSnebs, rom mxolod
ruseTis SemweobiT SeZlebs evropa da romis eklesia Tavis qristianul ZirebTan dabrunebas. SemTxveviTi arc is iyo, rom im gamoxmaurebebSi, rac tiutCevis am statias mohyva, es Temebi (ruseTi
rogorc memkvidre romisa da axali romisa anu bizantiisa; ruseTi rogorc msoflios momavali mxsneli) bunebrivad JRerda tiutCeviseuli koncefciis rogorc momxreTa, ise mowinaaRmdegeTa Soris
(ix. leini 1988; cimburski 1995; tarasovi 2003). xolo axali
romis is qarTuli idea, romelic mkrTalad Rvioda konstantinopolis 1204 wlis dacemis Semdeg Tamarisdoindeli saqarTvelos
saxelmwifoebriv politikasa Tu ideologiaSi12, ukve mTlianad Camkvdara ruseTis imperiis guberniebad qceuli qveynis sazogadoebriv
10

ilias adreul leqsSic qarTvlis dedas (1858) safrangeTis revoluciis


devizi _ Zmoba, erToba, Tavisufleba (Libert, galit, fraternit: Tavisufleba,
Tanasworoba, Zmoba) _ miCneulia qristes mcnebad.
11
ilia rom kargad icnobda am nakads, isic metyvelebs, rom igi jer kidev 60ian wlebSi Sesdgomia evropuli Tu rusuli antiqristianuli mimarTulebis
imgvari fuZemdebluri teqstebis Targmnas qarTulad, rogorebicaa baironis
kaeni da manfredi an lermontovis demoni (WavWavaZe 1988: 63-67).
12
ix. Tundac ioane SavTeliseuli axalo romo! (SavTeli 1964: 152).

dasavluri qristianoba aRmosavluri Tvalsawieridan: `romis sakiTxi~...

143

cnobierebaSi. am dros romis ideas Znelad TuRa daukavSirebs vinme


qarTul ideas13.
5
G dabolos, ilia WavWavaZec da fiodor tiutCevic, miuxedavad
imisa, rom maTs SemoqmedebiT cxovrebaSi uzarmazari adgili eTmoboda publicistur saqmianobas, poetebi iyvnen. amitom, SemTxveviTi
araa, rom orive maTganis poeziaSic _ Tundac iribad _ asaxula is
Tema, romelsac maT TavianTi politikuri publicistikis zemore
ganxiluli furclebi miuZRvnes.
qarTul literaturismcodneobaSi karga xania ganmtkicda
Tvalsazrisi, rom ilia WavWavaZis leqsi mesmis, mesmis (1860)
exmaureba italiis ganmaTavisuflebel moZraobas da eZRvneba italiuri revoluciisa da romis sakiTxis erT-erT protagonists
juzepe garibaldis (1807-1882).
ilias simpaTia mis mimarT, romelsac poeti mTeli cxovrebis
manZilze inarCunebda, dadasturebulia memuarul wyaroebSi:
Tavadi koxta abxazi: (1838-1913), kaxeli memamule, ilias megobari: [ilia] aRmerTebda garibaldis (leoniZe 1935: 564; abxazi
1987: 183).
dekanozi nikoloz naTiZe (1862-1921), mRvdelmsaxuri da
mwerali, romelic sakuTar mxatvrul nawerebs fsevdonim melanias fsevdonimiT aqveynebda: [iliam] merme miambo: erT dros
(ymawvilobaSio) davapire berad Sedgomao, Zriel momwonda myudro,
gandegili cxovrebao, magram raca garibaldma [sic!] daiwyo Tavisi
moqmedebao, beroba gadavifiqre da davapire volontiorad masTan
wasvlao. Semdeg, raca studentur cxovrebaSi gavexvie, veRar Sevasrule es ganzraxvao (leoniZe 1935: 573).
grigol yifSiZe (1856-1921), ilias TanamSromeli da pirveli biografi: ilias gatacebac garibaldis didebul moRvaweobiT
da Tavgamodebul brZoliT Cagrul erTa ganTavisuflebisaTvis advili
warmosadgenia. garibaldis saxeli da mamacoba ise hxiblavda maSindel Segnebul axalgazrdobas, rom ilias survili volonterad
wasvlisa gasakvirveli arafriT ar unda iyos (yifSiZe 1987: 39);
13

qarTuli ideis Sesaxeb da misi dakavSireba uSualod romTan, axali romis


_ bizantinizmis daZlevis winapirobiT, Tumca mesame romis ideis qarTul
konotaciaTa gareSe: ix. akaki baqraZis statia daviwyebuli idea (baqraZe 2004:
454-478).

144

merab RaRaniZe

ilia studentobaSi ise, rogorc Semdegac, didi liberali yofila.


[...]Tayvansa scemda garibaldisac, am daCagrul erTa dids mosarClesa da moamages. garibaldis didi suraTi Semdegac sikvdilamde
ganuSorebeli samkauli iyo mis samuSao oTaxisa14 (yifSiZe 1987:
49).
grigol yifSiZe kargad warmoaCens, Tu ras niSnavda imdroindeli liberaluri axalgazrdobisaTvis garibaldis saxeli, romelic
gaigivebuli iyo Cagrul erTa ganTavisuflebasTan. misi popularoba ar klebulobda aTwleulobis manZilze da bevrgan igi miCneuli iyo, erTi mxriv, ubralo xalxis damcvelad, meore mxriv ki,
italiis ganmaTavisufleblad. TavisTavad es daxasiaTebac sakmaod
moikoWlebs sizustiT (radgan italiis istoriis zogierT furcelze garibaldis wiTelperangosani razmebi damrbevTa da moZaladeTa saxiTaa Cawerili da istoriuladac XIX saukuneSi xorcieldeboda italiis ufro gaerTianeba, vidre gaTavisufleba!), magram, amas garda, savaraudoa, rom qarTul sazogadoebaSi, saerTod,
naklebad iyo cnobili juzepe garibaldis politikuri an, miT
umetes, misi religiuri Sexedulebani. faqtebi metyvelebs, rom igi
xSirad icvlida Tavis damokidebulebas sazogadoebriv sakiTxTa
mimarT, _ magaliTad, erTxans igi mtkice respublikeli iyo, magram,
amas misTvis xeli ar SeuSlia, politikuri mosazrebiT, SemdgomSi
demonstraciulad daeWira mxari savoiis dinastiis italiis samefo ojaxisaTvis. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom erTi is umTavresi, risTvisac
igi Tavs ar zogavda da rasac ucvlel cxovrebiseul miznad miiCnevda, papis Zalauflebis aRkveTa iyo. rogorc Cans, mis am daJinebul damokidebulebas ganapirobebda is mkafio antieklesiuroba,
sastiki antiklerikalizmi,
papobis mZafri miuRebloba, rac
dasayrdens mis msoflmxedvelobaSi povebda: igi yovelTvis Riad
aRiarebda aTeizms da 1882 wels, sicocxlis miwuruls, werda:
adamianma Seqmna RmerTi da ara RmerTma _ adamiani!. garibaldi
aqtiuri da qmediTi masoni iyo, _ marTalia, igi nakleb mniSvnelobas
aniWebda masonTa Tavyrilobebis ritualur mxares, magram mtkiced
sjeroda, rom masonuri qseli gaaerTianebda msoflios progresul (ra Tqma unda, antieklesiur) adamianebs rogorc sxvadasxva
14

sxva wyaroebi ilias kabinetSi garibaldis biustis Sesaxeb laparakobs: ix.


ekaterine gabaSvilisa da iona meunargias mogonebani (WavWavaZe 1987: 382; meunargia 1957: 37).

dasavluri qristianoba aRmosavluri Tvalsawieridan: `romis sakiTxi~...

145

erovnul erTobliobebSi, ise kacobriobis sayovelTao mTlianobaSi15. patiosnad unda iTqvas, rom Zneli saTqmelia, ramdenad icnobda
ilia an misi garemo garibaldis cxovrebisa da saqmianobis am
mxares, anda mis Sexedulebebsa da religiur arCevans.
rac Seexeba sakiTxs, STagonebulia Tu ara mesmis, mesmis
juzepe garibaldis pirovnebiT, aRsaniSnavia, rom arc erTi memuaristi, romelic ki garibaldis mimarT ilias damokidebulebas ixsenebs, molodinis miuxedavad, aranairad ar moixseniebs am leqss.
mosazrebas, rom mesmis, mesmis garibaldis eZRvneba, erTaderTi
wyaro aqvs: Rrmad moxuci niko nikolaZis zepiri mogoneba, romelsac imowmebs pavle ingoroyva. cnobilia, rom leqsi Tavdapirvelad
nikolaZiseuli krebulis 1-el nomerSi dabeWdila 1871 wels.
gamoqveynebul teqsts am gamocemaSi erTvis minaweri: es leqsi
glexebis ganTavisuflebis dros ekuTvnis, Tumca pavle ingoroyvas
gadmocemiT, JurnalSi es SeniSvna cenzurisTvis Tvalis asaxvevad
nikolaZes miuweria, romlisTvisac manamde ilias uTqvams, rom mesmis, mesmis garibaldis exeba (WavWavaZe 1951: 381-382; WavWavaZe
1987: 382). unda iTqvas, rom teqstis saxeobrivi suraTi (xalxT
borkilis xma mtvrevisa, simarTlis xma qveynada hquxs, moneba)
ar iZleva aSkara miniSnebas, romelic calsaxad aRniSnavdes italiis gaerTianebisaTvis brZolas anda 1860 wlis garibaldismier
aqtebs, kerZod, mesinis aRebas, siciliidan apeninis naxevarkunZulze
gadasxdomas da neapolis samefo jarebis damarcxebas, rac pavle
ingoroyvam leqsis daweris biZgad da sababad miiCnia (WavWavaZe
1951: 382)16, miT umetes, rom Setevac kontinentis mimarTulebiT da
neapolis aRebac 1860 wlis agvisto-seqtemberSi ganxorcielda,
ilias leqsi ki avtoris mier 1860 wlis 29 ivlisiT aris daTariRebuli17.
15

garibaldis asobiT biografiidan davasaxelebT erT-erT ukanasknels, oneto


jilbertos wigns: zeitalieli: gmiri Tu aramzada? juzepe garibaldis biografia cenzuraTa gareSe (jilberto 2006).
16
Sdr. ilia WavWavaZis pavle ingoroyvaseuli biografia (ingoroyva 1957: 60-61).
17
niko nikolaZis zepir mogonebaze damyarebuli pavle ingoroyvaseuli Tvalsazrisis gaCenamde, leqss, rogorc Cans, aravin ukavSirebda garibaldis saxels,
Tumca Tavad ingoroyva darwmunebulia, rom misi TeoriiT ispoba is miTi,
romelic gavrcelebulia Cvens mwerlobaSi, TiTqos leqsi mesmis, mesmis glexTa
ganTavisuflebas exebodes; amis Sesaxeb bevrjer Tqmula, zogjer sayveduriTac
ilias mimarT, rom poeti ukan CamorCa faqtebs, da rom es leqsi glexTa
ganTavisuflebaze mxolod maSin daibeWda, 1871-Si, roca glexoba uke ganTavisuflebuli iyoo... (WavWavaZe 1951: 382).

146

merab RaRaniZe

SesaZloa, ilias poziciis gasagebad ufro arsebiTi da niSneuli iyos naTiZiseuli mogoneba, romelSic TiTqos sagangebod asaxula paradigmuli (aSkarad ideuri!) dapirispireba _ cxovrebiseuli arCevani, romlis winaSe Wabuki ilia, misive sityvebiT, imJamad
mdgara: arCevani monazvnobasa da garibaldielobas Soris. aRsaniSnavia, rom grigol yifSiZe sruliad sarwmunod miiCnevs ilias
ganzraxvas, volonterad ebrZola garibaldielebTan, Tumca odnavi
gakvirvebiT, Tundac melaniaseuli cnobis am mwerlis pirovnul
sandoobaze sruli dayrdnobiT, moixseniebs ilias survils, Sesdgomoda bermonazvnobis gzas (yifSiZe 1987: 39). rogorc viciT,
iliam aRar ganaxorciela Tavisi Canafiqri, Caweriliyo garibaldielTa razmebSi, magram es ar niSnavda, rom man uari Tqva im liberalur da sekularul faseulobebze, romlis gansaxierebasac misTvis da misi wrisaTvis juzepe garibaldi warmoadgenda.
ilias mesmis, mesmis 1860 welsaa dawerili da is 1871 wels
gamoqveynda. qarTveli poetisa da publicistis leqsis daweridan
oTxi wlis Semdeg da gamoqveynebamde Svidi wliT adre _ 1864
wels _ fiodor tiutCevi wers leqss Encyclica, romelSic rusi
poeti da publicisti kidev erTxel adasturebs Tavis damokidebulebas papobis mimarT _ mis mZafr da mwvave miuReblobas: igi
ficxlad, sul ramdenime dRis Semdeg, exmaureba papis, pius IX-is,
antiliberalur enciklikas, Quanta Cura-s, romelic 1864 wlis 8
dekembers gamoqveynda da romelsac Tan erTvoda Syllabus Errorum
_ epoqis oTxmoci cdomilebis nusxa, romelTa Soris moxseniebulia panTeizmi, naturalizmi, racionalizmi, indiferentizmi, socializmi, komunizmi, masonoba da religiur TavisuflebaTa sxvadasxva
gamovlinebebi. papi acxadebda, rom inteleqtualur, moralur da
sazogadoebriv wyobaSi adamianisaTvis absoluturi avtonomiis
miniWebiT liberalizmi uaryofs, _ yovel SemTxvevaSi, praqtikulad,
_ RmerTsa da zebunebriv religias, rasac logikurad mohyveba
Tavad RmrTis Teoriuli uaryofa da mis adgilas gaRmerTebuli
adamianis moTavseba.
enciklika gamoqveynebisTanave aikrZala ruseTSi, safrangeTSi,
italiis im miwebze, sadac imjerad mefobda viqtor emanuel II18...
Zneli dasajerebelia, magram anti papuri suliskveTebiT agznebuli
da papobis mimarT sul ufro metad Seurigebeli tiutCevisaTvisac,
18

romelsac aRtacebiT moixseniebda ilia (ix. zemore) da ase axasiaTebda: iyo


friad mtkice aRmasrulebeli konstituciisa (WavWavaZe 1997: 178).

dasavluri qristianoba aRmosavluri Tvalsawieridan: `romis sakiTxi~...

147

romelic msoflmxedvelobiT arasodes yofila liberali, romis


eklesiis pozicia am SemTxvevaSic miuRebeli aRmoCnda: Tavis leqsSi igi gmobs gandgomil romsa da qristes crunacvals da
romis saydars imgvarsave momavals uqadis, rac ierusalemis iudevelTa taZars ergo. Encyclica poetiseuli damuqrebiT mTavrdeba:
papobis daRupvis sawindari misi is sabediswero sityva iqneba,
rom sindisis Tavisufleba bodvaa ( :
!).
amjerad fiodor tiutCevica da ilia WavWavaZec papobisa da
misi samoZRvro swavlebis miuReblobaSi Tanamoazreni aRmoCndnen _
liberaluri poziciidan!
1870 wels vatikanis I kreba (kaTolikuri samyarosaTvis is
XX msoflio krebadaa miCneuli) amtkicebs axal dogmas papis
ucdomlobis Sesaxeb sarwmunoebisa da zneobis sakiTxebSi19. am
dogmis gamocxadebis erTi wlisTavze, 1871 wlis ivlisSi, fiodor
tiutCevi wers leqss vatikanuri wlisTavi (
). papobisa da, kerZod, axali dogmis mimarT mrisxanebiTa
da SeupovrobiT gamsWvalul am inveqtivaSi, sadac poeziisaTvis
arcTu Cveuli dauokebeli Zagebis korianteli dgas, poeti saaugo
sityvebs ar iSurebs romis episkoposis mimarT: paps braldeba
RmrTismgmobloba, mkrexeloba, sibilwe, aTaswlovani sicrue, macduroba, sakuTari Tavis RmerTad da RmerTkacad gamocxadeba, igi
miCneulia borot ZalTa saTamaSod da msxverplad, wodebulia vatikanel dalai lamad da, bolos, gancxadebulia, rom igi araa
mowodebuli qristes nacvlad ( ).
poetis TvalsazrisiT, Tavisi am nabijiT _ romis pirvelmoZRvris
ucdomlobis aRiarebiT _ papma uZiro sicarieleSi gadaabija.
zemore ukve naCvenebia, rom arc ilia Sexvedria TanagrZnobiT
romis eklesiis axali doRmatis dadgenas, magram saqme isaa, rom
misTvis es dogma miuRebelia imdenad, ramdenadac masSi igi papebis
saero Zalaflebis aRdgenis mcdelobas xedavs, Tumca iqve _ mrisxanebis gareSe _ ironiulad SeniSnavs, rom amiT bevri ara eSvela ra
yvelasagan ganwiruls papobas (WavWavaZe 2006: 378).

19

am dogmis Tanaxmad, roca papi, rogorc romis pirvelmoZRvari, Tavisi kaTedridan metyvelebs, _ ese igi, roca yvela qristianis mwyemsisa da moZRvris
msaxurebis aRsrulebisas, Tavisi umaRlesi mociqulebrivi Zalauflebis RirsebiT, mTeli eklesiisaTvis gansazRvravs moZRvrebas sarwmunoebis an zneobis
Sesaxeb, _ romis pirvelmoZRvris amgvari gansazRvrebani ucdomelia.

148

merab RaRaniZe

magram Tu 1864 wlis enciklikis _ Quanta Cura-s _ winaaRmdeg fiodor tiutCevma imave liberaluri poziciidan gailaSqra,
rogorzec ilia WavWavaZe imyofeboda wlebis ganmavlobaSi, maSin,
roca qarTveli poeti Tavis statiaSi, xolo rusi poeti Tavis
leqsSi mZafrad uaryofiTad afasebdnen romis eklesiis mier 1870
wels papis ucdomlobis dogmis gamocxadebas, isini isev daSordnen
erTmaneTs: axali dogmis iliaseuli kritika isev sekularulia,
tiutCevisa _ isev religiuri.
karga xania, aRar dgas romis sakiTxi, _ politikur ganzomilebaSi is aTwleulebis winaT gadaiWra, _ Tumca masTan ganuyrelad
dakavSirebuli ideuri Tvalsawieris, arCevanis, orientaciis sakiTxebi isev kiTxvebad rCeba. maTze pasuxebis Ziebisas vinZlo ilia
WavWavaZisa da fiodor tiutCevis politikur publicistikaSi, anda
maTs poeziaSi asaxuli da gamJRavnebuli mimarTulebani imgvari
mimaniSnebeli aRmoCndes, romelic Tundac saqarTvelos, Tundac ruseTis
sazogadoebrivi cnobierebisaTvis momavlis niSansvetebad, _ zog
SemTxvevaSi gzis gasayolad, zog SemTxvevaSi gzis uarsayofad, _
gamodgeba.

Dliteratura
abxazi 1987: abxazi k. [mogonebani ilias Sesaxeb], ilia: mogonebebi

gardasul dReTa, Tb.: merani, 1987.


baqraZe 2004: baqraZe a. Txzulebani, t. II, Tb.: nekeri _ lomisi,
2004.
bezvinski 1997: Bezwiski A. Kilka uwag do artykuu Fiodora Tiutczewa
Papiestwo i kwestia rzymska, Sowianie wschodni, Krakow, 1997.
ingoroyva 1957: ingoroyva p. ilia WavWavaZe: narkvevi, Tb.: saxelmw.
gam-ba, 1957.
l e i n i 1 9 8 8 : .
1840- 1850 , , . 97, . I / . .
, .: , 1988.
leoniZe 1935: leoniZe g. masalebi ilia WavWavaZis biografiisaTvis,
literaturuli memkvidreoba, w. I, tf.: sax. un-tis gamomc.,
1935.
meunargia 1957: meunargia i. qarTveli mwerlebi, II, samecn.-meTod.
kabinetis gam-ba, 1957.

dasavluri qristianoba aRmosavluri Tvalsawieridan: `romis sakiTxi~...

149

moiswrafiSvili 2002: moiswrafiSvili T. akaki wereTeli da


qarTveli kaTolikeebi, saqarTvelo da qristianuli dasavleT
evropis urTierToba, [baTumi], 2000.
tarasovi 2003: .. , . .
: 6 . . 3.
, .: , 2003.
tiutCevi 2003: . .
: 6 . . 3. , .:
, 2003.
yifSiZe 1987: yifSiZe g. ilia WavWavaZe 1837-1907 (biografia),
ilia: mogonebebi gardasul dReTa, Tb.: merani, 1987.
SavTeli 1964: Zveli qarTveli mexotbeni, II: ioane SavTeli,
abdulmesiani, Tb: mecniereba, 1964.
cimburski 1995: .. ,
, 1995, 6.
WavWavaZe 1929: WavWavaZe i. nawerebis sruli krebuli [aT tomad],
t. X, tf.: qarTuli wigni, 1929.
WavWavaZe 1951: WavWavaZe i. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad,
t. I, Tb.: saxelmw. gam-ba, 1952.
WavWavaZe 1952: WavWavaZe i. Txzulebani: sruli krebuli xuT
tomad, t. III, Tb.: saxelmw. gam-ba, 1952.
WavWavaZe 1957: WavWavaZe i. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad,
t. 9, Tb.: saxelms. gam-ba, 1957.
WavWavaZe 1987: WavWavaZe i. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli oc
tomad, tomi I, Tb.: mecniereba, 1987.
WavWavaZe 1988: WavWavaZe i. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli oc
tomad, tomi III, Tb.: mecniereba, 1988.
WavWavaZe 1997: WavWavaZe i. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli oc
tomad, tomi VI, Tb.: mecniereba, 1997.
WavWavaZe 2005: WavWavaZe i. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli oc
tomad, tomi VII, Tb.: ilias fondi, 2005.
WavWavaZe 2006: WavWavaZe i. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli oc
tomad, tomi IX, Tb.: ilias fondi, 2006.
jilberto 2006: Gilberto O. L'Iperitaliano. Eroe o cialtrone? Biografia
senza censure di Giuseppe Garibaldi, Rimini: Il Cerchio, 2006.

150

merab RaRaniZe

Merab Ghaghanidze

The Western Christianity from the Point of View of the


Orient The Roman Question in the Political Articles
by Ilia Chavchavadze and by Fyodor Tyutchev
The Roman Question was a political dispute between the Italian Government and the Papacy and this question didnt lose its actuality during the whole
second half of the 19th century. The Roman Question began when Rome was
declared Capital of Italy (1861). After the occupation of Rome by Royal Army
of the Italian Kingdom (1870) this situation made more critical.
Ilia Chavchavadze and Fyodor Tyutchev had writeen some several articles
on this problem. Both of them were poets and so they reflexed it in their poetry
also. The position of Tyutchev is based on the Eastern Christian tradition, the
position of Ilia Chavchavadze is more nearer to the liberal attitude. Both of them
are very critical towards to the Papacy, but their points of view are different.

151

k u l t u r i s

s e m i o t i k a

nino abakelia
daimonebi qarTul
miTo-ritualur sistemaSi

istoriis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis
saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul
mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori. iv. javaxiSvilis
sax. istoriisa da eTnologiis institutis
mTavari mecnieri TanamSromeli.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:

., . 1991.
simbolo da rituali
qarTul kulturaSi, Tb.,
1997.
interesTa sfero:
kulturuli anTropologia, semiotika, uZveles
kulturaTa kvlevebi,
miTologia da religiebis istoria, analizuri fsiqologia, literaturis istoria, musika, xelovnebis istoria.

`daimonebi berZnuli warmomavlobis


terminia da zebunebriv arsebebs, sulebs
niSnavs. Tavdapirvelad isini moiazrebodnen,
rogorc keTili, boroti an neitraluri
arsebebi, romlebic sakralursa da profanul, e.i. transcendentursa da warmaval sferoebs Soris Suamavlobdnen.
daimonebis moqmedebis sfero miTologiaa (miTologia, rogorc pirvelqmnili realobis narativi b. malinovskiseuli gagebiT), xolo tradiciul miTologias, j. kempbelis ganmartebiT, oTxi funqcia
aqvs,
romelTagan pirveli cnobierebis SeTanxmeba,
Serigebaa sakuTari arsebobis winapirobebTan
(mistikuri an metafizikuri funqcia); meore _ samyaros saxis, kosmologiuri saxis
gamoxatvaa, gadmocemaa, romelSic yvelaferi
erTi didi sakraluri suraTis, xatis nawilad unda moiazrebodes (kosmologiuri
funqcia); mesame tradiciuli funqciaa,
specifikuri socialuri wesrigis ganmtkiceba da SenarCuneba. igi xsnis da amarTlebs
moralur kods, rogorc upirobo konstruqcias (sociologiuri funqcia). bolos,
meoTxe, romelic am samive funqciis safuZvelSia da mis sayrdens warmoadgens, aris
fsiqologiuri (rac gulisxmobs individebis Camoyalibebas maTi sxvadasxva socialuri jgufebis miznebisa da idealebis mixed-

152

nino abakelia

viT, romelTac isini dabadebidan sikvdilamde atareben) (kempbeli


1988:138).
qarTul tradiciaSi (iseve, rogorc sxva mraval tradiciaSi)
samyaro moiazreboda, rogorc gansxvavebul saufloTa, sknelTa erTianoba, romelic sazRvrebiT iyo SemozRuduli. sivrculi aspeqtiT, qarTuli miTologiuri rwmena-warmodgenebis mixedviT (romelic rekonstruirdeba miTis, ritualis, enobrivi da sxva doneebis
SeswavliT), samyaro Sedgeba erTmaneTTan dapirispirebuli sknelebisgan: zeviTa//zemo (anu cis mkvidrTa) samyaro (dasavlur _ qarTul
tradiciaSi warmodgenili Jini anTaris, JiniSi orTas, qristianul
doneze: mTavarangelozTa, wm. giorgisa da wm. elias da a.S. alomorfuli personaJebiT), Sua (cxovelTa da adamianTa samkvidro)
samyaro, qvemo samyaro// qveskneli (miwisqveSeTis, qvecrielTa, xTonur
arsebaTa sauflo, warmodgenili fuZis batonis, adgilis dedis
da sxva arsebebiT, qristianul doneze RvTismSoblis saxiT da
sxv.).
CamoTvlili vertikaluri samyaroebis garda, aseve rekonstruirdeba e.w. G`gare (megr. galeniSis) samyaro, romelic upirispirdeba sociums; masSi Sedis tyeebi, ucnobi, gaukvalavi adgilebi
Sesabamisi binadrebiTa da maTi patronebiT (adgilis dedofali,
tyis mefe, kldis angelozi, wylis deda da sxva). am sauflosa da
yoveli veluris mbrZanebeli galeniSi orTaa, romelTan, aseve, asocirdeba saiqio da misi binadarni. es zona Seicavs, da es mniSvnelovania, vertikalur (Tudoni nerCi, wylis deda...) da horizontalur
(nadirTPpatroni, galeniSi orTa...) topografias. zemoxsenebuli
saufloebi//samyaroebi upirispirdeba socialurad organizebul adamianTa samyaros sociums (n. abakelia 1987, 1991). sivrculi da
droiTi arqauli princi piT klasificirebuli rituali avlens
samyaros Semadgenel saufloebs, sknelebs enobrivi monacemebis analiziTac. enobrivi monacemebiT vlindeba sxva sknelebic, kerZod,
ukanaskneli, romelsac bneli da saSiSi samyaros konotacia gaaCnia da rekonstruirebuli winaskneli, anu frontaluri samyaro
(i. surgulaZe 1985, 1987:133 - 158).
zRvris simbolika, romelic sivrcis simbolur organizaciasTan aris dakavSirebuli (rogorc SinaSi, aseve gareSic) uSualod kosmologiur sistemas efuZneba, misgan gamomdinare da, Tavis
mxriv, samyaros suraTis Semqmnelia (n. abakelia 1987:237-242). ramdenadac adamiani am sazRvrebTanaa dakavSirebuli, mas saSualeba
eZleva Seicnos keTili, boroti da neitralurad kategorizebuli

`daimonebi~ qarTul miTo-ritualur sistemaSi

153

daimonebi, romelnic moZraoben sakraluridan profanul sferoebSi


da piriqiT.
sxvadasxva modalur doneze ganTavsebuli zRurbli (mag.; SinaSi anu kulturul topografiaSi gadis kar-midamoze, sacxovrebelze, taZarze da sxv., gare sknelSi _ tyeze, kldeze, zRvaze, tbaze,
mTaze da sxv.), romelic erT samyaros meorisgan gamoyofs, hermetulad Caketili ar aris. masSi aris sxvadasxva saxis gasasvlelebi
_ karis, sarkmlis, xvrelis, Riobis, sakvamuris, da sxv. saxiT, romlebic adamianTa samyaros hermetulobas asustebs da misi meSveobiT sxva samyaroSi gasvla SesaZlebeli xdeba.
amrigad, adamianTa samyaro, romelSic adamiani drois, sivrcis da
mizezis faqtorebiT iyo SemozRuduli, garSemortymuli iyo e.w.
gare skneliT, romelSic Sediodnen vertikalur da horizontalur
WrilSi ganTavsebuli saufloebi, miwisqveSeTi, zeca da horizontalur WrilSi arsebuli yvela auTvisebeli da ucnobi adgili,
samyofi saSiSi da saxifaTo Zalebisa.
samyaros suraTs mikrokosmiur doneze imeorebs sacxovrisi,
romelSic igive simbolizmi miikvleva (gavixsenoT keris, kamaris,
dedaboZis (vertikaluri Wrili); samamacos, sadiacos (horizontaluri Wrili), gardamavali zonis mag.: aivnis, ezos simbolizmi) (sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT ix. l. Cibirovi, v. Ciqovani, 1987;
p. buxraSvili, 1988; s. leJava, 2005) makrokosmiuri sazRvrebia:
zRva, mTebi, mdinare, tye, auTvisebeli miwebi... (n.abakelia 1987).
es samyaroebi mravalnairi arsebebiTaa dasaxlebuli da maTTan
garkveuli simboloebi da simbolizmi asocirdeba. simboloebi
upiratesad moqmedeben sam doneze: fsiqikaSi, romelsac tradiciulad mikrokosmosi ewodeba; sazogadoebaSi _ mezokosmosSi da
samyaroSi/bunebaSi _ makrokosmosSi, anu kosmosSi. magram adamiani
patara fragmentebSi da izolirebulad ki ar cxovrobs, aramed
mTlian samyaroSi da am sxvadasxva sferoebTan gamudmebiT urTierTobs. amas ki simbolizmi emsaxureba. simboloebi, Tavis mxriv, xatovnad
da TvalsaCinod aRweren adamianisTvis umniSvenelovanes sazrunavs.
misi Sinagani arsebis kavSirs garSemo arsebul samyarosTan. fsiqologebis ganmartebiT, Sida xedvebi garegnuli gamoxatvisken iswrafvian,
xolo gare faqtebi _ mniSvnelobas eZeben (CeTvaindi 1986).
zogi simbolo bunebrivia: mag.: gvelebi, xarebi, xeebi... zogi fsiqikidan momdinarea. mag.: drakonebi, RmerTebi, daimonebi...
fizikur doneze azrebi mxolod azrebia. fsiqikur doneze azrebi
_ arsebebia. isini gadian samyaroSi da zemoqmedeben garemoze. isini

154

nino abakelia

dinamikurebi arian da eZeben materialur gamoxatulebas da aqtualizacias (mimarTeba xilulsa da uxilav samyaroebs Soris). rogorc
sulieri arsebebi, isini zegavlenas axdenen adamianze, mis mimarTebaze sakralursa da wmindaze. isini SeiZleba iyvnen an naxevrad
adamianebi, an adamianismagvari arsebebi, ara adamianebi an adamianuri
arsebebis moCvenebebi da sxv.
miTologiur rwmena-warmodgenebSi erTmaneTs upirispirdebian
sakuTari//sxvisi, nacnobi//ucxo, Sina//gare, saxli _ tye
(rogorc auTvisebeli adgili), dRe // Rame; ufro zogadad _
samyaro // antisamyaro. struqturalisturi midgomidan gamomdinare, mowesrigebuli samyaro Sinas ukavSirdeba, xolo mouwesrigebeli _ qaoss. orive samyaros personaJebi cdiloben gadalaxon sazRvrebi da SeaRwion sapirispiro samyaroSi sxvadasxva mizniT.
SinaSi, anu droiTa da sivrciT SemozRudul warmaval samyaroSi
saxlis, rogorc mikrokosmosis, sazRvrebi TvalsaCinoa da misi
hermetuloba irRveva karebiT, fanjrebiT da sakvamuriT (n.abakelia
2002). xolo rac Seexeba makrokosmul sazRvrebs isini iwyeba
auTvisebeli, ucnobi adgilebidan (ix. levi-strosi, 1983).
rac Seexeba grZnobiT samyaros, is ver iqneba Caketili sistema,
rene genonis gansazRvrebiT. Riobebi, saidanac destruqciul Zalebs
SeuZliaT SemoWra, tradiciuli simbolizmis Tanaxmad, gaCndnen did
kedelSi, romelic gars artyia am samyaros da icavs (dabali
infernuli Txeli fenis) damRupveli zemoqmedebisgan.
am simbolizmis yvela aspeqtis ukeT gagebisaTvis r. genonis
SeniSvniT, mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos, rom kedeli imavdroulad warmoadgens dacvasac, SezRudvasac da rom garkveuli azriT, mas aqvs
upiratesobac da uxerxulobac. magram ramdenadac is emsaxureba
qvemodan momdinare (xolo Cven SemTxvevaSi zogadad garedan momdinare: e.i. qvemodan, zemodan, garedan _ n.a.) Tavdasxmis mogeriebas,
misi Tavdacvis funqcia ufro mkveTrad gamoxatulia (genoni, 2003).
sainteresoa, rom adamiani asaxlebs sulebiT ara marto ucnob
adgilebs, aramed kargad nacnob da aTvisebul adgilebsac. mag. saxlSi, romelic mikrokosmosia, amgvar sulebs Tavisi specialuri
lokusebi gaaCniaT (upiratesad sacxovreblis marjvena kuTxeSi)
da iwodebian saxlTangelozebad (svaneTSi meziri) (n. abakelia
2007).
gare samyaros drois miRmuri simboloebi, romelTac gaaCniaT,
rogorc keTili, ise avbediTi zemoqmedebis unari, hermetulad
Caketili sazRvrebis sivrceSi ciklurad iWrebian RiobebSi,

`daimonebi~ qarTul miTo-ritualur sistemaSi

155

romelic Riaa sezonebis cvlis dros (mag.; Wiakokonobaze, vnebis


kviris did xuTSabaTs, eliobaze (2.08), mariam RvTismSoblis
miZinebis dResaswaulze (28. 08); Winkebis mosvlisas gazafxulsa
da Semodgomaze, mesefebis zRvidan mosvlis dros Semodgomaze da
sxv. aseve nebismierad modian infeqciur daavadebaTa sulebi batoni-angelozebi da sxv.).
arsebebi, romlebic Tavs esxmian sazogadoebas erTdroulad
aRiwerebian, rogorc goliaTebi (devebi (devebTan dakavSirebiT ix.
gurCiani 2007), oCokoCebi) da jujebi (Winkebi, dafaruli ganZis
mcveli qajebi (mWedlebi _ miwisqveSa cecxlis mflobelni,
romelTac sakmaod damRupveli aspeqti gaaCniaT).
magram miwisqveSeTis simboloebic orgvarovania da aqvT, rogorc
umaRlesi, aseve infernuli azri (magram aq maTze ar vimsjelebT).
realuri samyaros warmomadgeneli aris gmiri (monadire, meTevze...), xolo antisamyaros gamovlinebebia: devebi, qajebi, Winkebi,
mesefi, tyis sxvadasxva sulebi: dixaSkoCi (megr. miwis kaci), oCokoCi (goliaTi), oCopint(r)e, tyaSi mafa, dali, kapi, rokapi, miziTxu,
wylis deda, zRvis deda da sxv., romelTa ubralo dasaxelebac ki
Zalian Sors wagviyvanda).
orive samyaros personaJebi cdiloben SeaRwion sapirispiro
samyaroSi sxvadasxva mizniT.
sxvis sivrceSi yofnisas daimoni (Winkebi, qajebi, tyis sulebi) Tavs sxvadasxva xmebis gamocemiT avlenen, magram uxilavi rCebian adamianisTvis. zog SemTxvevaSi adamians SeuZlia xilva daimonisa,
romelic antisivrceSia da uxilavia sxva xalxisTvis, magram xilulia supersensitiuri adamianisTvis (monadire, meTevze, RvTis
msaxuri). antisamyarodan dabrunebuli gmiri iRebs saocar unars,
codnas an giJdeba (xeldeba). specialuri literaturidan kargad
aris cnobili, rom adamiani da sulebi (anu, rogorc Cven vxmarobT
daimonebi) erTmaneTTan urTierToben sizmris an xilvebis meSveobiT liminalur (e.i. zRvrul) zonebSi, rogoric SeiZleba iyos
zemoT aRniSnuli zRva, klde, gamoqvabuli, tba, wyali, tye da sxv.
realur sivrceSi SeWrisas daimoni ara Tavisi WeSmariti saxiTaa, aramed adamianis, cxovelis an sagnis. aq daimoni _ maqciaa.
SeiZleba miiRos saxe cxovelisa, irmis, jixvis, ZaRlis, katis... yvelaze ti pur niSans daimonisas warmoadgens TeTri samosi da gaSlili da an gaCeCili Tmebi (tyaSi mafa, dali, oCokoCi....) (abakelia
1991.)

156

nino abakelia

sainteresoa, rom rogorc antagonisti ityuebs adamians (gmirs)


Tavis samyaroSi, aseve adamianic cdilobs mis motacebas, dajabnas
da momsaxurebas keTildReobisTvis. mag.: Winkas, patara grZelTmiansa da grZel frCxilebian arsebas, erT-erT avsuls, adamianisTvis
zogadad zianis motana SeuZlia. magram Tu daiWeren da Tmebsa da
frCxilebs (raSic misi Zalaa) daaWrian, SeiZleba misi sasikeTod
gamoyeneba, kerZod, msaxurad dayeneba.
gvaqvs iseTi SemTxvevac, rodesac antisamyaros warmomadgeneli,
an warmomadgenlebi ritmulad erTidaimave dros iWrebian realur
samyaroSi da zemoqmedeben masze (mesefoba, Winkas mosvla oqtombernoemberSi...). aseT dros maT specialuri ritualebiTa da
dResaswaulebiT xvdebian (Wiakokonoba). nawilobriv aseve SeiZleba iTqvas berikaobazec, romelSic erTgvari infernuli elementi
sufevs da yvelaferi gadabrunebulia (travestizmi). aseT dros,
iRebdnen Sesabamis sifrTxilis zomebs maTgan Tavis dasacavad (cecxlis danTeba, eklebis dadeba, naxSiriT jvrebis dasma Sesasvlelebze, Tavze sanTlebis dakvra da sxv.).
adamianic, Tavis mxriv, iWreba antisamyaroSi, magram gansakuTrebuli kanonebis dacviT (gavixsenoT monadiris mier daculi aRkveTebi da specialuri ritualebi tyeSi, e.i. nadirT patronis saufloSi Sesvlamde).
Sinasa da gare samyaroebis garda daimonebi TviTon adamianSic
saxloben.
adamianSi qarTuli tradiciuli rwmenebis mixedviT, keTili da
boroti sulebi cxovroben (es rwmena ara marto qarTuli tradiciisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli, is universaluria. sakmarisia gavixsenoT
Tundac rilkes gamonaTqvami: Tu Cemi eSmakebi damtoveben, vSiSob,
angelozebic gamifrindebian-o). keTili suli, anu angelozi, adamians marjvena mxarTan adgas da mis fiqrebs, grZnobebsa da moqmedebebs sikeTisken warmarTavs, xolo boroti suli, eSmaki, marcxena
mxarze azis da yovelnairad cdilobs, adamiani swor gzas aacdinos
da boroti saqme Caadeninos (bardaveliZe 1950:124 - 155).
keTil sulTan sinaTle da dRea dakavSirebuli, borotTan _
Rame da sibnele. sulebi moqmedeben, rogorc koleqtiur, aseve individualur doneebze. individualur doneze ufro seriozul safrTxes qmnian (adamians aavadeben, agiJeben), vidre koleqtiur doneze, romelic mxolod erTi an ori dRiT ifargleba da isic
ZiriTadad mxiaruli dResaswaulebiT.

`daimonebi~ qarTul miTo-ritualur sistemaSi

157

xevsurebis gadmocemiT, adamiani maSin daixelTeba (gagiJdeba)


rodesac jvar-angelozni, RvTisSvilni ar exmarebian, roca isini
datoveben adamians. eSmakebs maSin darCebaT zeobani (Tavisuflebao)
da sadac Caigdeben xelSi RvTisSvilis mier ganwirul adamians mas
daepatronebian da daxelTaveno (gaagiJebeno) N(mindaZe 2005: 232244).
daavadebaTa gamomwvevi mizezebis Seswavlisas n. mindaZe mivida
daskvnamde, rom eSmakis mier adamianis dapatroneba ramdenime etaps
moicavda da TiToeuli am etapze daavadebis garkveuli formiT
vlindeboda. pirvel rigSi is irCevda borot, Surian, RvarZlian da
Zunw adamians. Semdeg cdilobda amqveyniuri sikeTeebiT adamianis
Secdenas da am gziT misgan mfarveli angelozis moSorebas. Secdenil adamians samagierod sTxovda sulis daTmobas, miyidvas, raTa
saiqioSi igi etanja.. Tu eSmakis rCeuli mis survils dahyveboda,
eSmaks suls mihyidida, igi eSmakis kerZi, misi msaxuri kudiani,
wyeuli, mazakvali gaxdeboda da misi amqveynieri keTildReoba
garantirebuli iyo.
eSmaki adamians aavadebda moCvenebiT, molandebiT, an fizikuri
zemoqmedebiT xelis dakvriT da sxv. mis kuTvnil teritoriaze
naZrax adgilebSi, avsulTaTvis gankuTvnil dros bnelSi _ saRamos an Rame, mzis Casvlis Semdeg adamianis moxvedrisas (n.
mindaZe 2005)
Tu zemoT motanili masala qristianuli xedvis tradiciuli
asaxvaa, aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi oCopint(r)esTan dakavSirebuli
rwmena-warmodgenebi ufro arqaul niSnebs avlens. erTi versiiT
safarveldadebuli, uxilavi oCopint(r)e mamri arsebaa, nadirTmwyemsia. sanadirod wasvlamde monadire winaswar oCpint(r)es uTanxmdeba.
z.kiknaZis dakvirvebiT, Tu dali da tyaSi mafa monadirisgan
siyvaruls moiTxoven, oCopint(r)e adamians suls sTxovs. gavrcelebuli rwmeniT vinc bevr nadirs xocavda oCopint(r)esTvis
hqonda micemuli suli... oCopint(r)esaTvis sulis micema iseve
saidumlod unda Senaxuliyo, rogorc dalis sayvarloba inaxeboda
saidumlod. Tu adamiani saidumlos gacemda, oCopint(r)e dasjida
mas. kldidan gadmoagdebda nadirobis dros, anu igive elodeboda,
rac dalis saidumlos gamcems. z. kiknaZis azriT, niSandoblivia,
rom oCopintresaTvis sulmicemuli monadire pirad cxovrebaSi
gauxareli iyo. monadireobaSi uzomo warmatebis wil uZeod gadasagebad iyo ganwiruli. warmatebas nadirobaSi nadirTmwyemsi

158

nino abakelia

aZlevs, Svils ki jvari (RvTisSvili) ukavebs. ramdenadac arxotuli warmodgeniT jvars nadiric ejavreba, nadirTpatronic da mxecico, radgan nadiri eSmakT saqonia da mwyemsi-patroni _ eSmakio.
nadiri eSmakTa samwysoa. aq z. kiknaze Sinasa da gares ukidures
dapirispirebas xedavs: jvari Sinauri pirutyvis potenciuri patronia, amitomac iwiravs mas msxverplad, gareuli ki sapirispiro.
Sinauris mwyemsi RvTisSvilia, gareulisa _ eSmaki.
oCopint(r)e, gudamayruli masaliT, nadirTmwyemsia da pawia qalis saxiT eCveneba xolme monadireebs. misTvis pawia qalamnebs
Txis, Zroxis an xaris tyavisagan amzadebdnen da maRal kldeze
datovebdnen. saqarTvelos zogierT kuTxeSi gavrcelebuli TqmulebebiT nadirs rigrigobiT patronobs qali an vaJi. saingiloSi
Cawerili TqmulebiT nadirs Tavis batoni da-Zma hyavs. TiTo wels
patronoben isini tyis nadirs. kaxuri monacemebiT nadirTmwyemsi
SeiZleba qalic iyos da kacic. maT Soris morigeobaa. roca qalis
jeria, maSin nadiri Zneli mosaklavia, qali frTxilobs: xolo kaci,
rom aris, maSin nadiri briyvia da misi mokvla advilia; fSavlebic nadirTRvTaebas patara qalad warmoidgenen (e. virsalaZe
1976).
kaxuri masaliTac Tu monadire nadirs ver moklavda, Sin patara
perangs Seakerinebda, waiRebda da oCopint(r)es ZRvnad miarTmevda,
xis kenweroze dakidebda da Seexveweboda: nadiris angelozo, nu
gamiwyrebi, gTxov wyaloba moiRe Cemze, bevri Sen da cota meo!.
oCopintres kvali xSirad unaxavT da mnaxvelebs uTqvamT: patara
bavSvis kvalsa hgavso(i.javaxiSvili 1960).
kidev erTi saintereso Strixia oCopint(r)esTan dakavSirebul
rwmena-warmodgenebSi: Tu monadires sizmarSi evlineba vaJi es
oCopit(r)ea, romelsac man suli unda misces. oCopint(r)e warmatebuli nadirobis garantiad Tofs uwvdis sityvebiT: wamae, sanadirod wavidaT. oCopint(r)e monadires Zmadnafici da nadirobaSi partnioria, romelsac is suls aZlevs. sanacvlod mas
jvari sjis (kiknaZe 2005).
dapatronebul adamianSi (iqneba is gaxelebuli, qajiani, qajTagan Sepyrobili, Tu avsulis msaxuri: mazakvali, mzakvari, kudiani, kuduri da sxv.) keTili suli tovebs da mTlianad moicavs mas.
rogorc aRiniSna, mzakvris mTavari Tvisebebia: sixarbe, boroteba,
RvarZli, Tvaliscema. misi msaxurebi arian mgeli, kata, mamali.
kudianebis saxelSi orive: kacic da qalic igulisxmeba. maT
xalxuri rwmena-warmodgenebiT aqvT ori suli: erTi wminda da

`daimonebi~ qarTul miTo-ritualur sistemaSi

159

erTi uwminduri da aseTive ori guli. avsulis moqmedeba Rame


iwyeba, rodesac is Tavis wminda sulsa da guls miZinebuls tovebs
da mgelze (an Sav kataze, an wyvil sawnaxelze da sxv.) amxedrebuli
daqris msxverplis xelSi Casagdebad, romelsac is guls an RviZls
aclis da miaqvs Tavis patronTan, rokapTan, rogorc Sesawiravi
(maSurko 1894, tepcovi 1894) rokapi, tabakonis mTaze mjdomi
Savkbilebiani da grZelfrCxilebiani dedaberi absoluturi siborotis arqeti pia.
rogorc aRiniSna, kudianebi maqciebi arian. Sav katad qceul
kudians ucxo saxlSi RamiT Separuls gamoekidebodnen da muguzaliT an cxeli SanTiT dadaRavdnen. meore dRes ki am niSans romelime adamianze eZebdnen. kudiani qalis stereoti pi saeklesio dokumentebSic Cndeba (es informacia e.koWlamazaSvilma mogvawoda).
qarTul tradiciaSi kudianebis devna ise mZafri ar yofila, rogorc
es Sua saukuneebis evropaSi, magram saintereso unda iyos 1853 (Tu
1854) wlis Canaweri, romelic amgvari faqtis arsebobaze mianiSnebs. aRniSnuli Canaweris mixedviT, jixaiSis garSemo soflebSi
didi mousavlianoba kudianebis momravlebisTvis miuweriaT. gasaWiris
Tavidan asacileblad sazogadoebas gadauwyvetia paraklisis gadaxda, romelsac oTxi soflis: jixaskaris, kulaSis, ianeTisa da eweris mosaxleoba unda daswreboda. SeTanxmebiT is, vinc ar gamocxaddeboda paraklisze, kudianad CaiTvleboda. sxvadasxva mizeziT bevri
ver daswrebia parakliss. maSin xelmeored dainiSna dRe, rodesac
yvela unda misuliyo mdinare gubis wyalTan. daniSnul dRes,
SekrebilebSi iyvnen aznaurebic da Tavadebic. mdinareze gades 2
xis mori, TiToeulze ori kaci dadga. kudianobaSi eWvmitanilebs
xel-fexi Seukres da TokiT CauSves wyalSi. mdinareSi CaSvebulebidan vinc maT Tvalwin CaiZireboda amarTlebdnen, xolo
vinc ase Tu ise tivtivebda wyalze kudianad CaiTvleboda. aseTebs
wylidan amoyvanisas, sxeulis rbil adgilebze adebdnen gaxurebul
nals (tepcovi 1894).
Tu eSmakeuli, rogorc avi suliT moculobaa, saxadebiT daavadebuli keTili sulebiT moculobas gulisxmobs. (Tumca arsebobs gansxvavebuli mosazrebac (ix. T. qurdovaniZe 2005).
saxadebi saqarTveloSi sulier arsebaTa saxiT hyavdaT warmodgenili, romelnic Tavisi adgilsamyofelidan drodadro moefinebodnen dedamiwas. saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli rwmena-warmodgenebis mixedviT, batonebis uSualo gamomwvevi RmerTisgan gamogzavnili angelozebia. amitom saxadebs anelozebs, baton angelozebs,

160

nino abakelia

an batonebs uwodeben. XIX XX saukuneebis eTnografiuli monacemebis mixedviT batonebs gzavnis RmerTi da mis winaSe erTxel
mosaxdel valdebulebad _ RvTis valad iTvleba. maTi uSualo
gamomwvev-gamavrceleblebi angelozebi arian, RvTis wargzavnilebi,
mosaxleoba maT dResaswauliT xvdeba. avadmyofobis mfarvelebi
arian wm. barbare, ioane naTlismcemeli (xevi) (n. mindaZe 2005),
fSav-xevsureTi kviria (qriste). batonebis sakiTxs mravali mkvlevari Seexo da exeba. (v. bardaveliZe, T.OoCiauri, n. mindaZe, T.
qurdovaniZe da sxv.), romelTa saTiTaod ganxilva sakiTxis rakursidan gamomdinare mizanSewonilad ar migvaCnia. aq mxolod gavimeorebT Cvens mier gamoTqmul mosazrebas, romelic batonebis adgilsamyofels exeba, saidanac isini modian.
miTo-ritualuri stumroba batoni angelozebisa, gare samyarodan xorcieldeba SinaSi. amgvarad batonebis samyofeli erTdroulad SeiZleba iyos zecac, tyec, miwisqveSeTic, zRvac da gzajvaredinic, radmenadac isini erTsa da imave gare sknelSi erTiandebian, romelic Tavis mxriv, Sinas upirispirdeba. (n. abakelia 2007).
cikluri stumrebi dasavlur-qarTul realiaSi arian e.w. mesefebi sxvadasxva dros avismqneli an sikeTis momtani sulebi. megruli
da aWaruli masalis mixedviT, adamianis msgavsi (mdedri da mamri)
arsebebi arian, romelnic rigrigobiT amodian weliwadis garkveul
dros (oqtombris bolo 3 dRe da noemberis pirveli sami dRe
28.10-da 3. 11-mde) zRvidan da modian adamianTa samyaroSi (sxva
gadmocemebiT isini xmeleTzec cxovroben). maT mosvlas Tan sdevs
amindi an uamindoba, mosavali an mousavlianoba. maT (an zRvis dedas
kverTxians) Tan dasdevT Savi, gonieri ZaRli. mesefi foTols, qvas
da miwas yvelafers abrunebs ukuRma.
mesefebi nadirTpatronebi arian, mosvlisas iTvlian nadirs. am
dros monadire sanadirod ar wava. am dros nadiri da frinveli
erT adgilas grovdeba. mesefi maT niSans ukeTebs da swored niSniani nadiris mokvla SeuZlia monadires. iRbliani nadiroba damokidebulia imaze Tu vin daado nadirs niSani qalma mesefma Tu kacma.
mesefebi TviTonac kargi monadireebi arian. isini mSvild-isriT
xocaven nadirs da Semdeg nanadireviT nadims awyoben. megruli
rwmena-warmodgenebis mixedviT, nadiris Zvlebi saswaulebrivad isev
cocxal nadirebad iqcevian. SeWmuli nadiris Zvlebs tyavSi Cayrian, joxs dahkraven da acocxleben) wasvlisas mesefebi glexebs
paraven mTeli wlis samyof oTxfexs da maTTan erTad ubrundebian

`daimonebi~ qarTul miTo-ritualur sistemaSi

161

zRvis fskers.. maTi wasvlis Semdeg wvimac wydeba da idarebs.. (e.


virsalaZe 1976).
Winkebi da mesefebi, romlebic weliwadSi orjer Cndebian sezonis cvlilebisas (gazafxulsa da Semodgomaze). maTi mosvlisas
mosaxleoba saTanado Tadarigs iWers. yvelafris karebs ketavs da
rkinas (walds an namgals daadebs). termini mesefi sxvadasxva
dros savadasxvanairad ixsneboda, Tumca yvela es axsna-ganmarteba
dResdReobiT isev varaudebis sferoSi rCeba. mag.: mesefebs erTni
nadirTpatronebad miiCneven (z. Tandilava 1986 e. virsalaZe, 1976,
1964) sxvani wvimis momyvan patara RvTaebebad (m. nadaraia 1979),
zogi maT, iseve rogorc nadirmTmfarvels, micvalebulis sulebs
ukavSireben, romlebic xalxuri rwmeniT, mudmivad Tan sdeven adamianebs da icaven gareuli nadirisgan (m. makalaTia 2000).
mesefi ixsneboda, rogorc veSapis identuri forma (i.javaxiSvili,
n.mari), rogorc ganmgebeli (a.canava), rogorc meufe, mefe, batoni...
arsebobs xalxuri etimologiac: ramdenadac megrulad maisi mesia,
xolo zogierTi gadmocemis Tanaxmad mesefi napirze maisSi gamodis, adgilobrivi warmodgenebiT aqedan unda momdinareobdes maTi
saxelwodeba (z. Tandilava 1986, r. canava 1970).
Cven vfiqrobT, rom mesefis arsis gagebaSi maT simravles (mravlobiTobas) unda hqondes arsebiTi mniSvneloba. yuradsaRebia,
rom sityva mesef-Si gamoyofili sefe SesaZloa, aseve niSnavdes
samefo karis kacsac. xom ar aris es faqti mimaniSnebeli, rom unda
arsebobdes mesefis batoni, romlis kverTxic (samefo Zalauflebis insignia) maT napirze gamoaqvT?
Winkasa da qajTan erTad, (am ukanasknelze cota qvemoT) macdurebis CamoTvlisas sulxan-saba orbeliani axsenebs Hhaeris
mcvelebsac (romelsac yuradReba pirvelad e. virsalaZem miaqcia,
1976). misi ganmartebiT eseni arian eSmakni, rodesac RmerTma gandgomili angelozebi zecidan gandevna, maTgan uaresni jojoxeTs Cacvivdnen,
xolo udaresni, naklebi Zalisani, haerSi ganibnen.
zepir xalxur tradiciaSi termini haeris mcveli ar dasturdeba, magram ixmareba orginalur qarTul agiografiul ZeglebSi da
gansakuTrebiT misi xseneba iuridiuli mniSvnelobis samoqalaqo
dokumentebSi dasturdeba (n. mindaZe 2005). haeris mcvelni cis
qveS myofi ukeTuri sulebia (efes.6.12), sabaJoebia, romelnic
sulma sikvdilis Semdeg sxeulTan gayris Semdeg unda gaiaros da
pasuxi agos Cadenil codvebze. es sabaJoebi sivrcobrivi TvalsazrisiT ganTavsebulia miwasa da haers Soris. qristianuli esqa-

162

nino abakelia

tologiiT gaigeba, rogorc saxifaTo demonuri dacemuli sulierebis


zona (s. averincevi 2006:319-320).
qarTul miTo-ritualur sistemaSi daimonis kidev erTi saxeoba dasturdeba _ e.w. qajebi. rwmena-warmodgenebi maTze dasturdeba,
rogorc dasavleT aseve aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi. dasavlur-qarTul
tradiciul rwmena-warmodgenebSi qajebi adamians arafers uSaveben.
isini mxolod erTgulad icaven eSmakis ganZs da agdeben vinc
uaxlovdeba mas. adamianTan pirvelad Sexvedrisas, mas sasikvdilod
ar imeteben da ise scemen, rom erTi kvira iyos dabuJebuli, meored
Sexvedrisas _ erTi Tve, da mxolod mesamed Sexvedrisas scemdnen
sikvdilamde (tepcovi 1894). adamianTan Sexvedrisas isini ustvenen
da qvebs esvrian maT. qajsa da Winkas eSiniaT mxolod wm. giorgis.
misi saxelis xseneba maT afrTxobT da garbian.
aRmosavleT saqarTveloSic, qajisa da wm. giorgis saxelebi
kvlav ikveTebian qajaveTis dalaSqvris TqmulebaSi. Tqmulebis
Tanaxmad, fSav-xevsurebis jvar-xatebs (RvTisSvilebs) qajaveTi
daulaSqravT. maTTan erTad xorcieli, xaxmatis jvris mkadre (Mmsaxuri) gaxua megrelauric Tan xlebiaT. molaSqreebs garkveuli manZilis gavlis Semdeg, gaxua megrelaurisTvis suli amoucliaT, xolo
gvami adgilze dautovebiaT. rodesac qajTa adgilsamyofelisTvis
miuRweviaT, giorgi naRvarmSveniers safarveli dausvia buzad (
sxva versiiT, mtredad qceula) da ise Sesula qajTa sofelSi.
RvTisSvilebma sakmaod mZime brZolis Semdeg (maT katis TavebiTa e.i. uwmindurobebiT da qvebiT ebrZodnen) sZlies qajebs, sasurveli nadavli (sasrolo samarTebeli, oqrosZaliani fanduri, cxraeniani
zari, mklavis simsxo jaWvis rgolebiani sakideli, sanayavi, grdemli,
xelkveri, marwuxi), qajaveTuri saqoneli, tyve qalebi gamoitaces da
gamarjvebulni dabrundnen Tavis qveyanaSi. gaxuas suli matlCenil
gvamSi moaTavses, gaacocxles da uvnebeli daabrunes (T. oCiauri
1967).
wm. giorgim sxva qalebTan erTad qajaveTis xelmwifis qaliSvili samZimari, yelRiliani wamoiyvana.. samZimari moinaTla da giorgis salocavSi damkvidrda.
arsebobs sxva versiac samZimarTan dakavSirebiT, romlis mixedviT gaxuas javaxeTSi umogzauria, sadac qajT xelmwifis qali
yofila, romelic gveleSaps unda SeeWama. giorgi misula wylispiras mjdom qalTan da uTqvams: gaganTavisufleb, mamas uTxari, rom
wagiyvano... (T. oCiauri 1967). am siuJetSi z.kiknaZis SeniSvniT,
xaxmatis wminda giorgi imeorebs Tavisi mosaxele wmindanis ar-

`daimonebi~ qarTul miTo-ritualur sistemaSi

163

qeti pul qcevas. qajaveTi enacvleba im warmarTul qalaqs, romelic


wm. mxedarma gveleSapis Zaladobisgan ixsna, xolo qajis qali im
usaxelo ufliswuls, romelic man gveleSapis xaxas gamostaca da
qristianul rjulze moaqcia (z. kiknaZe 1996).
qajTa xelmwifis asuli samZimari xaxmatis wminda giorgis
wyalobiT RvTisSvilis rangSi amaRlda da sruliad unikaluri
adgili daiWira sxva RvTisSvilTa Soris; is xaxmatis jvarma
Tavis moZmed wamoiyvana xaxmatSi da saymos warmodgenaSi giorgi
samZimar erTni arian. ori piri erTi jvarisa, erTi RvTisSvilisa,
rogorc erTi anima-animusis erTianoba (z. kiknaZe 1996:121).
qajaveTis sakiTxs mravali mkvlevari Seexo, zogi mas CrdiloeT
kavkasiis binadar xalxad miiCnevda (T. oCiaurie, zogi qaSagebs (v.
bardaveliZe) ukavSirebda, zogi zRaprul personaJebs, zogi qaSueTs
(a.SaniZe), zogi mas qvesknelis metaforad Tvlida (k. gamsaxurdia,
ix. z.gamsaxurdia 1991) da sxv. (ix. T. oCiauri, 1967,81-102 da iqve
literatura) aRniSnuli masalis simboluri interpretacia kidev
erT perspeqtivas xsnis. maxvilis gakeTeba faqtze, rom gaxuas
xorciel adamians, uxorco ZalebTan erTad daulaSqravs qajaveTi
ukve mimaniSnebelia, rom is saaqaodan saiqioSi gasula maTTan erTad. saiqioSi Sesasvlelad aucilebeli wesebis dacvaa saWiro.
wesebs icavs rogorc RvTisSvili (is safarvels idebs, da buzad
an mtredad qceuli Sedis antisamyaroSi), aseve gaxuac-is saaqaoSi
sxeuls tovebs.
CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa Tqmulebis is versia, romlis Tanaxmad xaxmatis jvaris samZimar yelRilianis salocavi
gadmocemiT gaxuas sizmarSi xorciel qalad eCveneboda da masTan
samijnuro urTierTobac hqonda. magram mainc vis SeuZlia mogzauroba zebunebriv samyaroebSi? es SeuZliaT RvTisSvilebs da gaxuas,
romelsac suls aZroben anu mas visac SeuZlia sikvdilis zRurblis gadalaxva da ukan dabruneba. gaxuas RvTisSvilTa rCeuls
(TviTon suls), SeuZlia xilva sulebisa da maTTan urTierTobaSi Sesvla (mag. samZimarTan, qajebTan da sxv.), mas SeuZlia gasvla
(Casvla) qajaveTSi RvTisSvilebTan erTad. anu gaxua is pirovnebaa,
romelic sizmarSi Tu transSi yofnisas gadis saiqioSi da dabrunebisas TviTonve yveba masze. misi eqstazuri mogzaurobis angariSi asulierebs antisamyaros da xsnis maT mokvdavTaTvis.

164

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simbolika, Tbilisi.
surgulaZe 1987: i. surgulaZe, sivrcobrivi aspeqtebi qarTvelTa
sulier da miTologiur warmodgenebSi, masalebi saqarTvelos
eTnografiisaTvis, t. 23, 1987.
tepcovi 1894: . , .
, .
canava 1970: a. canava
qarTuli zepirsityvierebis sakiTxebi,
Tbilisi.
CeTvaindi 1986: Chatwynd T., A dictionary of symbols, London, 1986.
Cibirovi, Ciqovani 1987: ., .,
-

166

nino abakelia

(- ), ( 7-
), .
qurdovaniZe 2005: T. qurdovaniZe, miTuri "Svidi avi suli" da
sabatono "iav-nanas" Svidi da-Zma; masalebi saqarTvelos
eTnografiisaTvis, Tbilisi.
javaxiSvili 1960: i. javaxiSvili, qarTveli eris istoria, t. I,
Tbilisi.

Nino Abakelia
Daemons in Georgian mythico-ritual system
In the present article the term daemon daimon is used in its ancient Greek sense
that of spirits, who in mythology or in the primordial narrative reality (in Malinovskis
definition) were considered as good, evil or neutral spirits, who mediated between sacred
and profane (consequently between transcendental and real ) realms.
The author of the article tries to show that the sphere of their habitation is in the so
called outer world which in Georgian traditional picture of the world grasps both vertical
and horizontal zones of the world (i.e. they can equally be found in the above, nether and
outer worlds) and as such is opposed to the inner world of the living (society) and
consequently to the culture. The border based on different cosmological zones running
along thresholds of dwellings, sanctuaries, cultivated places, etc. along the edges of
forests, cliffs, rivers, lakes, mountains, etc. becomes vulnerable at certain periods of time
and when different kinds of spirits invade the cultural realm. These spirits effect on both
collective and individual levels, the latter case being more dangerous.
Mortal possessed by an evil spirit used to become a servant of the daemon, or
turned mad. Possessed soles called kudiani (i.e. having a tail) are shown at work in
society.
On their turn humans also try to penetrate to the unknown, prohibited worlds. But
thats the lot of the elected (and such might be a hunter, a fisherman, priest, etc. who have
to keep special rules for that).
In Georgian tradition, in pre-Christian times the enemies of evil spirits were the sky
gods (later weather gods) but after the spread of Christianity their places were substituted
by Christian saints (and mostly by St. George).
In this paper one of many existed myths on the descend of St George in the Nether
world is analyzed. According to the myth St George together with the other saints and the
mortal called Gakhua, invaded the realm of the evil spirits called qajaveti and returned
back to the realm of the living with the captured goods and women.
The author thinks Gakhua to be the elected of the saints, who by means of trance or
dream managed to trespass the border of the death and then to return back. He is the one
who can see and communicate with the spirits i.e. he is the one who can walk into the
realm of the dead and when returned to retell and describe it. The account of his ecstatic
journey animated the outer world and explained it for the living.

167

Tamar berekaSvili

postmodernizmi da masobrivi
kultura*

filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, Tbilisis


ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifoUuniversitetis asocirebuli profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
`Tanamedrove Rirebulebebi da idealebi~, `postmodernizmi Tanamedroveobis konteqstSi
(kulturis filosofia)
da sxva. gamoqveynebuli
aqvs ramdenime statia so-cialur da politikur
filosofiaSi _ `demokratizacia (g. JorJolianTan da m. musxeliSvilTan erTad), `Tanamedrove socialuri viTareba saqarTveloSi
(rusul enaze xarkovis
universitetis masalebSi) da sxva.
interesTa sfero:
semiotika, kulturis
filosofia.

sityva `postmodernizmi~, iseve rogorc


`postmoderni~, bolo dros erT-erTi sayovelTao xmarebis terminebia, Tumca maTi
gansazRvreba aracalsaxaa. ar arsebobs erTiani Sexeduleba imis Taobazec ki, vin gamoiyena is pirvelad. erTni mis avtorad hasans
asaxeleben, sxvebi federiko de onizis, mesameni amitai escionis. yvela SemTxvevaSi es
termini, rogorc xdeba kidec, razedac iuri
lotmanic werda, jer furcelze literaturam
aametyvela da Semdeg gadaiqca is realobad.
postmodernizmis da postmodernis
cnebebi xSirad ganixileba rogorc igivuri,
magram Cven viziarebT Sexedulebas, romlis
Tanaxmad, postmoderni gansxvavdeba postmodernizmisgan, rac marto gansxvavebul saxelwodebebSi ar iCens Tavs. postmodernizmi es xelovnebis sxvadasxva sferosTvis
damaxasiaTebeli sruliad gansazRvruli
stilia, romelsac zogjer gviandel moderns
miakuTvneben, xolo rodesac saubaria postmodernze, igulisxmeba ara raRac viwro
stilisturi mimdinareoba, aramed istoriuli viTareba, situacia, romelSic yvela aRmovCndiT, imisgan damoukideblad, Tu rogoria Cveni ideebi, Sexedulebebi, geografiuli
mdebareoba, gemovneba, asaki Tu sqesi. amdenad,
Tu postmodernizmi miekuTvneba upiratesad
* naSromi daibeWda krebulSi: `evropuli ideebis
istoria da qarTuli kultura (evropuli Ziebani)~
(2007).

168

Tamar berekaSvili

kulturas, postmoderni istorias, postmodernizmi subieqturia,


xolo postmoderni obieqturad Camoyalibebuli viTarebaa.
am axali postmodernuli epoqis Camoyalibeba saTaves iRebs
XX saukunis samociani wlebidan, rodesac adgili hqonda masobriv
studentur gamosvlebs evropis, da ara marto evropis, bevr qveyanaSi. studentebi aujanydnen araefeqtur moZvelebul politikur,
socialur reJims. Sesacvleli gaxda ara marto politika, aramed
saerTod modernistuli arsebobis wesi, midgomebi, prioritetebi.
Tavisi uflebebisTvis da TviTdamkvidrebisTvis mogvianebiT gamovidnen qalebi, seqsualuri umciresobebi.
postmodernis epoqisadmi araerTgvarovani midgomaa. iurgen
habermasi miiCnevs, rom postmoderni es aris daumTavrebeli moderni. dReisTvis, misi azriT, modernma Tavis piks miaRwia da ar
SeiZleba laparaki sruliad axal da gansxvavebul paradigmaze.
niu eidJic uaryofs postmodernistuli epoqis arsebobas.
is, rac dRes xdeba ueWvelad modernia, razedac metyvelebs TviT am
moZraobis dasaxeleba, romelic emTxveva moderns da ubralod mis
gviandel fazaze miuTiTebs.
bodriari moderns uwodebs `scenis epoqas~, vinaidan masSi
yvela movlena miiswrafoda TviTwarmodgenisTvis, rogorc scenaze,
ris dagvirgvinebas televizia warmoadgens. postmodernuli midgoma es pirvel rigSi imis gagebis tolfasia, rom yvelaferi ar
SeiZleba iyos warmoCenili.
deniel belic ar iziarebs postmodernistuli epoqis Taviseburebas. warmoadgens ra teqnokratiis damcvels, is miiCnevs, rom
postindustriuli sazogadoeba sawarmoo urTierTobebis ganviTarebis iseTi stadiaa, rodesac qreba yvela istoriuli socialur-ekonomikuri winaaRmdegoba teqnikis ganviTarebis Sedegad. anu
beli postmodernistul epoqas aigivebs post-industriuli sazogadoebis CamoyalibebasTan, rasakvirvelia post-industriuli
sazogadoeba postmodernis erT-erTi aucilebeli da Tanmyoli
mocemulobaa, magram postmoderni mainc masze ar daiyvaneba.
postmodernis gamowvevebma enTuziazmi gamoiwvies `axal memarjveneebSi~ (a. meleri. a. de benua, r. stoikersi da sxva). isini
sixaruliT aRniSnaven, rom damTavrda princi pebis ganuyofeli batonobis epoqa. Tumca swored ganmanaTleblobis diadi proeqtis
Selaxva awuxebs i. habermass. is brals sdebs postmodernis mxardamWerebs renegatulobaSi da faSizmSic ki. mTlianad uaryofs ra
postmoderns, is masSi xedavs pre-modernis dabrunebas.

postmodernizmi da masobrivi kultura

169

umberto ekos azriT, postmodernistuli xedvis niSnebi yvela


epoqas axasiaTebs sulieri krizisis periodSi. swored am dros
xdeba individualuri subieqtis gamwireba, ris Sedegadac ikargeba
tradiciis damcavi pirovnuli stili.
postmodernizmi Cveulebriv iTvleba iseTi kulturis qmnilebad, romelsac ar gaaCnia absoluti, zusti gansazRvrebebi an safuZvlebi. mas axasiaTebs Sexedulebebis pluralizmi da gansxvavebuloba. moxda ganmanaTleblobis idealebis gaufasureba an ufro
swored maTi gatoleba nebismier sxva idealebTan. azrovnebam dakarga
unari da rwmena imisa, rom samyaros Secnoba ZaluZs. sazogadod
azrovnebam dakarga prioriteti da intuiciam Tavisi uflebebi
daibruna. upiratesobis miniWebis aucilebloba gaqra da tradiciulma, Zvelma, arqaulma iseTive Zala SeiZina, rogorc Tanamedrovem.
aseTi relativizmis miuxedavad, misi abstragireba postmodernul sistemaSi mainc ar xdeba, iseve rogorc ar xdeba nebismieri
sxva princi pis abstragireba. rogorc hans kiungi aRniSnavs, relativizmi postmodernSi, iseve rogorc postmodernistul kulturaSi mudam humanizmTan erTad figurirebs. aseTi mimarTebaa yvela
sxva mimarTulebebisadmi da maT Soris modernizmis mimarTac. swored,
relativizmis mudmivi wyviloba humanizmTan ganasxvavebs postmodernistul humanizms modernulisgan, romelSic humanizmis abstragireba xSirad iwvevda mis sapirispiro movlenas (Tundac, magaliTad, bolSevizmi).
postmodernistuli cnobierebisTvis sruliad ucxoa profetuloba. esTetikur sferoSi relativizmi anadgurebs avtoriseul
diqtats, avtoris totalitarizms, nebismier ideologias. amieridan avtori, mwerali, xelovani aRar laparakobs yvelas saxeliT,
aRar aris xalxis maswavlebeli, winamZRvari. postmodernis princi pebze Tu vilaparakebT, rasakvirvelia, unda iTqvas, rom aseTi princi pebi ar arsebobs, Tu ar CavTvliT princi pad erTi WeSmaritebis
uaryofas. jer kidev vitgenStaini aRniSnavda, rom WeSmariteba ubralod sityvaa, romelic aRniSnavs imas, rasac aRniSnavs leqsikonis
mixedviT. WeSmariteba sityvaa, romelsac arsi ara aqvs. anu uaryofilia WeSmaritebis istoriuloba da is sityvaa, romelic teqstis erT-erTi elementia. anu istoriis nacvlad teqsti gvaqvs.
istoria ki teqstis wakiTxvis istoriaa.
postmodernizmi demokratiuli xelovnebaa im azriT, rom warmoadgens Tanamedrove demokratiuli azrovnebis asaxvas. amave dros
postmodernizmis ganurCevloba stilebis, Janrebis mimarT, iseve

170

Tamar berekaSvili

rogorc gulgriloba Sefasebebisadmi da masobrivi kulturis


mimRebloba nebismieri sxva kulturis gverdiT srulebiT ar niSnavs imas, rom postmodernizmi Tavadaa masobrivi kultura. masobrivi kultura sruliad sxva movlenaa da warmoadgens swored
modernizmis produqts, mis qmnilebas. is xelovnebis erT-erTi
dargia Tavisi amocanebiT, gamoxatvis formebiT. sainteresoa is, rom
sxvadasxva Janrebi imdenad urTierTSeRwevadi gaxda, rom xSirad
e.w. maRali xelovnebis nawarmoebi masobrivi kulturis bevri elementis matarebeli xdeba. adgili aqvs `orgvar kodirebas~ anu
mxatvruli nawarmoebi xdeba misaRebi rogorc masobrivi momxmareblisTvis, ise elitarulisTvis.
postmodernizmis ti piuri nawarmoebebia, bolo wlebSi egzom
popularuli mwerlebis akuninis, pelevinis, m. paviCis wignebi.
postmodernizmi arc masobrivi xelovnebaa da arc elitaruli. is ubralod xelovnebaa.
rac Seexeba masobriv kulturas, romelsac didi umravlesoba
swored postmodernizms ukavSirebs, (da rasac Cven kategoriulad
vuaryofT), misi aseTi gavrceleba gamowveulia postmodernizmis
`SemwynareblobiT~ da akritikulobiT, erTi mxriv, da meore mxriv,
imiT, rom postmodernizmisTvis ucxoa elitarulobisken swrafva,
rac metad mniSvnelovani iyo modernizmisTvis, ramac didwilad
gamoiwvia protesti klasikuri elitaruli xelovnebis winaaRmdeg
e.w. pop-artis saxiT.
1969 w. Jurnali `Playboy~ (1969 w.) -Si lelsi fedleri
ukve saubrobda literaturuli modernis agoniaze. fedleri mouwodebda `elitarul~ da ` masobriv~ xelovnebas Soris sazRvrebis moSlisken, rac ar niSnavs imas, rom mTeli literatura unda
gamxdariyo mdare, bulvaruli da masobrivi.
masobrivi kulturis mkacri an calsaxa gansazRvreba ar arsebobs. kamaTs iwvevs am saxelwodebis orive nawili - `kultura~ da
`masa~. ramdenime wlis manZilze gamarTulma msjelobam IEP-Si (parizi)
ver Camoayaliba masobrivi kulturis kanonikuri gansazRvreba.
INALCO-s seminarma daadgina `masobrivi kulturis~ xuTi
kriteriumi:
1. misi warmateba xdeba industriulad (da Sesabamisad, SesaZlebelia misi usasrulod reproducireba; erTgvarad es aris
`aslebis kultura~).

postmodernizmi da masobrivi kultura

171

2. misi gavrceleba xdeba mas-mediis meSveobiT (mas-mediis yvela saxeoba SeiZleba monawileobdes da xSirad monawileobs kidec
misi warmoebis procesSi).
3. is advilad xelmisawvdomia da mas srulebiT ar aferxebs
arc sazRvrebi, arc klasebi, arc erebi;
4. misi Sinaarsi da warmodgenis forma metad Wrelia; mas aqvs
Tavisi ritualebi, miTebi, liderebi. anu is srulebiT ar aris
erTsaxovani da martivi, rogorc mas xSirad axasiaTeben;
5. masobrivi kultura mimarTulia keTildReobisken, siamovnebisken, sixarulisken, raRac azriT. da swored amitom ixarjeba masze
uamravi saxsrebi, is komerciul terminebSi iazreba kidec.
erik masem masobrivi kultura gansazRvra rogorc `kulturul obieqtTa (da masTan dakavSirebuli praqtikebis) erToblioba,
romelic iwarmoeba kulturuli industriiT da emsaxureba metad
heterogenul publikas~
arsebobs `masobrivi kulturis~ sxva saxelwodebebic, magaliTad, `msoflio kultura~. am saxelwodebis avtori sireneli
amodis im fenomenidan, rom XX saukunis 60-iani wlebis Semdeg
`moxda masobrivi kulturis kristalizeba msoflio kulturad~.
bartis azriT, erT-erTi mniSvnelovani Tviseba masobrivi kulturisa mdgomareobs mis desakralizaciaSi, is ar aris anTologiuri,
maSin roca e.w. maRali xelovnebis nawarmoebebi gadian erTgvar
filtrSi, rogorc kulturis, ise istoriis.
masobrivi kulturis nawarmoebis funqcia erTaderTia moxdes
misi moxmareba. aq maxsendeba erT-erTi rusi momReralis bogdan
titamiris pasuxi SekiTxvaze, ratom mReris is mdare simRerebs. man
upasuxa - ` ~.
ueWvelia masobrivi kulturis kidev erTi Tvisebaaa is, rom is
viTardeba ZiriTadad mdidar industriul qveynebSi, rac gasagebia,
vinaidan masobrivi kultura moiTxovs mrewvelobas da komercias
da mas sWirdeba momxmarebeli, romelic mzad aris mis misaRebad
moclili da socialurad naklebad SezRuduli.
meore mxriv, masobrivi xelovnebisTvis erT-erT damaxasiaTebel
elements warmoadgens marginaluri jgufebis, marginaluri adamianebis yofa da cxovreba (gansakuTrebiT literaturisaTvis) amasTan
masobrivi kulturis marginalizmi socialuri kriticizmis saxes
atarebs. `gariyulTa~, socialuri fskeris warmomadgenelTa samyaro, damnaSaveoba, xelisuflebis korufcia da a. S. didaqtikuri
xasiaTisaa, rac ucxoa postmodernizmisTvis, romlisTvisac margin-

172

Tamar berekaSvili

ali aranairad ar fasdeba es aris ucxo, iseTive ucxo, rogoric


nebismieri Cvengania sxvisTvis da TviT sakuTari TavisTvis, Tu
odnav mainc Cafiqrdeba an gascdeba Cveul sazRvrebs. postmodernizmis Tavisebureba is ki araa, rom misi xelovneba erwymis, enacvleba an igivuri xdeba masobrivis; masobrivi erT-erTi rigiTi, Tanaswori da sruluflebiani elementi xdeba xelovnebis.
masobrivi literatura ZiriTadad im sazogadoebebSi viTardeba, sadac mosaxleobis udidesi nawili ganaTlebulia, yovel SemTxvevaSi icis kiTxva. XX saukunis meore naxevridan, swored postmodernizmis damkvidrebis paralelurad elitarulis da masobrivis dapirispirebam dakarga Tavisi mniSvneloba da aqtualoba. masobrivi xelovnebis gatolebam xelovnebis sxva formebTan, Tundac
elitarul xelovnebasTan kargad warmoaCina am dayofis fardobiToba. bevri Semoqmedi (mwerali, reJisori, musikosi) xSirad masobrivi xelovnebis siuJetiT Tu formiT cdilobs TviTgamoxatvas,
eqsperimentirebas (Tundac umberto eko, grenuei).
xSiria SemTxvevebi, rodesac masobrivi xelovnebis nawarmoebebi elitarulis saxes iRebs gamocemis ti pis gamo. ase xdeba avtoris pirvelad gamocemis dros, aseTive ieri hqonda sabWoTa
periodSi fantastikuri literaturis gamocemas, mag., strugackebis
wignebs. amgvarad, es Sefasebis sakiTxad iqceva. garda amisa, es aris
konteqstis problema, romelSic nawarmoebi arsebobs. vivaldis
musikis TanxlebiT yinulze Sesrulebuli cekva masobriv kulturas miekuTvneba, albaT, iseve, rogorc miqelanjelos naxatSi gaxveuli namcxvari.
amgvarad, postmodernistuli xelovneba, romelic erTgvarad
warmoadgens Tanamedrove liberaluri demokratiis qveynebSi arsebuli samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Rirebulebebis gamoxatulebas, xasiaTdeba ara marto yvela kulturisTvis Cveuli dayofiT maRal,
elitarul xelovnebad da masobrivad, aramed agreTve xelovnebis am
or ti ps Soris sazRvrebis moSliT da urTierTSenacvlebiT. bevr
SemTxvevaSi swored e.w. elitaruli atarebs masobriobis niSnebs,
xolo masobrivi martooden tradiciuli `momxmareblis~ viwro
wres Tu emsaxureba.
zemoT ukve aRvniSne, rom bevri avtori, kritikosi, filosofosi Tanamedrove postmodernistulad wodebul xelovnebas ukargavs Rirebulebas Tvlis ra, rom es mimdinareoba sruliad amoraluria, im azriT ki ara, rom amoraluria, aramed im gagebiT, rom
moraluri Sefaseba misTvis ucxoa. TviTon eTikuri Sefasebis (iseve

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173

rogorc esTetikuris an nebismieri sxva) misdami miyeneba uadgiloa


da azrs moklebuli. aq `kargi~ da `cudi~, `lamazi~, da `maxinji~,
`mosawoni~ da `dasagmobi~ ar arsebobs. misi Sedareba SeiZleba
marto referatTan da marTlac, postmodernizmi ganuwyvetlad yvelafers ganmartavs, Tumca moklebulia nebismier Sefasebebs.
Tu xelovnebis misamarTiT zemomoyvanili msjeloba samarTliani
da sando Cans, rogorc ki igive maxasiaTeblebs ganvixilavT sayovelTao cxovrebaSi, politikaSi, socialur urTierTobebSi, maSinve
Cans msgavsi midgomis calmxrivoba. pirvel rigSi unda iTqvas, rom
gansxvavebebis gaTanasworeba da ierarqiis moSla, rac xelovnebaSi
TiTqosda amoralur saxes iRebs, ris gamoc bevri kritikosis
sayvedurs imsaxurebs, politikur cxovrebaSi da saerTaSoriso
urTierTobebSi vlindeba rogorc yvela adamianis uflebebis Tanabari dacva misi gansxvavebulobis miuxedavad, iqneba es kanis feri,
Tu warmomavloba, ena Tu erovneba. aseTive viTarebaa marginalobis
mimarTac. swored marginalizaciis xazgasmam da misi uflebebis
aRdgenam moitana is Zvrebi, romlebic moxda seqsualuri umciresobebis legalizaciiT, qalTa uflebebis gazrdiT, erTa TviTgamorkveviT da a.S. rac ueWvelad progresul da dadebiT miRwevad
unda CaiTvalos.
Tu davubrundebiT piriqiT, sazogadoebis da samyaros gavlenas xelovnebaze, unda aRiniSnos misi ramdenime axali mxare. globalizacia, rac gulisxmobs imas, rom literatura, xelovneba gaxda
garTobis da Sesabamisad, gayidvis obieqti, rac xSirad misi sxvadasxva enaze warmodgenis aucileblobas iwvevs sxvadasxva qveyanaSi. erTi mxriv, rogorc aRiniSna, mwerals Tu musikoss aRara aqvs
ufleba da aucilebloba, isaubros, gamovides adamianTa didi jgufebis
saxeliT da pretenzia hqondes mii pyros yvelas yuradReba, magram
meore mxriv, yvela didi da ubralod SesamCnevi, warmatebuli nawarmoebi, iqneba es literaturaSi Tu xelovnebis sxva sferoSi, mTeli
msoflios yuradRebis centrSi xvdeba.
meore Tviseba, romelic SeiZina xelovnebam sazogadoebis axal
TvisobriobasTan dakavSirebiT, aris misi agebis, formirebis Zvelisagan
gansxvavebuli wesi, rac aixsneba, kinoxelovnebis, Semdgom televiziis da saerTod `sakomunikacio~ arxebis ganviTarebiT. es Tavs iCens
xelovnebis (maRali xelovnebis) axal saxed CamoyalibebaSi, sazogadod mTeli xelovnebis axlebur struqturirebaSi, axali enis SeqmnaSic ki, suraTis, gamosaxulebis rolis gazrdaSi.

174

Tamar berekaSvili

amgvarad, postmodernis epoqa mTlianad cvlis kulturis Sinaarss. amasTan, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli kulturis diferenciacia
mcired damokidebul an sruliad damoukidebel kulturul stilebad,
formebad da a.S., iwvevs axali sakvlevi sferoebis gaCenasac.

D literatura

soloviovi 1991: .. , .
. .
"".
barti 1994: . : . .
., .
"". ".
bodriari 1995: . . . ,
1995.
gurko 1999: . . . .
, .
delezi...1998: . . . -
, 1998.
derida 1993: . "".
ilini 1998: ..
: / . .
... . , 1998.
l i o t a r i 1 9 9 8 : . .
.
fuko 1991: . (
1981-1981 .) -,- . ..: .
habermasi 1992: .
, 1992. 4.
velSi 1992: . ""
. . 1.

175

postmodernizmi da masobrivi kultura

Tamara Berekashvili

Postmodernism and popular culture


Postmodernism is a trend of art and in general of culture, which differs
much from the preceded views of modernism in a series of signs. It is characteristic
only of culture, art and is different from the postmodern concept , which grasps
historical epoch.
There are a lot of views on postmodernism. Every philosopher tries to consider
its essence and characteristics. Some of them e.g. Habermas fully denies its
existence and speaks only of the late modernism.
Popular culture, which since the 2nd half of the 20th century has become one
of the most important and largest parts of culture, often is associated with the
postmodernism and is considered to be its accompanied phenomenon and emerged
from it. Though it does not prove to be such. Simply in the popular culture the
different genres have become mutually so penetrating interconnected that very
often the so called high art carries a great many elements of popular culture.
Consequently the Postmodern epoch entirely changes the content of culture.

176

zurab kiknaZe

Zveli aRTqmis istoriis


ritmebi

filologiis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis
saxelmwifo universitetis profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
Suamdinaruli miTologia; qarTuli miTologia
I, jvari da saymo; Zveli
aRTqmis wuTisofeli;
xuTwigneulis Targmaneba.
interesTa sfero:
qarTuli folklori,
mwerloba, miTologia;
qristianuli Teologia;
Zveli aRTqma; asiriologia, semitologia.

ritmebi israelis anu Zveli aRTqmis


istoriaSi sxvadasxvagvarad da sxvadasxva
doneebze vlindeba, magram maT Soris ganmsazRvrelia periodi, romelic iwyeba ebraelTa
eponimis abraamis uridan gamosvliT vidre
babilonSi (kvlav SuamdinareTSi) gadasaxlebamde. raSi gamoixateba es ritmi? TvalsaCinoa xalxis istoriaSi monacvleoba msxemobasa da mkvidrobas Soris. iwyeba mkvidrobidan, gadadis msxemobaSi, kvlav ubrundeba
mkvidrobas, magram mkvidroba isev msxemobiT
icvleba, raTa kvlav mkvidrobas daubrundes.
da es sityva `dabruneba~ (ebr. TeSubah) mniSvnelovani konceptia, romelic moicavs rogorc
eris, ise TiToeuli eriskacis (israelianis)
cxovrebas moraluri aspeqtiT. TeSubah universaluri miTologemis kerZo gamoxatulebaa qveynis istoriaSi da adamianis cxovrebaSi. gacilebiT adre dabrunebis koncepti
Sumeris mentalobam gamoimuSava, aq is dedis
da qalaqis cnebebs daukavSirda.
raki vaxseneT Sumeri, daviwyoT qalaq
uridan, romelic bibliaSi qaldevelTa uris
saxliT ixsenieba erTaderTxel xalxis genezisis konteqstSi. qaldevelTa uri rCeuli eris Soreuli samSobloa. vidre arqeologiis era (XIX s.) dadgeboda, ra warmodgena unda hqonodaT qalaq urze bibliis
Zvel mkiTxvelebs, Tundac maT, visac xelewifeboda misi hermenevtika da egzegetika.
uris adgilmdebareoba ufro zustad ver

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177

iqneboda lokalizebuli mkiTxvelis cnobierebaSi, vidre adgilmdebareoba samoTxisa Tavisi ucnauri topografiiT (samyaros Suaguli, saidanac mTeli dedamiwis momrwyveli oTxi mdinare gamoedineba). es ucnobeloba inerciiT dRemde badebs zogierTTa gonebaSi
ucnaur etimologiebs (uri _ uria), rasac realobaSi araviTari
safuZveli ara aqvs. mesopotamiis enebis (Sumerulisa da aqaduris)
aRmoCenam aRmoaCina qalaqi uri werilobiT wyaroebSi, xolo arqeologiurma gaTxrebma daadastura misi istoriuli realoba.
cnobilia misi konturebi, misi galavani da galavnis SigniT sakulto da sajaro Senobebis ganlageba da a.S.
ai, am qalaqidan, romelic imdroindeli msoflios umniSvnelovanesi urbanistuli centri iyo, warmoiSva im xalxis embrioni,
romlis Tavgadasavals Seadgens swored Zveli aRTqmis istoria.
bibliuri lakonizmiT da, amave dros, konkretulobiT (im aucilebelis gadmocemiT, rasac avtori saWirod Tvlis, xolo rasac ar
gadmoscems, saidumlod tovebs) mogviTxrobs im ojaxis gamosvlas
uridan, romelmac oTxasi wlis Semdeg rCeuli eri Seadgina. igi
jer noesa da mere semis modgmis genelogias mosdevs uwyveti
xaziT da ganasrulebs es pasaJi:
`mohkida xeli Teraxma Tavis Zes abrams, Tavis SvilisSvils
lots, haranis Zes, Tavis rZals sarais, Tavisi Zis abramis
cols, da gavidnen erTad qaldevelTa uridan qanaanis qveyanaSi wasasvlelad. da miadgnen xarans da iq dasaxldnen~
(dab. 11:31).
ar gvaqvs safuZveli vifiqroT, rom qaldevelTa urSi igulisxmeba uris imperiis teritoria da ara evfratze gaSenebuli
sakuTriv qalaqi uri. imis Tqma gvsurs, rom Teraxis ojaxi cxovrobda qalaq urSi rogorc misi mkvidri, xolo rac gadmocemis
gareSe saidumlod darCa, es am ojaxis mwyemsur-nomadur warsulad
SegviZlia CavTvaloT. `amoreveli~, rogorc simbolurad iwodeba
bibliis erT adgilas ierusalimis mama (ezek. 16:3), mowmobs Teraxis modgmis eTnikur da kulturul warmoSobas. Sumeruli da aqaduri teqstebis marTu da amurru aRniSnavda dasavleTis momTabare tomebs, romelTa urdoebi periodulad iWrebodnen samiwaTmoqmedo zonaSi da aCanagebdnen naTesebs. maTi cxovrebis nirSi
ganmsazRvreli mwyemsuri yofa iyo, romelic totalurad upir-

178

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ispirdeboda miwaTmoqmedebas da misgan gamomdinare mkvidr cxovrebas. Sumerul literaturaSi cnobilia marTus xalxis saxe _
mudam udabnoSi daexetebian,
tyavebiT arian Semosilni,
karvebia maTi sacxovrebeli,
minebebulni qarsa da wvimas,
locvebis warmoTqma maT ar uwyian,
muxlis moyra maT ar uwyian,
umi xorcia maTi saWmeli,
ar ician saxli, ar ician qalaqi,
roca kvdebian, ar imarxebian
[marTu, 128-138].
da misi agresia samiwaTmoqmedo da urbanistuli kulturis mimarT:
`mas Jams marTu, xorblis umecari, mTels Sumers da
aqads Semoadga, magram uruqis kedeli frinvelTsaWer badesaviT gadaefina udabnos...~
[lugalbanda, 304-305]
es agresia mosavlian yanebSi saqonlis SerekvaSi gamoixata, rogorc
danaSauli, romelmac kanonebSi hpova asaxva. es momTabaruli qmedebaa, romelic SeinarCuna mosaxleobis mwyemsurma nawilma sedentarul yofaze gadasvlis procesSi. xamurabis kanonebSi vkiTxulobT:
`Tu mindvridan cxvris amosvlis Semdeg mwyemsi
cxvars yanaSi miuSvebs da yanas moaZovebinebs...~
($ 58).
aisaxa is Sumerul mwerlobaSi, sadac amgvarad gamoixata samiwaTmoqmedo da mwyemsuri kulturis zavi _ mSvidobiani Tanaarsebobis
dasawyisi:
me SenTan, mwyemso, SenTan, mwyemso,
me SenTan rad unda vdavobde?
Zovdes Seni cxvari Cems morwyul miwaze,
Cems yanebSi Seni cxvari dabalaxobdes,

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uruqis brwyinvale yanebSi TavTavsa Wamdes,


Seni kravi da Tikani arxis wyals svamdes!
[poezia 1987: 11]

es poeziaSi. magram Suamdinaruli istoria adasturebs marTuamurrus infiltracias (miTosis enam es gadmosca marTus, rogorc
RmerTis Tu eponimis CasiZebiT Sumeris erT-erT qalaqSi) Sumeraqadis teritoriaze da maT damkvidrebas TviT iqamde, rom sabolood amoreuli warmoSobis beladebis dinastia babilons Suamdinaruli oikomenas centrad aqcevs. am dinastiis saukeTeso warmomadgeneli xamurabi, romelmac werilobiTi kanonebi (mkvidrobis
umaRlesi da saboloo etapis gamoxatuleba) misca qveyanas, mwyemsad ixseniebs Tavs preambulaSi (`xamurabi var, enlilisgan dadgenili mwyemsi~), rac arcTu Soreuli warsulisadmi erTgvar pietetad unda miviCnioT.
magram ar aris aucilebeli Teraxis sagvareulo sisxliTa da
xorciT (bibliuri gamoTqmiT `xorciTa da ZvliT~) davukavSiroT
marTu-amurrus, romlis erT-erTi ganStoeba mis STamomavals abrams
qanaanSi daxvda, rogorc mkvidri miwaTmoqmedi mosaxleoba. vgulisxmob ara amgvar naTesaobas, aramed cxovrebis niris ti pologias.
ojaxs Tu sagvareulos, romelic Svidi sulisgan (mamamTavris CaTvliT) Sedgeboda, SesaZloa iwyebda mkvidr qalaqur cxovrebas qaldevelTa urSi, rom idumal xmas ar aeyara igi, raTa marTus cxovrebas
dabruneboda. Tumca es ar iqneboda warsuli yofis zusti ganmeoreba. TeSuba (`dabruneba~) gulisxmobs axal etaps. ar Cans, rom am
sagvareulos Tu ojaxs, romelsac wvrilSvili ar hyavda, raime
mniSvnelovani dovlaTis dagroveba moeswro. bibliis am pasaJis
avtors ar gamorCeboda Tundac erTi aqlemi, romelzec maTi mciredi Wirnaxuli iqneboda akidebuli. pirutyvis jogs, rogorc adamianis wreSi Semaval arsebebs da mis Tanamgzavrs, igi usaTuod
moixsenebda. warmovidginoT: dilis sisxamze ojaxi tovebs saxls,
karmidamos, da sityvis uTqmelad gadis qveynidan. ra unda efiqra
samezoblos, SesaZlebelia, mis sanaTesaos? mizanSewonilia Tu ara
es kiTxva, romelzec SeuZlebelia pasuxis miReba, radgan Tavad
(aseTia am pasaJis pozicia) Teraxsac ar eqneboda garkveviT warmodgenili is misia, romelic misi sikvdilis Semdeg mis Zes abrams
(jer kidev abrams) daekisra.

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is adgili _ xarani, sadac gardaicvala Teraxi, rogorc Semdeg


gairkva, aseve droebiTi sacxovrebeli iyo. mosalodneli iyo, rom
abrami damkvidrebuliyo xaranSi, ramdenadac xarani qaldevelTa
uris erTgvar filialad SeiZleba CavTvaloT. xaranSi, romelic
uris msgavsad mTvaris saTayvanebeli qalaqi iyo, abrams yvela piroba hqonda, rom ganegrZo aw ukve Tavisi mamamTavrobiT urSi dawyebuli saqme, anu mieyo xeli mkvidri cxovrebisTvis. magram gangeba
sxvagvarad gansjida: masac Caesma xma, romelic im xmis ganmeorebad,
aw ukve axal etapze, unda miviCnioT.
`uTxra ufalma abrams: wadi Seni qveynidan, Seni
samSoblodan, mamaSenis saxlidan im qveyanaSi, romelsac
me giCveneb. gaqcev did xalxad, gakurTxeb da ganvadideb Sens saxels da kurTxeuli iqnebi~ (dab.
12:1).
viciT, rom xarani arc misi qveyanaa, arc misi samSoblo (moledeT
`dabadebis adgili~) da arc misi mamis saxli. es samive kvalifikacia ufro urs SeiZleba mivusadagoT, sadac albaT, Tu Teraxi ara,
abrami da misi Zmebi mainc daibadnen. magram xaranis mimarT ~Seni
qveyana~, `Seni samSoblo~, `mamaSenis saxli~ SeiZleba mxolod imas
niSnavdes, rom xarani namdvilad xdeboda da gaxdeboda kidec, is xma
rom ara, mis samkvidrebel qveyanad. xaranSi abramma ukve raRac
dovlaTi daagrova, magram xarani mainc misTvis gardamavali dro da
adgili aRmoCnda (xarran aqadurad niSnavs `gzas~). gangebiT, mas aq
egeboda damkvidreba.
`da Tan waritana abramma sarai, Tavisi coli, loti,
Tavisi Zmiswuli, mTeli qoneba, rac ki moxveWili
hqondaT, da yoveli yrma (yma), vinc ki xaranSi SeiZines.
da daadgnen qanaanis qveynis gzas da mividnen qanaanis qveyanaSi~ (dab. 12:5).

im Svididan, romelmac qaldevelTa uri datova, sami suliRa darCa.


(naxorma mkvidri cxovreba airCia xaranSi). abrami mcire monagariT
da monaxveWiT midis msxemad ucxoobaSi. `da daiZra abrami...~

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I. msxemoba qanaanSi
cnobilia, rom `xuTwigneuli~ (ebr. Tora `rjuli~) momTabareTa poziciebidan aris dawerili. aq dasturi aqvs micemuli
mwyemsur cxovrebas iseve, rogorc mieca dasturi mwyems abelis
msxverpls, kaenis _ miwismuSakis msxverpls ki ar mieca. abrami
Sedis qanaanSi, rogorc abeli da misi saqmianoba mxolod da mxolod mwyemsobiT aris Semofargluli. igi samiwaTmoqmedo kulturis qveyanaSia, magram ganridebulia maT saqmianobas.
qanaani is qveyanaa, sadac abraami da misi momdevno ori Taoba
mudam msxemad, Tu mwirad da ucxod _ gerad rCeba qveynis mimarT,
romlis damkvidreba Soreul momavalSia gadatanili. abraami mudmiv moarulia, moxetialea. is mimodis qanaanis miwaze, sadac arsad
ar arCevs mudmiv samkvidrebels. is arsad ar aSenebs saZirkvlian
saxls. erTaderTi qvis nageboba, romelsac is aRmarTavs qanaanis
miwaze, uflis samsxverploa. sacxovreblad igi gaSlis mxolod
karavs, rac misi msxemobis ZiriTadi atributia (fsalm. 119:5).
Tumca mesame TaobaSi `karvebSi mcxovrebi~ (dab. 25:27) mis naSiers
daerqva. mTeli Tavisi sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi qanaani rCeba misi
`mdgmurobis miwad~ (erec magure, dab. 17:8), sapirispirod `samSoblo miwisa~ (erec moledeT, dab. 12:1). qanaanSi mas araferi ekuTvnis,
garda miwis im umciresi nakveTisa, romelic man qveynis mkvidrTagan
saras saflavisTvis SeiZina. niSandoblivia, rom miwis am nakveTis
gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis gamo teqstSi ukiduresi sizustiT
aris miniSnebuli misi adgilmdebareoba, misamarTi (dab. 23:17),
ramdenadac is gaxda windi misi STamomavlobis momavali mkvidrobisTvis am qveyanaSi. am saflavis saxiT `mdgmurobis miwa~ ukve
potenciurad inaxavs aRTqmul mkvidrobas, romelsac patriarqTa
sami Taoba ver moeswreba.
SeniSvna. qarTuli samarTlis Zegli `Zegli erisTavTa~ xedavs
da akanonebs kavSirs saflavsa da mkvidrobas Soris: `maSin hrqua
mamasaxlisman largvisisaman, xuciandabis Zeman: ukueTu gnebavs mkvidryofa queyanasa amas, iTxove saflavi monastersa amas...~ [Zeglebi
1966:103].
abraamis wiaRidan gamosuli isaki da Semdeg mis kvalze iakobi
msxemobs qveyanaSi, moZraobs adgilidan adgilad. iakobs Tavisi da,
ganzogadebulad, Tavisi winaprebis cxovreba erT ganuwyvetel msx-

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emobad esaxeba, rogorc man gamoTqva, rogorc Tavis winaparTa da


Tavisi sakuTari cxovrebis mrwamsi, faraonTan saubarSi (`asocdaaT
wels iTvlis Cemi mdgmurobis xani... jer ver mivawie Cemi mamebis
mdgmurobis wlebs~, dab. 47:9). TavianTi cxovrebiT patriarqebi
axorcieleben abeluri cxovrebis ti ps, razec wers netari avgustine `RvTis qalaqSi~ (De civitate Dei, XV,1). abeli aq fundamenturad upirispirdeba kaens, romelic mkvlelobis Semdeg qalaqis
mSenebeli anu urbanistuli civilizaciis mamamTavari gaxda, im civilizaciisa, rasac RmerTma Semdgom urSi Teraxi da misi ojaxi
gaarida. aq marTu mogviTxrobs Tavis Tavgadasavals, Signidan gvacnobs Tavis Tavs. SiSiszari qsenofobia, romelsac iwvevs marTu
mkvidi qveynebis mosaxleobaSi, abraamis SemTxvevaSi gansakuTrebuli
ridiT aris Secvlili. misi ar eSiniaT, pativs scemen, mowiwebiT
epyrobian. surT isic maTsaviT mkvidri gaxdes. araTu saflavis
miwas mouzomaven, aramed mzad arian daamkvidron miwaze. magram
abraami damkvidrebas ar apirebs. is xalxi, romelmac unda daimkvidros
qanaani, jer kidev mis sazardulSi Tvlems.

II. monoba egvipteSi


`msxemi monaa ucxo qveyanaSi
(Sumeruli andaza)
egvi pteSi Casvla nawinaswarmetyvelevi iyo abraamisTvis micemul
aRTqmasTan erTad, rom misi STamomavloba daimkvidrebda qanaanis
miwas (dab. 15:13). Tavadac mouxda egvi pteSi Casvla sarasTan erTad,
winaswar moaswava ra misi STamomavlobis iq yofna, da iqac mdgmurobda (msxemobda) erTxans.
iakobis Casvla egvi pteSi gangebiseuli iyo, magram mas hqonda
yofiTi mizezi. es iyo SimSili, romelic mousavliani wlebis wyebam
gamoiwvia. cxadia, roca adamians Semoakldeba puri, is yidulobs
purs iq, sadac puri i poveba. magram iakobs arasodes hqonia sakuTari puri. is, rogorc marTu, `xorblis umecaria~. umecaria im
azriT, rom ar xnavs miwas, ar Tesavs, ar mohyavs puri.
faraonis wyalobiT, iosebma isini egvi ptis saukeTeso mxareSi
_ goSenSi daasaxla, rogorc mwyemsebi, romelTa saqmianoba
egvi ptelebisTvis saZulveli iyo. gamosvlaTa wignis dasawyisSive
vxedavT, rom bedis ukuRmarTobiT, mwyemsTa da karvis `mSenebelTa~

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STamomavlebi qalaqTa mSeneblebi xdebian, faraonisTvis qalaqebis


asaSeneblad agurebs amzadeben anu monawileobas iReben urbanistul-industriuli civilizaciis SenebaSi. es maTi bunebis sawinaaRmdego Sromaa da, amdenad, ar SeiZleba igi iZulebiTi ar yofiliyo. qanaanis msxemi egvi ptis monad iqceva. monoba msxemobis ukiduresi saxea. israelianebi rom egvi ptis araTu mkvidrni, aramed
msxemebic ver gaxdnen, providenciulia maT istoriaSi. winawarmetyvelebaSic es igulisxmeboda. iseve, rogorc amaze adre Zmebis mtrobam
iosebis mimarT providenciulad israelianTa egvi pteSi moxvedra
ganapiroba anu borotebam, sabolood, xsna mouvlina maT, axlac
gausaZlisi yofa, romelic kulminacias monobaSi aRwevs, maTi
egvi ptidan gamosvlis sababi xdeba. sxva SemTxvevaSi Tavs ver daaRwevdnen egvi ptes. imdenad mimzidveli iyo maTTvis egvi ptis nayofiereba, rom am monobis gansacdelis Tu gamocdilebis gareSe isini
verasodes gamovidodnen egvi ptidan (gavixsenoT, rogor enatrebaT
maT udabnoSi egvi ptis xorciT savse qvabebi). abraamisTvis gamocxadebuli winaswarmetyvelebis aRsruleba swored monobis (da ara
myudro mdgmurobis) xanaSi moxda, da swored maSin, roca israelianTa mosaxleobam zRvrul ricxvs miaRwia, rac abraamisadmi micemuli aRTqmis nawilobrivi aRsruleba iyo. magram am `cis varskvlavTa~ (dab. 13:16) da `zRvis qviSis~ (dab. 15:5) simravleSi ar Canda
arc erTi pirovneba, romelic winaswarmetyvelebis sityvebs Seasrulebda. arc RvTis gamocxadeba yofila im oTxasi wlis manZilze,
radgan monobis mdgomareoba gamoricxavs pirovnul gamocxadebas.
israelma Tavisi wiaRidan ver warmoSva aseTi adamiani. adamiani,
visi xeliTac ufals unda aResrulebina aRTqma, mose iyo, romelic
faraonis karze aRizarda da TiTqmis gaucxovebuli iyo Tavis
xalxisgan (rasac misi enabrgvilobac mowmobs); is mxolod ormoci wlis asakSi gamovida faraonis karidan Tavis TvistomTa
gasacnobad.

III. udabnos gamocdileba


(Tavisufleba)
moses udabnoSi gaWris sababi TvistomTa umaduroba iyo,
providenciuli mizani _ gamocxadebis miReba sinaize da arcTu
Soreul samomavlod udabnoSi cxovrebis da xetialis gamocdileba. egvi pte _ oazisi, sadac isini gamravldnen, udabnoebiT aris

184

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garsSemortymuli. `wavalT udabnoSi...~ (gam. 5:3). egvi ptidan gamosvla, imavdroulad, udabnoSi _ TavisuflebaSi gasvlaa. msxemobas,
rogorc vxedavT, ori perspeqtiva aqvs: erTi monobisken, romelic
egvi pteSi ganxocielda, meore Tavisuflebisken, romelic udabnos
pirobebSi unda ganxorcielebuliyo. israelma egviptidan gasvlis
naxtomiT gadalaxa monoba. monobidan igi uSualod TavisuflebaSi
aRmoCnda. amieridan egvi pte maT xsovnaSi ara mxolod monobis
saxlad damkvidrda, aramed dacemis xanadac (egvi pteSi Casvla
codvis Sedegi iyo), udabno ki iseT simaRled, romlisTvisac israels aRar miuRwevia. es namdvilad arqeti puli xana iyo maT
istoriaSi, romelic karvobis (suqqoT) dResaswaulSi cocxldeba.
magram is mainc gza iyo, gasavleli manZili rogorc fizikuri, ise
sulieri azriT. gzaze myofi adamiani arc mkvidria, arc msxemi da
arc mona, aramed Tavisufali, romelic saboloo mkvidrobisTvis
emzadeba. igi nivTiers arafers aSenebs, misi moRvaweoba sulier
sferoSia saZiebeli.
Tormet toms (daaxloebiT ormilionnaxevrian xalxs) udabnos gzaze iseve, rogorc patriarqebs qanaanSi, ar dautovebiaT raime
kvali maTi myofobisa. isini cxovrobdnen, TiTqos arc cxovrobdnen... udabno `am soflis saxea~, romelmac Caiara israelianTa Tvalwin, `wuTisofeli~, sadac maT ormoci weli _ erTi kacobrivi
Taobis xani gaatares. magram, rogorc karvobis dResaswaulis arsi
mowmobs, udabnoSi cxovreba maT xsovnaSi miuRwevel idealad darCa. abeluri saxe cxovrebisa mTeli sisruliT iyo ganxorcielebuli udabnoSi, sadac isini abelisa da Semdeg `moxetiale aramelis~
(rjl. 26:5) namdvili STamomavlebi iyvnen, an im kacisa, iakobisa,
romelsac SobiTganve `karvebSi mcxovrebi~ ewoda (dab. 25:27). ra
moxda am erTi Taobis xangrZlivobis periodSi?
pirvel rigSi, xalxi pirispir aRmoCnda Tavis TavTan. mas
unda Seecno Tavisi unikaloba mis absoluturobaSi, ara sxva romelime xalxTan SedarebiT; rogorc RvTis rCeuli xalxi, is unda
yofiliyo erTi, rogorc erTia RmerTi. meore mxriv, am Segnebis
gansamtkiceblad iyo movlenili udabnoSi gansacdelebi, romelTac
igi xalxidan religiur erad unda gardaeqmna. misi bunebiTi TviTneboba unda moTrgunuliyo, sinaize miRebuli rjuli unda aRmarTuliyo kedlad Tavisuflebasa da TviTnebobas Soris, rogor
Tavad sinai da xorebi iyvnen aRmarTulni usamano da usazRvro
udabnos gamyofad. am udabnos gansacdeliani gzis istoriul mniSvnelobas axsenebs maT mose: `gaxsovdes mTeli is gza, romliTac

Zveli aRTqmis istoriis ritmebi

185

mihyavdi es ormoci weli ufals, Sens RmerTs udabnoSi, rom moeTvinierebine, gamoecade, rom scodnoda, ra gidevs gulSi, daicavdi Tu
ara mis mcnebebs. gaWirvebda, gamSevda da gaWmevda mananas, romelic
ar icoda Senma mama-papam, raTa mimxvdariyavi, rom mxolod puriT ar
cocxlobs kaci, aramed uflis piridan gamomavali yoveli sityviT
cocxlobs kaci~ (rjl. 8:2-3).

IV. mkvidroba qanaanSi


figuralurad, Tumca es figura sakmao siRrmiT gamoxatavs
istoriul-kulturul realobas, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom egvi ptis
urbanizmidan TavdaRweul israels qanaanSi kaenis civilizacia daxvda
Tavisi orgiastuli samiwaTmoqmedo kultiT da qalaqebiT (ricxv.
13:29), romelic aq cxovrebis mTeli xnis manZilze maTTvis sacTuri iqneba. rjuli ukrZalavs maT qanaanel miwaTmoqmedebTan axlo
urTierTobas. ukrZalavs maTTan saqorwino kavSirs ara rCeuli
eris `genebis~ (rogorc SeiZleba dRes vinmes moeCvenos), aramed
religiuri siwmidis Sesanaxad. akrZalva, rogorc jebiri, icavs mas
mRvrie nakadebisgan.
iordanis gadalaxvis Semdeg israelianTa modus vivendi axal
ganzomilebaSi gadadis. es ar aris arc patriarqTa droindeli
msxemoba da arc udabnos abeluri Tavisufleba. qanaanSi mkvidrobis saxiT meordeba is ti pi cxovrebisa, romelsac qaldevelTa
urSi eweodnen patriarqTa winaprebi. axla iwyeba miwaze maTi damkvidreba: Tormetma tomma erTmaneTSi gainawila qanaanis teritoria,
sazRvrebi tomTa Soris erTxel da samudamod iqna dadgenili.
yvelaferi daTvlilia, dasazRvrulia, Semofarglulia, xalxi damagrebulia miwaze. Tqven icxovrebT qalaqebSi, eubneboda maTi winamZRoli, romlebic Tqven ar gagiSenebiaT, icxovrebT saxlebSi, romlebic
Tqven ar agiSenebiaT, SeWamT miwis nayofebs, romlebic Tqven ar
dagirgavT. ase iqneba pirvel xanebSi. magram maT ar ascdebaT qalaqebis
dafuZneba, saxlebis Seneba, baR-venaxebis gaSeneba da yvelafris keTeba, rasac adgilobrivi qanaanelebi misdeven. msxemi xalxi ukve aSenebs
saZirkvlian saxlebs Tavis miwaze ara mxolod sacxovreblad, aramed
TavianTi RmerTis dasavaneblad, erT adgilze dasamkvidreblad.
udabnos periodSi maTac karavi hqondaT sacxovreblad da RmerTsac _ dasavaneblad, da RmerTic maTTan erTad Tavisuflad moZraobda
miwaze. rjulis kidobani, romelic uflis myofobis niSani iyo,

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aseve moZraobda savanesTan erTad tomidan tomSi, sadac ki karavi


daidgmeboda. kidobanma araTu msxemoba, tyveobac ganicada (1mef. 56) da amiT airekla xalxis istoriis ritmi.
marTalia, xalxi damkvidrda da amis Sesatyvisad karvebis nacvlad
saZirkvlian saxlebs aSenebs, sul male, SeiZleba iTqvas, damkvidrebis `meore dRes~ Cndeba bzari, romelic TandaTan izrdeba da bolos yvelaferi kolafsiT mTavrdeba
istoriis megaritmi Tavis paralelurad aCens mcire ritmebs
sxvadasxva sferoebSi, pirovnebidan dawyebuli socialur instituciebamde. kidobani gamonaklisi ar aris. aviRoT msajulobis
xana. riT aRiniSneba igi? qveynis mdgomareoba TanxmobaSia mmarTvelobis
ti pTan, romelic msxemuria Tavisi bunebiT. ti puria formula, romliTac `msajulTa wignis~ avtori axasiaTebs am periodis zogierT
avbediT movlenas: `im xanebSi israels mefe ar yavda~ (msaj. 18:1;
19:1) da ufro dakonkretebiT, riTac mTavrdeba `msajulTa wigni~,
israelis cxovrebis erTi periodi: `im xanebSi israels mefe ar
hyavda da, vis rogorc undoda, ise iqceoda~ (msaj. 21:25).
msajuloba gardamavali xanaa iseve, rogorc gardamavalia msajulis winamZRolobis ti pi. msajulis gamoCena damokidebulia
xalxis qcevis ritmze: uflisgan gandgoma, qanaanuri orgiastuli
RmerTebis _ baalizmis Tayvaniscema; uflis risxva da sasjelad
moTareSe urdoebi uflis xelSi; xalxis moqceva uflisken da
xalxis xsna msajulis xeliT. msajuli msajulobs ormoci wlis
ganmavlobaSi da, roca gadis misi msajulobis vada, ritmi meordeba,
yvelaferi Tavidan iwyeba. msajuloba xarizmatulia, xarizmatuloba ki msxemobis periods ufro Seesatyviseba, vidre mkvidrobas.
krizisis periodSi, roca mkvidri, memkvdreobiTi xelisufleba ar
Cans (vis rogor unda, ise iqceva), msajuli TiTqos araraobidan
moevlineba xalxs: ufali suls STaberavs ubralo israelians, visganac yvelaze naklebad an sul ar moelian winamZRolobas. arc
xalxi moelis da arc Tavad miaCnia SemZled Tavi, rom daicvas
xalxi moTareSisgan. niSandoblivia gedeonis sityvebi angelozisadmi, romelic gamoecxada mas uflis saxeliT:
`vaglax, batono, me rogor unda vixsna israeli! Cemi
sagvareulo yvelaze mcirea menaSeSi, me ki mamaCemis
saxlSi yvelaze umcrosi var~ (msaj. 6:15).

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mkvidri mosaxleoba moiTxovs memkvidreobiT ganmtkicebul


xelisuflebas, amitomac sTxoven gedeons:
`ibatone Cvenze Senc, Senma Svilmac da Senma SvilTaSvilmac, radgan Sen gvixseni midianis xelTagan~
(msaj. 8:22),
magram gedeoni uars ambobs, radgan albaT erTaderTma man icis,
rom masze gadmosuli es suli, romlis meSveobiTac is imarjvebs,
mas ar ekuTvnis, da amitomac verc memkvidreobiT ver gadava:
`ver vibatoneb Tqvenze da verc Cemi Svili ibatonebs Tqvenze. ufali ibatonebs Tqvenze~ (msaj.
8:23).
da, bolos, msajulTa epoqis dasasruls, roca xalxi daJinebiT
moiTxovs mefes anu imgvar wyobilebas, rogorc mis garSemo didi
xnis damkvidrebul xalxebs aqvT, maTi moTxovna, riTac samuels
mimarTes `dagvidgine mefe, rom sxva xalxebis wesisamebr gangvsjides~
(1mef. 8:5), ufalma Tavis Ralatad CaTvala: israeli uaryofs im
mowodebas, romelic man sinaize miiRo, rom yofiliyo wmida, anu
yvelasgan gansxvavebul-ganridebuli, sakuTari wesebis Tanaxmad arsebuli da moqmedi xalxi. magram maT moiTxoves xiluli mefe,
radgan xilulSi meti sasoeba hqondaT, vidre uxilavSi, rogoric
maTi RmerTi iyo. aq ganmeorda SemTxveva, roca udabnoSi SeSinebulma xalxma Tavisi winamZRoli RmerTebis xiluli saxe moiTxova da
`oqros xbo~ miiRo. maSin ufali levianebis xeliT sastikad gausworda maT, axla ki misca neba, aerCiaT mefe, radgan moTxovna logikuri
iyo: mkvidri cxovreba TavisTavad moiTxovda mefobas Zalauflebis
memkvidreobiT gadasvliTa da mefis saZirkvliani sasaxliTurT. es
ukanaskneli (sasaxle) ar aris mefobis umniSvnelo komponenti, is
organulad aris dakavSirebuli uflis saxlTan. mefe Tu iSenebs
saxls Tavis samyofelad, igi valdebulia ufalsac auSenos saxli
samaradisod dasavaneblad. da es iyo swored didi sacTuri. ufalma
daviTs, misdami siyvarulis mizeziT, ar aagebina taZari. Tumca daviTis dros uflis kidobani karavSi (savaneSi) iyo davanebuli,
magram is erTi nabijiT miuaxlovda mkvidrobas: daviTma savane
uflis kidobaniTurT Tavis sataxtoSi, ierusalimSi, gadmoasvena.
raki daviTi vaxseneT, vTqvaT daviTze, rom igic, rogorc uflis
kidobani, garkveulad imeorebs xalxis istoriis ritms. beTlemis

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mkvidri, iudas tomidan, Tavisi cxovrebis pirvel naxevarSi msxemad


mimodis sakuTar qveyanaSi da mis gareTac. sauli devnis mas da,
sanam is devnili da ltolvilia Tavisi qveynidan, saukeTeso adamianur Tvisebebs iCens... is aris srulad ganmasaxierebeli im idealisa, romelic ufalma rCeul ers dausaxa. morCili, sulgrZeli,
Tvinieri, Semndobi, uflis cxebulze (saulze, mis mdevnelze) xelis
ar aRmmarTveli... magram sakmarisi iyo mefe gamxdariyo anu Sewyvetiliyo misi msxemoba, Cadenili iqna umZimesi codva (uria xeTelis incidenti). Tumca Tavad ar uZiebia Suri Tavis mdevnelebze da
Seuracxmyofelebze, magram Surisgebis grZnoba-survili ar Cauklavs:
solomons, Tavis memkvidres, uanderZa es saqme, ris aRsrulebasac
igi mamis sikvdilis dRidanve Seudga.
qveyanaSi xalxis mkvidrobis umniSvnelovanesi sazogadoebrivreligiuri movlena _ taZris aSeneba anu, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT,
transcendenturi uzenaesi arsebis saxelis dabinaveba-damkvidreba
erT adgilze, imavdroulad, Seiqna nacionaluri katastrofis dasawyisad. es paradoqsia, magram misi mizezi ufro Rrmad marxia, vidre
zerele dakvirveba SeiZleba Cawvdes. debuleba, rom `momTabare da
mwyemsi xalxi xaniers arafers aSenebs da ar Sromobs momavlisTvis,
rac maTi Tvalsawieris miRma rCeba~ [genoni:56] totalur dapirispirebaSi modis im RvawlTan, romelic mefe solomonma gaswia
taZris asaSeneblad. msgavsad mefobis moTxovnisa, rom gvsurs gvmarTavdes mefe, rogorc yvela sxva qveyanaSi xdeba, saZirkvlian
monumentur taZarsac hqonda magaliTebi israelis imdroindel
garemocvaSi. Cvens RmerTsac unda hqondes mudmivi saxli, rogorc
sxvas _ aseTi iyo solomonis da samRvdeloebis suliskveTeba,
magram es safuZvelSive ewinaaRmdegeboda im xalxis ti ps, romlis
buneba udabnoSi Camoyalibda. saZirkvliani taZris mSeneblobis
Sinaganma akrZalvam mxolod is moaxerxa, rom ierusalimis taZars
es xalxi sxvisi (tvirosis mefisgan gamogzavnili ostatebis) xeliT aSenebda. ar SevcdebiT, Tu vityviT, rom solomonis am istoriuli RvawliT aRiniSna israelianebis sedentarul cxovrebaze gadasvlis saboloo etapi, romlis iqiT mosalodneli safrTxe sinais mowodebas unda damuqreboda. anu: es xalxi sabolood cxovrebis wesis SecvliT yvela sxva xalxs daemsgavseboda. im katastrofis mizezi, romelic, rogorc sasjeli, momavalSi daatyda xalxs,
solomonSi marxia. simptomaturia, rom taZris aSenebis Semdeg iwyeba solomonis gadaxra uflis mcnebebidan:

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`siberis xans midrikes solomonis guli misma


colebma ucxo RmerTebisken... dadioda solomoni
cidonelTa
RmerTis aSToreTis da yamonelTa
sibilwis, milqomis kvalze. ukeTurebas sCadioda
solomoni uflis TvalSi da ise ar erTgulebda
ufals, rogorc mamamisi daviTi. maSin augo solomonma samsxverplo qamoSs, moabis sibilwes, mTaze,
ierusalimis gaswvriv, da moloqs, yamonianTa sibilwes... (3mef. 11:4-7)
sasjeli ormagi iyo: erTi winaswari _ samefos gaxleCa, ramac
gamoiwvia ierusalimis taZrisgan aTi tomis mowyveta da `oqros
xbos~ kultze gadayvana (3mef. 27:32); meore _ xalxis mowyveta
miwisgan (mkvidri cxovrebisgan), dabruneba kvlav msxemobis mdgomareobamde, r. genonis sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, `taZris ganadgurebisTanave kvlav daiwyo cxovreba gafantvis Taviseburi saxiT~ [genoni:55, Sen.]. ra aris es Taviseburi saxe? gamoxatavs Tu ara es
sityva-cneba `gafantva~ im mdgomareobas, romelSic xalxi Cavarda
ierusalimisa da misi taZris dangrevis Semdeg?

V. msxemobis oazisebi mkvidrobis xanaSi


levianTa msxemoba. roca israelianebi Sevidnen qanaanSi, TiToeul toms gansazRvruli teritoria mieca dasamkvidreblad.
erTaderT levianTa toms ar mieca sakuTari samkvidro da igi,
rogorc umiwawylo, arqeti pul msxemobas inarCunebda aw ukve israelis mier damkvidrebul teritoriaze, sakuTar xalxSi. leviani
msxemobs Tavis mkvidr TanamoZmeTa Soris, rogorc misi winaprebi
msxemobdnen yvelgan, sadac cxovreba uxdebodaT. levianTa msxemobas
StoTa Soris Tavisi sazrisi hqonda: isini, rogorc sakulto funqciis matarebelni, yvela StoSi iyvnen saWironi, amitomac gaifantnen aRTqmuli miwis mTels teritoriaze, danidan vidre beer-Sebamde. maTi ganfantva, Tumca sxva mizeziT, iakobis kurTxevaSi iyo
nawinaswarmetyvelevi (`davaqucmaceb maT iakobSi da mimovfantav
israelSi~, dab. 49:7)
amgvarad, Tumca israeli Tavis mTlianobaSi qanaanis mkvidri
gaxda, uaryo ra abeluri yofa, am sayovelTao mkvidrobaSi levis
tomis saxiT igi inarCunebs msxemobis (garkveuli azriT, idealur)

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mdgomareobas. maT yofaSi erTgvarad patriarqaluri qanaanis warsulia Senaxuli. Tumca maT ara aqvT sakuTari samkvidro aRTqmul
miwaze, samagierod maTi samkvidro ufalia. maTze gavrceldeba netari avgustines sityvebi, abelze Tqmuli, rom igi RvTis qalaqs
ekuTvnis da, rogorc mwirs, miwieri qalaqi ar auSenebia (De civitate
Dei, XV,1).
karvobis dResaswauli. qanaanSi mkvidrobis sapirispirod israeli ixsenebs arqeti pul dros (`mas Jams~), roca is karvebSi
cxovrobda. `karvoba~ (suqqoT) erT-erTi mniSvnelovani dResaswaulia,
romelsac ukve mkvidri israeli mwyemsobis nomadur xanaSi gadahyavs. am dros ritualurad cocxldeba patriarqTa _ `karvebSi
mcxovrebTa~ modus vivendi. am wesis ganuxreli damcvelni, ara mxolod dResaswaulis dros, israelSi iyvnen reqabianebi, romelTa
Sesaxeb cnoba Semonaxulia ieremias wignSi.
reqabianTa Temi. aRmoCnda israelianTa Soris sagvareulo (mTeli
Temi, Stosadmi kuTvnileba ucnobia), romelmac ar miiRo mkvidroba
da, araTu SeinarCuna msxemoba yofis wesad, aramed udabnoSi cxovrebis erTguli darCa. reqabianebi ieremiam moiwvia, raTa rjulze
gamdgarTaTvis maTi magaliTiT eCvenebina erTguleba mama-papis anderZisadmi. ai, ra Tqves maT:
`Cvenma winaparma gvianderZa: Rvino ar dalioT arasodes, arc Tqven da arc Tqvenma Svilebma. saxlebi
ar aSenoT, Tesli ar TesoT da vazi ar CayaroT, da
araferi iqonioT. mxolod karvebSi icxovreT mTeli Tqveni dReebi, raTa icocxloT miwis pirze,
sadac Tqven mdgmurobT~ (ierem. 35:6-7)
reqabianebi bolomde erTguli rCebian abeluri cxovrebis
mimarT, ukiduresobamde dahyavT igi, sruliad gamoricxaven ra miwaTmoqmedebas, rogorc meurneobis kaenur sferos.
laparakia nostalgiaze, romelsac ganicdida Zveli aRTqmis
istoriis subieqti nomaduri cxovrebis mimarT [openhaimi:111], Tumca ufali maT damkvidrebisken mouwodebda. am nostalgiam gamoJona
karvobis dResaswaulis da reqabianTa erTgulebis saxiT.
VI. msxemoba babilonSi
rogorc viciT, xalxs warsulSi hqonda ara Tavis qveyanaSi
cxovrebis sakmaod intensiuri gamocdileba, rac msxemobiT (magur)

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aRiniSneboda. magram axal viTarebaSi, kvlav sxvis qveyanaSi (babilonSi)


cxovreba, axali gamocdilebiT aivso. amjerad xalxi Tavisi, rogoradac CaTvala man qanaani, qveynidan moxvda sxvis qveyanaSi iZulebiTi gadasaxlebiT da, Tumca babilonSi cxovreba isev da isev msxemoba iyo, sxvagan yofnis am axalma gamocdilebam axali ideologia
Seqmna, gansakuTrebuli niuansi SesZina sxvagan cxovrebas. septuagintaseuli diaspora (ganTesva, ganTesiloba) amas mxolod calmxrivad
asaxavs. babilonSi xalxi ar ganTesila, igi kompaqturad iyo dasaxlebuli erT Temad. SesaZlebelia, ganTesvas aq sxvagan daTesvis (an
gadanergvis) mniSvneloba mieniWos, magram esec ar aris mTavari. ena
axali garemoebisTvis irCevs axal sityvas _ galuT, rac etimologiurad `siSiSvles~ niSnavs. siSiSvle gamoxatavs sakuTari
qveynidan ayrilTa eksistencialur mdgomareobas, rasac dasabami
dabadebis wignSi aqvs, sadac adamis siSiSvleze da misgan gamowveul
sircxvilze, daufaraobaze da daucvelobazea laparaki. da ai, es
xalxi, romelic qanaanis qveyanaSi, mis sazRvrebSi, rogorc adami
samoTxeSi, uflis wiaRSi, Tavs daculad grZnobda, gadasaxlebam
mwvaved agrZnobina siSiSvliT gamoxatuli umweoba. meore mxriv,
siSiSvlis axda Zveli aRTqmis enaSi upatiobis, Seuracxyofis da,
amasTanave, saidumlos gaZarcvis niSania (gavixsenoT, ras eubneba
iosebi Zmebs, roca maT egvi ptis qveynis mstovrobas abralebs:
`mstovrebi xarT, am qveynis siSiSvlis dasazverad moxvediT~, dab.
42:9).
galuTad (ganSiSvlebad) wodebulma am msxemobam radikalurad Secvala xalxis religiuri da sazogadoebrivi yofa. msgavsad
egvi ptis mwiroba-monobis periodisa, romelmac oTx aswleuls
gastana, babilonis samocdarvawliani tyveobis xanac sibneliT aris
moculi. werili dums da dumda, rogorc Cans, RvTis sagalobelic.
erTaderTi, rasac ixsenebs 136-e fsalmunis avtori babilonSi msxemobaze, swored es sakulto dumilia:
`babilonis mdinareTa napirebze visxediT da
vtirodiT, roca vigonebdiT sions.
mis Zewnebs Soris CamovkideT Cveni qnarebi.
iq gvTxovdnen Cveni damatyvevarni galobis sityvebs
da Cveni gamtacebelni _ mxiarulebas:
gvigalobeT rame sionis sagalobelTagan.
rogor gigaloboT uflis galoba ucxo miwaze?
(136:1-4).

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babilonis tyveobiT aRiniSna qanaanSi mkvidrobis dasasruli


da axali epoqis dasawyisi. es ori momenti _ Zvelis dasasruli da
axlis dasawyisi araorazrovnad, Tumca niSnobrivad gamoxata suraTma, romliTac mTavrdeba mefeTa wignebi:
`iudas mefis iehoiaqinis gadasaxlebidan (galuT)
ocdameSvide wlis Tavze, meTormete Tves, Tvis ocdameSvide dRes, evil-merodaxma, babilonis mefem,
Tavisi gamefebis wels sapyrobiledan i pativa iehoiaqini, iudas mefe. keTilad elaparaka da daudga
taxti im mefeTa maRla, romlebic masTan iyvnen
babilonSi. gamoucvala sapyrobilis tanisamosi da
mis win Wamda igi purs mTeli sicocxle. samudamo
iyo misi sarCo da eZleoda mefisagan yoveldRiurad mTeli sicocxle~ (4mef. 25:27-30).

VII. tipologia
qanaanSi patriarqebis msxemobam Zvel aRTqmaSive miiRo tipologiuri gaazreba. qanaani amqveyniuri, miwieri cxovrebis simboluri saxea, xolo patriarqebi _ misi stumrebi. qanaani warmavali qveynis xatia, sadac adamianebi mxolod droebiTi mosaxleni,
mdgmurebi (xiznebi, msxemebi, mwirebi) arian. aseTi warmodgena mkvidrdeba
qanaanze da is gamoxatulebas poulobs daviTis fsalmunebSi: `mdgmuri var Sens winaSe, xizani Cem mamasaviT~ (fsalm. 39:13). Tumca
roca qanaani didixnis damkvidrebulia da iq ukve israelianTa
samefoa, misi upirvelesi mkvidri, rogoric aris mefe, Tavs mwirad
da msxemad ganicdis. am gancdas aqvs Teologiuri aspeqti: qveyana
ufals ekuTvnis da qveynis mkvidrni misi mdgmurebi da xiznebi
arian. `vmwirob samudamod Sens karvebSi~ (fsalm. 61:5). magram mas,
rogorc gancdas, axlavs eksistencialuri aspeqti: adamiani grZnobs
Tavisi cxovrebis warmavalobas amqveynad. grZnobs imasac, rom arsebobs maradiuli adgili, sadac misi namdvili samSobloa, sadac
abels uzenaesi qalaqi eguleba.
qanaanSi mcxovrebi patriarqebi winasaxeobrivad ganasaxiereben
pirvel qristianTa cxovrebis wess, rogorc erTi adreqristianuli teqsti gvamcnobs: `isini TavianT samSobloSi cxovroben, magram
cxovroben rogorc msxemebi; yvelaferSi monawileoba aqvT rogorc

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193

moqalaqeebs, magram yvelafers iTmenen rogorc mdgmurebi. maTTvis


yoveli ucxo mxare samSobloa da yoveli samSoblo _ ucxo mxare~
[diognete:395].
abraamis da mis momdevno patriarqTa msxemoba qanaanSi yovelTvis
rCeba anaqoretTa, msxemTa da mwirTa arqeti pul saxed. Sors rom
ar wavideT, qarTuli hagiografia am toposisTvis uxv ilustracias iZleva:
`rameTu WeSmaritad Rirsi iyo sayuareli RmrTisa netari mama Cueni iovane, romelman-igi, msgavsad
abrahamisa, ucxoeba airCia da mwirobiT da siglaxakiT cxoreba...~ [Zeglebi 1967, 41];
`da esreT damtevebeli queyanisa da mamulisa T
sisa, viTar sxua vinme abraham, sauflosa misa
mier wodebuli, queyanad qarTlisa moiwia...~ [Zeglebi 1967, 90];
`...megulebis warsvla ucxoTa adgilad mimarT, raTa
mciredTa amaT neStTa dReTa cxovrebisa CemisaTa
ucxoebisa amis da mwirobisa sofelsa Sina rudunebiT da martoebiT viyofodi, rameTu viTar aRmovikiTxavT, msxem da warmaval varT yovelni da
mamanica Cuenni~ (Zeglebi 1967, 89).
ucxooba-mwirobis da mkvidrobis toposi Seswavlilia qarTlis gaqristianebasTan dakavSirebiT da ganzogadebulad qristianul tradiciaSi. Tu abraami pirvelqristianuli msxemi eklesiis
saxea, qarTuli teqstebi iZleva saSualebas, wmida ninos pirovnebaSi analogiuri figura davinaxoT: `eklesia misi saxiT msxemobda
da misive saxiT daemkvidra qarTlSi~ [patariZe: 65].
es ukanaskneli fraza, romelic wmida ninos saxis Rrma ganWvretis Sedegia, erTsa da imave dros gamoxatavs rogorc qarTlis
ganmanaTleblis dialeqtikur gzas qarTlis ucxoobidan mis dedobamde, aseve eklesiisas, romlis msxemoba mis saxelmwifo religiad gamocxadebiT mTavrdeba. magram metis Tqma SegviZlia: Zveli
aRTqmis subieqtis cxovrebis ritmi gamoZaxils poulobs ara mxolod eklesiis mimarTebaSi wuTisofelTan (msxemobidan mkvidrobisken), aramed mis SidacxovrebaSic. eklesiis istoria mowmobs,
rom periodulad, adreul Suasaukuneebidan moyolebuli, rogorc
dasavleTSi, ise aRmosavleTSi sayovelTaod damkvidrebuli eklesiis

194

zurab kiknaZe

wiaRi warmoSobs mwirebs _ TviTdevnilebs, romlebic garbian udabnoSi, tyeebSi, mTebSi, ubrundebian ra sawyis mdgomareobas da, SesaZloa, qristianobis fuZemdeblur princi ps, romelic mociqulma
pavlem gamoTqva sruli kategorulobiT:
`Jami iwureba, amitom amieridan... iyaviT myidvelni,
rogorc uqonelni, sofliT mosargebleni, rogorc
ar-mosargebleni, radgan warmavalia am soflis saxe~
(1kor. 7: 30-31).
adgilebi, sadac bibliur patriarqebs da Semdeg ers uxdeboda cxovreba (bibliuri topografia) prefiguratiul sazriss iZens
_ maTi monacvleoba cxovrebis gzaze sulieri gardatexebis maCvenebelia:
qaldevelTa uri, saidanac RmerTma abraamis ojaxi gamoiyvana,
origenedan moyolebuli, vnebebiT garemocul qveyanad ganicdeba: suli
Caflulia codvebSi. es aris sulieri kerpTayvanismcemlobis qronotopi _ xana da adgili.
xarani, Sualeduria sikeTesa da borotebas Soris, codvil da
marTal cxovrebas Soris, moCvenebiT da WeSmarit codnas Soris.
qanaani, saiTkenac gaemarTa abraami, sulis is mdgomareobaa,
roca codvebi daTrgunulia da suli sruliad Tavisufldeba vnebaTagan. aq suli mkvidrobs srulyofili WeSmaritebisa da uxinjo
sikeTis saufloSi.
egvi pteSi cxovrebis gamocdileba am qveyanas, msgavsad qaldevelTa urisa, codvili cxovrebis saxed aqcevs. gabmulia kavSiri
egvi pteSi datyvevebul israelsa da codvebiT damZimebul suls
Soris. mewamuli zRvis gadalaxva pirveli nabijia egvi ptis (anu
codvebis) tyveobidan gaTavisuflebis gzaze.
meore mxriv, egvi pte warmarTuli warsulia Tavisi nivTieri
dovlaTis siuxviT, romelic SesaZloa moenatros sulieri srulyofis gzaze Semdgar suls, magram is Zlevs mas, raTa aRar daubrundes.
mesame mxriv, egvi pte saaqaoa, anu wuTisofeli Tavisi amaoebiT,
mewamuli zRvis gaRma arsebuli aRTqmuli qveyana ki sulTa sasufevlis saxea. ai, rogor aRwers giorgi mcire giorgi mTawmidelis sikvdils:
`...ganTavisuflebul iqmna sakrvelTagan orcTasa.
sabr e Seimusra, xolo siri aRfrinda, dauteva eg

Zveli aRTqmis istoriis ritmebi

195

pte, romel ars cxoreba ese nivTieri, da wiaRvlo ara Tu zRua igi mewamuli, aramed Savi ese da
wyudiadi zRua amis sawuTrosa. Sevida queyanasa mas aRTqumisasa, romel ars zecaTa ierusalemi.
mTasa mas zeda sibrZnismetyvelebs RmrTisa Tana.
wariada .amli sulisa...~ [Zeglebi II:194].
aRTqmis qveyana anu qanaani aq gaigivebulia caTa sasufevelTan,
romlis Suaguli zeciuri ierusalimia; `mTasa mas zeda~ _ es
sinais mTaa, sadac mosem RvTis xmasTan miaxloebisas xamlebi gaiZro
fexze: Zveli aRTqmis nivTieri xamli, romelic wuTisoflis amaoebiT iyo gamtverili, sulieri ganwmedis ti pologiuri metaforaa.
israelis gasvlas udabnoSi exmianeba ioane naTlismcemlisa
da iesos udabnos gamocdileba, romelic qristianis cxovrebaSi
ganwmedis periodTan aris dakavSirebuli. am azriT, udabno qristianul literaturaSi aRar gaiazreba rogorc ukacrieli adgili,
aramed WeSmariti qristianebi _ mwirTa da msxemTa idealuri samyofeli.

VIII. semantikur-semiotikuri eqskursi


yvela sazogadoebaSi arsebobs mkveTri dapirispireba adgilis
(miwis) mkvidrsa da ucxos (garedan mosuls) Soris. gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri iyo es dapirispireba Zveli aRTqmis xalxis istoriaSi, romelsac Tavad hqonda msxemobis (mwirobis) xangrZlivi,
mdidari da, xSirad, mZime gamocdileba. Sesabamisad, mis enaSi terminologiuri sicxadiT da, amasTanave, simkacriT gamoixata es socialuri da, ase gasinjeT, eksistencialuri movlena. sxva mcnebaTa
Soris, romelTa xsovnasac rjuli mouwodebs israelians, sabolood
dasaxlebuls Tavisi mkvidrobis qveyanaSi, arcTu ukanasknelia es
mcneba: `mdgmurs nu Seaviwroveb, nu daCagrav, radgan Tqvenc mdgmurebi iyaviT egvi ptelTa qveyanaSi~ (gam. 22:22).
`mdgmuris~ nacvlad am adgilas mosalodneli iyo `msxemi~,
`mwiri~, `xizani~, magram mTargmnels eyo gambedaoba, ukuegdo pirveli maTgani arqaulobis (Tumca is rCeba terminad), meore _ Secvlili mniSvnelobis gamo, xolo mesamesa da `mdgmurs~ Soris es
ukanaskneli aerCia misi mniSvnelobis gafarToebiT. `mdgmuri~ niSnavs adamians, romelic cxovrobs sxvis saxlSi, Tundac saukunod,

196

zurab kiknaZe

sikvdilamde. xizani Sekedlebulis niuanss atarebs, rac ar gamodgeba


ebrauli sityvis gadmosacemad, romelic JRers rogorc ger. es
sityva qarTulSi Semovida daviwroebuli mniSvnelobiT, magram savsebiT adekvaturad gadmoscems mis Sinaarss (misi, rogorc ebrauli
nasesxobis Sesaxeb ix. lerneri, 55....). ger is adamiania, romelic
ekuTvnis saxls an sazogadoebas, magram ar aris ojaxis, sazogadoebis sruluflebiani wevri. es gerebi (mravl. gerim) amoyvnen israelianebs egvi ptidan, dasaxldnen maT gverdiT (amas gamoxatavs
berZn. paroikos `mezoblad mosaxle~), uflebaSezRudulni, magram
mainc bediT kmayofilni. ara Tavis miwaze cxovreba qmnis maTSi
wuTisoflis stumrobis cocxal grZnobas, romelic sxva SemTxvevaSi, cnobierebis sxva registrze eksistencialur gancdaSi gadadis.
amdenad, am sityvidan nawarmoebi magur droebiTi, ara mkvidri cxovrebis mniSvnelobas iZens. faraonis SekiTxvaze, ramdeni wlisa
xar, iakobi pasuxobs am qveynad (ara mxolod qanaanSi) Tavisi
stumrobis sruli SegnebiT: `as ocdaaT wels iTvlis Cemi mdgmurobis (magur) xani... jer ver mivawie Cemi winaprebis xans, mdgmurobaSi rom gautarebiaT~ (dab. 47:8-9). qanaani misTvis da misi
winaprebisTvis iyo mxolod erec magur `mdgmurobis qveyana (miwa)~.
`mogcem Sen da Sens STamomavlobas Seni mdgmurobis qveyanas, qanaanis mTels qveyanas, samaradiso sakuTrebad...~ (dab. 17:8), aRuTqvams
RmerTi abraams. patriarqis aqtualur mdgmurobas am aRTqmaSi
momavlis mkvidroba upirispirdeba. geri patriarqebi momavlisken
arian orientirebulni, rac uCveuloa ZvelaRmosavluri mentalobisTvis. maTi yofis ganmsazRvreli molodinia, rasac reliefurad
gamoxatavs abraamis momlodine figura mamres muxasTan, karavTan
(dab. 18:1).
ra semantikiT gamoxatavs Zveli aRTqmis ena esoden mniSvnelovani mkvidrobis cnebas? Zveli aRTqmis enaSi SemuSavda mkvidris
aRmniSvneli ori termini, romlebic miwis semantikazea dafuZnebuli _ yam ha-arec `miwis xalxi~, ara zogadad miwis, aramed am miwis
(ganmsazRvreli artikliT ha), romelmac droTa viTarebaSi ubralo xalxis, mdabioris, miwaze mijaWvuli adamianis mniSvneloba
miiRo, miiCqmala ra am miwisa da am adamianis organuli erTianobis
Tavdapirveli sazrisi, da miwa instrumentad, mxolodRa damuSavebis, pragmatuli Rirebulebis obieqtad iqca. ufro gamZle aRmoCnda
termini, romlis ageba mcenareuli samyaros leqsikam itvirTa: ezrax
`niadagze amosuli mcenare~ (lev. 16:29). mkvidri is adamiania, romelic
adgilobriv niadagzea aRmocenebuli. Zveli aRTqmis wignebSi xSir-

Zveli aRTqmis istoriis ritmebi

197

ia adamiani-nergis simbolika. RmerTma yvela xalxisgan gamoarCia


erTi xalxi, romlis nergi sakuTari xeliT dargo aRTqmul miwaze.
TiTqos miwa da xalxi mas erTmaneTisTvis Seeqmna. xalxi Tavad
laparakobs Tavis Tavze rogorc vazze, romelic RmerTma egvi ptidan gadmoitana da aRTqmul miwaze dargo, gaadgmevina mas fesvebi
da qveyana aivso misiT (fsalm. 79:9-10). `me dagrge, _ vkiTxulobT
ieremias wignSi, _ rogorc rCeuli vazi, dagTese rogorc WeSmariti
Tesli...~ (ierem. 2:21). israeli am miwaze ar aris nagerali (`dauTeslad mosuli~, saba), rogorc sxva xalxebi _ is providenciis
xelma dargo.
egvi ptis geri da mere mona udabnos gavliT Sedis qanaanSi da
iq i povebs oTxasi wlis winaT aRTqmul mkvidrobas, magram babilonma
waarTva igi, raTa kvlav daebrunebina dakargul msxemobaSi.
magram babilonSi gadasaxlebam, romelsac qarTul TargmanSi
`tyveoba~, xolo berZnulSi metoikesia (metoikia) ewodeba, axali
TvaliT daanaxva Tavisi saxe, axalma gansacdelma ki gansxvavebuli
simbolika moiTxova. warmoiSva galuTis koncepti. tyveoba galuTis sapirispiro mdgomareobaa: igi adamianis oTx kedels Soris
moqcevas aRniSnavs, galuTi ki _ maTgan gamoyvanas saaSkaraoze, dRis
sinaTleze, xolo Tu miwazea laparaki _ ayras, miwisgan mowyvetas.
magram galuTi, romlis semantika `siSiSvles~ Seicavs, xalxisa da
miwis urTierTobis siRrmiseul mxaresac gvimxels. galuTi gamoxatavs qveynis gaSiSvlebas mosaxleobisgan, TiTqos xalxi miwis
samoseli iyos. amjerad SiSvldeba miwa, TiTqos is mcenareuli
safarisgan iZarcvebodes. magram es safaric da xalxic am miwaze
RmerTis dargulia, radgan is aris misi patroni. roca miwas eZarcveba
mcenareuli samoseli, miTosi ambobs, rom RmerTma miatova es miwa;
RmerTi qvesknelSi Cavida da miwa stiqiuri da qaoturi Zalebis
saTareSod gawira. es miTologema imdenad universaluria, rom zedmetic ki xdeba misi konkretuli formebis damowmeba, Tumca davasaxeloT finikielTa baali da nakleb cnobili marduqi, romlis gasvlam babilonidan, erTi miTologiur-istoriosofiuli eposis mixedviT, Savi Wiri Sehyara qalaqs [eras eposi].
analogiurad, ezekielis xilvaSi (ezek. 10-11) aRwerilia, rogor
tovebs ierusalimis taZars uflis dideba _ qabodi (an mogviano
terminiT Sexina `uflis myofoba~), sanam babiloneli jariskacebi
daangreven mas. uflis kidobnis tyveobaze filistimelTa xelSi,
naTqvamia: `ganeSora (sityvasityviT: ganSiSvlda/ganiZarcva) dideba
israelisgan~ (1mef. 4:21). siwmidisgan ganZarculi taZari mkvdaria,

198

zurab kiknaZe

rogorc suls ganSorebuli gvami _ is ganwirulia dasangrevad,


rogorc gvami _ xrwnilebad. aseve mkvdaria miwa, roca misi macocxlebeli Zala mowyvetilia misgan. es mdgomareoba Zvel aRTqmaSi
miwisa da RmerTis saqorwino urTierTobiTac aris gamoxatuli.
RvTisgan mitovebuli miwa iseTive unayofoa, rogorc uqmrod darCenili qali.
`gavaSiSvleb da ise gamovaCen, rogorc dabadebis
dRes iyo. udabnosaviT vaqcev, uwylo miwad gavxdi...~ (osia, 2:5).
esaias winaswarmetyvelebiT, roca ufali dabrundeba qveyanaSi,
`aRar dagiZaxeben mitovebuls da Sens miwas aRar
daerqmeva ukacrieli, radgan gewodeba Cemi sasurveli da Sens miwas _ dapatronebuli... rogorc
ymawvili epatroneba qalwuls, ase daepatronebian
[miwas] Seni Svilebi. rogorc siZe xarobs dedofliT, ase gaixarebs SeniT Seni RmerTi~ (es. 62:4-5).
galuTis sityva-cneba, rogorc miTologema, Tavisi amosavali
semantikis (`ganZarcva~, `gaSiSvleba~) SenarCunebiT, Tu erTi mxriv,
kacTagan gaSiSvlebuli, ukacrieli miwis mdgomareobaze migvaniSnebs,
meore mxriv, siSiSvle da ganZarcva Tavad miwidan ayrili xalxis
mdgomareobaa. galuTi aris gareT yofna da usaxlkaroba. galuTSi
myofi israeliani emsgavseba gaSiSvlebul, samoTxisgan ganZarcul
adams, vis gulSic ar Caklula ukandabrunebis imedi da molodini.
unda aRiniSnos, rom zmna gala, romelmac Seadgina galuTis
cneba, bunebrivad aris dawyvilebuli saidumlosTan:
`arafers moimoqmedebs ufali RmerTi, Tu ar gaucxada (gala) Tavisi saidumlo Tavis msaxurT,
winaswarmetyvelT~ (amos. 3:7).
laparakia uflis saidumlos xilva-mosmenaze, razec Zveli
aRTqmis RvTismetyvelebaa dafuZnebuli. magram arsebobs siwmidis
saidumlo, romelzec qveynis (miwis) keTildReoba da usafrTxoebaa damokidebuli. albaT sabediswerod, ara SemTxveviT, babilonis
tyveobamde ori TaobiT adre, roca ierusalimis haerSi jer kidev

199

Zveli aRTqmis istoriis ritmebi

ar ilandeboda galuTis aCrdili, mefe xizkiam babilonidan warmogzavnil elCebs samefos mTeli saganZuri daaTvalierebina, rac
esaiam sabediswero niSnad CaTvala:
`mivida esaia winaswarmetyveli mefe xizkiasTan da
uTxra: ra Tqves am kacebma da saidan movidnen SenTan? miugo xizkiam: Sori qveynidan movidnen,
babilonidan. Tqva: ra naxes Sens saxlSi? miugo
xizkiam: yvelaferi naxes, rac saxlSi maqvs. araferi
darCenila Cems saganZurebSi, rom ar meCvenebina maTTvis. uTxra esaiam xizkias: ismine uflis sityva: aha,
dadgeba Jami da yvelafers, rac saxlSi gaqvs da,
rac Sens mama-papas dRemde mouxveWavs, babilonSi
waiReben... waasxamen Sens Svilebsac, romelnic Sengan gamovlen, romelTac Sen warmoSob...~ (4mef. 20:1418).
ar gasula saukunenaxevari, rom moxda is, rac moxda.
P.S. Suasaukuneebis espanel poets Selomo ibn gabirols (10211058) galuTis leqsebis ciklSi aseTi striqonebi aqvs:
"rodemdis velodo Cems RmerTs, RmerTo?
rodemdis gagrZeldeba galuTi? rodemdis
iqnebian raxelis Zeni cxvrebiviT gaparsulni?
[gabiroli, 76, str. 11].
aq uTargmeli rCebi sityva raxel, romelic sakuTari saxelic aris
da deda-cxvaric. `gaparsuls~ ki ar esaWiroeba ganmarteba _ igi
zedmiwevniT gamoxatavs galuTSi myofTa mdgomareobas.

literatura
genoni: genoni, r., kaeni da abeli, `fiqrebi. rCeulTa biblioTeka,
Tb., `lomisi, 1998.
gabiroli: Selomo ibn gabiroli, rCeuli leqsebi, xaim Sirmanis
redaqciiT, Tel-avivi, 1972 (ebraul enaze).

200

zurab kiknaZe

diognete: , ,
, , 1988.
Zeglebi 1966: qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi tomi II, teqstebi
gamosca, SeniSvnebi da saZieblebi daurTo prof. i. doliZem,
`mecniereba~, Tb., 1965.
eras eposi: LEpopea di Erra di Luigi Cagni, 1969, Universit di Roma.
poezia 1987: Zveli Suamdinaruli poezia, Sumerulidan da aqaduridan Targmna zurab kiknaZem, Tb., `merani, 1987, gv. 7-11.
Sumeruli teqsti: Van Dijk, J.J.A. La sagesse sumro-accadienne, E.J.Brill, Leiden, 1953, pp. 65-69].
lerneri: Lerner, Konstantine B., The Biblical Institution of Newcomers in
Ancient Georgia, The ANNUAL of the Society for the Study of Caucasia, vol. 4-5, 1992-1993, Chicago.
lugalbanda: Lugalbanda Epic and the Anzud Bird: http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/
cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=c.1.8.2*#
marTu: The Marriage of Martu: http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/
etcsl.cgi?text=c.1.7.1&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc#
openheimi: , .. , ,
., 1980.
patariZe 2003: patariZe l. ucxooba da mwiroba qarTul saeklesio tradiciaSi, analebi, 2003 #1.
Zeglebi 1967: Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi, wigni II, ilia abulaZis xelmZRvanelobiT da redaqciiT, `mecniereba~, Tb., 1967.
Zeglebi 1971: Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi, wigni III, ilia abulaZis xelmZRvanelobiT da redaqciiT,
`mecniereba~, Tb., 1971.
leqsikisTvis ix. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, volume I, R.
Laird Harris, Ed., Moody Press, Chicago [1980].

201

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Zurab Kiknadze

The Rhythms in the Old Testament History


Four substantially differing periods can be identified in the history of The Chosen
people:
1. The age of the patriarchs in Canaan is characterized by being aliens, sojourns,
ger. Canaan is a land where he is to remain always as an alien, a ger. Abraham is
always on the move, wandering through the country. This journeying is hiss mode
of life. He does not ever build a house anywhere, apart from the only stone
structure, and pitches a tent for dwelling, this being one of the main attributes of
being in exile (Ps. 120:5). The patriarchs led an Abelian type of life, dealt with by
Saint Augustine in his De civitate Dei (XV, 1), whereby Abel is fundamentally
opposed to Cain who became the first builder of cities, his descendants founded
an urban civilization of which Terah and Abraham _ forfathers of the chosen
people get rid.
2. The Egyptian period. What was their modus vivendi in Egypt? Their status as
of sojourners changed. They become slaves that of urbanistic-industrial civilization _ builder of cities, palaces, temples and pyramids. A people descending
from dwellers in tents _ successors of those who never built a substantive
house _ now made bricks in Egypt to build cities. Slavery is the ultimate type of
sojourn.
3. The period of wilderness. Getting rid of Egyptian slavery and liberation became linked to the wilderness. Let us into the wilderness (Ex. 5:3). Coming
out of Egypt was at the same time going into the wilderness _ to freedom. There
were two paths from sojourn: one _ descent to slavery, which occurred in Egypt;
the other _ rise to liberty, which the people found in the wilderness.
4. The period of settlement in Canaan. After crossing the Jordan, the modus
vivendi of the people changed to the reverse of sojourn and Abelian free life.
The twelve tribes divided among themselves the land of Canaan, so that each
might settle on its lot whose boundaries were set once and for all, firmly and
unalterably. but settling is a process rather than a single act. First the nations
theocratic guidance continued in the form of the charismatic rule of the judges,
superseded after several generations by kingship. Whereas judgeship, as a continuation of Moses leadership was an expression of freedom, kingdom points to
possession of land. The process of becoming established is completed and reached
sits peak in the building of the temple and palace in place of tents.

202

lela patariZe

moqalaqeoba qarTlis samefoSi


qristianizaciis konteqstSi
istoriis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, istoriis da
eTnologiis institutis
mTavari mecnier-TanamSromeli.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
"cxovrebai wmidisa ninoisi": qarTlis gaqristianebis kulturul-istoriuli sakiTxebi (1993).
statiebi: ucxooba da
mwiroba qarTul saeklesio tradiciaSi; 1054
wlis saeklesio ganxeTqileba da saqarTvelo;
"qarTlis cxovrebis" SedarebiTi ti pologia; mcxeTis ebrauli diaspora: socialuri statusi; qarTlis gaqristianeba "qarTlis cxovrebis" mixedviT;
qarTuli identoba: istoriuli xedvis problemebi; miriani da misi mefoba:
ideologiuri aspeqti; da
sxv. Tanaavtoria saSualo
skolis saxelmZRvaneloebis: saqarTvelos da msoflios istoria da geografia (VII kl.) da istoria
(X kl.) Tbilisi: 2006.
interesTa sfero:
saqarTvelos Sua saukuneebis istoria da istoriografia, eTno-kulturuli da nacionaluri identobani.

Sesavali
arsebobs cnebebi, romelTa arsSi CaRrmaveba da maTi kulturuli da socialuri
Sinaarsis gaazreba Zalze mniSvnelovania metnaklebad sruli istoriuli suraTis aRsadgenad. erT-erTi aseTi universaluri cneba istoriaSi aris moqalaqeoba, ZvelqarTulad mkvidroba. am cnebas Zalze didi konteqsti aqvs rogorc sinqronul ise diaqronul
WrilSi. yovel dros, yovel calkeul kulturul garemoSi Tu geografiul regionSi
es universaluri socialuri movlena Tavisebur da specifiur niSnebs atarebs. aseT
SemTxvevaSi relevanturia istoriuli
anTropologiisa da mikroistoriis midgomisa da kvlevis meTodologiis gamoyeneba.
saqme imaSia, rom calkeuli niSnebis, simboloebis, cnebebis analizi da SesaZloa, zog SemTxvevaSi ufro zust suraTs iZleodes konkretuli kulturuli garemos gasaazreblad,
vidre farTo masStabis socialuri da politikuri procesebis ganxilva. aseT SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovania socialuri da politikuri garemos frTxili rekonstruqcia,
romelic fokusirebulia ufro lokalur,
vidre farTo transregionalur doneze. (iggersi 2005: 111).
moqalaqeoba Zalze tevadi istoriuli
Temaa. mas mravali sxvadasxva ganzomileba
da Wrili aqvs. moqalaqeoba dakavSirebulia

moqalaqeoba qarTlis samefoSi qristianizaciis konteqstSi

203

politikuri formebis, instituciebis da kanonmdeblobis ganviTarebasTan. amave dros moqalaqeoba esazRvreba Zalauflebisa da
ideologiis sferos. sazogadoebaSi moqalaqis kavSiri saxelmwifosTan da erTobasTan simbolizebulia sivrcis organizebis saSualebiT, politikuri Tu sxva ti pis sazRvrebiT; religiuri da
filosofiuri konceptebi aseve mniSvnelovnad gansazRvraven moqalaqeobas. moqalaqeebi arian xelisuflebis ideologiis umTavresi
samizneebi. moqalaqeoba xSirad identobaTa sxvadasxva doneebs warmoSobs adamianTa cnobierebaSi. (moqalaqeoba sxvadasxva nacionalur, geografiul konteqstSi istoriul perspeqtivaSi kargad aris
warmodgenili krebulSi moqalaqeoba istoriul perspeqtivaSi: (elisi: XIV) Cven gvainteresebs moqalaqeobis yvela es aspeqti konkretul istoriul drosa da sivrceSi (IV s-is qarTli) SevecdebiT
wyaroTa interpretaciis gziT nabij-nabij SeZlebisdagvarad gavaSuqoT TiToeuli maTgani CvenTvis saintereso istoriul garemosTan mimarTebiT.
Cveni kvleva dafuZnebulia da, amdenad, dasazRvrulia kidevac
im monacemebiT, romlebic SeiZleba IV saukunis qarTlis samefos
istoriis wyaros funqcia Seasrulos. ZiriTadad, es aris agiografiuli Zegli, sadac ganmanaTlebeli qalis cxovreba da misi urTierTobaa aRwerili mcxeTis saqalaqo sazogadoebasTan da meore SemTxvevaSi es aris tradiciuli samefo saxlis matiane `qarTlis cxovreba~, sadac socialuri erToba, ZiriTadad, mefesTan urTierTobaSia warmoCenili. amitom umTavresad am or WrilSi gamoCndeba
moqalaqeoba: a) ganmanaTlebeli da moqalaqeebi, b) mefe da moqalaqeebi.
***
xolo odes moiwia Jami da movida netari ese dedakaci, mociquli da maxarebeli Zisa RmrTisa, wmida
nino, pirvel viTarca tyue, viTarca ucxo da viTarca mwiri, viTarca Seuwevneli, viTarca usmi da
utyvi, romelica aw meqmna Cuen tyue igi dedofal,
ucxo igi _ deda, Seuwevneli Sesavedrebel yovelTa,
da utyvi igi _ qadag Zlier da mecnier dafarulTa
CemTa gulis sityuaTa (moqceva qarTlisa 1964:
158)
amas ambobs qarTlis mefe miriani sikvdilis win daweril
`wignSi~. qarTlis sazogadoebis religiuri Semotrialebis su-

204

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raTs igi ganmanaTleblis epiTetebis ubralo CamoTvlis gziT gadmogvcems. nino _ tyue, ucxo, mwiri, Seuwevneli, usmi da utyvi,
qarTlis moqcevis Semdeg gaxda dedofal, deda, Sesavedrebel yovelTa, qadag Zlier da mecnier... dafarulTa gulis sityuaTa. Cvenc
moqalaqeobis Sinaarsis gaxsnasa da moqalaqeTa statusis gagebas
ganmanaTleblis droindel qarTlSi Tavad ganmanaTlebeli qalis
samoqalaqo statusisa da misi misiis samoqalaqo aspeqtis kvleviT daviwyebT.

tyve qali _ nino


wm. ninos cxovrebis berZnul-romaul versiebSi qarTlis ganmanaTlebeli moixseneba rogorc "vinme tyve qali" (laT. captiva;
berZ. hJ aijcma?lwtos saxeli nino bizantiur istoriografias ar
Semounaxavs. xolo saxelwodeba tyve-qali yovelgvari ganmartebisa
Tu damatebiTi cnobebis gareSea mocemuli. bizantiuri wyaroebisagan gansxvavebiT, "ninos cxovrebis" qarTuli versia gacilebiT met
informacias Seicavs wm. ninos am zedwodebis Sesaxeb. aq kargad
Cans, rom Tavad ganmanaTlebeli qali moixseniebda Tavis Tavs aseTi
saxeliT. dasneulebuli wmindanis sarecelTan Sekrebili mowafeebi ase mimarTaven mas: "vina anu viTar moSuer Sen queyanasa Cuensa
macxovrad Cuenda, anu sada-me iyo aRzrda Seni, dedofalo? mauwye
Cuen saqme Seni! raisa ityvi tyueobasa tyueTa mxsnelo ... da viTar
ityvi, viTarmed tyue vari me" (moqcevai qarTlisai 1964: 105) aseTi
mimarTvis Semdeg ganmanaTlebeli qali iwyebs Tavisi cxovrebis
ambis Txrobas, romelsac salome ujarmeli da peroJavr sivnieli
iweren. Txzulebis momdevno Tavi swored am Canaweris saxiTaa
warmodgenili. TiTqosda aq unda yofiliyo ganmarteba wm. ninos
tyveobis Sesaxeb, magram Tavis monaTxrobSi ganmanaTlebeli rifsimian qalwulebTan erTad Tavis "sivltolis" (devnilebis) Sesaxeb
mogvaxsenebs da arsad tyveobis faqts ar aRniSnavs. rogor unda
gavigoT "cxovrebis" teqstis es "Seusabamoba"? upirveles yovlisa,
sityvebis "tyve", "tyveoba" semantikuri veli unda ganisazRvros.
"tyve" Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikonis mixedviT, aris "tyve, naZarcvi,
alafi. "tyvenva" _ iavaryofa, tyved wayvana, "mosvra"; "tyueoba" _
tyveoba, ucxooba (abulaZe 1973: 415). qarTuli oTxTavis simfonialeqsikoni "tyuenvasa" da "tyveobas" ganmartavs, rogorc ZaliT ayras
da gadasaxlebas (imnaiSvili 1986: 573). es sityvebi, rogorc cno-

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205

bilia, ixmareba babilonis tyveobis konteqstSi, rac niSnavs ebraeli xalxis ZaliT ayras, gadasaxlebasa da ucxoobaSi cxovrebas.
iseve, rogorc qarTul sityvas "tyveoba", berZnul sityvas _ hJ
aijcmalwsiva hqonda devnilebaSi cxovrebis mniSvneloba. magaliTad,
konstantine didi Tavis werilSi aRmosavleTis eparqiebisadmi ambobs:
Alla; ti?? tauta; aujcousi nun ejp! ejkei?nois oiJ ba?rbaroi oiJ tou;s
kat! ekeino kairou ejx hJmwn feuvgontas uJpodedegmevnoi kai;
filanqrwvpw/ terhvsantes aijcmalwsiva,/ o{ti ouj movnon th;n swterivan ajlla; kai ta; ths semnovthtos aujtois katevsthsan ejn
ajsfaleiva e[cein. ( Eusevbiou, E
[ is to;n bivon Kwnstantivnou Basilaews, II, 53)
(evsebiusi 1902: 63.)
barbarosebma im dros Cvengan devnilni Seifares da kacTmoyvarulad tyveobaSi daicves. axla ki amayoben, rom ara
mxolod ixsnes isini, aramed maTi RvTismosaobis uSiSrad
ganxorcielebis saSualebac misces. (evsebius kesarieli, konstantine didis cxovreba, II, 53)
(evsebius kesarieli 1997: 156.)
konstantine aq uTuod devnil qristianebs gulisxmobs. aijcmalwsiva Zveli aRTqmis (mefeTa wignebi, fsalmunni) wignebSi babilonis
tyveobis konteqstSi ixmareba ebraeli xalxis devnilebaSi yofnis
aRsaniSnavad. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom qristianTa devnac imave
sityvam gamoxata berZnulSi. amitom misi qarTuli Sesatyvisic ase
unda gavigoT: erT SemTxvevaSi is babilonis tyveobas gamoxatavs,
xolo meore SemTxvevaSi qristianTa devnilebas. sakmarisia erTi
magaliTis moyvanac fsalmunidan:
Tivs dwvsei ejk Siwn to; swthvrion tou Israhl;;
ejn tw/ ejpistrevyai kuvrion th;n aijcmalwsivan tou laou aujtou
ajgalliavsqw Iakwb kai; eujfranqhvtw Israhl.
vin mosces sioniT cxorebai israelsa?
raJams moaqcios ufalman tyve erisa Tvisisa,
ixarebdes iakob da iSvebdes israeli. (fsalmuni 13, 7)

206

lela patariZe

amgvarad, TavisTavad cxadia, rom devnili qristianis statuss asaxavs ninos zedwodeba, rogorc qarTul ise berZnul enaze da berZnuli aijcmalwsiva aris qarTuli tyveobis Sesatyvisi da piriqiT.
maSasadame, rodesac nino Tavs Tavisi samisionero moRvaweobis samiznes _ mcxeTis ers warmoudgenda, gulisxmobda, rom is aris
devnili qristiani, Tumca "ninos cxovrebidan" kargad Cans, rom
mxolod es Sinaarsi ar ido ninos zedwodebaSi, aramed ganmanaTlebeli qalis am saxels hqonda kidev erTi ufro maRali semantikuri Sre.

zeciuri ierusalimis mkvidri


mirian mefe sikvdilis win daweril wignSi wers:
xolo odes moiwia Jami da movida netari ese dedakaci,
mociquli da maxarebeli Zisa RmrTisa, wmida nino, pirvel
viTarca tyue, viTarca ucxo da viTarca mwiri, viTarca
Seuwevneli, viTarca usmi da utyvi, romelica aw meqmna Cuen
tyue igi dedofal, ucxo igi _ deda, Seuwevneli Sesavedrebel yovelTa, da utyvi igi _ qadag Zlier da mecnier
dafarulTa CemTa gulis sityuaTa (moqcevai qarTlisai 1964:
158)
ninos zedwodeba "tyve" sxva, masTan Sinaarsobrivad axlos mdgom
epiTetebTan erTad aris mocemuli. ucxo, tyve, mwiri, Seuwevneli,
usmi, utyvi _ yvela es sityva erT saerTo semantikur vels qmnis
da ucxod sxvagan myofobis Sinaarss moicavs. ucxo (alienus) da
mwiri (peregrinus) ber-monazonTa aRmniSvneli saxelebia rogorc
qarTul, ise dasavlur qristianul tradiciaSi. am terminebs Tavisi religiur-filosofiuri safuZveli aqvT.
ar SeiZleba am konteqstSi pirvelad netari avgustines moZRvreba
ar gavixsenoT ori qalaqis Sesaxeb. am moZRvrebis Tanaxmad, adamianis ori ti pi arsebobs. erTni cxovroben sxeulisamebr, xolo
meoreni sulisamebr. sxeulisamebr cxovreba avgustines esmis farTo mniSvnelobiT, rogorc adamianuri wesiT cxovreba, sulisamebr
cxovreba ki esmis rogorc RvTiuri wesiT cxovreba (De Civitate Dei
14, 2). avgustine Tvlis, rom imisaTvis rom codvaSi ar Cavardes,

moqalaqeoba qarTlis samefoSi qristianizaciis konteqstSi

207

adamianma unda icxovros RvTisamebr anu WeSmaritebisamebr. xolo


roca is cxovrobs da moqmedebs Tavis TavisaTvis "kacisamebr",
adamiani vardeba sicrueSi da codvaSi (De Civita Dei 14, 4). adamianTa
am or did jgufs avgustine simbolurad or qalaqs _ ierusalims
da babilons uwodebs. maTgan pirveli daimkvidrebs maradiul sasufevels RmerTTan erTad, xolo meore ganwirulia maradiuli
tanjvisaTvis. es meoreni babilonis _ amqveyniuri qalaqis moqalaqeni arian, xolo pirvelni _ ierusalimis, RvTis qalaqisa.
RvTis qalaqis moqalaqeni amqveyniur qalaqSi, babilonSi ucxoni
arian, amitom amqveynad maTi yofa mwiris yofas waagavs. kaeni, avgustines TqmiT, adamianTa qalaqs ekuTvnis, xolo abeli RvTis qalaqs.
kaenis Sesaxeb naTqvamia "da aRaSena man qalaqi", abeli ki rogorc
mwiri da rogorc ucxo qalaqs ar aSenebs "radgan wmindanTa qalaqi zeciuri qalaqia da Tumca is aq Sobs Tavis moqalaqeebs, romelTa saxiT mwirobs amqveynad, sanam dadgeba dro misa gamefebisa" (De
Civitate Dei 15, 1).
amgvarad, avgustines moZRvrebis mixedviT wmindanTa qalaqi, igive
qristianuli eklesia, rogorc RvTis wesiT macxovrebelTa Sesakrebeli amqveynad ucxosa da mwiris mdgomareobaSia.
rogorc cnobili Tanamedrove mecnieri iohanes van oorti
Tvlis, gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba am qristianuli ideis ganviTarebaSi aqvs iudaistur esqatologiur literaturas, radgan ori
urTierTdapirispirebuli qalaqis ideis arseboba sakmaod kargad
dasturdeba TiTqmis mTels adreqristianul mwerlobaSi. magram
rogorc Tavad avtori aRniSnavs, gansakuTrebiT Zlieria es idea iq,
sadac yvelaze meti kavSiri arsebobs ebraul azrovnebasTan, aseTebia `ioanes gamocxadeba~, `hermas~ `mwyemsi~, `petresa da Tormeti
mociqulis saqmeni~... (vanoorti 1991:364).
gTavazobT iohanes van oortis mier adreqristianul literaturaSi moZiebuli magaliTebidan zogierTs citirebulia Tavad
vanoortis wignidan:
laktanciusi eklesias ixseniebs rogorc qalaq-saxelmwifos
civitas: gaxsovdes Seni namdvili mSobeli da is qalaqi, sadac namdvili saxeli Segerqva (De Opificio Dei).
tertulianesaTvis niSandoblivia amqveyniurisadmi Zalze uaryofiTi damokidebuleba. is ambobs: Cven, rogorc im adamianebs, visTvisac
ukve mkvdaria yovelgvari wyurvili da miswrafeba saxelisa Tu
didebisaken, araferi gvaiZulebs monawileoba miviRoT Tqvens sa-

208

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zogado TavyrilobebSi; da arc araferia CvenTvis iseve yovlad


ucxo, rogorc saxelmwifo saqmeebi (Apologeticnm 38,3)
tertulianesaTvis qristiani aris ucxo: gana TviTon Cven ara
varT ucxoni am qveyanaSi? (De Exhortatione Castitatis 21, 1), xolo Sen
xar ucxo mosuli amqveynad da zeciuri qalaqis _ ierusalimis
moqalaqe (De Corona 13,4).
hermas mwyemsi daiwera romSi II saukunis I naxevarSi. aq aseT
sityvebs vxvdebiT: Sen ici, rom Tqven RvTis msaxurni cxovrobT
ucxo qveyanaSi. radgan Tqveni qalaqi Sors aris am qalaqisagan, da
Tu Tqven iciT is Tqveni qalaqi, romelSic momavalSi unda icxovroT, maS risTvis imzadebT aq mindvrebs, Zvirfaseulobas, saxlebsa da sasaxleebs? amitom is, vinc aq imzadebs yovelive amas is ar
emzadeba sakuTar qalaqSi dasabruneblad (50, 1-2). am sityvebTan
axlosaa saxarebis Semdegi adgili: nu iunjebT Tquen saunjeTa
qveyanasa zeda, sada mRilman da mWamelman ganryunis da sada mparavTa daTxarian da gani parian. xolo Tquen iunjebdiT saunjeTa caTa
Sina, sada arca mRilman, arca mWamelman ganryunis da sada arca
mparavTa daTxarian da gani parian (maTe 6, 19-20).
mociqulTa epistoleebSi qristianebi moixseniebian rogorc
"mwirebi da ganTesulebi" (1 petre 1,1); sayuarelno glocav Tquen
viTarca mwirTa da warmavalTa (1 petre 2,11).
rogorc vxedavT, aq religiuri da filosofiuri naazrevi
netar avgustinesTan da adreqristianul religiur teqstebSi polisis socialuri garemosaTvis damaxasiaTebeli cnebebiT aris gadmocemuli. moqalaqe (polivths) da ucxo (parovikos) sazogadoebis
polisur struqturaSi, anu samoqalaqo TemSi statusis aRmniSvneli cnebebia da sruliad konkretul ufleba-movaleobebTan aris
dakavSirebuli. socialuri gagebiT, qristianis cxovreba ar aris
qalaqis mkvidris anu moqalaqis statusis mqone adamianis cxovreba. qristiani ucxos statusiT cxovrobs qalaqSi. amitom saqalaqo
erTobis wevris, anu moqalaqis ufleba-movaleobani mas ar gaaCnia
da arc iswrafvis maT mosapoveblad. amgvarad, wminda ninos `ucxooba~
pirvel qristianTa sakrebulos _ eklesiis `ucxoobisa~ da `mwirobis~ paradigmaa. ninos `ucxooba~ samoqalaqo erTobaze ufro maRali da mniSvnelovani erTobis arsebobis mauwyebeli unda yofiliyo misi samisionero moRvaweobis samizneebisaTvis.

moqalaqeoba qarTlis samefoSi qristianizaciis konteqstSi

209

ucxooba mcxeTaSi
magram SegviZlia Tu ara dadasturebiT vTqvaT, rom ninosTvis
aqtualuri iyo ucxoobisa da tyveobis paradigma, rom nino Tavis
samisionero moRvaweobas am paradogmis mixedviT warmarTavda. iyo
Tu ara mwiroba ninosTvis qristianuli ideebis komunikaciis saSualeba jer kidev ucxo enobriv garemoSi? vnaxoT, ras gveubneba
ninos cxovreba amis Sesaxeb.
Tavis ucxoobas nino xazs usvams qarTlSi CamosvlisTanave:
gavixsenoT faravnis tbasTan mis mier Tqmuli sitvebi: "ufalo
dedakaci var ucxo ... arca ena vici, Tu ra vTqva ucxoTa naTesavTa Tana" (moqceva qarTlisa 1964: 116).
Semdeg nino mcxeTaSi modis, aq armazis kerpis dResaswauls
eswreba da SeSfoTebiT ambobs Tavis anderZSi:
da vixile eri ucxo, ucxoTa RmerTTa msaxuri ... da moguebasa
da cdomasa maTsa zeda vtirode warwymedisa maTisaTvis, da ucxovebasaca Cemsa veglovdi (moqceva qarTlisa 1964: 117-118). maSasadame,
ninosTvis ucxooba ara mxolod eTnikur (ucxo naTesavi, ucxo ena)
safuZvelze iyo damyarebuli, aramed religiur sferosac moicavda.
wminda nino maSinac inarCunebda da xazs usvamda Tavis ucxoobas,
roca mas ukve icnobdnen, pativs scemdnen da TavisTan yofnas sTavazobdnen. nino mTeli Tavisi sicocxlis manZilze arasdros Selevia
ucxosa da mwiris statuss. Nninos SeeZlo sasaxleSi "sefed"
wasuliyo, rasac mas sidonia urCevda, magram uari ganacxada. Nnino
arc samoTxis mcvelis saxlSi darCa didxans, aramed qalaqis zRudisa
garegan veluri mayvlis buCqebSi daido bina. qalaqis zRudis gareT cxovreba, ra Tqma unda, am sazogadoebis gareT yofnis, asketuri
ucxoobisa da mwirobis mimaniSnebeli qmedebaa. nino maSinac ganagrZobda mayvlovanSi cxovrebas, roca ukve misi saxeli da kurnebis
Zala ganTqmuli iyo mTels qalaqSi. sokrate sqolastikosi laparakobs tyve qalis asketuri cxovrebis Sesaxeb, romelic ucnauri
(ucxo) iyo barbarosebisaTvis:
H
J
gunh; toivnun hJ aijcmavlwtos ejn mevsois ou\sa tois
barbavrois ejfilosovfei su;n ga;r th/ pollh/ ths swfrosuvnhs
ajskhvse... Touto de; oJrwntes oi} bavrbaroi to;n xenismovn tou
prattomevnou ejauvmazon. (Swkrates I, 20)
(yauxCiSvili 1961: 230)

210

lela patariZe

barbarosebs Soris myofma tyve qalma Seiyvara sibrZne da


yovlad ubiwod cxovrobda (sityvasityviT: yovelmxriv
TavSekavebas icavda).... am ucxo qcevis Semxedvare barbarosebi gaocebulebi iyvnen.
maSasadame, sokrate ganmanaTleblis asketur cxovrebas usvams
xazs. mas arc is gamorCenia, rom amgvari asketuri cxovreba ucxo
da gasakviri iyo barbarosebisaTvis. aq Cans ninos ucxoobis kidev
erTi aspeqti. garda imisa, rom is ucxo iyo eTnikurad, enobrivad
da sarwmunoebrivad, nino ucxo iyo Tavisi cxovrebis wesiTac.
Aqalaqis farglebidan gasvliT nino TiTqos aniSnebda qalaqis mkvidrebs, rom Tavad sruliad sxva erTobas akuTvnebda Tavs.
ninos ucxoobas didi zemoqmedebis Zala aRmoaCnda mcxeTis sazogadoebaSi. Zalze sayuradRebod meCveneba "ninos cxovrebis" kidev
erTi epizodi: qarTlis warmarTi mefe miriani ninos mTavris
gankurnebas sTxovs da sanacvlod simdidresa da mcxeTis moqalaqis sapatio statuss _ mcxeTis mkvidrobas sTavazobs. amave dros,
mkvidroba armazis kultis msaxurebasTanac uSualo kavSirSi Cans.
miriani ambobs: ...gangamdidro da gyo mkvidr mcxeTas Sina msaxurad
armazisa... (moqceva qarTlisa 1964: 132). imisaTvis rom wminda
nino mkvidri anu mcxeTis moqalaqe gaxdes, mirianis styviT, is
`msaxurad armazisa~ unda iqces. ninos ucxoobis magivrad mkvidrobas
sTavazobs mefe da es epizodi, vfiqrob, sabolood naTelyofs, rom
aseTi antinomia sakmaod kargadaa gaazrebuli da sagangebod Semotanili TxzulebaSi. am, TiTqos umniSvnelo, epizodis Semotanam
xazi gausva, jer erTi, imas, rom ucxooba ganmanaTleblis arCevania,
mas hqonda mkvidrobis Sansi, magram ucxooba arCia. meore, ninos
ucxoobas ukve iseTi zegavlena mouxdenia sazogadoebaze, rom mefe
am ucxo sarwmunoebis da cxovrebis wesis mqone qalisagan safrTxes xedavs, romelsac SeuZlia arsebuli socialuri wesrigis darRveva. amitom mas surs ninos "ucxoobis" samoqalaqo cxovrebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel CarCoebSi moqceva. sayuradReboa, aseve, rom
qali wina modernul sazogadoebaSi moqalaqis statuss, rogorc
wesi ar iRebda. unda vifiqroT, rom mefe aq gansakuTrebul statuss gulisxmobs, romelic ninos rogorc "armazis msaxurs" SeeZlo mieRo. nino ara Tu ar gaxda mcxeTis mkvidri, aramed mefes
Zalze sayuradRebo pasuxi gasca. nino winaswarmetyvelebda mefis
gaqristianebas da amiT eubneboda mas: _ me ki ar Semoval Sens
erTobaSi (me ki ar gavxdebi babilonis mkvidri) aramed "axlos

moqalaqeoba qarTlis samefoSi qristianizaciis konteqstSi

211

ars miaxleba Seni RmrTisa mimarT" anu male Sen Tavad gaxdebi
eklesiis wevri da maSasadame ierusalimis moqalaqe.
ninom Tavisi cxovreba daasrula, ara samefo qalaq mcxeTaSi,
ara saufliswulo qalaq ujarmaSi, aramed samisionero moRvaweobis gzaze, mcire daba bodSi: da dasneulda da warmoemarTa mcxeTad.
da viTarca moiwia kuxeTad, dabasa, romelsa hqvian bodini, verRara
eZlo svlad _ ambobs mematiane (moqceva qarTlisa 1964: 89).
maSasadame ninos mwiroba arc qarTlis gaqristianebis Semdgom
Sewyvetila...
sabolood, ase Sevajamebdi: qarTlis ganmanaTlebeli wminda
nino Tavis samisionero moRvaweobis dros dgeba saTemo sazogadoebis pirispir, am sazogadoebis wevroba efuZneba moqalaqeobis
anu "mkvidrobis" mravalganzomilebian koncepts. aq uTuod erTerTi umTavresi princi pi warmarTuli religiuri kultSi monawileobis uflebaa. ganmanaTleblis mizania axali ideologiis Semotana am erTobaSi, amisTvis ki is Tavad aseTi erTobis safuZvlebis
Seryevas cdilos. ara marto sityviT, aramed umTavresad Tavisi
qmedebiT is cdilobs daanaxos xalxs, rom arsebobs imaze maRali
erToba da imaze ufro sasurveli identoba, vidre aris mcxeTis
samoqalaqo Temis mkvidroba.

abiaTari _ `mcxeTeli mkvidri~


vin iyvnen mcxeTis mkvidrebi da ras niSnavda mcxeTis mkvidroba
im sazogadoebaSi, romelTanac ganmanaTlebel qals hqonda urTierToba. am sakiTxis gasarkvevad Cven isev da isev "ninos cxovrebisa"
da "qarTlis cxovrebis" Sesabamisi monakveTis "dakiTxva" mogviwevs.
"ninos cxovrebidan~ vigebT, rom mkvidrobis statusi hqonia
mcxeTis ebrauli diasporis Tavs, "huriaTa baginis" mRvdels _
abiaTars. mkiTxvels Sevaxseneb, rom "meore pavled" wodebuli
abiaTari Semdgom qristianobis erT-erTi pirveli mqadagebeli gaxda.
astiron guaspuragneli mTavris sityvebidan kidev meti informacia SeiZleba movi povoT abiaTaris da misi sagvareulos istoriis Sesaxeb: gaocebuli abiaTaris gaqristianebiT, igi ase mimarTavs huriaTa yofil mRvdels: mauwye sayuarelo, Sen ara huriaTa
mRvdeli iyav wiliT xuedrebuli mkvidri, rameTu arian welni, vi-

212

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naTgan mamani Tquenni aqa movides :fg: (503) da bagenisani iyveniT,


arasada vis asmia maTgansa qeba qristianeTa (moqceva qarTlisa
1964: 102-103). astiron mTavars ukvirs, rom abiaTari - misi winaprebis
STamomavali, huriaTa mRvdeli da Tanac ~mkvidri~, rogor uaryofs
mama-papaTa rjuls. am sityvebidan Cans, rom mkvidroba garkveuli
privilegirebuli statusis flobas niSnavda imdroindel sazogadoebaSi. TiTqos Cans isic, rom, abiaTaris sagvareulo qarTlSi
mosvlis droidanve flobda baginze mRvdlobis uflebas da, SesaZloa, mkvidrobis statussac. es sakmaod saintereso da mravlis
mTqmeli cnobaa. saqme imaSia, rom romis imperiaSi arsebul mravalricxovan polisebSi, marTalia, sxvadasxva suraTi iyo ebraelTa
uflebrivi mdgomareobisa da statusis sakiTxSi, magram ebraelebs,
rogorc wesi, polisis moqalaqeobas ar aniWebda polisis adgilobrivi mmarTveloba. imperiis centralur xelisuflebasac ar hqonda ufleba polisis moqalaqis statusi mieca romelime pirisaTvis,
Tumca ebraelTaTvis garkveuli uflebebisa da privilegiebisaTvis
zrunva romis imperiul xelisuflebas SeeZlo da amas akeTebda
kidec (Meeks. 1983 : 35). maSasadame, Tu elinisturi xanisa da romis imperiis drois polisebSi arsebul ebraul Temebs moqalaqeobas
ar aniWebdnen, mcxeTaSi, Cans, sawinaaRmdego situacia iyo. davubrundeT isev abiaTaris SemTxvevas.
abiaTaris sagvareulos TviT mcxeTel ebraelTa TemSi hqonda
warCinebuli mdgomareoba. abiaTaris winapari, iesos jvarcmis momswre da uflis kvarTis mcxeTaSi Camomtani elioz mcxeTeli, rogorc
matiane iuwyeba, iyo kaci moxucebuli, rac unda gagebul iqnes uxucesis mniSvnelobiT (amis Sesaxeb cota qvemoT). Tavad eliozi
dedis mxridan Zveli aRTqmis drois mRvdelmTavris - elis STamomavlad iTvleboda (moqceva qarTlisa 1964: 128). maSasadame, eliozis
saxlis wevrebi rogorc eli mRvdelis STamomavlebi, iyvnen warCinebulni TviT ebraelTa Soris da amanac ganapiroba, rogorc Cans,
swored eliozis saxlisTvis mcxeTel mkvidrTa statusis miniWeba. moqcevaiSi vkiTxulobT da erCda mefe (abiaTars l.p.) misTa
dReTa, da iyvnes mun Sina eliozis naTesavni mRvdelad huriaTa zeda
(moqceva qarTlisa 152). mTiulTa mosaqcevad wasulma ganmanaTlebelma qristes saqadageblad abiaTari datova mcxeTaSi; huriayofili mRvdeli mefes sTxovs huriaTa baginis Senobis SenarCunebas.
safiqrebelia, ukve rogorc qristianuli taZrisa, sadac axladgaqristianebuli ebraelTa mrevli moiyris Tavs (kiknaZe 1994). aq,
tradiciisamebr, eliozis naTesavni, ukve gaqristianebulni, iqnebod-

moqalaqeoba qarTlis samefoSi qristianizaciis konteqstSi

213

nen mRvdlad huriaTa zeda. am sityvebSi, vfiqrob, gaqristianebis


wina periodis tradiciis danaxvac SeiZleba. kerZod, mcxeTis sinagogaSi anu baginSi mRvdeloba eliozis naTesavebs ekuTvnodaT. Tavad eliozis Sesaxeb vigebT, rom igi mcxeTidan ierusalimSi wavida
rogorc kaci moxucebuli: da warvida aqaiT mamis dedis Zma Cemi
elioz, kaci moxucebuli (moqceva qarTlisa 1964: 128). ara mgonia,
aq sityva moxucebuli asakis aRmniSvneli iyos. moxucebuloba samogzaurod arc ise Sesaferisi droa, Tanac ninos cxovreba ar
gamoirCeva asakis mimarT raimenairi interesiT. hagiografi TviT
ganmanaTleblis askzec arafers ambobs. amitom safiqrebelia, rom
sityva moxucebuli aq sxva mniSvnelobiT unda iyos naxmari. moxucebuli Tavad ebrauli sazogadoebis struqturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli cnebaa da amitom Sesabamisi ebrauli terminis qarTul
Sesatyviss unda warmoadgendes. aseTia ebrauli zaken (moxucebuli). es termini pirovnebis gansakuTrebuli pativis aRsaniSnavad
ixmareboda. sityva zaken aseTi mniSvnelobiT dadasturebulia axalcixis ebraul epigrafikaSi nisan babalikaSvilis mier. am tradicias zurab kiknaZe jer kidev bibliidan momdinared miiCnevs (kiknaZe
1971: 184). rogorc cnobilia, elinistur da romaul samyaroSi
diasporaSi irCeoda uxucesTa sabWo - gerusia, romelsac evaleboda ebrauli Temebis urTierTobis warmarTva, rogorc polisis
adgilobriv mmarTvelobasTan, aseve saxelmwifos centralur xelisuflebasTan (miqsi 1983 : 35). swored aseT uxucesTa sabWos
wevrad - anu moxucebulad SeiZleba warmovadginoT mcxeTis ebraelTa
baginis mRvdeli, kaci moxucebuli _ elioz mcxeTeli, romelsac
evaleboda, rogorc adgilobriv xelisuflebasTan, aseve ierusalimis ebraelebTan kavSir-urTierTobis damyareba. SesaZloa, ukve eliozs,
rogorc moxucebuls mcxeTis mkvidris statusic hqonoda, radgan
rogorc Cans, abiaTari STamomavlobiT flobda mkvidrobas mcxeTaSi. xolo radgan abiaTari Tavad iyo eliozis saxlis (ase erqva im
adgils mcxeTaSi, sadac eliozis naTesavni cxovrobdnen da sadac
maT hqondaT bagini samarxvo maTi) wevri, misi mkvidrobac SeiZleba
eliozis xanidan momdinared miviCnioT. eliozis saxlis garda, anu
imaT garda, vinc baginisani, anu mRvdlobis uflebis mqoneni iyvnen,
sainteresoa, iyo Tu ara sxva ebraelTa saxlebi, romelTac mcxeTel
mkvidrTa statusi hqondaT? an iqneb yvela mcxeTeli ebraeli mkvidris
statusis mqone iyo?
ninos cxovrebaSi ixseniebian huriani mcxeTelni - ase uwodebs
abiaTari mcxeTel ebraelTa im nawils, romelic ver Seurigda abi-

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aTaris gaqristianebas, mcire baginze jvris aRmarTvas da iq warCinebulTa sanaTlavis mowyobas. maTi baginis gauqmebis Sedegad
mcxeTelma ebraelebma iwyes ganfantva mcxeTidan. mcxeTaSi darCa
ebraelTa is nawili (barabeanTa saxli), romelmac qristianoba
aRiara. swored maT miuboZa mirian mefem daba erTi da mkvidr yo
mcxeTas Sina. maSasadame, miwis kerZo mflobelobaSi gadacemiT da
mkvidrobis miniWebiT mefem gazarda barabeanTa saxlis socialuri
statusi - da iyvnes did winaSe mefisa. teqstidan gamomdinareobs,
rom yvela mcxeTel ebraels rodi hqonda mkvidroba. magaliTad,
barabeanebi mxolod gaqristianebis Semdeg gaxdnen mkvidrebi. es
kidev erTi dasturia imisa, rom mcxeTis mkvidroba iyo privilegia,
maRali uflebrivi statusi, romelic miwismflobelobasac gulisxmobda; aseTi statusi hqondaT mcxeTel huriaTagan eliozis saxlis sagvareulos, romlisagan sinagogis Tavebi irCeodnen.
gamoTqmuli mosazrebis sisworeSi marwmunebs kidev erTi adgili moqcevai qarTlisaidan, sadac CamoTvlilia qarTlis ebraelebis
ramodenime mwignobrul-religiuri centri da maT Soris mxolod
mcxeTelebis SemTxvevaSi aris naxmari sityva mkvidri. wm. ninos
cxovrebaSi vkiTxulobT:
odes igi mefobda heriodi, da moguesma aqa, viTarmed
sparsTa ierusalimi dai pyreso, glovisa wigni moewera yovelTa
huriaTa mimarT qarTlisaTa, mcxeTelTa mkvidrTa, bodelTa
mRvdelTa, kodis wyarovelTa mwignobarTa da sobis kananelTa TargmanTa, viTarmed aTormetni mefeni movideso dapyrobad queyanisa (moqcev qarTlisa 1964: 126)
damafiqrebelia, ratom CamoTvlis avtori qarTlis ebraelTa
mxolod da mxolod religiur-mwignobrul kerebs? - SeuZlebelia,
qarTlSi mxolod da mxolod mwignobar ebraelebs ecxovraT. rogorc
cnobilia, mTels elinistur samyaroSi qalaqebis ebrauli mosaxleoba Zalze farTo speqtris saqmianobiT iyo dakavebuli. moyvanili cnoba mxolod mwignobrul kerebs exeba, radgan mocemul konteqstSi saubaria qarTlis ebraelTa kavSirze ierusalimTan da aqedan
qarTlSi mosul werilebze. werilobiTi kavSiri wminda miwasTan
swored am mwignobrul-religiur centrebs eqnebodaT da ara qarTlis ebraelTa sxva profesiul jgufebsa Tu gaerTianebebs. amitomac gamonaTqvami mcxeTelni mkvidrni mocemul konteqstSi unda
gavigoT, rogorc erT-erTi umTavresi (CamonaTvalSi pirvelia!) re-

moqalaqeoba qarTlis samefoSi qristianizaciis konteqstSi

215

ligiur-mwignobruli jgufi ebraelebisa, romelSic swored eliozis


saxli igulisxmeba.
amgvarad, ninos cxovrebidan vigebT, rom mcxeTis mkvidris
statuss memkvidreobiT flobda qarTlis ebrauli diasporis warCinebuli sagvareulo eliozis saxli, romelTagan sinagogis Tavebi
irCeodnen da romlebic TavianT bibliur winaprad eli mRvdels
racxdnen, xolo diasporis drois winaprad _ elioz mcxeTels.
2. ramdenad eTanxmeba es daskvna im cnobas, romlis Tanaxmad
mcxeTis mkvidrobisaTvis armazis kultis mimdevroba aucilebeli
piroba iyo? saqalaqo Temis dafuZneba da misi wevroba saerTo
religiuri kultis dafuZnebas da am kultSi monawileobis uflebas gulisxmobs. es universaluri wesi vrceldeboda antikuri
periodis sazogadoebaSi (fiustel de kulanJi 1895 : 179-184).
Sua saukuneebSi moqalaqeoba ukve qristianuli eklesiis wevrobasTan
mWidro kavSirSi ganixileboda. amitom iyo problemuri iudevelTa
statusi rogorc antikur polisSi ise Sua saukuneebis qalaqebSi
da aRorZinebis xanis qalaq-saxelmwifoebSic ki (olardi 2008 :
155). amisaTvis unda gaverkveT rogor Camoyalibda mcxeTis saqalaqo
Temi da viciT Tu ara raime am TemSi ucxotomTa Tu ucxo religiuri jgufebis miRebis Sesaxeb?

ucxoobidan mkvidrobisken
ra viciT ucxotomTa qarTlSi mosvlis, dasaxlebisa da uflebamosilebis Sesaxeb? gavixsenoT, Tu rogor aris aRwerili qarTlis cxovrebis dasawyis nawilSi sparsi qaixosrosagan otebul
TurqTa mcxeTaSi mosvlis ambavi:
xolo masve Jamsa movides Turqni, otebulni qaixosrosagan:
gamovles zRua gurganisi, aRmoyves mtkuarsa da movides mcxeTas
saxli ocda rva. da ezraxnes mamasaxlissa mcxeTisasa: aRuTques
Sewevna sparsTa zeda. xolo mamasaxlisman mcxeTelman auwya yovelTa qarTvelTa. inebes damegobreba maT TurqTa, rameTu aqunda SiSi
sparsTa, da SemweobisaTvis daimegobres Turqni igi gamosxmulni, da
ganiyvanes yovelsa qalaqsa Sina. xolo umravlesni maTganni movides
da poves adgili erTi mcxeTas, dasavliT kerZo kldeTa Soris
gamokveTili, Rrma da moiTxoves adgili igi mcxeTelTa mamasaxlisisagan, misca da aRaSenes igi, mozRudes mtkiced, da ewoda mas
adgilsa sarkine (qarTlis cxovreba 1959: 15).

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savsebiT samarTlianad gveCveneba qarTlis cxovrebis am cnobis is interpretacia, romelic oTar lorTqifaniZes ekuTvnis. mas
miaCnia, rom mcxeTeli mamasaxlisi mcxeTis saqalaqo Temis meTauria. cnobaSi saubaria ucxoTaTvis qalaqis (mcxeTis) miwebze samosaxlo adgilis miCenis Sesaxeb. mkvlevars yuradReba gamaxvilebili
aqvs erT mniSvnelovan garemoebaze: rodesac ucxoebi movidnen da
samosaxlo adgili iTxoves mcxeTeli mamasaxlisisagan, es ukanaskneli
daekiTxa yovelTa qarTvelTa da mxolod maTi dasturis Semdeg
Turqni mcxeTaSi daasaxla. magram amaT garda yofilan sxvebic umravlesni, romlebic mcxeTel mamasaxliss ukve TanamoqalaqeTa
nebarTvis gareSe dausaxlebia. aseve moqalaqeTa nebarTvis gareSe
dasxna mcxeTelma mamasaxlisma nabuqodonosorisagan otebulni
hurianic zanavs. amgvarad, Tvlis avtori, pirvel SemTxvevaSi (anu
roca mamasaxlisi mcxeTis saqalaqo Temis wevrebTan TaTbirobs)
saqme exeba ucxos Temis wevrad, e.i. moqalaqed miRebas samxedro
daxmarebis aRmoCenis pirobiT. xolo meore SemTxvevaSi, mcxeTeli
mamasaxlisis uflebaSia, ucxo tomni daasaxlos xarkis gaRebis
uflebiT mis sagamgeblo teritoriaze. moqalaqeTa uflebiT mcxeTaSi dasxmuli TurqTa 28 ojaxi, mkvlevaris marTebuli SeniSvniT,
unda iyos mosulTa privilegirebuli wre, romelic ezraxa mcxeTel mamasaxliss, aRuTqva daxmareba, da romelic am pirobiT mcxeTaSi daasaxles (lorTqifaniZe 1962).
moyvanili cnoba sayuradReboa imiTac, rom aq ucxoTa moqalaqed miRebis mizezzec aris saubari. Turqebma mcxeTelebs aRuTques
Sewevna sparsTa zeda da amitom gadauwyvetiaT YyovelTa qarTvelTa... damegobreba ... TurqTa, rameTu aqunda SiSi sparsTa, da SemweobisaTvis daimegobres Turqni igi gamosxmulni.
SesaZloa, qarTlis cxovrebis moyvanili cnoba anaqronizmic
iyos da sruliadac ar asaxavdes aleqsandre makedonelis Semosvlis wina periodis istoriul suraTs. amas CvenTvis amjerad gadamwyveti mniSvneloba ara aqvs. cxadia, rom es cnoba mTlianad
nayalbevi araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar aris da is garkveuli tradiciis da socialuri praqtikis amsaxvelia. miT umetes, eliozis saxlis mkvidroba kidev erTxel adasturebs, rom mcxeTis saqalaqo
Temis wevrad gaxdoma SeeZlo ucxoTa da mosulTa warCinebul
nawils. marTalia, qarTlis cxovrebis aRniSnul cnobaSi ar aris
saubari, TurqTa msgavsad, ebraelTa privilegirebuli nawilisaTvis
mcxeTis moqalaqis uflebis miniWebaze, magram, rogorc gairkva, ebraelTa
qarTlSi dasaxlebasac msgavsi socialuri struqtura hqonda.

moqalaqeoba qarTlis samefoSi qristianizaciis konteqstSi

217

rogorc davinaxeT, ebraelTa zogierT saxls, safiqrebelia warCinebulT hqondaT mcxeTeli mkvidris statusi, xolo bevr maTgans
aseTi statusi ar gaaCnda.
amitom, vfiqrob, am cnobaTa safuZvelze SeiZleba vilaparakoT
ucxo tomTa qarTlSi dasaxlebis an mcxeTis moqalaqeTa erTobaSi
integrirebis socialur da politikur safuZvlebze. Cans, ucxoebis SemoyvaniT Tavis erTobaSi mcxeTis saqalaqo Temi aZlierebda
Tavis samxedro (SesaZloa, ara marto samxedro) potencials. mcxeTis saqalaqo Temi da misi meTauri - mcxeTeli mamasaxlisi iqmnidnen erTgul moqalaqeTa dasayrdens da aZlierebdnen mcxeTis
saqalaqo Tems. mcxeTis saqalaqo Temis gaZlierebis procesis bunebrivi gagrZeleba unda yofiliyo qarTlis saxelmwifos warmoqmnac (lorTqifaniZe 1958). amitom sruliad damajerebelad gveCveneba qarTlis cxovrebis is cnobebi, romelTa mixedviT mcxeTeli
mamasaxlisi qarTlosianTa modgmis meTauradac gvrvlineba. ukve
mefobis arsebobis pirobebSi, rogorc davinaxeT, arsebobda mcxeTis
saqalaqo mkvidri Temi, romlis uflebebi, rogorc hegemoni Temisa,
privilegirebuli iyo sxva danarCenebTan SedarebiT.

mkvidrni qarTlisani
qarTlis cxovreba socialur terminTa mniSvnelobis TvalsazrisiT ar aris erTgvarovani. magaliTad, im erTobis aRsaniSnavad,
romelic mefesTan erTad monawileobs politikur cxovrebaSi, xan
misi ideologiis samiznes, xan mis qmedebaTa Semfasebels warmoadgens, farnavazidan mirianis cxovrebis CaTvliT ixmareba yovelni
qarTvelni, mkvidrni qarTlisani, an SemoklebiT qarTvelni, yovelni.
xolo qarTlis gaqristianebis Semdgomi Txrobis dros ukve vxvdebiT gamonaTqvams mefe da yoveli eri. ediSer xoStaria-brose
sagangebod aRniSnavs am garemoebas da miiCnevs, rom qarTlis cxovrebis pirveli monakveTi moicavs Txrobas farnavazidan mirianamde, xolo gaqristianebis Semdgomi ambebiT ukve axali nakveTi iwyeba qarTlis cxovrebisa (xoStaria-brose 1996: 9). es saintereso
dakvirvebaa da uTuod sazogadoebis struqturis cvlilebebiT
unda aixsnas. maS vin arian qarTvelni, yovelni qarTvelni da mkvidrni
qarTlisani? moviyvan am terminTa xmarebis ramodenime magaliTs:
rodesac qarTlis mefe farnajomma Seiyvara sjuli sparsTa,
matiane iuwyeba, rom amisTvis moiZules igi mkvidrTa qarTlisaTa,

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rameTu didi sasoeba aqunda kerpTa mimarT. qarTlis cxovreba


1955: 29.
rodesac mefe aderki amarcxebs arSaks somexTa spis meSveobiT,
igi ase mimarTavs qarTvelTa spaTasa: me var Svili mefeTa TqvenTa. amis gamgone yovelni qarTuelni dacvives pirsa zeda Tvissa
da Tayvani sces aderkis (qarTlis cxovreba 1955: 35).
mirian mefis mier qristianobis miRebame gatarebul reformebs
aseT komentars ukeTebs mematiane: xolo ese yoveli qarTvelTa
saTnoebisaTvis qmna, da keTilad i pyrna qarTvelni niWiTa da
yovliTa didebiTa. da Seiyuares igi qarTvelTa umetes yovelTa
mefeTasa. (qarTlis cxovreba 1955: 65).
konteqstidan kargad Cans, rom situaciebi erTmaneTis msgavsia
da yvela SemTxvevaSi erTi da igive koleqtiuri Cven jgufi igulisxmeba. swored am erTobis TvaliT aris Sefasebuli mefeTa
qmedebani qarTlis cxovrebis Cvens mier gamoyofil monakveTSi. es
is erTobaa, romelic mefeTa ideologiis samiznes warmoadgens, am
erTobis loialobis mopoveba aucilebelia mefeTaTvis, am erTobas
aqvs kargad Camoyalibebuli Rirebulebebi, romelTa safuZvelzec
is loialuria mefis xelisuflebis mimarT.
upirveles yovlisa, davazustoT mkvidris mniSvneloba mocemul
konteqstebSi. mkvidri, qarTul sinamdvileSi kargad cnobili socialuri Sinaarsis mqone termins warmoadgens. mkvidris socialuri Sinaarsi ganixiluli aqvs ara erT mkvlevars (ivane javaxiSvili, giorgi meliqiSvili, guram mamulia, anri bogveraZe da sxva)
ivane javaxiSvilma qarTuli samarTlis istoriaSi aRniSnavs, rom
mkvidri niSnavs a) mTels mosaxleobas, b) memkvidres, vaJiSvils, g)
warCinebulTa da didebulTa wres. samwuxarod, warmodgenili daskvnebi mkvlevars qarTlis cxovrebis ufro gviandeli xanis istoriis
amsaxvel monakveTebze aqvs dafuZnebuli. mkvlevari saerTod ar
exeba qarTlis cxovrebis CvenTvis saintereso monakveTs. arada,
swored am monakveTze dakvirvebiT, im daskvnamde mivdivarT, rom aq
unda igulisxmebodes ara mTeli mosaxleoba, aramed mxolod erTobis politikurad aqtiuri nawili. farnavazis cxovrebaSi vkiTxulobT: xolo egriswyals qvemoT darCa berZenTa, rameTu mkvidrTa
mis adgilisaTa ara inebes gandgoma berZenTa [qarTlis cxovreba
1955: 24]. Cans isic, rom mkvidrebSi mxolod mamakacebi da mxolod
meomrebi igulisxmebian: Mmkvidrni klarjeTisani iyvnes kacni mkvircxlni da mxedarnic (yauxCiSvili 1955: 48). mkvircxlni da mxedarni
jars, igive spas niSnavs: mkvircxli _ Zvel qarTulSi aris fexosani,

moqalaqeoba qarTlis samefoSi qristianizaciis konteqstSi

219

xolo mxedari _ cxenosani. dasturdeba aseve mkvidris _ Svilis


mniSvnelobac: rodesac asfaguri qarTlis mefe mokvda ise, rom
vaJiSvili memkvidre ar dautovebia, qarTlis didebulebi did
sagonebelSi Cavardnilan. isini Seikribnen maeJan spaspetTan, romelmac ase mimarTa didebulebs:
ukeTumca iyo Cuen Tana Zali ezomi, Cvenca mesamedTa
sparsTa SevesworebodeT, damcavsxeniT Tavni Cvenni sikudilad da winaaRudegiT maT. daTumca darComil iyo mkvidri mefisa Cuenisa anu naTesavi mefeTa CuenTa, romelimca
Rirs iyo mefobisa, davdegiTmca cixe-qalaqTa Sina, davsxeniTmca Tavni Cuenni sikudilad(qarTlis cxovreba 1955:
62).
warmodgenil konteqstSi mkvidri niSnavs memkvidres, Svils.
amgvarad, mkvidri qarTlis cxovrebis CvenTvis saintereso
monakveTSi niSnavs sazogadoebis politikurad aqtiur fenas, Svils
_ memkvidreobiTi uflebis mqone pirs, spas anu samxedro valdebulebis mqone erTobis wevrs. gamodis, rom mkvidrTa saxiT saxezea
winafeodaluri sazogadoebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tavisufal meTemeTa fena.
Tavisuflebisa da memkvidre _ Svilis aRmniSvneli sityvebi
zogadad saerTo warmomavlobisaa. amitom, unda vigulisxmoT, rom
"mkvidri" Seicavda rogorc Temis wevris, ise Tavisufalis Sinaarss. berZnul, laTinur da saSualo sparsul enebSi SeiniSneba
aseTive semantikuri ganviTareba: sagvareulos wevri _ Tavisufali.
magaliTad berZnulSi *(e)leudheros niSnavs Stos, ylorts, xolo
eleutheros Tavisufals. laTinurSi liberi (gnati) Svilebi, liber _ Tavisufali. msgavsia terminis azat(an) mniSvneloba parTul da adresasanur xanaSi. is niSnavs gvaris wevrs (ufro specifiuri azriT
warCinebuli gvaris wevrs, keTilSobils) da Tavisufals. (ferixaniani 1983: 15-16).
Temi aucileblad lokalur garemos qalaqs an sofels miemarTeba (mkvidrni mis adgilisani, mkvidrni klarjeTisani). magram
yovelTa amaT mkvidrTa saerTo aRmniSvneli unda iyos swored es
gamoTqmebi, mkvidrni qarTlisani, yovelni qarTuelni da am ukanasknelis Semoklebuli formebi: yovelni da qarTvelni. albaT ar
Sevcdebi, Tu vityvi, rom qarTlis cxovrebis xsenebul nawilSi

220

lela patariZe

swored es erToba (TavisufalTa fena) unda warmovidginoT saxelmwifos moqalaqis statusis mqone pirebad.

qarTlis mefeebi da mkvidrebi


qarTlis cxovrebis Txroba azodan mirianis cxovrebis CaTvliT, faqtobrivad, aris mefeTa da mkvidrTa dialogi. Tu yuradRebiT wavikiTxavT qarTlis cxovrebis gansaxilvel monakveTs
davinaxavT, rom aq aris erTiani ideologiuri motivi, romlis mixedviT mefis xelisufleba mkvidrTa interesebis mixedviT fasdeba.
xolo mkvidrebs, imave qarTvelebs aqvT gamokveTili loialobis
ramodenime piroba, romelTa dakmayofileba unda SeZlos xelisufalma. moviyvan oriod magaliTs:
a) mkvidrTa da azos urTierTobas uaryofiTad afasebs mematiane. azo misTvis uzurpatori da dampyrobelia:
qarTlis cxovreba mogviTxrobs, rom aleqsandrem dautova
erisTavad azon da masTan erTad asi aTasi kaci, Zlierni da mxneni...
spani mpyrobelad qarTlisa. amitom qarTlis mpyrobeloba, igive
mTavroba CamoerTva adgilobriv samxedro fenas da ucxo Zalam
Caigdo xelSi. es kidevac xazgasmulia ufro qveviT: (azo) iyo kaci
Zneli da mesisxle, da ese daawesa da amcno spaTa misTa, viTarmed:
yovelman qarTvelTaganman, romelman povos saWurveli, mokalT igi.
damatebiT mematiane gvamcnobs, rom Tu qmnulkeTilsa da asakovans
naxavdnen qarTvelTa Soris, moklavdnen mas. _ aq aSkarad miTiTebulia, rom azo mtrulad iyo ganwyobili adgilobriv TavisufalTagan Semdgari spisa da misi elitis mimarT. da iyo Wiri didi
naTesavsa zeda qarTvelTasa. (qarTlis cxovreba 1955: 19-20)
b) farnavazis brZola azos winaaRmded warmodgenilia teqstSi rogorc yovelTa qarTvelTa revanSi uzurpatori azos winaaRmdeg. es kargad Cans qujis sityvebidan farnavazis mimarT:
aRdeg da moved Cem Tana, da nu Surob xuastagsa Sensa, da
xuastagiTa SeniTa gangimravle spani Senni, vidre gamovCndeT mterad
azonisa, maSin ganixaron yovelTa qarTvelTa awyuedilTa misgan da mowyudeulTa... TviT farnavazi aris Svili TavTa maT qarTlisaTa. farnavazis dasayrdeni azos winaaRmdeg samxedro kampaniis
dros arian qarTlis mkvidrebi: xolo farnavazs ganemravlnes mxedarni qarTlisani. sxvagan gameorebulia ganamravlna yovelni mxedarni qarTlosianni (qarTlis cxovreba 1955: 22-24).

moqalaqeoba qarTlis samefoSi qristianizaciis konteqstSi

221

farnavazis mefobis Semajamebel Sefasebas mematiane ambobs isev


yovelnis (yovelni qarTvelni igulisxmeba) piriT: vhmadlobT suesa Cvensa, rameTu moguca Cven mefe naTesavTagan mamaTa CvenTasa da
aRgvixada xarki da Wiri ucxoTa naTesavTagan (qarTlis cxovreba
1955: 26).
farnavazidan moyolebuli, yoveli mefe Sefasebulia imis mixedviT,
Tu rogoria misi politika swored am qarTvelTa mimarT. ramdenad
icavda da angariSs uwevda esa Tu is mefe qarTvelTa saTnoebas
kerpTa mimarT, iyo Tu ara is mamaTa naTesavTagani an Sesdgmida Tu
ara farnavazianoba.
g) mirianis gamefebis ambavi imiT iwyeba, rom mokvda farnavazianTa ukanaskneli warmomadgeneli asfaguri, romelsac darCa asuli erTi abeSura. amis gamo Seikribnen yovelni erisTavni qarTlisani
da spaspeti. maT ase ganbrWes: da Tumca darComil iyo mkvidri
mefisa Cuenisa anu naTesavi mefeTa CuenTa, romelimca Rirs iyo
mefobisa, davdegiTmca cixe qalaqTa Sina davsxeniTmca Tavni Cuenni
sikudilad da vWameTmca xorci kacisa.. magram vinaidan mefes memkvidre ar darCenila erisTavebma gadawyvites, rom gaemefebinaT sparsi
ufliswuli miriani. magram mniSvnelovania, rom qarTlis didebulebi mirianis gamefebaze Tanaxma arian mxolod garkveuli pirobebis
Sesrulebis SemTxvevaSi. ai, aq kidev erTxel gacxadebulia, Tu ra
iyo qarTvelTa, Tu mkvidrTa qarTlisaTa loialobis mTavari aspeqtebi: viTxovoT misgan damWirva sjulsa zeda mamaTa CuenTasa da
viTxovoT Cuen Tana ara aRreva sparsTa da warCinebulad pyroba
Cueni. xolo Tu amas ar Seasrulebda miriani da sjulsa mamaTa
CvenTasa migviRebdes da Cuen zeda sparsTa warCinebul hyofdes, da
naTesavsa mefeTa CuenTasa moswyueddes, maSin sikvdili umjobes ars
TavTa CuenTaTvis vidre monaxvasa eseviTarisasa. davsxneT Tavni
Cuenni cixeTa da qalaqTa Sina da movswydeT yovelni (qarTlis
cxovreba 1959: 62-63)
erisTavni qarTlisani im Rirebulebebze laparakoben, romlebic
manamde qarTvelTa, yovelTa qarTvelTa da mkvidrTa qarTlisaTa
piriT araerTgzis gameorebula. maSasadame, erisTavni mkvidrTa warmomadgenlobiTi institutia da es orive erToba loialobis saerTo Rirebulebebs icavs: mefe unda iyos naTesavTagan mefeTa qarTlisaTa,
is unda iyos sjulsa zeda mamaTa CvenTasa, unda keTilad i pyras
Yyovelni qarTvelni da ar unda daamdablos qarTlosianni, rogorc
es azom gaakeTa. marTlac, mirianis cxovrebis Semajamebel, SefasebiT nawilSi aseT sityvebs vxvdebiT:

222

lela patariZe

da aRizarda mirian msaxurebasa mas Sina SvidTa maT kerpTasa


da cecxlisisa. xolo Seiyuarna qarTvelni, da daiviwya
ena sparsuli da iswava ena qarTuli. da hmata Semkoba
kerpTa da bomonTa, keTikad i pyrna qurumni kerpTani da yovelTa mefeTa qarTlisaTa umetes aRasrulebda
msaxurebasa mas kerpTasa, da Seamko saflavi farnavazisi. xolo ese yoveli qarTvelTa saTnoebisaTvis qmna, da
keTilad i pyrna qarTvelni niWiTa da yovliTa didebiTa.
da Seiyuares igi qarTvelTa umetes yovelTa mefeTasa
(qarTlis cxovreba 1959: 65)
maSasadame, mirians qarTvelTa piroba Seusrulebia: is mkvidrTa qarTlisaTa kulturuli Rirebulebebis da socialuri statusis garanti gaxda, amisTvis Seiyvares is yovelTa qarTvelTa umetes
yovelTa mefeTasa.
amgvarad, monakveTSi azo-farnavazidan mirianamde SeiZleba vilaparakoT mkvidrTa erTobaze. es aris TavisufalTa meomarTa da
miwismflobelTa fena. mkvidrebs mematiane romelime erTi qalaqis
moqalaqeebs igulisxmeba, rom ar ukavSirebs, magram, cxadia, gamoTqmebSi:
mkvidrni mis adgilisani, mkvidrni klarjeTisani _ TavisufalT
lokalurad aqvT is institutebi, romlebic politikur da sxva
saxis gadawyvetilebebs iReben (mag., ara inebes gandgoma berZenTa).
am mkvidrTa Soris, ra Tqma unda, mcxeTelni mkvidrnic arian. Tumca
unda vigulisxmoT da vivaraudoT, rom am ukanasknelTa statusi
rogorc hegemoni Temisa ufro maRali iqneboda danarCenebze. mematiane cdilobs dagvarwmunos, rom mkvidrebs anu TavisufalT (moqalaqeebs) aqvT saerTo Rirebulebebi, romlebic maT mier mefisadmi loialobis gamosaxatavad aucilebel pirobas warmoadgens. ase
warmogvidgens qarTlis cxovreba im erTobas, romelis uflebamovaleobebSi Cven qarTlis samefos moqalaqis statusis Sinaarsi
SeiZleba amovikiTxoT.
mkvidrTa gaqristianeba.
Cven davinaxeT, rom moqalaqeTa, igive mkvidrTa identobaSi mniSvnelovani adgili samefo saxlisa da samefo kultis mimarT loialobas eWira. davinaxeT isic, rom mkvidroba da maRali statusi
SeiZleba hqonodaT araadgilobrivi sarwmunoebis mimdevrebs, ma-

moqalaqeoba qarTlis samefoSi qristianizaciis konteqstSi

223

galiTad iudevelTa nawils. mcxeTel iudevelTa magaliTma dagvarwmuna, rom qristianizaciis procesi religiuri tolerantobis
TvalsazrisiT ufro mkacri iyo, vidre warmarToba. faqtia, rom
mcxeTidan gaifanta iudevelTa didi nawili, isini, vinc qristianoba
ar miiRo da abiaTaris politikis mimarT protesti gamoxata. amis
sapirispirod ki, gaqristianebulma barabeanTa saxlma mkvidroba
miiRo.
marTalia, qarTlis cxovrebis pirveli mematiane iuwyeba, rom
qarTlis mkvidrebisaTvis saerTo religias samefo kulti warmoadgenda, magram moqcevai qarTlisais cnobebidan Cans, rom mkvidrebs samefo kultis garda hqondaT adgilobrivi kerpebi, romelTa mimarT erTguleba ufro Zneli dasaTmobi aRmoCnda zog SemTxvevaSi. gaqristianebis procesis nawili iyo, magaliTad, mcired maxvilis warmarTva da kerpebis dalewva mefis erisTavis mier aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis gaqristianebis dros. amas daerTo
ekonomiuri sanqciebic _ mefem gajiutebul mTielebs xarki daumZima.
qarTlis samefos mkvidrebs, rogorc mcxeTis magaliTma gvaCvena, xSir SemTxvevaSi hqondaT ormagi identoba. erT SemTxvevaSi
isini qarTlis mkvidrebi iyvnen, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi mcxeTis
mkvidrebi, klarjeTisa Tu sxva adgilTa mkvidrebi. cxadia, saxelmwifo identobis (loialobis) garda iyo Temuri erTobebi da
konkretul garemosTan, konkretul kultTan da sanaTesaosTan SvilobiT da mkvidrobiT dakavSirebuli statusi da identobani. radganac qristianoba warmarTuli kultebis mimarT sruliad aratolerantuli iyo, bunebrivia, ideologiurad swored maT upirispirdeboda. ucxoobis ideali swored aseT mkvidrobas uryevda
safuZvlebs. samefo xelisuflebac, bunebrivia, grZnobda, rom qristianizacia xelisuflebis centralizacias uwyobda xels da aqtiurad ereoda am procesSi. iqmneboda axali mkvidroba, romelic
ukve qristianuli sarwmunoebis aRiarebis pirobiT iyo SesaZlebeli. cxadia, rom swored ucxoobisa da mwirobis qristianuli
ideali gaxda is safuZveli, romelze dayrdnobiTac Seiqmna gaqristianebis Semdeg, savaraudod, sakmaod mcire xanSi is SedarebiT
ufro erTgvarovani erToba, romelic gamoixateboda sityviT "eri"
nacvlad Zveli mkvidrnisa.

224

lela patariZe

gamoyenebuli wyaroebi da literatura


abulaZe 1973: abulaZe, ilia. Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni,
Tbilisi: mecniereba.
evsebi kesarieli 1997: evsebi kesarieli, konstantine didis
werili aRmosavleTis eparqiebs". Zveli berZnulidan Targmna lela patariZem. mnaTobi, , #7.
imnaiSvili1986: imnaiSvili, ivane. qarTuli oTxTavis simfonialeqsikoni tyue, tyuenva tyveoba.
lorTqifaniZe 1962:lorTqifaniZe, oTar. "mcxeTis saqalaqo
Temis istoriisaTvis", saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis moambe, t. XXIX, 6.
lorTqifaniZe 1958: lorTqifaniZe, oTar., samefo miwismflobelobis Sesaxeb antikuri xanis iberiaSi. saqarTvelos
ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis moambe. t. XXI, 6.
moqcevai qarTlisai 1964: "moqcevai qarTlisai". abulaZe,
ilia (red). Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis
Zeglebi. w.1, Tbilisi: mecniereba.
qarTlis cxovreba 1959: qarTlis cxovreba, teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriRadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis
mier. t. I, Tbilisi: saxelgami.
yauxCiSvili 1961: yauxCiSvili, simon. bizantieli mwerlebis
cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, georgika, I.
xaxutaSvili 1966: xaxutaSvili, d. iberiis qalaqTa istoriis
sakiTxebi, Tbilisi: mecniereba.
xoStaria-brose 1996: xoStaria-brose, ediSer. leonti mroveli da `qarTlis cxovreba~.
Tbilisi: mecniereba.
javaxiSvili 1928: javaxiSvili, ivane. qarTuli samarTlis istoria II, I Tbilisi.
RvTis qalaqi: Avrelii Avgustini. Opera, XIV:2, De Civitate Dei, XIXXII, curauerunt B. Dombart et A. Kalb,
(CCSL, 48), Turnhout
1955 414-416 (14,2).
ilisi 2006: Ellis, Steven G., Gudmundur Halfdanarson and Katherine
Isaacs (ads.) Citizenship in Historical Perspective. Cliohres.net,
Publication date: 10/1/2006 Pisa: Pisa University Press. 11,3,08.
http://www.cliohres.net/books/books.php?book=7,
evsebiusi 1902: Eusebius. Werke, Erste Band, Uber das Leben Constantins. Leipzig: J.C.Hinrichssche Buchhandlung, 1902.

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fletCeri 1998: Fletcher, Richard. The Barbarian Conversion: from


Paganism to Christianity. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
igersi 2005: Iggers, Georg G. Historiography in the twentieth century.
Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 2005.
kiknaZe 1994: Kiknadze, Zurab. Some episodes from The Cristiansization
of Georgia. Letters from Georgia, 1.
miqsi 1983: Meeks,Wayne A. The First Urban Christians, The Social
world of the apostle Paul, 1983 New Haven and London: Yale University Press .
olardi 2007: Olard, Ludivine-Julie. Venice-Babylon: Foreigners and
Citizens in the Renaissance Period (14th-16th Centuries). pag.155174. In: Ann Katherine Isaacs, Gudmundur Halfdanarson (ads). Imagining Frontiers Contesting Identities . 17.3.2008. < http://
www.cliohres.net/books2/survey.php?book=5>. Pisa: Pisa University
Press, 2007.
oorti 1991: Van Oort, Johannes. Jerusalem and Babylon:. A Study
into Augustines "City of God" and the Sources of his Doctrine of
the Cities. Leiden.
k i k n a Z e 1 9 7 2 : , . " ,
" " (XVIII-XIX .) .
"", , 1971" (recenzia). macne, enisa da
literaturis seria, N#4.
k o S e l e n k o 1 9 7 9 : , ..,
, .
meliqiSvili 1959: , ..,
, .
ferixaniani 1953: ..
.
: .
f i u s t e l - d e k u l a n J i 1 8 9 5 : - .
. .

226

lela patariZe

Lela Pataridze

Citizenship in Kartli Kingdom in the Context of


Christianization
Obviously it is an advantageous task to explore citizenship in the historical
perspective as the concept has many different _ social, political, cultural aspects and
special links with political theory and ideology. The present investigation is focused on
the period of conversion of Kartli (Georgian state in Hellenistic and early mediaeval periods),
when significant religious and mental changes were to be projected and launched. My
research is based on two different types of narratives. One is hagiography (The Life of St.
Nino) and the other is official historiographical tradition [Kartlis Tskovreba (History of
Georgia)], supposedly created in the close circles of royal dynasty. Hence two different
points of view, two different ideological tasks, social positions, mental backgrounds,
territorial scales in these sources reveal many aspects of citizenship. Among them are
issues like these: kings and citizens, the missionary and citizens, citizenship of Jews in
Mtskheta, the Christian concept of alienus and peregrinus as a challenge to local identities
in cities and in the countryside.
From Kartlis Tskhovreba it becomes evident that the term mkvidri (more or less
close correspondent of citizen) in the contexts close to the period of Conversion has
several meanings: son- heir, in the plural form: landowners, warriors, people who take part
(may be through their leaders) in political decisions. Mkvidrni (pl.of mkvidri) in Kartlis
Tskovreba denotes also a kind of collective personality, with cultural and social identity.
Respect and protection of the main features of their identity and social status of the
mkvidrni are laid down as a condition for their loyalty to the king. Mkvidri as a member
of the community enjoying full rights throughout the country seems to be rather an
ideological concept than a social reality, but we can acknowledge mkvidri on the scale of
the local regions within the country in the expressions like: mkvidrni of the places or
mkvidrni of Klarjeti (Kartlis Tskhovreba).
In The Life of St. Nino the term mkvidri denotes a high social status of a resident of
Mtskheta dweller. In several contexts we see that not all city dwellers were mkvidrni. The
status could be granted by the king for some service done not only to natives, but to
aliens as well. We see here that among resident Jews in Mtskheta, there were families (one
or more) who enjoyed the status of mkvidri. During the Conversion of Kartli, some other
families (one or more) who adopted Christianity became mkvidri. But many Jews who
refused to become Christian were compelled to scatter from Mtskheta to other regions of
the country.
The paper traces how the process of conversion influenced the political rights and
social statuses of citizens. Local communities, that refused to adopt Christianity were
converted by force or by some economic sanctions. Dwellers of mountainous regions
perhaps revolted against such means. They are described as beasts, who fled the country.
From all evidence we can conclude that citizenship as a status was not equal throughout
the country before Christianization. Since it denoted personal freedom, the owning of
land (private or collective), and belonging to the pagan religion, on the other hand the
same term might have reflected the high status of the membership in community of
Mtskheta. Since the Conversion Christianity became one of the main conditions for adopting
citizenship in Kartli.

227

marina qavTaraZe

miTo-poeturi simbolikis
Sesaxeb musikaSi

Tbilisis v.sarajiSvilis sax. saxelmwifo


konservatoriis asocirebuli profesori, musikis istoriis
mimarTulebis
xelmZRvaneli, konservatoriis samecniero
eleqtronuli Jurnalis
`musikismcodneoba da
kulturologia~
mTavari redaqtori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi: `XX
saukunis qarTuli
opera~ , `tradiciul
musikalur kulturaTa
urTierToba da maTi
transformacia ucxo
kulturul garemoSi,
`religia da axali
qarTuli musika~,
`religia da musika totalitarul saxelmwifoSi~ da sxv.
samecniero interesebi:
musikis istoria, kulturaTaSorisi urTierTobebi, saopero sinTezis problemebi,
semiotika da sxv.

(zaqaria faliaSvilis `abesalom


da eTeris magaliTze)

zaqaria faliaSvilis `abesalom da eTeri


musikis istoriaSi Sevida, rogorc qarTuli
profesiuli musikis etalonuri qmnileba,
romlis Seswavla, garda am faqtis TavisTavadi mniSvnelobisa, erovnuli musikaluri
fenomenis kvlevis tolfasi gaxda.
musikismcodneobaSi misi Seswavla sxvadasxva aspeqtiT warimarTa da warmoaCina
am nawarmoebis ZiriTadi Janrul-stiluri
maxasiaTeblebi: opera-oratoria, antikuri
stilis tragedia (l. donaZe), abesalom-pasioni (S. aslaniSvili), opera-pasioni (n. qavTaraZe). magram imdenad, ramdenadac oratoriis, antikuri tragediis, pasionis Janris pirvelsaxeebi miTis konceptualur da siRrmiseul struqturul TaviseburebebSi fokusirdeba, ufro marTebuli iqneboda qarTuli
klasikuri musikis am Sedevris mis miTosur
arqeti pTan mimarTebaSi ganxilva. amgvar rakursSi operis ganxilvis aucileblobis
miuxedavad, naTelia, rom mecnierebaSi miTTan
dakavSirebiT arsebobs ramodenime garemoeba,
romelic arTulebs musikaluri xelovnebisa da misi miTologiuri fesvebis Sesaxeb
sakiTxis erTmniSvnelovnad gadawyvetas. erTerTi maTgani qronologiurad usazRvro
distanciis arsebobaa totaluri mi-

228

marina qavTaraZe

Tologiuri azrovnebis mqone epoqebs da im epoqebs Soris, romlebic miTs moiazreben, rogorc xelovnebis masalas. arqaul miTTan
Sexebis sirTule veeberTela `istoriul-sivrcul dialogSia. Cven
SegviZlia mxolod intuiciurad CavwvdeT mas.
amitom iqmneba im azrobrivi da logikuri `konstantebis
aRweris aucilebloba, romlebic miTis safuZvels da mexsierebas
Seadgenen da unarCuneben mas aqtualobas Secvlil socio-kulturul viTarebaSi. amis dasturad gamodgeba saopero Janris mTeli
istoria, misi pirveli nimuSebidan dawyebuli XX saukunis qmnilebebiT damTavrebuli (magaliTisaTvis, udidesi saopero reformatorebis glukis da vagneris Semoqmedebis, XX saukuneSi ki Strausis, stravinskis, onegeris nawarmoebebis dasaxelebac ki ikmarebda).
istoriulad miTi win uswrebs sulieri moRvaweobis sxva
formebs, maT Soris xelovnebasac da Tavis TavSi moicavs TiToeuli maTganis pirvelsaxes, amitomac miTi praqtikulad nebismier
momentSi SeiZleba iqnas reaminirebuli. remiTologizaciisas
musikalur poetikaSi fokusirdeba miTis logika, misi semantika,
funqcionirebis kanonebi da misi umaRlesi daniSnuleba. Tumca, Tavad fenomeni ar miekuTvneba `ontologiurad gansazRvrebad cnebas.
is ufro `sulierebis, `idealuris kategoriaTa sferos ganekuTvneba.
rogorc subieqti, ise zogadad mxatvruli kultura, miTs mimarTavs sazogadoebaSi komunikaciuri kavSirebis rRvevis Sedegad warmoqmnili ganxeTqilebis, katastrofis, krizisis SegrZnebis SemTxvevaSi. (1)
eTerianis miTosurma interpretaciam gadamwyveti roli Seasrula faliaSvilis `abesalom da EeTeris musikaluri koncefciis SeqmnaSi `eTerianis miTologiurma pirvelsawyisma da ara
zRaprisam. miTosuri simbolika aq sakmaod TvalsaCinoa ukvdavebis wyaro, magiuri niSnebi, sneuleba, bediswera; sainteresoa, rom
operaSi bedisweris simbolika gansakuTrebiT gaZlierebulia misi
dramaturgiuli funqciis TvalsazrisiT; is yvela sakvanZo momentSi Cndeba, miuxedavad imisa, rom libretos siuJetur qsovilSi
ar figurirebs da mxolod musikaSia gacxadebuli saorkestro
laitTemis saxiT.
miTosSi siyvaruli eTikur kategoriad gvevlineba da rogorc
sikeTes, mas SeuZlia daupirispirdes borotebas. abesalomis da
murmanis Sepirispireba sikeTis da borotebis Sepirispirebaa. amave
dros, siyvaruli zeadamianuri Zalisaa igi sikvdilze imarjvebs.
`abesalomsa da eTerSi moqmedebis magiuri motivebi fantastikasaa

miTo-poeturi simbolikis Sesaxeb musikaSi

229

moklebuli, rac zRaprisTvis ar aris damaxasiaTebeli. miTosSi


idumalebaa mTavari. `abesalom da eTeris siyvarulis paradigma
`tristan da izoldas kurtuazul motivebSi ki ar unda veZioT,
aramed ufro `orfevssa da evridikeSi.
sainteresoa, Tu rogor iazrebs mixeil TumaniSvili, `abesalomis erT-erTi saukeTeso dadgmis reJisori (1986 weli), operis
scenur saxes. sazogadod, reJisorebs aqvT formula: TiToeul dadgmas
sakuTari gasaRebi unda mounaxon. `CemTvis abesalomis gasaRebi
maSin moiZebna, roca qoros `wertils mivageni Zneli iyo am
`wertilis povna, magram rogorc ki es problema gadavwyvite, yvelaferi TavisTavad dadga samoqmedo sivrcesa da droSi (2); ganlagda Tu ara qoro, personaJebmac gaarkvies, rogor unda `amoqmedebuliyvnen da `eTerianis miTosic CemTvis maSin gacocxlda~(3) _ werda mixeil TumaniSvili. amdenad, operis scenuri
formebis Semqmneli mTavari elementi qoroa, romelic ZiriTadad
gansazRvravs kidec `abesalomis Janrul Tu stilur Taviseburebas. qoros, rogorc dramaturgiis kompoziciur RerZs, Semoaqvs
amaRlebuli tragizmisaTvis saxasiaTo statikuroba da amave dros
asrulebs yvelaze dinamikur qmedebas; ganviTarebis mdore, uwyvet
dinamikas Semoaqvs amaRlebuli tragikuli paTosi, ganzogadebuli
farTo Strixebi yovelgvari detalizebisa da konkretizaciis gareSe.
miTis esTetikas aZlierebs saweso-ritualuri qmedeba qorwilisa da glova-datirebis Sesatyvisi musikaluri formebi. am `dinamikuri statikiT mkvidrdeba amaRlebuli tragizmisa da maradiulobis SegrZneba.
`abesalom da eTerSi miTi iqceva universalur princi pad,
romelic konceptualuricaa da struqturul-funqciuric.
da mainc, riTi iwyeba Cveni warmodgena `abesalomze, rogorc
musikalur miTze? pirvel rigSi, am warmodgenas gviqmnis misi
sakraluroba, harmoniuli simwyobre, yofierebis formaTa erTianobis SegrZneba, maradiuli idealis damkvidreba da absoluturi
determinirebuloba. magram es kompleqsi, upirveles yovlisa, emociur sferos ekuTvnis, anu miTis Sedegobriv-Rirebulebriv mxares
axasiaTebs. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, nawarmoebis miTosuri gancda
warmoadgens `umaRlesi Rirebulebis damamkvidrebel emocias, rameTu
miTi aq ara marto `sibrZnis~ matarebelia, aramed mizandasaxuli
procesi, dakavSirebuli umaRlesi Rirebulebis mqone gancdis damkvidrebasTan. iRebs ra dasabams siyvarulis sakraluri grZnobidan
(rwmenidan), mas gaaCnia saboloo mizanic, romliskenac is miemarTeba

230

marina qavTaraZe

es kaTarsisia, rogorc umaRlesi forma Rirebulebis mqone emociisa.


imisaTvis, rom Cemi Semdgomi msjelobis logika ufro naTeli
gaxdes, moviyvan miTis TeoriaSi arsebuli miTologiuri moqmedebis
meqanizmis sqemas, romlis struqtura grafikulad Semdegnairad
gamoiyureba:

rwmena  krizisi  rituali  reintegracia 

rwmena

mxatvruli nawarmoebis teqstis doneze miTopoeturi moqmedebis
kanonzomiereba Semdegnairia:
logosi  krizisi  rituali  kaTarsisi  logosi
simbolo_antiTezis warmoSoba_antiTezis gardasaxva_simbolo

zemoTmoyvanili miTo-poeturi koncefcia `abesalom da eTeris musikaSi upirveles yovlisa, simboloebSia proecirebuli. aseT
azrobriv, siyvarulis Tema-simbolod (anu logosad) aRiqmeba operis laitTema, romelic miuxedavad araerTgzis ganmeorebisa dramaturgiulad sakvanZo momentebSi, yvelgan inarCunebs Tavis sawyis
iersaxes da mxolod orkestrSi JRers. icvleba misi moqmedebis
konteqsti, icvlebian da tragikulad gardaisaxebian Tavad operis
gmirebi; ucvleli rCeba mxolod grZnoba siyvarulisa, romelic
sikvdilze ufro Zlieria.
antiTeza am miTologiur struqturaSi murmanis saxesTan aris
dakavSirebuli. magram kompozitoris mier II redaqciaSi zRapruli
personaJis eSmak-beliarTan scenis amoRebis Sedegad moxda murmanis saxis am mimarTebiT Sesusteba, ramac gamoiwvia fatalurobis,
garduvalobis motivis gaZliereba. amitomac operis laitTema vagneris opera `tristan da izoldas liebestodis Temis msgavsad
ormag azrobriv funqcias iZens; is erTdroulad siyvarulis da
bedisweris Temacaa.
umniSvnelovanesi, arsebiTi mxare miTisa misi ritualTan
kavSiria. ritualSi `miTologiuri dro aaxloebs warsuls awmyosTan. amitom misTvis damaxasiaTebeli cikluri ganmeorebadoba
statikis, zedroulobis SegrZnebas badebs.
ganvixiloT ritualis cneba miTologiur struqturaSi.
klasikuri gagebiT, rituali qmedebaa, romelic eqstazuri ganc-

miTo-poeturi simbolikis Sesaxeb musikaSi

231

dis struqturul sazRvrebSi Sedis (rogoricaa, dioniseseuli


eqstazi; samgloviaro wesTan asocirebuli usazRvro mwuxareba,
glova). `ritualSi Sesvla niSnavs mZlavri maorganizebeli sawyisis pirobebSi `piradulis STanTqmas koleqtiur gancdaSi. moqmedebis aseT ti ps Seesabameba antikuri tragedia da kidev ufro
adreuli misteriis Janri (da arsebiTad oratoriac).
opera `abesalom da eTeris oratoriuli, centraluri II da
III aqtebi binarul opoziciaSi warmodgenili ritualia: zeimi da
glova. am ritualSi aisaxeba `adamianis azrovnebis da socialuri
qmedebis fundamenturi niSnebi(4), am SemTxvevaSi qarTveli adamianisa. am qmedebisaTvis ti pur Janr-simboloebSi asaxvisas (II moqmedebaSi sadidebeli himni, saqorwilo simRerebSi sufruli,
cekva; III moqmedebaSi samgloviaro zari) isini inarCuneben
pirveladi Janris arqaul niSnebs; amasTanave, mkafiod gamokveTili
erovnuli niSnebi aqvT, rogorc intonaciuri, ise formadqmnadobis
TvalsazrisiT. II da III moqmedebis ukontrasto dramaturgiaSi
situaciuri `formulebis regularuli ganmeoreba xdeba. amis Sedegad
iqmneba erTiani emociuri ganwyobileba, romelSic piraduli gancda
koleqtiurs erwymis diametrulad sapirispiro (zeimisa da glovis) qmedebisas.
III moqmedebas am mimarTebiT gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs;
masTan aris dakavSirebuli `Rirebulebrivi krizisis situaciis
warmoSoba, romelic rogorc mamoZravebeli zambara miTologiuri
moqmedebisa, aucilebelia kaTarsisis misaRwevad. gansxvavebiT vaJafSavelas `eTeris SemaZrwunebeli glova-zarisagan, romelic amTavrebs
poemas, `abesalomsa da eTerSi glovis mwvervali gmirTa sikvdilamdea III moqmedebaSi. siyvarulis ficis gatexva da gmirTa ganSoreba tolfasia im msxverplSewirvisa, miTSi rituals rom uwodeben. am ritualSi qmedebis Taviseburebaa is, rom masSi vlindeba
tragediis `gaorebuli logika (vigotski); is ara marto kaTarsisisken moZraobis winapirobaa, aramed inarCunebs antiTezas.
III aqti gansakuTrebulad simfonizirebulia (rac araerTgzis
yofila aRniSnuli mkvlevarebis mier). magram dramatizmi miiRweva
ara garegani konfliqturi dapirisprebis Sedegad, aramed ZiriTadi
ideis Sinagani ganviTarebiT, `dinamikuri statikiT; arsebiTad, amis
mkafio magaliTia III aqtis monoTematuri finali agebuli tirilis intonaciis Basso ostinato-ze, romelic mTeli aqtis azrobriv
simbolod iqceva.

232

marina qavTaraZe

centraluri Rirebulebrivi movlena miTSi rwmenis aRdgenaa,


romelic kaTarsisis cnebas ukavSirdeba. istoriulad kaTarsisis
cneba warmoiSva antikur xanaSi, magram kaTarsisuli funqcia gacilebiT ufro Zvelia, vidre Tavad tragedia; is misteriis safuZvelia, iseve rogorc arqauli epoqis nebismieri ritualis arsic.
rogorc filisofiur-esTetikur kategorias kaTarsiss gaaCnia
SemecnebiTi aspeqtic: is WeSmaritebis gacxadeba, gasxivosneba-amaRlebaa.
`abesalom da eTeris dramaturgiuli ganviTarebis bolo fazaSi
sabediswero siyvarulis laitTemis gatareba eTeris sikvdils, anu
tragikuli kvanZis gaxsnas emTxveva, xolo kaTarsisi miiRweva sagaloblis sakraluri Janris gamoyenebiT, a cappella qoraliT sityvebze maTi suli qveynad erTi, tanjuli da wamebuli, zecaSiac
erTi iyves, mieniWos siyvaruli. es yovlismomcveli locva-qorali
WeSmarit katarsisad aRiqmeba, vinaidan simSvidesa da harmonias
aRadgens es gzaa maradiulobisaken. amave dros, Tavisi arsiT es
qorali miTologemaa, miTis ZiriTadi formulaa, romelic jer
kidev operis saorkestro SesavalSi iyo mocemuli, xolo IV aqtSi
verbaluri saxiT gacxadda. abesalom da eTeris musikaluri miTologema is momentia, sadac xdeba nawarmoebis dedaazris gacxadeba. amdenad, musikis funqciebSi Sedis ara marto moqmedebis garegani Sris asaxva, aramed damoukidebeli musikalur-azrobrivi planis Seqmna, romelic moqmedebis paralelurad axdens situaciis
gadaazrebas miTopoeturi konceepciis Sesabamisad. ufro metic,
swored musikaluri moqmedebis Signidan ibadeba miTologiuri
Sinaarsis yvelaze siRrmiseuli Sreebi. musikalur miTad qmnadobis
Tavisebureba swored imaSia, Tu rogor xdeba aq miTologemis warmoqmna (5).
amgvarad, musikis miTopoetika faliaSvilis `abesalom da eTerSi
ara marto fabulur doneze iCens Tavs, aramed musikaluri teqstis
funqcionalur Sres warmoadgens, sadac miTologiuri arsi `mTelis doneze vlindeba. Cven Sors varT im mosazrebisagan, TiTqos
miTis struqturis gamovlena `abesalom da eTerSi kompozitors
gacnobierebuli da Segnebuli hqonda. es movlena aracnobieri fsiqikuris kategoriaTa rigs ganekuTvneba da Cadebulia Tavad `Janris mexsierebaSi (6). adamianis sulieri cxovreba dajildovebulia azrovnebis da gancdis zogierTi Tandayolili formebiT, romlebic warmoadgenen uZvelesi koleqtiuri gamocdilebis aracnobier gamovlinebas (7). kulturis tradiciebi, maT Soris uZvelesic,

miTo-poeturi simbolikis Sesaxeb musikaSi

233

inaxeba da cocxlobs ara marto calkeuli adamianis individualur, subieqtur mexsierebaSi, aramed Tavad kulturis obieqtur
formebSi; am TvalsazrisiT isini subieqtTaSorisi da individTaSorisi arian; am gziT Sedian isini xelovnebis nawarmoebSi, Semoqmedis subieqturi mexsierebis gverdis avliT.
`abesalom da eTerSi miTologiuris cneba ufro farTo sazrissac iZens, exmianeba ra Tavad musikaluri xelovnebis `paToss, mxatvruli srulyofilebis ideas. am mimarTebiT unda gavixsenoT
antikuri, piTagoraseuli Teoria musikis, rogorc sulieri wesrigis metaforis gagebisa. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom epoqebi, romlebic
musikas `simboluri asociaciurobis niSniT moiazreben, nayofierni arian xelovnebaSi rogorc `miTis Seqmnis, ise misi gadaazrebis
TvalsazrisiTac. aseTi cnobierebis `miTologemaa `musika aris
simbolo. epoqebi ki, romelTaTvisac gadamwyvetia `Tavad musikaluri
logikis gageba da mecnierebas, rogorc normatiuls, ise udgebian,
sxvagvari mrwamsi aqvT `musika Tavad aris srulyofileba. magram miTologiuroba orive SemTxvevaSi saxezea, ara imdenad
musikaluri `niSnebis simbolisturi gaazrebis TvalsazrisiT,
ramdenadac maTSi Tavad srulyofilebis ideis ganxorcielebis gamoc.
abesalom da eTeri swored aseT nawarmoebTa rigs ganekuTvneba.

SeniSvnebi
1. rogorc cnobilia, `abesalom daEeTeri zaqaria faliaSvilis
mier Seiqmna kompozitorisaTvis yvelaze mZime sulieri krizisis erTaderTi Svilis daRupvis Semdgom da mis xsovnas
eZRvna _ `Zeglad, dediserTa yrmis iraklis umanko sulisa.
2. sagulisxmoa am dadgmaSi bedisweris scenuri saxis arsebobac
winaqristianul moiras saxiT (qali TeTr samosSi).
3. axali sicocxlis yvela niSani `abesalom da eTeris axali
dadgmis gamo saubari mrgval magidasTan - //`Tbilisi~ 14/III
1986w//
4. . ; , 1976, gv. 203 (rusul
enaze)
5. am procesis ubadlo ostati iyo r. vagneri, romelic k. levistrosis Tanaxmad pirveli iyo vinc miTis analizi musikis
saSualebiT SeZlo.

234

marina qavTaraZe

6. qarTuli operis xalxur wyaroebTan mimarTebaSi ufro detalurad ix. m. qavTaraZe _ qarTuli operis arqeti pis Sesaxeb //
musikismcodneobis sakiTxebi, Tbilisi 2001, gv. 86-96
7. .. ,
// , 1994,
AB. 110. Targmani germanulidan.

Marina Kavtaradze
On mythico-poetic symbolism in music
(According to Z. Paliashvilis opera Abessalom and Eteri)

Historically myth preceded all the other forms of spiritual activities of humans
and among them the art. In itself it contains primordial images of each of them and
thats why it might be reanimated at any moment. In the myth remaking process
the logic of myth, its semantic and functional principles are being focused on musical
poetics.
The author of the paper makes an attempt to analyze the structure of Z.
Paliashvilis opera Abessalom and Eteri and reveal its connection with the
mythological archetype. The genre-stylistic features of the opera, traditionally
defined as an opera-oratorio, a tragedy of antique style Abessalom-passion, the
prototype of which have been focused on the conception and structural peculiarities
of myth, have become the basis of the given approach. The mythological
interpretation of Eteriani played a decisive role in the formation of the musical
conception of Abessalom and Eteri
Z. PaliaShvilis tribute consisted in his ability to professionalize, according
to the laws of the composing art, what was based on the archetype of existing
musical tradition and to transfer its structure into a new quality.

235

rusudan canava

agresia da rituali

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa


rusTavelis saxelobis
literaturis institutis ufrosi mecnieri
TanamSromeli.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
miTo-ritualuri modelebis genezisisa da
formirebis sakiTxisaTvis, miTis ritualis da
magiis urTierTmimarTebisaTvis, Myth model of
substitute sacrifice and
the classical epos,
monografia:
miToritualuri modelebi, simboloebi antikuri mwerlobaSi da
qarTuli literaturul-eTnologiuri paralelebi.
interesTa sfero:
antikuri miTologia da
literatura, kulturologia, literaturis
istoria da Teoria, komparativistika.

agresiis bunebisa da warmoSobis sakiTxs sxvadasxva dargis specialistebi ikvleven: fiziologebi, fsiqologebi, filosofosebi, sociologebi, literatorebi. cxadia,
rom agresia kulturologiuri fenomenia da
misi analizi kompleqsur midgomas saWiroebs.
agresia/risxva 1
binaruli opoziciis
(risxva_ganurisxveloba) Semadgeneli elementia; Sesabamisad, garkveuli mniSvneloba
eniWeba niSan-sistemaTa konteqstSic; aqedan
gamomdinare, es fenomeni semiotikuri aspeqtiTac ganixileba. Cveni mizania, gavarkvioT, ramdenad aqtiuria agresiis funqcia ritualSi. sakvlev masalad gamoviyenebT msxverplSewirvis universalur rituals. A priori
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom swored agresiis CarTvam gamoiwvia am sakraluri ritualis profanacia da saerTod Secvala msxverplSewirvis religiuri aqtis koncefcia. statiaSi SevecdebiT am poziciis dasasabuTebas.
agresiis kvlevas mieZRvna cnobili frangi mecnieris _ literatoris, filosofosisa da anTropologis _ rene Jiraris naSromi "Zaladoba da wminda" (Jirari:2000).
mkvlevaris azriT, msxverplSewirva iyo da
aris didi saidumlo, romlis arsSi wvdomisas yovelTvis raRac gvisxlteba xelidan,
1

terminebs: agresia, risxva da Zaladoba statiaSi


erTi fenomenis aRsaniSnad viyenebT.

236

rusudan canava

swored amitom ver vaxerxebT mis Secnobas. mizezi ki isaa, rom ar


gvaqvs Tundac raime myari kriteriumi, romelic ucvlelia kacobriobis gaCenidan dRemde. Jirari am kriteriumis Ziebam Zaladobamde,
agresiamde miiyvana. igi ase svams kiTxvas: ra damokidebulebaa
msxverplSewirvasa da Zaladobas Soris? da pasuxobs: kavSiri TvalsaCino da naTelia. fiziologebma daadastures, rom agresia yvela
ti pisa da kulturis sxvadasxva donis adamianebSi msgavsia. araferi
ise ar hgavs gaalmasebul katas an adamians, rogorc meore gaalmasebuli kata an adamiani. raki agresiis buneba ucvlelia, Cven SeiZleba
miviRoT garkveuli pasuxi msxverplSewirvis bunebaze, Tu SeviswavliT msxverplSewirvis ritualis erT elements _ agresias.
Tu adamianSi gaiRviZa Zaladobis survilma, igi iwvevs garkveul
fiziologiur cvlilebebs, romlebic pirovnebas ganawyobs orTabrZolisaTvis. agresiuli ganwyobileba adamianSi grZeldeba garkveuli
drois ganmavlobaSi; igi ar aris ubralo refleqsi, romelic wydeba stimulis zemoqmedebis SewyvetisTanave. specialistTa ganmartebiT, Zaladobis survilis daokeba ufro Znelia, vidre aRZvra. Zaladobas xSirad da samarTlianadac uwodeben iracionalurs. heraklites azriT, Zaladoba aris yvelafris mama da mefe. agresiis
realizeba orgvarad SeiZleba: risxvis gamomwvevi mizezis (pirovnebis)
uSualo ganadgurebiT, rac iwvevs SurisZiebaTa dausrulebel jaWvs
da meore _ agresiis CanacvlebiT (SecvliT). am dros risxvis
gamomwvevi arseba Canacvldeba sxviT, romelic arafriT iwvevs moZaladis dartymas garda imisa, rom sustia.2
Jiraris azriT, ritualuri msxverplSewirva efuZneba agresiis Senacvlebas, oRond sapirispiro mimarTulebiT: magaliTad, cxovelis msxverplSewirva Zaladobas aaridebs im arsebebs, romelTa
dacvaa saWiro da agresia gadaaqvs sxvebze, romelTa sikvdils
naklebi mniSvneloba aqvs, an sulac ara aqvs mniSvneloba. e. i. xdeba
"agresiis (Zaladobis) motyueba."
ase rom, msxverplSewirvis safuZveli swored "agresiis motyueba," anu agresiis gadatanaa. koleqtivs surs, misTvis ufro
iolad gasametebel msxverplze gadaitanos agresia da amiT daicvas
ufro faseuli _ koleqtivi. e.i. "arafris" gamosyidva ar xdeba,
xdeba dacla dagrovili agresiisagan (es kargad aisaxa jadosnur
zRaprebSi, rodesac mgels, kaciWamias, drakons bavSvis nacvlad qvas
2
rogorc vxedavT, r.Jirari erTmaneTisgan mijnavs msxverplSewivasa da sisxlis
aRebas. am mosazrebas ar eTanxmeba v.burkerti.

agresia da rituali

237

aylapeben). am SenacvlebiT agresias uklaven "SimSils." Jiraris


azriT, amgvar msxverplSewirvas dadebiTi socialuri funqcia
aqvs. diametrulad gansxvavebulia "sisxlis Zieba", romelmac rituali sxva mimarTulebiT "waiyvana" (amaze qvemoT).
im mecnierTa Tvalsazrisebis sapirispirod, romlebic msxverplSewirvas religiuri aspeqtiT xsnian (teilori, freizeri, robertson-smiti, mosi, iuberi da sxvebi), gamoiTqva mosazreba, rom
msxverplSewirva realurad arafers (aravis) ar Seesabameba. es
Tvalsazrisi ekuTvnis k. levi-stross (amaze vrclad ix. canava
2003). Jiraris azriT, swored agresiis rolis gauTvaliswinebloba
warmoSobs msxverplSewirvis Teologiur koncefcias, e. i. mosazrebas,
rom msxverpls iTxovs RmerTi.
r. Jirari ganixilavs sakmaod vrcel masalas. igi ar ifargleba romelime erTi kulturiT an periodiT. misi TvalTaxedva moicavs
primitiuli xalxebis rwmena-warmodgenebs, antikurobas, Sua saukuneebsa da Tanamedroveobas; eTnologias, fsiqologiasa da literaturas. ase rom, es aris kompleqsuri da seriozuli monografia,
romelic safuZvlianad uRrmavdeba msxverplSewirvis arsis analizs.
primitiuli xalxebis eTnologiis Seswavlis safuZvelze godfri linharti da viqtor terneri mividnen daskvnamde, rom msxverplSewirva emsaxureboda agresiis "koleqtiur gadatanas" msxverplze. e.i. msxverplSewirvas aqvs realuri funqcia. es funqcia
socialuria da ara religiuri. msxverplSewirva icavs mTel koleqtivs SesaZlo Zaladobisagan sakuTriv koleqtivSi. gadadis ra
agresia msxverplze, neitraldeba koleqtivSi arsebuli dapirispirebebi, ganxeTqileba, Suri da aRdgeba harmonia, socialuri
erToba. am azriT, msxverplSewirva adamianTa koleqtivis materialur keTildReobas da kulturul aRmavlobasac ganapirobebs.
Cinur "ritualTa wignSi" weria: msxverplSewirvas, musikas, dasjas
da kanonierebas erTi da igive mizani aqvs _ adamianTa gulisTqmis
gaerTianeba da wesrigis damyareba (redklif-brauni 1965:158).
r. Jiraris azriT, adamianTa da cxovelTa msxverplSewirvebs
Soris ar aris princi puli gansxvaveba. xSirad isini erTmaneTs
enacvlebian, magram orives erTi da igive daniSnuleba aqvs: msxverplma unda daaokos Zaladoba. rituali ki mxolod da mxolod
"kargi" agresiis regularuli varjiSia. mkvlevaris dakvirvebiT,
Zv. w-is Vs-is aTenSi adamianTa msxverplad Sewirva, rogorc Cans,
mTlianad gauqmda. Tu swiravdnen adamians, Zalian iSviaTad da gan-

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rusudan canava

sakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi; Tanac swiravdnen farmakoss (farmakosi


iyo vinme bogano, upatrono, mona, ucxotomeli; mokled, "sxva," "gareSe"),
romelsac qalaqi inaxavda Tavisi xarjiT, raTa saWiro momentSi
msxverplad Seewira. Jirari ganixilavs or berZnul tragedias,
rogorc adamianTa da cxovelTa msxverplSewirvis nimuSebs: "medeas"
(bavSvebis Sewirva) da "aiass"(cxovelTa Sewirva). mkvlevaris azriT,
drama, iseve, rogorc mTeli kultura, dasabams iRebs Zaladobisgan.
sainteresoa r. Jiraris msjeloba e.w. "tyis mefis" (wminda
mefis), bavSvebis, Svils Sewirvis modelebze, romlebic, Cveulebriv,
msxverplSewirvis religiuri axsnis qvakuTxedia. am SemTxvevebSic
Jirari Tavisi koncefciis erTguli rCeba. igi msxverplis sxeulis
ritualur danawevrebas Samanur iniciaciasTan akavSirebs. iniciaciis ritualebSi umaRles etapad iTvleboda, rodesac inicianti
sizmrad naxavda, rom mas nawilebad glejen. am sizmris Semdeg igi
sizmridan "aRdgebodaa," rogorc Samani. r. Jiraris azriT, es Zalian
hgavs dionisur "sparagmoss" (dagleja). danawevreba aRdgomisa da
gamarjvebis niSnad iTvleboda.
msxverplSewirva aris Zaladoba SurisZiebis riskis gareSe.
msxverplSewirvis funqciaa, daaokos Sinagani Zaladoba da ar misces
gasaqani konfliqtis ganviTarebas. rodesac msxverplSewirviT daTrgunuli Sinagani Zaladoba Tavis bunebas avlens, is sisxlis ZiebiT
(blood feud) gamoixateba. Jirari ganmartavs, ra gansxvavebaa sisxlis
Ziebasa da msxverplSewirvas Soris: msxverplSewirvis mizani Zaladobis "damSvidebaa", SurisZieba ki Zalian saSiSi movlenaa, romlis
princi pia dasja. Tanac yoveli sasjeli iTxovs axal sasjels da
is iqceva dausrulebel procesad. rodesac sazogadoebis romelime wertilSi ibadeba sisxlis Zieba, igi iswrafvis gavrceldes
da moicvas mTeli sociumi; vrceldeba jaWvuri reaqciiT da SeiZleba eWvqveS daayenos mTeli sazogadoebis (mocemuli sociumis)
fizikuri arseboba. Jirars mohyavs bevri magaliTi eTnologiidan,
romlebic am savalalo movlenas adastureben. sisxlis Ziebis, anu
dasjis, funqcias civilur sazogadoebebSi sasamarTloebi axorcieleben. miuxedavad seriozuli gansxvavebisa sisxlis aRebasa da
msxverplSewirvas Soris, es ori forma xSirad ireva erTmaneTSi
imitomac, rom, erTi SexedviT, Zalian hgvanan erTmaneTs.
msxverplSewirva, romelic xels uSlis Zaladobis ganviTarebas sazogadoebaSi, keTilSobilur, wminda mizans isaxavs. gamodis,
rom Zaladoba da wminda ganuyofelia. r. Jiraris azriT, swored es
idea udevs safuZvlad religiis warmoSobas. religia cdilobs

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239

"daamSvidos" agresia, xeli SeuSalos mis afeTqebas. pirvelyofili


religia "iSinaurebs" Zaladobas, reglamentSi svams, awesrigebs da
saWiro mimarTulebiT warmarTavs. aqedan gamomdinare, ritualuri
msxverplSewirvisas daRvrili sisxli wmindaa, araritualurisas
_ uwminduri.
msxverplSewirvis swori funqcionirebisTvis saWiroa 2 piroba:
1. gamijvna Sesawir msxverplsa da Semwirvel koleqtivs Soris
unda iyos absoluturi. 2. amasTan, unda iyos garkveuli garegnuli
msgavseba msxverplsa da mis mier Canacvlebul obieqts Soris. Tu
es pirobebi ar Sesrulda, msxverpli ver miizidavs Zaladobas
Tavisken da ver Seasrulebs Tavis funqcias. rodesac msxverplSewirvisas ikargeba gansxvaveba uwmindur da ganmwmend Zaladobas Soris, iwyeba e.w. "msxverplSewirvis ideis krizisi". es ki,
martivad rom vTqvaT, gansxvavebaTa moSlis krizisia; e.i. kulturuli wesrigis rRvevis dasawyisi. erTi sityviT, sakmarisia, dairRves msxverplSewirvis ZiriTadi princi pi, rom saSiSroeba daemuqreba mTavar faseulobebs, romlebzec damokidebulia sazogadoebis wonasworoba.
pirvelyofil religigiasa da antikur tragediaSi moqmedebs
erTi da igive princi pi, romelic arasdros ar xmovandeba, magram
yovelTvis movlenaTa centrSia: wesrigi, mSvidoba da keTildReoba
efuZneba mkafiod gamijnul opoziciebs: sufTa _ arasufTa; keTili
_ boroti da a. S. omebs, dapirispirebebsa da mtrobas iwvevs ara
am opoziciaTa arseboba (rodesac opoziciis orive mxare arsebobs,
isini awonasworeben erTmaneTs), aramed am gansxvavebaTa dakargva.3
"samsxverplo krizisebi" miTebis saTavea. miTebi am krizisebis
retrospeqciuli transfiguraciebia. tragedia efuZneba miTs, miTis safuZvelSi Cadebul Zaladobas, amitom "tragedia samsxverplo
krizisis qaliSvilia." tragedia eZiebs samsxverplo krizisidan
gamosavals. es gamosavali gantevebis vacia. Jirari am konteqstSi ganixilavs ramdenime ZvelberZnul tragedias da gantevebis vacis modelad oidi poss miiCnevs. ra azria Cadebuli gantevebis
3

samsxverplo krizisis magaliTad Jirars mohyavs j. henris dakvirveba indielebis


erT-erT tomze. am tomma daiviwya Tavisi miTebi, kultura rogorc religiuri,
ise teqnikuri. isini mTlianad moicva sisxlis aRebis jaWvurma reaqciam.
erTaderTi, rac maT axsovdaT da yvebodnen, iyo uzustesi ambebi SurisZiebis
ciklebze. e. i. sakuTari tomis ganadgurebis istoria. am tomSi msxverplSewirvis
idea sisxlis aRebad gadaiqca, ramac mTeli tomi socialuri TviTmkvlelobis
zRurblamde miiyvana. (Jirari: 2000:68-69).

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rusudan canava

vacSi? Zaladobas imdenad intensiuri mimetikuroba axasiaTebs, rom


Tu is erTxel moxvda sazogadoebaSi, TavisiT gaqroba aRar SeuZlia. Zaladobis Sekruli wridan gamosasvlelad didi Zalisxmevaa
saWiro. saWiroa, yvelam daijeros, rom mxolod erTs ekisreba
mTeli pasuxismgebloba yvelaferze. Tu i povian am "wambilwvels",
anadgureben. gantevebis vacis ganadgurebiT sociumi ijerebs, rom
ganTavisufldeba wambilwveli borotebisagan. gmiri Tavisken izidavs Zaladobas, romelic eufleba an emuqreba sazogadoebas. gmiris
SebrZoleba ZaladobasTan da am orTabrZolaSi sikvdili an gamarjveba, gardasaxavs Zaladobas.
Tavdapirveli Zaladoba unikaluri da spontanuria. ritualuri msxverplSewirvebi, piriqiT, mravali. maT usasrulod imeoreben. ritualis mizania Tavdapirveli Zaladobidan gadmoiRos kaTartikuli molmobierebis teqnika. ritualur msxverplSewirvas
aqvs profilaqtikuri funqcia da ara ganmkurnveli, amitom misi
"muSaoba" mwvave krizisis dros nakleb efeqturia. ritualuri
msxverplSewirva dafuZnebulia ormag Senacvlebaze: pirveli yovelTvis
SeumCneveli rCeba. es princi pia sazogadoebis yvela wevris Secvla
erTiT, anu "gantevebis vacis" meqanizmis amoqmedeba. meorea sakuTriv
ritualuri, romelic zed efineba pirvels: gantevebis vaci enacvleba Tavdapirvel msxverpls (in illo tempore Sewiruls). am aspeqtiT
msxverplSewirvas aqvs mimetikuri xasiaTi Tavdapirvel ZaladobasTan
mimarTebiT. Tu ritualur imitacias ara aqvs naTlad Secnobili,
kerZod ris imitacias akeTebs( anu Tavdapirveli saidumlo misTvis miuwvdomelia), es niSnavs, rom ritualSi CarTulia Seucnoblis garkveuli forma. es Seucnobeli verc Semdgomi epoqebis
azrovnebam amoxsna, da albaT, verc momavalSi amoixsneba. es vergageba (verCawvdoma) aris kidevac religiis umniSvnelovanesi aspeqti.
am vergagebis safuZvelSi gantevebis vacia, romlis saidumlo arasodes gamodis dRis sinaTleze, arasodes cxaddeba.
Jiraris azriT, gantevebis vacis meqanizmi xsnis ara mxolod
miTebis genezissa da struqturas, aramed ritualsa da religias.
mas yvela saxis msxverplSewirva gantevebis vacidan gamohyavs. r.
Jirari gaakritika m. detienma. detienisTvis miuRebelia qristianTa RmerTis CarTva msxverplSewirvaTa im konteqstSi, romelzec
saubroben Jirari da religiis sxva istorikosebi robertsonsmitidan diurkheimamde da kasireramde. ar SeiZleba qristes jvarcma
ase xelaRebiT daukavSirdes msxverplSewirvis warmarTul rituals (detieni 1979: 26-27).

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241

r. Jiraris Teorias gamoexmaura warmarTuli religiebis


cnobili mkvlevari v. burkerti. igi iziarebs Jiraris pozicias,
rom msxverplSewirvas safuZvlad udevs Zaladoba (aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom burkerti Zaladobas aRiarebs da ara agresias. saqme
isaa, rom Jiraris naSromSi es ori termini xSirad aRreulia),
magram saeWvod miaCnia misi formulireba, rom agresia "gantevebis
vacisa" da dionisuri sparagmo~-is naerTia. rogorc aRiniSna,
burkertic msxverplSewirvis ritualis aRmocenebas Zaladobas
ukavSirebs, oRond amosavals pirvelyofili samonadireo sazogadoebebis cxovrebis wesSi xedavs (burkerti 1972).
Cven ganvixileT ramdenime Tvalsazrisi agresiis bunebisa da
warmoSobis Sesaxeb, magram, vfiqrob, aranakleb mniSvnelovania, ras
fiqrobdnen am sakiTxze antikuri epoqis moazrovneni da rogor
aisaxa agresiis fenomeni antikur miTosSi. agresia/risxva arqauli
miToritualuri universaliaa. rogorc iTqva, igi Sedis opoziciuri wyvilebis (dRe _ Rame; sicocxle _ sikvdili... risxva _
ganurisxveloba) pirvel aTeulSi. bunebis Tavzardamcemi movlenebi
(quxili, setyva, gvalva, wyaldidoba, epidemiebi) uZvelesi droidan
aRiqmeboda, rogorc zebunebriv ZalTa risxvis gamovlineba. risxva
axasiaTebs msoflios yvela xalxebis personificirebul da arapersonificirebul RvTaebriv Zalebs. RvTaebriv ZalebTan misadagebiT risxva adamianTa xasiaTis erT-erT mTavar Strixad warmogvidgeba. rac ufro Zlieria gmiri, miT ufro sastikia misi
risxva. amisi damadsturebeli magaliTebis moZieba yvela xalxisa
da sxvadasxva epoqebis zepir Tu mxatvrul literaturaSi SegviZlia.
berZeni da romaeli moazrovneebi jer kidev antikurobaSi
dainteresdnen risxvis esTetikuri aspeqtiT. medikosebi akvirdebodnen risxvis gavlenas adamianis fiziologiaze, filosofosebi
swavlobdnen risxvis zneobriv mxares. Sexedulebebi aRniSul sakiTxze ciceronis ekleqtikur filosofiur swavlebaSi asea formulirebuli: yvelaferi 4 elementisgan Sedgeba: cecxlis, wylis,
haerisa da miwisgan. isini erTmaneTs warmoSoben da erTmaneTSi
gardaisaxebian: eTeri (cecxli) _> haeri _> wyali _> miwa. am
elementebis sxvadasxva doziT Sereva warmoSobs samyaros mravalferovnebas. es aris adamianTa xasiaTebis nairgvarobis mizezic.
rac ufro meti cecxlia adamianSi, miT ufro feTqebadia igi da
midrekilia ganrisxebisaken (ciceroni 1985: 33, 84 ).

242

rusudan canava

risxvas saintereso traqtati miuZRvna lucius aneus senekam.


mecnirebs uWirT gaarkvion, ramdenad originaluria traqtatSi
gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi, radgan senekas winamorbedTa naSromebi ar
Semonaxula. arc seneka asaxelebs Tanamoazreebs; igi wers: yvela
azri, romelsac veTanxmebi, Cemic ariso. am da sxva wyaroebis mixedviT cxadia, rom risxvaze TavianTi mosazrebebi gamouTqvamT swavlulebs aristoteledan sotionamde ( seneka 2000:8).
traqtatSi "risxvis Sesaxeb" seneka ekamaTeba aristotelesa
da peri paTetikosebs. faqtobrivad, Cven saSualeba gveZleva, gavecnoT or mecnierul Tvalsazriss risxvis Taobaze. aristoteles
mixedviT, vnebebi (paTos) adamianis sulSi bunebrivad aRmocendeba.
isini ar SeiZleba iyvnen "kargebi" an "cudebi", radgan ar arian
Seqmnilni. gakicxvas an Seqebas imsaxurebs Cveni damokidebuleba
maT mimarT. rac Seexeba risxvas, garkveulwilad kargicaa, radgan
igi "avsebs" suls. risxvis gareSe adamiani modunebulia, moSvebuli.
risxva gansakuTrebiT saWiroa meomrebisaTvis, radgan suls aRagznebs. risxvis gareSe yvelaze mamacic ver Caidens gmirobas omSi.
risxva SeiZleba garkveul CarCoebSi moaqcio, magram sul ar unda
aRmofxvra ("nikomaxes eTika" 1108a, 3). ufro metic, risxvis gareSe
verc erT oms ver moigeb. risxvam unda aavsos da aanTos suli.
magram, risxva unda gamoviyenoT rogorc "jariskaci" da ara _
"mxedarTmTavari" (seneka: 2000:110).
risxva aCens SurisZiebis survils. traqtqtSi "sulis Sesaxeb" aristotele wers, rom risxva aris survili, miagos tkiviliT
tkivilze (aristotele 1961, 403a 30). "nikomaxes eTikaSi" vkiTxulobT, rom berZnebi ganarCeven risxvis sxvadasxva saxes da yvela
"risxvas" Tavis saxels arqmeven.
aristotele da misi mimdevrebi risxvas adamianisTvis damaxasiaTebel Tvisebad Tvlidnen. isini msjelobdnen am Tvisebis dadebiT da uaryofiT mxareebze.
seneka (iseve, rogorc stoikosebi) Tvlis, rom risxva araa
adamianis bunebrivi Tviseba (amave azrs aviTarebs budisturi swavleba); es aris simaxinje, romelsac unda vebrZoloT da CasaxvisTanave amovZirkvoT Cveni sulidan. seneka ar eTanxmeba aristoteles da miaCnia, rom risxva umarTavia; igi ar eqceva CarCoebSi. ar
aris saWiro "risxviT aivso guli" diadi saqmeebis sakeTeblad,
Tundac omSi wasvlisas. gana monadire mrisxanebs nadirze, romelsac mosaklavad misdevs? gamarjveba gonebiT miiRweva. risxva
xels uSlis adamians marTebuli gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi. risx-

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243

vis uaryofa sulac ar niSnavs dausjelobas. seneka imowmebs platonis mosazrebas, rom dasja mxolod maSin aRwevs mizans, Tu is
SurisZiebis grZnobiT ar aris nakarnaxevi. damnaSavis dasja orientirebuli unda iyos momavalze. dasjilis magaliTze sxvebma unda
iswavlon, raTa danaSauli momavalSi ar ganmeordes (platoni:
1971. XI 934A.). risxva ki mimarTulia warsulisaken da moiTxovs
SurisZiebas. e. i. SurisZieba da dasja sxvadasxva azrobrivi
datvirTvis mqone cnebebia.
seneka xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom RmerTebs ar axasiaTebT risxva.
maT arc vnebis miyeneba SeuZliaT adamianebisaTvis. RmerTebi bunebiT
mSvidobismoyvareni da keTilmosurneni arian. cdebian isini, romlebic RmerTebs sxvadasxva stiqiur ubedurebaTa mizezebad warmogvidgenen (seneka 2000: 139-140). Znelia dabejiTebiT iTqvas, am
traqtatSi seneka "filosofosi" sWarbobs, Tu seneka _ moralisti,
neronis pedagogi. cxadia mxolod erTi _ antikurobaSive risxvas
araerTgvarovan Sefasebas aZlevdnen da mis sxvadasxva aspeqtebs
gamoyofdnen.
warmarTuli religiebis saerTo kanonis mixedviT, rac ufro
arqaulia RmerTi, miT ufro ambivalenturia _ keTilicaa da mrisxanec; aSenebs da angrevs, qmnis da klavs, wyalobs da anadgurebs.
homerosis eposSi aSkarad Cndeba tendencia, romelsac RmerTebi
sxva sibrtyeze ahyavs. mecnierTa did nawils miaCnia, rom homerosis
RmerTebi TandaTan emijnebian risxvas. titanomaqia, gigantomaqia da
sxva sisxliani epizodebi, romelTac axlda risxva da sisastike,
warsuls Cabarda; Tumca arerTi epizodis moxmoba SeiZleba, romlebSic warmogvidggebian ganrisxebuli RmerTebi. magaliTad, "iliadaSi" vkiTxulobT: heras neba rom iyos, "siamovnebiT STanTqavda
priamossasc da mis naSierebsac" (Il. IV,35). aTenas mrisxanebas
asaxavs "iliadis" IV,23; VIII, 413. taepebi. mrisxanebs zevsic (Il.
VIII, 358). afroditec sastikia mrisxanebisas (Il. III, 413). is, rom
risxva "iliadis" erT-erTi umTavresi Temaa, poemis dasawyisidanve
Cans: "Mh`nin a[eide, qeav ..."(risxvas umRere, qalRmerTo). am poemaSi
mrisxaneben RmerTebic da gmirebic. Tavad poeti gamoarCevs aqilevss, romlis erT-erTi mudmivi epiTetia "RvTaebrivi". aqilevsi
qalRmerTis Zea, mouwyvladi (Tu ar CavTvliT qusls). Cemi azriT,
aqilevsi gamorCeuli da RvTaebrivi gmiria ara imitom, rom "saSineli" risxva aReZra gulSi (romelsac SeeZlo mTeli berZnuli armia
daeRupa), aramed imitom, rom man risxvis daokeba SeZlo. aqilevss,
RmerTebis darad, binaruli opoziciis (risxva _ ganurisxveloba)

244

rusudan canava

orive elementi aqvs. igi WeSmarit gmirad mas Semdeg gadaiqca, rac
risxva daTrguna.
gansakuTrebiT gamoirCevian xTonizmiT "damZimebuli" RmerTebi,
ufro ki qalRmerTebi. am mxriv berZnul tragediaSi friad saintereso suraTi ikveTeba. aq olimpieli RmerTebi sabolood iZenen
"olimpiur" Tvisebebs _ isini adamianTa Soris uzenaesi samarTlianobisa da kanonierebis damkvidrebas eswrafvian. saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi sjian. rac Seexeba risxvas, igi adamianebSi "mZvinvarebs" (risxva/
agresia/Zaladoba adamianebis/socialuri sazogadoebis maxasiaTebeli gaxda). antikuri eposisa da tragediebis gmirebi wyenas ki ar
iviwyeben, aramed suls "ivseben" braziT, "aZliereben" risxvas, mudmivad ixseneben Seuracxyofas da sul ukan iyurebian _ SurisZiebaze
fiqroben.
Seuracxyofis ardaviwyebasa da risxvis ganxorcielebaSi tragediebis gmirebs exmarebian xTonuri bunebis RmerTebi. rogorc aRvniSneT, "xTonuri warsuli" zogjer olompiel RmerTebSic "iRviZebs",
Tumca isini axerxeben TavianTi emociebis marTvas.
cnobilma Sumerologma a. kifiSinma safuZvlianad gamoikvlia
risxvis miTo-ritualuri modeli. misi azriT, RvTaebrivi risxvis
Tavdapirveli idea ukavSirdeba mdedr RvTaebas _ qalRmerT dedas.
sxva yvela "risxva" am modelis modifikaciebia. qalRmerTis risxva
Tavs atydeba mis partniors, rasac mosdevs dasja, danawevreba da
aRdgoma (kifiSini 2000:160-162). mkvlevaris daskvniT, versiebisa
da variantebis siWrelis miuxedavad, es modeli universaluria. a.
kifiSinma axsna isic, Tu ratom mrisxaneben e.w. qalwuli RvTaebebi.
"qalwuloba" aris udidesi kosmiuri qalRmerTis myofobis erTerTi forma. qalwuloba qalRmerTi dedis androginul mdgomareobas gulisxmobs. qalwuli RmerTebis risxvis mizezi SeiZleba
gaxdes maTi "mTlianobis" darRvevis mcdeloba. sakralur doneze
es ukavSirdeba pirveli mTlianobis _ qaosis _ gayofas or polarul opoziciad, romelTagan erTi mamria, meore _ mdedri. androginebi kosmiuri Zalauflebis mflobelebi, yovlisSemZleni arian;
Tavis TavSi "atareben" qmarsac da Svilsac. amitom "gayofa" maTTvis am uflebis nawilis dakargvas niSnavs. androginebs ar surT
TavianTi "harmoniis" daTmoba. androginuli mTlianobis darRvevis
Semdeg gamoyofili mdedri RvTaebebisTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani
xdeba "dakarguli" mamri nawilis dapatroneba, masze erTpirovnuli
uflebis dakanoneba. ase rom, mdedri qalRmerTis risxvis mTavari
mizezi mamri partnioris arasasurveli saqcielia.

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mamri RvTaebebis risxvis motivi uTuod gviandelia. igi qalRmerTi dedis risxvis analogiiT unda iyos damkvidrebuli (kifiSini 2000:167). "risxvaTa" "gadanacvleba" im bunebrivma procesma
warmoSva, romelic warmarTul religiebSi mamris prioritetis
damkvidrebas ukavSirdeba (antikurobaSi es procesi xTonuri religiis olimpiuriT SecvlasTanaa asocirebuli. aRmosavlurSi _
lunaruli da solaruli kultebis dapirispirebiT). bolos da
bolos, warmarTul religiebSi Camoyalibda saxe-simboloTa sistemebi. am sistemebis erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani maxasiaTebelia
RvTaebaTa gamijvna mdedrebad da mamrebad (Tumca bevri maTganis
saxeSi SeiZleba androginuli warsulis amokiTxva). magaliTad,
demetres eriniasac uwodeben (Paus. VIII, 25, 5-7). igi risxvisas
daundobelia. demetres risxva bunebis kvdomas (zamTars) iwvevs.
risxvis gavlis Semdgom mas SeuZlia ganibanos mdinareSi da isev
gulmowyale qalRmerTad iqces. saerTo suraTi aseTia: risxvis
mizezia _ w a r T m e v a, Sedegi _ k v d o m a, risxvis gavlis
Semdgom _ g a n a x l e b a (reinkarnacia).
axla mivubrundeT risxvis fenomenis mimarTebas msxverplSewirvis ritualTan. rogorc aRvniSne, am sakiTxze mecnierTa
azri iyofa. zogi miiCnevs, rom msxverplSewirvis Tavdapirvel modelSi (mag., "vedebis" mixedviT, puruSas, iranuli haiomartis, "edas"
imiris, Zvelegvi pturi ptaxis, CinelTa pan-gus da sxvaTa danawevrebebSi) risxva saerTod ar figurirebs. zogis azriT, msxverplSewirvis idea risxvas ukavSirdeba (Sumerul-babilonuri androginuli RvTaebis danawevrebisa da didi dedis risxvis modeli). orive mosazreba argumentirebulia. axla SevecdebiT am ori
gansxvavebuli modelis mTavari dapirispirebis axsnas: puruSa, imiri, pan-gu da sxva am ti pis pirveladamianebi samyaros demiurgebi
arian. swored maTi danawevrebis Sedegad Seiqmna yvelaferi: dedamiwa,
mTebi, mdinareebi, mnaTobebi da a. S. es iyo pirveli sakraluri
msxverplSewirva danawevrebiTurT _ samyaros Sesaqmes dasabami. aq
ar arsebobs agresiis safuZveli, radgan ar arsebobs dapirispireba
"risxva _ganurisxveloba". rac Seexeba meore Tvalsazriss: Cveni
azriT, warmarTuli rwmena-warmodgenebis am etapze (es ki udavod,
Sesaqmes Semdgomi etapia) arqauli RmerTebi TavianT TavSi atareben
da "marTaven" binarul opozicias (risxva _ ganurisxveloba). aqedan
gamomdinare, ver gaviziarebT a.kifiSinis mosazrebas, rom androginuli RvTaebebis mTavari mamoZravebeli aris mxolod risxva. saqme
isaa, rom arqauli RvTaebebi icaven garkveul balanss, riTac uzrun-

246

rusudan canava

velyofen sicocxlis gagrZelebas dedamiwaze. amitom, maTi RvTaebrivi risxva sasjelia (zogjer amouxsnelic mokvdavTaTvis), romelsac enacvleba simSvide (ganurisxveloba). saboloo jamSi, aRdgeba
RvTaebrivi samarTlianoba. am diadi saidumlos amoxsnas adamianTa
goneba bolomde ver wvdeba (swored am saidumlos amosaxsnelad
Seiqmna uamravi mistikuri swavleba Zvel aRmosavleTsa da antikur
saberZneTSi). amitom, rodesac adamianebi cdiloben RvTaebis funqcia Seasrulon, mwared cdebian. risxviT Sepyrobili adamianebi
kargaven binaruli opoziciis II elements _risxvis daokebis unars
(ganurisxvelobas), ris Sedegadac irRveva wonasworoba.
yvelaze "mSvidobiani" msxverplSewirvis ritualic, adamianTa
arastandartul, uCveulo gancdas iwvevs. am "ritualur ganwyobas",
romelic, Tavis mxriv, gansakuTrebuli msjelobis sagania, araferi
aqvs saerTo risxvasTan.
amrigad, Cven Zalian mkafiod ganvasxvavebT erTmaneTisagan yovelgvari risxvis gareSe Catarebul e. w. "dagegmil" ritualur msxverplSewirvebs da SurisZiebas risxvis/agresiis safuZvelze (e.i.
rodesac xorcieldeba princi pi _ sisxli sisxlis wil), rodesac
msxverlplis "Semwirvelebs" miaCniaT, rom maTi risxva kanonieria
da SurisZieba motivirebulia samarTlianobis aRdgeniT. savsebiT
naTelia, rom risxvis/ agresiis CarTva msxverplSewirvaSi iwvevs am
ritualis Tavdapirveli arsis transformirebas. risxva, faqtobrivad, axali ti pis profanirebuli "fsevdo" msxverplSewirvis
safuZveli xdeba. SurisZiebis niadagze Cadenili "msxverplSewirva"
ukve sxva sociokulturuli fenomenia.

literatura
Jirari 2000: . . . .
.
redklif-brauni 1965: Radcliffe-Brawn. Structure and Function in Primitive Society.
detieni 1979: Detienne M. Pratiques culinaires et esprit de sacrifice. In
La cuisine du sacrifice.
burkerti 1972: Burkert W. Homo Necans. Berlin, New York .
ciceroni 1985: . . .
. .

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seneka 2000: . . . .
. .
aristotele 1961: Aristoteles, De anima. Ed. W.D. Ross. Oxford .
platoni 1971:
. . . .
. .
kifiSini 2000: . . " "
" ".
. . . . .
canava 2003: canava r. totemizmis Suq-Crdilebi, weliwdeuli
elinologiasa da laTinistikaSi, Tbilisi.

Rusudan Tsanava

Aggression and Ritual


The nature and genesis of aggression is studied by researchers of many various fields: physiologists, psychologists, philosophers, sociologists, and literary
critics. It is clear that aggression as a phenomenon belongs to the field of cultural
studies and its analysis requires a manifold approach. Aggression/ rage is a constituent element of a binary opposition (rage/ none-rage), and correspondingly, it
acquires a certain meaning in the context of sign-systems as well; consequently,
the phenomenon can also be treated in semiotic terms. The aim of the article is to
identify how active the function of aggression is in ritual. This question is considered on the example of the universal offering ritual.
I draw a sharp line between the so-called planned ritual performed without
any instance of fury and the vengeance motivated by rage/ aggression (following
the principle blood for blood). In the second case the performers of sacrifice
believe that their wrath is fair, and that a desire to restore justice underlies the
vengeance. The inclusion of rage/ aggression in sacrifice entails transformation of
the initial essence of the sacral ritual. In fact, rage becomes the foundation for a
new type of profaned pseudo ritual. An act of sacrifice motivated by vengeance
becomes a new socio-cultural phenomenon.

248

s e m i o t i k i s
i s t o r i a
d a
T e o r i a

mamuka biWaSvili
M
rolan bartis semiologiuri
koncefciisaTvis

filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis filosofiis
fakultetis profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
sametyvelo moqmedebis
analitikuri Teoria
(1994); instrumentariebi firosmanis naratiuli diskursisaTvis
(1999);
laibnicis
metafizika da enis
filosofia (2005); politikuri Teoria (2006).
interesTa sfero: enis
filosofia, politikuri
filosofia.

poststruqturalistebis banakSi fukos, lakanis, deridas da sxvaTa gverdiT,


barts yovelTvis hqonda gamokveTili adgili da Sesabamisi kvlevis sfero. garda
wminda semiotikuri sakiTxebisa, rasac yvela es avtori ikvlevda, barts ZiriTadad
miTologia, moda da literatura ainteresebda. literaturis kvlevisas barti Sesabamisi sferos enasac ikvlevda, Tumca misi
interesi sakuTriv enis mimarT yovelTvis
gaSualebuli iyo niSanTa TeoriiT: barti
enas ikvlevda imdenad, ramdenadac ena niSanTa zogadi Teoriis erT sistemas warmoadgens.
Cveni daintereseba bartis niSanTa
TeoriiT savsebiT konkretuli mimarTulebis
mqonea. statiis zogadi saxelwodebis miuxedavad, Cven aq ar SevecdebiT bartis SexedulebaTa Tanmimdevrul gadmocemas. Cven ufro
misi adreuli semiologiuri koncefcia gvainteresebs, rodesac barti Tanamedrove politikur miTebs aanalizebda eweoda da am konteqstSi ikvlevda rogorc Riad gamoTqmul,
aseve nagulisxmeb debulebebsac. cnobilia, rom yoveli winadadeba, Cveulebriv, garda
gadmocemuli uSualo Sinaarsisa, gulisxmobs Sinaarsebis Zalze farTo konotaciur

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249

vels. magaliTad, Tu aviRebT politikuri partiebis iseT winasaarCevno devizebs, rogoricaa saqarTvelo siRaribis gareSe an
saqarTvelo upirveles yovlisa, TiToeuli maTgani gamoxatavs
ara imdenad arCevnebSi monawile subieqtebis ocnebas Tu survils,
aramed erT winadadebaSi dateul mTel samoqmedo programas, rac,
Tu mxolod winadadebis zedapirul Sinaarsze viqnebiT koncentrirebulni, misgan ar amoikiTxeba. bartis semiologiuri koncefcia
Cven swored am kuTxiT gvainteresebs: flobs Tu ara bartis semiologia saTanado saSualebebs agvixsnas, Tu rogor xorcieldeba
implicituri Sinaarsebis kiTxva da gageba iseve, rogorc agvixsnas
am sakiTxTan dakavSirebuli problemebis mTeli rigi.

miTi da misi elementebi


barti iyenebs ara termin semiotikas, aramed semiologias.
semiologia - wers igi erTgan romelic ar scildeba sakuTar
sazRvrebs, ar warmoadgens metafizikur mxares. is iseTive mecnierebaa, rogorc nebismieri sxva (1.75). Cvenc Sesabamisad moviqceviT,
avtors gavyvebiT da semiotikis nacvlad semiologiaze visaubrebT.
miTi bartis TeoriaSi gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobisaa da ar
emTxveva am terminis Cveulebriv gamoyenebas. miTi bartisaTvis warmoadgens ara Zvel Tqmulebebs samyarosa da RmerTebis Sesaxeb,
aramed ufro Cveni dRevandeli socialuri yofis Sinaarseul mxares. isev bartisave sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, miTi misTvis aris
aRmniSvnelTa farTo konotaciuri veli, romelSiac moiniSneba diskursis latenturi, ideologiuri done. funqciurad miTis daniSnuleba realobis deformaciaSi mdgomareobs. miTi cdilobs warmoadginos RirebulebaTa iseTi sistema, rogorsac misgan moelian
da romlis aRsaqmeladac mzad aris komunikaciaSi Cabmuli individi. am mniSvnelobiT gagebuli miTi yovelTvis cdilobs Tavi gaasaRos ara kulturis produqtad, aramed bunebis movlenad. barti
erT-erTi pirveli iyo gasul saukuneSi, vinc detalurad daamuSava
politikuri miTebis struqtura da Semadgeneli elementebis Tanmimdevruli analizi warmogvidgina. bartma Tavisi semiologia gamoiyena socialuri kritikis mimarTulebiT.

250

mamuka biWaSvili

yoveli semiologiuri sistema Sedgeba sami elementisagan, aRmniSvnelis, aRsaniSnisa da niSnisagan. TiToeuli am elementis
daniSnuleba kargadaa cnobili yvelasaTvis, vinc semiotikur sakiTxebSi erkveva. specifikuri elementi bartis semiologiaSi aris
niSani, romelic pirveli oris relacias warmoadgens. aRmniSvneli
bartis TeoriaSi SeiZleba iyos nebismieri sagani. sakiTxi imis
Sesaxeb, subieqturi movlenebis aRniSvna xdeba Tu obieqturis, konvenciurad gairkveva. magaliTad, xangrZlivi zari saswavlo dawesebulebaSi swavlis dawyebis niSania da gasagebia, rom rogorc zari,
aseve swavlis procesi SeiZleba erTmaneTisagan sruliad damoukideblad arsebobdnen manamde, vidre isini mesame elementad, niSnad gaerTiandebodnen. TavisTavad aRmniSvneli moklebulia Sinaarss. misgan
gansxvavebiT, niSani yovelTvis Sinaarsis mflobelia da atarebs
garkveul mniSvnelobas. semiologiuri elementebis damoukidebeli
da manamdeli arseboba, vidre es saSualebebi amoqmeddebodnen, miTis
semiologiis arsebiTi maxasiaTebelia. amgvarad interpretirebuli
miTis semiologiis specifika imaSi mdgomareobs, rom niSani, romelic manamdel enobriv sistemaSi warmoadgenda aRmniSvnelis da aRsaniSnis asociacias anu SemoTavazebuli daxasiaTebiT niSans, miTis
semiologiur struqturaSi Semodis, rogorc _ aRmniSvneli. igi
erTdroulad aRmniSvnelicaa (rogorc miTis elementi) da niSanic
(rogorc pirveladi semiologiuri sistemis, vTqvaT, enis elementi).
miTSi Setyobinebas axorcieleben iseTi materialuri saSualebebi,
rogoricaa ena, fotografia, ferwera, reklama, rituali, Cveulebrivi
sagnebi da a.S. rogori gansxvavebulic unda iyvnen isini TavisTavad,
rogorc ki miTis Semadgenel elementebad iqceviad, maSinve daiyvanebian aRmniSvnelis funqciaze. yvela maTgani mxolod amosaval
masalas warmoadgens miTis agebisas (1.78). is, rac wina, pirveladi
semiologiuri sistemis mesame elementi, niSani iyo, SemdgomSi
gadaiqceva im sistemis pirvel niSnad, rasac miTi daaSenebs pirvelad sistemaze. aqedan cxadi xdeba, rom miTSi erTi enobrivi sistema daSenebulia meore enobriv sistemaze. swored amitom barti
pirvels _ ena obieqts uwodebs, xolo meores _ metaenas.

ori magaliTi
imisaTvis, rom ukeT gaviazroT bartis mier SemoTavazebuli
semiologiuri modeli, upriani iqneboda mogveyvana is magaliTebi,

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251

romelsac barti araerTxel iyenebs Tavisi Sexedulebebis naTelsayofad.


pirveli magaliTi warmoadgens laTinuri gramatikis saxelmZRvaneloSi gamoyenebul frazas ezopes igavebidan qua ergo nominor
leo. am frazas avtoris mixedviT orazrovneba axasiaTebs. erTi
mxriv, misi mniSvneloba savsebiT gasagebia (imitom, rom lomad
viwodebi), magram, meore mxriv, fraza saxelmZRvaneloSi moyvanilia
imitom, rom raRac sruliad sxva gvamcnos. sinamdvileSi is sulac
ar isaxavs miznad lomis Sesaxeb raimes uwyebas. is cdilobs, Cveni
yuradReba miapyros sityvaTxmarebis garkveul ti ps. kerZod, fraza moswavles eubneba: me var magaliTi imisa, Tu rogor SeiZleba
daukavSirdes zedsarTavi saxeli qvemdebares. amave dros, bartisaTvis es moyvanili magaliTi aris nimuSi imisa, Tu rogor daSendeba meoradi enobrivi struqtura pirveladze.
axla aviRoT meore magaliTi, _ pari matCis furclebze
gamosaxuli frangul samxedro formaSi gamowyobili axalgazrda
afrikeli meomari, romlis Tavze safrangeTis alami frialebs. rogoria gamosaxulebis sazrisi? safrangeTi didi imperiaa, romlis
Svilebs, sul erTia, ra feris kani aqvT, erTgulad emsaxurebian mas.
es suraTi saukeTeso saSualebaa koloniuri sistemis kritikisaTvis axalgazrda afrikeli TavdadebiT emsaxureba Tavis
mCagvrelebs. aqac, iseve rogorc wina magaliTis SemTxvevaSi, kargad
Cans ena obieqtis da metaenis struqturebi.
aqedan barti ayalibebs axal terminologias, romelic ufro
moqnili unda iyos srulyofili analizisaTvis. kerZod, ormagi
elementi, romelzedac zemoT ukve visaubreT, e.i. niSani pirveladi
sistemisaTvis da aRmniSvneli meoredi sistemisaTvis axal sqemaSi
gansxvavebulad transformirdeba. es semiologiuri elementi pirveladi sistemisaTvis iwodeba sazrisad, xolo meorad, e.w. miTis
sistemaSi ki warmogvidgeba, rogorc forma. aRsaniSni miTis plastSi
aris koncepti, xolo bolo elementi ki _ mniSvneloba. ganvixiloT axla es elementebi ufro dawvrilebiT, rac mogvcems saSualebas SevavsoT Cveni Tvalsazrisi miTis funqciuri mxareebis
Sesaxeb.
forma da koncepti
formis anu miTis aRmniSvnelis analizisas unda gaviTvaliswinoT is, rom miTis aRmniSvneli orsaxovania. is erTdroulad

252

mamuka biWaSvili

formacaa da sazrisic anu carielicaa da Sevsebulic. specifikas


aq is qmnis, rom aRmniSvneli moyvanil magaliTebSi ar aris mTlad
Sinaarsisagan daclili, rogorc es Cveulebriv moeTxoveba aRmniSvnels. rogorc pirveladi sistemis elementi, forma garkveuli
Sinaarsis matarebelia. aseTia afrikeli jariskacis misalmeba. ra
xdeba mas Semdeg, rac pirveladi sistemis niSani formad gadaiqceva? bartis mixedviT, savsebiT konkretuli Sinaarsis matarebeli
pirveladi sistemis niSani miTSi parazitul formad mogvevlineba.
saqme isaa, rom formis Tanmxleb konkretul Sinaarss yovelTvis
Tan sdevs konkretuli codna warsulis, ideebis, faqtebis, gadawyvetilebebis da sxva movlenebis Sesaxeb. miTis struqturaSi Sesvla sazriss konkretul Sinaarss moaklebs, gaaRaribebs mas. Sedegad _ istoria amotrialdeba da xelSi mxolod sityvieri masala
gvrCeba. am dros konkretuli Sinaarsis denotatebidan formas
TiTqos mxolod bundovani masala rCeba. faqtobrivad dakargulia
(Tu gramatikis saxelmZRvanelos magaliTs aviRebT) sazrisebis
mTeli sistema istoriidan, geografiidan, zoologiidan da a.S. kiTxvis
procesSi xorcieldeba erTgvari gadaadgileba, xdeba enobrivi sazrisis regresia formisaken, anu xdeba enobrivi niSnis transformacia
miTis aRmniSvnelad (1.82).
miTSi pirdapir da TavisTavad mocemuli forma garkveuli
vrceulobis mflobelia. Tu miTi zepiri metyvelebis saxiT gadmoicema, maSin formas xazobrivi struqtura aqvs. miTis enobrivi
formiT gadmocemisas konceptis elementebi asociaciurad ukavSirdebian erTmaneTs. maTi kavSiri siRrmiseulia. amisgan gansxvavebiT, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu miTi vizualuri xatis formiT gadmoicema,
maSin mis vrceulobas mravalganzomilebiani saxe aqvs. aseTia, magaliTad, afrikeli jariskacis SemTxveva, rodesac centrSi Cven
vxedavT mundirs, zemoT Sav saxes, marcxniv samxedro misalmebisaTvis gawvdil xels da a.S. yvela am elements erTmaneTis mimarT
garkveuli pozicia aqvs dakavebuli. maTi urTierTganlageba monacvleobiTia. formis manifestaciis saxe am SemTxvevaSi sivrciseulia.
SemoTavazebul aRwerebSi bartisaTvis mTavari isaa, rom forma
ar spobs Sinaarss, aramed mxolod ukana planze gadaadgilebs mas.
gadaadgileba ar niSnavs mospobas. aris momentebi, rodesac pirveladi enobrivi sistemis Sinaarsi mainc warmoCndeba miTSi da formis da Sinaarsis es TamaSi miTis arsebas Seadgens.
formaze saubrisas igi unda gavmijnoT simbolosagan. afrikeli jariskaci ar aris safrangeTis imperiis simbolo. saamisod is

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253

metismetad realuria. fotoze jariskaci mTeli Tavisi cxovelmyoflobiT warmogvidgeba, magram misi realoba mainc meoradia, ukan
daweulia moaxloebuli konceptis, safrangeTis imperiis fonze
da realoba dasesxebulad gamoiyureba.
Tu formidan axla konceptisaken gadavinacvlebT, pirvel rigSi aRsaniSnavia misi mizanmimarTuli xasiaTi. gramatikis saxelmZRvanelos koncepti moswavleebisaTvisaa gamiznuli, xolo afrikeli
jariskacis suraTi ki _ mosaxleobisaTvis. Cven ukve viciT, rom
kiTxvis procesSi miTis siRrmidan gamomziral istorias mTlianad
Seisrutavs koncepti. meore magaliTis konceptia safrangeTis
imperia. swored isaa mizezi miTis arsebobisa. konceptis saSualebiT, romelic formisagan gansxvavebiT arasdros aris abstraqtuli,
miTSi Semodis axali viTarebebi. miTSi formis gaRaribebis dros
konceptis safrangeTis imperiis saSualebiT forma kvlav
axerxebs daukavSirdes realur samyaros, mis movlenebs. kerZod,
safrangeTis istorias mTeli misi koloniuri avantiurebiT.
sazrisidan formaze gadasvlisas wers barti, gamosaxuleba
kargavs codnis garkveul raodenobas, magram samagierod ivseba im
codniT, romelic arsebobs konceptSi (1.84). Tumca, ar unda daviviwyoT, rom miTis konceptebi moklebulni arian simyares: isini iqmnebiad, icvlebian, iSlebian da bolos, sruliad qrebian maTi istoriuli xasiaTis gamo, radgan istorias iolad SeuZlia maTi Camowera.
SeiZleba miTis koncepti uamravi aRmniSvneliT iyos aRniSnuli. xSirad Cven saqme gvaqvs konceptebTan, romelTac aRmniSvnelebis mTeli rigi gaaCniaT. aseT dros xdeba erTi da igive konceptis
sxvadasxva formiT ganmeoreba. am viTarebas, bartis azriT, interpretatorisTvis mxolod sargeblobis motana SeuZlia, radgan
reprezentaciebis ganmeorebebi, qcevis mdgradobas rom adasturebs,
miTis intenciebze migviTiTebs da amiT miTis gaSifvraSi gvexmareba
(1.85).
aranakleb arsebiTia bartis TeoriisaTvis mniSvnelobis
elementi. SeiZleba isic ki iTqvas, rom swored mniSvnelobaa sakuTriv
miTi. Cven ukve viciT, rom mniSvneloba warmoadgens formis da
konceptis relacias. barti aq miuTiTebs froidze da SeniSnavs,
rom msgavsad imisa, rogorc froidis koncefciis mixedviT qcevis
latenturi sazrisi axdens namdvili sazrisis deformacias, aseve
axdens miTSi sazrisis deformacias koncepti (1.87). aq laparakia
swored deformaciaze da ara damalvaze, radgan, rogori paradoqsu-

254

mamuka biWaSvili

lic unda iyos, miTi arafers malavs; misi funqcia deformaciaSia


da ara damalvaSi, gansxvavebiT Cveulebrivi sametyvelo enisgan, sadac sruliad sxva viTareba gvaqvs.
Tu Sesamowmeblad iseT ubralo sistemas aviRebT, rogoric
Cveni yoveldRiuri sametyvelo enaa, aSkara gaxdeba, rom aRsaniSns aq
arafris deformacia ar SeuZlia, radgan mTlianad konvenciuri da
TviTneburi aRmniSvneli sruliad moklebulia winaaRmdegobis unars. amisagan gansxvavebiT, miTSi sruliad sxva viTareba gvaqvs.
miTSi aRmniSvnels ori mxare gaaCnia: erTi Sinaarsobrivia (sazrisi
lomTan da afrikel jariskacTan dakavSirebuli ambebi), xolo
meore ki _ Sinaarss moklebuli. es meore elementi, rogorc viciT,
aris forma, romlis deformaciis mizezebze ukve visaubreT. amasTan,
rogorc barti gvafrTxilebs, aseT deformacias sazrisis srul
gaqrobasTan rodi mivyavarT: rogorc lomi, aseve jariskaci miTSi
rCebian, radgan isini sWirdeba koncepts. iqmneba situacia, romlis
drosac TiTqos maT mexsierebas arTmeven, magram ar arTmeven arsebobas. barti amaze wers: isini jiutad duman da imavdroulad
mravasityvaoben. maTi ena mTlianad konceptis samsaxurSia. koncepti axdens sazrisis deformirebas, Tumca ar xsnis mas; es winaaRmdegoba SeiZleba gamoixatos erTi formuliT koncepti axdens
sazrisis gaucxoebas (1.88).
enobrivi niSani, Cveulebriv, aramotivirebulia. is nebismieria.
ar arsebobs araviTari aucilebloba imisa, rom, vTqvaT, sityva xe
raimeTi hgavdes im obieqts, romlis aRsaniSnadac is gamoiyeneba.
niSnisagan gansxvavebiT, misi mniSvneloba arasdros ar aris nebismieri. is nawilobriv mainc motivirebulia da umetes SemTxvevaSi
analogiiT aigeba. ase, magaliTad, imisaTvis, rom laTinuri enis saxelmZRvaneloSi moyvanili magaliTi SexebaSi movides cxovelis
lomad wodebis faqtTan, saWiroa analogia: predikatis qvemdebaresTan SeerTeba. msgavsadve, imisaTvis, rom safrangeTis imperiis
konceptisaTvis afrikeli jariskacis saxe adekvaturi gamodges,
saWiroa garkveuli msgavseba afrikeli jariskacis misalmebasa da
frangi jariskacis misalmebas Soris. motivireba miTis orsaxovnebis aucilebeli pirobaa. ar arsebobs miTi motivirebuli formis
gareSe. miTSi unda gaTamaSdes analogia sazrissa da formas Soris.
aRniSnuli viTareba SesaZloa ufro naTeli gamodges sxva
magaliTis SemTxvevaSi. warmovidginoT nebismier saganTa simravle.
aq Tavmoyrilia sagnebi, romelTac araferi aqvT erTmaneTTan saerTo. erTi SexedviT, SeuZlebelia raime sazrisi vi povoT maTi er-

rolan bartis semiologiuri koncefciisaTvis

255

TianobisaTvis. Cans, rom formis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi, romelic


manamde garkveuli sazrisiT iqneboda mosili, Cven verc raime analogias aRmovaCenT saganTa Soris. Sedegad, sruliad gaugebaria, Tu
ra princi pis mixedviTaa SerCeuli saganTa es simravle. es ki
winapirobaa imisa, rom arsebul viTarebaSi ver gaCndeba veraviTari
miTi. miuxedavad am TvalsaCino viTarebisa, saganTa aseTi uwesrigo
Tavyriloba mainc iZleva saSualebas, amovikiTxoT masSi raRac da
es raRac aris uwesrigoba. am ukanasknels SeuZlia mniSvneloba
mianiWos absurdsac da misgan miTi Seqmnas. ase xdeba xolme, rodesac siurealisturi nawarmoebi miTologizdeba saRi azris poziciebidan. aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac motivebis ararseboba sulac ar
xdeba xelisSemSlel pirobad miTis Sesaqmnelad, radgan ase, drois
motivebis ararseboba Tavad iqceva motivad da xdeba miTis konstruireba. am dros adgili aqvs sazrissa da formas Soris nawilobriv analogias. forma ukuagdebs analogiebis mTel simravles
da mxolod zogierTs SeinarCunebs. mTliani xati gamoricxavs miTis gaCenas, anda axdens mxolod TviT mTlianobis miTologizebas.
yoveli motivacia miiReba movlenebis mTeli rigidan. sadavo ar
aris, rom koncepti safrangeTis imperia SeiZleba gadmocemuliyo
sul sxva aRmniSvnelebis saSualebiT da ara mainc da mainc afrikeli jariskaciT. miTi wminda saxiT warmodgenili ideografiuli
sistemaa, romelSiac forma motivirebulia im konceptiT, romlis
reprezentaciasac is axorcielebs, Tumca, unda iTqvas, rom amiT ar
amoiwureba yvela SesaZlo reprezentacia.

wakiTxva da interpretacia
sakiTxi imis Taobaze, Tu rogor aRiqmeba miTi, damokidebulia
kvlav forma-konceptis urTierTobaze. Tu Cven mxolod formas
mivapyrobT yuradRebas kiTxvis procesSi, gansxvavebuli Sedegi gveqneba
imisagan, rodesac mxolod konceptis ZiebiT varT dakavebulni, iseve,
rodesac imisagan, rodesac viTvaliswinebT rogorc koncepts, aseve
_ formas. aqedan gamomdinare, barti ganasxvavebs miTis wakiTxvis
sam ti ps:
1. rodesac mxolod aRmniSvnelze vaCerebT yuradRebas
da koncepti calsaxad Seavsebs miTis formas. aseT SemTxvevaSi Cven miviRebT martiv sistemas, romelSiac mniSvneloba pirdapir gaigeba.

256

mamuka biWaSvili

2. rodesac Cven umeteswilad koncentrirebulni varT


formis mier sazrisis madeformirebel zegavlenaze. aseTi
zegavlena angrevs mniSvnelobas da miTic Sesabamisad gaigeba,
rogorc _ tyuili.
3. dabolos, Tuki miTis aRmniSvnels gavigebT, rogorc
sazrisisa da formis mouwyvetel erTianobas, maSin mniSvneloba orsaxovani gaxdeba da Cven ki miTis yvelaze ufro adekvaturi interpretatorebi: afrikeli jariskacis saxe aRarc
simboloa safrangeTis imperiisa da aRarc nimuSi. igi mis
pirdapir prezentacias warmoadgens.
miTis wakiTxvis pirveli ori ti pi analitikuria da, imavdroulad _ statikuri. isini angreven imiT, rom saaSkaraoze gamoitanen
miTis intencias. miTis wakiTxvis sami ti pidan pirveli ori Tavad
miTs emuqreba. am dros xdeba konceptis an mimalva an misgan niRbis
Camogleja. pirvel midgomas barti cinikurs uwodebs, xolo meores miTis demistifikaciis amocanas akisrebs. maTgan gansxvavebiT,
miTis aRqmis mesame, dinamikuri ti pi gulisxmobs miTis im miznebisaTvis gamoyenebas, romlisaTvisac Seiqmna igi. mesame gza miTis
SenarCunebis saSualebas warmoadgens. igi konceptis naturalizacias cdilobs imis nacvlad, rom mospos is an gaaSiSvlos. Tavis
mxriv, es imas niSnavs, rom aq yvelaze ufro adekvaturad gaiSleba
miTis arsi, romelic imaSi mdgomareobs, rom istoria bunebis qmnilebad aqcios. iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom xati bunebrivad axdens
konceptis producirebas ise, TiTqos aRsaniSni aRmniSvnelis safuZveli
iyos; miTi iqmneba maSin, rodesac safrangeTis imperia aRiqmeba, rogorc
bunebrivi movlena (1.96).E

konkretuli magaliTi
axla Cven sakmaod varT aRWurvilni imisaTvis, rom bartis
sqemis saqmeSi gamoyeneba vcadoT. mis mier moyvanili magaliTi
SevgiZlia SevanacvloT qarTuli presidan aRebuli nimuSiT. aviRoT erT-erTi statiis saTauri gazeT axali Taobidan: meriam
naxagurelebs avtobusebi dauniSna. moyvanili magaliTi warmoadgens gamoTqmas, romlis pirveladi sistema wminda enobrivia. meoradi sistemis aRmniSvnelSi figurirebs iseTi frazebi, rogorebicaa
meria, avtobusis daniSvna. aqve unda gaviTvaliswinoT gamoyenebuli topografiuli xerxebi: saTauri gamotanilia pirvel gverdze,

rolan bartis semiologiuri koncefciisaTvis

257

meris fotosuraTis gverdiT, Tumca Tavad statia ganTavsebulia.


magaliTSi aRsaniSni anu koncepti Tbilisis meriaa. meria warmogvidgeba rogorc efeqtianobis matarebeli subieqti. saTauriT
SemoTavazebuli miTis konceptia Tbilisis meria zrunavs mosaxleobaze.
warmodgenil analizSi gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa mniSvnelobis Sinaarsi. is, uwinares yovlisa, mimarTulia sazogadoebis mentalitetSi gamjdar stereoti pebze, romelTac aqvT ara racionaluri, aramed iracionaluri xasiaTi. saTaurma swored masze unda
moaxdinos zegavlena, radgan miCneulia, rom iracionalur Sreebze
zegavlena ufro meti Sedegis momtania, vidre statiaSi gadmocemuli ambebis racionaluri analizi.
aris Tu ara konceptiT SemoTavazebuli Sinaarsi misi erTaderTi SesaZlo interpretaciis Sedegi? pasuxi am kiTxvaze didadaa
damokidebuli imaze, is subieqtur mniSvnelobas daesmis, Tu obieqturs. subieqturi mniSvnelobis qveS aq gvesmis Tavad statiis
avtoris mier rogorc mTlianad statiaSi, aseve mis saTaurSi Cadebuli intencia. magram ramdenadac sityvebi TavisTavad raRacas
aRniSnaven, amdenad, isini TavisTavadi mniSvnelobis matareblebic
unda iyvnen da Tu subieqturi mniSvneloba Cveulebriv SemTxvevebSi
erTaderTia, obieqturi mniSvnelobis TvalsazrisiT, savsebiT kanonzomierad SegviZlia visaubroT mniSvnelobaTa mravalgvarobaze.
swored mniSvnelobaTa es mravalgvaroba iZleva statiis teqstis
araerTgvarovani interpretaciis SesaZleblobas. aq swored rom
droa, gaviTvaliswinoT bartis sazrisTa mravalgvarobis Tezisi.
sazrisTa es mravalgvaroba ar aris relativizmis Sedegi. marTalia,
sazrisTa mravalgvarobaze barti pirvel rigSi literaturul nawarmoebebTan dakavSirebiT saubrobda, magram ver vxedavT mizezs, Tu
ratom ar SegviZlia Tezisi gavavrceloT presisa da saerTod
masmediis enis mimarT. amitom, miuxedavad imisa, rom statiis avtori dasaTaurebaSi mxolod erT koncepts debda, zemoT dasmul
kiTxvaze uaryofiTi pasuxi unda gavceT: SesaZlebelia werilis
mravalgvari interpretacia da, rac mTavaria, Tu davuSvebT, rom
Tavidanaa acilebuli Secdomebi, arc erTi maTgani ar iqneba miuRebeli.

258

mamuka biWaSvili

literatura
barti 1989: . . , .
. .
bredixini...1989: ..
. www.irbis. asu.ru
p a v l o v a 2 0 0 0 : .. (.) .
. . .
.
gazeTi `axali Taoba~, 5 marti, 2008.

Mamuka Bichashvili
Rolan Barts Semiological Conception
A language is a social institution and a system of values. As a social institution, it is by no means an act, and it is not subject to any premeditation. It is the
social part of language, the individual cannot by himself either create or modify it;
it is essentially a collective contract which one must accept in its entirety if one
wishes to communicate. An article deals with Roland Barthes early conception
of contemporary myths and explores linguistic means and technics that can be
used in political contexts. Contemporary myths are analysed in terms of theory
of signs. An autor finds the study of signs, useful in these interrogations.

259

levan cagareli

interteqstualoba,
rogorc fiqcionalobis
signali

iv. javaxiSvilis sax. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitaruli


fakultetis dasavleT
evropis enebis da literaturis mimarTulebis
asistent-profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
Die Besonderheiten der
Realittskonstruktion in
Arno Schmidts Abend mit
Goldrand (Literatur im
Unterricht. Texte der Moderne und Postmoderne in
der Schule. 3, Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier 2006);
fiqcia, fantastika, arasando Txroba (monografia, Tbilisi, 2006 w.); avgust strindbergi, rogorc arasando mTxrobeli
(jojoxeTis naratologiuri analizi) da sxv.
amJamad muSaobs sadoqtoro disertaciaze (arno
Smitis gviandeli proza
rogorc metafiqcia).
interesis sfero:
XX s-is germanuli literatura da literaturis
Teoria.

frank ci pfeli CvenTvis cnobili erTaderTi mkvlevaria, romelic fiqcionalobis


signalebs Soris interteqstualobasac axsenebs. Tumca amas erTob zedapirulad akeTebs
da mxolod struqturuli interteqstualobis fenomeniT Semoifargleba (ci pfeli
2001:237). sinamdvileSi interteqstobriv
mimarTebaTa sxva formebic SeiZleba miuTiTebdes teqstis fiqcionalobaze. Cveni mosazrebis dasasabuTeblad marTebuli iqneba mokled ganvixiloT interteqstualobis Teoria da sagangebod SeviswavloT teqstebs Soris
mimarTebis is formebi, romlebsac fiqcionalobis dadgenisas didi mniSvneloba eniWeba.
termini interteqstualoba XX s-is
60-iani wlebis literaturis TeoriaSi
daamkvidra frangma mkvlevarma iulia kristevam. i. kristevam
sakuTari Teoriis SemuSavebisas mimarTa jer kidev rusi formalistis mixail baxtinis mier SemoRebul cnebas dialoguroba (baxtini 1975).
m. baxtinis azriT, yvela gamonaTqvami, romelic literaturul teqstSi gvxvdeba, uSualo kavSirSia dialogsa da citatTan, masSi
ismis erTgvari eqo sxva gamonaTqvamebisa.
radganac ena socialuri fenomenia, Cvens mier
xmarebuli sityvebi gajerebulia sxva moubarTa intenciebiTa da aqcentebiT. gamonaTqvamis mniSvneloba warmoiqmneba ucxo sityvebisa da Rirebulebebis, sxvadasxva social-

260

levan cagareli

uri da profesiuli enebis urTierTqmedebis Sedegad.


terminis aRorZineba da gadaazreba iulia kristevas mier ganxorcielda poststruqturalizmis, rogorc filosofiuri da literaturaTmcodneobiTi mimarTulebis, Camoyalibebis procesSi. poststruqturalizms safuZvlad udevs debuleba, romlis mixedviTac,
teqsti, rogorc dasrulebuli erTeuli ar arsebobs, TiToeuli
teqsti sxva teqstebs ukavSirdeba da warmoadgens teqstebis
kosmosis globaluri teqstis (texte gnral) nawils. es ukanaskneli moicavs ara mxolod fiqcionalur, aramed yvela SesaZlo
teqsts, radgan TviT sinamdvilec (Jak deridas mosazrebiT) mxolod teqstis saxiT arsebobs. swored am Teoriulma garemocvam
ganapiroba interteqstualobis cnebis abstraqtuloba. iulia
kristevas Teoriis mixedviT (kristeva 1972), teqsti warmoadgens
citatebis mozaikas, TiToeuli teqsti sxva teqstebis STanTqmisa
da transformaciis safuZvelze iqmneba. i. kristevas koncefciaSi
sruliad ugulebelyofilia avtoris intencia, komunikantebs Soris
dialogs enacvleba dialogi teqstebs Soris da interteqstualoba gvevlineba yvela teqstisTvis damaxasiaTebel Taviseburebad.
faqtobrivad, i. kristevas xazs agrZelebs harold blumic
(blumi 1995). Tumca igi interteqstualobis fenomens calkeul
pirovnebebs ukavSirebs, ris gamoc misi koncefcia ufro personalur xasiaTs atarebs. h. blumis SexedulebiT, ar arsebobs teqstebi, arsebobs mxolod teqstebs Soris mimarTeba. calkeuli
teqsti ki sxva araferia, Tu ara erTgvari brZolis veli, romelzec
avtori oidi posis msgavsad ebrZvis winareteqstebsa da mamebis
gavlenas.
interteqstualobis am erTob farTo cnebisgan sagrZnoblad
gansxvavdeba misi meore modeli. interteqstualoba viwro gagebiT
gulisxmobs Segnebul, winaswar ganzraxul da markirebul mimarTebaTa erTobliobas erT teqstsa da winareteqstebs an teqstTa
jgufebs Soris. winamdebare naSromSi interteqstualoba swored
am viwro gagebiT iqneba gamoyenebuli, e.i. rogorc garkveuli teqstebis (an teqstTa jgufebis) gansakuTrebuli Tviseba.
amJamad mogvepoveba teqstebs Soris arsebuli mimarTebebis
araerTi klasifikacia. germaneli literaturaTmcodne, renate laxmani ganarCevs dialogurobis ramdenime formas: dialoguroba, rogorc
teqstebis saerTo ganzomileba, dialoguroba, rogorc teqstebSi azris gadmocemis gansakuTrebuli forma, rogorc dialogi
sxva teqstebTan (interteqstualoba), dialogi mocemul kultu-

interteqstualoba, rogorc fiqcionalobis signali

261

rul konteqstSi dapirispirebul sxvadasxva socialur dialeqtTan (metyvelebis mravalferovneba) da dialogi ucxo mosazrebasTan, rac `orxmovani sityvis~ saxiT mJRavndeba da ori metyveli
instanciis dapirispirebas gulisxmobs (dialoguroba pirveladi
gagebiT). (laxmani 1982:8)
interteqstualobis formebis yvelaze sistematuri ti pologia Jerar Jenetma SeimuSava. Tavis cnobil wignSi palimfsestebi
man Tavi mouyara teqstobriv mimarTebaTa yvela SesaZlo formas
erTi terminis transteqstualobis farglebSi (Jeneti 1993). am
ukanasknels igi xuT kategoriad yofs: 1. interteqstualoba anu
ori an meti teqstis Tanaarseboba, romlis drosac erTi teqstis
elementebi TvalsaCinodaa mocemuli meoreSi (citati, miniSneba, plagiati da sxv.); 2. parateqstualoba anu mimarTeba teqstsa da
saTaurs, winaTqmas, bolosityvasa da sxv. Soris; 3. metateqstualoba, romlis SemTxvevaSic erTi teqsti moicavs winareteqstis
komentarsa da kritikas; 4. hi perteqstualoba anu winareteqstis
transformacia, romlis drosac erTi mTliani teqsti udevs safuZvlad meores (imitacia, gagrZeleba, parodia da a.S.); 5. arqiteqstualoba, romelic gulisxmobs teqstis Janrobriv kavSirs teqstebis
garkveul jgufTan. J. Jenetis ti pologia, marTalia, amomwuravi
Cans, magram mas garkveuli xarvezebic aRmoaCnda: (1) literaturul
praqtikaSi interteqstualobas, metateqstualobasa da hi perteqstualobas Soris sazRvari iSleba; (2) parateqstualoba ki sruliad
sxva rigis fenomenia, igi ar scildeba erTi teqstis farglebs; (3)
J.Jenetis ti pologias ar moepoveba klasifikaciis erTiani kriteriumebi: Tu interteqstualobis cnebas markirebis kriteriumi udevs
safuZvlad, metateqstualoba dialogurobis (e.i. normatiuli Tanxvedris) kriteriums efuZneba, hi perteqstualoba da arqiteqstualoba ki sruliad sxva saxis mimarTebebs moicavs, kerZod, mimarTebebs teqstsa da sxva teqstebis struqturas an sistemebs (roforicaa Janrobrivi, medialuri da sxv. sistema) Soris. J. Jenetis
klasifikaciaze dakvirveba cxadyofs, ramdenad aucilebelia interteqstualobis sistematizaciisTvis garkveuli kriteriumebis SemuSaveba, rogorc amas ulrih broihi da manfred pfisteri cdiloben TavianT krebulSi.
interteqstobrivi elementi SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc
inteqsti, romelic ucxo winareteqstSi (igive prototeqstSi)
warmoiqmna da Semdeg Sevida axali (feno)teqstis SemadgenlobaSi.
imis mixedviT, ramdenad gamokveTili da mkafioa interteqstobrivi

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levan cagareli

miTiTeba, SesaZlebelia moxdes mTliani winarekonteqstis aqtualizeba fenoteqstis recefciis dros.


imisTvis, rom raime elementi interteqstobriv erTeulad miviCnioT, saWiroa igi akmayofilebdes garkveul pirobebs, saxeldobr,
interteqstobrivia winareteqstidan gadmoRebuli mxolod iseTi
elementebi, romlebic avtorma Segnebulad, gamiznulad da gamokveTilad CarTo Tavis teqstSi da romlebsac didi mniSvneloba
eniWeba am ukanasknelis Setyobinebis gadmocemaSi. xolo SemTxveviTi interteqstualobis iseTi saxesxvaobebi, rogoricaa plagiati,
gavlena da epigonoba, moklebulia komunikaciur Rirebulebas.
manfred pfisteri gamoyofs interteqstualobis Semdeg kriteriumebs: referentuloba, komunikaciuroba (igive gamiznuloba),
avtorefleqsiuroba (romelic, vfiqrob, markirebulobis erTgvari
saxea), struqturuloba, seleqciuroba da dialoguroba.
referentulobis kriteriumi gulisxmobs ucxo teqstis Tematizebas: yovelTvis, rodesac fenoteqsti raime winareteqsts ukavSirdeba, xorcieldeba am ukanasknelis komentireba, Sefaseba da interpretacia. esaa Jenetiseuli metateqstualobis erTgvari nairsaxeoba. referentuloba yovelTvis gansxvavebuli saxiT vlindeba,
rac xSirad winareteqstis Taviseburebebze, fenoteqstSi interteqstobrivi elementebis raodenobasa da gavrcelebis arezea damokidebuli. dubravka oraiC toliCi Tavis klasifikaciaSi winareteqstis ragvarobis mixedviT gamoyofs interteqstualobis Semdeg
ti pebs (oraiC toliCi 1995:40-41):
1.
Sidaliteraturuli interteqstualoba. am SemTxvevaSi ucxo
elementi literaturuli warmoSobisaa;
2. intermedialuri interteqstualoba. am SemTxvevaSi ucxo
elementi sxva fiqcionaluri sistemebidan (mediebidan, rogoricaa saxviTi xelovneba, musika, kinematografia) aris nasesxebi;
3. transsemiotikuri interteqstualoba. am SemTxvevaSi interteqstobrivi elementi faqtualuri (arafiqcionaluri)
teqstidan aris aRebuli.
Sidaliteraturuli interteqstualoba moicavs teqstobriv
da sistemur referentulobas. pirvel SemTxvevaSi teqsti ukavSirdeba erT an ramdenime winareteqsts (mag. citati, epigrafi, cento, Targmani, gadamuSaveba, imitacia, parafrazi, reziume, kontrafaqtura); sistemuri referentuloba ki gulisxmobs kavSirs enobriv kodebsa da teqstualobis normatiul sistemebTan, rac mx-

interteqstualoba, rogorc fiqcionalobis signali

263

olod am kodis darRvevisa da normidan gadaxvevis SemTxvevaSi


aSkaravdeba (broixi 1985:52). rogorc teqstobrivi, ise sistemuri referentuloba SeiZleba iyos kontaminatoruli an anagramuli imis mixedviT, interteqstobrivi elementebi ramdenime sxvadasxva winareteqstidan Janrobrivi sistemidan aris aRebuli Tu
erTi winareteqstidan an Janrobrivi sistemidan. amasTan, winareteqstebis urTierTmimarTeba SeiZleba iyos homogenuri an heterogenuli. pirvel SemTxvevaSi Tavs iCens perspeqtiuli Tanxvedra,
meore SemTxvevaSi ki perspeqtiuli wyveta (lindneri 1985).
struqturulobis kriteriumis meSveobiT SesaZlebelia gamovyoT elementaruli da struqturuli (mimarTebiTi) interteqstualoba1. elementaruli interteqstualobis SemTxvevaSi winareteqstis calkeuli elementebia (moqmedi pirebi, motivebi, Temebi) gadmoRebuli, xolo struqturuli interteqstualobis dros calkeul
elementebs Soris mimarTebebi meordeba. Teoriulad dasaSvebia am
orTave xerxis kombinirebac.
seleqciurobis kriteriumi gansazRvravs, ramdenad mkafiodaa
gamokveTili interteqstobrivi elementi. mogvepoveba interteqstualobis eqsplicituri da implicituri signalebi. eqsplicituri signalebia, magaliTad, markirebuli pauza, inquit-formula,
citirebisas gansxvavebuli Sriftis gamoyeneba, gamotovebuli xazi,
garkveuli sakuTari saxelebi, zusti miTiTebebi winareteqstze.
markirebis ukiduresi SemTxvevebi gvxvdeba sqolioSi, saTaursa da
qvesaTaurSi (arqiteqstualoba), winaTqmasa da bolosityvaSi. implicitur signalebs ganekuTvneba winareteqstis saTaurisa da
winareteqstis avtoris saxelis miTiTeba, winareteqstis personaJebis, motivebisa da stilisturi xerxebis gameoreba fenoteqstSi,
winareteqstis arseboba Sida fiqcionalur doneze raime nivTis
(mag. ,wignis) saxiT, fenoteqstis mxatvrul samyaroSi gamarTuli
saubari ucxo teqstis Sesaxeb an misi wakiTxva romelime moqmedi
piris mier, aluziebi, enobrivi kodis cvla da Sesabamisi interferenciebi (amasTan, rac ufro ucxoa winareteqstis enobrivi kodi
fenoteqstisTvis, miT ufro mkafiodaa markirebuli CarTuli segmentis interteqstobrivi xasiaTi) (pleti 1985). yvelaze mkafiod
interteqstualobis markireba xorcieldeba citatis SemTxvevaSi:
1

Sdr. kareri 1985. laxmani interteqstualobis imave formebs moixseniebs


rogorc Tanxvedrisa (Kontiguittsrelation) da msgavsebis mimarTebebs (Similarittsrelation). Sdr. laxmani 1984:136; mimarTebiTi interteqstualobis Sesaxeb ix.
agreTve Svanici 1983

264

levan cagareli

fenoteqstis garkveuli monakveTi gardaiqmneba da Canacvldeba segmentiT ucxo teqstidan. implicituri (agreTve Sifrirebuli) interteqstualobis dros ki piriqiT: gardaqmnas ganicdis winareteqsti, romlis elementebic sxvadasxva ritorikuli operaciis
(damateba, Canacvleba, Sekveca, gardaqmna, gameoreba) gavlis Semdeg
saxes icvlis da swored aseTi saxecvlili formiT Sedis fenoteqstis SemadgenlobaSi. pirvel SemTxvevaSi srul citatebTan gvaqvs
saqme, meoreSi ki nawilobrivTan. garda amisa, moi poveba e.w.
vakanturi, anu carieli citatebi. dubravka oraiC toliCi gamoyofs
vakanturi citatis or saxeobas: fsevdocitati da paracitati.
fsevdocitati qmnis iluzias, rom fenoteqstsa da preteqsts Soris
arsebobs kavSiri, sinamdvileSi ki amgvari kavSiri ar arsebobs.
paracitatis SemTvxvevaSi ki winareteqsti saerTod ar arsebobs.
orive fenomeni ganekuTvneba fsevdo-interteqstualobis sferos,
romelSic teqstebs Soris kavSiri ubralo simulaciaa.
dialogurobis kriteriumi ki gulisxmobs pirvelad da axal
konteqsts Soris arsebuli semantikuri da ideologiuri daZabulobis siZlieres. interteqstobrivi elementis SemTxvevaSi teqstebs Soris yovelTvis imarTeba erTgvari dialogi, romlis drosac erT-erTi (winare an feno-teqsti) damatebiT azrs iZens. mocemul
kriteriums gansakuTrebiT mWidrod ukavSirdeba interteqstobrivi
mimarTebebis daniSnulebis sakiTxi. semantikuri daniSnulebis mixedviT,
romelsac interteqstobrivi elementebi teqstis farglebSi asrulebs, isini SeiZleba iyos referencialuri an avtoreferencialuri. (1) referencialuri inteqstebi orientirebulia winareteqstze: am ukanasknelis mniSvneloba icvleba an dasturdeba. amrigad,
winareteqsti gvevlineba fenoteqstis erTgvar azrobriv sayrdenad. avtoreferencialuri inteqstebi mimarTulia fenoteqstis
sazrisze, maTi meSveobiT informacia lakoniurad gadmoicema da
xdeba teqstis sazrisis Camoyalibeba. SeiZleba ganvasxvaoT teqstebs Soris normatiuli mimarTebis dadebiTi, uaryofiTi da
SedarebiTi formebi: dadebiTi mimarTeba (2) gulisxmobs winareteqstis normebTan Tanxmobas, maT damtkicebasa da gadaWarbebas. winareteqstis elementebis integracia aq azrobrivi horizontis gafarToebas emsaxureba. uaryofiTi mimarTebis (3) dros fenoteqsti uaryofs, asustebs da aukuRmarTebs winareteqstis normebs,
riTac preteqstis mimarT azrobriv kontrasts warmoqmnis. SedarebiTi mimarTeba (4) ki gamoricxavs raime koherentuli fokusisa
Tu normatiuli aTvlis wertilis arsebobas (mag. citatebis kola-

interteqstualoba, rogorc fiqcionalobis signali

265

JSi). mkvlevrebi gamoyofen damatebiT or funqcias: (5) damatebiTi


kodireba SeiZleba ganicados erTdroulad winareteqstmac da
fenoteqstmac, ris Sedegadac orive maTganis sazrisi Seicvleba.
amgvari mimarTeba miznad isaxavs modelebis SepirispirebiT erTgvari normatiuli sinTezis, mesame alternatiuli modelis Seqmnas,
an sulac yovelgvari azrobrivi modelis uaryofas. (6) teqsts
agreTve SeiZleba mieniWos damatebiTi kodi meta-doneze, Tu Tavad
interteqstobrivi miTiTebis xerxebi da daniSnuleba moeqceva yuradRebis centrSi (SulTe-midelihi 1985).
SesaZlebelia teqstebs Soris normatiuli mimarTebebis diferencireba enobrivi da araenobrivi aspeqtebis mixedviT: 1. teqstis
TiToeuli Semadgeneli elementis norma SenarCunebulia, aseve SenarCunebulia enobrivi normac (ganmeorebiTi gamocema, plagiati, firze
aRbeWdva, epigonoba); 2. enobrivi norma SenarCunebulia, xolo teqstis danarCeni Semadgeneli nawilebis norma sagrZnoblad Secvlilia (mag. parodia, cento); 3. enobrivi norma Secvlilia, danarCeni
teqstobrivi maCveneblebi ki SenarCunebulia (Targmani, travestia);
4. Tanabrad icvleba teqstis rogorc enobrivi, ise araenobrivi
normebi (pleti 1985:94).
zogadad inteqstebis daniSnulebis Sesaxeb SeiZleba iTqvas
Semdegi: referencialuri inteqstebi umeteswilad samecniero diskursSi gvxvdeba, xolo avtorefleqsiuri inteqstebi xelovnebis
prerogativaa. teqstebs Soris dadebiTi mimarTebis SemTxvevaSi
saqme gvaqvs imitaciasTan, uaryofiTi mimarTebis SemTxvevaSi polemikasTan, xolo orTave teqstisTvis damatebiTi kodirebis miniWebis dros mkafiod ikveTeba interteqstobrivi dialogis niSnebi2.
safuZvlianad ganvixiloT interteqstualobis is saxesxvaobebi,
romlebic sagulisxmoa fiqcionalobis markirebis TvalsazrisiT.
imisTvis, rom interteqstobrivma elementma teqstis fiqcionalobaze mianiSnos, saWiroa misi wyaro (winareteqsti) Tavad iyos
fiqcionaluri. magram fiqcionaluri warmoSobis inteqstebi gvxvdeba faqtualur (mag. literaturaTmcodneobiT) teqstebSic da
amrigad, zemoT moyvanili winapiroba dazustebas saWiroebs: fiqcionalobis signalad SeiZleba miviCnioT interteqstualobisa da
intermedialobis mxolod is formebi, romlebic struqturebisa
2
cnebebi imitacia, polemika da dialogi ganmartebuli aqvs oraiC toliCs
1995:68.

266

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da elementebis gadmoReba-gameorebas efuZneba. gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa teqstis fiqcionaloba, roca masSi Sifrirebuli inteqstebi moi poveba: mag. Tu winare nawarmoebis moqmedi piri fenoteqstis
mxatvrul samyaroSi gamoCndeba, es fiqcionalobis utyuari signalia. mxatvruli teqstis fiqcionalur xasiaTs agreTve aZlierebs
literaturuli citatebi. gansakuTrebiT iseTi inteqstebi, rogoricaa
citirebuli citati an citati citatSi, aorkeceben poeturi warmonaqmnis avtorefleqsiurobas; literaturaSi sinamdvilis Ziebisas mkiTxveli kvlav da kvlav mxolod literaturas awydeba.
(pleti, 1985:90).
teqstis fiqcionalobaze miuTiTebs agreTve sistemuri referentuloba. rodesac erTi teqsti (metwilad ama Tu im TvalsazrisiT homogenuri) winareteqstebis konvenciebs ukavSirdeba, maT
aqtualizebas axdens an arRvevs maT, amiT igi Tavisive konvenciebs
aaSkaravebs. sistemurad referentulia arsebiTad yoveli fiqcionaluri teqsti. Tumca es mJRavndeba mxolod maSin, rodesac igi
Tavis gansxvavebulobas eqspliciturad gamokveTs da damkvidrebul
literaturul konvenciebs arRvevs. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom amgvari konvenciebi literaturuli diskursis Semadgeneli nawilia,
maTi aqtualizeba an darRveva isev da isev fenoteqstis fiqcionalur xasiaTs cxadyofs.
fiqcionalobis gansakuTrebiT mkafio signals warmoadgens
avtorefleqsiuri interteqstualoba. manfred pfisteris azriT,
interteqstobrivi elementi avtorefleqsiuria, Tu teqstis interteqstobrivi datvirTva masSivea gansjis sagnad qceuli, e.i.
interteqstualoba ara mxolod markirebulia, aramed Tematizebulic da problematizebulic (pfisteri 1985:27-28). avtorefleqsia SeiZleba ganxorcieldes rogorc meta-doneze, rogorc es bernd
Sulte-midelixma aCvena Tavis interteqstualobis funqciaTa ti pologiaSi, ise raime sxva saxiTac, mag. avtocitatebis saxiT, romlebic gamoirCeva sixSiriTa da gamneorebadobiT (mag. laitmotivi)
da mxolod fiqcionalur teqstSi gvxvdeba. rac ufro moculobiTia interteqstobrivi segmenti, miT ufro uaxlovdeba igi avtorefleqsiuri Txrobis fenomens rogorc formalurad, ise Sinaarsobrivad.
fsevdointerteqstualobis nebismieri saxesxvaoba (rogorc
fsevdo- ise paracitati), Cveni azriT, agreTve avtorefleqsiuri
potencialis mqonea da interteqstualobaze yuradRebis gamaxvilebiT teqstis fiqcionalobaze miuTiTebs. fsevdointerteqstu-

interteqstualoba, rogorc fiqcionalobis signali

267

alobis dros winareteqsti ar arsebobs, mxolod fiqciaa, anda


interteqstobrivi kavSiri Tavad warmogvidgeba fiqciad. orTave
SemTxvevaSi realurad xelSesaxebi rCeba mxolod interteqstualobis fenomeni, romlis ukanac araviTari prototeqsti ar dgas.
interteqstualobis ukanasknel saxesxvaobebs aerTianebT Tavad interteqstualobis fenomenis Tematizebis unari. amgvari avtorefleqsiis Sedegia, rom teqsts yuradReba gadaaqvs cxovrebiseuli sinamdvilis SesaZlebeli modelidan Tavis Tavze, rogorc
sxva teqstebiT ganpirobebul konstruqciaze. (lindneri 1985:130).
dasasrul unda aRiniSnos, rom intermedialobamac SeiZleba
Seasrulos fiqcionalobis signalis funqcia, radgan raime sxva
fiqcionalur sistemaze (mediumze) miTiTebis an am ukanasknelis
teqstSi integraciisas ikvreba iseTive avtorefleqsiuri wredi,
rogorc interteqstualobis zemoT ganxilul saxesvaobebTan. amgvar intermedialur mimarTebas safuZvlad udevs kodis cvla: sxva
mediumSi (saxviTi xelovneba, musika, kinematografia) warmomdgari
elementi kargavs Tavis materialur Tvisebebs (formas, fers, JReradobas) da ganicdis verbalizebas, gardaiqmneba sityvebisgan Semdgar
personaJad, mxatvrul motivad an raime sxva verbalur struqturad da mxolod amis Semdeg xorcieldeba misi integracia
literaturul fiqciaSi. Tu amgvari elementi eqspliciturad mianiSnebs Tavis winarekonteqstze, amiT igi Tavs fiqcionaluri diskursis Semadgenel nawilad warmoaCens da amasTan, aaSkaravebs mimRebi, literaturuli mediumis fiqcionalur xasiaTs.

literatura:
baxtini 1975:
, :
. ,
broixi 1985 (1):
Broich, Ulrich/Pfister, Manfred (Hgg.): Intertextualitt: Formen, Funktionen, anglistische Fallstudien. Unter Mitarbeit von Bernd Schulte-Middelich. Tbingen: Niemeyer 1985 (Konzepte
der Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaft; 35)
broixi 1985 (2)
:
Broich, Ulrich: Formen der Markierung von Intertextualitt. In: Ders.,
Manfred Pfister (Hgg.): Intertextualitt, S. 31-47

268

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broixi 1985 (3): Broich, Ulrich/Pfister, Manfred: Bezugsfelder der Intertextualitt. In: Dies. (Hgg.): Intertextualitt, S. 48-58
Jeneti 1993: Genette, Grard: Palimpseste: die Literatur auf zweiter
Stufe. Aus dem Franz. Von Wolfram Bayer u. Dieter Hornig. Frankfurt
a.M.: Suhrkamp 1993
kristeva 1972: Kristeva, Julia: Bachtin, das Wort, der Dialog und der Roman. In: Jens Ihwe (Hg.): Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik III.
Frankfurt/M., 1972, S. 345-375
laxmani 1982:Lachmann, Renate (Hg.): Dialogizitt, Theorie und Geschichte der Literatur und der schnen Knste. Reihe A, Bd. 1, Mnchen
1982
laxmani 1984: Lachmann, Renate: Ebenen des Intertextualittbegriffs. In:
Karlheinz Stierle, Rainer Warning: Das Gesprch. Mnchen: Fink 1984,
(Poetik und Hermeneutik, 11) S. 113-138
lindneri 1985: Lindner; Monika: Integrationsformen der Intertextualitt.
In: Broich/Pfister (Hgg.): Intertextualitt. S. 116-135
oraiC toliCi 1995:Orai Toli, Dubravka: Zitat in Literatur und Kunst:
Versuch einer Theorie. Wien: Bhlau 1995
pleti 1985: Plett, Heinrich F.: Sprachliche Konstituenten einer intertextuellen Poetik. In: Broich/Pfister (Hgg.): Intertextualitt. S. 78-98
pfisteri 1985: Pfister, Manfred: Skalierung der Intertextualitt. In: Broich/
Pfister (Hgg.): Intertextualitt. S. S. 25-30
SulTe-midelihi 985: Schulte-Middelich, Bernd: Funktionen intertextueller Textkonstitution. In: Broich/Pfister (Hgg.): Intertextualitt. S. 197242
ci pfeli 2001: Zipfel, Frank: Fiktion, Fiktivitt, Fiktionalitt: Analysen zur Fiktion in der Literatur und zum Fiktionsbegriff in der Literaturwissenschaft. Berlin: Schmidt 2001

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interteqstualoba, rogorc fiqcionalobis signali

Levan Tsagareli

Intertextuality as a signal of the fictionality


Several forms of intertextuality can point to the fictionality of a peace of the
literary work it appears in. However there is a number of conditions which are to
be fulfilled in order to enable a certain intertextual element to point to the entire
texts fictionality. These conditions are: 1. The prae-text must be fictional itself; 2.
The intertextual relation must be based on structural or element similarity. Furthermore some kinds of intertextuality are especially assignated for the functions
mentioned above. Such are: 1. Cited citation; 2. System reference; 3. Selfconscious intertextuality; 4. All kinds of pseudo-intertextuality; 5. Intermediality.

270

gia joxaZe

rolan barti da qarTuli


istoriuli diskursi

istoriis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul
mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asistent-profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
XIII_XIV saukuneebis
saqarTvelos istoriidan,
avgustineseuli providencializmi da JamTaaRmwerlis religiuri
msoflmxedveloba da
istoriuli esseebi.
interesebis sfero:
eklesiisa da religiis
istoria da istoriuli
anTropologiis problemebi.

yvela istoriuli narkvevi gulisxmobs


kategoriaTa erTgvar sistemas, romelic adekvaturi iqneba aRwerili faqtebis warmosadgenad. yvela dadgenili faqti terminebSi
ganefineba, maTi SemweobiT warmodgeba da ase
vTqvaT, faqtdeba. istoriuli faqti TviTonaa terminTa erTgvari urTierToba. istoriuli diskursi, rogorc faqtebis erToblioba, ase Tu ise adgens am terminTa
gamoyenebis sazRvrebs da erT mTlianobad
warmogvidgens maT urTierTdamokidebulebas.
diskursadac is konstruqcia unda miviCnioT, romelsac pretenzia aqvs amgvar mTlianobaze (gutneri).
diskursi mxolod JanrTa sistema an
gansazRvrul subieqtze gamonaTqvamTa korpusi rodia. is avtors aqcevs kulturuli
cvlilebebis monawile subieqtadac. zogjer
istorikosi is ar aris, vinc warsulze gvesaubreba; xandaxan is TviTon qmnis gamoTqmebs,
romelTac saWirod miiCnevs. avtoroba, werilobiTi diskursis monawileoba, rogorc
pirovnuli identobis Semadgeneli nawili
da
idiomebisa da individualobis urTierTqmedeba _ ai, ra aris yvelaze saintereso
istoriul diskursSi (prixodko 2005: 111).
am TvalsazrisiT metad sainteresod
gveCvena rolan bartis Sexedulebebi istoriul diskursze (barti 2003: 512).

rolan barti da qarTuli istoriuli diskursi

271

Tumc vidre sakuTriv bartis debulebebs ganvixilavdeT, SevTanxmdeT, rom lingvistikaSi momxdarma cvlilebebma aucilebeli gaxada
istoriul mecnierebaSic davkvirvebodiT sityvaTa zefrazul kompleqsebs, gadagvexeda diskursTa tradiciuli ti pologiisaTvis
da dagvesva kiTxvebi: marTlac arsebobs antagonizmi poetur da
romanul diskurss, gamogonil da istoriul ambavs Soris? ramdenad niSandoblivia warsulis ambisa da mis Sesaxeb TxrobisaTvis
epoepis, romanis, dramis Tvisebebi? ramdenad emorCileba istoria
realobis imperativs, racionaluri Txrobis princi pebs, ramdenad
gamoirCeva struqturuli TanmimdevrobiTa da mowesrigebulobiT?
ra sityvebiT operirebs istorikosi Tavis diskursSi?
istoriuli diskursi Seicavs konstantaTa or tips.
pirvelia e.w. mosmena, gagoneba. istorikosi ambobs, rom romeliRac ambavze smenia, raRac gaugonia, raRacisTvis yuri moukravs.
es sqema SesaZloa ase warmovidginoT: Txrobisas dikursSi moxseniebulia istorikosisTvis informaciis mimwodebeli, romelsac
mivyavarT Txrobis subieqtTan anu istorikosTan. herodote iyenebs aseT formebs: rogorc miTxres, rogorc CvenTvis cnobili
gaxda...
qarTuli istoriul diskursSic gvxvdeba amgvari gamoTqmebi:
ityvian (igulisxme: amboben...) (JamTaaRmwereli, 1982: 295), brZenTa da gonierTa kacTagan masmian... (istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani 1982:162), xolo iTqva eseca (JamTaaRmwereli, 1982: 289),
Tqmul ars eseca... (istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani, 1982:219,
JamTaaRmwereli 354), viTarca gvesma (basili ezosmoZRvari, 1982:
261) da sxva mravali. yvela narativisTvis niSandoblivi es konstruqciebi win uZRvis avtoris diskurss, romelSic axali debulebebi unda gaxmiandes. mas yuradRebis gamaxvilebis, aqcentirebis funqcia aqvs. istoriografis samreklodan ki msgavsi gamoTqmebi sandoobis xarisxis asamaRleblad moixmareba. didi misnoba ar
sWirdeba imis mixvedras, rom msmenia, gamigonia,rogorc miTxres
da a.S. SeuZlebelia istoriuli teqstis specifikad miviCnioT _
amgvar frazebs ufro yoveldRiur saubarSi da romanuli Txrobisas vxvdebiT.
SesaZloa, Txrobis subieqti TviTon SeiWras teqstSi, Txroba awmyoSi gadmoitanos, TviTon miiRos monawileoba mis mierve
aRweril romelime movlenaSi, ramenairad gamoxatos sakuTari
gamocdileba...
qarTuli istoriuli diskursi amgvar SemTxvevebsac icnobs:

272

gia joxaZe

TvaliTa CveniTa vixileT (cxovreba mefeT-mefisa daviTisi


1982: 119); sxvaTaSoris, es gansakuTrebuli SemTxveva gvgonia da
yuradRebis odnav met koncentrirebas moiTxovs: mTxrobeli rom
sakuTar gamocdilebas gviziarebs, cxadia, es suraTis fersavseobas
da amiT _ Txrobis metad gamZafrebas emsaxureba, xolo istoriografis poziciidan meti damajereblobisTvis gamoyenebuli xerxia. aq naratorisa da istorikosis intencia SesaZloa erTmaneTs
emTxveodes. magram saqme mxolod es ar aris: daviT aRmaSeneblis
istorikosi ganagrZobs: Cveni TvaliT vnaxeT da friad ufros amaT
warmoTqmulTasao. anu rac vnaxeT (mtris Semoseva da qveynis
daqceva) bevrad metia (friad ufros), vidre is, ris Tqmac sityviT SevZeliTo. xom ar sWvivis am literaturul xerxSi isic,
rom sityvas (Tqmas, Txrobas, warmoTqmuls) ar ZaluZs srulad
imis gadmocema, rac sinamdvileSi momxdara?! xom ar ambobs aq
istorikosi (Tundac uneblieT) imas, rom es mxolod ambavia,
moTxrobaa da ara _ eWvSeuvali mtkiceba?! xom ar krTeba aq is
debuleba, romlis mtkicebasac analTa skolis fuZemdebelTa Semoqmedeba mieZRvna?!
Txrobis subieqtis teqstSi SeWris sxva magaliTebis ganxilvac SesaZlebelia: daviT aRmaSeneblis istorikosi aRwers yvelasaTvis kargad nacnob erT epizods, roca Cauqad mebrZol daviTs
sartyeli Seuxsnia da Sededebuli sisxli gadmoqceula: TviT
misgan vgonebdiT gamosrulado (cxovreba mefeT-mefe daviTisi 1982:
123), TviT me minaxavs (JamTaaRmwereli 1982: 339) da sxva mravali.
konstantaTa meore ti pSi erTiandeba mkafio niSnebi, romelTa
meSveobiTac Txrobis subieqti ayalibebs sakuTar diskurss, Txrobisas ambavs asworebs, xvews, cvlis, SeniSnavs, dasZens da a.S es
SesaZloa ganiWvritebodes Txrobis sagnisaken svlad. radgan yovelgvari svla mimarTulebasac (aqeT, iqiT, zemoT, qvemoT...) gulisxmobs, Txrobac mis mixedviT ganefineba.
Txrobisas subieqti SesaZloa uZravi iyos da sakompensaciod
iyenebdes frazebs: rogorc zemoT giTxariT, rogorc ukve giTxariT...
qarTuli istoriuli diskursic xsenebul mdgomareobaSi amgvari frazebiT operirebs: viTarca zemoT vTqviT (cxovreba mefeTmefe daviTisi, 1982: 122), vina zemove vTqu (basili ezosmoZRvari,
1982: 258), viTarca miTquams, viTar zemore vTqviT, zemore

rolan barti da qarTuli istoriuli diskursi

273

agviweria, viTar zemoTqmul ars (JamTaaRmwereli, 1982: 363, 369,


376, 382) da sxva misTanani.
aseT SemTxvevaSi mTxrobeli aqtiuri aRar aris, yovel SemTxvevaSi aRar apirebs Txrobis aqtis ganxorcielebas. motivi SeiZleba erTi iyos: mTxrobeli dros zogavs da endoba msmenelis
mexsierebas;
Txrobis subieqts zemoT mivyavarT konstantiT: zemoT naTqvams gavimeoreb.
qarTuli istoriuli diskursisTvis esec cnobilia: rameTu
zemoT datevebuli ambavi aRmarT ambijebelTa kvalad viwyoT, xolo
Cven zemoxsenebulisa ... mimarT aRvideT, ... pirvelive gza aRvloT,
... pirvelsave sityvasa aRvideT, ...pirvelsave sityvasa zeda movideT da sxv. (JamTaaRmwereli, 1982: 303, 382, 391, 403, 420; matiane
qarTlisa, 1982: 102); zemoT am SemTxvevebSi ukves konteqstiT
ixmareba; mimarTulebazec migviTiTebs, magram qarTuli istoriuli
diskursisTvis arc esaa sakmarisi: is ufro amkveTrebs mimarTulebis
konteqsts da iyenebs sityvebs: aRmarT, aRvideT, aRvloT aRmarT ambijebelTa... Tu zedmet skrupulozurobad ar CamogverTmeva, vityviT, rom Cveni azriT, zogan semantikuri dualizmic krTeba:
aRiarebuli TvalsazrisiT, pirvelsa sityvasa mosvla an asvla,
zemonaTqvamTan dabrunebaa, Txrobis gangrZobis xerxia _ aq zemoT
da pirvelsa identuri Sinaarsisad aRiqmeba. magram xom ar krTis
aq Suasaukuneobrivi tradiciac da mTxrobelic kidev erTxel xom
ar axsenebs logoss _ pirvelsa sityvas _ raTa man xeli moumarTos TxrobaSi? (Sdr: dasawyisSi iyo sityva; da sityva iyo RmerTTan; da sityva iyo RmerTi; Tavdapirvelad iyo sityva da a.S,
ioanes saxareba). Tu es frTxili varaudi odnav mainc axlos dgas
simarTlesTan, is kidev erTxel adasturebs, rom saistorio wyaroebis saxiT saqme gvaqvs moTxrobasTan da termin istoriis
erT-erTi mniSvneloba _ moTxroba _ xelmeoredaa gulisxmasayofi.
Txrobis subieqti yovndeba konstantiT: amaze mets aras
getyviT...
qarTuli istoriuli diskursi amgvar SemTxvevaSi iyenebs
frazebs: raTa ara ganvagrZoT sityva (cxovreba mefeT-mefisa daviTisi, 1982: 118), radRa saxmar ars Tqma, sawyen same iqmnas aRwerili gangrZobiTa saTqmelTaTa, ... kma viyo Tqmad, kvalad meneba
dumili, da raRa grZel sityva saxmar ars? (istoriani da azmani
SaravandedTani, 1982: 142, 143, 150), rasaRa mravalsa vityodiT?, ...
da rasa mravalsa vityodi?, radRa saxmar ars Tqmad..., davxSi

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gia joxaZe

sityvisa wyoba, dumiliT... davidumoT (basili ezosmoZRvari, 1982:


1250, 258, 275, 279), ara ars Jami aRwerad, TviToeulad warmoTqma grZel ars, ujero ars aw Tqma, ese aqamomde iyavn, aqa
megulebis dadumebad, ara ars Jami Tqmad, ara ars Jami moTxrobad, aqaca vinebe dumili (JamTaaRmwereli, 1982: 285, 286, 288, 289,
300, 305, 314, 317) da mravali sxva.
yvela am frazis gamoyenebas erTi mravalsaxa motivi aqvs:
isedac yvelaferi cxadia da mTxrobeli uxvsityvaobas da
drois xarjvas erideba;
suliT xorcamde SeZrulia momxdariT da laparaki aRar ZaluZs;
sityvis gangrZobiT suraTi kidev ufro Camuqdeboda;
gmiris saqmeTa sagmiroTa aRwera sityviT SeuZlebelia, dumili sjobs;
egeb, sxvas Seewios RmerTi da sxvam SeiZlos Tqma;
mefeze augis Tqma qristians ekrZaleba;
Txrobis sagnad mxolod naratoris azriT mniSvnelovani ambebia SerCeuli da sxv.
is, rom es frazebi wminda literaturuli xerxebia imiTac
mtkicdeba, rom sulSeZruli Tu drois damzogveli istorikosi, romelic dadumebas gvpirdeboda, mainc aRwers ambavs da arc Tu
kondensirebulad.
Txrobis subieqti winaswar gvatyobinebs aRsawer ambavs da
iyenebs konstantas: axla imaze giambobT...
qarTuli istoriuli diskursi am winasityvaobas Tu winaTqmas amgvarad gadmogvcems: viTarca winamdebare sityvaman cxadyos..., viTarca aw iTqvas, xolo ismendi..., ismineT...(cxovreba
mefeT-mefisa daviTisi, 1982: 120, 124, 138, 147), aw viwyo..., ...vTqvaT..., qvemore sityvaman sacnaur hyos..., Tu rani da raoden iqmnes,
winamdebarisagan euwyen msmenelTa, ... me eseca gauwyo sabralo da
saZnauri saqme, ... xams ... gagoneba, davhyoT Tvali..., eseca uwyodiT Tqven, msmenelTa: (istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani, 1982:
163, 177, 185, 187, 188, 200, 206), aw jer ars moxsenebad, jer ars ...
moxseneba, jer ars... Tqma, megulvebis aw warmoTqma... (basili
ezosmoZRvari, 1982: 255, 267, 272) da mravali sxva.
aq ramdenime droiTi ganzomileba Tanaarsebobs, ufro zustad
_ Tanamxebobs: dro, roca ambavi xdeba da dro, roca ambavi gamoiTqmis. Txrobis subieqti awmyoSia, ambavi _ warsulSi, magram radgan
jer ar uambiaT, momavladac aRiqmeba. aseTi urTierTmxeboba warmoqmnis istoriuli diskursis sam aspeqts:

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1) zogi movlenis gadmocema istorias aCqarebs: Txrobis aqtSi


moqceulia drois sxvadasxva an sxvadasxva drois monakveTebi (saukuneebi, wlebi, dReebi)... istorikosi rac metad uaxlovdeba Tavis
dros, miT ufro neldeba istoriis svla, misi wrfivi ganviTareba;
aq SesaZloa istoriuli teqsti sxva teqstebs gaesaubros da
axali logika Camoayalibos.
2) Txroba istoriuli drois siRrmisken miemarTeba: romelime axali personaJis Semoyvanisas Txrobis subieqti ixsenebs mis
winaprebs, Semdeg kvlav sawyis wertils ubrundeba, mere isev istoriul droSi mogzaurobs da a.S.
pirveli or aspeqti qarTul istoriul diskursSi isea interpretirebuli, rom iolad emorCileba gamoTqmebs: Semdgomad
amissa, amis Semdgomad (matiane qarTlisa, 1982: 91, 92, 93, 94), ama
viTarebasa Sina, amas Jamsa, amaT Tana... (cxovreba mefeT-mefisa
daviTisi, 1982: 120, 121, 143) da sxv. am da sxva konstruqciebis
wiaRSi gadis dro: xan erTi Tu ori, xanac _ ramdenime weli. amitom
istorikosi drois aCqarebis, gabmuli Txrobis ritmis Secvlis
Semdeg qoronikons axsenebs, wels miuTiTebs, rac wrfivi ganviTarebis adgenis cdad unda miviCnioT. cxadia, drois aCqarebis literaturuli xerxi aq imis SesaniRbad gamoiyeneba, rom istorikosisTvis mniSvnelovani ambebi xsenebul droSi ar momxdara.
axali personaJis Semoyvanisa da aqedan gamomdinare droSi
mogzaurobis aspeqtis damadasturebel pasaJTagan, Cveni azriT, yvelaze saxieria JamTaaRmwerlis teqsti: laSa-giorgi zeobis aRweris Semdeg, roca Txroba TiTqos rusudanis mmarTvelobiT unda
gagrZelebuliyo, teqstualur scenaze Semodian mongolebi da Cingiz yaeni: mongolTa tomis istoria dasabamidan iwyeba da Cingiz
yaenis gamoCenamde aRwevs. am ukanasknelis daxasiaTebis Semdeg aRwerilia misi gza yaenis taxtamde. Txrobis subieqti arc Cingizis
Svilebs da colebs iviwyebs. amiT Txrobis subieqti yuradRebis
koncentrirebas im obieqtze axdens, romelic Semdgomi Txrobis
procesSic gamoadgeba. amdenad, droSi mogzauroba qarTuli istoriuli diskursis niSandoblivi Tvisebaa.
arsebobs istoriuli diskursis kidev erTi aspeqti:
3) qronikaluri istoriuli dro irRveva, roca subieqti mimarTavs Sesaval konstruqciebs: aq Tanaarsebobs movlenis dasawyisica da winaswarTqmis aqtic. istoriuli diskursi icnobs performatul, sazeimo Sesavals, da winasityvaobas, roca sagangebod

276

gia joxaZe

xazgasmulia aRsaweri movlenis mniSvneloba, winaswar iTqmis is,


rac moxdeba, roca movlena Sefasebulia;
qarTuli istoriuli diskursisaTvis aseTi aspeqtis momarjveba ucxo ar aris, Tumc erTgvar saerTo niSnad unda miviCnioT is
garemoeba, rom Sesavlis, winaTqmis formas istorikosTa umravlesoba Txzulebis TavSi ki ar mimarTavs, aramed _ eqspoziciisas;
ufro zustad _ maSin, roca Txrobam Txzulebis protagonists an
romelime mniSvnelovan movlenas unda uwinamZRvros. cxadia,
gasaTvaliswinebelia is mosazrebac, rom Cvenamde moRweuli naratiuli wyaroebi usrulia, naklulia da SesaZloa, aseTi dasawyisebi
dakarguliyo an qarTlis cxovrebis erTian teqstad qcevisas
redaqtorebs ukuegdoT.
SeuZlebelia, winaTqmad ar aRiqvas mkiTxvelma istorikosis
pasaJi, romliTac bibliuri daviTis samocdameTvramete Svilis
_P daviT aRmaSeneblis _ didi cxovreba iwyeba: ... amieriTgan iwyes
niavTa cxovrebisTa mobervad da RrubelTa macxovarebisaTa aRmoWvirobad, vinaTgan aTormet wel amaT TviTosaxeTa WirTa gangrZobiTa bnelsa ukunsa Sina iwyo aRmociskrebad mzeman yovelTa
mefobaTaman, didman saxeliTa da udidesman saqmiTa... (cxovreba
mefeT-mefisa daviTisi, gv. 119) da a.S.
albaT performatuli Sesavlis magaliTad unda miviRoT daviTis istorikosisave pasaJi, romelSic vaebis Rirsad miiCnevs homeross, aristoteles, ioseb flaviuss, romelTac sakmarisi safuZveli ar hqondaT, TavianTi gmirebis saqmeni sagmironi aReweraT da
sruliad sxvagvarad gairjebodnen, daviTi rom hyolodaT Tvalwin (cxovreba mefeT-mefe daviTisi, gv. 133);
an istoriani da azmani SaravandedTanis winaTqma, romelSic
avtori uricxvi bibliuri magaliTis moyvaniT enamWevrobas Txovs
ufals Tamaris cxovrebis aRsawerad (istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani, gv. 161); an rad Rirs es pasaJi Tamaris gansadideblad
(igulisxme: imis winaswarsacnobad, Tu rogor ifaravs qarTvel
dedofals uflis xeli): oi gansakrTomeli simxne da siqvele da
xeli sauflo! viTar romelTa wyobaTa Sina smenil ars, gina ZvelTa,
gina axalTa, esreT uvnebeloba ugrZneulad damsxmelobasa Sina!
(iqve, gv. 171) da a.S;
Tamari samebisa Tana ixilvebis oTxebad SesavalSi, roca
naratori amaze sasaubrod emzadeba (iqve, gv. 179);

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istorikosi iZulebulia Tamaris mama-dedaTa xotbidan Tamaris saqmeTa sagmiroTaTvis moamzados mkiTxveli (basili ezosmoZRvari, gv. 248);
es Sesavalic am rigs ganekuTvneba: xolo amieriTgan viwyo
wyobad, brZolad gonebisad mimzidavman, da mkveTebelman msgavsad
qvisa da rkinisaman aRmovSobo cecxli siyvarulisa da qebisa da
survilisa, aRvatyino da aRvamaRlo saxmili camdin, mun Sigan aRmovaCino eTerica cecxlisa da qveyana cecxlTagan mleveli urCTa da
cecxlebr Rone da moxmarebuli megobarTa da moyvareTa (istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani, gv. 179); mTxrobeli Zvel aRTqmaSi
mogzaurobs da imis niSnad, rom mahmadianTa oqros xana mTavrdeba
da qristianTa (igulisxme: qarTvelTa) aRmavloba iwyeba, ambobs: ...
me aqa amisaTvis winasityva vyof, rameTu moakldeboda Zalsa mohmadianTasa, da mcemelica ebansa, rameTu qristianeTa orRanoni xmovanobdes kidiT kidedmde (iqve, gv. 261) da a.S.; mTxroblis mxiarulad ambisagan metyveli piri aw mwuxarebisa mimarT miiqcevis,
radgan yovlisa soflisa saglovelisa ambisa warmoTqma egulvebis (iqve, gv. 272) da a.S.
qarTlis cxovrebas amSvenebs giorgi V brwyinvalis zeobis
dasawyisad moazrebuli fragmenti: da iwyo mTiebman aRmoWvirvebad,
xolo me ena ver miZravs sakvirvelisa da saSinelisa Tqmad...
(JamTaaRmwereli, gv. 429).
aseT SemTxvevebSi Txrobis aqti teqstSi iWreba da aq mTavari
istorikosis subieqturoba ki ar aris, aramed _ istoriis qronikaluri drois garTuleba, misi Sejaxeba drosTan (wignis
drosTan), roca diskursi gamoiTqmis. amis Sedegad viRebT deqronologizebul istoriul movlenaTa jaWvs, reminiscencias, nostalgias, ara wrfiv, aramed _ miTur, uZveles kosmologiaTa dros, romelic
aseve arsebiTad ukavSirdeboda poetisa Tu winaswarmzraxvelis
Txrobas: amiT istorikosi xdeba winaswarmetyveli, miTis mTxzveli
_ man icis is, rac jer ar gacnaurebula.
istoriuli diskursisTvis niSandoblivia sityvebi, romlebiTac gamoixateba ara mxolod Txrobis aqti, aramed _ e.w. mkiTxveli
subieqti.
qarTul istoriul diskursSi avtori mkiTxvelad saxeldebul obieqts uSualod iSviaTad exmianeba (Cvens mier ganxilul wyaroebSi _ sul erTxel _ nu amas eZieb, mkiTxvelo, Tu
viTar iqmneboda ese... (cxovreba mefeT-mefe daviTisi, gv. 144);
erTxelac obieqts msmenelad moixseniebs (xolo eseca uwyodiT

278

gia joxaZe

Tqven, msmenelTa..., istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani, gv. 206), rac


imave mkiTxvelad unda miviCnioT. Tumc danarCen SemTxvevebSic
swored mkiTxvel subieqts mimarTaven: xolo ismendi..., ...uwyi
yovelTa, ganicadeTRa Cemdad..., garna ismineT... (cxovreba mefeTmefisa daviTisi, gv. 138, 139, 140, 147) da a.S.
gvxvdeba konstruqciebi, romlebiTac mkiTxvelis darwmuneba an
gadarwmuneba ganuzraxavT: nuukve hgono, nu metyvi, nu iyofin ese,
warved!, ara, esreT ara! (iqve, gv. 139, 142, 144, 1470), Tu visme
nebavs amisganca, ixilen..., ismineniT (istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani, gv. 228), ... esreT ganigone ..., ... ismine ... (cxovreba
mefeT-mefisa Tamarisi, gv. 259, 260) da sxva mravali.
sainteresoa, rom aseTi sqema SeiZleba gaiSifros RmerTis
mimarTvad xalxisadmi, romelsac amgvari istoria uZRvna. am dros
istorikosi RvTisa da xalxis Suamavalia. is gamgzavnia, mkiTxveli
_ mimRebi.
istoriul diskurss axasiaTebs SemTxvevebi, roca gamoTqmis subieqti cdilobs, gamoeTiSos Tavis diskurss, ar Caerios,
monawileoba ar miiRos masSi. am dros diskursSi ver vxvdebiT
istoriografiuli Semtyobineblis niSnebs _ istoria TiTqos TavisiT moiTxroba. sinamdvileSi gamgzavni aq mxolod sakuTar emociur
pirovnebas gamodevnis da mas obieqturi pirovnebiT anacvlebs.
subieqti SenarCunebulia, oRond rogorc _ obieqturi subieqti.
istorikosi ise iqceva, TiTqos TviT referents alaparakebso; arada, niSnis ararseboba ukve TavisTavadaa raRacis niSani. qarTul
saistorio sivrceSi zemoTqmulis dadasturebad unda miviCnioT
matiane qarTlisa, romelic Tu oriod SemTxvevas ar gaviTvaliswinebT, obieqturi Txrobis asociacias aRgviZravs.
istoriul diskursSi uyuradRebod ar unda dagvrCes
wminda Sinaarsobrivi erTeulebi, aRsaniSnebi, romlebzec gviambobs
istoria. es erTgvari koleqciaa, romlis komponentebic meordebian,
Tumc ki mravalferovan nazavs warmoqmnian. eseni SeiZleba iyos
dinastiebi, mmarTvelebi, mxedarTmTavrebi da a.S. maT predikatebad
gvevlineba qmedebis gamomxatveli gamoTqmebi: daarbia, SeierTa,
ilaSqra, imefa da sxva misTanani. SesaZlebelia yovelive amis
struqturirebac, rac konkretul istorikoszea xolme damokidebuli. zogi mTlianad sabrZolo leqsikoniT sargeblobs; zogi
didebasa da ayvavebas ugalobs; zogisTvis miRweulis SenarCunebaa
mTavari da a.S.

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qarTul istoriul diskursSi saqarTvelos gaerTianebamde an


e.w. aqtiuri Tavdacvis fazaSi ZiriTadad omis leqsikoniT sargebloben (matiane qarTlisa, cxovreba mefeT-mefe daviTisi...);
leqsikoni icvleba qveynis gaerTianebis Semdeg. aq organulad aRiqmeba
saubari qveynis aRvsebaze, aRSenebaze, mSvidobaze, warmatebaze, RmrTivdaculobaze, gansvenebasa da a.S.
mongolTa Semosevebi da Semdgomi movlenebi diametrulad cvlis leqsikons.
istoriuli diskursis statusi yovelTvis da yvelgan mtkicebiTia. istoriuli faqti sargeblobs myofobis lingvisturi
privilegiiT: imaze gviambobs, rac iyo da, ara imaze, rac ar yofila
an saeWvod miaCnia. istoriuli diskursi TiTqmis ar icnobs uaryofas. es garemoeba gamoTqmis subieqts amsgavsebs fsiqoziT daavadebuls, romelsac ama Tu im gamoTqmis uaryofiT formaSi gadayvana ar ZaluZs.
am sagangebod utrirebuli Sefasebis miuxedavad qarTuli istoriuli diskursisTvis es debuleba ZiriTadad misaRebad unda
miviCnioT.
oriod sityva vTqvaT Sinaarsobriv erTeulTa klasebsa da maT
Tanmimdevrul SeerTebaze. pirveli klasi moicavs diskursis yvela
segments, romlebic metaforulad erT implicitur aRsaniSnTan
gvagzavnian. maT indeqsebi an niSnebi vuwodoT.
qarTul istoriul diskursSi, vTqvaT, JamTaaRmwerlis TxzulebaSi, sityvebi: nayrovaneba, Wama-sma, gaZRoma, gasuqeba TavianTi pirvandeli mniSvnelobiT arc gamoiyeneba. isini, bibliur magaliTTa fonze, gvgzavnis rogorc materialur, ise (SesaZloa, upiratesadac ki) _ sulier dacemasTan. amgvar nimuSTa moZieba Zneli
ar aris.
meore klasSi pirobiTad erTiandeba fragmentebi, romelTac
msjelobis, silogizmebis, entimemebis forma aqvT.
qarTul istoriul diskursSi ZiriTadad kategoriuli silogizmebi gvxvdeba. aq istoriuli diskursi, rogorc wesi, saRvTismetyvelo diskurss erwymis: arave damSvidna qveyana, arca ra iqmna
lxineba kacTa ukeTurebisaTvis mkvidrTa misTasa, vinaidan yovelman asakman da yovelman pativman Sescodes RmerTsa, saidanac gamomdinareobs, rom eri, romeli savse ars usjuloebiTa... ara ars mas
Sina sicocxle (cxovreba mefeT-mefe daviTisi, gv. 118); radgan ar
SevinaneT, arca gulisxma vyavT, arca jerovnad moviqeciT gzaTa
mimarT, amisTvisca qveyaniT mavalTa borotTa zeda sxvanica saSinele-

280

gia joxaZe

bani zegardamoni, RmrTisa mier movlinebulni gvemani moiwivnes qveyanasa Cvensa zeda, raTa aravis Seeparos eWvi da darwmundes, rom es
risxva RvTisganaa da ara _ ubralo damTxveva (iqve, 119) da mravali sxva. unda aRiniSnos, rom silogizmebi istoriul diskursSi
specifikurad ar iTvleba. maT ufro romanebSi vxvdebiT, sadac
siuJetis mkveTri cvla mkiTxvelis TvalSi marTldeba silogisturi ti pis fsevdomsjelobebiT.
Sinaarsobriv erTeulTa klass axasiaTebs mTxrobelobiTi
funqcia anu siuJetis gardamtexi momenti, roca siuJeturi xazis
ganviTareba dilemis winaSe dgeba. xSirad es funqciebi erT daxSul seriad, erT epizodad gadaiqceva xolme. SesaZloa isini dayos
am epizodTan sruliad dacilebulma erTeulma, sxva epizodis elementebma an meorexarisxovanma damatebebma.
am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT yuradsaRebia JamTaaRmwerlis
diskursi:
qarTvelebi umefod darCnen. alamutis cixisaTvis maTi laSqari
mongolTa mxardamxar ibrZvis. mulidebma RamiT mzinare CaRata
noini mokles. mongolebma qarTvelebs daabrales, amas yovelni
ucilod daamtkicebdis. aRSfoTebuli mongolebi qarvelTa banakis darbevas izraxaven. qarTvelebi mcireni arian da brZolas
amaod miiCneven. RvTismSobels SesTxoven Svelas. moaxloebul iyvnes
barbarozni igi, uwyalod mspolavni qarTvelTa. maSin gamodis
mulidi da CaRatas mokvlas aRiarebs, RvTismSobelma Camagona simarTlis Tqmao. morali erTia: qristes sjulis Seuryevlad dacva
yvelaze kritikul momentSic ki xsnis garantiaa. am fragmentiT,
romelic mravalTagan erT-erTia, xazi esmeba qarTuli istoriuli
diskursis mniSvnelobis or dones: gadmocemuli masalis imanentur
dones, romelic gulisxmobs yvela mniSvnelobas, romelTac istorikosi faqts miawers (vTqvaT, moralur-politikuri Segonebani) da
dones, romelsac mivyavarT istoriis iseT filosofiasTan, sadac
adamianTa samyaro RvTis kanons emorCileba (JamTaaRmwerelTan es
kanoni providencializmia).
istoriul diskursSi mniSvnelobis moZiebis procesi yovelTvis
miemarTeba istoriis sazrisis gafarToebas, Sevsebas: istorikosi
agrovebs ara imdenad faqtebs, aramed _ maT aRmniSvnelT, cdilobs
miakvlios romelime pozitiur mniSvnelobas da seriulobis sicariele Seavsos.
istoriuli diskursi Tavisi struqturiT, uwinaresad,
ideologiuri, ufro zustad, warmosaxviTi konstruqciaa: warmo-

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saxva is enaa, romliTac diskursis gamgzavni (wminda enobrivi arseba) avsebs gamoTqmis subieqts (fsiqologiur-ideologiur arsebas). amitomac hbadebs istoriuli faqtis cneba urwmunobas. jer
kidev nicSe werda: ar arsebobs faqti, rogorc aseTi. faqtis
gasaCenad jer misTvis raRac mniSvnelobis micemaa aucilebeli. im
wamidan, roca saqmeSi ena erTveba, faqti mxolod tavtologiad Tu
gamogvadgeba, radgan moxseniebuli gamomdinareobs moxseniebis Rirsi faqtidan. moxseniebis Rirsi ki mxolod RirsSesaniSnavia. esaa
paradoqsi, romliTac istoriuli dikursis mTeli sistema regulirdeba: faqti mxolod enaSi arsebobs, magram yovelive ise xdeba,
TiTqos misi arseboba sadRac sxvagan arsebuli, arastruqturirebuli sferos asli iyos.
istoriuli diskursisTvis niSandoblivia sakmaod idumali
dualizmi: jer referenti gamoeyofa diskurss da miiCneven, rom isaa
yovelives warmmarTveli; esaa res gestae _ saqme, qmedeba, maSin,
roca diskursi mxolod qmedebis aRweraa anu Historia rerum gestarum. Semdeg ki aRsaniSni ganidevneba da referents erwymis.
amdenad, istoriuli diskursi ar asaxavs sinamdviles, mxolod
aRniSnavs mas.
TxrobiTi istoria genetikurad ukavSirdeba beletristul
monaTxrobs. misi Zirebi Zvel literaturul nawarmoebebSi iZebneba. am istoriisaTvis niSandoblivia specifikuri forma, romelic
gansakuTrebiT uaxlovdeba biografias da eyrdnoba tradiciul
metaforebs. misi struqtura anTropomorfulia, romelic metaforad aqcevs sinamdviles, warmodgenils calkeuli adamianisa Tu
xalxis, saxelmwifos, institutebis, Temis bedis saxiT. mas aqvs
Tavisi dasawyisi da dasasruli, rogorc adamians, romelic ibadeba
da kvdeba. am struqturas aqvs Tavisi genezisi (Tavisi mama-papa) da
mTavari mizani _ arsi, finali. genezisis metafora fetiSad iqceva,
mizani ki _ kerpad (voicex vJozeki 1991:192; Ppomiani 1984:40).
........................................................................................................................................................................................................
Zneli saTqmelia, erT statiaSi ramdenadaa SesaZlebeli qarTuli istoriuli diskursis perspeqtivebis mosazRvra, magram uciloa, rom Tu gvsurs, Tanamedrove humanitaruli mecnierebis cnobiereba ar aRiqmebodes raRac Soreul ucxo qimerad, mis enaze laparaki
unda viswavloT, Tundac es enis adgmis mtanjvel process anu
xelmeored dabadebas udrides.

282

gia joxaZe

literatura

gutneri 2007: .., ,


http: // www.philosophy. ru /library/ discurs/guthner.html
prixodko 2005: Yaroslav Prykhodko, Performing the self in the discourse
of History: The american Revolution and memoir writing 1770-s-1840s, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, 2005
barti 2003 ; ROLAND BARTHES THE DISCOURSE OF HISTORY,
translated by Stephen Bann. Comparative Criticism, 3 (1981)
qarTuli proza 1982: w. III, Tbilisi.
voicex vJozeki 1991: ,
: . :
/ . - . . .
- .
pomiani 1984: Pomian K. Lordre du temps. P.

Gia Jokhadze

Rolan Barth and the Georgian Historical Discourse


Historical discourse involves two regular types of shifters. The first type
comprises what we might call the shifters of listening. In addition to the event
reported, discourse mentions at the same time the act of the informer, and the
speech of the utterer which is related to it. This form of shifter thus designates any
reference to the historian's listening, collecting testimony from elsewhere and
telling it in his own discourse. Listening made explicit represents a choice, for it is
possible not to refer to it at all; it brings the historian closer to the anthropologist,
in so far as he mentions the source of his information. The listening shifter is
obviously not distinctive to historical discourse: it is found frequently in conversation, and in certain expository devices used in the novel (such as anecdotes which
are taken from fictional sources of information mentioned in the text). The second type of shifter comprises all the explicit signs whereby the utterer - in this
case, the historian - organizes his own discourse, taking up the thread or modifying his approach in some way in the course of narration: that is to say, where he
provides explicit points of reference in the text. This is an important type of

rolan barti da qarTuli istoriuli diskursi

283

shifter, and there can be many different ways of 'organizing' discourse accordingly; but these different instances can all be subsumed under the principle that each
shifter indicates a movement of the discourse in relation to its matter, or more
precisely a movement in relation to the sequence of its matter, rather like the
operation of the temporal and locational deictics 'here is/there is'. Thus we can
cite as cases where the shifter affects the flow of utterances: the effect of immobility, that of returning to an earlier stage, that of coming back again, that of
stopping dead, and that of announcing. The second point also reminds us, in its
we, that this type of discourse - though linear in its material form - when it is face
to face with historical time, undertakes (so it would appear the role of amplifying
the depth of that time. We become aware of what we might call a zig-zag or sawtoothed history. Historical discourse is familiar with two general types of inauguration in the first place, there is what we might call the performative opening for
the words really perform a solemn act of foundation; the model for this is poetic,
the sing of the poets.
In the article we have tried to find similar positions in the Georgian historical discourse.

284

s e m i o t i k a

d a

s x v a . . .

naTela arvelaZe
Teatris semiotika

Teatris ena

xelovnebis mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa


rusTavelis Teatrisa da
kinos saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
msaxiobi, reJisori, repeticia (1978). Teatris
istoriis swavlebis sakiTxisaTvis (2002); Teatrmcodneobis kvlevis
formebi (speqtakl "samSoblos" Seswavla rekonstruqciis meTodiT)
(1998); Teatrze da ara
mxolod... (2006).
interesTa sfero: saTeatro kritikis formaTa
transformaciis problema; Teatris istoriis
Seswavla Tanamedrove mecnieruli mignebebis konteqstiT; saTeatro sakomunikacio enis sxvadasxva aspeqti; Teatris semiotika.

mecnierebaTa integraciis pirobebSi nebismieri dargis ganviTarebisaTvis niSandoblivi xdeba SesaZlebeli gaxsniloba.
humanitaruli mecnierebis erTi dargis miRwevebi, TiToeuli mecnieris mignebani ara
marto am mimarTulebis aRmoCena xdeba, aramed
uswrafesad zemoqmedebs sxvadasxva mecnier-specialistTa Ziebebze, gamohkveTs kidec
amgvar urTierTgamdidrebis mniSvnelobas
saerTod mecnieruli azrovnebis evoluciisTvis. humanitaruli mecnierebis dRevandeli etapisTvis agreTve damaxasiaTebelia
specifikuri problemebis kvleva saerToglobaluri miRwevebis konteqstiT, amasTanave,
specifikur sakiTxTa Seswavla, saerTo Semxebi wertilebis Zieba da amiT kvlevis
formaTa ganvrcoba-gaRrmaveba. amgvari midgoma samyaros, adamianis, sociumis, saxelmwifos, kulturis da sxvaTa Semecnebisadmi
cxadyofs, ramdenad daCqarda da siRrmiseuli svlebiT gamoirCeva TiToeuli mimarTulebis mecnierTa moRvaweoba, ramac ganviTarebis ufro maRali faza warmoqmna da,
Tavis mxriv, gamokveTa TiToeuli dargis
miRwevaTa masStabi. informaciuli bumis
epoqam, erTsa da imave dros, gaarTula, daaCqara da cnobaTa simravle-siWrelem gaaiola TiToeuli mecnieris moRvaweoba, ramac

285

Teatris ena

TavisTavad wamoWra araerTi, aqamde SeuniSnavi an nakleb sagulisxmod miCneuli problemebi. WeSmaritebas moklebuli ar unda iyos
erTi aspeqtis miTiTebac. amJamad SeiniSneba, erTi mxriv, sakiTxTa
kompleqsuri kvlevisadmi midrekileba, informaciis simravlis mizeziTac ki problemis masStaburi gaazreba da, imavdroulad, viwrospecifikur aspeqtTa Tanaarseboba. kvlevis amgvari mravalsaxeoba
amdidrebs ara marto saerTod mecnierul azrovnebas, aramed axal
Tvalsazrissac badebs TviT fundamentur problemaTa Taobazec ki,
axal midgomas ayalibebs RirebulebaTa sistemis mimarTac. am mxriv
gansakuTrebulad sagulisxmoa XX saukunis humanitarul mecnierebaTa miRwevebi, filosofosTa, fsiqologTa, sociologTa, enaTmecnierTa, literaturaTmcodneTa da sxvaTa kvlevis Sedegebi. maTi naSromebis gacnobis Sedegad gaRrmavda da mniSvnelovnad gamdidrda
TeatrmcodneobiTi kvlevis formebi, gind semiotikis mignebaTa gaziarebis Sedegad, gindac speqtaklis, rogorc saTeatro teqstis,
sxvadasxva aspeqtis SeswavlisaTvis.

Teatrmcodneobis, rogorc humanitaruli mecnierebis suverenuli Senakadis ganviTarebisaTvis udidesi roli Sesarula Teatris mecnierTa germanulma skolam. maqs hermanis, artur kuCeris,
karl nisenis da sxvaTa moRvaweobis wyalobiT ganviTarebis axal
safexurze aRmoCnda Teatrmcodneoba, rogorc Teatris Semswavleli prioritetuli dargi (inasariZe 1995:118). dasaxelebul mecnierTa damsaxurebaa, rom ganisazRvra Teatrmcodneobis kvlevis amocana,
sagani, meTodi. Teatrmcodneobis kvlevis sagnad maT mier aRiarebulia speqtakli da ara drama, rogorc manamde iyo umetesad miCneuli. nebismieri pirvelwyaro (piesa, scenari, inscenireba da a.S)
mxolod saSualebaa sasceno nawarmoebis Sesaqmnelad. misi Seswavla literaturaTmcodneTa prerogativaa, Tumca es ar niSnavs, rom
nebismier mkvlevars, maT Soris, Teatrmcodnesac, aekrZalos dramis
ama Tu im aspeqtis Seswavla. aq mxolod prerogativa igulisxmeba
da ara mkacri gamijvna. dramaturgia, rogorc literaturuli Janri, Seswavlis specifikur saxeobas iTxovs, rac mkveTrad gansxvavdeba speqtaklis, rogorc axali mTlianobis Seswavlis formebisagan. rogorc ukve aRvniSne, Teatrmcodneobis kvlevis sagani speqtaklia, sasceno Semoqmedeba, misi struqtura, bilateraluri komuni-

286

naTela arvelaZe

kaciis formebia. speqtakls, rogorc vizualur-verbalur aqts aqvs


sakuTari specifikuri sakomunikacio ena, romlis saSualebiTac
amyarebs Teatri kontaqts darbazTan, am enis SemweobiT zemoqmedebs
mayurebelze da adamianTa am ubralo raodenobas publikad gadaaqcevs (streleri 1984:27). speqtaklis sakomunikacio ena ki
cocxali sasceno qmedebaa. Teatris specifikuri enis arseboba
iseTive realobaa, rogorc xelovnebis nebismieri dargisa.
Teatris specifikuri sametyvelo ena, cocxali sasceno qmedeba,
rogorc nebismieri ena, sakuTar samyaros qmnis (i. lotmani). am
samyaros SecnobiT, SemecnebiT, SeswavliT xdeba aramarto sasceno
qmnilebis Sefaseba, aramed mayurebelze zemoqmedebis koeficientis
gansazRvrac. es procesi garTulebulia Tavad kvlevis obieqtis,
speqtaklis, efemeruli bunebiT (es sakiTxis erTi mxarea, masze
amjerad ar SevCerdebi).
saTeatro xelovneba, sasceno sanaxaoba, rogorc sinTezuri
xelovneba, rogorc Senakadur sistemaTa urTierTzemoqmedebiT arsebuli axali mTlianoba, universaluri sakomunikacio saSualebiT
urTierTobs sociumTan. es vizualur-verbaluri enaa da is sajarod xorcieldeba aseuli an aTaseuli mayureblisTvis, rogorc _
TanaSemqmnelisaTvis. es ena sayovelTaod misaRebi da gasagebia, erTgvari esperantoa, SesaZloa, Targmans naklebad saWiroebs. amitomacaa, rom Teatri, miT ufro dramatuli Teatri, Tavisi bunebiTa da
miswrafebiT demokratiulia, sajaroobasTan erTad, saerTo-saxalxo
dResaswaulis mfeTqavi muxtis matarebeli moculobaa (darbazis
Sinagani gaerTianeba, adamianTa erToba, am erTad yofniT mayurebelTa
suliskveTebis erTi mimarTulebiT spontanuri organizeba, adamianTa reqciis urTierTze gadacemis gaZlierebiT darbazis aRtkineba,
sajarod gamoxatuli emociis azvirTeba qmnis dResaswaulis SegrZnebas, romelic TavisTavad ritualia). amasTanave, speqtakli SesaZlebelia ganvixiloT, rogorc saTeatro teqsti, romlis wakiTxva,
amocnoba, gaSifrva, iseve SesaZlebelia, rogorc nebismieri teqstisa:
teqsti aris mosazrebaTa gamoTqmis Tanmimdevroba, axdens saerTo
TemiT dakavSirebuli informaciis miwodebas, flobs simwyobrisa
da mTlianobis Tvisebebs... sityva teqsts aqvs rTuli da ganStoebuli etimologia (laT. textum - qsovili, tansacmeli, kavSiri,
gaerTianeba, aRnagoba, marcvali, ena, stili; textus - Cawnva, struqtura,
mwyobri Txroba; texo - qsova, dawnva, SeTxzva, akinZva, Sexameba)
(rudnevi 2001:457). es ganmarteba savsebiT Seesabameba sasceno qmnilebasac - speqtaklsac da sruliad dasaSvebad mimaCnia amgvari

Teatris ena

287

cnebis damkvidreba TeatrmcodneobaSic. amdenad, mecnierebis sxvadasxva ganStoebaTa mignebebi SesaZlebelia da, sruliad bunebrivia,
rom saTeatro teqstis, anu sasceno sanaxaobis (speqtaklis) Seswavlis erT-erT saSualebad iqces.
speqtakli, rogorc nebismieri xelovnebiseuli teqsti, daSifruli koduri sistemiT arsebuli yofierebaa, romelic SemecnebisaTvis arsebobs. samarTlianad aRniSnavs nikolai berdiaevi, rom
Semecneba yofierebis saidumloebaSi, cxovrebis misteriaSi garkvevis cdaa. Semecneba sinaTlea, romelmac yofierebidan yofierebaSi
gaibrwyina... religiuri gamocdileba niSnavs, rom yofiereba Tavs
umJRavnebs Semmecnebels...yofierebis saidumloeba misawvdomia mxolod adamianSi da adamianis meSveobiT, sulieri gamocdilebiTa da
sulieri cxovrebiT (berdiaevi 2004:8). amdenad, teqstis, Cvens
SemTxvevaSi saTeatro teqstis, speqtaklis, Semecneba mis saidumloebaSi, _ am misteriaSi garkvevis, misi enis amokiTxvis, kodur
sistemaTa, niSanTa gaSifvris mcdelobaa. ra Tqma unda, am SemTxvevaSic teqstis gacocxleba (barti) Tavis mniSvnelobas ar kargavs,
ufro metic, am procesis variantuloba damokidebelia teqstis
gacocxlebis dausrulebel SesaZlebobaze, rac niSanTa sistemis
gaSifvriT mimdinareobs.
speqtakli sami partituris (azrobriv, grZnobaTa, fizikur
partituraTa) erTobliobiT ganxorcielebuli vizualur-verbaluri aqtia. amdenad, misi Secnoba samive partituris gacnobierebiT
aris SesaZlebeli. literaturuli teqstis (dramis) Teatraluri
analizis Sedegad, damdgmeli gundi, uwinaresad, adgens azrobriv
partituras, romelic realizebulia saqcielTa rigiT, fizikuri
(plastikuri) partituriT. radganac fizikuri moqmedeba TavisTavad fsiqo-fizikuri moqmedebaa, amitomac misi SemweobiT ibadeba,
vlindeba grZnobaTa bunebac. amdenad, azrobriv, grZnobaTa da fizikur moqmedebaTa erToblioba sanaxaobaSi motivirebulia da vlindeba fizikuri, vizualuri partituriT. es partitura, fizikur
moqmedebaTa mTliani sistema inaxavs, ireklavs, warmoaCens sanaxaobis interpretaciis mTlian speqtrs. uwinaresad, masSia kodirebuli is motivacia, risTvisac daidga swored es piesa, Seiqmna
inscenireba, scenari da a.S. radganac speqtakli xelovnebiseuli
qmnilebaa, is mxatvruli saxeebiT, xatovani koduri sistemiT, saxier niSanTa erTobliobiT arsebuli realobaa. mxatvruli gadawyvetis princi pi iZens gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas da is realizebulia
martiv, rTul, Sedgenil, mravalsaxovan, ambivalentur niSanTa siste-

288

naTela arvelaZe

miT. am niSanTa sistemis erToblioba zemoqmedebs mayurebelze da


maTi amokiTxva, amocnoba, analizi, Sefaseba iseve SesaZlebelia, rogorc
_ nebismieri teqstisa, enisa, niSanTa sistemisa.
saTeatro teqsti, niSanTa sistema garkveuli saliteraturo
teqstis qargazea amozrdili, misgan sazrdoobs da misi uaryofis
uaryofiT (sityva vizualuri partituraqmediTi sityva) xorcieldeba, amasTanave, xdeba sibrtyeze arsebuli sityvis transformacia
sivrcobriv ganzomilebaSi, rac iwvevs sityvis axali Tvisebis warmoCenasac. amdenad, SesaZlebelia iTqvas, rom darbazze zemoqmedeba
oretapuri komunikaciis saxeobacaa. rogorc aRiniSna, saTeatro
teqsti, speqtakli, vizualur-verbaluri aqtia da orive plastis
niSanTa sistemaSi, rogorc vizualuri, aseve verbaluri saxis sasceno komponentebi monawieloben. sasceno qmedebis mTlian sistemaSi garkveuli doziT monawielobs scenografia, musika, qoreografia,
butaforia, ganaTebisa da xmauris partitura da a.S. TiToeuli
komponenti misi bunebisaTvis organuli svliT erTveba sasceno
qmedebis erTian procesSi. am konteqstis gaTvaliswinebiTac xdeba
gamosaxvis formaTa Secnoba-Seswavla-Sefaseba. radganac mayurebels,
umetesad, sanaxaobis scenografia xvdeba da mas Sehyavs darbazi
im mikrosamyaroSi, romelic didi realobis anareklia, amitomac,
upirvelesad, reJisorisa da mxatvris erToblivi mignebis formas
ganvixilav, raTa TvalsaCino gaxdes, rom yoveli sasceno niSani,
niSanTa sistema avtonomiur mniSvnelobasTan erTad, konteqstis
SemweobiTac arsebobs scenaze da, amdenad, ambivalenturia TavisTavad.

xe da misi variaciebi. speqtaklebi: intiranos (Sileris


yaCaRebi, rusTavelis Teatri, reJisori aleqsandre axmeteli, mxatvari irakli gamrekeli, 1933 weli); godos molodini (semuel
beketi godos molodini, rusTavelis Teatri, reJisori robert
sturua, mxatvari mirian SveliZe, 2002 weli).
rogorc specialistebi aRniSnaven, niSanTa universaluri statusis erT-erTi matarebelia xe: sicocxlis xe, samoTxis xexecnobadisa, samyaros RerZis mimaniSnebeli xe, (misi kosmologiuri azriT),
da a.S. mas xSirad mimarTaven reJisorebi da mxatvrebi, qmnian erTgvar miTosur, sakralur, ritualur niSans, romelic scenaze ara

Teatris ena

289

marto ganwyobis Sesaqmnelad arsebobs, aramed masSi kodirebulia


azrobrivi partituris mniSvnelovani informaciac, interpretaciis
arsic, igi zogjer biZgs aZlevs saxieri plastikuri monaxazis
dabadebasac ki (magaliTad, sofiko Wiaurelis personaJis cekva,
misi rolis plastikuri monaxazi aRmocenda reJisorisa da mxatvris mier mignebuli euli, gadazneqili, caSi atyorcnili totiani xis figurisagan, perialisi, bafTiani gogona, marjaniSvilis
Teatri, reJisori anzor quTaTelaZe, mxatvari oTar liTaniSvili,
1962 weli). rogorc aRvniSne, scenaze xe, misi forma msaxiobis
gamomsaxvel saSualebaTaTvis biZgis mimcemia, zogjer sociumis zneobrivi atmosferos mimaTiTebeli detalia, zogjer dekoris, an, ubralod,
CuqurTmis saxeoba, zogjer personaJTa bunebrivi urTierTobisa da
grZnobaTa sisavsis TanamgrZnobi mocemuloba (magaliTad, ana kareninasa da vronskis gaseirneba xasxasa mwvaniT SefeTqil baRSi, romlis iluzias xis totebi qmnian, isini TiTqos TanaugrZnoben da
mfarveloben mis idumal ganmartoebas. lev tolstois ana karenina mixeil TumaniSvilis saxelobis kinomsaxiobTa Teatri, reJisori giorgi sixaruliZe, mxatvari daviT afciauri, ana - nineli
WankvetaZe, vronski - giorgi pi pinaSvili, 2001 weli). yovel
calkeul SemTxvevaSi xe mxatvruli gadawyvetis nawilia, zogjer dominanturi, zogjer - marginaluri, magram yovelTvis konteqstiT
aRsaqmeli, zusti informaciis matarebeli da ambivalenturi.
aleqsandre axmetelma Sileris yaCaRebi misi qvesaTauriT
dadga - intiranos! tiraniis winaaRmdeg! warmodgenis saTauri
TavisTavad miuTiTebs aqtiur moqmedebaze, gulisxmobs dapirispirebulTa brZolas, urTierTgamomricxav sawyisTa arsebobas da a.S.
aSkarad antifeodaluri piesa erTgvarad agvirgvinebs feodaluri
aristokratiis uflebaTa SezRudva-nivelirebis im brZolas,
aRorZinebis epoqis gariJraJze rom wamoiwyes progresulad
moazrovne humanistebma da ganmanaTlebobis epoqaSi axal fazaSi
rom aRmoCnda. tiraniis winaaRmdeg amboxebul studentTa ambavi XX
saukunis 30-ian wlebSi gaTamaSda, rogorc epoqis suliskveTebis
wiaRidan aRmocenebuli siuJeti. rogorc dokumenturi masala gvidasturebs, axmetelisaTvis umTavresi aRmoCnda ori dapirispirebuli mxaris ideologiis, azrovnebis sistemis, cxovrebis wesis,
zneobrivi sawyaos urTierTgamomricxavi arseboba. personaJebis
poziciaTa dapirispirebis warmoCeniT, reJisori modernuli epoqis
umTavres konfliqts agnebda (masze agebda piesis interpretaciis

290

naTela arvelaZe

saxeobas), romelmac Semdgom mkafiod gansazRvra kidec inteleqtualuri dramis, inteleqtualuri Teatris TvisebaTa sawyao.
speqtaklis moqmedeba mimdinareobda moorebis sasaxleSi, tavernasa da tyeSi, sadac amboxebuli studentoba gaixizna. tye gamosaxuli gaxldaT didi, maRali, ganStoebuli, fesvebgadaxsnili, fesvebdakoJrili, fuRuroebiT daserili, Sinaganad gamofituli, uZvelesi xiT. igi mTel sasceno sivrces avsebda. xe, erTi mxriv, tyis
asociacias qmnida, meore mxriv ki, miuTiTebda im samyaros, im sistemis moZvelebul, gamofitul, degradirebul arsebobaze, romlis adeptadac is axla moiazreboda. tyis niSani-simbolo da siZvelis, Sinaganad gamompali realobis niSani-simbolo iqca am speqtaklis mxatvruli gadawyvetis, interpretaciis, TamaSis wesis gamomxatvel
mignebad (aRaras vambob wminda esTetikur Rirebulebaze).
xis maRali, ganieri fuRuroebiT daserili tani cnobiswadiliT aRavsebda darbazs da, amavdroulad, idumal ganwyobasac badebda.
am fuRuroebidan amoxtebodnen xolme amboxebuli axalgazrdebi,
zogis farTofarflebiani qudi Canda, zogis mxolod qsoviliT
gadaxveuli Tavi ilandeboda, zogi mTliani torsiT amosxlteboda,
zogic haerSi mklavgaSliT avlenda amboxebis Jins. vizualurad
zustad gaTvlili da sivrceSi gantotvili amboxebulTa figurebi
eqspresiis siSmagiT, temperamentiTa da kiJiniT gamoxatavdnen gare
sivrcesTan, gare samyarosTan dapirispirebis garduvalobas, maT
Seurigeblobas, brZolisaTvis maT mzadyofnas. Sinaganad gamompali
xis fuRuroebis binadari axalgazrdoba asocirdeboda feodalTa
saukunovani privilegiebiT, wodebrivi cenzis upiratesobiT SezRuduli sociumis im fenasTan, romelsac aRar surda am kontrastis
daSveba, am realobis miReba. "daCaCanakebuli", saukunovani yofiT
gamofituli xe da energiiT, brZolis JiniT, dauokebeli temperamentiT aboboqrebuli axalgazrdoba es kontrasti TvalSisacemi
gaxldaT. aq xe subieqtis mniSvnelobas iZenda, is garkveuli ierarqiis gamomxatvelic xdeboda, amasTanave, vizualurad dasturdeboda
siZvelisagan moryeulis, rogorc dabrkolebis arseboba, rac cikluri ganviTarebis Semaferxebel realobas mianiSnebda. niSani-simbolo adamianTa am eqspresiis, siuJeturi qargis konteqstiT ukve
metaforis rangSi maRldeboda da garkveuli urTierTobis, warsuli-awmyo-momavlis Sepirispirebis SinaarsiT, damdgmeli gundis
erTiani poziciis gamomxatveli xdeboda. informaciis sizuste
gaTvlili gaxldaT. sanaxaobis mxatvruli gadawyvetis princi pi
aq akumulirebuli iyo adamianTa jgufisa da xis, rogorc maTi

Teatris ena

291

energiis Semakavebel winaaRmdegobaze (ukve uniaTo, ganwirul winaaRmdegobaze!). guSindeli da xvalindeli samyaro dRes amgvari dapirispirebis fazaSi imyofeboda! is Tavis TavSi (fuRuroebi!) atarebda lpobis, gardacvalebis, ganridebis muxts. tiraniis winaaRmdeg
amxedrebuli axalagazrdebi am Sinaganad dauZlurebuli, uperspeqtivo arsebobisaTvis ganwiruli xis fuRuroebidan, rogorc daxSuli wridan, Caketili sivrcidan, sibnelidan iswrafodnen simaRlisaken, gaSlili sivrcisaken, sinaTlisaken Tavisuflebisaken. maJoruli intonacia modernuli epoqis suliskveTebiT suldgmulobda.
robert sturuas speqtaklSic Cndeba xe da igi, umetesad,
unayofo, ganZarcvuli, stiqiis Semotevisagan foToldacvenilia, euli
arsebobisaTvis ganwirulia. Tumca, rampasTan misi arseboba, erTgvarad,
dominantis rangs ganusazRvravs da ironiasTan erTad SeSfoTebis
mauwyebelic xdeba. aseTi gaxlavT xe speqtaklebSi: "Ralati", "mere
ra, rom svelia sveli iasamani" (am warmodgenebSi maT funqciur
datvirTvaze amjerad ar SevCerdebi). metad sainteresoa xe
speqtaklSi "godos molodini". Mmarcxniv, scenis Suaxazze gayuCebulia
StoebiT daxunZluli xe. mimqrali ferebiT xelovnurad aWrelebuli
xe emijneba kidec sicocxlis xes, radganac SeuniRbavad, aSkarad
xelovnuria. amasTanave, saaxalwlo naZvis xesaviT morTulis
STabeWdilebas axdens, erTgvarad, stilizebul natvris xedac aRiqmeba.
(naZvis xe xom molodinTan, axali wlis, ukeTesi wlis, Svebis momgvreli
momavlis arsebobasTan asocirdeba). erTsa da imave dros es aris
biologiuri xec da xazgasmiT gamogonilic, arabunebrivic, magram am
sasicocxlo sivrceSi realurad arsebuli. Ppedalizebulad
xelovnuri xe raRac idumalis, miraJis, miRmuri samyaros asociacias
iwvevs, misi avtonomiuri arseboba mainc azrobrivi partituris
nivTmtkicebad gvevlineba. misi Sinagani Tviseba (endogenuri) da
garegnuli (ekzogenuri) warmomavloba asociaciiT bibliuri xiskenac
"agzavnis" mayureblis gonebas. mimqrali SuqiT ganaTebuli, xis totebSi
Camaluli, mravalferovani "vitraJebiT" aWrelebuli, moxdenili,
gantotvili xe mainc unayofod gamoiyureba. amdenad, igi codviT
dacemis miTosuri ambis sawyisad ver gamodgeba. xe iseTive miraJia,
rogorc _ godos molodini, is iseTive mSvenieri zmanebaa, rogorc
godos molodini, is iseTive unayofo da fuWia, rogorc _ godos
molodini, iseTive miuwvdomelia, rogorc Tavad godo. realurisa
da irealuris mijnaze arsebuli xe TavisTvad miTis, SeTxzulis
grafikuli gamosaxvis mcdelobacaa.

292

naTela arvelaZe

xelovnurad aWrelebuli da farTod gantotvili, aqoCrili


xe misi Tandayolili arsisagan (bunebrivi) gaucxoebisa da
gamousadegari sibrZnis (nayofi irealuria) simbiozadac SeiZleba
miviCnioT. ekleqtika zedapirze Zevs, rogorc _ postmodernizmis
"nivTmtkiceba". sasceno qmedebis procesSi xe aqtiurad ar
"monawileobs", ar "erTveba" sasceno TxrobaSi, is arsebobs TavisTvad,
avtonomiurad, rogorc dekori, CuqurTma, sxva realobis gancdisaTvis
Seqmnili kulturuli gamocdileba, informaciis damatebiTi wyaro.
Tandayolili da warmoqmnili ideebis (nativizmisa da empiriulis)
TanaarsebobiT, dakavSirebiT, bunebriobisagan gaucxoebiT Seqmnilia,
realobis mkacri usulgulobis, imedgacruebis SemaSfoTebeli suraTi.
maJorul intonacias Seenacvla daeWvebis, ganxibvlis tonaloba.
piesa iSva im epoqaSi, roca gaCnda ara bzari adamianis miswrafebasa
da realobas Soris, aramed _ ufskruli. inteleqtualurma adamianma
sevdisa da tkivilis nazaviT amoikvnesa: "RmerTebs sZinavT!" "RmerTi
mokvda!" Tayvaniscema sayvedurma Secvala, imedianobas daeWveba
Seenacvla. speqtakli am intonaciis matarebeli realobaa (rudnevi
2001:166).
pirvel SemTxvevaSi aleqsandre axmetelma brZolis JiniT,
realobis Secvlis imediani suliskveTebis warmoCeniT, kacobriobis
im nawilis pozicia gamoxata, romelsac unari da survili hqonda
samyaros saxecvlileba ara evoluciis, aramed revoluciis gziT
ganexorcielebina. es svla kraxiT damTavrda, istoriulma
gamocdilebam es kidev erTxel daadastura. meore SemTxvevaSi, mikro
da globaluri movlenebis Semyure, 37 wlis represiebis, meore
msoflio omis kataklizmebis, daxuruli sazogadoebis Rirsebis
Semlaxavi yofis gamocdilebiT "SeiaraRebuli" reJisori robert
sturua daeWvebisa da ironiis intonaciaTa siWarbiT axdens
postmodernuli samyaros ganwyobaTa adaptacias sasceno ficarnagze.
orive SemTxvevaSi moarul ideaTa, ganwyobaTa sasceno adaptacia
ganxorcielda saliteraturo teqstis Teatraluri analizisa da
"teqstis gacocxlebis", Tavisufali interpretaciis SemweobiT,
Teatris sametyvelo enis gamdidrebiT, niSanTa sistemis gabeduli
transformaciiT. am procesidan, am "wiaRidan" iSva aRniSnuli
speqtaklebis scenografia da, Tavis mxriv, am niSanTa sistemiT,
mxatvruli "detalebiTac" xdeba saTeatro teqstis wakiTxva, niSanTa
sistemis amocnoba-amokiTxva, interpretaciisa da damdgmeli gundis
poziciis Semecneba.

293

Teatris ena

axla vnaxoT speqtaklis kidev erTi vizualuri plasti _


mizanscena rogor itevs da gamoxatavs azrobrivi partituris
pirvelsawyiss.
daviT kldiaSvilis "darispanis gasaWiri". darispani-karoJnas
tandemis erTi aspeqti, rusTavelis Teatris mcire scena, reJisori
mixeil TumaniSvili, darispani sergo zaqariaZe. karoJna
naTela goderZiSvili, 1964 weli. rusTavelis Teatris didi scena;
reJisori robert sturua, darispani zaza papuaSvili; karoJna
qeTevan xitiri; 2006 weli;
1958 wels mixeil TumaniSvilis telespeqtakli "darispanis
gasaWiri" kldiaSvilis TeatrisaTvis axali etapis mauwyebeli dadgma
aRmoCnda. Semdeg, rusTavelis Teatris mcire scenaze ganxorcielebuli
warmodgena am ZiebaTa ganvrcobis damadasturebel sanaxaobad SeiZleba
miviCnioT. orive SemTxvevaSi ekonomikuri siduxWire reJisorisaTvis
mxolod kritikuli viTarebis TvalsaCino gamZafrebis saSualebas
warmoadgenda da ara umTavres mocemul pirobas. ZiriTadi mocemuli
piroba zneobrivi moryeva gaxldaT, realuri viTarebis Seufasebloba
da TamaSisadmi (ara TamaSis, rogorc aseTis, aramed, Tundac, sakuTari
ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gadafasebisa da sxvaTa Tvalis asaxvevad
sakuTari, ararealuri mdgomareobis warmoCenis mcdeloba) midrekileba,
romlis SemweobiTac kldiaSvilis nacnobi personaJebi aqamde ucnobi
feriT, intonaciiT, ritmiTa da kulturis SleifiT warmoCndnen.
personaJi niRbebi zneobrivi sawyaos moryevis simZimils daufaravad
amxeldnen, damdgmeli gundi amas miiCnevda im periodis sazogadoebrivi
cxovrebis mTavar problemad.
scenaze darispani daRlili, magram mainc welgamarTuli
Semodioda. simxneves moCvenebiTi dajerebiT warmoaCenda da
Tavdapirvelad "dardimanduli" simsubuqiT cdilobda marTas winaSe
TamaSs, TandaTan sifrTxile xelidan ecleboda da Tavdacvis
garegnuli niuansebisgan ganZarcvuli, gaSiSvlebuli wardgeboda
Soreuli naTesavis winaSe. siWarmage, mamis pasuxismgebloba, siduxWire,
perspeqtivis ganWvretis unari darispans modunebis, simSvidis,
waTvlemisa da dasvenebis uflebas ar aZlevda. mas uzenaesis winaSe
valdebuleba hqonda Sesasrulebeli da Zalumad ganicdida morig
imedgacruebas. darispani zaqariaZe, uwinaresad, mama iyo, soflidan

294

naTela arvelaZe

sofelSi sasiZos maZiebeli mSobeli, romelsac qaliSvilis


caluRelad datoveba pirovnul tragediad miaCnda. Aase TamaSobda
msaxiobi darispan qarsiZes. karoJna, er|Ti SexedviT, uiniciativo
ymawyvil qalad Canda. uwinaresad, is qristiani gaxldaT.
gansakuTrebiT, mexuTe mcnebis upirobo Semsrulebeli, magram Zalze
moridebuli qaliSvilis gamoxedva aSkarad avlenda, rom mas Rirsebis
grZnoba ar asvenebda, masSi Sinagani protesti mwifdeboda. ase
TamaSobda msaxiobi karoJna qarsiZes.
Rirsebis Semlaxavi peri petiebis gadatanis Semdgom, marTas
sastumro oTaxSi gasamagzavreblad, morigi sasiZos saZebnelad,
emzadeboda mama-Svili. karoJna Coxa-axaluxs usworebda mamas, yabalaxs
ver amCnevda, cremlnarevi, sevdiani sayveduriT eubneboda: "miagdeb
yovelTvis sadme". mere nela gadioda kulisebSi, fiqrSi CaZiruli
brundeboda, kaeSnian mzeras miapyrobda mdumare da tkiviliT gaTangul
mamas, saqmiani moZraobiT yabalaxs beWebze moaxvevda, Seusworebda
da idga ase garindebuli. Ddarispanis saxeze uxerxuloba, tkivili,
SfoTva, mkrTali imedianoba erTmaneTs Cawvnoda da gadaxlarToda.
xmaSi bzari da TrTola Cadgomoda, mSvidi sayveduriTa da TanagrZnobis
mkrTali gaelvebiT, madlierebis sanacvlod, imedgacruebulis
sacodaobiT gaTanguli, cremliani sayveduriT mimarTavda Svils:
"Sen migagdebde sadme, Svilo, ramenairad da amisTana yabalaxs, Tu
ginda, aTaasss Wiri mouWamia..." (kldiaSvili 1961:416) darispani
win, sivrces gascqeroda, TiTqos, sayvedurs umxelda mas, vis winaSe
valdebulebac aiZulebda Saragzaze xetialiT ezida Tavisi, mZime
jvari. Svilis "dabinaveba" Rirsebis saqmec gaxldaT! NnaTesavmegobrisgan mitovebuli, misi RalatiT gaognebuli darispani, isev
misgan eloda Semweobas. Tanac, bodiSsac ixdida imis gamo, rom
daundobloba gamoiCina da xmamaRla aRmoTqva gaugonari sayveduri.
mis bageTagan dasxletili Sen migagdebde sadme, Svilo, avismomaswavebel bediswerad JRerda, uneburad, mas isev abrunebda
wreze da mZime jvris satareblad mis mzadyofnasac amxelda, isic
aSkara xdeboda, "rogor funqcionirebs sityva admianis socialur
qcevaSi" (vigotski). vizualuri da verbaluri gamosaxvis mravalSriani,
mravalferovani, polifunqciuri formebi niSanTa erTiani da logikuri
kavSiriT arsebuli sistemiT zemoqmedebda mayurebelze, asociaciuri
nakadis warmoqmniT, scenaze nanaxsa da realobaSi gancdils bunebrivad
ukavSirebda. qarTul sinamdvileSi mama-Svilis, winapari-STamomavlis
urTierToba mkacri reviziis, ironiuli Sefasebisa da SemaSfoTebeli
cinizmis jer kidev obieqti ar gaxldaT.

Teatris ena

295

robert sturuas speqtaklSi darispani-karoJnas tandemi


postmodernuli epoqis eqod aRiqmeba. winapari-STamomavlis ierarqiis
damxoba, gaugonari agresia, Ria dapirispireba, sitlanqe, quCis realizmi,
aSkara ironia, qcevaTa naturalizmi am sanaxaobis azrobrivi
partituris Sesabamisi vizualur-verbaluri partitura gaxlavT.
darispani-karoJna erTgvarad meqanizebuli, unificirebuli, aSkara
agresiuli sistemaa. scenaze kulisebidan nela Cndeba mrgvali sagani.
sibneleSi Zlivs arCev natvris xesTan Semdgar "sferos", mrgvali
sagani "Semogorda" scenaze. TandaTan Tvali eCveva mimqral sinaTles
da sivrceSi gamoikveTa simZimisgan welSi moxrili, tvirTmokidebuli,
Saosani mamakaci. mere naTdeba scena, ixsneba saburveli (rogorc
Zegls Camoxsnian xolme qsovils) da mayureblis Tvalwin warmodgeba,
ufro sworad, irRveva es wre, es erTiani sistema da Cans mamis
zurgs misvenebuli karoJna, romelic Semdeg mamis mxrebze wamoskupul
Jinian asulad gadaiqceva da damoukidebel arsebobas iwyebs. erT
arsebad, erT sferod, erTian sistemad qceuli winapari-STamomavlis
mTlianoba mayureblis Tvalwin iSleba or figurad, or nawilad
mama calke da Svili calke. Tavdapirvelad es erTiani sistema
uswormasworo, maram mainc sferos Camohgavda da erTian samyaro
niSan-simbolod aRiqmeboda. mama-Svili, mSobeli-STamomavali, Sinagani
arsiT dakavSirebuli sawyisi da misi gavrcobili saxeoba, sawyisidan
Sobili da sasrulisken mimarTuli es erTianoba gulisxmobs ara
sawyissa da sasruls, aramed maradiuli droiT, sivrciT, moZraobiT
(Canacvleba kvdoma dabadebiT), kulturuli konteqstiT,
usasrulo dinamiuri monacvleobiT arsebul mTlianobas. finalSi
karoJna isev miesveneba mamis zurgs da is da tvirTis simZimiT
daoTxili darispani isev erTian sferos qmnian. amasTanave, ritualis
idumalebiT arsebuli es mTlianoba, imavdroulad, maradiuli,
Seuqcevadi, bunebrivi gaxleCisaTvis, gancalkevebisaTvis, gayofisaTvis
"ganwiruli" erTobaa. es kavSiri motivirebulia, idumalia,
ritualuria, TviT danawevrebis procesSic da Semdegac ar wydeba
miziduloba, erTsa da imave dros, farulica da xilulic. msgavsebagansxvavebis zRvarze arsebuli es kavSiri, TavisTavad, aris niSanisimbolo samyaros mTlianobisa, feriscvalebisa da cxovelmyoflobisa.
ramdenime Srisagan Semdgari realoba TandaTan uamrav informacias
awvdis mayurebels. Tanac, erTgvar miTosad yalibdeba Cvens
sasicocxlo sivrceSi (drama imdenjer gamoica, daidga, imdenjer
daiwera masze, rom TavisTavad qarTul miTosad SeiZleba miviCnioT.
Ees Zalze saintereso aspeqtia da calke Seswavlas iTxovs).

296

naTela arvelaZe

I Sre erTiani figura, mrgvali sfero, uswormasworo rkaliT


SemosazRvruli konfiguracia. pirveladi aRqma moZravi samyaro,
romelic ikargeba dabnelebul sivrceSi, ufro zustad, sibnelidan
(qaosidan), wiaRidan iSva. Semdeg iyo sinaTle. moZravi sfero amorful
konfiguraciad iqca. sibnelidan iSva samyaro erTiani, magram
asimetriuli. pirveli informacia damafiqrebelia.
II Sre iSva sinaTle. mayureblis winaSe saswauli xdeba:
sferos saburveli Camoexsneba da vxedavT daoTxil mamakacs, tvirTis
simZimes welSi rom gauwyvetia. meore informacia Sokismomgvrelia.
III Sre zurgsakidebuli tvirTi ymawvili qali aRmoCnda.
utifari qali mamakacis mxrebzea wamoskupuli. mesame informacia
ironiul Rimils iwvevs. mayurebeli ukve RimiliT erTveba am "sasceno
rebusSi" da grZeldeba Semdeg SreTa amocnoba-amokiTxvis procesi.
dadgmis azrobrivi partitura am SemTxvevaSi martivi niSanisimbolodan ufro rTulisaken gvibiZgebs, TandaTan Sehyavs mayurebeli
am martivi, rTuli, Sedgenili, ambivalenturi niSani-simboloebidan,
metaforaTa sistemidan speqtaklis samyaroSi da mayureblis gonebas
momarTavs am moculobis SemecnebisaTvis, rac, amasTanave, bilateraluri
komunikaciis saSualebasac warmoadgens.
verbalur-vizualur niSanTa sistema ara marto Tavdayira ayenebs
am piesis mimarT mayureblis damokidebulebas, ara marto mxatvruli
"teqstis gacocxlebiT" uCveulo, Tanamedrove regaliebiT daxunZlul
saTeatro teqsts qmnis, aramed ambis Rirebulebebis mimarT axal
Tvalsazriss hbadebs.
XXI saukunis dasawyisSi robert sturuam mama-Svilis, winapariSTamomavlis urTierTobaTa warmosaCenad Tavad am erTiani sistemis
SefasebaSi Seitana koreqtivi, amiT ki gamokveTa misi reviziis
SesaZleblobac. faqtia, rom winapari-STamomavlis sistemam Cvens
sinamdvileSi transformacia ganicada. Tuki TumaniSvili-zaqariaZis
tandemiT darispanis niRbis xerxemals Svilze zrunva warmoadgenda
da mamis pirovnuli mZime jvris tarebas etoleboda, sturuapapuaSvilis tandemma jvari tvirTiT Secvala, axla mamisTvis karoJna
tvirTad iqca, ramac daamcro Tavad winapari-STamomavlis sistemac,
ramac karoJna moridebuli da moyvaruli ymawvili qalidan agresiul
Sinaberad gadaaqcia.
marTalia, mirCa eliade Samanebs, Semlocvelebsa da saidumlo
sazogadoebaTa warmomadgenlebs gulisxmobs, rodesac miTis
gadmocemasa da maT SemoqmedebiT unarze msjelobs, magram es mosazreba
SesaZlebelia gavrceldes yovel Semoqmedze, radganac, "Semoqmedi
pirovnebis roli ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre es Tavdapirvelad

297

Teatris ena

Canda... urTierToba tradiciul sqemebsa da individualur novatorul


gadafasebas Soris maT ar icavs axali saxecvlilebisagan. Zlieri
religiuri pirovnebis zemoqmedebis Sedegad tradiciuli qarga
ganicdis cvalebadobas" (eliade 141). mirCa eliades mosazrebaTa
mniSvneloba zemoT moyvanili magaliTebidanac dasturdeba, rac
gvafiqrebinebs, rom "darispanis gasaWiris" literaturuli teqsti,
iseve, rogorc sxva danarCeni, maradi siaxlisaTvis, axal mosazrebaTa
dabadebisaTvis, qargis cvalebadobisaTvis aris gamiznuli. es procesi
dausrulebelia, imdeni transformaciis SesaZleblobas flobs, ramdeni
Zlieri Semoqmedi-pirovnebac moindomebs mis sasceno adaptacias.
amrigad, saTeatro sakomunikacio ena, misi gamosaxvis formebi,
niSani-simboloebi, metaforaTa sistema da a.S. ara marto saTeatro
teqstis Semecnebis saSualebaa, aramed maTSi kodirebulia damdgmeli
gundis poziciac, msoflSegrZnebac, epoqis Taviseburebac.
literatura
berdiaevi 2004: berdiaevi n. adamiani, RmerTi, Tavisufleba, Tbilisi.
inasariZe 1995: inasariZe k. Teatrismetyveleba, miunxeni.
kldiaSvili 1961: kldiaSvili d. Cveni saukune, qarTuli mwerloba
oc tomad, t. XIV, Tbilisi.
ilini 1998: .,
. .
rudnevi 2001: . ,
XX , .
streleri 1984: . . .
eliade: . , .
Natela Arveladze

The Expressive Language of the Theatre


Communicative language of theatre: its expressive forms, signs and symbols,
the system of metaphors, etc. is not only the means of cognition of theatrical text
but it also codifies the worldviews and characteristics of the epoch of a producing
group.

298

cira barbaqaZe
semiotika da kritika

dialogSi (ga)darCenilebi*
gigi TevzaZis filosofiuri proza
`aq da yvelgan~
`yofna niSnavs iyo sxvisTvis da sxvisi
meSveobiT sakuTari TavisTvis. adamians ara
aqvs Sinagani suverenuli teritoria, is yvelgan
da yovelTvis zRvarzea... roca Tavis TavSi
ixedeba, is uyurebs TvalebSi sxvas, an imzireba sxvisi TvalebiT~
b a x t i n i
`vnaxoT... ~
`vnaxoT... ~ _ ase sruldeba gigi TevzaZis axali wigni _ `aq
da yvelgan~. Cven ki am fraziT SegviZlia daviwyoT:
v n a x o T :
wignis bolo Tavi (iseve, rogorc mTeli wigni) _ `dialogi~_
SegiZliaT waikiTxoT dasasrulidan dasawyisisken, Semdeg_piriqiT,
da naxavT, rom araferi ar Seicvleba. teqsti TiTqos spiralia, ara
aqvs dasasruli da arc dasawyisi. nebismieri frazidan iq mixvalT,
sadac unda mixvideT, radgan is, rac `aqaa~, amave dros `yvelganaa~,
teqsti `Riaa~ mkiTxvelis molodinSi, oRond iseTi mkiTxvelis
molodinSi, romelmac Sesvlamde dainaxa, rom kari Riaa.
teqstis sicocxle iwyeba maSin, roca mas kiTxuloben, manmade is
ubralod `mZinarea~, `Tvlems~... ra Tqma unda, isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, vin kiTxulobs da rogor kiTxulobs, ramdenad SeuZlia
mkiTxvelis cnobierebas teqstis adekvaturi asaxva, amitomac Tu
arsebobs kodireba, arsebobs dekodireba, interpretacia... reinterpretacia...
ratom airCia avtorma gadmocemis dialoguri forma? sulSi
dabadebul dialogs personaJebi axmovaneben, rom sabolood isev
* dabeWdilia literaturul gazeT `kalmasobaSi~, 2006 weli, #6(98).

299

dialogSi (ga)darCenilebi

monologad aqcion, anda, aqcion_arafrad. `teqsti azris generatoria, moazrovne mowyobiloba, imisaTvis, rom moqmedebaSi movides,
saWiroebs Tanamosaubres. amiT gamoiTqmis cnobierebis Rrmad dialoguri buneba... aqtiuri muSaobisaTvis cnobiereba saWiroebs cnobierebas, teqsti_teqsts~. lotmanis am azrs adasturebs Cezare
brandi, romelic wers, rom `mxatvruli nawarmoebi ganixileba an
TavisTavad da TavisTvis, anda, im wamSi, rodesac mas iRebs vinmes
cnobiereba~. am yvelafers ki gigi TevzaZe ufro lakonurad da
SekumSulad ityvis: `dialogSi varT...~ mogvianebiT ganmartavs:
`mTeli dialogi aris is, rasac SeiZleba azri davarqvaT~. dialogia Tavad azri, imis miuxedavad, raze saubroben personaJebi, radgan
mTavari urTierTobaa, namdvili urTierToba, sityvebi da sityvebiT
gamoTqmuli Sinaarsi mxolod saSualebaa, adamianma Caixedos jer
sakuTar TavSi da Semdeg sxvis sulSi, iseve, rogorc sakuTar sulSi. swored aq ikargeba zRvari da Cndeba sulisSemZvreli SegrZneba
zRvardakarguli adamianisa. analogiuri gancda kargad Cans eluaris erT leqsSi:
,
,
, ,
.

gigi TevzaZis filosofiuri dialogebis azric swored is


aris, rom yovelgvari asimetriuloba, semiotikuri sxvaobebi da
Tavad adamianis ambivalenturi bunebac sabolood waiSalos, gadaifaros da erT sferoSi moeqces, raTa Svas axali realoba _ a r a
f e r i. azrovnebis aseTi meqanizmi babilonis godolis
aSeneba_rRvevis process magonebs.

roca yvavili iSleba, sityvebi wyveten arsebobas


`..azrovnebis elementaruli
aqtic ki _ es aris
Targmani~

l o t m a n i
yovelgvari SinaarsiT, saboloo jamSi, azri gamoiTqmis. iqneba
es samecniero metyveleba, mxatvruli metyveleba Tu sxva. mTavaria,
mkiTxvelma swored es azri moixelTos. gigi TevzaZis TiTqmis

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mTlianad metaforuli teqsti mkiTxvelis cnobierebas biZgs aZlevs


azris ganviTarebisTvis, mere ki TiTqos gauCinardeba da bolomde
ar mihyveba, personaJi avtors amoefareba, avtori ki zogjer gmirs
aZlevs Tavisuflebas, Tavis nebaze wavides. metaforebiT gamoxatuli azris feradi kaleidoskopi sabolood mistiurdeba da dgeba
momenti, roca sityva kargavs formas... winadadeba da gamonaTqvami
semantikas, Semdeg yvelaferi Tavidan iwyeba_ibadeba sityva Tavisi
SinaarsiT, metaforizdeba da ase usasrulod... albaT amis gamo
ambobda nicSe, rom `WeSmariteba _ es aris moZrav metaforaTa
wyeba... da rom Semecneba metaforulia da aqvs esTetikuri buneba~.
azris dabadeba yvavilis gaSlas hgavs, mouxelTebelia... yovel
gazafxulze kvirtebs rom udarajoT, mainc gageqcevaT is dro,
roca is iSleba. TiTqos es dabadeba sul sxva ganzomilebaSi xdeba,
maSin, roca adamians Zinavs(ara mxolod fizikuri, aramed metafizikuri ZiliTac) da eCveneba, rom cxovreba_sizmaria.
ratom hgavs yvavilis gaSla azris dabadebas? azris dabadebac
mouxelTebelia... Cvenma aCqarebulma epoqam ki mTlianad STanTqa
sicocxlis arsi. adamiani ki ar cxovrobs, aramed_garbis... TiTqos
cxovrebis azri maraToni iyos. iqneb Rirdes, mkiTxvelmac iswavlos `Senelebuli kadrebiT~ azrovneba? amisaTvis ki SemiZlia gigi
TevzaZis wignidan SemogTavazoT frazebi `Senelebuli kadrebiT~
azrovnebisTvis. magaliTad, ifiqreT: `ratom xdeba yvelaferi sxva,
roca masze fiqrs iwyeb?~, `Cven TavisTavadgasagebTa samyaroSi vcxovrobT da nebismieri cvlilebis mizani aris TavisTavadgasagebobis Secvla~, `bolo saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi adamianma iseve Seqmna
buneba, rogorc qalaqi~, `arada, am didi da zogjer bundovani azris
ukan dgas survili icode, Tu rogor unda moiqce am samyaroSi~...
danarCens Tavad aRmoaCenT, roca teqsts waikiTxavT!
axla isev azris dabadebas davubrundebi. roca wignis personaJebi `gamouTqmels~ miadgebian, TiTqos sxva sivrceSi gadadian,
romelSic sityva wyvets Tavis arsebobas, am mdgomareobas avtori
metaforulad `uTargmnelobas~ eZaxis. `uTargmnelobaSi nu
gadadixar~_eubneba tomi brigitas, anda: `isev sityvebiT TamaSi,
Targmani gaWirdeba~, sxvagan: `moica, moica, veRar gvTargmnian...~ (guCa
kvaracxelias erTi leqsidan gamaxsenda erTi fraza: `ar iTargmneba sizmris sevda...~). bevri ram ar iTargmneba sityvebis enaze, mainc
ratom ar iTargmneba azri? urigo ar iqneba tiutCevis cnobili
leqsis Silentium-is damowmeba:

301

dialogSi (ga)darCenilebi

,
,
, ,
.

TiTqos paradoqsia, magram metaforebis samyaro imisTvis arsebobs, rom agvixsnas dapirispirebulobis arsi. Tu gamoTqmuli sicrue da tyuilia, ratomRa gamoTqvams Semoqmedi? magram mwerali
azrs ki ar gamoTqvams, aramed gamoTqmuli garkveuli SinaarsiT
mxolod migvaniSnebs azrze da, amave dros, azris gamoTqmis SeuZleblobaze. teqstis Sinaarsi atarebs ideas TiToeuli ujrediT, is
ayalibebs azrs, romelic gamouTqmeli rCeba da romelsac SeuZlia
erTaderTi ram_metaforizeba. es msjeloba gvidasturebs mosazrebas imis Taobaze, rom tropulobis (Cven SemTxvevaSi, metaforulobis) Zirebi unda veZioT TviT enis struqturis, rogorc niSanTa
sistemis, orplanianobaSi da Sinaarsisa da gamoxatvis planis asimertiulobaSi.
gamoTqmulisa da nagulisxmevis asimetriulobis damadasturebeli mravali nimuSis moxmoba SegviZlia gigi TevzaZis nawarmoebidan.
Tundac calkeuli Tavebis saTaurebi: `siyvarulis, mecnierebis da
sxva demonebis Sesaxeb~, `cxovelebi da sxva RvTiuri arsebebi~, anda,
erT-erTi personaJis azri `siyvarulze, rogorc seqsualur bmaze~
da sxva. erTi SexedviT, pirdapiri wakiTxvis Sedegad, es frazebi
Sokismomgvrelia, xolo Semdeg aRmoaCenT, rom es aris reaqcia
arsebulze da sulac ar niSnavs imas, rasac avtori gulisxmobs (an
SesaZloa, sulac ar icis, rom gulisxmobs).
`Cven vfiqrobT, rom raRac viciT sagnebze, rodesac vlaparakobT
xeebze, ferebze, Tovlze da yvavilebze, sinamdvileSi sagnebs mxolod metaforebiT vflobT~(nicSe).
am SemTxvevaSic minda avtori davimowmo dialogis formiT:
`b e k i: ese igi, dialogi aris erTaderTi forma, romlidanac ar
gemuqreba arc Seni azrebis gadasxvafereba, arc raimes miwera Senze?
d i: ho, faqtiurad egrea. dialogi imitom ki ar aris dialogi,
rom ramdenime adamians Soris mimdinareobs, aramed imitom, rom es
aiZulebs avtoris warmosaxvas gadmosces mTlianad azri, yoveli
msjeloba ganixilos pro da kontrebiT da, sabolood, mogvces
mTlianad azri, Seukveceli da dauWreli~.
diax, avtori mTlianobaa, romlidanac mdinareebi iReben saTaves
da is okeanecaa, romelSic sabolood yvela mdinare Caedineba.

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mogzaurebi

`yvelaferi, rac gnebavT, _ oRond


ar uyuroT uZravad erTi da imave
sarkmlidan erTsa da imave peizaJs!~
garsia lorka
ena (Sesabamisad, azrovnebac) Tavisi bunebiT metaforulia, mxatvruli metyveleba, miT umetes. teqsti xan zedapirze wamoativtivebs da xanac siRrmeSi malavs metaforas, romelic SesaZloa
kritikoss `gasaRebad~ gamoadges. metaforad SeiZleba ganvixiloT
leqsikuri erTeuli, winadadeba, fraza... zogjer mTeli teqstic ki.
zog SemTxvevaSi amgvari nawarmoebi ara mxolod ramdenime wakiTxvis, aramed ramdenime ganzomilebaSi wakiTxvis SesaZleblobas iZleva. Sreebad daleqili teqstis wakiTxva erTgvar arqeologiur
samuSaos emsgavseba, yvela fenas rom Tavisi saTqmeli aqvs. gigi
TevzaZis `aq da yvelgan~ imiT aris originaluri teqsti, rom
swored amgvari wakiTxvis saSualebas iZleva.
movusminoT dialogs:
`t o m i: ara mgonia, mogzaurebi yvelaze axlos iyvnen RmerTTan,
ara mgonia, yovel SemTxvevaSi, yvela ara: iseTi mogzauri, romelsac
Tan daaqvs Tavisi samyaro, rogorc lokokinas niJara _ albaT ara.
sivrceSi gadaadgileba ver Seqmnis samyaroebSi mogzaurobas.
piriqiT_rac ufro migewebeba niJara, miT ufro gadaaSeneb RmerTs.
yvelaze maRali pilotaJi iqneba adamiani, romelic adgilidan ar
iZvris da ise icvlis samyaroebs... anu adgilze yofniT. SeiZleba es
adgilze yofna metafora iyos da ara lotosis pozaSi jdoma _ is
axerxebs bevr samyaroSi moxvedras, sakuTar Tavze sxvadasxva samyaros aRqmis mozomebiT...~
am nawyvetis mTavari metaforaa_m o g z a u r i. avtori am
leqsemas ramdenime mniSvnelobiT iyenebs: mogzauri, rogorc mogzauri, tradiciuli gagebiT; mogzauri, romelsac Tan daaqvs Tavisi
samyaro, rogorc lokokinas niJara da mogzauri, romelic adgilidan ar iZvris da ise icvlis samyaroebs.
mogzauris ZiriTadi, tradiciuli semantika gasagebia, ufro sainteresoa misi metaforuli mniSvnelobebi. vin aris mogzauri, romelsac

dialogSi (ga)darCenilebi

303

niJarasaviT daaqvs Tavisi samyaro da ras niSnavs: rac ufro mogewebeba


niJara, miT ufro gadaaSeneb RmerTs?
farTo gagebiT, mogzauri SegviZlia gaviazroT, rogorc fizikur
samyaroSi adamianis myofobis metafora(anu adamiani mogzauria
wuTisofelSi). warmodgenil dialogSi, ra Tqma unda, niJarac
metaforaa, Tumca, konkretul konteqstSi is gamoiyeneba, rogorc
Sedareba; niJara_Caketili samyaroa, xolo adamiani, romelic lokokinasaviT niJaras daatarebs, iseTi adamiania, romelic erT, erTaderT
samyaroSi cxovrobs da ar SeuZlia sxva samyaros, sxva cnobierebis
aRqma, miReba. garsia lorka swored aseT SemTxvevaze ityoda: `yvelaferi, rac gnebavT, _ oRond ar uyuroT uZravad erTi da imave
sarkmlidan erTsa da imave peizaJs!~ aseTi adamiani xedvadabrmavebulia, usarkmelo, da rogorc ar unda Seicvalos samyaro mis
garSemo, amas misi suli ver ganicdis.
ratom Sordeba aseTi mogzauri_adamiani RmerTs? ieso qriste
mowafeebs Tavis samyaros atovebinebs, sxvagvarad isini ver SeZleben jvris tarebas, mxolod `cariel cnobierebas~ SeuZlia raimes
miReba. `Tu TasSi Rvino asxia, wyals ver Caasxam, sanam Rvinisgan ar
gaaTavisufleb~ (gurjievi). aseTi adamianis sulic gamudmebuli
dacla_avsebis procesia, romelic (ra Tqma unda, metaforulad)
Zalian hgavs mogzaurobas. cnobierebac ase muSaobs, weliwadis
droebic monacvleobiT dgeba, erTdroulad ver mova oTxive dro.
sanam adamianSi fizikuri samyaro zeobs, sulic ver izeimebs.
... da rogoria adamiani_mogzauri, romelic adgilidan ar iZvris
da ise icvlis samyaroebs? kontrastuli fonia SemecnebisTvis _
adamiani, romelic adgilidan ar iZvris, amave dros mogzauria. es
mogzauri mistikosia, romelsac avtori ase ganmartavs: `adamiani,
romelic adgilidan ar iZvris da ise icvlis samyaroebs~.
gigi TevzaZis dialogis monawileebi agrZeleben mistikaze saubars.
amave dros, grZnoben, rom es Zalze saxifaToa... SeuZlebelia mistikuris sityvebiT gamoxatva, TiTqos raRac irRveva... amitom es
Tavi (`meSvide~) ase sruldeba:
`t o m i: ... Cveni saubris es bolo, da albaT mTlianad saubaric,
sul advilad daiyvaneba mravalsazrisianobis da mravalinterpretaciis SesaZleblobis mouxeSav gamoTqmaze.
b r i g i t a: anu, arc araferi gviTqvams.
t o m i: arc vapirebdiT raimes Tqmas.~
Tasi dacarielda... SinaarsiT agebuli forma dairRva, avtori
mzad aris Seqmnas axali forma axali SinaarsiT, romelsac, savarau-

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dod, aseve daarRvevs... is miiswrafvis usasrulobisken, romelic


RmerTia, misive metaforiT Tu avxsniT, avtorma moisrola niJara, is
Tavisufali mogzauria!

`nu ambob imas, rac TavisTavad cxadia~


`v o l a n d i:... erTi ingliseli xom
Seecada, Cveni Tavisufleba sityvebis da gamoTqmebis analizidan gamoeyvana.
b e r l i o z i: mere gamouvida?
v o l a n d i: TiTqos ki, magram ara mgonia,
amis Semdeg Tavi ufro Tavisuflad egrZno~.

gigi

TevzaZe

filosofiur teqstSi TavisTavadcxadisa da TavisTavadgasagebis gamotovebiT gigi TevzaZe qmnis imgvar dialogs, romelSic
bevri mkiTxveli ugzo-ukvlod daikargeba, bevri ki _ napirs miadgeba. ase ikargebian Tavad teqstis personaJebic, roca avtors dausxltebian xelidan da mcireoden Tavisufal nebas zeimoben. didxans
ar grZeldeba maTi bedniereba... avtori (romelic ar momkvdara!),
isev Cveul ritmSi abrunebs gmirebs. teqsti emsgavseba kardiogramas, alag_alag `darRveuli~ ritmiT, _ es Tavad avtoris (da
personaJebis) guliscemaa, romelic ase gadamdebia mkiTxvelisTvisac.
mainc sad aris Tavisufali neba? ikvleven `dialogSi darCenili~ personaJebi (sxvaTa Soris, cnobili da simboluri gmirebi _
tomi, brigita, heklberi, volandi, berliozi, beki...). sicocxliT, wesebiT,
qselebiT SemozRuduli adamianis suli sad poulobs gamosavals?
am samyaroSi, Tu am samyaros miRma(rogorc baraTaSvili: `gulisTqma Cemi Sens iqiTa eZiebs sadgurs, zenaarT samyofs, rom daSTos aq
amaoeba!~).
`t o m i: ... Tu adamiani istoriulad TviTonve SemoizRudavs
Tavs wesebiT, romlis mixedviTac mosalodneli qceva erTgvarovani
xdeba, maSin saxezea Tavisufali nebis da, Sesabamisad, samyaroSi
RmerTis yofnis Semcirebaze mimarTuli qmedeba.
b r i g i t a: egec marTalia, yvelaferi _ sportuli TamaSi,
saxelmwifo, ojaxi, dasasvenebeli parki, _ imas miuTiTebs, rom
Tavisufali neba lamis marto weraSi rCeba, da Tu sxva Teoriebsac

dialogSi (ga)darCenilebi

305

gaviTvaliswinebT, iqac ar rCeba, imdenad didia gavlenebi da dublikaciebi~.


... da Tu Cvens enaze vTargmniT, Semoqmedeba mainc aris mcire
WuWrutana, saidanac Tavisufleba imzireba(avtorisTvis), xolo
`dialogSi darCenilebi~ gaTavisuflebas avtoris SezRudvaSi xedaven: `saintereso paradoqsi gamodis _ iq, sadac avtori izRudeba,
personaJi Tavisufldeba~(g.T.).
postmodernistuli teqstologiis mTavari metafora avtoris
sikvdilis Sesaxeb gigi TevzaZis wigniT ar dasturdeba, piriqiT,
avtori ar momkvdara! `Tu teqstSi varT, amaze laparakic ki zedmetia, rogori irlandiuri qelexebic ar unda gadavuxadoT
avtors.~(g.T.).
xolo, Tu dialogis monawileebi teqstis gareTac arseboben
da Tu RmerTi avtoria, m a S i n?...
es kiTxva ixileT wignis 56-e gverdze da pasuxsac aqve amoikiTxavT!

wigni mawvnis rigsa da literaturul kafeze


rogor airekleba gigi TevzaZis teqsti mkiTxvelze? albaT,
gansxavebulad, imis mixedviT, visi cnobiereba rogor miiRebs azris
am erTgvar gadanergvas. es procesi magonebs saxarebidan igavs
mTesvelebze: caTa sasufevlis saidumloebani visac ar esmis, ieso
igavebiT elaparakeba: `aha, gamovida mTesveli dasaTesad. Tesvisas
zogi marcvali gzispiras davarda, mividnen frinvelebi da akenkes
igi; zogi kldovanze davarda, sadac miwa bevri ar iyo da male
aRmocenda, vinaidan niadags siRrme ar hqonda. xolo mze rom amovida, daWkna da raki fesvi ar hqonda, gaxma. zogi eklebSi Cavarda,
gaizarda eklebi da moaSTo isini. zogi ki poxier miwaze davarda
da nayofi gamoiRo: zogma_asi, zogma_samoci da zogma_ocdaaTi.
visac yurni aqvs, isminos!(maTe, 13, 1-9).
gigi TevzaZis personaJebi agrZeleben dialogs, es dialogi axla,
am wamsac grZeldeba, radgan Tavad avtoris samyaroa dialogi, rogorc
`yofnis erTaderTi forma~, romelic, amave dros, arasodes sruldeba. teqstic spiraluria, misi aRqmac da masze werac. isev avtors
davesesxebi: `dialogi aris azris gadmocema, amitom is salaparakod ar gibiZgebs, is gibiZgebs fiqrisken da sakuTar TavSi dialo-

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gis aRmoCenisken~. am teqsts Tu waikiTxavT, albaT, damerwmunebiT,


rom SeuZlebelia misi tradiciuli ganxilva.
kiTxvaze: razea es teqsti? ver gi pasuxebT, anda, Zalian bundovnad, ise, rom mainc verafers gaigebT: macivarsa da leqsze, mawvnis
rigsa da literaturul kafeze, arekvlasa da asareklebze, ramdenime samyaroSi erTad cxovrebaze, imaze, Tu ratom ar unda daxocos
Cunis provinciis gubernatorma mglebi, teqstSi da teqstis gareT
arsebobaze, avtorsa da personaJze, aucileblobasa da SemTxveviTobaze, Tavisufal nebasa da yovlisdasazRvrulobaze, TavisTavadgasageb
da TavisTavadgaugebar sagnebsa da movlenebze, es wignia yvelaferze
da araferze... da, ra Tqma unda, _ metaforulad.
avtori mafrTxilebs: `aranairi ezoTerika _ struqturaa aseTi
_ teqstebs Soris mxolod dialogia iseTi, rasac ver gamoTqvam _
rom gamoTqva, sxva teqstad unda gardaqmna~.
mec, Cemi avtoriviT, axla `uTargmnelobaSi~ Cavvardi, da Tu ver
gamovTqvi gamouTqmeli, dae, darCes uTqmeli!

Tsira Barbakadze
Escaped Thoughout the Dialogue
Here and Everywhere Gigi Tevzadzes philosophic prose is the statement
represented due to the dialogue form , that performs the text rhythmical and
dynamical, flexibly involving the reader in it.
Gigi Tevzadzes postmodern narrative participants discussing various people
and different things expose their attitudes, tend immediately and simply turn round
everything into nothing confirming the importance of being in the dialogue in
spite of the dialogue subject, that is the participant authors condition too as the
only form of being.

307

levan bregaZe
semiotika yvelasaTvis

niSani da sistema

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa


rusTavelis qarTuli
literaturis institutis mTavari mecnieri TanamSromeli, gelaTis mecnierebaTa akademiis wevri.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
postmodernizmi qarTul
mwerlobaSi, antimimesisis
ideologia, postsabWouri
kulturis sivrce da
literaturuli procesi,
kavkasiuri Tematika gazeT
`kaukaziSe postis~ furclebze (1906-1914), franguli Jurnali TbilisSi, fsiqoanalizi da mxatvruli Semoqmedeba, recefciuli esTetika, sadRegrZelo da misi kompensatoruli buneba,
qarTuli Jargonis leqsikoni.
interesTa sfero: literaturis Teoria da istoria, Jurnalistikis
Teoria da istoria, Targmanis Teoria da praqtika,
Tanamedrove literaturuli procesebi, lingvistika.

daviwyoT erTi semiotikuri anekdotiT:


mixom, mas Semdeg, rac misma aTi wlis vaJma
afTiaqis win Cavlisas pirjvari gadaiwera,
TavSi wamoartya ymawvils da datuqsa: ramdenjer unda giTxra, sadac jvars dainaxav,
yvelgan eklesia nu ggoniao!
jvari polisemantikuri niSania: qristianuli sarwmunoebis simbolosac warmoadgens,
romelime SenobaSi afTiaqis arsebobazec
migvaniSnebs, mimatebis niSanic aris da sxv.
anu: erTsa da imave niSans sxvadasxva
sistemaSi SesaZloa sxvadasxva mniSvneloba
hqondes (erTi da imave niSanTa sxvadasxva
sistemebSi sxvadasxva mniSvnelobiT gamoyenebis mizezi mravalgvari SeiZleba iyos da
axla amaze ar SevCerdebiT).
niSani rom sworad gavSifroT, unda vicodeT romeli sistemis nawilia is, Torem
zemoT moTxrobili anekdotis personaJis
mdgomareobaSi aRmovCndebiT.
Cveni Secdomebis mniSvnelovani nawili
swored niSanTa polisemiiT aris gamowveuli.
arsebobs laTinur aso-niSanTa sistema
da arsebobs rusul aso-niSanTa sistema (kirilica). am ori sistemis zogi aso-niSani
erTmaneTs emTxveva grafikuladac da mniSvnelobiTac (A, E, M, O, T), zogi grafikulad
igivea, magram mniSvneloba sxva aqvs (X _
rusulSi gamoiTqmis rogorc x, laTinurSi
rogorc qs, P _ rusulSi r-a, laTinurSi _ p,
H _ rusulSi n-a, laTinurSi _ h).

308

levan bregaZe

xSirad sxvadasxva ena erTsa da imave anbans iyenebs, magram


wakiTxvis wesebia urTierTgansxvavebuli. magaliTad, laTinuri anbanis sistemaSi gamoiyofa inglisuri, germanuli, franguli, espanuri,
italiuri, Cexuri da a. S. qvesistemebi.
axla wavikiTxoT erTi adgili a. Cexovis piesidan `sami da~:
` - ,
_ , - ... (.)
~.

marTlac, xeliT dawerili SeiZleba reniqsad wavikiTxoT, Tuki ar viciT, rom rusuli saanbano sistemis niSnebTan
gvaqvs saqme da ara _ laTinurTan.
agata kristis `aRmosavleTis eqspresSi~ gamoZieba mcdar gzas
adga manam, sanam danaSaulis adgilze napovni cxvirsaxocis kuTxeSi
amoqarguli H laTinuri saanbano sistemis niSani (h) egonaT, maSin,
rodesac rusuli n yofila.
konan doilis erT moTxrobaSi kedelze sisxliT daweril
Rache-s gamomZiebeli lestreidi inglisurad kiTxulobs da qalis
saxeli `reCel~ hgonia, romlis dasruleba (boloSi aso l-s miwera), misi azriT, mkvlels veRar mouswria. Serlok xolmsi xvdeba,
rom kedelze warwerili sityva inglisurad ki ara, germanulad
unda iqnes wakiTxuli _ `raxe~, rac SurisZiebas niSnavs, da amiT
gamoZiebas mcdar kvalze dadgomas aacilebs.
sxvadasxva anbanur sistemaTa aRrevis es magaliTebi mxatvruli
literaturidan moviyvaneT. axla realobaSi gadavinacvloT:
lion foixtvangeris `espanuri baladis~ qarTul TargmanSi
erTi amgvari frazaa:
`_ ra fasi aqvs Tqvens sacodav raxs, Tqvens treuga dei, Tqvens
uniaTo eirene! Salomi _ ai, gvirgvini, ai, namdvili netareba~.
am sityvebiT romanis erT-erTi personaJi, axalgazrda ebraeli
don beniamini, ekamaTeba araebraelebs, agresiulobaSi sdebs maT brals.
Salomi mSvidobaa ebraulad, eirene amasve niSnavs berZnulad, treuga
dei saRvTo zavia Sua saukuneebis laTinur enaze, magram es `raxi~
raRaa?
Tu germanul originals CavxedavT, vnaxavT, rom `raxis~ adgilas
weria Pax (paqs), rac mSvidobaa laTinurad, magram misgan `raxic~
SeiZleba miviRoT, Tuki mas... rusulad wavikiTxavT. es ki im SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba moxdes, es laTinuri sityva rusuli sityvebis
garemocvaSi Tu aRmoCndeba.
marTlac, rusul TargmanSi es adgili asea:

niSani da sistema

309

` , treuga dei,
eirene!~
naTelia, rom Targmani rusulidan aris Sesrulebuli da ara
germanulidan (originalidan).
yvelaze meti albaToba Secdomis daSvebisa maSin aris, roca
erTi sistemis SigniT arsebobs polisemantikuri niSani, rac bunebriv sistemebSi Cveulebrivi movlenaa (magaliTad, erTi da igive
simptomi SesaZloa ramdenime daavadebis momaswavebeli iyos). enac
bunebrivi sistemaa (Tumca xelovnuri enebic arsebobs) da masSic
mravali polisemantikuri niSania, mravali polisemantikuri sityvaa (ufro zustad, albaT arc arsebobs erTmniSvnelovani sityva,
oRond zogierTi sityvis polisemia aSkaraa, zogisa SeniRbulia).
ramdeni mniSvneloba aqvs zars? leqsikons CavxedoT:
1. spilenZis Senadnobisagan Camosxmuli Rru nakeToba konusis
formisa, romelsac SigniT Tavmsxvili Rero (ena) hkidia xmis gamosacemad;
2. mowyobiloba bgeriTi signalisaTvis. eleqtruli zari;
3. (saub.) zaris rekvis xma. zaria, gaaRe kari!;
4. uzomo SiSiT gamowveuli SeSfoTeba, _ elda;
5. (Zv.) samgloviaro, usityvo galoba micvalebulis gasvenebisas;
6. moTqmiT tirili, datireba visime;
7. (kuTx.) dawnuli sasiminde, oTx boZze mdgari (Sdr. Zari);
8. kamaTeli. zaris gagoreba.
9. gamoTqma zari da zeimi an zar-zeimi did, xmaurian zeims
niSnavs.
suramis cixis legendaSi aseTi frazaa: `glovis zariT miacila
dedam Tavisi pirmSo cixemde~. germanul TargmanSi aris: `zaris
rekvis TanxlebiT (an zaris rekvis fonze _ unter Glockengelaeut)
miacila dedam Tavisi vaJi cixemde~.
anu: me-5 an me-6 mniSvnelobebis nacvlad pirveli mniSvnelobiT
aris zari gadasuli TargmanSi.
axla yovlad `umarTavi~ omoformic vaxsenoT, romelic ar ici
saidan gamogixteba! SeiZleba asi weli icxovro da ver SeniSno, rom
xmebi, madnebi, Zvrebi, devs, mwers, Wamde, devni, xevs, kikinebs,
ulayebs, xurda, Caica, iosebs, Telavs, madridi, banda zmnebic
aris da arsebiTi saxelebic (xmebi [Sen] _ zmnaa, xolo xmebi [xma
mravlobiT ricxvSi] _ arsebiTi saxeli. arc mniSvnelobiT, arc

310

levan bregaZe

warmoSobiT erTmaneTTan araferi aqvT saerTo). da raoden veragebi


arian xSirad eseni!
daviT aRmaSeneblis istorikoss uweria:
`Semovida odesme qaravani didi ganZiT~.
`ganZiT~ aq niSnavs _ `ganZidan~ (ganZa qalaqia, igive ganja).
gertrud peCs, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ germanulad mTargmnels ki
igi `saganZurad~ esmis _ hgonia, rom ganZiT datvirTul qaravanzea
laparaki, da ase Targmnis:
`Einmal kam eine Karavane mit einem groen Schatz.
aseTi polisemiis, amdeni omonimisa da omoformis pirobebSi
rogor vaxerxebT mosmenilidan da wakiTxulidan azris (umetes
SemTxvevaSi mainc!) sworad gamotanas? rogor da _ alRo da
gamocdileba gvexmareba.
alRo da gamocdileba is Tvisebebia, romlebic suldgmulTaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli. amitom advili warmosadgenia, ra
gasaWiri adgas im manqanas, internetSi ganTavsebuli teqstebis
Targmans rom vavalebT!
qarTuli literaturis institutis inglisurenovan eleqtronul
Jurnal `litinfoSi~ ganTavsebul erT-erT teqstSi or adgilas
gvxvdeba sityva figures:
1) The fantastic figures by the painter-miniaturist Adelmus... (mxatvarminiatiurist adelmusis fantastikuri figurebi...);
2) ...enigmatic and non-realistic figures... (enigmuri da ararealisturi figurebi...).
rusulad mTargmneli avtomati orjerve am sityvis aseT Targmans iZleva _ F8D@K, vinaidan figur inglisurSi garda figurisa,
cifrsa da ricxvsac niSnavs.
germanulad mTargmnelma avtomatma pirvel SemTxvevaSi sworad
gadmoitana figures (Figuren), meore frazaSi ki `ricxvebiT~ Caanacvla igi (Zahlen).
visac avtomaturad Targmnili teqstiT usargeblia, SeamCnevda,
raoden Sors aris mTargmneli avtomati srulyofisagan, ra didi
sifrTxilea saWiro, rom amgvarma Targmanma sargebelze meti ziani
ar mogvitanos.
mTargmneli avtomatebis srulyofa albaT SesaZlebelia, magram
es semiotikis (niSanTa Teoriis) specialistTa gareSe ver moxerxdeba. Tavis mxriv avtomaturad Targmnis praqtikuli moTxovnileba, rogorc Cans, niSanTa Teoriis Semdgomi ganviTarebis mZlavr
faqtorad mogvevlineba.

311

niSani da sistema

Levan Bregadze

Sign and System


The paper deals with the questions of relationship between signs and the
systems of signs.
Emphasis is placed on the difficulties caused by the polysemy of signs.

312

zaza SaTiriSvili
semiotika da poetika

qarTuli leqsi nacionalizmis


xanaSi: 1859 _ 1916 ww.1
(ramdenime SeniSvna)

filosofiis
mecnierebaTa doqtori,
Cikagos universitetis
miwveuli mecnieri.
ZiriTadi Sromebi:
gakaltionis poetika da
ritorika (2004),
narativis apologia
(2005).
interesTa sfero:
literaturis Teoria
da literaturis
istoria, kritika.

romantizmis epoqidan qarTul literaturaSi iwyeba axali poetikisa da axali


Janruli sistemebis Camoyalibeba, romelic
XX saukunis 10-ian wlebSi axali mkveTri
cvlilebebis winaSe aRmoCnda.
XIX saukunem mogvca qarTuli meditaciuri elegia ("14-marcvliani" sazomiT) da
10-marcvliani "universaluri leqsi". "Sairi" daviwrovda da or leqss daudo safuZveli _ esaa "baris" 4-terfiani qore da e.w.
8-marcvliani (5/3) "mTis" leqsi (romelic,
sinamdvileSi, 2-terfian anapests warmodgens
daqtiluri klauzuliT). pirvelis didostati akaki wereTelia, meorisa _ vaJafSavela.
baraTaSvilma qarTul poezias axali
Janri _ "lirikuli poema" (bedi qarTlisa)
aCuqa, romelic XIX saukunis erT-erTi centraluri Janri aRmoCnda (ix: ilias, akakis,
vaJas da sxvaTa nimuSebi). XX saukuneSi es
Janri nel-nela kvdeboda, sanam besik xaranaulma
gasuli saukunis 70-ian wlebSi mas axali
suli ar STabera; galaktionis avangardistuli jon ridi, samwuxarod, qarTulma
poeturma tradiciam ver aiTvisa.

1859 wels peterburgSi akakim saidumlo baraTi


daiwera, xolo 1916 wels quTaisSi "cisferi yanwebis"
pirveli nomeri gamovida.

qarTuli leqsi nacionalizmis xanaSi: 1859-1916 ww.

313

XX saukunis 10-iani wlebisaTvis poeturi sistema amgvarad


gamoiyureboda: meditaciuri elegia ("14-marcvliani"), "universaluri"
10-marcvliani, romelic lirikul leqsSic gamoiyeneboda da lirikul poemaSic da "Sairis" orive "STamomavali" leqsi. swored am
bolo ori sazomiTaa (e.w. "maRali" da "dabali" Sairi) dawerili
XIX saukunisa da XX saukunis dasawyisis qarTul leqsTa umravlesoba. Janruli sistemis periferiaze qalaquri poezia imyofeba,
romelic aleqsandre WavWavaZisa da grigol orbelianis Semdeg
didi xniT "maRali poeziis" mier mitovebuli aRmoCnda.
Tematuri TvalsazrisiT, XIX saukunem ori axali poeturi
meta-toposi SemogvTavaza _ poeti-winaswarmetyvelisa da poetiqadagis (misanis) xatebi. mefe-poetis xati XVIII saukunis naanderZevia
("rusTaveli rogorc poetebis mefe"), xolo poeti-winaswarmetyvelis xati, ra Tqma unda, puSkinisa da lermontovis (ix.: orive
maTganis ) gziT Semovida. ilia WavWavaZe da akaki wereTeli
sakuTar Tavs uyureben rogorc winaswarmetyvel poetebs _ eris
winamZRolebsa da RmerTTan Tu zecasTan Suamavlebs ("RmerTTan
misTvis vlparakob, / rom warvuZRve wina ersa...", "xan miwisa var, xan
_ cisa...").
rac Seexeba vaJas, is, erTi mxriv, Tavs "ubralo muSakad" ("nu
SegaSinebsT, ar gavnebsT / mTidan yvirili xarisa...") warmogvidgens
(iseve rogorc, nawilobriv, _ akaki), meore mxriv, ki _ poeti-misnis
xats mimarTavs. Tuki poeti-winaswarmetyveli bibliuri warmoSobis
xatia, poeti-misani (qadagi) antikur orakuls uaxlovdeba, romelic "STagonebas" ("manias" _ muzas _ apolons _ arwivs) elodeba.
vaJam es xati, cxadia, puSkinisagan isesxa ("
..."). amave dros, man evropuli "amaRlebulis idea" (fsevdo-longine _ bualo _ edmund berki _ kanti
_ hegeli...) imgvar "adgilobriv" da moulodnel konteqstSi moaTavsa, rom sruliad warmoudgeneli Sedegi miiRo _ qarTuli mTa
berZnuli eposisa da tragediis xelmeore dabadebis qronotoposad iqca.
sabolood, XIX saukune poetebis nusxas amgvarad anawilebs:
rusTaveli _ mefe-poetia, xolo ilia da akaki (mogvianebiT _
guramiSvili da baraTaSvili) _ winaswarmetyveli poetebi.
1916 wlisaTvis am axali nacionaluri saliteraturo kanonis
centri akakia (mxolod Semdeg _ ilia). vaJa da baraTaSvili kanonis periferiaze imyofebian, xolo guramiSvilis recepcia da kanonizeba jer kidev winaa.

314

zaza SaTiriSvili

romantikuli poetikis mier "didebuli warsulis" Tematizebam, ra Tqma unda, nacionalizmis ideis aTvisebisa da adgilobriv
niadagze nacionalur narativTa warmoqmnis safuZveli moamzada, magram, sabolood, nacionalizmis idea da nacionaluri narativebi
saqarTveloSi mxolod "Tergdaleulebis" meSveobiT mkvidrdeba.
1832 wlis SeTqmulebis marcxi swored iman gamoiwia, rom SeTqmulebs ar hqondaT konceptualizebuli, Tu risTvis ibrZodnen _
monarqistul-dinastiuri warmodgenebi da evropuli parlamentarizmis idea (faqtobrivad, nacionalizmis idea) maT CanafiqrSi
yovelgvari Sinagani logikis gareSe iyo gadazelili.
XIX saukunis 60-70-ian wlebSi "axali inteleqtualebis"
("Tergdaleulebis") TaosnobiT nel-nela yalibdeba qarTuli nacionaluri narativi, romlis ZiriTadi subieqti qarTveli eria.
swored am kuTxiT unda wavikiTxoT ilia WavWavaZis cnobili
gamonaTqvmi, romlis Tanaxmadac, qarTlis cxovreba _ mefeTa istoriaa da rom xalxi aq arsad Cans. iliasTan mefes qarTveli eri
(xalxi) anacvlebs.1
sazogadod, XIX saukunis evropul kulturaSi nacionalizmis,
nacionaluri ideologiebisa da narativebis, nacionaluri saliteraturo kanonebis warmoSoba-gaformebas nacionalur literaturaTa filologiebi aqtiurad uwyobda xels. swored am periodSi
saSualo saukuneebis qristianuli (zogjer qristianobamdeli)
teqstebi nacionaluri saliteraturo kanonis centrs ayalibebs _
franguli filologia da franguli nacionaluri kanoni simRera
rolandzes gamocemis garSemo irazmeba, finelebi kalevalas gamoscemen, germanelebi _ nibelungebis eposs, rusebi _ sityvas
igoris laSqrobaze, xolo Cven _ vefxistyaosans.2 1888 wlis
vefxistyaosnis qarTveliSviliseuli gamocema, romlSic ilia
WavWavaZe da sxva qarTveli mwerlebi Tu humanitarebi monawileobdnen, erTdrouladaa qarTuli filologiisa da qarTuli nacionaluri narativis saboloo gaformebis aqti.
XX saukunis damdegisaTvis qarTul poezias sami "didi Janri"
gansazRvravs: kanonikuri nacionaluri eposi, rogorc ideali (vefx1

amitomac, Zalian mravlismetyvelia ivane javaxiSvilis mTavri Sromis saTauri


_ qarTveli eris istoria, romelic simetriulad upirispirdeba batoniSvil
vaxuStis mTavari naSromis saxelwodebas _ aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa.
2
ix.: miSel espanis Zalian sayuradRebo statia: "filologiis kulturaTaSorisi
istoria" (http://magazines.russ.ru/nlo/2006/82/est2.html); agreTve: Hans Ulrich
Gumbrecht. The Powers of Philology. Dynamics of Textual Scholarship. Urbana and
Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2003.

qarTuli leqsi nacionalizmis xanaSi: 1859-1916 ww.

315

istyaosani), nacionaluri lirika/lirikuli poema (e.w. "patriotuli poezia") da "wminda lirika". rogorc zemoT ukve aRvniSneT,
periferiaze myof "muxambazs" ("dabali" qalaquri poezia) sistema
"ver kiTxulobs".
XX saukunis 10-iani wlebis bolos poeturi sistema ryevas
iwyebs _ cisferyanwelebi da maTi Tanamdevi "dawyevlili poetebi"
(gion saganeli, Salva karmeli, gobrom agareli da sxv.), Semdeg _
futuristebi da dadaistebi, calke mdgomi griSaSvili, romelmac
akaki da qalaquri poezia SeaduRaba, raTa Tavisi sakuTari poetika
mieRo da galaktioni arsebiTad cvlian qarTuli literaturis
poetikasa da Janrul sistemas.
1916 wels cisferyanwelebma Seuties akakis, rogorc XIX saukunis
kanonis centrs da mas vaJa daupirispires (XX saukunis 30-ian
wlebSi maT vaJas srul kanonizebasac miaRwies). magram vaJas droSa yanwelTaTvis mxolod taqtikuri ileTi iyo. isini, osi p mandelStamis zusti SeniSvniT, ufro blokis, briusovisa da andrei
belis mowafeebi iyvnen, vidre _ vaJas STamomavlebi.
aqve sruliad naTlad isic unda aRiniSnos, rom yanwelebs
bevrad ufro didi wvlili qarTuli inteleqtualuri azris ganviTarebis saqmeSi miuZRviT, vidre _ sakuTriv, poturi enis winaSe.
swored yanwelebma da maTma metrma grigol robaqiZem qarTul
inteleqtualur sivrceSi pirvelebma ganaxorcieles nicSesa da
XIX saukunis dasasrulis _ XX saukunis dasawyisis evropuli
(da rusuli) inteleqtualuri meinstrimis recefcia; qarTuli
inteleqtualuri ena gaamdidres axali saxelebiT (Jerar de nervali, bodleri, laforgi, verleni, malarme, meterlinki, hamsuni, anderseni, bloki, beli, sologubi, marineti da a.S.); danerges evropuli
kulturisaTvis mniSvnelovani konceptebi ("apolonuri da dionisuri", "zekaci", "bogema", "dendizmi", "splini" da aS.); qarTuli kultura daayenes arCevanis winaSe _ azia Tu evropa? qarTuli kulturidan da literaturidan "wamowies" daviwyebuli "mcire poetebi"
_ besiki, mamia gurieli... avantiuristi aSordia qarTvel kaliostrod aqcies; daamkvidres giorgi saakaZis "miTosi"; besikis kultTan
erTad Seqmnes firosmanis kulti; evropuli ideebis gamoyenebiT
Seqmnes axali konceptebi da konceptualuri metaforebi qarTuli
kulturis gasaazreblad ("qarTuli renesansi", "qarTuli nadimi",
"tfilisis xerxemali", "orpiris maldarori"...); dabolos, qarTul

316

zaza SaTiriSvili

poeziaSi daamkvidres sonetis forma, Semoitanes verlibri da tonuri sazomebi (gavixsenoT, magaliTisaTvis, tician tabiZis "orpiris cikli").
gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, rom swored robaqiZem da cisferyanwelebma qarTul kulturas axali evropuli kulturisaTvis
damaxasiaTbeli ori urTierTdakavSirebuli refleqsiuri ganzomileba SesZines: arqauli ganzomileba _ warsulisken mibruneba
("tradiciis aRdgena") da resentimenti-amboxi da momavlisken svla.
cxadia, es ori ganzomileba impliciturad ukve iyo _ aba, sxva ra
aris ilia WavWavaZisa da "Tergdaleulebis" liberalur-nacionaluri amboxi monarqistul-aristokratiuli mamebis winaaRmdeg da
"axali varskvlavis" gamodevneba?
magram yanwelebma da robaqiZem am or ganzomilebas modernistuli miTosi daurTes. erTi mxriv _ "Taurwyaro" _ qaldea, babiloni,
"sumeri", "kardu" _ presitoriuli aRmosavleTi, sadac ikargeba
qarTuli nacionaluri sulis dasabami _ esaa swored arqauli
ganzomileba da misi "aRdgenis survili" robaqiZis gvelisperangsa Tu yanwelTa "qaldeur ciklSi".
rac Seexeba momavals, yvelaze radikalurad momavlis veqtori
nikolo miwiSvilma moxaza:
beTlemis lurji varskvlavi qreba da kargavs simxurvales.
amodis sxva cexlovani varskvlavi msoflioze, romelic anaTebs
CvenTvis did SesaZleblobaTa gzebs. "Cven unda Cveni vSvaT myoobadi... _ Cven unda vsdioT exla sxva varskvlavs". gavyveT mas.1
nikolo miwiSvili epoqis adekvaturi adamiani iyo, romelic
iliasa da bolSevizmis, nacionalizmisa da komunisturi globalizaciis Sexamebas Seecada. aqve isic unda aRiniSnos, rom es ideologiebi genealogiurad erTmaneTs sakmaod organulad ukavSirdeba.
miwiSvilma Tavisi droisaTvis Tamamad aRniSna, rom dgeba postqristianuli era, rom beTlemis "lurj varskvlavs" komunizmis wiTeli
varskvlavi anacvlebs.
dRes miwiSvilis prognozi "Zveli epoqis" banaluri kliSea
(aseTive banaloba iyo is maSinac), xolo misi "imdroindeli adekvaturoba" axalma adekvaturobam Secvala. tragikuli da simboluri
1
evropa Tu azia? Tb.: literaturuli matiane, 1997, gv. 227 (nikolo miwiSvilis
es werili _ "qarTuli kulturis axali gzebi" _ pirvelad "qarTuli mwerlobis"
1926 wlis pirvel nomerSi daibeWda).

317

qarTuli leqsi nacionalizmis xanaSi: 1859-1916 ww.

isaa, rom TviTon nikolo miwiSvili 1937 wels swored am wiTeli


varsvlavis msxverpli gaxda sakuTari adekvaturobis miuxedavad.
qarTuli poeziis axali xanis _ "galaktionis epoqis" _ xiluli niSani artistuli yvavilebi (1919 w.) aRmoCnda, xolo
Tavisi 1927 wlis krebuliT qarTvel mkiTxvels galaktionmave
auwya, rom "axali rusTaveli" ukve movida.

Zaza Shatirishvili
Georgian Verse in an Age of Nationalism: 1859 -1916

Beginning in the 1860s, different national narratives emerged in Georgian


culture. The differences between these versions of the narrative of Nation can
be discerned through the way they serve as narratives of reception of the national
epic poem Vepkhistqaosani of the medieval Georgian poet Shota Rustaveli.
Georgian romantic verse throughout an Age of Nationalism and national narratives
was transformed into modernist (symbolist and futurist) verse at the beginning of
the Modernist period of Georgian literature.

318