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saqarTvelos semiotikis sazogadoeba

semiotikis kvlevis centri

semiotika
samecniero Jurnali

VII SEMIOTICS
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL

Tbilisi Tbilisi 2010

UDC 8122 saredaqcio sabWo mTavari redaqtori cira barbaqaZe guCa kvaracxelia zurab kiknaZe mixeil qurdiani merab RaRaniZe emzar jgerenaia nodar ladaria manana kvaWantiraZe zaza SaTiriSvili daviT andriaZe zaal kikviZe mamuka biWaSvili ramaz xalvaSi redaqtorebi Tamar berekaSvili Tamar lomiZe gia joxaZe Editorial Board Editor-in-Chief Tsira Barbakadze Gucha Kvaratskhelia Zurab Kiknadze Mikheil Kurdiani Merab Ghaghanidze Emzar Jgerenaia Nodar Ladaria Manana Kvachantiradze Zaza Shatirishvili Davit Andriadze Zaal Kikvidze Mamuka Bichashvili Ramaz Khalvashi Editors Tamar Berekashvili Tamar Lomidze Gia Jokhadze

semiotikis kvlevis centri 2010

ISSN 1512-2409

dagvikavSirdiT: E-mail: tsira_barbakadze@iliauni.edu.ge

Sinaarsi
enisa da literaturis semiotika cira barbaqaZe SeSlilobis semiotika da Tanamedrove literaturuli procesebi qeTevan bezaraSvili urbanistuli xilvebi XX saukunis saqarTveloSi konstantine bregaZe grigol robaqiZis romani `Cakluli suli~, rogorc totalitaruli (sabWoTa) saxelmwifos miTosur-demonuri arsisa da modernistuli epoqis hermenevtika ilia gasviani kompoziciisa da versifikaciis problema giiom apolineris alkoholebSi nino daraselia metyvelebiTi orgemagobis zogierTi semantikuri da pragmatikuli maxasiaTebeli politikur diskursSi anuki imnaiSvili XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis postsabWoTa Taobis qarTuli prozis postmodernistuli tendenciebi nodar ladaria laTinuri da italiuri enebis urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxi dante aligieris traqtatebSi Tamar LlomiZe lingvistika da poetika salome omiaZe erTi genderuli stereotipis Sesaxeb poeziis enaSi Tamar taliaSvili teqstis gagebis strategiebi ramaz xalvaSi `lurja cxenebis~ interteqsti

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kulturis semiotika daviT bostanaSvili mniSvnelobis tvirTi elizbar elizbaraSvili nicSes wakiTxvis paradigmaTa konfliqti dasavlur azrovnebaSi xaTuna TavdgiriZe miTosuri simulaciebi (`mTliani RmerTi da misi destruqcia)

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irakli mWedliSvili 185 renesansuli `adamianuri ganzomileba~, proeqcia da modernuli proeqti gia joxaZe sxeulis Tavgadasavali: qarTuli versia (cremli da tirili) koba WumburiZe idumali ieroglifi `a n x~ SoTa xinCagaSvili Tmis semiotika (mcire dakvirveba) semiotika da sxva Tamar berekaSvili muza miTi Tu sinamdvile SoTa iaTaSvili scilasa da qaribdas Soris xaTuna maisaSvili hiperteqstualuri TamaSi anu Cven veZebT propis adamianebs gia murRulia ca da miwa erT kacSi cira kilanava enobrivi eqsperimentebi qarTul maskulturaSi nana trapaiZe zRvarTan yofnis poetika paata Samugia mtris xatis semiotika

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CONTENTS
Semiotics of Language and Literature Tsira Barbakazde Semiotics of Madness and Contemporary Literary Procedures (Post-colonial Georgian Poetry) Konstantine Bregadze Grigol Robakidze and His Novel Die gemordete Seele as the Hermeneutics of the Mythic-Demonic Nature of a Totalitarian (Soviet) State and of Modernist Epoch Anuki Imnaishvili Post-modernist Tendencies of Georgian Prose of Post-soviet Generation of 90s of XX Century Tamar Lomidze Lingustics and Poetics (The Issue of Interpetation of Some Poetic Terms) Salome Omiadze One Gender Stereotype in the Language of Poetry (Ana Kalandadze, Mukhran Machavariani) Ramaz Khalvashi Intertext of Blue-Grey Horses Irakli Mchedlishvili The Renaissance Human Dimension, Projection and the Project of Modernism Gia Jokhadze The Body History Georgian Version

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Semiotics of Culture
David Bostanashvili Signification Load Ilia Gasviani The Problem of the Composition and of the Versification in Guillaume Apollinaires Alcohols Koba Chumburidze Mention and Origin of Svanetian Ritual Element ANG

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da literaturis semiotika a
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SeSlilobis semiotika da Tanamedrove literaturuli procesebi


(postkoloniuri qarTuli poezia)
kulturulma paradigmam _ `SeSliloba da Semoqmedeba~ _ 21-e saukuneSi intensiurad Semoabija. `modernizmSi da avangardSi Semovida SeSlilobis semiotizaciis procesi, roca fsiqopaTologia xelovnebis samsaxurSi Cadga. me-20 saukunis xelovnebaSi uzarmazari roli iTamaSes Sizofreniulma samyaroebma. paranoidulma sistemebma bevrad gansazRvres evropuli faSizmisa da sabWoTa totalitarizmis sociokulturuli sistemebi~ (kurganovi 2005:14). Sesabamisad, mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi paranoiduli diskursi kvlevis sagnad iqca. zogadad, normis rRveva SemoqmedebisaTvis da SemoqmedTaTvis normaa, magram am SemTxvevaSi, saubaria `WkuismiRmur enaze, srul `bodvaze~ SemoqmedebaSi, romelic niSandoblivi gaxda Tanamedrove mxatvruli literaturisaTvis. Tu mxatvrul teqsts ganvixilavT agreTve, rogorc eris cnobierebis mdgomareobas, maSin fsiqoanalizis moSveliebiT SesaZloa garkveuli daskvnebis gamotanac. am SemTxvevaSi ki, Cveni amocanaa postkoloniuri qarTuli literaturuli procesebis analizi (da ara Sefaseba) am mimarTulebiT da gamovlena im semiotikuri niSnebisa, romlebic damaxasiaTebelia mxatvrul Semoqmedebis am nakadisaTvis. pirobiTad

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilias saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori. monografiebi: qarTuli mWevrmetyvelebis lingvopragmatika (2003), qarTuli sakanonmdeblo stili (1996), poeziis semiotika (2009). interesTa sfero: semiotika, ritorika, stilistika, poetika, kritika.

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amgvar Semoqmedebas vuwodebT `alternatiul poezias~. bunebrivia, Sors varT im azrisgan, rom mxatvruli literaturaSi `bodva~ marTlac bodvas niSnavdes da sxvas arafers. Nnetari avgustine dialogSi `maswavleblis Sesaxeb~ sainteresod ganixilavs niSnebs, sagnebsa da sityvebs: `saganTa Secnoba ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre niSnebi,~ _ wers igi da agrZelebs, rom `sityvebs aqvT naklebi mniSvneloba, vidre imas, risTvisac isini gamoiyenebian... saxeze gvaqvs oTxi ram: saxeli, sagani, saxelis Secnoba da sagnis Secnoba...~ niSnis semiotikis gaSifvra _ es aris gza Secnobisaken. `SeSliloba~ mxatvrul teqstSi metaforuli xasiaTisaa, tropia an figura, gamoxatvis plania da ara Sinaarsis plani. sinamdvileSi SeSlilobis poetika niSania, romelic unda gaiSifros... garkveuli ideis `SefuTvaa~, romlis axsniT vxsniT mTavar Sinaarss. yovelgvari zRvris moSla poetur teqstebSi da erTgvari bodva `sxva samyarosTan ziarebaa, romelsac Cveulebrivi fsiqika ver gamoavlens. poetis `SeSlilobis paradigmaSi~ yofna ar niSnavs, rom marTla SeSlilia, mas SeuZlia am paradigmidan gamosvla da dabruneba Cveulebriv mdgomareobaSi (Tumca iseTebic arseboben, romlebic ver gamodian am mdgomareobidan), radgan SeSliloba fsiqikis Secvlili mdgomareobaa da ara gonebis sisuste. karl iaspersi wers am mdgomareobis Sesaxeb `zogad fsiqopaTologiaSi~: `imisaTvis, rom sworad gavigoT bodviTi idea, aucilebelia, gavTavisufldeT im warmodgenisagan, TiTqos is efuZneba gonebis sisustes. am ukanasknelTan nebismieri damokidebuleba atarebs formalur xasiaTs...~ (iaspersi 1997:133). Tanamedrove literaturuli procesebis erTi tendencia: alternatiuli poezia postkoloniurma realobam qarTul literaturul procesebSi gaaaqtiura e. w. alternatiuli poezia, romelic sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxva kulturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli movlenaa (magaliTad, `nonsensis~ literatura inglisSi (eduard liri (18121888), luis keroli (1832-1898); me-20 saukuneSi ki absurdis Temas poeziaSi agrZeleben `rok-poeziis~ warmomadgenlebi, romlis TvalsaCino nimuSia konceptualuri albomi jgufisa Pink Floyd": "The Dark Side of the Moon" (1973); bitnikebis poezia, simbolistebi, dadaistebi, avangardizmi da sxva).

SeSlilobis semiotika da Tanamedrove literaturuli procesebi

Tanamedrove qarTuli alternatiuli poeziis tendenciebis Sesaxeb saintereso mosazrebas gamoTqvams daTo CixlaZe: `saintereso iqneba aRvniSnoT erTi aseve saintereso maxasiaTebeli. Tanamedrove avangarduli poeziisTvis, yovel SemTxvevaSi, Tanamedrove qalaquri lirikisaTvis dRes gansakuTrebiT axlobeli aRmoCnda ara dadaisturi, formalisturi Tu postmodernistuli ganwyobebi, aramed swored avangardis pirvelwyaro lotreamoni, rembo da bodleri. cxadia, aq ara gvaqvs pretenzia erTxazovan ganviTarebaze Tanamedrove poeziis. mxolod, Tu guSindeli bitnikuri poezia dResac iwereba, is mxolod specializebul araprogresul gamocemebSi qveyndeba. poeziis wamyvani Jurnalebi pirdapir acxadeben, rom ar ganixilaven bitnikur stilSi Seqmnil poezias. aseve devalvacia ganicada ufro adrindelma avangardistulma tradiciebma, vTqvaT, siurrealizmma, dadaizmma da futurizmma da dRevandel aqtualobaSi es terminebi aRarc cirkulirebs, garda ironiuli an rame specifikuri diskursis datvirTvisa. rac am mimarTulebebis STamomavlad mogvevlina, es aris niu iorkis jgufis lengvij-is wamowyebebi ori aTeuli wlis win, rac dResac grZeldeba da Tavmoyrilia bafalos niu iorkis Statis universitetSi. meore mxriv, sicocxlisunariani aRmoCnda e.w. maRali modernizmis amerikuli tradicia, sadac dResac misaRebia rogorc luis zukovskis da deniz levertovis gavlenebi, aseve e. e. kamingsis lirikuli avangardizmi. rac Seexeba urbanistul da arasauniversiteto garemos aq ukve didi xania dominireba daiwyo bodleris da adreuli modernizmis, impresionizmis, spiritualizmis da simbolizmis elementebma. urbanistuli poezia ukve ganuSorebel sinonimad iqca ara postmodernizmis, aramed dekadensis... isev, gonebis adgils ikavebs intuicia, vizioneroba, xilva, meditacias apokalipsuri da simbolisturi emociebi cvlis. win gamodis konfliqtis, egzaltaciis, gamofitvis, emociuri ukiduresobis intonaciebi...~ qarTul realobaSi 90-iani wlebidan arsebobda alternatiuli poeturi dajgufebebi: 90-ianelebis: `reaqtiuli klubi~, `qronofagebi~, `beberi poetebis ordeni~, `demonebi~ da bolo drois: `vardisferi avtobusi~ da `samkauli~ (dReisTvis yvela dajgufeba daSlilia). TiToeul dajgufebas Tavisi manifesti hqonda, magaliTad, `vardisferi avtobusis~ poetebi manifestSi weren: `poezia translaciis saSualebaa. warmodgenis RvTaebebs vuxmob, vTxov, rom xilvebi gaaTavisuflos, gaTendes am wuTSi, aqve davrCeT da Tan wavideT. gamovideT da Tan SevideT. avjanydeT da Tan SevrigdeT. es ar xerxdeba. saWiroa ganadgurdes urTierTobebi nacvalsaxelebis

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zedapirulobiT, Semdeg daiwyos adamianTa daaxloebis procesi, romelic arasodes dasruldeba. `Seni mezobeli dafaruli arsia Seni, damdgari wylebi mis lands aireklavs, romelSic Tuki kargad daukvirdebi, sakuTar Tavs da saxes dainaxav~... grZeldeba Cveneba Cveni locvebis, mis garSemo rkalurad ganlagebuli skamebi iwyeben dacarielebas, getoebisken, sawolebSi. magram miwisZvra _ es xom gardauvalia! kulturuli sivrcis Seryeva, gamovrbivarT saxlebidan, gvciva, vanTebT cecxls da... am dros gamoCndeba vardisferi avtobusi, ganaTebuli, Tbili. iReba kari da Cven viwyebT mogzaurobas, viwyebT erTmaneTis, vardisferi avtobusis quCas. win, erTmaneTisken! win, vardisferi planetisken! da bolos dainaxavT vardisfer naTebas...~ rogoria alternatiuli poeziis ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi? niSnis desemantizacia, axali semiozisi, romelsac iwvevs am `(anti)esTetikis~ warmomadgenelTa mimarTeba samyarosTan da sakuTar TavTan: bunti, epataJi, tradiciebis da tradiciuli saleqso formebisa da poetikis uaryofa... anti... antileqsi, antikultura... folklori da `SeSlili teqstebi~ folklorSi alternatiuli poeziis niSnebi SeiZleba davZebnoT, ZiriTadad, SelocvebSi, abrakadabrebSi, bavSvTa gaTvlebSi. ZiriTadi niSani, rac folkloris am Janrs alternatiul poeziasTan akavSirebs, aris uazro sityvebi, winadadebebi, mTeli teqsti..., rac, Selocvebis SemTxvevaSi, aZlierebs adamianze magiur zegavlenas. `Seulocam SeSinebulisas, galaxulisas, avi qarisas, avi angelozisas, uJmurisas. gaskda Savi klde, Tan gamoyva Savi cxeni, Sav cxenze ijda Savi kaci, edga unagiri Savi, hqonda lagami Savi, xelT eWira Savi maTraxi. modis, moyoyoCaobs, mototoCaobs...~ da ase Semdeg. abrakadabrebi, anu gaugebari, uazro sityva-gamoTqmebi Selocvebis enis stilis markirebuli enobrivi movlenaa. SelocvebSi enis magiuri funqcia `moiTxovs~ sityvis, azris gabundovanebas, aracxadobis situaciis Seqmnas, rac erTgvarad ajadoebs adresats da STagonebas uZlierebs. STagonebuli adamianis marTva ki Zalian advilia. SelocvebSi gaugebari SeiZleba iyos sityva. SeiZleba sit-

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yvas hqondes mniSvneloba, magram gamonaTqvami iyos uazro. Aabrakadabrebi xasiaTdeba erTgvari aliteraciulobiT, qmnis garkveul ritms da formalurad awesrigebs teqsts, amis gamo isini simbolisturi poeziis Canasaxadac ki SeiZleba CaiTvalos (barbaqaZe 2003:216). `aSinao, maSinao, gulo, ram SegaSinao?~; `erevazi, kerevazi, miqel-gabriel-mTavarangelozi~; `akikisa, makikisa, locva vici Sakikisa~; `piti, piti, pistanama, astanga da aTagana~; da sxva. alternatiuli poeziisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli sxva niSnebic SeiZleba davZebnoT Selocvebis enaSi, es aris _ xilva, meditacia, egzaltacia... Selocvebis teqstis modaloba Txovna-survilia, Zaxilis da brZanebiTi winadadebebiT gamoxatuli, magram Taviseburi invarianti, amave dros Seesabameba azrs: dae, ase iyos! ramdenadac Selocvebis ena erTgvarad `WkuismiRmuria~ (rogorc alternatiuli poezia), swored es aniWebs mas gansakuTrebul modalobas, romelic TiTqos STagonebis mdgomareobas ganekuTvneba: `gulo, modi sagulesa, dabrZandi, Sensa adgilsa!~ uCveulo Sedarebebi da metaforebi kidev erTi saerTo niSania alternatiuli poeziisa: `rogorc rkinas Tavis moWrili Tavis tarad argia, ise, RmerTo, Cemi locva, am baRanas argia!~ `qori Sajda qandarasa, Seni guli _ alagasa!~ `gzai _ nagzeulsa, wyali _ nawyeursa, wisqvili _ sawisqvilesa, qori _ saqondarasa, guli _ sagulesa!~ `Sakiki moSakikobda orSabaTsa dilasa, ise Wamda rkinasa, rogorc xari _ Tivasa~; `Txis mucelSi Tikani iZra da dadga, cxvris mucelSi kravi iZra da dadga,

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qalis mucelSi bavSvi iZra da dadga, isemc damdgarxar, rogorc oqros langarze oqros cxvari dadges!~ `_ sad mixval, wiTelo xuceso? _ zRvis saxnavad da qviSis saTesadao~; `culi tyeSi wava, xes moWris, Tavis moWrili xe tarad eyrebao~; Tanamedrove alternatiul poeziaSi yvelaze metad `Selocvebis ritmi da mistika xmiandeba poet giorgi kekeliZis poeziaSi: Zlispiri saiqiosa da saaqaoze
Selocva. vermoswrebuli sizmris sakiTxavi gamodi, sulo, tanidan, gamodi, sulo, tanidan gaaSiSvle Signidan tani (mere tans rcxvenia siSiSvlis, sircxvilisgan iwureba nel-nela da qreba) gamodi, sulo, tanidan, qaris motexili frTa buCqebSi tokavs, koWli ZaRli sagalobels izepirebs Seni wasvlis niSania. me var aqimi kacisa. mglis qoniT movsulvar, wiTeli Txis bewviT movsulvar, bocveris Tvalis wyliT movsulvar da marTals getyvi: miwa iwvis sizmrebisgan, romlebic saflavSi Caitanes, cocxlad damarxuli sizmrebisgan, im RamiT rom unda enaxaT, sanam mkvdrebi mokvdebodnen, sizmrebi miwaSi daibadnen da miwa iwvis. me var aqimi sulisa, me var avi da marTali, marTalsve getyviT: sizmaria eSmaki da angelozi, puri da marili, Rvino da Rimili, cremli da sareceli, sizmaria jojoxeTi da samoTxe,

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sizmaria da maradJams imas naxulob, rac sikvdilamde Caisaxa da miwaSi iSva.

semiozisi poetur teqstebSi anu: `leqsikoni _ wigni, sadac am yvelafers sxvanairad mixsnian~ alternatiuli poeziisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia niSnis (leqsikur, gramatikul, frazeologiur doneze) desemantizacia, tradiciuli, saleqsikono gagebis gauqmeba da axali Sinaarsis Seqmna, magram imisaTvis, rom e. w. `axali anbani~ gasagebi gaxdes mkiTxvelisTvis, avtorebi xSirad xsnian sityvaTa axal, metaforul mniSvnelobebs, riTac iqmneba axali poeturi ena, gansxvavebuli tradiciulisagan. zog SemTxvevaSi ki, avtori_poetebi manifests qmnian, an Tavadve iZlevian `gasaRebs~ sakuTari poeturi teqstebis gasagebad, romelic SeiZleba amdeni axsnis Semdeg mainc gaugebari darCes, magram `gaugebroba~ xom amgvar teqstTa semiotikuri maxasiaTebelia. iqmneba teqstebi (leqsebi), romlebsac pirobiTad SeiZleba vuwodoT `axali leqsikonebi~, magaliTad, iorikis (igive daTo yanCaSvilis) aseTi teqsti:
`Sen Cems telefonSi pirvel nomrad Seyvanili. deda is, vinc meSinia, rom ar damiberdes. gza is, rac mTeli cxovreba TiTqos fexqveS maqvs, da mainc veZeb. yava dilis sinonimia. siyvaruli matarebeli, romelzec magviandeba da unda mivuswro. samsaxuri qviSis saaTi, romlis Camoclasac yoveldRe iwyeb. megobari adamiani, romelic meubneba, rom marto ara var. dedamiwa burTi, romelzec yvela TamaSobs. sarke visac vuyureb yoveldiliT da arasdros velaparakebi. mama is, vinc Cenze didi iqneba yovelTvis. saxli adgili, sadac roca var, gaqceva minda da roca ar var, dabruneba. xalxi vinc yovelTvis erTad mogrovili warmomigidgenia da sinamdvileSi cal-calke cxovroben. guli is adgili, romelic bavSvobidan mawuxebs. moTmineba roca uzrdeli bavSvi nervebs miSlis, mSobeli ki iqve dgas da Tavs vikaveb. Tovlis papa ukvdavi Tovlis kaci, romelic bavSvobaSi RmerTi megona. peplebis saWeri is, rac arc erT Cems megobars ar hqonda arasdros. mze rasac pirvelad xataven bavSvebi. Tovlis gunda erTaderTi raRac, romelsac gesvrian da ar gwyins. cxovreba is, rasac yvela Cemi uiRblo nabiji SemiZlia davabralo. vitrina adgili, saidanac iseTi raRaceebi Cans, romlis sayidladac fuli arasdros myofnis. monatreba rodesac vewevi da sigarets cali mxare ewveba.

14 saswauli is, rac arasdros xdeba. RmerTi is, vinc Tu vTxov, yvelafers mapatiebs. leqsikoni wigni, sadac am yvelafers sxvanairad mixsnian~.

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sainteresoa teqstis dasasruli: `leqsikoni _ wigni, sadac am yvelafers sxvanairad mixsnian~. magaliTad, iciT, ras niSnavs, `Tovs~? Ggiorgi kekeliZisaTvis am sityvis ganmarteba aseTia: agvistos Zlispiri nagus
Tovs niSnavs Ramec Rames TeTrad aTenebs da Rrublis ferfli Tambaqos ferfls dafaravs karTan, niSnavs totebcrudayvavebul antenebs, saxlebs Tvali rom gaeyinaT da Ria darCaT. niSnavs me Tovli miviwyebul oTaxs magonebs, iq, sadac stvenis geSinia da Tan gindeba, Tovs niSnavs aqlemebad qceul vagonebs da rom cerebze aiwia nel-nela mTebi. Tovs niSnavs vinme usaTuod yrud Caaxvelebs da nabijs eqod Zveli ujris gaxsnis xma axlavs, rom kedlebs suni waskdaT mzisTvis gadanaxuli da gaamxelen mowyenisgan CaTvlemil saxlTan. Tovs niSnavs axla mZinavs da sizmrebs ver vxedav ise Tovs.

Mme-s dakargva `me _ Sen var!~ novalisi _ ! lakani ! yvelaze ufro TvalSisacemi niSani alternatiul poeziaSi, es aris avtoris me-s dakargva. identifikacia imdenad rTuldeba, rom avtori ara erT romelime saganTan, mcenaresTan an cxovelTan igivdeba, aramed yvelaferTan da yvelasTan, nebismier sityvasTan da mis

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mniSvnelobasTan, romelsac igi warmoTqvams. Aam niSniT sainteresod gveCveneba paata Samugias leqsi _ lingvistikis wre:
gamudmebiT asea: vxdebi is sityva, romelic me momemarTeba, da yvela sityva, romelic me momemarTeba, da maxsenebs sivrcis simyares, cdilobs, momces Tavisi saxe, Tavisi garsi da survilTa myife logika, ai, vTqvaT, rame, an iseTi martivi rame: rogoricaa prezidenti an jeims bondi warmoTqmas verc ki davasruleb, vxdebi me TviTon da brifingebis paralelurad vigerieb sabWoTa agentebs. da me _ poeti, me _ meZavi, me _ patriarqi, me _ teroristi, liberali, avtomrboleli, me _ cirkis muSa, geniosi da RvTismSobeli, vzivar da vufrTxi mniSvnelobebs, romlebic ukve meqcnen sxeulis damatebiT organoebad da Zilis win ukve imdeni var, yvelafers azri ekargeba, Tvlas _ miTumetes, da mofrinaven Tbili qveynidan gauqmebuli sityvebi da frTebs aceceben da yvela Cemgans Sewuxebul saxiT nomraven. aRmricxaven, msinjaven da markas makraven. da maqceven saimijo produqtad da brendad da feisad da porno-starad da spilbergad da farajanovad da lud hainekenad da modis ukanasknel wivil-kivilad da vindous vistad da galaktionad da vzivar qarSi da vkerav sizmrebs gadamfreni sityvebisgan, romlebic albaT samudamod mimatoveben.

paata Samugias `meebi~ paralelurad an erTdroulad Tanaarseboben, ganfenilebi arian drosa da sivrceSi... mes rTul da mravaferovan samyaros ioriki ki (daTo yanCaSvili) metaforulad

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warmogvidgens `matrioSkebis~ saxiT, rac garkveul ierarqias gulisxmobs da mimarTulia garedan _ SigniT... matrioSkebis samyaro
CemSi Sen, SenSi bavSvi, bavSvSi martivi samyaro. martiv samyaroSi uSnod daxatuli saxlebi, saxlebSi adamianebi, adamianebSi grZnobebi da SegrZnebebi, SegrZnebebSi da grZnobebSi sxva adamianebi. sxva adamianebSi erTmaneTi da bavSvebi. bavSvebSi didebi, didebSi moxucebi, moxucebSi mkvdrebi, mkvdrebSi moxucebi, moxucebSi didebi, didebSi bavSvebi. bavSvebSi martivi samyaro da uSnod daxatuli saxlebi. me da Sen rTul samyaroSi, rTuli SegrZnebebiT. bavSvic rTul samyaroSi, romelic jer emartiveba, romelic mec memartiveboda, Senc, didebsac, moxucebsac, mkvdrebsac, sanam gadiddeboddnen, daberdebodnen, mokvdebodnen. matrioSkebi erTmaneTSi Calagebuli matrioSkebi. usasrulod, gauTaveblad Calagebuli. rac ufro male gaxsni miT ufro meti iqneba. rac ufro nela, miT ufro meti dagrCeba gasaxsneli.

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ukanasknels ver moeswrebi. verc ise gadiddebi, rom pirveli matrioSka iyo da verc ise dapataravdebi, rom ukanaskneli. sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxva zomis iqnebi da sxva zomebis gemovnebas ver aiTviseb. modi CavlagdeT erTmaneTSi. Zalian avirieT da veRar vxvdebi axla ra zomis var. garSemo uSnod daxatuli saxlebi da rTuli samyaroa.

diana anfimiadis dakargva _ identifikacia miTologiur-mistikuria Semdeg leqsSi:


piris niSnebi erTxel viyavi mamaSeni, SemeZlo mxarze najaxiviT Seni gadeba, ZirSi mosxepil Sens momdevno da-Zmas vbadebdi, erTxel viyavi dedaSeni, supSi Cems TiTebs purTan erTad uxvad gifSvnidi da saxlobanas saTamaSod omSi giSvebdi. erTxel viyavi Seni coli, loginSi siTbos nakvercxaliviT vaRvivebdi, vudarajebdi, italiuri makaronis makrames vqsovdi, purze karaqis, rogorc xelze xelis gadasmas, gizogavdi da ise gaCvevdi. erTxel viyavi sinaTlis xe Seni fanjridan, krefdi Ramurebs umwifari SiSis nayofebs, erTxel viyavi macivari da mxolod SenTvis sayinuleSi mifeTqavda marwyvis nayini, erTxel viyavi Seni kaba da sul SemTxveviT Sens qmarTan erTad karadaSi Semomiswari, sityvis morgeba kabis nacvlad maSin iswavle. erTxel viyavi Seni lurji xaverdis farda mrcxvenoda, SenTvis gamemxila cudi amindi, erTxel viyavi Seni qmari da cvilis frTebi,

18 roca naTuras vamagrebdi, maSin damidna. erTxel viyavi sawoli da roca geZina fexebi ZirSi gadamaWres zewari afrad gamomabes, baliSi wyalSi daaxrCves da gamdinare wyals damayoles, maSin iswavle sizmris suni, sizmris Sexeba: (Sublze globusis aziaze Zmriani tilos dafareba, civ mdinareSi gagrileba sabnidan fexis gaparebiT......) erTxel viyavi xelTaTmani da Sen magivrad basri yinulis klavesinze sizmrebs varCevdi, erTxel viyavi ubralod kibe, ubralod kibe sxvis karamde, Sen verc mamCnevdi, erTxel viyavi Weri Seni sawolis zemoT, mzeriT amxade, mecxre camde gamafarTove, erT dRes, orivem gavigoneT frTxili kakuni dasWedes kubos saxuravi da migvatoves.... Tovlis papas rom saCuqrebi Cvengan mihqonda, maSin viyavi Sen da mfiqrobdi. erTxel.

cira barbaqaZe

dameTanxmebiT, amgvari `dakargva-identifikaciebi~ sruliad gansxvavebulia tariel Wanturias (zogadad, am Taobis) am ganwyobisgan:
`dRisiT _ Tmogvis mecixovne, RamiT _ fanaskerteli var! xval rom qva var sagoravi, zeg_armazis kedeli var! visma sisxlmac, wveTwveTobiT is mwvervali aaTava: lomi cotne, lomi daviT da bokveri paata var! me viyavi! me viqnebi, me maradis vmeordebi.~

semiozisi poeziaSi. semiozisis idea gamoxatavs niSansa da garesamyaros Soris damokidebulebas; es aris niSnis interpretaciis dinamiuri procesi. semiozisi gansakuTrebiT saintereso movlenaa poetur metyvelebaSi, radgan poezia enis SemoqmedebiTi bunebis gamovlenis erTgvari scenaa, sadac sxvadasxva ganzomilebis niSnebi

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mudmiv moZraobaSi arian. poetur teqstSi harmonias qmnis ritmis, riTmis, emociis, bgerweris, tropebis... foierverki. swored maTi harmoniuli SexamebiT gamoixateba azri, romelic `cocxalia~ da ase uSualod moqmedebs mkiTxvelze. Aamgvari niSnebis Seqmnaze werda maleviCi: `niSnis Seqmna saidumloa, niSani ki _ saidumlos realuri saxe~. SemoqmedebiTi metyveleba mudmivad gvTavazobs axal, moulodnel saxeebs... poezia yvelaze ufro Rrmad aRwevs enis arsSi, roca SegviZlia gavimeoroT haidegeris cnobili Tqma: ara ena CvenSi, aramed Cven _ enaSi! xolo roca ena gamodis scenaze da is iwyebs `laparaks~, am dros cocxldeba postmodernistuli metafora `avtori mokvda~, poeti xdeba RvTaebrivi azris gamtari, mediumi... es aris namdvili dialogi adamianur da RvTaebriv cnobierebas Soris. swored amitom xdeba saWiro, rom aixsnas adamianis mier Seqmnili... sxva SemTxvevaSi yvelaferi cxadi iqneboda, anu avtors yovelTvis gacnobierebuli eqneboda mxatvruli saxeebi da Sesabamisad, aRar iqneboda saWiro kvleva. vasil friaufi amgvari komunikaciis Sesaxeb wers: `vin azrovnebs komunikaciis procesSi? Kkidev erTi paradoqsuli pasuxi: azrovnebs viRac sxva... ara is, vinc `demonstrirebuli urTierTobis farul TamaSSia~. es `WkuismiRmuri~ ena ver egueba Stampebs da mudmivad ngreva-Senebis procesSia... rac imas niSnavs, rom sityvebs, ra Tqma unda, aqvT ZiriTadi, saleqsikono mniSvnelobebi (amis gareSe saerTod SeuZlebeli iqneboda konotaciuri mniSvnelobebis gaCena). swored am movlenis Sesaxeb werda barti: ar arsebobs `wminda~ denotaciuri enebi, iseve, rogorc `mxolod~ konotaciuri. Nnebismieri ena warmoadgens `gamoTqmulisa~ da `nagulisxmevis~ kombinacias, denotaciur da konotaciur doneebs... aseTia semiotikuri sistemis dinamikuri realoba, _ dasZens barti, _ TumcaRa, klasikuri (statikuri) struqturalizmi ver flobs am realobis gasaRebs (barti 1989:23-24). niSnebi mxatvrul metyvelebaSi Cveulebrivi metyvelebis kanonebisagan gansxvavebiT sruliad sxva ganzomilebis kanonebSi arseboben. sabolood, mniSvnelovania ara Tavad niSani, aramed is gancda, romelic niSnis meSveobiT miiRweva, anu Secnobis procesi. `saganTa Secnoba ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre maTi aRmniSvneli niSnebi~(wminda avgustine 1999:330). poeziaSi niSania mTeli leqsi... sxva danarCeni: sintagmebi, frazebi, tropebi... unda ganvixiloT mxolod mTeli leqsis azrTan mimarTebiT; amisaTvis ki aucilebelia jer sworad gavSifroT leqsis idea, azri. Aamitom aris saxifaTo leqsis axsna... aq moqmedebs subieqtur interpretaciaTa mTeli jaWvi. Aamgvari damokidebulebaa gamoxatuli muxran maWavarianis Semdeg leqsSi:

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`sxvas rom ar esmis Seni leqsi, Sen rogorc gesmis! _ sisulelea, _ amis gamo ukeTu borgav: sisulelea, _ vinaidan, aramcTu leqsi, sityvac ki erTi erTnairad ar esmis or kacs.~ sinamdvileSi ki, poetur teqstSi yvelaferi maTematikurad zustia... leqsi mikrokosmosia, romelic kosmoss, garkveul wesrigs imeorebs. im SemTxvevaSic ki, roca leqsi erTgvari qaosis gamomxatvelia, aseT SemTxvevaSi is aris `mowesrigebuli qaosi~, anu qaossac Tavisi kanonebi aqvs da swored am wesrigSi moiazreba uwesrigoba. yvela SemTxvevaSi poezia mowesrigebuli metyvelebaa, sakvlevia, ra Tqma unda, is, rom arsebobs sruliad gansxvavebuli wesrigis sistemebi. Cven ar SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom verlibri tradiciul leqsTan mimarTebiT mouwesrigebeli metyvelebaa. ufro zusti iqneba Tqma: rom arsebobs gansxvavebuli wesrigis sistemebi, romlebsac Tavisi kanonebi aqvT. erTi leqsis gansxvavebuli aRqmebic imaze metyvelebs, rom poeturi teqsti mravalganzomilebiania da mkiTxveli aRiqvams ara gansxvavebulad, aramed sxvadasxva ganzomilebas. semiozisi alternatiul poeziaSi. ras niSnavs poeziaSi niSnis `ganuleba~? vTqvaT, leqsikuri semantikis SemTxvevaSi, roca sityva ar aRniSnavs imas, rasac _ leqsikonebSi. Lleqsemis desemantizaciis dros iwyeba metaforizaciis procesi, radgan ar arsebobs bunebaSi niSani, romelic arafers aRniSnavs. levi strosi Tavis cnobil `velur gonebaSi~ gveubneba: rom wvrilmani nivTi, xelosnis an moyvarulis mier gamogonili sagani, TavisTavad, Zieba da sagnisTvis azris boZebaa... marTalia, es msjeloba sagnebs Seexeba, magram absoluturad vrceldeba sityvebzec... poetic qmnis da igonebs da axal azrs sZens sityvebs. sainteresoa rolan bartis erTi statia `saganTa semantika~, aq rasac barti sagnebze ambobs, rogorc niSnebze, SegviZlia gavavrceloT sityvebzec, rogorc niSnebze: `sagani emsaxureba adamians, raTa gavlena moaxdinos samyaroze, gardaqmnas igi, iyos aqtiuri, igi aris mediatori qmedebasa da adamians Soris. SeiZleboda aqve aRgveniSna, rom ar arsebobs, ase vTqvaT, sagani arafrisTvis... paradoqsi, risi miniSnebac msurs, isaa, rom sagnebs, saerTo jamSi, yovelTvis aqvT funqcia, utilitaruloba da gamoyenebiToba. Cven gvjera, rom maT aqvT wmindad instrumentuli daniSnu-

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leba, maSin, roca sinamdvileSi sxva datvirTvac aqvT, sxva ramesac warmoadgenen: azrs atareben~. miTumetes, poeziaSi ar arsebobs zedmeti sityvebi, sityvebi arafrisTvis, maSinac ki, roca es sityvebi kargaven mniSvnelobas. aseT SemTxvevaSi ar iarsebebda avangardistuli poezia. Aavangardistebma moaxdines mxatvruli niSnis transformacia, rac gamoixateboda tradiciuli kodebis rRvevasa da axlis SeqmnaSi. Aavangardma ara marto Secvala mxatvruli niSnis agebis wesebi, aramed Tavad niSnis gagebac, misi statusi. `aRniSnuli eZebs Tavis aRsaniSns (grigari 2007:9). Mmxatvruli niSnis amgvari radikaluri transformacia msoflmxedvelobis Rrma cvlilebis Sedegi iyo. maSasadame, poeziis labirinTebSi Sesvlisas Cven sruliad gansxvavebul gzebze vxvdebiT da vmogzaurobT da zogjer amgvari mogzaurobis xibli swored labirinTebSi semiotikuri dakargvaa. literatura iaspersi 1997: . /. .- . barbaqaZe 2003: cira barbaqaZe, qarTuli mWevrmetyvelebis pragmatika, Tbilisi; grigari 2007: , . , C_. buqsi 2005: : : , - . levi-strosi 1994: - . , . barti 1989: , , , , . barti 2003: , . \\ . , . - .

qeTevan bezaraSvili urbanistuli xilvebi XX saukunis saqarTveloSi (andro buaCiZis leqsebis krebuli `gareubani~)
samyaro, rogorc dangreuli saxli; qalaqi, rogorc gardauvali ganaCeni; ucxooba, rogorc bunebrivi mdgomareoba _ ai, aseTia XX s-is bolos `daSlili kacis~ cnobierebaSi aRbeWdili sinamdvile. es wigni _ andro buaCiZis leqsebis krebuli1 aRbeWdilia amotrialebuli sulis xedviT, WuWyian gubeSi Tavdayira mdgari samyarosi: `me vxedav imas, rasac sxvebi malaven, rogor daZrwis Zu mgeli tyeSi, mTvare rogor unaTebs biliks~. `sagnebi samyaros SigniTaa damwyvdeuli~, sivrce _ Caketili, usixarulo, umzeo, sadac `adamiani daeZebs adgils~ da ver agnebs mas, sadac `qveyana _ cis qveS gaSlili sefaa~ da kaci _ `gamalebuli sakuTari dardis daraji~, `uazrobaSi gadalajebuli~. TeTri cxenebi aRar mihqrian zeciT, samudamo mxareSi, rogorc ase nacnobi lurja cxenebi (galaktionis), `TeTr cxenebs gza abneviaT, wyvdiadi nTqavs~, `tyeSi gafantul cxenebis remebs / SiSi Zravs danis: sifaTis, eldis~. saaqao `cxovreba sabediswero danebiT cekvaa~, `Tovli aivseba wiTeli sisxlebiT~, sispetake _ codviT.

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilias saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori. xelnawerTa erovnuli centris ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli. ZiriTadi naSromebi: grigol RvTismetyvelis poeziis qarTuli versia, 1990. miqael fselosis ritorikuli traqtatebis Targmanebi, 1996. ritorikisa da Targmanis Teoria da praqtika; grigol RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTaYqarTuli Targmanebis mixedviT, Tbilisi, mecniereba, 2004. (TanaavtorebTan) S. Gregorii Nazianzeni opera. Versio Iberica, IV, in Corpus Christianorum, Turnhout, Leuven, Brepols publishers, 1998-2007. interesTa sfero: kodikologia, wyaroTmcodneoba, bizantiuri da qarTuli literatura, qarTuli samonastro da kulturis kerebis mwignobruli urTierTobebi qristianul aRmosavleTSi (aToni, antioqia, gelaTi), himnografiis problemebi, antikuri da Sua saukuneebis ritorikis Teoria, Targmanis Teoria.

andro buaCiZe, gareubani, Tbilisi, 1992. winamdebare essec am poeturi krebulis gamocemisas daiwera.

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`bolomde gaavsebs staqnebi stomaqebs, stomaqebs staqnebi, staqnebs _ stomaqebi da RviniT mosvrili TeTri gorakebi ........... da sasaflaoze sul TeTri misdRemSi cxenebi nislebSi . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .~ ocneba da sinamdvile rom didi xania gaTiSulia (rom aRaraferi vTqvaT zecisa da miwis, rwmenisa da adamianis ocnebis gaTiSulobaze), ra xania gvamcno klasikurma poeziam, magram gaTiSulia adamiansa da ocnebas, poetsa da ocnebas Soris kavSiric. kaci gulgrili gaxda misdamic. `mbJutavi elnaTurebi _ ocnebebiT nervebaSlilni~ da adamiani _ `darCnen sxvadasxva mxares TavCakidulni~: `Tqven TqvenTvis da me kidev CemTvis?~ es wigni savsea uSiSari surviliT, ixilos is, rac ar unda ixilos da rasac sxvebi malaven, ver usworeben Tvals: `unda vnaxo Cems fanjrebSi Casuli mze~. yvelaferi ki imiT iwyeba, rom `qveynierebas atyvia bzari, radgan viRacas gautyda rwmena~. rwmena gautyda ara mxolod viRacas _ erTeuls, calkeul adamians an poets, aramed mTel samyaros da am urwmunoebisagan qveynierebas daCenili bzari Cvens Tvalwin izrdeba da ufskrulis pirdafCenil xaxad gadaqceviT imuqreba. darRveulia ara marto martivi da sada, gulubryvilo idilia, aramed darRveulia gulisguli da arsis arsi _ pirvelqmnili harmonia da wonasworoba, dakninebulia sulieri zeciuri saxe adamianisa, mkvdaria RvTiuri sawyisi _ adamianis namdvili buneba da arsi. adamiani ki esRa darCenila _ `xorci da Zvali, miwis brtyel zurgze moTavsebuli~, miwaze `SiSveli nekniT~ (misi gansxeulebuli arsiT) Sexebuli, qvemoT daSvebuli, zecadakarguli, sul- da Zalagamoclili, SiSiT, avis molodiniT savse da mocaxcaxe, am soflis `tusaRi, uCino, undo da usaxo~: `me davkarge Cemive Tavi, RmerTo, ra meSveleba, elnaTuris qveS alanZuli davtove Cemi Tavi . . . bnel oTaxSi mosiarule . . . ~ da meramdened ismis gadauWreli kiTxva: `ra eSveleba uZveles naRvels, adamianis gamo gaCenils?~ ai, erTi uZvelesi da maradiuli, RvTiuri wesiT dadgenili pasuxi am kiTxvaze: `rom ibadeba adamiani, TviTonve moaqvs Tavisi codva, rom ibadeba adamiani, TviTonve moaqvs Tavis naRveli~. magram gana marto pirvelcodvis an pirovnuli codvebis gamoa areuli gza-kvali? aki RmerTma Tavad dasaxa gza maTgan xsnisa

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Zis gankacebiTYda jvarcmiT?! mainc rogor da saidan iSva `XX saukunis daSlili kaci~? zeciuri samoTxidan, pirvelqmnili harmoniidan gandevnili adamiani (anu RvTisgan dacilebis gamo Tavis sulSi am harmonias moklebuli adamiani), romelic Tavs ityuebda, samyaros gvirgvini da mis centrSi myofi varo, Tavisi gonebis, inteleqtis yovlisSemZleobaSi, adamiani samyaros gareubanSi aRmoCnda gadasrolili. samyaros es gareubani hgavs qalaqis gareubans, romelic TiTqos qalaqs, kulturas, civilizacias artyia gars, magram mainc misgan dacilebulia, misi usaxuri anareklia ruxi, uformo saxlebiT Tu saxlebis msgavsi uSno qvis masebiT, SiSiT savse masivebiT, disharmoniiT, uwesrigobiT, mdabali yofierebiT, yovliswamlekavi gulgrilobiT da uxeSobiT, uazro, umizno fusfusiT, cru saqmianobiT: `ver gaeqcevi risxvian qalaqs~; `aq qalaqs sibnelis fskerze Zinavs~; `qalaqis xedi _ Semzaravi dumiliT savse~; `qalaqSi colma mohkla qmari, / qalaqis romeliRac ubanSi. movidnen qmris amxanagebi da mravalsarTulian sadarbazoSi aliaqoTi gamohfines droSasaviT . . . . . . . . . . . ` `ver gaeqcevi risxvian qalaqs~, sadac `mravali agdia qalaqgareT, TiTqos iq daabruneso, saidanac iSva . . . ` sadac `adamianma adamiani gadaagdo manqanidan da Sin wavida...~ `ver gaeqcevi risxvian qalaqs~, sadac `maRal minebSi gadatyda saso~, sadac `sibneleSi viRaca askdeba nervebs da Rames velur yviriliT arRvevs~, sadac `viRaca daeZebs nugeSs . . .~ `ver gaeqcevi risxvian qalaqs~, sadac `carielia saxli, wvima, naRveli~, sadac `aTovs saxlebs, ojaxebs~, damzralia adamianis suli, sadac saxuravebqveSDdalewilia gaTiTokacebul adamianTa sve-bedi da `sadRac bunkerSi kata tiris~ . . . `ver gaeqcevi risxvian qalaqs~, sadac restornebSi aqeT-iqiT iyreba bilwi sityvebi, sadac ~ikvanZeba usindiso intrigebi~, sadac `feSenebelur~ atmosferoSi SeiZleba moxdes mkvleloba, rogorc Zalian Zveli pirvelyofili aqti~. maSasadame, batonobs instinqtebi da momakvdavi mzis sxivebSi swrafad berdeba da kvdeba suli, xolo `ubiwo dila icqireba restornis fardebSi~ da SeumCneveli xdeba adamianTaTvis, sadac `maklerebi hgvanan qristes jvarze gamkvrelebs~, sadac `tualetis sarkesTan sasapneSi devs saponi,

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rogorc sasowarkveTilebis pawia nagleji~, `ver gaeqcevi risxvian qalaqs~, sadac `mec davdivar am qalaqSi rogorc tusaRi, vpataravdebi me uCino, undo, usaxo~. qalaqi aRaraa kulturis kera da civilizaciis (Tavdapirveli mniSvnelobiT) gamomxatveli imgvari ubraloebiT, rogorc freskebisa da xatebis fonze iyo simbolurad taZrebiTa da SenobebiT gamosaxuli. igi risxviania, Tavad igia ukve gareubani _ kulturas, RvTaebriv sinaTles moklebuli. gareubania sofelic, isic aRaraa didi soflis sarke da xati, isic gaucxoebulia, sadac qorwilic saxedakargulia da qelexic, sixarulic usulguloa da mwuxarebac. qorwilSi iqneba `cekvebi danebiT, cofebi kacuri, Cxubebi da daWra RviZlebis, iqneba smebi da iqneba rwyevebi ...~ mkvdars damarxaven gulgrilad, iqneba qelexi royio mTvralebiT, mTis kortoxze ki darCeba bneli borcvi, sadac `mTvarian jvrebze wevs siCume aranairi~. . . ara savse da metyveli dumili, aramed carieli da `aranairi~. `moxuc col-qmars dabal taxtTan udgas doqi tuCmotexili da ficris suniT savse saxlSi Jonavs naRveli...~ sadRaa RvTis madlieri da misi madliT savse antikuri idilia moxuci wyvilis _ filemonisa da bavkidasi (romelTa uZvelesi mniSvneloba, magaliTad, rogorc SedarebiT uaxlesi istoria, aRwerilia publius ovidius nazonis metamorfozebSi); sadRaa bibliur xangadasul col-qmarTa _ zaqariasa da elisabedis (luka 1, 7-41) da misTanaTa RvTiuri rwmena, saso da siyvaruli (romliTac SesaZlebeli xdeba SeuZlebeli), CvenTvisac imedis momcemi. da mainc, sayvarelia ficris suniT da naRveliT gaJRenTili saxli, roca `sawuTro warbs ar itokebs~, roca bunebac ki disharmoniis gamomxatvelia, roca `xeebic ki giJebiviT dganan~, roca mTvare ki ar `dagvnaTis Tavzed~, rogorc aramiwieri mSveniereba _ `nazad moare~, Suqmibinduli, `jereT umanko~, anu Seuryvneli sulieri samyaros mkvidri (Sdr. mTvaris xateba nikoloz baraTaSvilTan _ `SemoRameba mTawmindazed~ an galaktionTan _ `mTawmindis mTvare~), aramed `naZvebs awveba~, anda `caze waxrili sisxlian mesers anaTebs~, anda kidev sisxlian warmarTul sarituale tablaze iRvreba da igliseba. winaswarmetyvelebasaviT gaismis sityvebi: `SeumCneveli iqneba mTvare, ar SeiZleba vinmes dasWirdes~.1
SeumCneveli mTvarisaTvis Sdr. agreTve erT-erTi Zveli antikuri mniSvneloba: Caesvena mTovare da mTiebi / dadga SuaRame; / Jami miedineba / me ki martod mZinavs (safo _ lirika, ZvelberZnulidan Targmna nana toniam, Tb., 1977).
1

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`Rame saSinelia~ da ra xania, Sorsaa romantikosTa mTvariani sxivebisagan, SuqTa mkrTali mZivebisagan, gamouTqmeli saidumlosagan. adamiani ki, `natanji mTvariT, qariT da wvimiT, saSvels daeZebs~. erTi sityviT, saaqao isea dakninebuli, rom Semoqmeds mSvenieri qmnilebis _ WeSmariti mSvenierebis xatebis, simartivesa da ubraloebaSi gacxadebuli RvTaebrivi sisavsis da sidiadis nacvlad, zeciuris mxolod ususuri da usaxo anareklia, ara mistiur SuqSi danaxuli, aramed fergacrecili da saxedakarguli wvimiani quCis gubeSi: `gube qanaobs da vcaxcaxeb saaqaoSi~; `cxovreba rogorc monaCmaxi da mogonili, Mmiutivtivebs Tvalwin daSlil noes kidobans~. sadRaa galaktioniseuli mistikuri Wvreta, `sxvagvarad ametyvelebuli~ bavSvuri ucodveli TvaliT xedva raRac gasaocarisa, zeciuri soflis RvTaebrivi bindisa miwieri soflis ubralo suraTiT (iseTiT, rogorc warmodgenilia galaktionis `WarxalSi~1). raRa rCeba RvTiuri rwmenidan uRmerTo sasowarkveTilebis garda da ase ikidebs fexs rwmenis gareubanic: `rogorc ar unda gaiyos sivrce, cxovrebis garda versad SevxvdebiT~. damdablebulia TiTqos saRvToc da eklesiuric: `bnelia xatebi~ mis win mlocvelTaTvis, mRvdeli ki `munjad anTebs sanTels Zveli freskebis gasanaTeblad~ da rwmenis gadasarCenad. adamians adamiani eucxoeba, civa da yviriliT arRvevs Rameebs, cxoveliviT sZinavs da biwierebaSi mkvidrad Cafluls ki aRar xiblavs, aramed akrTobs mTvaris didi sisrule da mSveniereba, an kidev mis wminda naTels urwmuno xelebiT sinjavs. adamianis tvinSi _ materiis am viTomdac umaRles qmnilebaSi, mxolod instinqtebiT mcxovreb `uzenaes instanciaSi~ wydeba `nacrisferi samyaros bedi~ da ibadeba yvelaze momakvdinebeli codva: `minda mavTuls Sevaxo xeli~. amgvar yofaSi yvela cal-calke cdilobs `Seungrios sawuTros Zgide~, gaaRwios daxSuli sivrcidan, tiriliT, wuxiliT `fardasaviT gadaswios haeri~ (`radganac mTeli cxovreba klaven / da ase ebrZvis kaens kaeni~).
1

galaktionis Warxalis simbolika gaanalizebulia naSromebSi: T. doiaSvili, leqsis evfonia, Tb., 1981, gv. 113-115; da Semdgom: q. bezaraSvili, T. lomiZe, struqtura da semantika: galaktionis erTi leqsis analizi, semiotika, 4, 2008, gv. 42-48.

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uflisgan `qaris sacemad da sawvimrad gamoqsovil~ da `Tixis doqiviT amoyvanil~ sxeulSi mrume wyvdiadi ebrZvis gvamSi Cabrunebul da awrialebul naTlis xveuls usurvilobisa da sicivis garemocvaSi. Caketilia erTmaneTTan misasvleli gzebi, ver ucvnia guls guli da rwmendakarguli adamiani aRmoCndeba ara marto samyaros gareubanSi, aramed siyvarulis gareubanSi gadasrolili, romelmac arc ki icis misi (siyvarulis) gulisgulis gemo, anda didixania daviwynia igi, raTa misiT mainc miiRos arsobis puri (Sdr. paruir sevaki: `ra kargi aris, siyvarulis gareubanSi rom ar icxovre, mxolod centri rom ici misi~).1 es aris wigni ucxoobaze, romelic `qveyanaze aTasgvaria siyvaruliviT~. cremlebic ucxoa, sakuTari saxlic, quCa, xeebi, carielia saxlis fanjrebi. adamiani eZebs Zvel megobars da miqris sul sxva mxares _ `ara pirdapir, saxlebisaken, aramed dasavleTisaken, wyvdiadisaken~. ucxoa am soflisaTvis da yvela soflisTvisac gardacvlili megobrebis Semcivnuli sulebi. erT-erTs ki (ix. Tamaz baZaRuas XX s.-is leqsis mixedviT) `ucxoobac SeuSvenia~ da soflis gareT daunTia cecxli. magram `jer adrea misi mobruneba~, kacni ar arian mzad amisaTvis _ misi siwmindisa da simarTlis, misi sinaTlis miRebisa da wminda xedviT WvretisaTvis. versad hpovebs Tavisi `maradqaluri Rirsebis da simorcxvis samagieros~ `keTilad aRnagi~ da saTno uqmro gociriZis qali, gardacvalebis Semdeg TiTqos vakuumis damtovebeli, magram poetis mier nagrZnobi da gaxsenebuli. am wignSi urbanistuli msoflgancda _ mTeli samyaros Tu siyvarulis gareubani ufro gamZafrebulia, vidre oTar WilaZis poeziaSi da TiTqos ufro morgebulia, vidre Sinaganad uaryofili. ucxooba Camomdgara qalsa da kacs Soris _ maradiulad rom eltvian erTmaneTs da mainc amouxsnelni rCebian erTmaneTisTvis, ucxoobamorgebulni, erTmaneTis nacvlad xeebs ewyvilebian da ecekvebian, xeebs _ bunebis siwmindeebs, radgan amave siwmindes ver xedaven da ver amCneven erTmaneTSi. yoveldRiuri gulgrilobiT, wvrilmaniTa da kompleqsebiT daRlilni, erTxel mainc gaaTavisufleben TavianT namdvil arss: `terfebi davkariT miwaze glexurad~. `kvdomamde vecekve ferdobze aryis xes da mere qalebi naRveliT aivsnen, mindorSi misroles Ronier majebiT da Tan SeukurTxes aryis xes gamCeni~.
1

paruir sevaki, iqmenin naTeli, somxuridan qarTulad Targmna givi Sahnazarma, Tb., 1979.

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foni ki eklesiaa, siwmindeSeumCneveli: `eklesiasTan sivrce rom Sededda, gamovefineT da vicekveT xeebTan~. sakraluri, wminda adgilic ki aRaraa ukve qristianobis akvnis, uflis saydris, wminda ojaxis adgilsamyofeli, rogorc magaliTad, niko samadaSvilis poeziaSi, sadac bavSvobis anu siwmindis wiaRTanaa dakavSirebuli taZari _ erTaderTi gadarCenili nawili samyarosi: `qristem bavSvoba aq gaatara da RvTismSobeli ugvida ezos~. sagulisxmoa, rom am saocari simyudrovisa da simSvidis SegrZnebis gverdiT, niko samadaSvilis poeziaSic Cndeba erTgvari gangaSis gancda warmarTuli warsulis gamo (Sdr. sergei bulgakoviseuli erTiani gansxvavebuli siyvaruli qristianuli taZrisa, saxlisa, dedisa, maradiuli wminda dedisa, miwieri da sulieri samSoblosi, RmerTis).1 eklesia amave dros xom gamoxatulebaa pirvelqmnili harmoniis, zecisa da miwis, RmerTisa da adamianis, colisa da qmris _ qalisa da kacis RvTiuri kavSiris. pavle mociqulis mixedviT, qmari Tavia colisa, rogorc ufali/qriste (siZe) eklesiisa (sZlis/sasZlosi. ix. I korin. 7, 1-40; 11, 7-16). es kavSiri gacnobierebul, nebelobiT, sasurvel morCilebas gulisxmobs da ara monur brma morCilebas, romlisac ase eSiniaT da romelsac gaurbian swored gaucxoebuli adamianebi. es kavSiri RvTiuri morCilebis gamomxatvelia, romelsac morwmune WeSmariti RvTaebrivi sulieri Tavisuflebisaken mihyavs da ara sulieri monobisaken. igi gulisxmobs adamianis nebis RvTisaken warmarTvas, RvTis nebisadmi damorCilebas. magram darRveulia da daviwyebuli es harmoniuli RvTiuri kavSiric da adamiani, misi urwmunoebidan da usiyvarulobidan gamomdinare, aqac gareubanSia _ eklesiis, eklesiurobis, RvTisagan dadgenili wesis (wesrigis) gareubanSi; eklesiaSi ki ara dgas, aramed `eklesiasTan~ _ mis gareT aris darCenili. nuTu ukve gardavidnen `ukanaskneli qristianebic~ _ `rjuldawyvetili qarTvelni?~ magram iqneb am pirveli namdvili sulieri sawyisebis, sulieri samSoblos mogonebis da WeSmariti Tavisuflebis momcemeli harmoniuli kavSiris Taviseburad aRdgenis gaucnobierebeli da dafaruli survilia miwieri Jamisa da vnebis gaRviZebaSi _ warmosaxul idealur wyvilebTan, xeebTan cekvaSi gamoxatuli?

1 ix. S.N. Bulgakov, Mo% rodina; Religi% qelovekobo[i% v russkoy revolhcii; Religi% i politika (1871-1944), Novjy mir, 10, 1989.

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da ra sanetaro da odnav mainc mbJutavi naTlis momtani unda iyos am gaucxoebaSi gaxsnili, spetak, pirvelqmnili simartiviTa da locvebiT kazmul sulTan Sexeba: `me ki vwevar da vnatrob Sens sxeuls da suls TevziviT amobrunebuls~. . . `Sens suls wynar mijnebs Tavadve urCev, locvebiT kazme, giWirs Seleva. midi, SeurTe eg suli Rrublebs, gahyevi Ramis saSinelebas.~ amgvari suli yovlismcodnea Tavisi Sinagani siwrfelidan gamomdinare. amgvari suli cnobs Tavis `suliT . . . tols~ (baraTaSvilis msgavsad), `icis~ igi (SoTa rusTavelis gagebiT): `Sen CemSi im wertilidan Semoixede, saidanac aravis ar Semouxedavs~. amgvari suli xedavs `suliT tolis~ gasaWirs da cdilobs uwamlos mas: `Sen SeniSne CemSi uzarmazari Camtvreuli xidi, liandagidan amovardnili matarebeli da naRmis natexi, Seni sindisis CarCoSi Cemi gatexili suraTi SevniSne, tanjviT aRsavse mTvrali saxe, nervebad qceuli~. amgvar moalerse suls sayvareli adamiani isev bavSvis naxatis msgavsi hgonia da cota ukeTesic (`me vgavdi bavSvis daxatul adamians, gverdze waxrils~). bavSvis naxati ki yvelaze marTalia da wrfeli. amgvari suli ver amCnevs, Tu ar amCnevs `suliT... tolis~ gatexil suraTs _ tanjviT aRsavse mTvral saxes, nervebad qceuls. `suliT tolisaTvis~ siyvaruli aRaraa ukve sixaruli (vTqvaT, XIX s.-is SesaniSnavi rusi poetis, aTanase fetis, grZnobebismagvari: $ priwel k tebe s privetom...~; `movedi SenTan gaxsnili guliT...~), aramed `siyvarulis gaxsenebaa~ mxolod: `ra unda miTxra Sens sunTqvaze ufro mTavari, ras momiyvebi netav iseTs, rasac Seni martooba ver momiyveba, an riTi unda mtanjo ise, rogorc damtanjavs Senive tanjva~ . . . sworis tanjviT tanjvaa da mainc: `Cven ucxoni varT erTmaneTisTvis. Seni gaSlili mgloviare Tmebis simuqe niSnavs Cems sikvdils da xeebis mudmiv sicocxles~. iqneb, am `ucxoobaSi~ gandoba ufro mets niSnavs, vidre misi arcodna da misiT mogvrili siciviT zroba? es xom ukve siTboa da

30

qeTevan bezaraSvili

mSobliuri gancdisken mobrunebaa uZRebi Svilisa. iseve mSobliuria igi, rogorc sadarbazoSi mbJutav patruqTan sibneleSi `mTrTolvare mamis xeli~, rogorc `mkvdari da ubadruki sinaTlis darcxvena~... `da gaanaTebs cariel wyvdiads mbJutav patruqiT marjvena mamis~... da `radgan ar iyo gamgone dedis, imitom Sexvda aseTi xvedri~. is ki `wigniT da RviniT, fiqriT da naRveliT~ Tavisi gziT midioda maradiuli samSoblosaken, sinaTlisaken: `Sen ki dalocav yornisfer xeebs, radganac gecxo cxovrebis madli, radgan gzis Suqze iTbobdi xelebs da miapobdi Rameebs sanTliT~. `me var amqveynad rogorc sxivi qvafenilze sinaTlis wreSi~. am gausaZlis, rwmenadakargul yofaSi `viRac mainc anTebs Cvens arsebobas~ _ viRac mudam Cvengan dakarguli da SeumCneveli (RmerTi, satrfo Tu ubralo ucnobi adamiani). `sinaTleSi ki sWvioda cremli viRac ubralo adamianis~. da gana ase Znelia, adamiani iyos `TovliviT ubralo~? (Sdr. boris pasternaki: `I [it>, ne zasor%%s> vpred>./Vse +to _ ne bol>wa% xitrost>~. `ase ubralod icxovro qveynad/biwis gareSe _ ar aris Zneli~). igi xom `naTlis svetiviT~ aris Cawerili `talRovan droSi~: `mosaxvevebSi erTmaneTiT ganaTebuli adamianebi dadian Dda anaTeben erTmaneTis zurgebs, xelebs, saxeebs~, cocxloben erTmaneTis faruli imediT... am imedis wynar, mSvid naTels danaxva da Secnoba swyuria. kaci RmerTisa da sulieri adamianis ZiebasTan erTad daeZebs Tavis bavSvobas, radgan samive (RmerTi, sulieri kaci, bavSvoba) erTad iyris Tavs, rogorc yvelaze srulyofili gamoxatuleba pirvelqmnili harmoniisa, siwmindisa da sulis samoTxisa _ roca kaci hgavs bavSvis mier daxatul adamians, rogoric Seqmna igi ufalma da rogorsac xedavs mas mama, megobari da `suliT toli~. `Cemi Tavi iq davtove, imitom vbrundebi sizmrebSi da vuvli irgvliv imas, rac marTalia. me var da rasac veravin ver xedavs da rac aravin ar icis~.

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31

es wigni am rTuli Sinasamyaros gaxsnaa yofiTobis mrume, mZime fonze da misi saSualebiT da ar eSinia RvTaebriv, WeSmarit sixaruls moklebuli dangreuli sulis bnel siRrmeebSi Caxedvis (Sdr. fiodor tiutCevi: `Ne plot>, a dux rastlils% v nawi dni .../ Pridi na pomo\> moemu neverih...~). rogorc a. tarkovskis filmSi `andria rubliovi~ mxatvris Tvalwin da Cven Tvalwin Caivlis mTeli epoqis rusuli istoria da yofa Tavisi xasiaTiT, sixaruliTa Tu mwuxarebiT, siwmindiTa da biwiT, rwmeniTa Tu urwmunoebiT, ufro ki simZimeebiT, WuWyiTa da simdabliT, ise, rom erTi sityvac, erTi kadric ki ar gvxvdeba mTeli filmis manZilze Semoqmedis (xelovanis) RvTiuri, zeciuri, amaRlebuli samyaros da STagonebis gamomxatveli, ise, rogorc am filmSi ganzraxaa amotrialebuli samyaro da misi fskeriTaa warmoCenili, raTa Semdgom (filmis bolos) zeca gvanaxos _ rubliovis mier cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebiTa da RvTiuri STagonebis safuZvelze Seqmnili xatebi da freskebi, asevea am wignSic. aq ki aris cxovrebis, samyaros, am da im soflis, siyvarulis, rwmenis, sasoebis gareubani, yofiTi kadrebi sulieri gaucxoebisa, roca aRar igrZnoba da aRarc ki axsovT erToba qristeSi, `cxovrebis madlcxebuli~ poetis mier warmodgenilia masSi (cxovrebaSi) damarxuli margalitis gansacxovleblad, raTa igi freskebiviT gamobrwyindes Cvenda sanugeSod saaqaoSi (radgan gvinda virwmunoT, rom Cven urwmuno droSic poeti, rac unda uWirdes, jer isev aris cisa da miwis, RmerTisa da adamianis damakavSirebeli da Suamavali). yofierebidan sulierebisaken mimaval kacTa am gzaze da mrume yofiTobaSic ki Cumi sxiviT gaciskrovnebul adamianebze ase Tu gvamcnobs kidev erTi sruliad axali da ucnobi poeti kvlav XX da aw XXI saukunisa: `Takix _ vas lele%l Rublev v pqelinom svoem veke. Kak vosk, kak slovo `lhbov>~ Paxnut ego qeloveki~. `Tavs gevlebodaT amgvarT rubliovi Taflovan Tavis saukuneSi. cviliviT, sityva `siyvaruliviT~ surnels afrqveven misi kacebi~ (iuri loSCici).1 iseve, rogorc iuri loSCici, da, SesaZlebelia, ufro mZafradac, andro buaCiZe gvaiZulebs davfiqrdeT, Tu vin aris igi _
Hriy Lo\iq, Stolica poley: Stixotvoreni%, Moskva, 1990. rusulidan T leqsebisaTvis: q. bezaraSvili, rusi poetebi (a. feti, f. tiutCevi, i. loSCici), Targmanebi. `kavkasioni~, oqtomberi, 19, 1994, gv. 7; boris pasternaki, leqsebis Targmani, gaz. `kalmasoba~, #7 (81), 2004, gv. 16.
1

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qeTevan bezaraSvili

poeti, sakuTari gulis mxilavi da sxvaTa gulTamxilavic? da vin varT Cven, misi mkiTxvelni? es wigni gvixsnis imas, rasac ver vxedavT, ver vamCnevT da ar viciT. dabolos, am danawevrebul samyaroSi, mxolod tkiviliani poeturi sityviT rom mTliandeba, mainc SenarCunebulia (ra Tqma unda, transformirebuli saxiT) is msoflgancda, bibliidan rom iRebs saTaves. samyaros gareubanSi gadasrolili poetis urbanistul xilvebSi RvTaebrivi, WeSmariti sixarulis imgvari monatreba ikiTxeba, axla mxolod sulis bnel siRrmeSi rom SeiZleba aRmoaCino. swored amitomaa andro buaCiZis `gareubanSi~ daxatuli egzistencialuri samyaro erTdroulad saSiSic da axlobelic, dangreulic da aRdgenilic, fragmentulic da mTlianic.

konstantine bregaZe

grigol robaqiZis romani `Cakluli suli~ rogorc totalitaruli (sabWoTa) saxelmwifos miTosur-demonuri arsisa da modernistuli epoqis hermenevtika S e s a v a l i
`Cakluli sulis~ meore gamocemis winasityvaobaSi (1937) grigol robaqiZe werda:
filologiis mecnierebaTa kandidati, doqtori, iv. javaxiSvilis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitaruli fakultetis asistent-profesori (qvemimarTuleba germanuli literatura). S. rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis institutis komparativistikisa da literaturis Teoriis ganyofilebis mecnieri-TanamSromeli. goeTesa da novalisis saerTaSoriso sazogadoebebis wevri. ZiriTadi naSromebi: novalisis saxismetyvelebis ZiriTadi aspeqtebi, 2001. novalisis enis filosofia, 2003. literaturisa da enis filosofiuri narkvevebi (novalisi, goeTe, v. f. humboldti...), 2009. Targmanebi: novalisi: Ramis himnebi~ (2007); novalisi: sumbulisa da vardkokoris zRapari~ (2008). interesTa sfero: germanuli romantizmi, hermenevtika, enis filosofia.

`es wigni, romelsac tyuilad ar hqvia `Cakluli suli~, aris cda saxeobriv aCvenos atmosferulad zemoqmedi bolSevizmis miwisqveSa damangreveli Zala. igi 1932 wlis bolos daiwera. rac Semdgom periodSi moxda, adasturebs im Tvalsazriss, romelic am wigns udevs safuZvlad~ [citatis Targmani statiis avtors ekuTvnis _ k. b.] (robaqiZe 1937: 5).

marTlac, romanSi, romelic 1932 wels daiwera da 1933 wels germaniaSi gamoica, zedmiwevniT, detaluradaa nawinaswarmetyvelebi is bolSevisturi saxelmwifo terori da represiebi, romelTac sabWoTa imperiaSi 30-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi Tavis ukidures formebs miaRwies. magram aq ufro metad mniSvnelovania ara romanis es winaswarmetyveluri Zala, ara konkretuli empiriul-istoriuli procesebis mxatvruli asaxvisa da gadmocemis Zala, aramed im metafizikuri Zirebis wvdoma, ramac safuZveli Seuqmna bolSevisturi tipis totalitaruli saxelmwifos warmoqmnas. winasityvaobaSi robaqiZe, upirveles yovlisa, swored amas gulisxmobda, rodesac igi Tavisi wignis

34

konstantine bregaZe

TvalTaxedvaze mianiSnebda (`im Tvalsazriss, romelic am wigns udevs safuZvlad~): anu, aq robaqiZe pirvel rigSi xazs usvams romanis swored ontologiur-filosofiur pirvelsazriss. romanSi ikveTeba Semdegi diskursebi: 1. bolSevizmis miTosur-demonuri (metafizikuri) arsis `gaxsna~ da wvdoma. 2. Tanamedrove teqnikuri civilizaciis kritika (nicSeanuri nakadi). 3. miTosuri nakadi. romanis es diskursebi imTaviTve CarTulia hermenevtikul wreSi, ramdenadac isini erT dialeqtikur mTlianobas qmnian da urTierTgamomdinareoben. es ki, meTodologiuri TvalsazrisiT, impliciturad gulisxmobs romanis Taursazrisisa da teqstis gageba-ganmartebas hermenevtikuli wrisa da alegoriuli interpretaciis meTodTa gaTvaliswinebiT. Tavis literaturul werilebsa da filosofiur esseebSi robaqiZe mudam xazs usvams fenomenis `metafizikuri axnis~ aucileblobas, anu fenomenis miTosuri, e. i. sawyisiseuli Zirebis wvdomas, rodesac Sinagani Wvretisa da mxatvruli qmnis procesSi fizikuri gadadis metafizikurSi da piuruku; Sesabamisad, istoriuli gadadis miTosurSi, empiriuli _ transcendenturSi, droiTi _ zedroiTSi da piriqiT. es midgoma robaqiZes gadaaqvs sakuTar mxatvrul teqstebSi. misi romanebi, novelebi, drama-misteriebi yofierebis fenomenTa metafizikuri axsnaa esTetikis sferoSi. amitomac, robaqiZis mxatvruli teqstebi, rogorc metafizikuri axsnebi, Tavad moiTxoven metafizikur axsnebs. `Cakluli sulis~ swored amgvari interpretaciis cdaa Cemi statiac.

I. bolSevizmisa da stalinis fenomenis miTosur-metafizikuri arsis hermenevtika romanSi esseSi `stalini rogorc arimanuli Zala~ (`Stalin als ahrimanische Macht~), rogorc es saTauridanac Cans, robaqiZe stalinis pirovnebas, stalinis fenomens zoroastruli miTologiisa da religiis borotebis RmerT arimanTan aigivebs. sakuTriv saxelwodeba

robaqiZis am romanis interpretaciis pirveli cdaa n. kakabaZis statia `grigol robaqiZis romani Cakluli suli~, romelSic avtorma marTebulad miuTiTa romanis teqstSi intencirebul nicSeanur kritikul diskursze (kakabaZe 1988: 10).

grigol robaqiZis romani Cakluli suli~ rogorc saxelmwifos miTosur-demonuri...

35

arimani nawarmoebia zoroastruli Teologiis terminidan Angra Mainyu, rac damangrevel suls niSnavs (leqsikoni... 1983: 72). amdenad, mxatvruli TvalsazrisiT, romanSi stalinis personaJi (Sesabamisad, bolSevizmi) simbolurad ganasaxierebs am demonurdestruqciul Zalas. xolo Tuki stalinis fenomens (Sesabamisad, bolSevizms) ontologur-miTosuri TvalsazrisiT ganvixilavT, maSin romanSi igi warmoadgens am arimanuli damangreveli metafizikur-miTosuri sawyisebis empiriul gamovlinebas konkretul istoriul droSi totalitaruli saxelmwifos formiT. es arimanul-bolSevikuri Zala mis mier dafuZnebul totalitarul saxelmwifoSi da am saxelmwifos saSualebiT, upirvelesyovlisa, upirispirdeba da angrevs RvTaebriv yofierebiseul wesrigs _ robaqiZis mixedviT, `sakralur wyobas~ _ risi Sedegicaa yofierebidan RmerTis gandevna, RmerTis sikvdili, rac pirvel rigSi, vlindeba adamianis cnobierebidan RmerTis ideis gaqrobasa da adamianis sulSi RvTaebrivi eTosis mospobaSi. Sesabamisad, arimanul-bolSevikuri Zala upirispirdeba adamianis RvTis xatobis, RvTis Zeobis ideas. es ki totalitarul sivrceSi xorcieldeba erTi mxriv, ideologiuri da represiuli wnexis saSualebiT, xolo meore mxriv, raciosa da teqnikuri progresis gafetiSebiT, rac adamianSi angrevs RvTismoSiSobis sulsa da RvTaebriv-mistikurisadmi mowiwebis eToss da amavdroulad, aviTarebs RvTisgmobis isterias. Sesabamisad, yofierebaSi racios gabatoneba adamianSi angrevs Sesaqmis, rogorc umaRlesi saRvTo realobis aRqmisa da sakuTari Tavis Sesaqmis gvirgvinad, anu RvTaebrivis nawilad TviTgancdis (Selbstgefhl) unars. aqedan gamomdinare, racios mier gaukuRmarTebuli adamianuri cnobiereba xilul qveyanas aRiqvams mxolod materiad, mxolod saganTsamyarod (Dingwelt), geologiur faqtad. Sesabamisad, totalitarul saxelmwifoSi adamiani aRiqmeba ara rogorc RvTis xati, e. i. ara rogorc RvTaebrivi warmoSobis, RvTaebrivTan wilnayari arsi, aramed igi determindeba, rogorc erTi rigiTi statistikuri biologiuri erTeuli, xolo xalxi ganixileba ara RvTis sxeulad (dostoevski), ara `RvTaebrivi bunebis zepirovnul cocxal arsad~ (robaqiZe), aramed _ masad. totalitaruli saxelmwifos damaarsebeli da mmarTveli ki Caanacvlebs RmerTad, RmerTis ideas da Tavis Tavs fsevdoRmerTs afuZnebs. amgvarad, totalitarul yofaSi imTaviTve darRveuli da daSlilia sakraluri wyoba.

`Caklul sulSi~ robaqiZis mier adamianis gulis daglejili RmerTis xorcadqceul nawilTan Sedareba metaforulad swored adamianis RvTis xatobaze, anu adamianis inteleqtis RvTaebriv arsze mianiSnebs.

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konstantine bregaZe

aq unda aRiniSnos, rom robaqiZe zogadad xelmwifebis ideisa da saxelmwifos mmarTvelis arsis lingvo-ontologiur hermenevtikas gadmoscems sityva xelmwifis etimologiis safuZvelze. robaqiZis mixedviT, qarTuli ena (Sesabamisad, qarTveli eri) qveynis mmarTvels da qveynis marTvas ukavSirebs mwife xels (xel-mwife), anu madlian, kurTxeul, baraqian xels. Sesabamisad, qveynis mmarTvels unda hqondes mwife xeli, anu madliani xeli. misgac kurTxeva, madli unda gamodiodes, rac TavisTavad unda iyos sakraluri wyobis dadginebis SesaZleblobis winapiroba (robaqiZis krebuli... 1996: 71-72). amgvarad, robaqiZis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifos mmarTvelisagan, misi mwife xelidan unda momdinareobdes makonstruirebeli, Semoqmedi, Taurmdgeni, pirvelsawyisiseuli impulsebi, anu, man umaRlesi saRvTo eTikis safuZvelze unda daamyaros RvTaebrivi wesrigi, sakraluri wyoba adamianuri yofis yvela sferoSi, rac, upirveles yovlisa, gulisxmobs adamianis cnobierebis warmarTvas RvTis xatobis ideisaken. magram totalitaruli saxelmwifos mmarTveli, Tavisi arsidan gamomdinare, ki ar qmnis, aramed piriqiT, angrevs, Slis sakralur wyobas, rac, upirveles yovlisa, gamoixateba adamianis RvTisxatobis ideis destruirebaSi. SemTxveviTi araa, rom bevrgan romanis teqstSi stalini Sedarebulia preistoriul xvlikTan, anu bibliur gvelTan, riTac stalinis arimanul-damangrevel miTosurmetafizikur arszea miniSnebuli: anu, romanSi stalini, rogorc bibliuri gveli, mxatvrul-simboluri saxea TaurSiSis, sulieri sikvdilis, araras (das Nichts), egzistencialuri gamouvalobisa da upirovnobis. am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa bibliuri gvelis saxismetyvelebis robaqiZiseuli interpretacia, romelic man gadmosca esseSi ~TaurSiSi da miTosi~: `adamianis me-m maSinaTve SeigrZno Tavis dacemaSi (igulisxmeba pirvelcodva _ k. b.) sakuTar metafizikur zRvarTan Sexla. saxeobriv gveli Tavad aris es zRvari, sazareli civi talRa, romelic RvTaebrivsa da araRvTaebrivs Soris enas elviseburad asrialebs. misi xilvisas adamiani saSinlad SeigrZnobs sakuTar dacemasa da umweobas, rom SesaZloa araraSi (das Nichts) ganqardes. gveli WeSmaritad pirvelSiSis gansxeulebaa~ [citatis Targmani satatiis avtors ekiTvnis _ k. b.] (robaqiZe 1935: 35).

swored aseTi mwife, anu Semoqmedi xelis plastikuri saxismetyvelebaa miqelanjelos cnobili freska `adamis Seqmna~.

grigol robaqiZis romani Cakluli suli~ rogorc saxelmwifos miTosur-demonuri...

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sakraluri wyoba aseve gulisxmobs mamis miTosuri xatis xsovnas Svilis cnobierebaSi. robaqiZis mixedviT, swored aq vlindeba goeTes pirvelfenomenis idea yvelaze cxadad, rogorc metafizikuri kavSiri RvTiT dadgenil qmnilebebs Soris: anu, mamisa da Svilis es genetikuri mistikur-sakraluri kavSiri, es Taviseburi miTosuri mexsiereba sakuTriv `me~-s sulieri unaria, hqondes xsovna metafizikuri pirvelsawyisebisa da dakarguli paradizuli egzistenciisa. robaqiZis Tanaxmad, swored mamis miTosuri xatis xsovna aniWebs `me~-s sulieri Wvretis unars, raTa man sakuTari Tavi Seicnos da Tanaganicados metafizikuri RvTaebrivi sawyisebis ganuyofel nawilad. upirveles yovlisa, swored am miTosur-metafizikuri da fsiqologiuri perspeqtividan xsnis robaqiZe `Caklul sulSi~ stalinis fenomens, stalinis pirovnebas, romelic Tavisi arsiT, miTosur-fsiqologiurad, mamis mkvleli, mamis uarmyofeli, anu sakraluri wyobis damangrevelia. aq avtori cdilobs goeTes pirvelfenomenisa da froidis fsiqoanalitikuri midgomis (oidiposis kompleqsi) miTosuri gaazrebis safuZvelze axsnas stalinis fenomeni, rac, Cemi azriT, savsebiT `mxvedri~ aRmoCnda: `vin iyo es anonimi (e. i. stalini _ k. b.)? mamamisi mewaRe iyo, loTi, boRmiani da sastiki, dedamisi _ mkeravi, wynari, morCili da gulmowyale qali. roca daTvreboda, mama scemda dedas. scemda erTaderT patara vaJsac. maT qoxSi mefobda siRatake, cofianis dorbli da cremli. imis gafiqrebazec ki, rom sacaa mama dabrundeba, biWs tanSi szaravda. TviT samyaros SeqmnaSic ki mxolod sibilwes xedavda, mama ki urCxulad eCveneboda. ojaxuri kavSiris aseTi rRveva bavSvs guls umZimebda. aRmosavleTma icis, ra aris mama _ kosmiurad gamanayofierebeli Tesli. Tu bayayis Canasaxovan ujreds Suaze gavWriT, ori bayayi warmoiSoba. ori nawilidan TiToeuli gadaiqceva ara naxevar, aramed naxevari zomis mTlian bayayad. biologia aq Seudareblad adasturebs mamobis aRmosavlur instinqts. erTi Canasaxovani ujredidan ori ibadeba, magram ra moelis Tavdapirvels, SeqmnisaTvis gamzadebuls? is ar ganxorcielebula, fizikurad aRar arsebobs _ magram metafizikurad sicocxles agrZelebs or patara bayaySi. TiToeuli maTgani Tavis TavSi atarebs mas, daubadebels. aq cxovrobs gvarovnuli maxsovroba mamisa. sadac es maxsovroba mokvdeba, iq sicocxle Cavardeba safrTxeSi. stalinis saxlSi es maxsovroba dairRva. vaJma dawyevla mama, Tesli. gamwarebulma TviT Seqmna SeiZula. misTvis aRar arsebobda siyvaruli, aRarc sixaruli. mamis mimarT samudamod Cabudebulma siZulvilma sicocxle mouwamla~ [aq da qvemoT citate-

38

konstantine bregaZe

bi `Cakluli sulidan~ momyavs al. kartozias Targmanis mixedviT _ k. b.] (robaqiZe 1997: 515). xolo aseTi mamisuarmyofeli, Tavisi metafizikuri arsidan gamomdinare, `bunebrivad~ uaryofs mamuls, gaucxoebulia misi da sakuTari erisadmi, mowyvetilia maT da igi, amavdroulad, yalibdeba mamulis uarmyofelad da mamulis moZuled (aqedan stalinis cnobili uaryofa saqarTvelosi _ mam-ulis da siZulvili qarTveli erisadmi _ mamuli-Svilebisadmi). aqedan gamomdinare, aseTi umamo mmarTvelis aRqmaSi xalxi aris masa, upirovno koleqtivi da ara `RvTis sxeuli~, riTac kvlav irRveva sakraluri wyoba: `Zvel samyaros (e. i. sawyisiseul metafizikur safuZvlebs _ k. b.) ukve daemSvidoba. misTvis aRar arsebobda arc sisxlis erToba, arc xalxi, arc sulieri kavSiri, arc rwmena. xalxi masam Secvala, suli _ klasma. aq Tavis stiqiaSi iyo~ (robaqiZe 1997: 519).1 bunebrivia, rom stalinis an msgavsi tipis mmarTvelis mier dafuZnebuli saxelmwifo, Tavisi arsiT, mxolod totalitaruli Tu iqneba, sadac daSlilia sakraluri wyoba, rac pirvel rigSi, gamoxatulia adamianis RvTisxatobis ideis destruirebaSi. Sesabamisad, TviTgadarCenis instinqtiT Sepyrobili totalitaruli saxelmwifos moqalaqe eTikuri TvalsazrisiT, avlens umdables amoralur Tvisebebs _ bezReba, angareba, TvalTvali, gamcemloba, Ralati, kvla. Tvadayira dgeba universaluri saRvTo morali. xolo ontologiuri TvalsazrisiT totalitaruli saxelmwifos moqalaqe egzistencialuri gamouvalobis, egzistencialuri SiSis, araras (das Nichts) ucilobeli msxverplia. romanis mTavari protagonisti Tamaz enguri, rogorc poeti, yvelaze mZafrad SeigrZnobs swored am egzistencialur sicarieles, araras, ganicdis egzistencialuri pirvelSiSiT Sepyrobilobas, rac, ra Tqma unda, totalitarul sivrceSi egzistenciiT ganpirobebuli dacemuli sulieri mdgomareoba, dakarguli RvTisxatobaa: `Tamazsac nel-nela CasTvlima, Tumca Zili ar modioda. im sifrifana sazRvars miaRwia Zil-RviZils Soris, roca grZnobebi daWimulia ukidures sinatifemde. [...] SeZrwunda. sicocxlis kideze igrZno Tavi, sakuTari Tavisa aRar sjeroda. misi arseba xandaxan
1

Sdr. mamismkvlelobis motivi da mamismkvlelobis miTo-fsiqologiuri aspeqtebi k. gamsaxurdias romanSi `mTvaris motaceba~ _ arzayani v. kac zvambaia.

grigol robaqiZis romani Cakluli suli~ rogorc saxelmwifos miTosur-demonuri...

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mkveTrad exeboda im zRvars, sadac arara da RmerTi erTad arian. amjerad ise Canda, TiTqos mxolod saSinels Seexo, `araras~ _ sunTqva gauCerda _ pirdaRebul sicarieles, romelic gaqrobas uqadis da `aradyofs~. Tamazi Zlier SeSinda. TiTqos sikvdils Seexoo, Zil-RviZilidan gamoerkva, civ oflSi curavda. undoda eloca, magram locva mxolod maSin SeiZleba, roca suli ivseba, rogorc TavTavi Cumi mwifobis madlian Jams. Tamazma igrZno: wamic da gonebas dakargavs araras winaSe~ (robaqiZe 1997: 529). ontologiuri TvalsazrisiT, sabWoTa moqalaqis, da zogadad, totalitaruli saxelmwifos moqalaqis, tragedia romanSi axsnilia swored sakraluri wyobis rRveviT, xolo fsiqologiuri TvalsazrisiT _ petres kompleqsiT, ramdenadac sabWoTa moqalaqe Taviseburi samgzisuarmyofelia (petres kompleqsi), romelmac represiuli da ideologiuri wnexisa da, rac mTavaria, raciosa, da aqedan gamomdinare, teqnikuri progresis gafetiSebis gamo uaryo sakuTari Tavis RvTis xatad aRqma da dakarga RvTisZeobis TviTgancdis spiritualuri unari. Sesabamisad, mis cnobierebaSi daikarga metafizikuri pirvelsawyisebis xsovna _ `idumali pentagrama Tavdayira idga~ (ix. Tavi XI, `akaSas qronika~): `elsadgurebs aSenebdnen, sasoflo-sameurneo manqanebi SemohyavdaT, Waobebs aSrobdnen, stiqiebs imorCilebdnen, sarwyav sistemebs qmnidnen da sazeimod xsnidnen. xalxi ikribeboda, internacionals mReroda, radio molocvebs gadmoscemda moskovidan, xarkovidan, baqodan, tfilisidan. iyo damorCilebuli mdinarisa da muSis marjvenis dResaswauli _ magram ar iyo is umaRlesi wami, romelsac erT dros ganicdida egvipteli: roca mzis pirvel sxivebTan erTad mimaval miminos Wvretda _ mzis egviptur simbolos _, is netari wami, roca mzis TesliT avsebuli SeyvarebuliviT uaxlovdeboda miwas. axali gzebi gahyavdaT moSorebul raionebSi, sadac jer kidev Zveli tomebi saxlobdnen. xSirad gzis gasaWrelad mTa unda aefeTqebinaT da masTan erTad ankara wyaroc moespoT, wmidaTawmida ram tomis warmodgenaSi. SiSiT umzerda mTeli tomi wyaros ganadgurebas: dabneuli da moqufruli Rrmad grZnobda Tavis arsebaSi sikvdils. ganxibluli axla kvalareul nadirs hgavda, gondakarguli idga sicarielis pirispir~ (robaqiZe 1997: 509-510).

aseTive uarmyofeli aRmoCnda Tamaz enguri, vinc samgzis uaryo RvTisxatobis idea da sakraluri wyoba: ix. kinoscenaris ganxilvis (Tavi I), operaSi sityviT gamosvlisa (Tavi X) da megobris (levanis) gacemis (Tavi XVII) epizodebi.

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konstantine bregaZe

amgvarad, romanis antitotalitaruli da antibolSevisturi diskursidan gamomdinare, bolSevizmi, bolSevisturi tipis totalitaruli saxelmwifo racios gafetiSebisa da RmerTis yofierebidan gandevnis ukiduresi gamoxatulebaa, rasac, Tavis mxriv, gza gauxsna dasavleTSi gabatonebulma teqnikur progresSi, nihilizmsa da pozitivizmSi gamovlenilma raciom. II. romanis nicSeanuri diskursi _ dasavleTis teqnikuri civilizaciis kritika rogorc aRiniSna, romanis erT-erTi diskursia dasavleTis (evro-amerikuli) teqnikuri civilizaciis kritika. es nicSeanuri kritikuli suli mTels romanSi implicituradaa mocemuli, Tumca akumulirebuli saxiT _ romanis me-IX TavSi `roca atomi iSleba~. SemTxveviTi araa, rom romanSi robaqiZe dasavlur teqnikur civilizaciasa da rusul bolSevizms erT mTlianobad moiazrebs, ramdenadac am or kulturul sivrceSi RmerTi yofierebidaa gandevnili, xolo RmerTis idea _ adamianis cnobierebidan. Sesabamisad, aqac da iqac darRveulia sakraluri wyoba. iseve, rogorc sabWoTa imperiaSi, teqnicistur dasavleTSic, gabatonebuli racios gamo adamiani ontologiuri TvalsazrisiT egzistencialuri pirvelSiSi, usaxelo araras tyvea: `iciT, ra?~ kvlav wamoiwyo ivanovma, `yvelaferi rac sabWoeTSi xdeba, xdeba yvelgan. nu gikvirT. miwisqveSa dinebebi aiReT, isini yvelgan erTnairia: CvenTan, evropaSi, amerikaSi. CvenTan RmerTis winaaRmdeg ibrZvian, misi mokvla surT. amerikasa da evropaSi raRa xdeba? iq ar klaven RmerTs, iq igi TavisiT kvdeba. [...] CvenTan mxolod erTi SeZaxili ismis: `unda davewioT da gavuswroT amerikas!~ daiwyo Sejibri manqanis kultSi. am SejibrSi arc evropas da amerikas surT CamorCena. iq Weqa-quxulis datyvevebiT Svididan rvamilionamde voltis mopovebas axerxeben atomis dasaSlelad _ albaT teqnikis gulisaTvis... iq raciom daipyro socialuri yofa. CvenTan dagegmva ise Sors wavida, lamisaa kerZo cxovrebac gamoTvlas daeqvemdebaros. [...] Tu erTi sityviT SevajamebT am process, es iqneba: RmerTis gandevna samyarodan. es moqmedeba renesansSi iRebs saTaves, dRes mis nayofs vimkiT. axali adamiani ibadeba, uRmerTo. misTvis ar arsebobs saidumlo. araviTari ridi, araviTari mowiweba, araviTari mistika, SiSveli yofiereba, nivTieri: arsad metafizikuri, fesvebSic ki ara. es aris Cveni axali Taoba. SeadareT igi amerikuls _ mxolod `minus~ niSani dausviT win garegnuli mxaris mosawesrigeblad _ da veraviTar gansxvavebas ver hpo-

grigol robaqiZis romani Cakluli suli~ rogorc saxelmwifos miTosur-demonuri...

41

vebT maT Soris, oriveni erTi wiaRidan modian. RmerTis amoZirkva yofierebidan _ es aris kulturis axali mijna. [...] iqac da aqac igive xdeba, gansxvaveba isaa, rom ruseTis miwaze davardnili Tesli ukidures formebs iZens~ (robaqiZe 1997: 492-493). amgvarad, romanis aRniSnul TavSi robaqiZe gansazRvravs dasavleTis sulieri krizisis mizezebs, rac, misi azriT, gamowveulia racios gafetiSebiT, da aqedan gamomdinare, sakraluri wyobis daSliT. romanis teqstis nicSeanuri diskursis mixedviT, evro-amerikuli racio, iseve, rogorc _ bolSevikuri, mTel Sesaqmes ganixilavs materiad, geologiur faqtad. dasvleTSi yofa miTosmoklebulia, anu aqac daviwyebulia mamis miTosuri xatis, anu metafizikuri pirvelsawyisebis xsovna. Sesabamisad, zedmetad subieqtivirebul dasavlur `me~-Si gamqralia RvTisxatobis metafizikuri gancda Tu TviTgancda (Selbstgefhl), dasavlel adamians aRar SerCa sulieri Zala, fizikurSi Wvritos metafizikuri, xilulSi _ uxilavi da piriqiT, vinaidan masSi gamqralia RmerTis, rogorc `mudmivi wvis~, gancdis sulieri unari (Tumca, am TvalsazrisiT, dasavleTSi ori didi gamonaklisia _ goeTe da novalisi). xolo RmerTis idea teqnikurma progresma Caanacvla. teqnikuri progresi TviTmiznad iqca, ramac adamianis egzistencias sazrisi daukarga da misi arseboba absurdad gadaaqcia. amitomac, dasavleTSi metafizikur zRavarze myofi `me~ a priori eqvemdebareba egzistencialur pirvelSiSs, araras. dasavleTSi umamobas, e. i. miTosmoklebulobas adamiani teqnikuri progresis absurdulobamde mihyavs, xolo ruseTSi _ bolSevikuri tipis totalitaruli saxelmwifomde. amgvarad, `Cakluli sulis~ nicSeanuri kritikuli diskursidan gamomdinare, romelic dasavluri teqnikuri progresis fetiSizmisa da miTosmoklebuli usulo dasavluri civilizaciiskenaa mimarTuli, ukiduresad subieqtivirebul evro-amerikul `me~-s ontologiurad uWirs metafizikur zRvarze gasvla, vinaidan mas dakarguli aqvs metafizikur-miTosuri pirvelsawyisebis xsovna. swored amaSi Wvretda nicSe dasavleTis tragedias. msgavsad aris es problema robaqiZis romanSic ganWvretili: suli ara mxolod totalitarul saxelmwifoSia Cakluli, e. i. sakraluri wyoba ara mxolod sabWoTa imperiaSia dangreuli, aramed _ aratotalitarul dasavleTSic. pirvel SemTxvevaSi sakraluri wyobis ngrevis mizezia bolSevizmi, meoregan _ ukiduresad ganviTarebuli teqnikuri progresi. xolo am ori mocemulobis saerTo mizezia ukiduresad gafetiSebuli da yofaSi usazRvrod integrirebuli racio da mis mier Sobili nihilizmisa da pozitivizmis suli.

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konstantine bregaZe

III. romanis miTosuri diskursi `Cakluli sulis~ kompozicia miTosur paradigmebzea agebuli. romanis Sinagani logosi, Taursazrisi swored romanis teqstis miTosuri paradigmebiT konstruirebaSi, anu miTosur saxismetyvelebaSia mocemuli. am TvalsazrisiT aRsaniSnavia, rom robaqiZesTan miTosuri paradigmebis gamoyenebas wmindad metaforuli datvirTva ar gaaCnia. anu, isini ar unda ganvixiloT rogorc romanis teqstis tropul-esTetikuri samkauli. aq mocemuli miTo-poeturi konceptebi ubralo metaforuli niSnebi ki ar aris, aramed, upirveles yovlisa, maTi mxatvruli funqciaa empiriul sinamdvileze ufro aRmatebul metafizikur sinamdvileze miniSneba, rac Tavis mxriv, ganapirobebs romanis siuJetisa da personaJebis simboluralegoriul mxatvrul semiotikur niSnebad aRqmas. robaqiZis SemoqmedebiTi meTodidan gamomdinare, romanis teqstis fiqcionaluri dro-sivrcidan es miTosuri paradigmebi unda integrirdnen Tavad mkiTxvelis mier realurad aRqmad empiriul drosa da sivrceSi, ris safuZvelzec mkiTxvelma es miTosuri poeturi konceptebi unda aRiqvas da Tanaganicados, rogorc yofierebis ganuyofeli da realurad arsebuli nawili, rogorc realuri, cocxali mocemulobebi. Cemi azriT, swored ase unda gavigoT `Caklul sulSi~ (da robaqiZis sxva romanebSi) mocemuli miTosuri paradigmebis mxatvruli funqcia. robaqiZis am SemoqmedebiTi meTodis esTetikur-ontologiuri mizania mkiTxvelis cnobierebis yofierebis metafizikuri safuZvlebisaken warmarTva da mkiTxvelisaTvis empiriul-fizikur sinamdvileze aRmatebuli transcendentur-metafizikuri sinamdvilis Tanagancdevineba. amdenad, saxismetyvelebiTi TvalsazrisiT, romanSi miTosuri paradigmebi gamoyenebulia ara rogorc tradiciuli tropul-metaforuli semiotikuri niSnebi, aramed isini Taviseburi ontoteqstualuri cocxali mocemulobebia, ris safuZvelzec robaqiZis romanis teqsti fuZndeba, rogorc _ `cocxali~, `live~-uri ontoteqsti. sainteresoa, rom `Caklul sulSi~ miniSnebulia swored sakuTari SemoqmedebiTi meTodis am Taviseburebaze, kerZod, im epizodSi, rodesac avtori Tamaz enguris leqsebze msjelobs: `sityva elementaruli iyo, pirvelyofili, hqonda feri, surneli, xma metalis. yvelaferSi pirvelqmnilis sunTqva. metafora ar iyo lamazi Sedareba, is sagnebis sxivmosil asarkvas amcnobda (xazi Cemia _ k. b.). yoveli suraTi uZvelesi istoriiT iyo garemosili, TiTqos gilgameSis dakarguli nawilebi epovnaT. aq iyo qalis siyvaruli _ cocxali da Tanac miTiuri qalisa, rogorc isi-

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das siyvaruli. oRond uSualo sinmadviliT (xazi Cemia _ k. b.) (robaqiZe 1997: 431). aqedan gamomdinare, mag., romanis meore Tavi _ `marad qaluri~ _ mTlianad unda ganvixiloT, rogorc uSualo sinamdviliT, miTorealisturad (r. karmani) asaxuli bibliur-paradizuli yofis poetur-mxatvruli aluzia. `Cakluli sulis~ sxva adgilebisagan gansxvavebiT, Cemi azriT, romanis swored am TavSia yvelaze srulyofilad realizebuli robaqiZis SemoqmedebiTi meTodi yofierebis metafizikuri Zirebis uSualo sinamdvilis principiT gadmocemis Sesaxeb (ix. zemoT): `kaklis xis didi foTlebi mZimed ekida mzis mcxunvare sxivebSi. foToli ar irxeoda, drodadro Camovardeboda erTi _ uxmaurod, nela. xe mraval aseul weliwads iTvlida. misi tani, sami kaci Zlivs rom Semoawvdenda mklavebs, magari, daxeTqili qerqiT iyo dafaruli. xe mZlavrad idga Tavisi farTo, baraqiani CrdiliT. kaklis ZirSi xaliCa gaeSalaT: zed zantad gaSxlarTuliyo qali. Tavi mwvane baliSze edo. mis gverdiT, meore xaliCaze, Tamazi wamowoliliyo. qalis sxeuli, savse da mwife, axladmowyvetili yurZnis mtevaniviT ido xaliCaze. ZuZuebi mzis siuxviT evseboda, velur nestoebs siSoreTa geSi arxevda. irgvliv siCume sufevda, TiTqos yvela elementi Tavis TavSi Caketiliyos Sinagan mwifobas dayuradebuli. qalic Tavis TavSi CaZiruliyo da mcenaresaviT Tvlemda. ocnebebSi Cakarguli sakuTar sxeuls veRarc ki grZnobda. baliSze misi Tmebi ekida. Zlivs asxvavebda mzis sxivebisagan, foTlebSi rom atanda: mzisferi Tma hqonda. Tvalebi cis silurjes ucqerdnen _ am silurjis dafantuli wveTebi. qalis yurTasmenas TiTqo unapiro SoreTidan wyaros CuxCuxi swvdeboda _ TviTonac ukvdavebis wyaro iyo. miwasTan erTad isic mzes eZleoda, Semqmnel Zalas uerTdeboda. zRvis talRebSi msunTqav meduzasaviT yvinTavda kosmiur dinebebSi. misTvis evas Semdeg dro ar gasula: is jer kidev Zveli eva iyo _ pirvelqmnili~ (robaqiZe 1997: 425-426). romanSi mocemuli miTosuri paradigmebidan aRsaniSnavia, erTi mxriv, Sumerul-babilonuri miTosidan, xolo meore mxriv, bibliuri miTosidan aRebuli miTosuri paradigmebi, romlebic erTmaneTs avseben da erT mTlianobas qmnian. es miTosuri paradigmebi romanis
romanis teqstSi Suamdinarul da bibliur miTosur paradigmebTan dakavSirebiT dawvr. ix. m. janjibuxaSvilis statia: `maradqaluri (grigol robaqiZis Cakluli sulis mixedviT)~ (janjibuxaSvili 2003: 133-139)

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teqstSi eqvemdebarebian robaqiZiseul individualur mxatvrul recefcias, ris safuZvelzec iqmneba Tavad romanis miTo-poeturi TviTmyofadi saxismetyveleba. am TvalsazrisiT, sakmarisia, yuradReba mivaqcioT romanis mTavari gmiris saxels _ Tamazi. aq aSkaraa, rom saxelis es qarTuli forma robaqiZis mier gamoyvanilia Sumerul-babilonuri vegetaciis RmerTis saxelidan dumuzi, Tamuzi, rac etimologiurad niSnavs RmrTaebriv Zes (gttlicher Sohn) (leqsikoni... 1983: 146). Sesabamisad, romanSi Tamazis metafizikuri arsi gansazRvrulia RvTisZeobiT, anu, Tamazis gmiri gulisxmobs RvTisxatobis ideas. am SemTxvevaSi, Tamazi gvevlineba Tavisebur xeldasxmulad (SemTxveviTi araa is, rom igi poetia), romelic flobs Tavisebur ezoTerul saidumlo codnas yofierebis metafizikur pirvelsawyisebze da aris SemoqmedebiTi, makonstruirebeli impulsis matarebeli arsi. Sesabamisad, man unda Seinaxos da gadaarCinos es saidumlo sakacobrio codna arimanul-bolSevikur totalitarul sinamdvileSi. romanSi Tamazis satrfos, natas metafizikuri arsi ki ukavSirdeba Sumerul-babilonur cis qalRmerTs inana-iSTars, romelic aris siyvarulis, nayofierebis qalRmerTi, anu saganTa didi deda, Magna Mater, anu, yofierebis dambadebeli arsi, yofierebis pirvelsawyisi (leqsikoni... 1983: 235). Sesabamisad, Tamazisa da natas urTierTtrfobas safuZvlad udevs iSTar-Tamuzis urTierTtrfobis miTosuri sqema, romlis mixedviTac iSTaris siyvarulma qvesknelis wiaRidan unda daixnas Tamuzi. am miTosuri sqemis mixedviT, natac mzad aris gpu-el berzinTan daTmos sakuTari qaluri Rirseba, mzad aris Tavi daimdablos, raTa Tamazi daixsnas gpu-s sapyrobilidan, anu qvesknelidan, rac romanSi simbolurad ganasaxierebs egzitencialur sicarieles, araras (ix. Tavi XIV, `iSTaris vnebani~): anu, saRvTo siyvaruli (nata) aniWebs adamians (Tamazs) spiritualur unars, metafizikurad daZlios egzistencialuri pirvelSiSi. garda amisa, nata aris maradqaluris, pirvelqalis (evas), saganTa dambadebeli principis mxatvruli simbolo, igi alegoriulad ganasaxierebs samoTxiseul egzitencias. amitomac, SemTxveviTi araa, rom romanis meore Tavs hqvia `maradqaluri~, sadac `gaxsnili~ da axsnilia natas es metafizikuri sawyisebi. SemTxveviTi araa isic, rom swored nata ixsenebs da warmoTqvams qalRmerT isidas (neiTis) qandakebaze gakeTebul warweras da ara Tamazi: `me var is,

Tumca, aqve unda SevniSno, rom mxatvruli metyvelebisa da saxismetyvelebis xarisxiT `Cakluli suli~ bevrad Camouvardeba robaqiZis sxva romanebs, mag. `gvelis perangs~, romelic robaqiZis mxatvruli Semoqmedebis umaRles gamoxatulebad mimaCnia.

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rac aris, rac iyo da rac iqneba. aravis auxdia Cemi saburveli. nayofi, romelic me vSvi, mze iyo~. Sesabamisad, natasadmi Tamazis ltolva da siyvaruli alegoriulad ganasaxierebs dakarguli paradizuli yofis kvlavmopovebisaken swrafvas, zedroul da zesivrcul saRvTo yofaSi gadasvlisadmi ltolvas: `Tamazs uyvarda es qali, rogorc SeuZlia uyvardes kacs, romelic mziuria, oRond marsisgan marTuli. es qali mxolod vneba rodi iyo misi kacobis, is iyo misi yofnis gamarTleba. is qalRmerTi iyo misTvis _ es ar iyo metafora _ yoveli wami misi siyvarulisa sakulto msxverpli iyo~ (robaqiZe 1997: 429-430). amgvarad, Tamazis ltolva da siyvaruli natasadmi (natas, rogorc personaJis, metafizikuri arsis gaTvaliswinebiT, ix. zemoT) alegoriulad ganasaxierebs subieqtis swrafvas zedrouli da zesivrculi saRmrTo ganzomilebisaken. magram bolSevikur realobaSi, sadac yvelaferi destruirebulia, ingreva maTi siyvarulic. anu, siyvaruli aq ukve aRar asrulebs egzistencialuri sayrdenis, ontologiuri xsnisa da sakraluri wyobis upirvelesi safuZvlis spiritualur funqcias empiriul yofaSi, sakraluri wyobisa, romelic totalitarul sivrceSi a priori uaryofili da destruirebulia. TamazisaTvis siyvaruli ukve aRar aris egzistencialuri SiSisa da araras daZlevis sulieri Zala, riTac, Cemi azriT, romanis teqstSi zogadad Tanamedrove adamianisa da Tanamedroveobis (modernizmis) egzsitencialur gamouvalobasa da ontologiur dilemazea miniSnebuli. amitomac, mimaCnia, rom marTalia, romanis bolo Tavis saTauria `axali gza~ (`Der Weg zur vita nuova~), rac TiTqosda unda mianiSnebdes Teoziss (ganRmrToba), kaTarzissa da egzistencialuri SiSis daZlevasa, da aqedan gamomdinare, anTropologiuri TvalsazrisiT, protagonistis sulieri srulyofis SesaZleblobaze, magram romanis teqstis finali mainc dualisturia. aq saboloo jamSi mocemuli mainc ar aris WeSmariti axali gzis, anu axali ontologiuri perspeqtivis dasawyisi. kerZod, mivaqcioT yuradReba: erTi mxriv, marTalia, Tamazi daadgeba mwirobis, anu RmerTis Ziebis gzas (`Tamazi mTebisken daiZra...~, Sdr. mTa, rogorc Semecnebis simbolo), rac romantikosebiseuli protagonistis SemecnebiT gzas mogvagonebs (Sdr. novalisis roman `hainrix fon ofterdingenSi~ mocemuli mwiris epizodi da iqve mocemuli mTis simbolika: `Rrmad Cafiqrebuli mwiri mTisken mimaval biliks miuyveboda~ _ novalisi 1981: 368), magram, meore mxriv, Tamazi Sordeba natas: `nata kankalebda, Tamazis Tvalebs veRar cnobda, raRac ucxo saburveli gadahfareboda. nata SiSma Seipyro da kacs tanze miekra. Tamazma gverdze gaixeda, ar ganZreula, TiTqos surda natas sxeu-

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li masSi gadmosuliyo, TviTon Soreulsa da idumalSi CaiZira. ramdenime wuTis Semdeg gamoemSvidoba~ (robaqiZe 1997: 572). amgvarad, natasgan ganSorebiT Tamazi wydeba siyvaruls, RvTaebriv impulsebs, Sesabamisad, egzistencialur sayrdenasa da orientirs, rac egzistencialuri da ontologiuri TvalsazrisiT niSnavs araraseul finalobaSi gadasvlas, ramdenadac romanSi nata warmoadgens maradiuli paradizuli yofierebis mxatvrul saxes, xolo misi siyvaruli subieqtis WeSmariti yofierebisaken swrafvis alegoriuli gansaxierebaa (ix. zemoT). am sawyisebisagan moSoreba ki a priori gulisxmobs egzistencialuri gamouvalobis gaukiduresobas. aseTi onto-egzistencialuri perspeqtiva yovelgvar vita nuova-s gamoricxavs. amitomac, SemTxveviTi araa, rom Tamazs, rogorc modernist adamians, ki ar uweria egzistencialuri garRveva, aramed es momavali axali tipis anTroposis prerogativaa, razec simbolurad mianiSnebs natas fexmZimoba. robaqiZem safuZvelSive uaryo modernisti adamianis egzistencialuri xsna, es perspeqtiva Tavisebur utopiur ganzomilebad aqcia da axali arsis anTroposis ontologiur amocanad dasaxa. amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom robaqiZe, rogorc WeSmariti modernisti avtori, sakuTar modernistul mxatvrul teqsts tipologiurad swored mxolod modernistuli teqstebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel dualistur stilSi asrulebs, sadac adamianis egzistenciis finalobis problemis sruli uperspeqtivoba da ontologiuri bundovanebaa gamovlenili. es intencia `Cakluli sulis~ teqstis finalur nawilSi sruli SemoqmedebiTi kanonzomierebiTa da adekvaturobiT vlindeba.

d a s k v n a robaqiZis romani `Cakluli suli~ mimaCnia Tavisebur universalur sakvanZo teqstad, romlis safuZvelzec SesaZlebelia ama Tu im totalitaruli saxelmwifos ontologiuri arsis hermenevtika, ramdenadac robaqiZis mxatvruli warmosaxvis Zalisa da mxatvruli ritorikis, filosofiuri Wvretisa da Semecnebis safuZvelze romanSi srulyofiladaa warmoCenili ara mxolod bolSevisturi tipis sabWoTa imperiis demonur-apokalipsuri arsi, aramed, zogadad, totalitaruli saxelmwifosi. 4 romanis teqstSi mocemulia Semdegi binaruli opozicia: erTi mxriv, pirvelsawyisiseuli paradizuli yofiereba (maradisoba, usasruloba), meore mxriv _ demonur-apokalifsuri totalitaruli sinamdvile (sasruloba warmavloba). aq sabWoTa imperiis totalitaruli sivrce vlindeba subieqtis ukiduresi egzistencialuri

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uperspeqtivobis mxatvrul saxed. Sesabamisad, romanis teqstSi istoriul fonze (saxelmwifo terori 30-iani wlebis sabWoTa imperiaSi) ganWvretilia zogadad adamianis egzistenciis ontologiuri problema. aq ki erTmaneTs ejaWveba kulturologiuri, anTropologiuri da egzistencialuri problematika. am WrilSi avtoris mier warmoCenilia Tanamedrove adamianisa da modernizmis epoqis egzistencialuri dualizmisa da ontologiuri dilemis problematika, sadac ukugdebuli da uaryofilia zogadganmanaTlebluri diskursis mier (renesansi, XVIII s. ganmanaTlebloba, hegelianizmi, marqsizmi) propagirebuli e. w. progresi, romelic saboloo jamSi modernizmSi (da davamatebdi, postmodernizmSi) gamovlinda mxolod da mxolod rogorc samecniero-teqnikur progresad (ganmanaTlebluri teqnokratizmi). aman sabolood gamoiwvia yofierebasa da subieqtis cnobierebaSi RmerTis ideis TiTqmis saboloo destruireba, xolo anTropologiuri TvalsazrisiT, axali tipis adamianebis _ Homo Faber-ebisa da Homo Technikus-ebis _ e. i. teqnikis mwarmoebeli da momxmarebeli adamianebis gaCena. Tumca, modernistuli mwerloba metnaklebad mainc cdilobda RmerTis ideis gadarCenas _ mag., h. hese da h. broxi dasavleTSi, xolo gr. robaqiZe da k. gamsaxurdia _ CvenSi. amgavard, ori ganzomileba _ empiriuli saganT samyaro (Dingwelt) da miTosuri realoba _ modernisti adamianis cnobierebasa da egzistenciaSi erTmaneTs upirispirdeba rogorc Teza da antiTeza, xolo sinTezis SesaZleblobas am dualizmSi robaqiZe `Caklul sulSi~ imTaviTve gamoricxavs, TiToeuli maTganis Sinagani arsidan gamomdinare, riTac romanis teqstis diskursSi intencirebulia idea Tanamedrove adamianis ontologiuri uperspeqtivobis Sesaxeb, risi mxatvruli warmoCenis cdaa romani `Cakluli suli~. aRsaniSnavia, rom msgavsi intencia ganviTarebulia k. gamsaxurdias `mTvaris motacebaSi~, oRond aq Tanamedrove adamianis sruli uperspeqtivoba bevrad ufro mZafrad da maRal mxatvrul donezea warmoCenili gamsaxurdias mxatvruli ritorikisa da saxismetyvelebis ufro maRali xarisxidan gamomdinare, vidre es robaqiZis `Caklul sulSia~. robaqiZis romanis teqstis ritorika da stili ufro metad publicisturia, vidre mxatvrul-saxismetyvelebiTi, razec marTebulad mianiSna n. kakabaZem (kakabaZe 1988: 11) rac Seexeba romanis poetikas, `Caklul sulSi~ _ iseve rogorc robaqiZis sxva romanebSi _ asaxul-gadmocemul empiriul saganTmimarTebebs a priori MmiTosuri paradigmebi da miTosuri saxismetyveleba udevs safuZvlad. romanSi asaxul empiriul yofas sakuTari metafizikuri pirvelsawyisebi aqvs. magram robaqiZis am romanis (da romanebis, zogadad) poetikis es niSanTviseba mxolod romanis teqstis farglebSi ki ar rCeba, wmindad tropuli dat-

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virTva ki ara aqvs, aramed, rogorc zemoTac iTqva, igi poeturi aluziaa Tavad yofierebis miTosur-metafizikur Zirebze. xolo am miTosurobidan gamomdinare, romanis teqsti fuZndeba yofierebis ganuyofel nawilad, fuZndeba Tavisebur `cocxal~, `live~-ur `sakralur~ teqstad. Sesabamisad, aseTi teqsti ukve wmindad mxatvruli fiqcia, yofierebisagan izolirebuli hermetuli `wminda~ mxatvruli teqsti ki aRar aris, rogorc, vTqvaT, postmodernistuli `wminda~ teqsti, aramed _ yofierebiseuli WeSmariti realoba. amitomac, robaqiZis `Cakluli sulis~ poetikis specifikidan, miTosuri diskursisa da Sinagani logosidan (Taursazrisidan) gamomdinare, romani fuZndeba, rogorc Janris axali tipi, kerZod, rogorc _ ontologiuri romani.

SeniSvnebi 1 aRsaniSnavia, rom sakuTari xalxisadmi elitis warmomadgenelTa (da maT Soris, qveynis mmarTvelTa) WeSmariti damokidebulebis Sesaxeb robaqiZe msjelobs qarTul emigrantul Jurn. `bedi qarTlisasaTvis~ micemul interviuSi: `xalxi _ es evropaSic araa ukanaskneli siRrmiT garkveuli. xalxi araa ama Tu im dros statistikiT aRricxuli grova calkeulTa _ igi cocxali arsia zepirovnuli bunebisa. arsad ar cxaddeba es ise mkafiod, rogorc enaSi. [...] yoveli calkeuli _ iyves igi moazre Tu mwerali Tu politikosi _ gansakuTrebul kvanZSi aris am arsTan moqceuli. gawydeba es kvanZi _ maSin uTeslo, unayofo iqmneba yoveli aqti: azrovnebaSi Tu mwerlobaSi Tu politikaSi. am kvanZis gawyvetiT iwyeba Sinagani gadagvareba-gadaSeneba xalxisa, iyves ukanaskneli ricxviT Tu gind asi millioni~ (robaqiZe: 1994: 231, 241). 2 romanSi mocemuli es nicSeanuri kritikuli suli Semdgom robaqiZis mier intencirebulia filosofiur-ontologiuri esseebSic: `sicocxlis gancda dasavleTsa da aRmosavleTSi~ (`Das Lebensgefhl im Westen und Osten~) da `stalini, rogorc arimanuli Zala~ (`Stalin als ahrimanische Macht~): `saxarebebSi qristes Ze RvTisa da Ze kacisa ewodeba. RvTisZeoba Tanamedrove adamianSi TiTqmis Camkvdaria. logosis nacvlad masSi racio myofobs. homo sapiensi homo teqnikusad iqca. Tanamedrove adamianSi mxolod Ze kacisa cocxlobs da misi RvTaebrivi niWi, rom iyos imaze ufro meti, vidre adamianad yofnaa, dakargulia. [...] dedamiwa misTvis aRaraa dambadebeli didi deda _ Magna Mater, aramed mxolod geologiuri faqti~ [citatis Targmani statiis avtors ekuTvnis _ k. b.] (robaqiZe 1935: 82-83).

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3 aRsaniSnavia, rom teqnikuri progresis fetiSizmi, da aqedan gamomdinare, dasavluri yofis absurduloba jer kidev goeTem iwinaswarmetyvela `faustis~ meore nawilSi, ix. homunkulusis _ xelovnuri adamianis _ Seqmnisa da faustis dabrmavebis epizodebi. xolo sakuTari poeturi naTelxilvis ZaliT Seqspirma, albaT, winaswar igrZno racios mier uzomod subieqtivirebuli dasavluri `me~-s yofierebiseuli tragedia, ris simbolodac SegviZlia hamletis figura moviazroT. egzistencialuri SiSiT Sepyrobili umamo hamleti wmindad dasavluri fenomenia. hamletis umamoba unda gaviazroT, rogorc umiToba, anu, rogorc metafizikuri pirvelsawyisebisagan gaucxoeba da distancireba (`droTa kavSiri dairRva~). Sesabamisad, hamletiseuli mamis Zieba miTosur-metafizikurad, albaT, unda gaviazroT pirvelmamis, dakarguli pirvelsawyisis Ziebad. SesaZloa, SemTxveviTi araa isic, rom dasavlur kulturul sivrceSi hamletis figuris gamoCena qronologiurad mzardi teqnikuri eris dawyebas ukavSirdeba. holderlinis, nicSes, kafkas, Traqlis tragedia hamletiseuli tragediaa, romelTac Sinaganad ver daZlies da gadalaxes ontologiuri dualizmi _ idealisa da arsebulis, transcendenturisa da empiriulis, metafizikurisa da fizikuris dapirispireba. 4 romanis winasityvaobaSi robaqiZe werda: `gamoxmaureba, romelic Txzulebas germaniasa da sxvagan xvda wilad, Zalian mZlavri iyo: mTeli rigi mniSvnelovani gamokvlevebisa daiwera romanis Sesaxeb. Tumca, yvelaze metad SemZra sazogadoebis sxvadasxva fenidan gamosuli, CemTvis sruliad ucnobi adamianebis mosazrebebma romanis Sesaxeb, romelTaTvisac es wigni gansakuTrebul cxovrebiseul gamocdilebad iqca~ [citatis Targmani statiis avtors ekuTvnis _ k. b.] (robaqiZe 1937: 5). literatura kakabaZe 1988: n. kakabaZe, grigol robaqiZis romani `Cakluli suli~ (gv. 10-11); literaturuli saqarTvelo, 25. XI 1988. leqsikoni... 1983: miTologiuri leqsikoni, Semdg. ak. gelovani, gamomc. `sabW. saqarTvelo~, Tbilisi, 1983. novalisi 1981: Novalis, Werke in einem Band, hrsg. von H-J. Mhl, Carl Hanser Verlag, Mnchen, 1981. robaqiZe 1935: Gr. Robakidse, Dmon und Mythos. Eine magische Bildfolge, Eugen Diederichs Verlag, Jena, 1935.

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robaqiZe 1937: Gr. Robakidse, Die gemordete Seele. Roman, Eugen Diederichs Verlag, 2. Aufl., Jena, 1937. robaqiZe 1994: gr. robaqiZe, Txzulebani; seria: Serisxulni t. 2, Tbilisi, 1994. robaqiZe 1997: gr. robaqiZe, Cakluli suli (germanulidan Targmna al. kartoziam); qarTuli proza t. 30, gamomc. saqarTvelo`, Tbilisi, 1997. robaqiZis krebuli... 1996: grigol robaqiZis krebuli. CemTvis simarTle yvelaferia, Tbilisi, 1996. janjibuxaSvili 2003: m. janjibuxaSvili, maradqaluri (grigol robaqiZis `Cakluli sulis~ mixedviT) (gv. 133-139); krebulSi: TeTr siamayes aqandakeb Seni didebiT. krebuli eZRvneba grigol robaqiZes, Tbilisi, 2003.

ilia gasviani

kompoziciisa da versifikaciis problema giiom apolineris alkoholebSi

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetis (mimarTuleba: romanistika) mowveuli pedagogi. ZiriTadi naSromebi: artur rembos cxovrebis gza: 19 weli jojoxeTSi; elegia da kubizmi giiom apolineris alkoholebSi (alkoholebis struqturuli analizisa da simboluri gaazrebis mcdeloba) da sxv. amJamad muSaobs sadoqtoro disertaciaze (giiom apolineris alkoholebi me20 saukunis dasawyisis avangarduli tendenciebis konteqstSi). interesTa sfero: literaturis istoria da Teoria, komparativistika; franguli literatura; italiuri literatura; me-19 da me-20 saukuneebis franguli poezia; me-20 saukunis dasawyisis italiuri, qarTuli da rusuli poezia; me-20 saukunis avangarduli mimdinareobebi (kubizmi, futurizmi, dadaizmi, siurrealizmi) ferwerasa da poeziaSi; franguli axali romani; Targmanis Teoria da praqtika.

sakmaod gavrcelebuli azris mixedviT, apolineri leqsebs erTi amosunTqviT werda. unda iTqvas, rom TviTonac am azris damkvidrebas Seuwyo xeli. magaliTad, igi acxadebda, rom leqsi wakiTxuli andre salmonis qorwilSi (Pome lu au mariage d Andr Salmon) omnibusSi dawera, rodesac meriaSi midioda saqorwino ceremonialze dasaswrebad, Tanac am dros misi megobari rene dalizi ganuwyvetliv esaubreboda. magram am leqsis xelnaweri isea gadaxazuli da savse SesworebebiT, rom amgvar mtkicebas abaTilebs. amis miuxedavad, apolineri ubadlo improvizatoria, rac aSkarad Cans megobrebisTvis miweril, xSirad galeqsil werilebSi. is leqsebi, romelic Tavidanve publikaciisTvisaa gankuTvnili, apolineris poetur laboratoriaSi xangrZlivi momwifebis process gadis. ara marto leqsis Casaxvadabadebis procesia xSirad xangrZlivi, aramed iSviaTad qveyndeba maSinve. poema uiRblo Seyvarebulis simRera (La Chanson du Mal-Aim) iSva londonSi apolineris orjer _ 1903 wlis noembersa da 1904 wlis maisSi _ Casvlis Sedegad. Tumca poemam saboloo saxe 1906 wels miiRo da mxolod 1909 wels gamoqveynda. ufro metic, apolinerma masSi mTeli rigi cvlilebebi Seitana, sanam poemas alkoholebSi CarTavda. aseve, vandemieris (Vendmiaire) pirveli monaxazi 1909 wliT TariRdeba, magram leqsma sabo-

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loo saxe miiRo da gamoqveynda mxolod 1912 wels. zustad araa cnobili, Tu romeli wliT TariRdeba leqsis micvalebulTa saxli (La maison des morts) pirveli varianti. igi poets 1902 wlis gazafxulze miunxenSi yofnam STaagona. micvalebulTa saxli pirvelad 1907 wels gamoqveynda prozauli `fantaziis~ saxiT, Semdeg ukve leqsis saxiT daibeWda 1909 wels. garkveuli raodenoba mokle leqsebisa, iseve, rogorc leqsebi TaRliTi (Le larron), gandegili (L ermite), merlini da dedaberi (Merlin et la vieille femme), erTi amosunTqviT unda iyos dawerili. saerTod ki, unda iTqvas, rom apolineris poetur laboratoriaSi yvelaze xSirad leqsi ibadeba xangrZlivi alqimiis Sedegad. am alqimiis ZiriTadi operaciebia: Semokleba, daWra, kolaJis Seqmna. xSiria SemTxveva, rodesac dasabeWdad gankuTvnili leqsis pirvel versias (da, miT umetes, pirvel monaxazs) apolineri mTeli rigi pasaJebis amoRebiT amoklebs. zonis (Zone) dasasruli (`Sen dainaxe emigrantebi unugeSoTa mTeli armia~-dan (apolineri 1984: 141) xelnawerSi arsebuli oTxmocdaToTxmeti taepidan alkoholebSi ocdaTxuTmet taepamdea dayvanili. im taepebsa Tu strofebs, romlebic gamouqveynebel an daumTavrebel leqsebSi Sedis, apolineri axali leqsisTvis iyenebs. magaliTad, ciklis santes cixeSi ( la Sant) mesame leqsis Savi variantidan gaCnda mirabos xidis (Le Pont Mirabeau) yvelasaTvis cnobili refreni. zogierTi gamouqveynebeli leqsi apolinerma nawilebad daCexa am sityvis pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT. leqsidan gazafxuli (Le Printemps) (romelic apolineris sxva poetur krebulSia Setanili) daibada niSnobis (Les fianailles) pirveli sami strofi. daWris teqnikas aSkarad igive Sedegi moaqvs, rac kolaJis matisiseul Tu kubistur teqnikas. apolineri swored am meTodiT sargeblobs, rodesac mTel strofebs xelaxla iyenebs sxva leqsebisTvis. alkoholebSi amis mravali magaliTi gvaqvs. frinvelebis epizodi zonaSi (`Jamis gugaSi brolia qriste~-dan (apolineri 1984: 134) `orbic feniqsic Cinuri piic caSi asulan maTi frTebia / aq rom iSleba dRes TavSeyrilni foladis frinvels / uwyvildebian~-amde (apolineri 1984: 136)) pirvel xelnawer teqstSi ar figurirebs da aSkarad Semdegaa damatebuli. igive meTodia gamoyenebuli verlibriT daweril leqsSi mgzavri (Le voyageur): aq Camatebulia aleqsandriuli leqsiT dawerili oTxi strofi da sami Semdegi taepi: Deux matelots qui ne s taient jamais quitts

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Deux matelots qui ne s taient jamais parl Le plus jeune en mourant tomba sur le ct (apolineri 1981: 53). `[o Tanamgzavrno gaxsovT Tu ara] anda im ori mezRvauris mudam mdumarTa amxanagoba erTmaneTs rom ver Sordebodnen mere umcrosma sikvdils brZola rom gaumarTa~ (apolineri 1984: 151). uiRblo Seyvarebulis simRera kolaJis gamoyenebis zRvruli SemTxvevis magaliTia, radganac poemis mTeli kompozicia kolaJTa TamaSzea agebuli. poemaSi Semavali sami kolaJi pirdapir qvesaTaurebiTaa gamotanili: dilis simRera..., zaporoJieli kazakebis pasuxi... da Svidi xmali. masSi sxva kolaJTa mikvlevac SeiZleba. aseTia, magaliTad, finaluri oTxi strofi, romelic ivnisis parizs gvixatavs. SeiZleba isec moxdes, rom leqsis pirveli varianti, misi Semdgomi gadamuSavebis procesSi, or calkeul leqsad daiyos. leqsebi moxetiale akrobatebi (Saltimbanques) da bindi (Crpuscule) Tavidan erTi leqsi iyo, romelic apolinerma Semdgom orad gayo. yvelaferi ise xdeba, TiTqos apolineris nawerebi erT mTlian marags qmnides, romelic poets SeuZlia Tavisi nebisamebr gamoiyenos. Tuki alkoholebi erTiani nawarmoebia da ara leqsebis ubralo gaerTianeba, es metwilad im kulturuli niadagis arsebobis gamoa, romelzec ubadlo warmosaxvis poeti axal gamocdilebas iZens da Semdgomi poeturi eqsperimentisTvis eZebs masalas. apolineris leqsi gamoqveynebis Semdegac ganicdis cvlilebebs. alkoholebamde apolineris `poetur fabrikaSi~ amgvarad araerTi leqsi gadamuSavda. leqsi sasaxle (Palais) pirvelad 1905 wlis noemberSi daibeWda, saTauriT rozmondis sasaxleSi (Dans le palais de Rosemonde). alkoholebamde man mTliani reorganizacia ganicada da rvidan TerTmet strofamde gaizarda, Tanac apolinerma leqsSi strofebi gadaaadgila da mas mTlianad ucvala saxe. ufro metic, mexuTe strofSi tradiciuli aleqsandriuli leqsiT dawerili oTxi taepis ritmi moulodnelad wydeba mesame striqonis gaxleCiT. sxvadasxva cvlilebis Sedegad Semosuli am saxis uCveulo elementebi alkoholebSi mravlad moiZieba. zarebis (Les cloches) bolo taepi pirvandel versiaSi rvamarcvliani iyo, iseve, rogorc leqsis danarCeni TxuTmeti taepi, magram Et mme, j en mourrai peut-tre (rvamarcvliani taepi) alkoholebSi iqca J en mourrai peut-tre-ad. xuT marcvlamde dayvanili aRniSnuli taepi leqsis

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prosodiul wyobas mTlianad wyvets da Tavisi simokliT mis paTetikur siZlieres uwyobs xels. [] Souriront quand je passerai Je ne saurai plus o me mettre Tu seras loin Je pleurerai J en mourrai peut-tre (apolineri 1981: 98). mirabos xidi pirvelad Jurnal `le suare de paris~ 1912 wlis Tebervlis nomerSi daibeWda. pirveli strofi maSin aTmarcvliani leqsiT dawerili sami taepisgan Sedgeboda da aseTi forma hqonda: Sous le Pont Mirabeau coule la Seine Et nos amours, faut-il qu il m en souvienne? La joie venait toujours aprs la peine. (dekodeni 1997: 52). sul male aRniSnulma strofma saxe icvala da alkoholebSi aseTi forma miiRo: Sous le pont Mirabeau coule la Seine Et nos amours Faut-il qu il m en souvienne La joie venait toujours aprs la peine (apolineri 1981: 15). `mirabos xidqveS dis zvirTi senis da siyvaruli Cveni me mainc maxsovs rom mwuxarebis Semdeg yovelTvis sixarulis dgebodnen dReni (apolineri 1984: 143). makratlisa da webos poetika: leqsis daWra, danawevreba, rasac mosdevs nawilebis Sekowiweba, kvlav SeerTeba struqturis misaRebad anu leqsis `fabrikaciisTvis~ _ ai, apolineris magiuri meTodi da teqnika. XX saukunis I aTwleuli _ giiom apolineris literaturuli karieris dasawyisi _ axali epoqis dasabami gaxda frangul da, saerTod, evropul kulturaSi. ferweraSi impresionizmis Semdeg fovizmi da kubizmi viTardeba. poezia, romelmac simbolizmis STambeWdav poetur mwvervalebs miaRwia, kvlav miubrundeba `dawyevlil~

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poetebs da cdilobs maTi ironiisa da rTuli semantikis Sexamebas ferweris bolo aRmoCenebTan. salonebs, romlebic XIX saukunis dasasrulis parizis literaturul-kulturuli centrebis funqcias asrulebda, cvlis redaqciebi. safrangeTSi iqmneba sruliad axali kulturuli klimati. esaa esTetikuri poziciebis ngrevisa da didi cvlilebebis epoqa. iwyeba xana axali miTebisa: siCqare, meqanika, simultanizmi. koloniuri avantiurebisa da samecniero eqspediciebis kvaldakval, safrangeTi kvlav aRmoaCens egzotikis xibls (pol klodeli iaponiiTaa moxibluli, viqtor segaleni _ CineTiT, blez sandrari _ ruseTiT), rac Zalian mniSvnelovani poeturi da prozauli produqciis Seqmnas uwyobs xels. cxovrebis ritmi radikalurad icvleba. teqnikis iseTi siaxleebi, rogorebicaa aviacia da avtomobili, da maTTan erTad, siCqaris aRmoCena, garkveulwilad ganaaxlebs samyaros aRqmas. es siaxleebi, iseve, rogorc urbanizacia da industrializacia, STagonebis wyarod iqceva poetebisa da mxatvrebisTvis. adamianis cxovreba fragmentebis, kolaJebis saxiT gadadis leqsSi, rameTu Tavad SegrZnebaa fragmentuli. leqsi imsxvreva da im sityvebis jaWvad iqceva, romelTa Sorisac, erTi SexedviT, SeiZleba ver davinaxoT uSualo kavSiri. wyvetilobis es esTetika kargad miesadageba urbanul cxovrebas, industriuli qalaqis sinaTleebis, quCebis, sanaxaobebis xibls. alkoholebis Casaxvis periodi (1898-1913 wlebi) _ es aris garkveulwilad leqsis krizisis periodic, rodesac gamodis araerTi Teoriuli Tu polemikuri xasiaTis naSromi. poetebi gamalebul ZiebaSi arian. ismis kiTxvebi parnasuli prosodiis wesTa marTebulobasa da axali epoqis Sesatyvisi poeziis esTetikaze, verlibris bunebasa da nayofierebaze da, saerTod, poeziis SesaZlo reformebze. axalgazrda kritikosi adolf boSo 1897 wels wers, rom WeSmariti poeti sistemas ar unda daemorCilos. boSo ambobs, rom `poeti, yoveli nawarmoebis Seqmnisas, TiTqmis yoveldRiurad igonebs specialur teqnikas da es xdeba mxatvruli gamosaxvis ucnob saSualebaTa sakuTar moTxovnilebebTan morgebiT~ (dekodeni 1997: 69). poeti aris `ritmebisa da bgerebis Semqmneli da uzenaesi mbrZanebeli~ (dekodeni 1997: 69). igi qmnis axal-axal riTmebs da Sors unda iyos e. w. poeturi enis CarCoebSi Caketvisgan. man leqsikis yvela resursi unda gamoiyenos. adolf boSo uaRresad saintereso, lamis winaswarmetyvelur mosazrebebs gamoTqvams. swored am mimarTulebiT warimarTeba axali Taobis poetebis, pirvel rigSi ki _ apolineris SemoqmedebiTi eqsperimentebi. 1915 wlis 30 oqtombers apolineri swers Jan-iv blans, riTac erTgvarad exmianeba boSos mosazrebebs: `rac Seexeba alkoholebis Tavisufal poezias, vityvi, rom

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WeSmariti lirizmi dResdReobiT ar SeiZleba arsebobdes poetis sruli Tavisuflebis gareSe. maSinac ki, rodesac tradiciuli leqsiT wers, am TamaSisken poets sakuTari Tavisufleba ubiZgebs. am Tavisuflebis gareSe poezia ver iarsebebs. Tuki ar vaRiarebT am arsebiT WeSmaritebas, Cveni cnobiereba CaixSoba im pirobiTobis CarCoebSi, romelsac arsebobis mizezi ar gaaCnia; is ver SeZlebs Semdgom ganviTarebas~ (apolineri 1951: 39). ar unda gagvikvirdes, rodesac apolineri amtkicebs, rom mas ar gaaCnia erTi gansazRvruli `poeturi sistema~, rom, piriqiT, mas `bevri~ poeturi sistema aqvs. saleqso striqonebis, riTmaTa sistemebisa da strofebis mravalgvaroba alkoholebSi marTlac gasaocaria. alkoholebSi yvelaze xSirad aleqsandriuli leqsi gvxvdeba, romelic ocdaoTx leqsSia gamoyenebuli (leqsSi mTlianad an leqsis mniSvnelovan nawyvetebSi, epizodurad ki sxva leqsebSic). rvamarcvliani leqsi, romelic apolineris sayvarel leqsadaa miCneuli, igive ganawilebiT oc leqsSia gamoyenebuli. bevrad ufro iSviaTia Svidmarcvliani, eqvsmarcvliani da oTxmarcvliani leqsebi. rac Seexeba verlibrs, is sxvadasxva formiT mxolod TerTmet leqsSi gvxvdeba. amas davamatoT is, rom alkoholebSi samidan ori leqsi, mTlianad an nawilobriv, Sedgeba mkacrad organizebuli strofebisgan, romelTa Sorisac Warbobs aleqsandriuli leqsiT dawerili katreni, rvamarcvliani leqsiT dawerili katreni da rvamarcvliani xuTtaepedi. aqedan gamomdinare, gvrCeba iseTi STabeWdileba, TiTqos apolineri mainc erTguli rCeba franguli prosodiis tradiciebisa. magram ar unda daviviwyoT wesidan gadaxveva, rasac apolineri uamravjer mimarTavs alkoholebSi, TiTqos imisaTvis, raTa kontrastis meSveobiT xazi gausvas wina taepebis Sesabamisobas tradiciul prosodiasTan. amgvar gadaxvevebs Cven araerT leqsSi vxedavT. amis magaliTebia bolo taepi leqsisa zarebi, romelic moulodnelad wyvets TxuTmeti rvamarcvliani taepis nakads; ucunebis (Les colchiques) da sasaxlis aleqsandriuli leqsiT dawerili taepebi, romelic or, eqvs-eqvs marcvlian naxevartaepadaa gayofili... sxva msgavsi magaliTebis moZebna alkoholebSi ar gagviWirdeba. leqsis klotilda (Clotilde) katrenebis boloSi malulad CarTulia erTi rvamarcvliani taepi, maSin rodesac am bolo katrenis pirveli sami taepi Svidmarcvliani leqsiTaa dawerili: Les dits des eaux vives Laissent couler leurs cheveux Passe il faut que tu poursuives Cette belle ombre que tu veux (apolineri 1981: 47).

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maris (Marie) rvamarcvliani leqsiT daweril xuTtaepedebSi CarTulia erTi atipiuri, aleqsandriuli leqsiT dawerili taepi: Les masques sont silencieux Et la musique est si lointaine Qu elle semble venir des cieux Oui je veux vous aimer mais vous aimer peine Et mon mal est dlicieux (apolineri 1981: 55). tradiciul saleqso formaSi uCveulobis, siaxlis SemotaniT, apolineri amsxvrevs mas. nel-nela igi uars ityvis tradiciul, riTmian leqsze. es eqsperimentebi niadags umzadebs kaligramebis did leqsebs. niSnobis ciklis erTsa da imave fragmentSi gvxvdeba gadasvla prozauli Txrobidan ( la fin les mensonges ne me font plus peur (apolineri 1981: 120) _ taepi, romelic aleqsandriuli leqsis statuss mxolod Tormet marcvals unda umadlodes) didi moqnilobiT gamorCeul aleqsandriul leqsze (Les rues sont mouilles de la pluie de nagure), sadac bolo bgerebi sityvebisa rues, mouilles, pluie TiTqos ubralod agrZelebs winamaval marcvals, rac erTgvarad meryevs xdis Tormetmarcvliani leqsis ritms. rom movisminoT, rogor kiTxulobs apolineri mirabos xids, maris an mgzavrs, mivxvdebiT, Tu ramdenad avtonomiuria misTvis TiToeuli taepi, iqneba es sintaqsuri, semantikuri Tu ubralod bgeriTi avtonomiuroba. apolineri, rasakvirvelia, anJambemansac iyenebs. zogjer anJambemani mxolod saleqso striqonebis simokliTaa gamowveuli da sityvaTa gramatikul erTianobas uwevs angariSs. magaliTad, asea leqsSi bindi: Un charlatan crpusculaire Vante les tours que l on va faire [] Sur les trteaux l arlequin blme Salue d abord les spectateurs [] (apolineri 1981: 37). sxvagan anJambemani riTmis rRveva-gaqrobis dasawyisia, rogorc amas uiRblo Seyvarebulis simReris dasawyisSi vxedavT: Un voyou qui ressemblait Mon amour vint ma rencontre

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Et le regard qu il me jeta Me fit baisser les yeux de honte (apolineri 1981: 17). zogjer mTeli strofi anJambemanTa TamaSzea agebuli. ufro metic, rozmondis (Rosemonde) TiToeuli xuTtaepedi (leqsSi sul sami xuTtaepedia) Sedgeba erTi anJambemanebiani winadadebisagan. am anJambemanebs taepebi saleqso tipografiul ganlagebamde dahyavT: Longtemps au pied du perron de La maison o entra la dame Que j avais suivie pendant deux Bonnes heures Amsterdam Mes doigts jetrent des baisers (apolineri 1981: 88). apolinerTan opozicia igrZnoba aseve verlibris xmarebisas. magaliTad, leqsSi ani (Annie), igi iyenebs mokle taeps: Sur la cte du Texas Entre Mobile et Galveston il y a Un grand jardin tout plein de roses Il contient aussi une villa Qui est une grande rose Une femme se promne souvent Dans le jardin toute seule Et quand je passe sur la route borde de tilleuls Nous nous regardons (apolineri 1981: 38). `texasis sanapiroze mobilsa da galvestons Soris aris vardebiT savse baRi iq erTi vilaa didi vardis msgavsi baRSi xSirad erTi qali seirnobs marto da roca me Cavivli gzaze cacxvebs Soris Cven erTmaneTs vuyurebT~ (apolineri 2001: 126). apolineri am tipis taeps xSirad naratiul funqcias akisrebs, rogorc esaa leqsebSi ani da rainuli Semodgoma (Rhnane d automne).

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ukve sruliad gansxvavebulia saleqso striqonis is tipi, romelsac vxvdebiT 1901-1902 wlebis leqsSi sinagoga (La synagogue). Semdeg am tipis taepi Cndeba apolineris 1908 wlis (koconi, niSnoba) da 1909 wlis leqsebSi (korteJi, leqsi wakiTxuli andre salmonis qorwilSi), bolos ki zonaSi. saqme gvaqvs grZel taepTan, romelic marcvalTa raodenobiT xSirad aleqsandriuli leqsis zomasac ki aRemateba. leqsika da sintaqsuri struqtura umetes SemTxvevaSi prozauli xasiaTisaa, xolo TviT saleqso striqonis sigrZe gramatikuli an semantikuri gamonaTqvamis sigrZes utoldeba: Te voici Amsterdam avec une jeune fille que tu trouves belle et qui est laide (apolineri 1981: 12). `Sen amsterdamSi axalgazrda qalTan dadixar is aris uSno da eZaxi turfa elenes~ (apolineri 1984: 140). Tu n oses plus regarder tes mains et tous moments je voudrais sangloter (apolineri 1981: 12). `o Sen ver bedav Sens xelebze rom daixedo da gaqvs Tvalebi cremlebiT savse~ (apolineri 1984: 140). Le vieux Rhin soulve sa face ruisselante et se dtourne pour sourire (apolineri 1981: 96). aqve unda iTqvas isic, rom leqsSi sinagoga frazisa da misi mniSvnelobis urTierTgadajaWva taepidan taepSi xdeba iseTi anJambemaniT, rogoricaa, magaliTad, Ottomar et Abraham aiment tous deux / Lia. unda aRiniSnos, rom es apolinerisTvis erT-erTi pirveli gamocdaa im poeturi iaraRisa Tu formisa, romlis modelic man SesaZloa Jiul laforgis (1860-1887) gviandeli poeziidan aiRo. es is formaa, romelic SemdgomSi, apolinerTan da blez sandrarTan (1887-1961) erTad, modernuli poeziis upirvelesi gamomsaxvelobiTi forma gaxdeba 1913-1925 wlebSi. unda iTqvas, rom apolineris riTmaSic garkveulwilad imave SeuzRudaobasa da Tavisuflebas vxedavT. apolineri metwilad iyenebs jvaredin riTmas (ABAB), romelic alkoholebis ormocdaaTidan cxramet leqsSi gvxvdeba. wyvil-

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wyvilad monacvle riTmebi (AABB) mxolod rva leqsSia gamoyenebuli, xolo riTmaTa modeli ABBA kidev ufro iSviaTad gvxvdeba. zogjer erTsa da imave leqsSi riTmaTa erTi modeli meoresTanaa Sereuli. magaliTad, sasaxlis meore strofi dawerilia ABBA modeliT, maSin rodesac danarCeni katrenebi ABAB models mihyveba. TviT sinagogis verlibriT daweril strofebSic ki riTmaTa ori sistemaa gamoyenebuli. riTmaTa erT mocemul sistemaSi SeiZleba SevxvdeT vaJuri da qaluri riTmebis monacvleobas, mxolobiTi ricxvis saxelis gariTmvas mravlobiTi ricxvis saxelTan, tradiciuli franguli prosodiis mier akrZaluli riTmis (magaliTad, sityva, romelic Semdgom taepSi imave, kvlav gamoyenebul sityvas eriTmeba, an erTmarcvliani windebulis riTmad gamoyeneba) xmarebas, asonansebs, aliteraciebsa Tu ubralo sonorul msgavsebaT, rac apolineriseuli kompoziciisa da versifikaciis, misi poeturi xelovnebis ganuyofel nawilad iqceva. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom apolineri aranair sazRvrebs ar cnobs; is yvela SesaZlo poetur teqnikas erTdroulad iyenebs, yvela teqnikas harmoniulad aerTianebs. apolineri mimarTavs dausrulebel variaciebs or ukidures zRvars Soris. es ori ukiduresi zRvari gaxlavT mkacri wesi da totaluri Tavisufleba.

literatura apolineri 1951: Guillaume Apollinaire, Lettres sa marraine, Paris, Gallimard, 1951. apolineri 1981: Guillaume Apollinaire, Alcools, suivi de Le Bestiaire illustr par Raoul Dufy et de Vitam impendere amori, Paris, Gallimard, collection Posie, 1981. apolineri 1984: frangi poetebi, frangulidan Targmna givi gegeWkorma, Tbilisi, gamomcemloba `merani~, 1984. apolineri 2001: giiom apolineri, leqsebi, frangulidan Targmna ilia gasvianma, Tbilisi, Jurnali `saunje~, 3-4, 2001. dekodeni 1997: Michel Dcaudin commente Alcools de Guillaume Apollinaire, Paris, ditions Gallimard, Foliothque (23), 1997.

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metyvelebiTi orgemageobis zogierTi semantikuri da P pragmatikuli maxasiaTebeli politikur diskursSi

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori. ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetis inglisuri filologiis mimarTulebis asocirebuli profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: `siCume - zogadi maxasiaTeblebi, ganmapirobebeli faqtorebi~, `gza enisaken~, saq. mecn. akad. arn. Ciqobavas enaTmecnierebis instituti,1998. `metyvelebis nawilebi rogorc aramkafio simravleni~, `saenaTmecniero Ziebani~ # 28, saq. mecn.akad.arn.Ciqobavas sax. enaTmecnierebis instituti, 2002. `On the Nature of Interjections from the Standpoint of Communicative Competence, Bulletin of the Georgian Academy of Sciences, vol.170, #3. 2004 November-December. `Sorisdebuli rogorc sametyvelo aqti~, `saenaTmecniero Ziebani~ # 26, 2007. interesTa sfero: kognituri lingvistika, semantika, pragmatika.

statiaSi inglisuri, qarTuli da rusuli politikuri diskursis masalaze ganxilulia ormagi standartis principze dafuZnebuli adamianis verbaluri qcevis erTerTi saintereso saxeoba, romelic inglisurenovan lingvistur literaturaSi termin doublespeak-iT (sityvasityviT ,ormagi metyveleba) aRiniSneba. aRniSnuli termini qarTulad gadmovitane, rogorc `metyvelebiTi orgemageoba~. rogorc cnobilia, sityva orgemagoba d.guramiSvilis Seqmnilia da igi, Cemi TvalsazrisiT, mkafiod asaxavs adamianis aRqmisTvis maxasiaTebel dualistur princips, ganixilavs ra samyaros antinomiaTa erTobliobis, dapirispirebis an identurobis TvalsazrisiT. Tavad termini doublespeak 1971 wels daamkvidra aSS-s inglisuri enis maswavlebelTa erovnulma komitetma. igi cnobili satirikosisa da publicistis, jorj oruelis nawarmoebidan 1984 aRebul cnebaTa doublethink (ormagi azrovneba) da newspeak (axali metyveleba) naerTia. metyvelebiTi orgemageoba aris verbaluri qcevis tipi, romelic borotebas sikeTis niRbiT faravs, uaryofiTs dadebiTad warmoaCens, usiamovnos-mimzidvelad, arahumanurs-humanurad da a.S. anu, aRniSnul SemTxvevaSi arqetipuli binaruli struqturis uaryofiTi semantikis matarebeli wevri Caenacvleba dadebiTi semantikis mqones. metyvelebiTi orgemageoba saSualebas aZlevs

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mTqmels, Tavidan aicilos pasuxismgebloba. specialur literaturaSi arsebobs metyvelebiTi orgemageobis sxvadasxva klasifikacia. Catarebuli kvlevis safuZvelze gamovyavi metyvelebiTi orgemageobis Semdegi kognitiuri tipebi: 1. mimarTeba cudi arakargi; aRniSnuli mimarTeba lingvisturad realizdeba Jargonis, evfemizmebis, biurokratizmebis meSveobiT; orgemageobis aRniSnul qvetips axasiaTebs orazrovneba, bundovaneba. 2. mimarTeba Savi TeTri; aRniSnul SemTxvevaSi ar arsebobs Sesatyvisoba realur obieqtsa Tu xdomilebasa da maT lingvistur nominacias Soris, rasac, bunebrivia, mivyavarT lingvisturi saSualebebis inflaciamde. 3. mimarTeba tyuili marTali; aRniSnuli mimarTeba ganvixile r.gesisa da T.seiteris motyuebis strategiebis TvalsazrisiT, kerZod: a) informaciis damaxinjeba; b) gamotoveba (informaciis garkveuli nawilis gamiznuli dafarva); g)falsifikacia; d) odenobis strategia (informaciis odenobis gamiznuli Secvla); e) Tvisobrivi strategia (informaciis arsis Secvla); v) relevanturobis strategia (informaciis Rirebulebis daknineba); z) mkafiobis strategia (aramkafio, bundovani informaciis miwodeba). sakvlev masalad gamoyenebul iqna istoriul dokumentebSi, masobrivi informaciis saSualebebsa da politikosTa gamosvlebSi asaxuli qarTul-rusuli urTierTobani georgievskis traqtatidan 2008 wlis agvistos omis CaTvliT. naSromSi kognitiuri TvalsazrisiT aris ganxiluli metyvelebiTi orgemageobis iseTi nimuSebi: rogoricaa: proteqtorati, sovetizacia, xalxis mteri, antisabWoTa elementi, teroristi, separatizmi, araproporciuli Zala da sxv. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eTmoba metyvelebiTi orgemageobis unars moaxdinos politikosTa qcevis verbalur doneze legitimacia; anu politikoss, romelic Tavis oponents terorists uwodebs, miaCnia, rom saxeldeba mas uflebas aZlevs, fizikurad gaanadguros mowinaaRmde, saxeldeba aRniSnul SemTxvevaSi sasikvdilo ganaCenis tolfasia. statiaSi metyvelebiTi orgemageobis pragmatikuli maxasiaTeblebi gaanalizebulia saxisa da Tavazianobis Teoriebis TvalsazrisiT. metyvelebiTi orgemageobis teqnika SeiZleba ganvixiloT saxis SenarCunebis mniSvnelovani strategiad. dakvirvebam cxadyo, rom mimarTeba cudi _ arakargi deferenciuli Tavazianobis strategiis nimuSia, maSin rodesac mimarTebebi cudi kargi da tyuili marTali Sidajgufur situaciaSi solidarobis strategiis maCvenebelia, garejgufur situaciebSi ki _ saxis rRvevis saSiSroebis Semqmneli aqti.

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Nino Daraselia Some Semantic and Pragmatic Peculiarities of Doublespeak in Political Discourse It is common knowledge that politics and the political infuse all aspects of our lives, our attitudes as well as our behaviour (Negrine 1991:3), they infiltrate our mind and character. Hence it is quite natural and essential to consider political discourse in close relationship with political cognition. As Teun van Dijk maintains: The study of political cognition largely deals with the mental representations people share as political actors. Our knowledge and opinions about politicians, parties or presidents are largely acquired, changed and confirmed by various forms of text and talk during our socialization, formal education, media usage and conversation. (van Dijk 2008:203). Different genres of political discourse as well as various means and techniques they employ for transmitting values and beliefs shape our mental maps of the world. As a result, to paraphrase C.Wright Mills, we live in the second hand world. The quality of our lives is determined by meanings we have received from others. Everyone lives in the world of such meanings ( Said 1981:42). Inseparability and dialectics of discourse and cognition, language and thought is vividly shown in the notion of doublespeak. As is known, the term doublespeak blending two Orwellian concepts newspeak and doublethink signifies an evasive type of verbal behaviour. Its aim is to divert attention from or conceal the truth, making the bad seem good, the aggressive noble, the inhumane - humane etc. (McArthur 1996:296) The constituents of the given portmanteau word are of particular interest as they demonstrate the efficiency and significance of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. As is known, in George Orwells dystopian novel 1984 Newspeak is the method of controlling thought through language; it is the new totalitarian language which replaces Oldspeak i.e. Standard English and aims to narrow the range of thought and eliminate an individuals ability to think critically. As a result, such positively-connotated terms as freedom, peace knowledge, love are re-conceptualized and defined via their conceptual opposites and finally are replaced by them. Consequently, according to Orwell, doublethink (the underlying cognitive structure of Newspeak) is the mental activity of simultaneously knowing and not knowing, denoting an ability to be conscious of the truth while telling lies, so that one could hold two contradictory views at once and manipulate language to meet the exigencies of the moment (Orwell), Thus the principle : If thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought(Orwell 1946) is at work. I quite agree with Douglas Kellners viewpoint that doublespeak with its smoothed contradictions and unified opposites is, to some extent, similar to Marcuzes one-dimensional language. (Kellner 1984).

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The study of scholarly literature (Lutz 1989, McArthur 1996, Orwell 1946, 1990, Postman 1976) and the analysis of English, Georgian and Russian empirical data have proved that doublespeak is mostly characteristic of public and political discourses and such an agency of socialization as mass media. It is a powerful tool of information warfare as well. The study has been carried out on the material of the Georgia Russia relationship reflected in historical documents, news coverage and political speeches. As Teun van Dijk puts it, one of the difficulties when investigating political discourse is that a researcher cannot remain neutral, one must take a position. I have tried my best to remain neutral and be objective, however, objectivity is a relative notion. According to W. Lutzs definition: When a euphamism is used to deceive, it becomes doublespeak.(Lutz 1989). However, the results of my research have revealed a different configuration.. The semantic and cognitive analyses of the data have shown that the underlying cognitive structure of doublespeak is of binary character; I have singled out three types of doublespeak: 1. bad is replaced by ungood; linguistically it is expressed by means of jargon, bureaucratese, euphemism, hedging etc. The given type frequently leads to linguistic ambiguity. 2. relation black white (loyal willingness to say that black is white when party discipline demands ,Orwell, ,1984), bad is presented as good, i.e.: there is no correspondence between a piece of reality and its linguistic nomination. Hence the gap naturally results in inflated language. 3. relation false true. Deception is quite typical of doublespeaking; in fact it is closely associated with it. To characterize the third type of relation I have used R, Gass and J. Seiters classification of deception strategies. As is known, R. Gass and J.Seiter have singled out 7 deception strategies (1999): distortion (saying sth. that can mean two or more things), omission (intentionally concealing information), falsification (giving false information), quantity (altering the amount of information that should be given), quality (altering the essence of information), relevance (changing the importance of information), and clarity (not giving clear information). From the enumerated, the strategies of distortion, falsification and that of quantity are most frequently used in doublespeak narratives. According to my observations, though the term doublespeak was coined in the 1950s, the art of doublespeaking as a way of making facticity, rather than describing it, has had an age-long history. The Georgian Russian relationship is a perfect example of the above-said. Factfile 1. The relationship between Georgia and Russia starts in 1783 with The Treaty of Georgievsk. It was a bilateral treaty concluded between the Russian Empire and the east Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti on July 24, 1783. The treaty established Georgia as a protectorate of Russia,

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which guaranteed Georgias territorial integrity and the continuation of its reigning Bagrationi dynasty, in return for prerogatives in the conduct of Georgian foreign affairs. However, the results of the treaty proved disappointing for Georgians; gradually, both East and West parts of Georgia were annexed, the Bagrationi dynasty deposed, its representatives were exiled, the autocephalous status of the Georgian Orthodox Church was abolished, the Georgian Church was subjected to the synodical rule of the Russian Church and the Georgian liturgy suppressed and replaced with the Russian one. Thus all the terms of the treaty were violated. In the given context the notion of protectorate is of particular interest. As is known, etymologically the given word originates from the Latin protectus, pp. of protegere to protect, pro-before, in front, tegere to cover; To protect is a word of positive semantics, meaning to shield from injury, danger, or loss; guard; defend. In international law, protectorate is a country or region that is protected diplomatically and militarily against third parties by a larger state or entity. In exchange for this the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the nature of the relationship between the two countries. Whatever the terms, a protectorate retains sufficient measure of its sovereignty and remains a state under international law. Two types of protection are differentiated: a. amicable protection whose terms are often very favourable for the protectorate. The political interest of the protector is often moral ( it may be a matter of image, prestige, ideology, internal popularity, dynastic, historical or ethno-cultural ties etc.) or countering a rival or enemy power, preventing it from obtaining or maintaining control of areas of strategic importance. b. colonial protection implies less generous conditions for a protectorate. The protectorate is often reduced to a de facto condition similar to a colony. Though the treaty of Georgievsk seems to be a sample of amicable protection, actually it served as a prelude to the annexation of Georgia. In the given context the notion of protectorate is inflated since there is a gap between the declared terms of the treaty and the real intentions of the Russian Empire. Moreover, the analysis of the history of various protectorates has proved that in almost all the cases the relationship of protectorate was a disguised form of annexation. Thus the term protectorate can be considered a sample of doublespeak as it implies the relation black white or bad good. The doublespeak nature of the term protectorate is clearly revealed in the evaluations Russian historians give to the Georgievsk treaty of Protection and its consequences; they nominate it as the act of brotherhood of the Russian and Georgian peoples that justified annexation to

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protect Georgia both from its historical enemies and its decadent reigning dynasty. One of the implicatures of the given evaluation is the image of a great, noble nation, the defender of the weak. Thus annexation was done for the sake of protection, that is annexation is protection. Factfile 2. Georgia gained its independence in 1918, but lost it in 1921 when Russia, this time the Soviet Russia, annexed it for the second time; the act of annexation was masked by the term sovietisation () i.e: Georgia became one of the Soviet Socialist Republics and was again part of the modified Russian Empire. The semantic analysis of the political term in question has proved that sovietization is interpreted in two contrasting ways. Sovietization originates from the Russian word (sovet meaning council). Soviet was a primary unit in the political organization of the USSR. The first soviets formed by workers, soldiers and peasants served as revolutionary committees in the 1905 and later in the 1917 revolutions. According to the revolutionary leaders they symbolized the hegemony of common, working people. In the Soviet Union the soviets became the basic political units, forming a hierarchy from rural councils to the Supreme Soviet ( ). Sovietization is a culture-specific term, closely associated with Russias history and culture, as well as Russian imperial mentality. Soviet and most post-soviet Russian historians, politicians and politologists interpret sovietization as a positive phenomenon, for them it meant the spread and expansion of noble ideals and high moral principles of socialism and communism. The metaphor of the noble, caring Big Brother, the Great Russian Nation ( ) protecting smaller, helpless nations and helping them to survive is of dominant importance in the given conceptual system. The holders of the given representations do not want to admit that sovietization was built on violence, terror, repressions. For them Soviet Union symbolized brotherhood and friendship of the soviet peoples. Similarity between the evaluation of the Soviet Union and that of the relation of the protectorate between Georgia and Russia is apparent. Moreover, in 1983 the Soviet authorities (both in Russia and Georgia) celebrated bicentennial of the Treaty of Georgievsk. Thus within the framework of the Russian culture (with very few exceptions) sovietization is a doublespeak term based upon the principle black-white, i.e.: it reveals incongruity between the historical reality and its nomination. However, it should be admitted that the soviet propaganda has had its results; in the post soviet countries there are many people who still sincerely believe in the ideals and principles of the Soviet Union, hence homo sovieticus is not a fiction but a bitter reality. By contrast, according to the definitions given in different monolingual dictionaries of English, sovietization is a negatively-connotated political term; to sovietize means: a. to force into conformity with soviet cultural patterns or governmental policies; b. to bring under Soviet control.

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The given definitions imply forceful transformation of the political system of a country into the undesirable one. The case of sovietization proves J.Derridas viewpoint that the meanings of individual signs are produced by the differance between that sign and other signs, hence words are not self-sufficiently meaningful, but only meaningful as part of a larger structure that makes meaning possible. This viewpoint is very much true of doublespeak, which is largely contextdependent, context- variable phenomenon. Since the Soviet Union was a totalitarian state, doublespeak was an accepted norm of verbal behaviour at different levels of its society and in every sphere of mans activity.. Doublespeak served as an essential means for constructing the identity of the other Let us consider some samples of soviet doublespeak: 1. an enemy of the people ( ) - this is the name given to the opponents of the soviet regime ( or those who were considered to be opponents noblemen, clergymen, bankers, merchants, intellectuals etc.) or just critically-minded people up to the 1950s. The name was like a stigma passed down to the children of the enemies. In the given case the critical term opponent is replaced by its extreme synonym enemy, i.e.: the word with positive semantics is replaced by the word with negative semantics. The choice of the word enemy, and generally of the whole phrase, had far-reaching aims; firstly, it instantiates the dichotomous vision of us and them- people as the domain of us is opposed to the domain of them, others- enemies, secondly, the phrase arouses negative propositions enemies are dangerous for the rest of the people, enemies must be destroyed hence the given verbal behaviour legitimized and justified deportations and mass killings of thousands of people. 2. the term anti-soviet elements ( ) replaced the term an enemy of the people from the 1950s. It referred to dissidents and human rights defenders. At first sight the term in question sounds more euphemistic. However, closer inspection of the nomination in question proves that the first impression is illusive. The word elements is of particular significance; its definition is as follows: a particular group of people especially people who are regarded with disapproval within a larger whole.(Longman Dictionary of Language and Culture). As R Fowler maintains today group is a central ideological concept in the domain of them and it has implications of being alien and threatening for the rest (Fowler 1991).As for the term anti-soviet, according to the soviet politologists, antisovietism was synonymous to anticommunism,; the latter being an idealogical and political basis of the psychological warfare imperialism waged against communism for the purpose of undermining public consciousness (:1983). The definition of anti-sovietism as well as the

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term anti-soviet elements are perfect samples of the soviet political jargon. The cognitive structure of doublespeak in this case is goodungood. Since the 1990s, when the remnants of the Soviet Union were transformed into Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the term terrorist has been used to designate opponents of the newly modified Soviet Empire. These are mostly freedom-fighters, representatives of those nations and countries that were annexed and joined to the Russian Empire 200 hundred years ago (Chechens, the Ingush) The name-givers the Russian authorities believe the term terrorist gives them the right to carry out anti-terrorist operations against their opponents. The name-giving in this case serves as a verdict, a sentence to death. Thus the construction of the identity of the other against whom the Russian imperial machine intends to wage war is one of the powerful measures in legitimizing war. The discussed three examples of name-giving speech acts can be considered performatives/indirect declarations as in each case the verbal behaviour brings about and results in specific non-verbal activities. Doublespeak has been an important political weapon in the information warfare Russia has waged against Georgia since the August 2008 war between Georgia and Russia. In the given case the Russian political discourse which embraces presidential speeches, speeches made by officials of different rank, mass media coverage is built on the principle of doublespeak, mostly of false-true type. The main message is as follows: Russia accuses Georgia of: a. waging a war against South Ossetia. (,- , ) b. aggression against South Ossetia.( - , , , /M , ) c. genocide of Ossetians (. , : ... 2000 , , , 30 , . ( ) (according to the Russian sources 2000 were killed, however, according to the investigations of different international organizations 162 people were killed, mostly military and paramilitary men. Recently, this information has been confirmed by the so-called president of the so-called South Ossetian republic).

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As a result, Russia could not stand the injustice and came to the aid of the South Ossetian people. Russia was obliged to recognize the independence of South Ossetia. In order to decipher the discourse in question some factual information should be considered: Factfile 3. According to the scholarly literature (historical, geographical, archeological, and linguistic works) Ossetians are a nomadic people of Iranian origin whose original homeland was Middle Asia and later the steppes of the Northern Caucasus. In the 17th century because of the Mongols they started migrating to Georgia and found refuge there. Nowadays Ossetians live throughout the whole territory of Georgia; there is a high percentage of mixed families. South Ossetia is a non-existent geographical notion. South Ossetian Autonomous Region was artificially created in 1922 after the sovietization of Georgia. One of the ancient towns of Georgia Tskhinvali (the toponym originates from rcxila the Georgian name for hornbeam) with no Ossetian population was named as its capital. It has been followed by the demographic expansion as well as the falsification not only of Georgian history but the history of the world. It should be stressed that right on the other side of the Greater Caucasus (4050 5 600) North Ossetian Autonomous Region was formed on the originally Ingush territory within Russian Federation. The implications of the precisely chosen region names are as follows: Ossetia is divided into two, some day it will be united. Hence the names of the regions South Ossetia and North Ossetia create ambiguity and they can be considered samples of doublespeak since they are built on the false-true principle. In general, the formation of autonomous regions on the territory of Georgia, as well as, on the territories of other soviet republics was the reflection of the divide and rule policy of the Russian Empire. At the same time they served as an obstacle on the path towards the independence: every time any of the soviet republics showed its striving to be independent, ethnic conflicts were provoked in the artificially created formations. And the main provoker of the conflict played the role of a mediator and peacekeeper. The same happened in the Georgian regions of Abkhazia and the so-called South Ossetia in the 1990s. Moreover, to protect the citizens of the regions in question Russia started the passportization of the given regions, hence according to the Russian sources, the war was the only way, the only possibility to defend Russian citizens. ( , .) Considering the above-given geopolitical and historical information it can be concluded that the discussed pieces of Russian political discourse are built on the following principles of doublespeak: 1.black-white: a. the victim of the war, Georgia is presented as the aggressor. b. the invader and the occupant( Russia) is called the liberator, the defender of the weak. In the Russian political discourse on the subject

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the metaphor of moral strength is traceable: the Georgia-Russia war is regarded as a war of good against the forces of evil, which must be fought ruthlessly. ( , , ). It is noteworthy that in his speech on September 13, 2008, D. Medvedev, compared the Georgian military actions during the war to 9/11 terrorist attack. 2. false-true: the deception strategy of quantity was used to accuse Georgia of the genocide, the number of casualties was exaggerated. Moreover, the ethnic cleansing of the Georgian population in the 1990s and 2008 was concealed ( the deception strategy of omission). In the Georgian political narratives on the subject both direct and doublespeak type evaluations of the conflict in question are encountered. In my opinion, the inconsistency of the Georgian political discourse is caused by some dubiously interpreted terms, the term separatism being one of them. The Georgian officials often refer to Abkhazian and Tskhinvali regions as separatist. As is known, separatism is usually applied to describe the attitudes or motivations of those seeking independence or separation of their land or region from the country that governs them. The use of the term is incongruous with the historical, linguistic, cultural and geopolitical facts that prove that Georgians have always been the indigenous population of the given regions, hence the use of the term separatist regions in Georgian political discourse means the admittance of the right of Abkhazians and Ossetians to seek independence of their land and secede from Georgia. In this particular context the term separatism can be considered a doublespeak term of the category false true, viz. it fits its subcategory - the deception strategy of clarity. But in the given case the use of doublespeak, or rather its misuse harms the speakers interests. The analysis have shown that evaluations of American as well as British politicians on the subject of the Georgia-Russia war are characterized by directness as well as the use of a doublespeak technique, mostly of bad ungood type; e.g.; President Bush called the actions of Russia in Georgia an unacceptable conduct in the 21st century. Likewise, David Miliband says the way in which Russia is conducting foreign affairs is unacceptable. .. it is simply not the way that international relations can be run in the 21st century. In the given examples the terms invasion, intervention are replaced by the sample of political bureaucrateze - unacceptable conduct. Western politicians often characterize Russias response to Georgias military actions as disproportionate. contextually implying the violence against the civilians and the size of the damage. As is known, proportionality as a law of war concept is much debatable , hence the rule of proportionality is subject to frequent misinterpretations. In J.Keilers viewpoint disproportion can be seen as the edge of an effort to delegitamize actions by western nations against weaker countries or non-state actors.

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The pragmatics of doublespeak has been studied from the standpoints of face and politeness theories. Doublespeak technique can be regarded as a face-saving strategy conditioned by the desire of the speaker to be ratified, approved of, liked or admired. The instances of doublespeak of bad-ungood type can be viewed as samples of deference politeness strategy which emphasizes distance (+D) between the participants, i.e.: the speaker out of respect for the hearers negative face advances his imposition with care, trying to give the hearer a way out in case the hearer regards the imposition as too great. As for the doublespeak types black-white and falsetrue, when used in in-group situations they can be regarded as samples of the solidarity politeness strategy which emphasizes the existence of the common grounds in the participants relations with little distance (-D) and a slight power (-P) difference between them. However, when used in out-group situations, instances of bad-good and false true doublespeak types can be regarded as face-threatening acts. In conclusion it can be said that the study of the phenomenon of doublespeak as one of the devices of political discourse has proved once again that political discourse ( as K. Cowan puts it) is a form of power arrived at through consent. It both constructs and is constructed by the powerful and its construction invariably has a profound impact on the direction of domestic and foreign policy. References: Brown, P., Levinson, S., Politeness: Universals in language usage, Cambridge, CUP, 1989. Cap, P., Legitimization in Political Discourse, A Cross-Disciplinary Perspective on the Modern US War Rhetoric, Cambridge Scholars Press, 2006. Cap, P., Where Lexicon Meets Cognition: Can Crisis Construction and Legitimization of Policies be Studied through Lemma Patterns? in: Advances in Discourse Approaches, ed. M.Dynel, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009. Chilton, P., Orwellian Language and the Media, London, Pluto Press, 1988. Cowan, K., What is Wrong with War on Terror?, International relations, online ms.) 2009. Derrida, J., Margins of Philosophy, Chicago University Press, 1984. Fowler, R., Language in the News, Discourse and Ideology in the Press, Routledge, London and New York, 1991. Gass, R., Seiter, J., Persuasion: Social Influence and Compliance Gaining, Allyn and Bacon, 2007. Goffman, E., On face-work: An analysis of ritual elements in social interaction, in Laver, J. and Hutcheson (eds.) Face-to-face communication, Hardmondsworth : Penguin, 1955.

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Hartley, J., Understanding News, Studies in Culture and Communication, London :Methuen, 1982. Keiler, J., The End of Proportionality, (online ms), 2009. Kellner, D., From 1984 to One-Dimensional Man: Critical Reflections on Orwell and Marcuse. http://www.uta.edu/huma/illuminations/kell13a.htm. Lakoff, G., Metaphors, Morality and Politics, or Why Conservatives Have Left Liberals in the Dust, (online ms), 1995. Lutz, W., Doublespeak, NY, Harper and Row Publishers, 1989. Mihas, E., Non-Literal Language in Political Discourse, LSO Working Papers Linguistics 5: Proceedings of WIGL, 2005. Negrine, R., Politics and the Mass Media in Britain, Routledge, London and New York, 1991. Said, E., Covering Islam, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981. Postman, N., Crazy Talk, Stupid Talk, Delta Books, 1976. Scollon, R., Scollon, S.Wong, Intercultural Communication, Oxford: Blackwell, 1995. Searle, J., R., Indirect Speech Acts, In Syntax and Semantics , vol. 3, Cole, P., Morgan, J.L. (eds) Academic Press, NY, 1975. Orwell, G., Selected Essays, Penguin Books, 1946. Orwell, G., 1984 , Penguin Books, London, 1990. van Dijk, T. A., Political Discourse and Political Cognition, online ms. , . ., , , , 1983. , ., , , , 2005.

anuki imnaiSvili

XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis postsabWoTa Taobis qarTuli prozis postmodernistuli tendenciebi


miuxedavad imisa, rom postmodernistuli esTetikis Sesaxeb qarTulma kulturulma cnobierebam gvian Seityo, mainc gvgonia, mas saqarTveloSi momzadebuli niadagi daxvda. `postmodernistuli esTetika is universaluri meTodi Tu reaqciaa, riTac saerTod kulturam SeiZleba upasuxos rogorc evropul, ise Cveni sazogadoebisTvis damaxasiaTebel krizisebs.~ (muzaSvili, 2001: 3). XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi ki, saqarTveloSi krizisebma apogeas miaRwia. saqarTveloSi pirvel postmodernistebad saxeldebian: daviT CixlaZe, daviT barbaqaZe, zurab qarumiZe, karlo kaWarava... Tumca, qarTveli kritikosebi: levan bregaZe, bela wifuria, nugzar muzaSvili am kuTxiT mimoixilaven araTu mxolod XX saukunis bolo aTwleulis mwerlobas, aramed ufro adrindeli Taobis avtorTa Semoqmedebas, anu literatorebi amtkiceben, rom postmodernizmi gvxvdeba oTar CxeiZis, guram doCanaSvilis, naira gelaSvilis, givi margvelaSvilis, jemal qarCxaZis da revaz inaniSvilis prozaSi. zogierT am avtorTa 90-ian wlebSi Seqmnil nawarmoebebSi marTlac SeimCneva postmodernistuli aqcentebi, magram levan bregaZe varaudobs, rom es tendenciebi, yofili sabWoTa kavSiris qveynebis literaturaTagan yvelaze adre qarTul mwerlobaSi, XX saukunis 60-ianelTa Taobis SemoqmedebaSi dafiqsirda. am mosazrebaze dasturis micema, Rrma da safuZvliani

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetis doqtoranti. ZiriTadi Sromebi: XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis qarTuli prozis tendenciebi (postsabWoTa Taoba) - sadoqtoro naSromi; Jurnali XX saukune - kritika #1, 2005 interesTa sfero: mxatvruli proza, literaturuli procesebi.

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kvlevis gareSe, saZnelo saqmea, radgan erTia, roca literaturaSi Cndeba raime mimarTulebis niSnebi zedapiruli, gauazrebeli, konceptualuri safuZvlis gareSe da sxvaa, roca es niSnebi tendenciis saxes iZens da mimarTulebad yalibdeba. vfiqrobT, mosazrebis safuZvlianoba eWvqveS dgeba, Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT, rom parodia, citireba, interteqstualoba yovelTvis iyo damaxasiaTebeli literaturisTvis, rogorc SemoqmedebiTi procesisTvis. Tumca, levan bregaZesve ekuTvnis Semdegi SeniSvna: ~dasavlur litmcodneobaSi igi (postmodernizmi, a.i.) samociani wlebidan iwyebs damkvidrebas, CvenSi ki oTxmociani wlebis bolodan, `perestroikis~ periodSi.~ (`kritika~, 2005w. #1, 29). es mosazreba ki ukve safuZvliania; 1989 wlis 9 aprilidan fexs idgams postsabWoTa saqarTvelo, romelic postmodernistuli nakvTebiT daibada. qarTuli postmodernizmis dasawyisTan dakavSirebiT azrTa sxvadasxvaoba bunebrivia. rac Seexeba 90-iani wlebis literaturas, aq ukve aSkaraa da cxadia postmodernistuli tendenciebi. xolo am tendenciebis Semomtan-damamkvidreblad axlgazrdebi, 90-ianelebi gvevlinebian. amrigad, mimovixilavT mxolod erT aTwleuls, 90-ian wlebs da postsabWoTa Taobis moRvaweobis dasawyisis prozis mixedviT gamovavlenT postmodernistul tendenciebs. qarTuli postmodernistuli mxatvrul-SemoqmedebiTi tendenciebis gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa: zurab qarumiZis, daTo barbaqaZis, SoTa iaTaSvilis, aka morCilaZis, beso xvedeliZis, laSa buRaZis, zaza burWulaZis, zaza TvaraZis proza. rogorc aRiniSna, postmodernistuli tendenciebi, ara marto axali, aramed wina Taobis warmomadgenelTa 90-ian wlebSi Seqmnil nawarmoebebSi (guram doCanaSvilis, laSa imedaSvilis, oTar CxeiZis da sxvaTa SemoqmedebaSi) aisaxa, magram am SemTxvevaSi Cven postsabWoTa Taobis proza gvainteresebs, amdenad, ufrosi Taobis postmodernistuli eqsperimentebze aRar SevCerdebiT. qarTuli mwerlobis tradiciebisTvis metad uCveulo aRmoCnda zurab qarumiZis teqstebi. misi literaturuli opusebi qarTuli postmodernizmis dasawyiss moaswavebs. zurab qarumiZe gaxlavT qarTuli postmodernizmis medroSe, romelic postmodernizmis mTavari niSniT _ `ormagi kodirebiT~ movida Cvens literaturul sivrceSi. igi aris prozaikosic da Teoretikosic, man orive gzis gamoyenebiT Semoitana axali mimdinareoba CvenSi. zurab qarumiZis literaturuli debiuti 1991 wels Sedga, roca gazeTSi `literatura da sxva~ misi ori nawarmoebi gamoqveynda: `Blow-up~ da `xareba rom daemTxva aRdgomas, 1991~. 1998 wels gamoica avtoris literaturuli krebuli `OPERA~, sadac zemoTxsenebul opusebTan erTad, 90-ian wlebSi dawerili teqstebic Sevida. unda aRiniSnos, rom zurab qarumiZis nawarmoebebis Sem-

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TxvevaSi gansakuTrebiT Wirs moTxrobis an novelis xseneba, radganac TavianTi struqturiT isini aSkarad scdebian tradiciuli eposis Janrebs. xolo krebulSi mxolod `Blow-up~-s aweria novela. sxvebTan SedarebiT, is, SeiZleba, marTla novelaa, magram ufro Teoriul traqtats waagavs novelis, moTxrobis, romanis daweris Sesaxeb. Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es aris avtoris refleqsia teqstis daweris Sesaxeb TviTon teqstSive, rac, Tavis mxriv, postmodernizmis erT-erTi upirvelesi niSania anu interteqstualoba. novelis mTavari gmiri, mwerali ka (romelic avtoris prototipia da sakuTari gvaris wina inicialebidan gamomdinare SeTxzul metsaxels - q[k]a mogvagonebs an uneblied gvaxsenebs franc kafkas `procesis~ personaJs) ayalibebs Teorias, Tu rogor da ris Sesaxeb unda weros Semoqmedma kacma iseT periodSi, roca yvelafers cvlileba etyoba da mkiTxvelSi iRviZebs mogonebebi 1990 wlebis Tbilisze. kas mier Camoyalibebuli Teoriebi literaturuli nawarmoebis Seqmnis Sesaxeb, aSkarad hgavs postmodernistuli mwerlobis Teoriul-metakritikul eqsperimentebs: Txzulebis daweris `meTodi, romelsac ka unda dayrdnoboda, iTvaliswinebda axali ritorikis warmomadgenelTa mier SemuSavebul wminda ariTmetikul operaciebsa da fundametur aqsiomebs~ (qarumiZe, 1998: 52). ka fiqrobda, rom unda moemarjvebina niRabi, rogorc uzustesi xelsawyo. Tavis droze, rogorc daviT zurabiSvilma aRniSna, miuxedavad novelis aratradiciulobisa, igi mainc moTxrobaa, romlis ganviTarebac dinamikuria da ar aris Tavis TavSi Caketili.. siuJeti, rogorc aseTi, ar arsebobs, magram reminiscencia-aluziaTa simravle ar tovebs simZimis STabeWdilebas. novela `Blow-up~ marTlac yvelaze STambeWdavia zurab qarumiZis krebulSi. am novelaze gazeT `alternativaSi~ gamoqveynebul gamoxmaurebaSi vkiTxulobT, rom `novela sakuTari (zurab qarumiZis, a.i.) Semoqmedebis siZneleebis gacnobierebis da daZlevis gzebis Ziebis gacveTil Temazea Zalze Segirdulad dawerili~. (axaS veroSi, 1999: 6, axaS veroSi (anu ebraulad Zlieri adamiani) filosofos badri SarvaZis fsevdonimi gaxlavT). arada, dRevandeli gadasaxedidan Zalze kargad Cans, rom es novela (da saerTod, zurab qarumiZis Semoqmedeba) postmodernistuli tendenciebis pirveli `afeTqebebia~ qarTul mwerlobaSi. novela `Blow-up~ 1990 welsaa dawerili. `xareba rom daemTxva aRdgomas. 1991~ _ iosif brodskisadmi miZRvnil am teqsts frCxilebSi miTiTebuli aqvs Elegia barocca, rac italiurad, `iCxibi formis elegias~ niSnavs. es elegia 1996 wels daibeWda erT-erT amerikul literaturul JurnalSi, romelsac amerikel literatorTa yuradReba miupyria; `postmodernizmis mamad~ Seracxuli Teoretikosis ihab hasanis mowonebac daumsaxurebia. asociaciurad da siRrmiseuli aluziebiT datvirTu-

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li es teqsti ar misdevs qarTuli mwerlobis aranair tradicias, igi absoluturad axalia Cveni literaturisTvis. misi `iCxiboba~ marTlac barokoul, daxlarTul-daxuWuWebul, ornamentirebul stils hgavs. Tavad avtoric ar malavs barokouli stilisadmi Tayvaniscemas: `barokouli naweria, barux spinozas madlma. didi iCxibi ramea es baroko, nakec-nakec, xveul-xveul daxlarTuli. mere da ra, rom miyvars es xana, da is xalxic miyvars, Cveni drois, vinc barokos SiboleTs gemo gaugo, Tavisaze moTargmna da aTamaSa (elioti ginda, odeni, Tu brodski). barokos ambavs `cicinaTelas~ xmaze ver ityvi, alag-alag azri Tu ar dakece, Tu ar Caaxvie, bundovanebis zRvramde Tu ar ganavrce da imis iqiTac Tu ar Casdie, raRa baroko gamova.~ [1999: 7, axaS veroSis recenziaze pasuxi lusien Jenerosagan. es ki, Tavad zurab qarumiZis fsevdonimi gaxlavT]. es ganacxadi ki dasturia reminiscenciisa da literaturis kvlavwarmoebisa. `xareba rom daemTxva aRdgomas. 1991~ erTi mTliani monologia, ufro sworad, saubari sakuTar TavTan. teqsti prozac aris, poeziac. aluziebiT ganzrax daSifruloba aZnelebs nawarmoebis gagebasac da aRqmasac. axaS veroSi wers, rom `baton zurabis teqstebSi mTavarze umTavresi swored es aluziebia. gamodis, rom CvenTvis (mkiTxvelisTvis _ a.i.) SemosaRebuli teqstebi ki ara, teqstebi-miniSnebebia, aluziuri teqstebia, TviT avtori mimniSnebeli, anu aluzionisti. samarTliani iqneboda Semdegi kiTxvis dasma: ki magram, amdeni ra aqvs misaniSni Cvens avtors, da miniSnebebis garda Tu aqvs raime saTqmeli? [ar aqvs da] gvtovebs is miniSnebebis amara, Tumca drodadro Segvibralebs da miTiTebebiT wagvexmareba, rogor mogwonT aseTi TamaSi? ras izam, postmoderni mosula tiflisSi~ (1999: 6). pirvel or SekiTxvaze, mkiTxvelma Tavad unda gasces pasuxi. xolo kiTxvaze ratom aukrZala avtorma sakuTar Tavs pirdapiri saubari? pasuxi martivia: aseTia TamaSis wesi. aluzia-miniSnebebiT gamocanobana TavisTavad TamaSia, magram zurab qarumiZe Tavis teqstebSi ar gvTavazobs iseT TamaSis wesebs, rogorsac, sxva qarTveli avtorebi, magaliTad, aka morCilaZe. cxadia, es imas sulac ar niSnavs, rom zurab qarumiZe ver flobs postmodernistuli TamaSis Teorias, ubralod, misi TamaSis wesebi gansxvavebulia ufro met ganswavlulobas da `iCxibobas~ moiTxovs. zurab qarumiZis yvelaze metad gaxmaurebuli nawarmoebia `giJi mequde~. ra aris es? _ ver malaven gakvirvebas literatori daviT zurabiSvili da masTan erTad _ sxvebic. `giJi mequde~ _ es Janrobrivi gaurkvevloba _ arc romania, arc piesa, arc moTxroba an vrceli moTxroba, arc prozad dawerili leqsi da arc lirikuli proza. Tqven warmoidgineT, igi arc eseisturi naSromia da arc filosofiuri traqtati. Txzulebas, romelic mTlianad luis ke-

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rolis cnobili personaJis cnobierebis nakadia, saTauris qveS, frCxilebSi miTiTebuli aqvs, rom esaa mcire messa da Tanac _ deteqtiuri Janrisaa. giJi mequde moazrovne, Sepyrobili braleulia, mas dro mouklavs erT-erTi koncertis dros, romelic, misive aRiarebiT, mamrobiTi sqesisa yofila. sasjelmac ar daayovna: amieridan giJi mequdis cxovrebaSi mudam eqvsi saaTia, Sesabamisad, mas mudam Cais sma uwevs; igi CaisaTvis gawyobil sufrasTan zis da wirvas aRasrulebs. TviTon avtori nawarmoebis Sesaxeb wers: giJi mequde ~Sepyrobilia ZiriTadi cnebebiT, romlebic mas gaqrobis safrTxis winaSe ayeneben, rogorc ukiduresni. eseni xuTni arian: ufalo, dideba, mrwamsi, wmidao, tarigi uflisa. xolo saxeli am xuTisa aris saxeli vardis, anu sityva, romlis madliTac WeSmaritad gamoiTqmis imisi buneba, rac TavisiT aRmocendeba. amitomac aris, rom winamdebare sagalobo cikli deteqtiviviT ikiTxeba~ [`giJi mequde~, avtoris Sesavali sityva]. es mcire messa, igive sagalobo cikli, cnobili italiuri romanis, `vardis saxeliT~, gavlenas ganicdis. postmodernisti umberto ekos romani Rrmad inteleqtualur nawarmoebad iqna aRqmuli, amitomac qarTveli zurab qarumiZe gavlenas ver ascdeboda. magram italielis nawarmoebi popularulia mkiTxvelTa farTo masebSi, xolo `giJi mequde~ teqsti, romelic gadatvirTulia filosofiur-musikaluri reminiscencia-aluziebiT, yvela tipis mkiTxvelisTvis ar aris gankuTvnili. daviT zurabiSvili dasZens, rom `zurab qarumiZis erT-erTi ZiriTadi nakli swored mkiTxvelis gauTvaliswineblobaa, roca avtori TiTqos sakuTar Tavs esaubreba mxolod misTvis gasageb enaze~ (zurabiSvili, 1994: 24). Tuki avtors ar aRelvebs, gaigeben Tu ara mis nawerebs, Tuki igi ugulebelyofs mkiTxvels, gamodis, rom igi ukomunikacio teqstebs qmnis. Tumca, zurab qarumiZis teqstebs ver davarqmevT ukomunikacio teqstebs (komunikaciis nakleb SesaZleblobas qmnis, Janris dasaxelebis miuxedavad, daTo barbaqaZe _ romani `aqilevsis meore qusli~), radganac misi krebuli `OPERA~ Cveulebrivad ikiTxeba, Tumca kargad momzadebul mkiTxvels Txoulobs. daviT zurabiSvili zurab qarumiZis `giJi mequdis~ recenziaSi aRniSnavs, rom es teqsti literaturuli gurmanebisTvisaa gankuTvnili. Cveni azriT, ara mxolod `giJi mequde~, mTlianad zurab qarumiZis Semoqmedeba, ara imdenad literaturis, ramdenadac postmodernistuli teqstebis moyvarulTaTvisaa gankuTvnili. recenzenti amtkicebs, rom zurab qarumiZis Semoqmedeba modernistulia da ara postmodernistuli. es aris `ara tradiciis parodireba, aramed tradiciis destruqcia misi parodirebis gziT~ (zurabiSvili 1994: 33). destruqcia parodirebis gziT sworedac rom postmodernistulia da ara modernistuli... Tavad zurab qarumiZe ambobs, rom

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`postmodernistuli xelovnebis umTavresi principi _ parodireba _ destruqciis saxesxvaobaa~ (qarumiZe, 2009: 5), xolo destruqciuloba _ postmodernizmis erT-erTi mTavari maxasiaTebeli. garda amisa, recenzentma isic SeniSna, rom teqstebis kiTxvisas TvalSisacemia avtoris erudicia _ `marTlac vin aRar `trialebs~ teqstSi: joisi, haidegeri, iungi, froidi, hese, platoni, nicSe, Sonbergi, veberi, brodski, elioti, mandelStami, nikolaus kuzaneli, alfred hiCkoki da muxran maWavariani...~ (zurabiSvili: 1994: 28). vfiqrobT, muxran maWavariani imitom moxvda am teqstSi, rom erovnuli tradiciis destruqciis novatorad warmoadginon da es ori momenti destruqcia (erovnul-ideologiuri da kulturuli; anu destruqcia postmodernistul konteqstSi waikiTxon, rogorc erovnuli problematika da poezia) da postmodernizmi, rogorc literaturuli mimdinareoba xelovnebad Seajeron. cnobili saxelebis, Janrebis, droTa koqteili postmodernizmis sayvareli xerxia, aseve _ cnobili teqstebisa da personaJebis interpretacia-parodirebac da cnobili saxelebiT koketobac... ase rom, zurab qarumiZis Semoqmedeba postmodernistuli prozaa. postmodernistuli ileTebiT anu warsulis cnobili siuJetebisa da personaJebis parodireba-interpretaciebiTaa Sesrulebuli aka morCilaZis proza. igic aluziebis `momxmarebeli~ mweralia. anda, rogorc masze iTqva: `aka morCilaZe fantazmebis mweralia~ (zedania, 2004: 3-4). zurab qarumiZis teqstebi Tu Znelad sakiTxav traqtatebs hgavs, yvelasTvis araa gankuTvnili da avtorsac ugulebelyofili hyavs mkiTxveli (es, rogorc aRiniSna, sxvaTa Sefasebaa da ara _ piradi), aka morCilaZis Semoqmedeba wminda mxatvruli prozaa, tradiciuli Janrobrivi mravalferovnebiT novela, moTxroba, romani; deteqtiuri, saTavgadasavlo Tu ubralod, `sanTlis Suqze wasakiTxi~ nawarmoebebi. mwerloba azriani TamaSiao, _ uTqvamT. swored, aseTi azriani TamaSi SesTavaza Tavis droze gio axvledianma qarTvel mkiTxvels; mTeli misi Semoqmedeba, fsevdonimiT (aka morCilaZe) dawyebuli, erTi didi da sasiamovno `gamonagoni~ aRmoCnda axali literatura XX saukunis 90-iani wlebisTvis. zurab qarumiZis msgavsad, aka morCilaZec postmodernizmis umTavresi principis _ `ormagi kodirebis~ saukeTeso magaliTad iqca Tvad mwerlis pirovneba, masSi gaerTianebulia avtori, mTxzveli, mokalme aka morCilaZe da istorikosi, leqtori, sportis mimomxilveli-Jurnalisti gio axvlediani. TamaSi, TavisTavad, kargia, magram SeTavazebuli wesebis daZleva moTamaSes unda SeeZlos. mwerloba mxolod `Sou~ (anda ekvilibristika) ar aris, mas mkiTxvelis garkveuli mzaobac esaWiroe-

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ba. postmodernistuli esTetikisTvis qarTveli mkiTxveli mzad ar iyo, is ki ara, Tavad avtoric naklebad interesdeboda am mimdinareobis konceptualuri safuZvlebiT. maSin, rodesac romanma `gadafrena madaTovze da ukan~ _ mzis Suqi ixila da kritikosebi uaxlesi literaturuli tendenciebis Sesaxeb alaparakdnen, aka morCilaZem Cveuli iumoriT erT-erT interviuSi ganacxada, rom Tavisi romani retro-realizmis nimuSia (morCilaZe, 2001: 11), anu avtorma am gancxadebiT Tavad postmodernizmis parodireba moaxdina. ufro zustad, es iyo postmodernistuli ironia TviT postmodernizmze. faqti erTia, qarTvelma mkiTxvelma aka morCilaZis postmodernistuli (iseve, rogorc misi qalaquri proza `mogzauroba yarabaRSi~, `faliaSvilis quCis ZaRlebi~) proza kargad miiRo. avtorma es moaxerxa iumoriTa da teqstSi avtoris, personaJisa da mkiTxvelis TanaarsebobiT; mkiTxveli uSualo monawilea da ara _ uaryofili. lali avalianma rogorc SeniSna, aka morCilaZis proza `literaturul-mxatvrul-kinematografiuli `Saradebis~ amocnobis moyvarulTaTvis, _ pirdapir sulze miswrebaa~ (avaliani, 2005: 139). lali avalianis msgavsad, sxva literatorebic Tavs ikavebdenen Tanamedrove mwerlis Semoqmedebis raime, gansazRvrul CarCoebSi moqcevisagan, konkretuli saxelis darqmevisagan, ufro ki postmodernizmis qarTul literaturaSi Semosvla-damkvidrebis aRiarebisagan. aka morCilaZis `gamonagonebi~, mistifikaciebi, aluziebi, fantasmagoriebi erTi mTliani da `brWyviala~ samyaroa, romlis uSualo Tanamonawilea (SeiZleba iTqvas, Tanaavtoric) mkiTxvelic. `asjer dawyevlili qalaqis gaugebrobaTa mokle istoria~ (gamocemulia 1999wels) aka morCilaZis 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi daweril novelaTa krebulia, romelSic Sesulia cxra patara ambavi. novelebs rac aerTianebT, is aris, rom ambebi, ZiriTadad, erT qalaqSi avtoris mier gamogonil (an `moparul~) veliscixeSi _ viTardeba da swored es veliscixea dawyevlili qalaqi. wigns Sesavlis magier avtoris mierve wamZRvarebuli `sagangebo ganmarteba~ daerTvis (am `xerxs~ dRemde warmatebiT iyenebs, anu sakuTar teqstebs `ganmartebebsac~ urTavs xolme), sadac aka morCilaZe 90-iani wlebis socialuri viTarebis JamTaaRmwreladac gvevlineba da axali (uaxlesi, Tanamedrove) literaturis dasawyisis mauwyebladac anu, imas gvTavazobs, rasac qarTul kulturul sivrceSi jer kidev ar erqva saxeli _ postmodernizmi (Tundac, postliteratura). sxvisi siuJetebisa da personaJebis, mTlianad teqstis `gamoyenebas~, gadakeTebas, amieridan aRar erqva plagiatoba; es iyo citacia, rimeiki, remiqsi, reminiscencia, `gadawe-

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ra~, aranJireba, gadaTamaSeba, interteqstualoba anu yvelaferi is, rac literaturis axalma versiam moitana. `iyo omi, sibnele, kvla, Wama-sma da Sindisferi droSebi da Sindisferi pijakebi. mogexsenebaT, ra droc iyo: is unda gagxareboda, Seni damnaxavi kaci haerSi rom isroda da ara Sens jigarSi. kargi araferi iyo im droSi da me ratom unda damewera kargi raRaceebi? an saidan unda mometana sikeTe, duqnidan? usaxelo da saxelian moRalateTa dro iyo. magram maSin xom samoqalaqo omi iyo? mTavari is gaxlavT, rom uRirsi yofiliyavi~ (morCilaZe, 1999: 7). `sagangebo ganmarteba~ `avtoris niRbis~ saukeTeso magaliTia: Tavad avtori gviyveba novelebis daweris istorias da mkiTxvels imas atyobinebs, Tu ram gadaawyvetina im droSi ambebis SeTxzva. es aris avtoris refleqsia teqstsa da misi Seqmnis procesze. mTavari am `sagangebo ganmartebaSi~ swored avtoris gulwrfelobis niRabia, gulaxdili aRiareba didi da gamoCenili mwerlebisagan siuJetebis `moparva-sesxebaze~. `mosawoni ar unda iyos, kaci rom sayovelTaod cnobil siuJetebs isesxebs da Seecdeba imaTgan gamoadnos raRac damcinavi da arcTu keTilSobiluri fiqrebi. [...] ostatobas me imaT (did da gamoCenil mwerlebs, a.i.) ver movparavdi da siuJetebi mainc momepara. [...] simarTle vTqva, ufro ganwyobilebebs, intonaciebs, nacnob, gacveTil Tu gaucveTav frazebs [viparavdi] da xelaxla vwerdi. raRac parodiuli qurdobac ki gamodioda, radgan me Tu mkiTxavT, dRevandel viTarebaSi siuJetis moparva saeriozul saqmed ver CaiTvleba, radgan karga xania yvelaferi moparulia. moparva rom gadavwyvite, ase pirwminda Zarcva sircxviliameTqi. amitom gadavwyvite, yvelaferi momepara paTosis da ganwyobis garda (mgoni, eseni erTidaigivea). mokled, ase gamovida, rom rac ki ram cudi gavifiqre, yvelaferi im Zvel, didebul siuJetebSi Sevitane da rac mTavaria, ese yoveli dacinviT movimoqmede. saerTod, sicili, gamorCeviT ki mware, didad uwyobs xels adamianis gadarCenas (xandaxan daRupvasac a. i.). ai, ase gamaxsenda grigol robaqiZis `engadi~ da moTxrobas davarqvi `mingadi~. gamaxsenda arCibald mekeSi da movigone arbentrod maktaviSi. gamaxsenda borxesis `mkvdrebis dialogi~ da raRac amas mimsgavsebuli gamoviyvane. gamaxsenda g. rCeuliSvilis `usaxelo ufliscixeli~ da `usasrulo veliscixeli~ davwere, sadac usaxelo moRalates davaRupine alyaSi moqceulni. [...] yovelive amaT Rirseba gamovacale da xsenebuli uRirsi ambebic gamovamzeure...~ (morCilaZe, 1999: 6-7). ratom uRirsi ambebi? uRirsoba epoqis cvalebadobam moitana, faseulobebisa da Rirsebis daknineba-daSliT aRtkinebulma suliskveTebam, saidanac iSva dacinvisa da ironiis esTetika postmodernistuli parodireba, rac, Tavis mxriv, aris klasikuri mwerlobis, stereotipebis, miTologiuri saxeebis xelaxali wakiTxva-interpre-

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tacia maTi parodiuli gaTamaSebis, maTi daSlis, morRvevis meSveobiT. postmodernistuli TviTironia da parodia SeimCneva romanSi `gadafrena madaTovze da ukan~ (1998w.). `asjer dawyevlili qalaqis gaugebrobaTa mokle istoriis~ msgavsad, am romansac aqvs avtoriseuli TandarTuli komentarebi (danarTi), rac avtoris niRbis parodias warmoadgens. aka morCilaZis pirveli postmodernistuli romani metateqstia, romelic Zvels imeorebs, nacnobi Temebis aranJirebasa da parodirebas axdens, montaJis teqnikis gamoyenebiT qmnis kolaJebs, aplikaciebs, agrovebs da Tavs uyris codnas, TamaSiT arTobs da axalisebs mkiTxvels. romani Tavisi formiTac da SinaarsiTac dualizms avlens, igi erTdroulad aris: novatorulic da tradiciulic, komikuric da tragikulic, Zvelic da axalic, Rrmac da zedapirulic mokled, metyvelebs ormag kodirebaze. ai, am Tvisebebis gamo CaiTvala XX saukunis miwuruls `gadafrena madaTovze da ukan~ bolo drois yvelaze ucnaur qarTul mxatvrul nawarmoebad, da swored `madaTovis~ (araoficialurad, am romans `pirvel madaTovsac~ uwodeben) Semdeg gaZlierda gansakuTrebulad aka morCilaZis prozisadmi interesi. manamde ki, qarTuli literaturuli kritika jiutad dumda da am dumilis mizezi, SesaZloa, siaxlisadmi tradiciuli frTxili damokidebulebac iyo. lali avaliani Tvlis, rom `madaTovis~ popularoba misma skabrezulobam ganapiroba. skabrezad anu Txzulebis uxamsobad romanis erT-erTi mTavari personaJi xafo-mxatvari unda miviCnioT; ufro sworad, qarTuli literaturisTvis aqamde ucnaur, ucnob da miuRebel Temebze yuradRebis gamaxvileba, rac mRebavi xafos cxovrebis wesze, mis aratradiciul orientaciaze _ saerTod, mamaTmavlobaze _ saubarSi gamoixata. sodom-gomoris codvis Camden adamianTa seqsualuri ritualebisa da Tbilisis abanoebis orgiebis amsaxveli calkeuli suraTebi marTlac rom Sokis momgvreli iqneboda `tradiciuli~ qarTuli sazogadoebisTvis. magram es siTamame da uxamsoba, im siaxleebTan erTad, rac `madaTovs~ axasiaTebs, Zalze saintereso da misaRebi aRmoCnda tradiciuli cnobierebisaTvis. vfiqrobT, aq ukanaskneli roli arc kargi literaturis qarTul tradicias uTamaSia, miT ufro, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom qarTuli modernizmis periodisTvisac ar yofila ucxo `miuRebeli~ da aratradiciuli Temebi Tu aRwerebi (mag: `elene darianis dRiurebi~, k. gamsaxurdias, gr. robaqiZis da m. javaxiSvilis erotikuli pasaJebi da a.S.). XIX saukunis miwurulisa da XX saukunis dasawyisis mxatvruli prozis stilisa da publicistika-eseistikis TaviseburebaTa nazavia `gadafrena madaTovze da ukan~, imave periodSi sakmaod gav-

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rcelebuli socioleqtiT _ JargoniT dawerili, romelsac saukeTesod flobs avtori. gasuli saukuneebis stilTa, maneraTa da salaparako enis garda, romanSi personaJebis prototipebic nacnobia. baiardi da yorRanovi erTdroulad artur konan doilis personaJebsac mogvagoneben da saqarTvelos istoriul pirebsac. msgavsi reminscencia-gamocanebiT savsea romani, riTac avtori mkiTxvels TamaSSi iTrevs. aka morCilaZe Tavis romanebSi _ ara mxolod, `madaTovSi~, aramed `mogzauroba yarabaRSi~ da `faliaSvilis quCis ZaRlebis~ SemTxvevaSic _ ormag finals gvTavazobs, TiTqos Cveni (mkiTxvelis) gemovneba-fantaziis amara tovebs wignis dasasruls. amiT kidev erTxel dasturdeba aka morCilaZis damokidebuleba mkiTxvelisadmi igi mas Tanaavtorobas Tavazobs. aka morCilaZe Tavisi teqstebiT kritikossac mravalferovani interpretaciis saSualebas aZlevs. Tavisi ironiiT avtori warsuls ki ar dascinis, aramed mas kidev erTxel igonebs da sakuTar interpretaciebs aZlevs, rac xSirad mkiTxvelis Tviseba ufroa, vidre mwerlisa. amiT Tavad avtoric Zveli teqstebis gemovnebian da guliTad mkiTxvelad mosCans. mkiTxvelis interpretacias `baZavs~ aka morCilaZis calkeuli moTxrobebi: `fridoniani~ `wigni~ da `ambavi vefxvisa da moymisa~; `kapula orSauraSvilis memuarebi~; `apokrifebi~ `holmsis saSaqre~ da `mogzauroba kaxeTSi 1855w.~. es moTxrobebi mTeli qarTuli literaturis Zveli (XII-XVIII saukuneebis) da axali (XIX saukunis) periodebis _ remiqsuli variantia. aka morCilaZes uZiro jadosnuri zardaxSasaviT udevs saqarTvelos istoria da literatura da iqidan irCevs sakuTari SemoqmedebisaTvis fragmentebs, siuJetebs, personaJebs, xasiaTis niuansebs. zemoT CamoTvlil moTxrobebSi vis da ras aRar amoicnobs mkiTxveli. `fridoniani~ `vefxistyaosnis~ _ fragmentaciiT _ postmodernistuli mxatvruli xerxiT Sesrulebuli teqstia; `kapula orSauraSvilis memuarebi~ varsqen pitiaxSidan moyolebuli, uamravi cnobili pirovnebis Tu personaJis parodiiTaa daxunZluli. `holmsis saSaqre~ da `mogzauroba kaxeTSi 1855w.~ dRevandelobasac exmianeba, kerZod: ilikos (ilia WavWavaZes) da poliglot mwyemss (aleqsandre yazbegs) evropuli orientacia aerTianebT, xolo maTTan dapirispirebuli ruseTume mamebi saqarTveloSi myof Serlok holmss tyved aiyvanen (`holmsis saSaqre~). moTxrobaSi `mogzauroba kaxeTSi 1855w.~ Tanamedrove qarTvelebis gamofxizleba luarsab TaTqariZis meSveobiT xdeba, romelic Svilisa da sayvareli colis tragikulad daRupvis Semdeg omSi wasasvlelad emzadeba. aq warmodgenili moTxrobebisaTvis niSandoblivia erTi saerTo Tviseba. rogorc gaga lomiZe SeniSnavs Tavis recenziaSi, esaa `e.w. `brikolaJis~ teqnika,

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anu winamorbedi kulturis artefaqtebis namsxvrevTa xelaxali organizeba sruliad axali formis farglebSi. mag., `kapula orSauraSvilis memuarebSi~ erTmaneTis gverdiT, erTsa da imave drosa da sivrceSi vxvdebiT stalinsa da dozia mewisqviles (`oTaraanT qvrivis~ sosia mewisqviles) Tu varsqens da Tamar mefes... `Zveli ambebis~ xelaxla gadmocemas Tu `kvlavwarmoebas~, albaT, garkveuli saerTo aqvs im movlenis SedegTan, rasac `frankfurtis skolis~ warmomadgenlebi xelovnebis masobrivi tiraJirebis xanas uwodebdnen~ (lomiZe, 2004: 10). swored rom Zveli ambebis `kvlavwarmoebaa~ `gadafrena madaTovze da ukan~. aka morCilaZem amgvari `kvlavwarmoebiTa~ da `gaxsenebebiT~, kerZod ki, madaTovis kunZuliT, miTi ki ar gaacocxla, aramed axali realoba, axali miTi Seqmna. radganac postmodernizmisTvis literatura, upirveles yovlisa, TamaSia, Tavis mxriv, TamaSi ki, samyaros Semecnebis, ganmartebisa da Targmanebis saSualebaa, swored am meTodiT moaxdina aka morCilaZem Zveli Tbilisis parodiuli `wakiTxva~. aRsaniSnavia, aka morCilaZis kidev erTi moTxroba, `cecxlismfrqveveli~ (1998w.), romliTac avtorma `Tofian kacebze~ - firalebze miTis gacocxleba SesZlo. `cecxlismfrqveveli, anu monaTxrobi 1923 wlis Sesaxeb. pirSavi komisris saSa obolaZisa da Cauqi gogia Rlontis Widilis gaxseneba daviwyebuli, an SeumCneveli wignebidan, Zveli drois gazeTebidan da qaRaldebidan amokrefili, dalagebuli da erT dauviwyar ambad moTxrobili aka morCilaZis mier~ es aris moTxrobis sruli saTauri, romelic mokle istoriacaa teqstis Sinaarssa da warmoSobaze. aseve, saTaurSivea gamJRavnebuli istoriuli teqstis arsi da mniSvneloba. gurul firalTa legendad qceuli ambebi, miTi da realoba erTmaneTTan profesiuli gemovnebiTa da zomierebiTaa Sexamebuli. mokled, aka morCilaZem `Zveli ambebis~ axleburad `wakiTxviT~ da `kvlavwarmoebiT~ Seqmna axali literaturuli miTebi, uaxlesi qarTuli literaturis `moTamaSe~ saxe. Cveni tradiciuli mwerlobisTvis TamaSi ucxo xili iyo, magram aka morCilaZem `am xilis friad momgebiani importi SemogvTavza~. `kvlavwarmoebisa~ da `axleburad wakiTxvisTvis~ laSa buRaZe bibliur Temebs iyenebs, magram misi pirvandeli moTxrobebi, romlebic Sesulia krebulSi `yuTi~, damwyebi mwerlis eqsperimentebs waagavs da asec aris. laSa buRaZis debiuti, vfiqrobT, warumatebeli eqsperimenti iyo, Tavisi zedmetad xelovnuri enobrivi Tu azrobrivi struqturis gamo. amasve ver vityviT, avtoris 1999 welSi Seqmnil moTxrobebze, kerZod, `qarTul zRaparze~, romelic ara marto erTi kacis, aramed yvela WeSmariti qarTvelis survili da ocnebaa. am moTxrobis mixedviT, ilia WavWavaZes ar moklaven. es

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moTxroba (zogadad, laSa buRaZis sxva teqstebic) `Zveli ambebis~, warsulis Tavidan da `axleburad wakiTxvaa~. laSa buRaZem qarTul literaturul sivrceSi Seqmna istoriografiuli metaproza. es Janri dasavlur postmodernistul literaturaSi Camoyalibda da am terminis avtori kanadeli kritikosi Linda hatCeli gaxlavT `mwerlebi axdenen bundovani Tu sadavo istoriuli epizodebis, `istoriis TeTri laqebis~ Tavisebur rekonstruqcias, Sesabamisi istoriuli personaJebis da konteqstis parodirebiTa da karnavalizaciiT~ (qarumiZe, 2009: 9). laSa buRaZis `qarTuli zRapari~, romelic ilia WavWavaZis arSemdgar mkvlelobazea da `saukunis mkvleloba~ (da Semdgomdroindeli sxva teqstebic _ `pirveli rusi~ da a.S.), romelic akaki wereTlis sasamarTlo proceszea ivane maCablis saeWvo gauCinarebis gamo, qarTuli istoriografiuli metaprozis nimuSebia. aluziuroba laSa buRaZis prozasac axasiaTebs, magram misi erTxelve Camoyalibebuli stili, romlis zegavlenasac qveSac dRemde ganicdis, parodiaa. samwuxarod, rogorc daviT zurabiSvili ambobs, `CvenSi parodiis cneba, rogorc wesi, dacinvis, masxrad agdebis, anu `gaRadavebis~ mniSvnelobiT aRiqmeba~ (zurabiSvili, 1994: 4). postmodernistuli parodia da ironia aravis dacinvas ar isaxavs miznad; es gaxlavT, `makoreqtirebeli ironia~ cxovrebis yovelgvari gamovlinebis mimarT. postmodernistul parodiasTan dakavSirebiT maxsendeba Tomas manis naTqvami _ `Sinaarsisagan gamoTavisuflebuli formebiT TamaSi~. TumcaRa, postmoderniztuli parodiis namdvili arsi, rogorc ukve aRiniSna, klasikis wakiTxva-interpretaciaa. mTlad parodias ver davarqmevT beso xvedeliZis prozas. mas ufro gaSarJebaSi aqvs xeli gawafuli `erTi dakonkili ambavi~ cnobili zRapris `konkias~ SarJia; xolo `CURRICULUM VITAE~ (1999w.) qarTveli Zalovanebisa Tu xelisuflebis gaSarJebaa, oRond amas mwerali aRwevs qristes ierusalimSi Semosvlis epizodis parodirebiT. qristesTan am tipis aluziebi mkrexelobad unda CaiTvalos _ `Tbili wylebis qalaqSi gela TeTr virze ukuRma amxedrebuli Semovida. marjvena xelSi fesvebianad moTxrili kanafis mwvane rto eWira da erTgul cxovels drogamoSvebiT gavaze utylaSunebda. qalaqis SemosasvlelSi gela SavniRbosnebs ar SeuCerebiaT virs Sublze PRESS hqonda amoxotrili~ (xvedeliZe, 2000: 51). moTxroba `wminda qarTuli virusi~ musikismcodneobis terminologiiT unda daxasiaTdes; teqsti Zveli aRTqmis remiqsia, xolo misi ritmi reivis ritms mogagonebT anu Seusveneblad, erTi amosunTqviT ikiTxeba. aluziebiTa da fantasmagoriebiTaa savse `misisipi misuriT~. am teqstis Janri Znelad gasarkvevia; prozis struqturisTvis metad poeturia (arc lirikuli prozaa) da piriqiT,

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leqsis tradiciuli struqturisTvis (Tundac verlibrisTvis) zedmetad prozaulia. beso xvedeliZis es moTxroba mwerluri eqsperimentia, SeiZleba iTqvas, naiuvuri prozis nimuSia, rac niSnavs araprofesionali avtoris Txzulebas, romelSic gulwrfelad, Seulamazeblad da stilisturad dauxvewavi formiT gadmocemulia mkiTxvelTa farTo wrisaTvis saintereso faqtebi da Sexedulebani samyarosa Tu cxovrebaze. aseve eqsperimentulia poeturi da poeziis tkbil safarSi gaxveuli moTxroba `mindvris yvavilebi~. aq avtorma scada, kinematografisTvis damaxasiaTebeli maneriT gaemarTa prozauli teqsti. dialogebsa da Txrobas Soris `CamontaJebuli~ epizodebi (suraTebi) mxatvruli filmisa da klipisaTvis damaxasiaTebel da mxatvrul-gamomsaxvelobiT xerxebs da figurebs mogvagoneben, es am `figuraTa~ `Targmanebaa~ Txrobis enaze: `mis TvalebSi zangi moTxilamure aceminebs~, `gogos TvalebSi orsuli qalebi Sokolads Wamen~... demoralizebuli samyaros fragmentulad asaxva beso xvedeliZis prozis Zireuli ZarRvia, rasac iumoris safarvelqveS axerxebs, magram es iumoric xandaxan naRvliani da, Tqven warmoidgineT, RvarZlianic kia, isev da isev demoralizebuli epoqidan gamomdinare. postmodernistuli prozis xerxebiTaa gamarTuli SoTa iaTaSvilis moTxrobebic. aqac vxvdebiT eqsperimentebs. magaliTad, 1991 wels dawerili `metamorfoza~ (iaTaSvili, 2005: 54), erTi SexedviT, egzistencialuri xasiaTis moTxrobaa, franc kafkas `metamorfozas~ uSualo gavleniT Seqmnili, magram realurad, sityvaTa TamaSze agebuli carieli teqstia sityvebis da mniSvnelobebis evfoniuri gadaTamaSebis eqsperimenti. `guldasmiTwamkiTxvelni teqstis~ (1995w.) damaintrigebeli xasiaTis teqstia. ramdenimefurcliani, sakmaod mozrdili teqsti punqtuaciis gareSea dawerili, rac futurizmTan (Post) daaxloebad SeiZleba migveCnia, rom ara teqstis amokiTxvis ucnauri procedura, romelic diferencialuri gantolebis amoxsnas gvagonebs da avtorisgan aSkara (da arc Tu originalur!) gamowvevad aRiqmeba. moTxrobis gaanalizebisas TvalSisacemia teqstis azrobriv Sinaarssa da formalur gadawyvetas Soris arsebuli Seusabamoba da amasTanave, avtoris eSmakuri mcdeloba formis uCveulobiT daintrigebul mkiTxvels nawarmoebSi eZia da epovna is siRrme, romelic realurad ar arsebobs. moTxrobebi `gedi da simRera~ (1998w.) da `yvavilTa yvavili da inJineri~ (1998w.) adamsa da evaze odesRac moyolili ambebis gagrZelebas hgavs. ufro sworad, yvelafer amas modernizebul-parodirebuli saxe aqvs, dRevandelobisTvis damaxasiaTebeli agresiulobiT gadmocemuli. am moTxrobaTa mixedviT, qalsa da mamakacs

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Soris agresiuloba gamowveulia samoTxis dakargvisa da codvian dedamiwaze dasaxlebis gamo. `yvavilTa yvavili da inJineri~ sxvdasxvanairi da saintereso niSnebiT, kvazi-simboloebiT aris datvirTuli: yvavilTa yvavili anu vardi qalia. (silamazis garda, simbolos logikurobas gansazRvravs is faqtic, rom vardis mravalnairi simboluri gageba swored qalsa da qalurobas ukavSirdeba), xolo inJineri kacia (aq ukve martiv logikas unda vendoT). Senebis, qmedebis, Seqmnis niWiT dajildoebuli inJineri rezo kacis upiratesobaze msjelobs: ~tyuilad ggoniaT, rom Tqveni aTasi furceli Cems aTas bloks sjobia. Tqven mxolod da mxolod matlis saxli brZandebiT, me ki adamianebis saxls vageb~ (iaTaSvili 2005: 42). flos florumi anu yvavilTa yvavili ramdenjerme Seecada inJinris cdunebas. vardi-nanam inJiner rezos vaSli SesTavaza, am ukanasknelma ki uari Tqva. `vaSli ar miyvars~, ganacxada rezom, vaSli ukve (XXI saukuneSi) cnobadi da cnobili nayofia da amitomac, ar uyvars vaSli (codva) rezos (adam-ians). magram meTerTmete sarTulze SeTavazebulma vaSlma merve sarTulze gamoiRo nayofi. marTalia, is mxolod nanam igema, magram kocnaze rezomac kocniT upasuxa. miuxedavad imisa, rom xorcielma vnebam gaimarjva, moTxrobis finalis mixedviT, nana fizikurad uswordeba rezos klavs. es imaze metyvelebs, rom qalma ver SesZlo kacis sulierad cduneba. es moTxrobebi Taviseburi interpretaciaa bibliuri siuJetebisa miuxedavad imisa, rom SoTa iaTaSvilis 90-iani wlebis prozauli teqstebi qarTuli postmodernizmis nimuSebia. zaza TvaraZis aluziebsac da asociaciur stils mkiTxveli SecdomaSi Sehyavs. misi Semoqmedeba egzistencializmisTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSan-TvisebebiTaa aRWurvili (rusi filosofosi valeri savCuki ambobda, egzistenciuri problematikis siuJetebi da motivebi raRaciT axlos arian postmodernizmTan. saerTod, egzistencializmSi ikveTeboda xolme `dacemis~ niSnebi. (savCuki, 2006). amas gafiqrebinebs `minis ukan~ (1990w.[TvaraZe, 1999: 26]) da `buzi fanjris minaze~ (1993w.), sadac, franc kafkas gavlenis garda, alegoriulobac sagrZnobia; `minis ukan~ momwyvdeul mwerTan avtorma gaaigiva Cveni sazogadoebis yofa da umweoba, romelSic aRmovCndiT XX saukunis bolos. xolo fsevdo-qalaqis `licezonenburgis~ (1997w.) warmosaxviTi situaciebi 90-iani wlebis mdgomareobis pirdapiri asaxvaa. zaza TvaraZis prozisTvis damaxasiaTebeli kvazi-simbolizmi egzistencializmis niSnebsac atarebs da modernizmisac, yvelaferi es ki sabolood, sxvadasxva mimarTulebaTa miqsad, anu `postmodernizmis~ CarCoebSi unda ganvixiloT. Zalze sayuradReboa zaza TvaraZis romani `sityevbi~, romelic 1994 wels Jurnal `ciskarSi~ daibeWda da calke wignad ki,

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gvian, 2008 wels gamoica, avtoris gardacvalebamde cota xniT adre. romani `sityvebi~ Tamamad SeiZleba CaiTvalos pirvel mercxlad qarTul postmodernistul mxatvrul literaturaSi, Tu manamde zurab qarumiZis teqstebSi amovikiTxeT am mimdinareobis Teoriul-praqtikuli gaazreba, zaza TvaraZem aka morCilaZeze adre gvaziara iseT saTamaSo moedans, sadac sityvebis zusti lavirebiT SegiZlia `mTeli qarTuli (da araqarTulic) literaturis cocxlad warmosaxva~ (TvaraZe, 2007: 74) _ interteqstualizacias. is sivrce, sadac avtori sityvebiT TamaSobs, SeiZleba `citirebul literaturad~ iqnas miCneuli, ramdenime gverdze sxvaTa citatebis uxvad gaxsenebisa Tu moyvanis gamo. romanSi aris teqstSive axali teqstis Seqmnis procesi, rac aseve sityvaTa TamaSiT xdeba. romaniseuli sityvebis zardaxSa qarTuli enisa (ioane zosimes `damarxul ars enai qarTuli~-s) da aforizmis _ `gvelsa xvreliT amoiyvans, ena tkbilad moubari~ Taviseburi interpretaciacaa. postmodernizmi komunikaciis sivrcea da aq TamaSoben niSnebi, romlebic sanam simulakris iers SeiZenen, informaciiT itvirTebian. zaza TvaraZis romanic komunikatoruli niSnebis sivrce-velia, sadac sityvebi (komunikatorebi) aramxolod verbaluri mniSvnelobisani arian, aramed vizualur mxaresac iZenen da xandaxan damoukidebel personaJebadac gardaiqmnebian xolme. Tanamedrove qarTul mwerlobaSi fsevdonimiT kidev erTi avtori gamoCnda 90-ian wlebSi gregor zamza zaza burWulaZis yvelaze cnobili fsevdonimia. man 1999 wels zaza sumoZis fsevdonimiT gamosca moTxrobebis krebuli. (Cvenc SegviZlia parodirebas mivmarToT da vTqvaT, rom es avtori sammagi kodirebis nimuSad mogvevlina qarTul mwerlobaSi). qarTuli postmodernistuli mwerloba arc roman-metateqstis gareSe darCenila zaza burWulaZis `ori kanfeti anu zviadim gascaxurda~-s wyalobiT. ambis Txrobas xandaxan enacvleba Txroba ambis Txrobis Sesaxeb. eseisturi nakadi mTliani abzacebiTa Tu TiTo-orola winadadebiT Semodis teqstSi: `TviTonve wunobda sakuTar Semoqmedebas. Tumca es sulac ar niSnavda imas, sxvasac daewunebina igi...~ (zamza, 1998: 11) da a.S. romanis pirvelive gverdidan TvalSisacemia maqsimaluri detalizacia. yvelaferi aRiwereba: nivTebi, personaJebi, moqmedebebi, moqmedebis adgilebi, rac, Tavis mxriv, saintereso mxatvrul saxeebs qmnis. peizaJebis da portretebis xatviT gataceba postmodernizmisTvis axlobeli xerxi ar aris, Tumca arc ucxoa. zaza burWulaZe mxatvruli mxareebis xatviT erToba kidec, da am detalizaciiT cdilobs mkiTxveli Tavis samyaros `daaxloos~. zaza burWulaZis moTxrobaSi `mesame kanfeti~ (1999w.) fsevdo-sofelia aRwerili, rac saqarTvelos uaxlesi Tu warsuli is-

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toriis fragmentebiTaa gajerebuli. moTxrobis epigrafia v.i. leninis citata `forma arsebiTia, arsi formirebiTia~, rac avtoris TviTironiasTan erTad, postmodernizmis mimarT ironiul damokidebulebas avlens. Semdegi teqsti `ukanfeto~ `fifqia da Svidi jujas~ kitCia, xolo moTxrobaSi ganviTarebuli moqmedebebiT teqsti emsgavseba luis kerolis siuJetebs. momdevno moTxroba `konfeti~ ukve molodinis horizontis gafarToebas iwvevs. mesamejer Tu meoTxejer saTaurSive naxsenebi kanfeti mkiTxvelSi aRadgens adre aRqmuli avtorisave teqstebis safuZvelze Camoyalibebuli molodinis da TamaSis wesTa horizonts. `dekoratiuli mwerlobis moWarbeba TvalSisacemia~ (sumoZe, 1999: 87) _ es fraza avtoris prototips ekuTvnis moTxrobaSi `konfeti~. am SemTxvevaSic TviTironiasTan gvaqvs saqme. Tanamedrove esTetikisTvis damaxasiaTebeli TvisebebiT: kitCiT, aluziebiT, reminiscencia-interpretaciebiT, skabrezis aqcentirebiT, mokled, xelovnuri dekoraciebiT, postmodernistuli aqsesuarebiT, zaza burWulaZe axali tipis narativebs qmnis. zurab qarumiZe samarTlianad SeniSnavs, roca zaza burWulaZis adreul Semoqmedebas modernistul `anti-prozas~ amsgavsebs, xolo sakuTriv postmodernistul yaidaze mwerali mogvianebiT gadavida ukve namdvili saxeliT da gvariT, fsevdonimebis gareSe. mwerlis epataJuri buneba (riTac cnobilia zaza burWulaZe) SemoqmedebiTi gzis gviandel etapze gamoikveTa. mogvianebiT SemogvTavaza man `SemoqmedebiTi klimaqsis nayofi, mkiTxvelis Tavsatexad, mkiTxvelisaTvis safiqrelad, mkiTxvelTan erTad samoqmedod, mkiTxvelisken mimarTuli didi kiTxvis niSnis amosacnobad Seqmnili wignebi~ (paiWaZe, 2006: 125). Tumca, es ukve aq gansjis sakiTxi araa, radganc Cven mimovixilavT mxolod erTi aTwleulis SemoqmedebiT palitras. XX saukunis 90-ian wlebSi skabrezisa da epataJis gaugonar magaliTad iqca daTo barbaqaZis `trfoba wamebulTa~ (1993w.), rac bolomde miuRebeli darCa qarTveli mwerlobisTvisac da mkiTxvelisTvisac. lev tolstoi ambobda, adamianma is ki ar unda icodes, ra daweros, aramed, ra ar unda daweroso. lali avaliani tolstois am naTqvams imeorebs da ambobs: `es brZnuli Segoneba rom gaeTvaliswinebina erT niWier da ganaTlebul avtors, saerTod ar unda daewera `trfoba wamebulTa~. es ukanaskneli Txzuleba zedmiwevniT zustad gadmoscems yvelaze bnel mxares nihilizms, cinizmsa da mkrexelobas qarTvelTaTvis sakraluri religiuri da hagiografiuli teqstebis, vTqvaT pirdapir, amazrzeni parodirebiT~ (l. avaliani, 2007, gv.80). es teqsti Tavis droze didi polemikis sagnad iqca, romelSic CarTuli iyo mweralTa kavSiris da gazeT `literaturuli saqarTvelos~ saxeliT Tamaz wivwivaZe,

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`kavkasiuri saxli~ (naira gelaSvili, SoTa iaTaSvili) da Tavad avtori gazeT `axali 7 dRis~ furclebidan. Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis amgvarad parodireba da `gadawera~-decitacia verc siaxlis aucileblobaSi gvarwmunebs da verc teqstis mxatvrul RirsebebSi. `trfoba wamebulTa~ qarTuli hagiografiuli stilistikis skabrezul-parodiuli destruqcia iyo, ramac mxolod gaRizianeba da aRSfoTeba gamoiwvia. `trfoba wamebulTa~ pirvelad prezentirda `daTo barbaqaZis Jurnalis~ (zepiri videoJurnalis) me-6 nomerSi (1993 wlis 27 noembers, Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sxdomaTa darbazSi). Tavad avtori teqsts essed moixseniebs, amavdroulad _ warmatebul eqsperimentadac da Tan urTavs gamoyenebuli literaturis vrcel sias, rac parodirebul TamaSs mogvagonebs. TamaSis wesi aseTia, avtoris mier miTiTebul literaturas Tu gaecnoba mkiTxveli, maSin `trfoba wamebulTas~ xelovnebis esTetikur aRqmasac moaxerxebs. Tumca, Tavad avtori sakuTar teqstsa da gamoyenebuli literaturis CamonaTvalze ambobs: `plagiatori ar gaxlavarT da patiosnad mivuTiTe Cems mier teqstze muSaobisas gamoyenebuli enobrivi masala. nawarmoebSi mivmarTav qarTuli samwerlo metyvelebis sxvadasxva istoriul monakveTs, aq adgili aqvs sxvadasxva kulturuli epoqisa da sametyvelo paradigmis zomier eklektikas; gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba gamoyenebuli teqstebis SinaarsTa kombinirebiT `trfoba wamebulTas~ siuJetur `gamarTvas~ da sakonteqsto mravalmniSvnelovnebis mxatvrul motivirebas. aseve, vsargeblobdi esTetikuri aRqmis im TeoriebiT, romlebic germanel mecniers maqs benzes da frang mecniers abraam mols ekuTvniT. es literaturac mivuTiTe. mivuTiTe zurab WumburiZis wignic `ra gqvia Sen?~, saidanac amovkribe saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli saxelebi...~ (barbaqaZe, 2000: 90). sxvaTa xeliT sakuTari cnobierebisa da tradiciebis daSla-ngrevas gvagonebs avtoris mier frangi da germaneli mecnierebis gvar-saxelebiT Tavmowoneba, romelTa meSveobiTac `mouxerxebia~ avtors qarTuli hagiografiis, mTeli qarTuli sulierebis deda-boZis moryeva _ `Tavidan wakiTxva~ Tu `esTetikuri mxaris aRqma~. daviT barbaqaZis romani `aqilevsis meore qusli~ TerTmeti novelisgan Sedgeba: `wasakiTxi Sinaarsi~, `iribi Targi~, `wasvla~, `mosaniSni samuSaoebi~, `ganazrebani ionasi: sami dRe da sami Rame Tevzis stomaqSi rom imyofeboda~, `sul sxva SemTxvevis istoria~, `mosacdeli~, `mocemuli romanis Sesaxeb~, `sadalaqoSi~, `cudi reportaJi~, `mocekvave~. Tavad romanSi vxvdebiT teqstSive teqstis Seqmnis refleqsias, mTeli VIII Tavi mocemuli romanis Sesaxeb zogierTi araarsebiTi aspeqtis xazgasma avtoris ganmartebaa. roca avtori aRniSnul novelebs werda, sulac ar fiqrobda, rom

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weris procesi romanis Seqmnis surviliT gagrZeldeboda, anu Zlier survils SeuZlia formis bedis gadawyveta. xolo romanis mTavar personaJebad is ganwyobilebebi gvevlineba, romlebic erTmaneTs sityvebis meSveobiT Sexvdnen da Seikribnen winadadebebad, xolo realuri adamianebi meorexarisxovani personaJebi arian. teqstis enas rac Seexeba, es `damoukidebeli enaa~, romlis codnac `konkretuli esTetikuri-ideologiuri gamocdilebiT daxunZlul konkretul~ subieqt-mkiTxvels moeTxoveba: `Cemi romani Cemi is enaa, romelic Tavis enaze metyvelebs. xolo raki am enis Cumi survilia sakuTari mdinareba moiazros mxatvruli enebis amouwuravi tradiciis warsulsa da momavalSi, saxezea miTiTebul tradiciasTan mimarTebis Cemmieri gamocdileba, erTdroulad erT-erTi da erTaderTi, romelic TviTmanifestaciis aqtiT ukve Tanxmobas acxadebs, rom daeqvemdebaros wakiTxvis nebismier SesaZleblobas, kari gauRos nebismier gamocdilebas, nebismier interpretacias~ (barbaqaZe, 2000: 157-158). `aqilevsis meore quslis~ VIII Tavi saTamaSo (magram ara gasarTobi, aramed `tvinWyletvordia~) nawilia, sadac `mTavari saTqmeli-arsi~ mkiTxvelma unda eZebos gverdebisa da abzacebis numeraciis mixedviT (aseTi `saTamaSo~, oRond gasarTobi, aka morCilaZem SemogvTavaza `fridonianis~ saxiT). avtori avantiurasac gvaTavazobs: `Cemi romani Tavadvea personaJi, romlis ganviTareba, Tavidan Tavamde mimdinareobs mkiTxvelis janmrTelobasa Tu avadmyofobaSi, romani ki Tvals adevnebs Tavis am `ganviTarebas~ pirvelidan bolo, Semajamebel Tavamde (romelia pirveli da romelia bolo, Semajamebeli Tavi?)~ (barbaqaZe, 2000: 158). `aqilevsis meore qusli~, avtoris ganmartebebis miuxedavad, ukomunikacio metateqstia, sadac interteqstualobis magaliTebsac SevxvdebiT da SizoanalizisTvis damaxasiaTebel elementebsac. romani ormagi kodirebis nimuSicaa, dawyebuli avtoriseuli miZRvniT (mTliani teqsti SizofreniiT daavadebul adamianebs eZRvnebaT, xolo calkeul novelebs `sakuTari patronebi~ hyavT. ase magaliTad, `iribi Tavi~ Wola lomTaTiZes, `sul sxva SemTxvevis istoria~ badri guguSvils, `cudi reportaJi~ kaxa metrevels da mis megobrebs eZRvneba) da miTo-religiuri Tu realuri (yofiTi) cxovrebiseuli calkeuli suraTebis kolaJiT. aucilebloba moiTxovs, aqilevsis meore qusli ganvmartoT, rac postmodernistuli kvazi-simbolos saxea. aqilevsis meore qusli, istoriuli quslisgan gansxvavebiT, ufro daculi asoa nawrTob sxeulSi da radganac igi daclilia adamianurobisgan, adamianuri gancdebisa da sevdisgan, amitomac gadarCa da daviT barbaqaZem amitomac airCia sakuTari teqstebis simbolod da mTeli nawarmoebis garsis `damcvelad~. Tu im `istoriuli~ qusliT Sedioda aqilevsis tanSi (teqstSi deridas mixedviT, yvelaferi teq-

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stia) istoria, dro, socialobebis Ria enciklopedia, daviT barbaqaZis ganzraxva iyo istoriis, dro-sivrcis, sivrce-enis, Ria enciklopediebis dacva meore qusliT. daviT barbaqaZis `aqilevsis meore qusli~, postmodernizmis `klasikuri gagebiT~, antiromania, xolo avtoris ganmarteba amis Sesaxeb ironiulia da ara mxolod Rimilismomgvreli: `es arc antiromania, arc araromani. esaa romani mxolod imitom, rom avtorma ase gadawyvita. Rimilismomgvreli motivaciaa? mxolod imitom, rom araa sasacilo. me rom uricxvi Tanamedrove romani damerazma Cemi tkbili survilis da mondomebis gasamarTleblad, ai, es ki marTla sasacilo iqneboda, xom meTanxmebiT?~ (barbaqaZe, 2000: 160). Wirs daTanxmeba! Tu maincdamainc, avtors SeiZleba daeTanxmo imaSi, rom `aqilevsis meore qusli~ mxatvruli Canafiqri iyo. wminda postmodernistul nawarmoebTa avtorebs (zurab qarumiZe, zaza burWulaZe, daviT barbaqaZe) aerTianebT `siuJetis sakiTxi~. postmodernizmi siuJetis arsebobas uaryofs. zurab qarumiZe Tavis novelaSi `BLOW-UP~-Si ambobs: `siuJetma Tavisi Tavi karga xania amowura. mas aRarc arqiteqtonikuri funqcia gaaCnia da aRarc sxva ram realistur-mimeturi datvirTva. axlandeli avtorebi siuJets Tu mimarTaven isev da isev siuJeturobis parodirebis mizniT; mxatvrul qsovils ki xelovnebis sxva dargebidan nasesxebi formebis meSveobiT amrTeleben~ (qarumiZe, 1998: 14). ar vTvliT, rom aka morCilaZe siuJeturobas parodirebis mizniT mimarTavdes, magram misi mravalferovani fragmentaciuli ena sasiamovnod sakiTxav siuJetebs qmnis. vfiqrobT, udavod unda aRiniSnos is, rom 1996 wels qarTul sabavSvo literaturaSic gamoCnda postmodernistuli zRapari `qarTul prozaSi erTi karga postmodernistulad gawyobili romani daTo zurabiSvilsac ekuTvnis `mogzauroba sizmareTSi~ jadosnuri zRapris, Tanamedrove dasavleTSi esoden popularuli `fentezisa~ da politikuri satiris interteqstualuri nazavi~ (qarumiZe, 2009: 10). daTo zurabiSvilis `mogzauroba sizmareTSi anu giorgisa da Anastasias araCveulebrivi Tavgadasavali~ 1996 wels dajildovda gamomcemloba D~diogenes~ sabavSvo nawarmoebebis konkursis pirveli premiiT. `mogzauroba sizmareTSi~ sabavSvo literaturas ganekuTvneba, zRapris JanrisTvis damaxasiaTebeli pasaJebiT gawyobili saTavgadasavlo teqstia. Tumca, zurab qarumiZes imaSi namdvilad veTanxmebi, rom postmodernistulad kargad gawyobili da saxaliso sakiTxavi wignia, oRond, didebisTvis _ postmodernistuli parodiebiT, reminiscenciebiT, interteqstebiT _ calkeul personaJTa saxelebiT: grinlandia, drakonieri, alTa balTazari, gabriel garsia vargas xorxe miguel adolfo dasilva nepomuCino galiardi

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de nasimento umcrosi... ucxouri Tu qarTuli miTebis, legendebis, zRaprebis rimeikebiT, `kvlavwarmoebebiT~: `saknis kedelze mklavis simsxo jaWvebiT axovani, qeraTmiani vaJkaci iyo mibmuli. iqve, maxloblad, rkinis muzaradi, uzarmazari far-xmali da grZeltariani Subi uwesrigod mieyaraT kuTxeSi~ (zurabiSvili, 2003: 99)... SegonebebiTa da qveynis gadarCenisaTvis movlenili Wabukis Tavdaxsnis ideiT datvirTuli teqsti, romelic qarTuli Tanamedrove politikuri TamaSebisa da politikuri cxovrebis gaSarJebacaa, mxolod mozardTaTvis da zrdasruli mkiTxvelisTvisaa misaxvedric da rogorc ukve aRiniSna _ saxalisoc. mokled, am mxrivac (postmodernistuli zRapriT) qarTuli literaturuli sinamdvile ar CamorCa Tanamedrove dasavlur procesebs. *** 1990 wlidan qarTul mwerlobaSi axali tipis literatura iqmneboda. am tipis niSnebi adreul wlebSic SeiZleba dafiqsirebuliyo (mag., ironia, groteski, citireba, interteqstualoba, aluziebi, reminiscenciebi da a.S.), magram yvelafer amas mwerlobac da kritikac axali gamomsaxvelobiTi formebis Ziebad aformebda da SemoqmedebiTi individualobis gamovlenis aucilebel da rigiT movlenad aRiqvamda. manamde yvelafer amas saxeli ar erqva, radgan maT arc sistemuri saxe hqondaT da arc _ gansakuTrebuli mxatvrul-azrobrivi funqcia. esec rom ar iyos, `TxuTmetsaukunovan mTlianobaSi~ literaturis masobrivi tiraJirebis xanis dadgoma Zneli gasaTvaliswinebeli iyo. Tanamedrove epoqis gamoZaxilma Cveni uryevi tradiciulobac `daCagra~. Tavis droze daisva kiTxva: CvenSi postmodernizmi damkvidrda Tu, ubralod, qarTvelma mwerlebma vali moixades msoflio kulturuli esTetikis winaSe, werdnen ra am maneriT?! qarTvel mweralTa garkveulma nawilma, SeiZleba, marTla movaleobis moxdis mizniT mimarTa postmodernistul tendenciebs, magram misi xelovnuroba imdenad TvalSisacemia (rac aRvniSneT kidec), rom mkiTxveli aSkarad grZnobs naprals WeSmarit mwerlobasa da yalbs Soris. postmodernizmi arc evropuli gavleniT ganzrax `gadmonergili~ literaturuli mimdinareobaa da arc qarTul niadagze bunebrivad, logikurad aRmocenebuli skola. am esTetikis Semodineba globalizaciam da sazRvrebis moSlam ganapiroba. qarTveli sazogadoebisTvis xelmisawvdomi gaxda yvelanairi tipisa da formis literatura, mravalferovani wasakiTxi masala, ramac TavisTavad zegavlena iqonia Cvens mwerlobaze da Tavad mwerlebzec. postmoder-

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nizmi CvenSi, albaT, mainc calkeuli tendenciebis saxiT gamovlinda, vidre konkretuli literaturuli skolis saxiT. sabednierod, gamoCndnen (damkvidrdnen kidec) is avtorebi, romlebmac qarTuli postmodernistuli literatura SemogvTavazes, yovelgvari `sesxis~ gareSe. kargi ukve gamoCnda (damkvidrda, Seisisxlxorca tradiciulma `TxuTmetsaukunovanma mTlianobam~), ramac Sesaferisi literaturismcodneobac Tan Semoiyola. misi ganCxreka-aTvisebac iwyo qarTulma moazrovne gonma, risi meSveobiTac SesaZlebelia mTlianad gadaviazroT (kvlav wavikiTxoT) Cveni memkvidreoba warsuli, awmyo... Tamamad ganvWvritoT momavalic. literatura avaliani 2005: avaliani lali, `giJi drois qarTuli mwerloba~, Tbilisi, 2005. avaliani 2005: avaliani lali, `Wabua amirejibidan aka morCilaZemde~, Tbilisi, 2005. avaliani 2007: avaliani lali, `interteqstualizaciisaTvis~ (fragmentebi), `kritika~ #2, 2007. axaS veroSi 1999: axaS veroSi, `Jopereta Tu miauzikli? recenzia zurab qarumiZismoTxrobebis krebulze `OPERA~, Tb. 1998w. arSin baqsur sulacSauris ga(moSe)mcemloba~, gazeTi `alternativa~ #4., 1999. barbaqaZe 2000: barbaqaZe daTo, `kiTxvebi da socialuri garemo~, Tbilisi, `merwyuli~, 2000. barbaqaZe 2000: barbaqaZe daTo, `aqilevsis meore qusli~, romani, Tbilisi, `merwyuli~, 2000. zamza 1998: gregor zamza, `ori kanfeti anu zviadim gascaxurda~, romani, Tbilisi, 1998. zedania 1999: zedania giga, `aka morCilaZis fantazmuri proza~, gazeTi `wignebi~ #11, 2004. zurabiSvili 1994: zurabiSvili daviT, `jeimz bondis reabilitacia anu polemikuri SeniSvnebi TviTreklamis elementebiT~, almanaxi `axali droeba~ #1, 1994. zurabiSvili 1994: zurabiSvili daviT, `erTi da igives maradiuli Semobruneba (ramdenime sityva zurab qarumiZis literaturul opusis gamo)~, almanaxi `axali droeba~ #1, 1994. zurabiSvili 2003: zurabiSvili daTo, `mogzauroba sizmareTSi anu giorgisa daAnastasias araCveulebrivi Tavgadasavali~, Tbilisi, `diogene~, 2003. TvaraZe 1999: TvaraZe zaza, `moxetiale~, moTxrobebi, Tbilisi, `merani~, 1999.

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TavraZe 2007: TvaraZe zaza, `sityvebi~, Tbilisi, `bakur sulakauris gamomcemloba~, 2007. iaTaSvili 2005: iaTaSvili SoTa, `fotomamebi~, moTxrobebi, Tbilisi, `bakur sulakauris gamomcemloba~, 2005w. lomiZe 2004: lomiZe gaga, `literaturis apokrifuli ruka~, gazeTi `wignebi~ #6, 2004w. morCilaZe 1998: aka morCilaZe, `gadafrena madaTovze da ukan~, romani, Tbilisi, `bakur sulakauris gamomcemloba~, 1998w. morCilaZe 1999: aka morCilaZe, `asjer dawyevlili qalaqis gaugebrobaTa mokle istoria~, moTxrobebi, Tbilisi, `saari~, 1999w. morCilaZe 2001: imnaiSvili ana, `Sexvedra aka morCilaZesTan~. gaz. `kalmasoba~ #1, 2001w. morCilaZe 2003: aka morCilaZe, `wigni~, moTxrobebi, Tbilisi, `bakur sulakauris gamomcemloba~, 2003w muzaSvili 2001: muzaSvili nugzar, `postmodernistuli biografiebi~, gazeTi `Cveni mwerloba~ #48, 2001w. nemsaZe 2008: nemsaZe ada, `Txa da gigos~ postmodernuli versia~, `kritika~ #3, 2008. paiWaZe 2006: paiWaZe Tamar, `kaleidoskopi aRqma Tu realoba?!~, `literaturuli Ziebani~ XXVII, 2006 savCuki 2006: , , a , www. Betintellectuals. com. 20. 11. 2006. sumoZe 1999: zaza sumoZe, (zaza burWulaZis erT-erTi fsevdonimi), moTxrobebi, Tbilisi, 1999w. qarumiZe 1998: qarumiZe zurab, `OPERA~, moTxrobebi, Tbilisi, `bakur sulakauris gamomcemloba~, 1998w. qarumiZe 1994: qarumiZe zurab, `giJi mequde~, mcire mesa, almanaxi `axali droeba~ #1, 1994w. qarumiZe 2009: z. qarumiZe `postsabWoTa saqarTvelo da postmodernizmi~, `cxeli Sokoladi - literatura~ #25, #26, 2009. xvedeliZe 2000: xvedeliZe beso, `gafrindinela~, moTxrobebi, Tbilisi, `merani~, 2000w. haizinga 2004: haizinga iohan, `HOMO LUDENS~ kaci moTamaSe, (germanulidan Targmna gia nodiam), Tbilisi, 2004w.

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aRmosavlur saeklesio mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis profesori. ZiriTadi Sromebi: Davide IV ,,Cantico Penitenziale. Saggio di Analisi storicoliturgica, Edizioni PIO, Roma 1996. Concetto di santit nella spiritualit georgiana, ,,Biblioteca sanctorum, Citt Nuova, Roma 1997. dante aligieris elitebi. erTi Tvalsazrisi ,,RvTaebrivi komediis Sinagani motivaciis Sesaxeb, ,,ena da kultura # 4, Tbilisi 2005. interesTa sfero: evropuli Sua saukuneebis kultura, XIII-XV saukuneebis italiuri literatura.

dante aligieris daumTavrebel Teoriul traqtatSi `xalxuri mWevrmetyvelebisaTvis~ (De vulgari eloquentia _ VE) aris erTi sagulisxmo adgili, romelic laTinuri da e. w. `xalxuri~ enis urTierTdamokidebulebas Seexeba. traqtatis pirvelive wignSi aligieri ambobs: `am oridan ufro keTilSobili xalxuria: radganac pirveladve gamoyenebul iqna kacTa modgmis mier; radganac mas mTeli qveyana iyenebs, Tumc ki formaTa da sityvaTa simravledaa daqucmacebuli; radganac bunebrivia CvenTvis, maSin roca meore ufro xelovnuria~.1 meore daumTavrebel traqtatSi, romelic `nadimis~ (Convivio) saxelwodebiTaa cnobili, dante imave kiTxvaze sruliad sawinaaRmdego pasuxs iZleva. avtori Tavidanve acxadebs, rom traqtatis mTavari mizani misi poeturi nawarmoebebis, kanconebis komentirebaa, romelic aucilebelia, radganac es kanconebi laTinurad ki ara, xalxur enazea SeTxzuli. laTinurad rom yofiliyo SeTxzuli, maT ganmartebas amdeni Zalisxmeva ar dasWirdeboda, radganac es ena `pirveladve daqvemdebarebuli ki ar yofila, aramed uzenaesi Tavisi keTilSobilebis, Rirsebisa da mSvenierebis mier; keTilSobilebis
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Harum quoque duarum nobilior est vulgaris: tum quia prima fuit humano generi usitata; tum quia totus orbis ipsa perfruitur, licet in diversas prolationes et vocabula sit divisa; tum quia naturalis est nobis, cum illa potius artificialis existat. (DVE, I; 1, 4).

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mier, radganac laTinuri maradiulia da uxrwneli, xalxuri ki cvalebadia da xrwnadi~.1 ra Tqma unda, mravaljer scades am winaaRmdegobis axsna.2 es mcdelobebi SeiZleba or ZiriTad jgufad daiyos: 1) dantes Tvalsazrisebma droTa ganmavlobaSi evolucia ganicada da manac uaryo winandeli `Secdomebi~; 2) dante erTsa da imave kiTxvas sxvadasxva kuTxiT pasuxobs. pirveli gadawyvetis gansaxilvelad droebiT `daviviwyoT~, rom xsenebuli winaaRmdegobis axsna davisaxeT miznad, da ubralod gavecnoT ori teqstis daTariRebis Sesaxeb mecnierebaSi ukve gamoTqmul mosazrebebs. orive daumTavrebeli traqtati dantes sikvdilis Semdeg aRmoCnda mis qaRaldebSi. es garemoeba, iseve, rogorc traqtatebis daumTavrebloba, afiqrebinebs filologebs, rom orive teqsti TiTqmis erTdroulad iwereboda, xolo maTze muSaobis Sewyvetis mizezi ufro didi Canafiqris `komediaze~ muSaobis dasawyisi iyo.3 miuxedavad amgvari Tvalsazrisis mimzidvelobisa, orive teqstSi napovni met-naklebad pirdapiri miniSnebebisa da TiToeuli traqtatis zogadi Taviseburebebis4 safuZvelze SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom VEodnav win uswrebs `nadims~: pirvelis daweris dro 1303 wlis Semodgomidan 1304 wlis zamTris dasasrulamde unda vigulisxmoT,5 xolo meore teqstze muSaoba, sxva mizezebTan erTad misi ufro didi moculobis gamoc, 1306-1308 wlebSi unda gagrZelebuliyo.6 amao iqneba, msjeloba gavmarToT imis Taobaze, ramdenad SeiZleboda ori wlis ganmavlobaSi ase radikalurad Secvliliyo avtoris azri esoden fundamentur sakiTxze. jerjerobiT, am kiTxvaze nebismier pasuxs warmatebis erTnairi Sansebi aqvs da mxolod mkvlevris pirad miznebsa da misi stilis damajereblobazea damokidebuli. meore mxriv, traqtatebis amgvar droiT dalagebas SeuZlia, ufro meti gviTxras, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT
... primamente, non era subietto ma sovrano, e per nobilit e per vert e per bellezza. Per nobilit, perch lo latino perpetuo e non corruttibile, e lo volgare non stabile e corruttibile. (Convivio I; 5, 4). 2 mxolod ramdenime magaliTs davasaxelebT: Nardi B, Dante e la cultura medioevale, Bari 1949; p. 160; Pagani I., La teoria linguistica di Dante (`De vulgari eloquentia~: Discussioni, scelte, proposte), Napoli, pp. 142 154; . ., volgare XIV , . , , . . 2., . 124 131. . ., . , . 1972, . 89 90. 3 Petrocchi G. Vita di Dante, Laterza, Bari 1983, p. 106. 4 igulisxmeba, rom `nadimis~ dasawerad biblioTekaSi muSaoba iyo aucilebeli, maSin roca `xalxuri mWevrmetyveleba~ cocxali empiriuli masalis, piradi enobrivi gamocdilebis inteleqtualuri damuSavebis Sedegadaa Seqmnili. 5 Petrocchi G. Op. cit., p. 108. 6 Inglese G. Nota introduttiva, in Dante Alignieri, Leloquenza in volgare, Rizzoli, Milano 1998, p. 29.
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Cvens mier ukve aRniSnul movlenas: dantem orive nawarmoebi daumTavrebeli datova, radgan mTeli misi energia `komediaze~ muSaobam waiRo. Tuki teqstebSi arsebul `winaaRmdegobas~ avtoris TvalsazrisTa evoluciad ganvixilavT, gamodis, rom dantem mas Semdeg daiwyo xalxur enaze arsebul literaturul qmnilebaTa Soris udiadesis Txzva, rac darwmunda, rom laTinuri ena ufro keTilSobilia. amgvari debuleba gvaiZulebs, sakmarisi safuZvlis gareSe uarvyoT, erTi mxriv, dantes, rogorc pirovnebis, Tanmimdevruloba,1 da meore mxriv, _ is sruliad calsaxa damokidebuleba italiuri xalxuri enisadmi, romelic `komediis~ mTeli teqstidan gamomdinareobs. unda vaRiaroT, rom problemis gadawyvetis pirveli gza ubralod banaluria. gacilebiT ufro seriozul ganxilvas imsaxurebs meore gza, romlis farglebSic dantes mier sakiTxis ori sxvadasxva kuTxidan gadawyvetas varaudoben. xalxuri enis keTilSobileba VE-Si misi sayovelTao gavrcelebiTa da bunebrivi warmoSobiTaa dasabuTebuli, rac, TavisTavad, sruliad cxadia, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT im SeniSvnas, rom dante aq ara sakuTriv italiis teritoriaze gavrcelebul xalxur enas gulisxmobs, aramed _ sazogadod mSobliur enas.2 rac Seexeba laTinur enas, misi keTilSobilebis safuZvlad ucvlelobaa dasaxelebuli. am ukanasknel debulebaSi SeiZleba SevniSnoT erTgvari winaaRmdegoba rogorc gacilebiT ufro adre damkvidrebul TvalsazrisTan, aseve avtoris SesaZlebel empiriul gamocdilebasTan. Tvalsazrisi laTinuri enis cvalebadobis Sesaxeb yvelaze mkafiod gamoTqva qristianma moRvawem, ieronimem: `TviT laTinuri ena yoveldRiurad icvleba sivrcesa da droSi~.3 ver vityviT, rom dantes droisaTvis ieronimes es Tvalsazrisi daviwyebuli iyo. laTinuri enis wiaRSi sxvadasxva mizeziT momxdari cvlilebebi sakmaod gacnobierebuli faqti iyo. magaliTad, franCesko de sanktiss mohyavs XIII saukunis sicilieli mematianis rikordano malespinis (Ricordano Malespini) mowmoba, rom imperatorma fridrix II-m icoda
1 Tumca, aRvniSnavT, rom `Tanmimdevruloba~ an `koherentuloba~ sulac ar aris realuri avtoris savaldebulo atributi: es ufro konvenciaa, romelic SesaZlebels xdis teqstis interpretacias literaturuli tradiciis ganviTarebis farglebSi. 2 DVE-s teqstze dayrdnobiT SegviZlia vamtkicoT, rom dante msoflioSi gavrcelebul enebs erTi sawyisi enis drosa da sivrceSi ganviTarebul variaciebad miiCnevda, xolo laTinurs _ pirvandel enasTan dasaaxloeblad xelovnurad Seqmnil enad. 3 `Ipsa latinitas et regionibus quotidie mutetur et tempores~ S. Hieronymus, Commentaria in Epistolam ad Galatas, II. 3.

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`Cveni laTinuri da Cveni xalxuri ena~.1 aq sityva `Cveni~ ar niSnavs Svabi imperatoris mimarT nacionaluri xasiaTis dapirispirebas, rac XVI saukunemde warmoudgeneli iyo. am SemTxvevaSi sityva `Cvenis~ orjer gamoyeneba unda aRniSnavdes erTgan laTinuri enis ukve sakmaod Zlier teritoriul variaciebs (germanelTa laTinuri gansxvavdeboda sicilielTa laTinurisagan leqsikiTa da gamoTqmiT), meoregan ki _ siciliuri xalxuri enis garda sxva xalxur enaTa arsebobis aRiarebas. laTinuri enis cvalebadobaSi advilad darwmundeboda misi yoveli mcodne, visac ki odesme umogzauria XIV saukunis italiis gzebze, sadac mravlad dadiodnen evropis sxvadasxva qveynidan Camosuli samRvdelo da saero pirebi. miT umetes, ar gauWirdeboda am gansxvavebebis SemCneva dante aligieris, romelic smeniT arCevda boloniis ori sxvadasxva quCisaTvis damaxasiaTebel dialeqtur Taviseburebebs. aqve mizanSewonilad migvaCnia, moviyvanoT erTi metad mniSvnelovani mowmoba XII saukunis ingliseli swavlulis, ioane garlendelis (Jan de garlandi), romlis literaturuli TeoriiT xelmZRvanelobda dante aligieri, rodesac Tavis nawarmoebs `komedia~ daarqva.2 ioanem XIII saukunis gariJraJze TiTqmis humanisturi bunebis problema dasva, rodesac yuradReba miaqcia im faqts, rom gramatikosebi iZulebulni iyvnen aerCiaT erT-erTi _ saRvTo werilis barbarosulsa da warmarT avtorTa klasikur laTinurs Soris.3 rogorc vxedavT, laTinuri enis daxasiaTeba, romelic `nadimis~ dasawyisSia mocemuli, mkveTrad upirispirdeba gavrcelebul da aRiarebul Tvalsazrisebs. gacilebiT ufro obieqturia laTinuri da xalxuri enebis VE-Si moyvanili urTierTmimarTeba. aq naTqvamia, rom xalxurs adamiani bunebrivad iTvisebs dedisagan, xolo laTinurs, romelsac sxvanairad `gramatika~ ewodeba, swavlobs skolaSi. msgavsi damokidebulebis saintereso mowmobas gvawvdis 923 wlamde dawerili poema `saqmeni berengariusisa~ (Gesta Berengarii): aq mefe berengarius I-is kurTxevis (915) aRwerisas naTqvamia, rom saeklesio gundi galobda patrio ore (mamobriv kiloze, anu laTinurad), xolo xalxis aRfrTovanebuli brbo iZaxda nativa voce (mSobliur, anu xalxur xmaze). dantes mier gamoTqmuli is azric, rom dedis an gamzrdelisagan miRebuli codna gacilebiT ufro srulyofili da bunebrivia, vidre Semdgomi `ZaldatanebiTi~

1 `Nostra lingua latina e nostro volgare~ v. F. De Sanctis, Storia della letteratura italiana, a cura di Cesare Milanese, Roma 1991, p. 5. 2 Sdr. Giovanni di Garlandia, Poetria... de arte prosaica metrica et rithmica, a cura di G. Mari, Berlino 1902, DVE, II, 4, 6; Epistole, XIII, 28-32. 3 M. D. Chenu, La thologie du douzime sicle, Librairie Vrin, Paris 1976, p. 103.

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ganaTleba, ar iyo ucxo da miuRebeli Sua saukuneebis ganaTlebuli sazogadoebisaTvis.1 ukve SegviZlia ganvacxadoT, rom DVE-Si laTinurisa da xalxuri enebis urTierTmimarTebis Sesaxeb gamoTqmuli debuleba adekvaturia TviT dantes Sinagani rwmenisa, xolo `nadimSi~ mocemuli Tvalsazrisi ara marto am rwmenas ar eTanxmeba, aramed ganaTlebul wreebSi sayovelTaod miRebul Tvalsazrissac ewinaaRmdegeba. migvaCnia, rom amgvari ucnauri mdgomareoba gamowveulia imiT, rom dantes Teoriuli traqtatebi mkiTxvelTa ori erTmaneTisagan Zalian gansxvavebuli auditoriisaTvisaa gankuTvnili. V, cxadia, gulisxmobs ganaTlebul mkiTxvels, razec ara mxolod enis arCevani metyvelebs, aramed _ argumentaciis simSrale da simkvrive. momzadebuli, klasikur idealebze aRzrdili adamianebi, ra Tqma unda, unda davarwmunoT, rom xalxur enas umdidresi potenciali aqvs da misi ganviTareba aucilebelia. `nadimSi~ ki aSkarad naTqvamia, rom avtori mimarTavs imaT, vinc laTinuri ar icis, magram adamianis bunebrivi Tvisebis wyalobiT, mainc miiswrafis codnisaken, rogorc amas aristotele gvaswavlis.2 kerZod, `nadimSi~ naTqvamia: `me, Tumc ar vuzivar netar trapezs, aramed mdabiorTa saZovridan gamoqceuli vimyofebi imaT ferxTiT, romelnic usxedan da maTgan dacvenils vagroveb da vicnob imaT ubadruk cxovrebasac, vinc ukan movitove, imis gamo, rom Cems mier Segrovili namcecebis sitkbos vgrZnob, RaribTaTvis Semovinaxe zogi ram, rac ukve karga xania, vuCvene maT da amiT kidev ufro wadierni vyav isini. amitomac msurs axla, sazogado nadimi gavumarTo maT da mivarTva, rac vuCvene~.3 bunebrivia, rom amgvar codnas mowyurebul `mdabiorebs~ (XIV saukunis dasawyisis italiaSi ki maT ricxvSi sakmaod maRali socialuri statusis mqone adamianebic erivnen) aucileblad unda vuqoT laTinuri ena, romlis gareSec jer kidev warmoudgenelia WeSmariti codnis miReba. Tu DVE-Si xalxuri enis TvisebaTa propaganda ganaTlebulTa qedmaRlobis dasaZlevad aris gamiznuli, `nadimSi~, amis sapirispirod, laTinuris enobrivi prestiJulobis argumenti ganaTlebis
gavixsenoT, am mxriv, meTodi, romelsac mimarTa montenis mamam, raTa mis vaJs kargad aeTvisebina laTinuri: man mis gamzrdel qalebs frangulad laparaki aukrZala. 2 Sdr. Convivio, I, 1, 1. 3 `E io adunque, che non seggio a la beata mensa, ma, fuggito de la pastura del vulgo, a piedi di coloro che seggiono ricolgo di quello che da loro cade, e conosco la misera vita di quelli che dietro mho lasciati, per la dolcezza chio sento in quello che a poco a poco ricolgo, misericordievolmente mosso, non me dimenticando, per li miseri alcuna cosa ho riservata, la quale a li occhi loro, gi pi tempo, ho dimostrata; e in ci li ho fatti maggiormente vogliosi. Per che ora volendo loro apparecchiare, intendo fare un generale convivio di ci chi ho loro mostrato.~ Convivio, I, 1, 10-11.
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propagandas uwyobs xels. swored laTinuris armcodneTa ganaTlebisaken mowodebas Seswira dantem `nadimSi~ WeSmaritebis moTxovnebi. Tumca, unda iTqvas, rom amisaTvis mas sakmao safuZveli da Rirseuli miznebic hqonda. rac Seexeba safuZvels, upirveles yovlisa, igi avtorobis koncefciaSi unda veZeboT. avtori (auctor) Suasaukuneobriv SegnebaSi aris avtoritetis (auctoritas) konkretuli aRmsrulebeli da matarebeli. avtoritetis cneba ki mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli imdroindel socialur cnobierebasTan. yvelaze mokled da mkafiod es cnobiereba gamoixata romis papis, gelasis werilSi imperator anastasiosisadmi, romelic 494 wliT TariRdeba: `es qveyana arsebiTad ori sawyisiT imarTeba: pontifikTa wmida avtoritetiTa (auctoritas) da samefo ZalauflebiT (potestas)~.1 Cveulebriv, es azri mohyavT Sua saukuneebSi saeklesio sawyisis upiratesobis dasadastureblad. Cven gvainteresebs is garemoeba, rom upiratesoba gamoxatulia swored avtoritetis cnebiT, romelsac, iseve rogorc Zalauflebas, moyvanil nawyvetSi terminis Zala aqvs. avtoriteti, rogorc qvemoT vnaxavT, SemoqmedebiTi sawyisia, xolo Zalaufleba, ubralod, SeZlebas niSnavs. avtori (auctor) ki, mraval sxva mniSvnelobasTan erTad, avtoritetis mflobelobasa da gamtareblobasac gulisxmobs. ukve XII saukuneSi farTod iyo gavrcelebuli azri am terminis polisemantikurobis Sesaxeb. mraval mowmobaTagan mxolod imas moviyvanT, romelic honorius otunels ekuTvnis: `avtori mravalmniSvnelovania [...] aris avtori qalaqisa, anu damaarsebeli, rogorc romulusi romisaTvis; aris avtori sisaZaglisa, anu mTavari an winamZRoli, rogorc iuda qristes sikvdilisaTvis; aris agreTve avtori wignisa, anu Semdgeneli, rogorc daviTi fsalmunTaTvis, an platoni timaiosisaTvis. maSasadame avtori (Semoqmedi) aris qmedeba zmnidan momdinare sazogado arsebiTi saxeli~.2 amave XII saukunis ganswavluli toskaneli beri uguCone pizeli (Uguccione da Pisa), romlis Tvalsazrisebs, iseve rogorc ioane garlendelisas, dante iTvaliswinebda Tavisi `komediis~ SeTxzvisas, kidev ufro sagulisxmo cnobas gvawvdis: igi ambobs, rom laTinuri sityva auctor momdinareobs berZnuli sityvidan , romelic aRniSnavs pirovnebas, visi ara marto ndoba, aramed morCilebac

Sdr. M. Pizzica, La `Monarchia~ di Dante nel confronto tra regime spirituale e regime temporale, in Dante Alighieri, Monarchia, Rizzoli, Roma 1988, p. 30. 2 `Auctor est aequivocum [...] Est auctor civitatis, idest fundatur ut Romulus Romae; est et auctor sceleris, idest princeps vel signifer, ut Judas Christi mortis; est quoque auctor libri, idest compositor, ut David Psalterii, Plato Thymaei. Est etiam auctor commune nomen, ab augendo dictum~ Honorius Autuniensis, Expositione in Cantico, prol. PL, 172, 348.
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gvmarTebs.1 erTi sityviT, avtori is aris vinc ubralod ki ar laparakobs, aramed amis kadnierebac aqvs. garda amisa, dante araerTxel ambobs, rom `nadimis~ mTavari mizani misi poeturi qmnilebebis, kanconebis komentaria. teqstSi araerTxel dasturdeba, rom `nadimi~ aris dantes axalgazrduli romanis `axali cxovrebis~ Semdgomi, ufro maRali nabiji, ese igi, arsebiTad xelovnebis nawarmoebi. rogorc cnobilia, xelovneba () stoikosTa gagebiT, marTebul aRqmas aRniSnavs. Sua saukuneebma SeiTvisa xelovnebis (ars) es gageba: xelovneba WeSmaritebis maniSnebelia, msgavsad imisa, rogorc sasworis isari mianiSnebs raRac marTalsa da WeSmaritze.2 bunebrivia, rom yovelive amis Semdeg, dante, rogorc avtori da xelovani, ar igrZnobda dabrkolebas, raTa argumentaciaSi garkveuli stratagema gamoeyenebina mkiTxvelTa laTinuri enis Seswavlis keTili da WeSmariti miznisken mosawodeblad. Cveni Tvalsazrisis kidev ufro gasamyareblad unda aRvniSnoT, rom fsiqologiurad dante yovelTvis darwmunebuli iyo sakuTar Zalebsa da uflebebSi, igi sakuTar Tavs magistrad, moZRvrad miiCnevda. florenciis cnobili franciskaneli mematiane jovani vilani (Giovanni Villani) dantes Sesaxeb Tavis qronikaSi wers: `misi sibrZnis gamo igi ramdenadme qedmaRali, ampartavani da ficxi iyo da madlsmoklebuli filosofosis msgavsad cudad esaubreboda umecarT~.3 `nadimis~ daxvewili da, ase vTqvaT, Tavaziani stili ar gvafiqrebinebs, rom dante ramenairad mainc qedmaRlurad uyurebs umecrebsa da mdabiorebs. magram termini `mdabiori~ Sua saukuneebSi ar gamoiyeneboda mxolod Raribebisa da socialuri qvedafenebis warmomadgenelTa aRsaniSnavad: swavlulTa nawerebis mixedviT, aranaklebi `mdabiori~ da `sofleli~ iyo gaunaTlebeli senioric.4 `nadimi~ dantes devnulobis wlebSi iwereboda, rodesac poeti TavSesafars amgvari seniorebis cixe-darbazebSi eZebda, ase rom mis mkiTxvelTa Soris mravali iseTi SeiZleboda yofiliyo, viszeSdr. M. D. Chenu, Op. cit., p. 398. am SemTxvevaSi Cven imdenad etimologiis marTebuloba ki ar gvainteresebs, ramdenadac is sazrisi, romliTac ivseboda cneba Sesabamis epoqaSi. 2 Sdr.M.-M. Davy, Initiation Mdivale, Edition Albin Michel, Paris 1980, p. 42. 3 `Per lo suo savere fu alquanto presuntuoso e schifo e isdegnoso, e quasi a guisa di filosafo mal grazioso non bene sapeva conversare co laici~, _ G. Villani Cronica, ed. A. Racheli, Trieste 1857, IX, p. 136. msgavsad axasiaTeben Tanamedrove wyaroebi, magaliTad, bruneto latinis (dantes maswavlebeli) da gvido kavalkantis (dantes piradi megobari). termini laico ar niSnavs mxolod `saeros~, aramed `umecarsac~, iseve rogorc termini chierico ar niSnavs mxolod `samRvdelo pirs~, aramed `swavlulsac~. 4 Sdr. A. Murray, Reason and Society in the Middle Ages, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1978, pp. 247-249.
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dac avtoris bed-iRbali iqneboda damokidebuli. dantes isini mtkiced, magram Tavazianad, ese igi cbierad unda daemoZRvra. SevajamoT miRebuli Sedegi. V, romelic swavlulTa wreebisaTvis iyo gankuTvnili, mTlianad mimarTulia imisken, rom am wreebSi gazardos xalxuri enis prestiJi da STaagonos kulturul elitas, rom `mdabiorTa~ enas mdidari SemoqmedebiTi potenciali da saTanado keTilSobileba aqvs. `nadimis~ savaraudo mkiTxvelebma ar ician laTinuri ena _ imdroindeli sibrZnis mTavari matarebeli da erTaderTi saSvi kulturul elitaSi saintegraciod. aucilebelia, maT gauCndeT azri laTinuris, da Sesabamisad, ganaTlebis aucileblobis Sesaxeb. amgvarad moxdeba am ori socialuri jgufis kulturuli da socialuri elitis _ erTmaneTTan daaxloeba, rac dante aligieris Segnebuli da uzenaesi mizania. amrigad, VE-Si mocemuli azri xalxuri enis Sesaxeb mecnieruli daskvnaa, romelic miRebulia Teoriul mosazrebaTa da empiriul monacemTa akuratuli SepirispirebiT. `nadimSi~ arsebuli azri laTinuri enis umetesi keTilSobilebis Sesaxeb ki ar aris pozitiuri debuleba _ es xelovanisaTvis Cveuli naratiuli stratagemaa.

Tamar LlomiZe lingvistika da poetika (zogierTi poetikuri terminis interpretaciisTvis)

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilias saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori; ZiriTadi naSromebi: `qarTuli riTmis istoriidan~, `feris mxatvruli gaazrebis Taviseburebebi n. baraTaSvilis poeziaSi~, `Teoriuli dafuZnebis problema poetikaSi, `me~-s koncefcia qarTvel romantikosTa SemoqmedebaSi~. interesTa sfero: semiotika, leqsmcodneoba, literaturis istoria da Teoria, mxatvruli Semoqmedebis fsiqologia.

literaturaTmcodneobaSi, rogorc wesi, iSviaTad ganixileba iseTi saintereso da mniSvnelovani problema, rogoricaa saleqso enis semantika. samwuxaroa, rom i. tinianovis gamokvleva `saleqso enis problema~, praqtikulad, rCeba am sakiTxisadmi miZRvnil erTaderT naSromad, romelSic ganxilulia sityvis semantikaze saleqso faqtorebis zemoqmedebis efeqti. sazogadod, rusuli formaluri skolis warmomadgenelTa Soris i. tinianovs sagangebo adgili ganekuTvneba. Tavisi mravalferovani novatoruli mecnieruli naSromebiTa da mxatvruli TxzulebebiT, is erT-erTi yvelaze saintereso moRvawea XX saukunis filologiaSi. tinianovis wignSi `saleqso enis problema~ ( , 1924) Camoyalibebulia saleqso enis pirveli (Teoriuli poetikis istoriaSi) semantikuri Teoria. maSin, rodesac rus formalistTa naSromebi, rogorc wesi, uSualod emyareboda lingvisturi semiotikis sosiuriseul Teorias (Tumca formalistebma, am Teoriis gaTvaliswinebiT, aages TavianTi originaluri koncefciebi), tinianovis `saleqso enis problemaSi~ sosiuris ideebis zegavlena uSualod ar iCens Tavs. leqsiTi teqsti aq ar ganixileba rogorc niSani, araa moxseniebuli semiotikuri opoziciuri mimarTebebi: sinqronia _ diaqronia, ena _ metyveleba, sintagmatika _ paradigmatika an sxva semiotikuri cnebebi. dais-

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mis kiTxva, emyareba Tu ara es naSromi romelime lingvistur (an, SesaZloa, poetikur) Teorias da Tu iTvaliswinebs, romels? am sakiTxis gasarkvevad zogadad mimovixilavT im ZiriTad terminebs, romlebic gamoyenebulia `saleqso enis problemaSi~. tinianovis naSromi Sedgeba ori nawilisgan: 1. `ritmi, rogorc leqsis konstruqtiuli faqtori,~ da 2. ~saleqso enis sazrisi ()~. wignis pirvel nawilSi Semotanilia iseTi cnebebi, rogorebicaa saleqso rigis erTianoba da simWidrove ( ). termini saleqso rigis erTianoba araa ganmartebuli semantikuri TvalsazrisiT. avtoris TqmiT, aq nagulisxmevia saleqso rigis (am SemTxvevaSi _ taepis) metruli erTianoba, anu warmodgena misi, rogorc metruli erTeulis Sesaxeb (sistemur leqsSi da ara verlibrSi). kavSiri `da~, romelic aerTianebs erTianobis cnebas simWidrovis cnebasTan, migvaniSnebs, rom isini urTierTdakavSirebulad unda ganvixiloT, e.i. pirveli maTgani, erTgvarad, ganapirobebs meores. marTlac, tinianovi aRniSnavs, rom leqsis `es orive niSani mWidro kavSirSia erTmaneTTan: simWidrovis cneba ukve gulisxmobs erTianobis cnebis arsebobas; magram erTianobac damokidebulia sametyvelo masalis rigebis simWidroveze... raodenobrivad Zalze farTo erTianoba an kargavs Tavis sazRvrebs, an TviT iSleba erTianobebad, e.i. orive SemTxvevaSi aRar aris erTianoba~ (tinianovi 1924:39). rac Seexeba simWidroves, misi safuZveli swored rom saleqso rigis (aq, ZiriTadad, igulisxmeba taepi) erTianobaa, romelic iwvevs sityvaTa Tvisebriv urTierTzemoqmedebas da, Sedegad, maTi semantikis deformacias. maSasadame, simWidrove ar unda gavigoT, rogorc saleqso rigis (taepis, strofis) sigrZis gansazRvruloba (sapirispiro Tvalsazrisi ix. silmani 1977), aramed rogorc sityvis semantikis Secvla, rasac ganapirobebs leqsiTi metyvelebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli specifikuri faqtorebi. eWvgareSea, rom leqsiT enaSi sityvaTa semantikuri deformaciis analizi xorcieldeba gaucnaurebis () im cnebis analogiiT, romelic literaturaTmcodneobaSi Semoitana v. Sklovskim. gaucnaureba, rogorc mxatvruli xerxi, gulisxmobs sityvebis an sagnebis avtomatizebuli, Cveuli aRqmis rRvevas, anu mis deformacias. magram tinianovi yovelTvis saubrobs mxolod deformaciis Sesaxeb da arc erTxel ar axsenebs sityvas `gaucnaureba~. metic, mas Semoaqvs sakuTari termini _ saleqso rigis erTianoba da simWidrove gaucnaurebis (aq: sityvis semantikis deformaciis) ganmapirobebeli, leqsiTi enisTvis damaxasiaTebeli konkretuli faqtorebis aRsaniSnavad. amis mizezad, albaT, unda miviCnioT is, rom Sklovskis TeoriaSi gaucnaureba xelovnebis zogad (da

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ara konkretul, leqsiTi metyvelebisTvis damaxasiaTebel) principadaa aRiarebuli da, garda amisa, igi ZiriTadad, prozauli nawarmoebebis mimarT ganixileba. aqve tinianovi msjelobs leqsiTi metyvelebis suqcesiurobis (Tanmimdevrulobis) da prozauli metyvelebis simultanurobis (erTdroulobis) Sesaxeb, magram ar ganmartavs am terminebis sakuTar gagebas. erTi SexedviT, gaugebaria, ratom axasiaTebs mecnieri metyvelebis zemodasaxelebuli tipebis mimarTebas drosTan sxvadasxvagvarad _ rogorc prozauli, aseve leqsiTi metyveleba, garkveuli gagebiT, Tanmimdevrulia, anu suqcesiuria. maSin ratom saubrobs tinianovi prozauli metyvelebis simultanurobis Sesaxeb? SesaZlebelia tinianovis Tvalsazrisis Semdegnairi interpretacia: ueWvelia, is gulisxmobda metyvelebis ori tipis Tvisebriv gansxvavebas. marTlac, miuxedavad imisa, rom prozauli metyvelebac da leqsiTic ganfenilia droSi, pirveli maTganis Tviseba isaa, rom masSi sityvieri gamoxatuleba uSualod, ganuyoflad araa dakavSirebuli azrTan, anu am SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebelia azris gamoxatva sxvadasxvagvari leqsikuri saSualebebiT. prozauli formiT gamoTqmuli frazis mniSvnelobis aRqmisas fraza erTgvarad `ikumSeba~ da scildeba Tavis enobriv substrats. rac Seexeba leqsiT metyvelebas, aq azri gacilebiT ufro mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli Tavis sityvier gamoxatulebasTan da misi `SekumSva~ SeuZlebelia. rodesac vixsenebT leqss, vixsenebT ara azrs, romelic masSia gamoxatuli, aramed _ sityvebs, romlebiTac is gadmoicema. Sesabamisad, saleqso rigSi (taepSi, strofSi) gamonaTqvami aucileblad suqcesiuria _ droSia ganfenili, prozauli gamonaTqvami ki iolad gardaiqmneba `wertilovan~, simultanur azrad. im kiTxvasTan dakavSirebiT, romelic winamdebare statiis dasawyisSi davsviT, gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa wignis meore nawili. aq detaluradaa ganxiluli saleqso rigSi moqceuli sityvis deformaciis tipebi. tinianovi wers: `yoveli sityva sagangebo elferiT aRiWurveba im enobrivi garemos zegavleniT, romelSic is gamoiyeneba~ (tinianovi 1924 : 57). amgvarad, aq aqcentirebulia cneba garemosi, romelic zemoqmedebs sityvis semantikaze (SevniSnavT, rom erTianobisa da simWidrovis cneba ar emTxveva garemos cnebas _ esaa specifikuri, mxolod leqsisTvis damaxasiaTebeli faqtorebi, garemos Tvisebrivi maxasiaTeblebi, da ara _ sakuTriv garemo). aq unda gavixsenoT, rom tinianovi iyo aqtiuri wevri literaturaTmcodneTa im jgufisa, romlis lozungi gaxldaT `xelovneba rogorc xerxi~ da romlis meTodologia ganisazRvreboda meore lozungiT `literaturaTmcodneoba rogorc lingvistika~. formalistebze udidesi zegavlena moaxdina lev SCerbas lingvisturma

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koncefciam. am ukanasknelSi mniSvnelovani roli ganekuTvneboda cnebas fonetikuri garemosi, romelic zemoqmedebs bgerebze. fonetikuri garemos cneba arsebiTia sosiurTanac: `mecniereba bgeraTa Sesaxeb WeSmarit Rirebulebas iZens mxolod maSin, _ werda sosiuri, _ rodesac Cven vawydebiT ori an meti elementis urTierTmimarTebis faqts,...rodesac erTi elementis variaciebi ganisazRvreba meoris variaciebiT... Tu, Tavisi ZiriTadi principebis Ziebisas, fonologi upiratesobas aniWebs izolirebul bgerebs, es ewinaaRmdegeba saR azrs~ (sosiuri 1977:86). analogiurad, `saleqso enis problemis~ meore Tavis dasawyisSi tinianovi SeniSnavs: `sityvas ara aqvs erTi gansazRvruli mniSvneloba. is qameleonia, romelSic yovel jerze Tavs iCens ara marti sxvadasxva elferi, aramed, zogjer, sxvadasxva Seferilobac. abstraqcia `sityva~ erTgvari rgolia, romelic yovel jerze axleburad Seifereba xolme im leqsikuri wyobis Sesabamisad, romelSic is ganTavsdeba da im funqciaTa mixedviT, romlebic axasiaTebs ama Tu im metyvelebiT stiqias~ (tinianovi 1924:48). maSasadame, bgeriTi, fonetikuri garemos analogiiT, tinianovs Semoaqvs cneba semantikuri garemosi, romelic leqsiT metyvelebaSi warmoiqmneba. mecnieri miuTiTebs, rom ar arsebobs sityva _ winadadebisgan mowyvetiT. izolirebuli sityva, misi TqmiT, sulac ar imyofeba arafrazobriv pirobebSi. is mxolod sxva pirobebSia, winadadebaSi ganTavsebul sityvasTan SedarebiT. amitom semantikuri eqsperimentebi, romelTa dros cdis pirebs warudgenen izolirebul sityvebs da amowmeben am ukanasknelTa safuZvelze aRZrul asociaciebs, sxva araferia, Tu ara uvargis masalaze Catarebuli eqsperimentebi. izolirebuli, e.w. saleqsikono sityvis warmoTqmisas Cven ver miviRebT `sityvas, sazogadod~, aramed miviRebT sityvas axal pirobebSi, konteqstiT gansazRvrul pirobebTan SedarebiT. tinianovis es azri (sityvis Sesaxeb) uSualod emTxveva mis Tanamedrove lingvistTa Tvalsazriss (fonemasTan dakavSirebiT), romlis mixedviT, maqsimalurad damoukidebel poziciaSi myofi bgera fonema ki araa, aramed misi erT-erTi varianti, Tumca _ ZiriTadi varianti (sagulisxmoa, rom lev SCerba alofonebs _ fonemis variantebs _ fonemis sxvadasxva elfers uwodebda, iseve, rogorc tinianovi ama Tu im elferis saxelwodebiT moixseniebda sityvis mniSvnelobis saxecvlilebebs). aq ukve aSkaraa analogia lingvisturi semiotikis TvalsazrisTan, romelic axal masalazea gadatanili. wignis momdevno nawilebSi es analogia kidev ufro mkveTrad vlindeba. tinianovs Semoaqvs axali, specifikuri terminebi _ mniSvnelobis ZiriTadi niSani ( ), mniSvnelobis meorexarisxovani niSani ( ) da mniS-

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vnelobis meryevi niSnebi ( ). ganvixiloT isini. mecnieri aanalizebs sityva -s mniSvnelobis cvlilebebs sxvadasxvagvar leqsikur garemocvaSi: 1. ; (tellus). 2. - (humus). 3. (Boden). 4. (Land). cxadia, pirvel magaliTSi igulisxmeba planeta dedamiwa, meoreSi _ niadagi, mesameSi _ `Zirs~, meoTxeSi _ mamuli. raSia saqme? _ kiTxulobs tinianovi. _ ra gvaiZulebs, rom sityva yvela am SemTxvevaSi aRviqvaT, rogorc erTiani, identuri ram?~. amgvar faqtorad gvevlineba, misi azriT, mniSvnelobis ZiriTadi niSani, romelic yovel mocemul SemTxvevaSi iZens rTul semantikur obertonebs, anu meorexarisxovan niSnebs. Zneli ara imis SemCneva, rom aq gadmotanilia modeli fonemisa, romelic calkeul SemTxvevebSi garkveuli variaciebis _ alofonebis saxiT gvevlineba. imaze, rom cneba mniSvnelobis ZiriTadi niSani fonemis analogiiTaa SemuSavebuli, mecnieri ar miuTiTebs wignis ZiriTad teqstSi, aramed _ gakvriT _ erT-erT SeniSvnaSi, romelic erTvis teqsts. sityvis ZiriTadi niSani SeiZleba sulac gaqres. amis magaliTebad tinianovs mohyavs sityvaTxmarebis iseTi nimuSebi, rogorebicaa: 1. (Jurnalis saxelwodeba). 2. , . pirvel SemTxvevaSi aRniSnavs obieqturad arsebul organulsa da araorganul samyaros, ki _ nadirobas; meore SemTxvevaSi aRniSnavs adamianis bunebriv monacemebs, mis niWierebas, ki _ survils. cxadia, rom meore SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs ubralo omonimiasTan da ara meorexarisxovan niSnebTan. Tu paralels gavavlebT fonologiasTan, cnobilia, rom arsebobs iseTi fenomeni, rogoricaa erTi fonemis Senacvleba meoriT, rodesac icvleba sityvis forma (Sdr. - , sadac fonema os enacvleba fonema a, rodesac o umaxvilo poziciaSi gadadis). amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom tinianovi aqac sargeblobs fonologiis monacemebiT, raTa, masTan analogiiT, gaaanalizos sityvis semantikis Secvlis nimuSebi. Semdeg is ganixilavs sityva -is sxvadasxvagvari gamoyenebis magaliTebs. davakvirdeT zogierT maTgans: `! ~. _ am gamoTqmaSi sintaqsuri gankerZoeba ganapirobebs imas, rom sityvis kavSirebi sxva sityvebTan irRveva, irRveva sityvis Cveulebrivi sagnobrivi mimarTebebic, anu

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aq ar aRniSnavs adamians, rogorc maRalorganizebul cocxal arsebas, is aRiWurveba meorexarisxovani niSnebiT da axal Seferilobas iZens. gamoTqmaSi aseve darRveulia uzualuri denotacia _ sityva -s zegavleniT, Tumca, Tu SevapirispirebT sintagmebs da , am sityvis ZiriTadi mniSvneloba aRdgeba. andrei belis kalamburSi _ sityva ormag semantikas iZens. erTi mxriv, is inarCunebs ZiriTad niSans, anu cnebiT mniSvnelobas, meore mxriv ki masSi, maRalfardovani -s da -s zegavleniT, Cndeba axali leqsikuri Seferiloba, romelsac mecnieri meryev niSnebs uwodebs, meryevs, radgan isini aramdgradia da mxolod ama Tu im konkretuli, specifikuri sityvaTSexamebisas vlindeba. meryevi niSnebi Tavs iCens (da auferulebs ZiriTad niSans) iseTi faqtoris zegavleniTac, rogoricaa, magaliTad, intonacia. rodesac briyvs ironiulad `genioss~ vuwodebT, aq, ra Tqma unda, sityvaSi vlindeba meryevi niSnebi. `saleqso enis problemaSi~ ganxilulia iseTi sakiTxebic, rogoricaa sityvis mniSvnelobis cvlilebebi, rodesac es sityva taepis kidura poziciaSia, sariTmo poziciaSia, anJambemans warmoqmnis da a.S., rac misi koncefciis dakonkretebis mizans emsaxureba. leqsiTi enis tinianoviseuli analizi yovelTvis novatoruli da Rrmaa. misi meTodebis gamoyeneba sxvadasxvagvari poeturi teqstebis ganxilvisas saSualebas miscems mkvlevrebs, warmoaCinon am teqstebis manamde ucnobi aspeqtebi. amgvarad, aSkaraa, rom `saleqso enis problema~ gamonaklisi rodia rus formalistTa gamokvlevebs Soris _ is mTlianad agebulia lingvisturi modelebis mixedviT, rac naSromis nakli ki ara, Rirsebaa. amgvarma midgomam avtors saSualeba misca, ugulebeleyo leqsis analizis trivialuri meTodebi da SeemuSavebina axali, saintereso da nayofieri mecnieruli Teoria.

literatura silmani 1977: , .. .., 1977 sosiuri 1977: , . . . ., 1977. tinianovi 1924: , . . . ., 1924.

salome omiaZe erTi genderuli stereotipis Sesaxeb poeziis enaSi (ana kalandaZe, muxran maWavariani)

genderis kategoria lingvistikur disciplinebSi mamakacuroba (maskulinoba) da qaluroba (feminuroba), erTi mxriv, fsiqikis filogenetikurad ganpirobebuli Taviseburebebia, xolo meore mxriv _ ontogenezSi Camoyalibebuli sociokulturuli warmonaqmnebi. swored am pirobebma daudo dasabami genderis, rogorc sqesis sociokulturuli kategoriis, Seqmnas. warmoebulma genderulma kvlevebma cxadyo, rom sqesis Seswavla rogorc mxolod biologiuri movlenisa, aRaribebda am cnebiTs kategorias. Tanamedrove sociologebi, filosofosebi, fsiqologebi, eTnologebi Seiswavlian gansxvavebuli sqesis adamianebis qcevaTa Taviseburebebs mocemuli kulturis farglebSi. genderi rTuli kompleqsia, romelSic gadajaWvulia kulturuli, fsiqologiuri da socialuri aspeqtebi. es aspeqtebi ki, Tavis mxriv, ganapirobebs erovnuli enobrivi pirovnebis qcevas, rac genderTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs lingvistebisaTvisac sainteresos xdis. genders, rogorc enisa da kulturis movlenas, Seiswavlis axlad Seqmnili disciplinebi: lingvokulturologia, genderlingvistika da genderpoetika. genderTa (qalTa da mamakacTa, rogorc socialur sqesTa) sametyvelo qceva enaSi aRbeWdil istoriulad Camoyalibebul stereotipTa bazaze igeba. amdenad, SeiZleba iT-

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: `SeuZlebeli Sexamebani~ Tanamedrove poeziis enaSi; qarTuli diskursis lingvokulturul SemadgenelTa struqtura, semantika da funqcionireba; qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis rvatomeuli _ lingvokulturologiur kvlevaTa fundamenturi wyaro; erovnul-kulturuli konceptebi: `bedi~, `wuTisofeli~ Targmanis adekvaturobis Sesaxeb kognitiuri midgomis TvalsazrisiT. interesTa sfero: stilistika, ritorika, kognitiuri lingvistika, semiotika, lingvokulturologia.

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qvas, rom genderuli stereotipebi SexedulebaTa sistemaa imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor unda iqceodes qali da mamakaci. dadgenilia, rom mamakacebi da qalebi gansxvavdebian rogorc samoqmedo strategiiT, aseve sametyvelo komunikaciis strategiiTac. jer kidev nicSe aRniSnavda, rom mamakacis bednierebis formulaa `me msurs!~, xolo qalisa _ `mas (mamakacs) surs!~ (maslova 2004:125). aRniSnuli mosazreba, sametyvelo qcevaTa genderul TaviseburebebTan erTad, am Taviseburebebis kognitiur aspeqtsac gulisxmobs, rasac qalisa da mamakacis mier samyaros suraTis sxvadasxvagvar aRqmamde mivyavarT. enaSi imgvari Sesityvebebis arseboba, rogoricaa `qaluri poezia~, `mamakacuri leqsebi~, bunebrivad aCens am `qalurobisa~ da `mamakacurobis~ Semqmneli enobrivi meqanizmebis gamovlenis survils. cxadia, am gamonaTqvamebSi mxolod qaluri da mamakacuri Temebi ar igulisxmeba, romelTa Sesaxeb msjeloba tradiciulia literaturaTmcodneobaSi. genderpoetikuri kvlevisaTvis avirCieT erTmaneTis Tanamedrove poetebis _ ana kalandaZisa da muxran maWavarianis Semoqmedeba. `am mSvenier mindor-velze ra nairi ferebia?!~

ana kalandaZis am striqonebiT gacxadebulia araerTi sociologisa da fsiqologis mecnieruli daskvna _ qalebi ferTa ufro farTo speqtrs aRiqvamen, vidre _ mamakacebi. Cven aRniSnuli debulebis Semowmeba da zogadad samyaros feriTi Semecnebis aRwera gvsurs qali-poetisa da mamakaci-poetis metyvelebaze dakvirvebiT. ana kalandaZeca da muxran maWavarianic xSirad mimarTaven aqromatul ferebs. TeTri orive poeti `TeTriT~ mosalodnel, Cveul Sesityvebebs qmnis, maT poeziaSi TeTria Tovli, fanteli, zamTari, wyaro, nisli Rrubeli, yvavilebi, xomaldi, Tma, wveri da sxv. sailustraciod wyvil-wyvilad moviyvanT striqonebs orives Semoqmedebidan: TeTri Tovlis qveS lamaz enZelas sZinavs uTvalavs... (ana 176).1 dRes, roca irgvliv mTebze ukve TeTri Tovlia! (muxrani 348)1.
1

ana kalandaZis yvela citata moyvanilia wignidan `ana~, ana kalandaZe, leqsebi, Tb., 2004.

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TeTri Rrublebi taatiT dian (ana 152). TeTr Rrublebidan aRmocenda mTvare yviTeli (muxrani 344). orivesaTvis TeTria akaciis yvavilic, is SegrZnebaca da is vizualuri efeqtic, romelic am yvavilTa cveniT iqmneba: Sors, caTa Sina Tovs akaciis yvavili Sori, TeTri yvavili... (ana 53); akacia TeTrad moTovs... (ana 135). mxrebze mecema akaciis TeTri fanteli... (muxrani 309). siTeTre sxvadasxva leqsemiTaa gadmocemuli anasTan, feris intensivobis aRmniSvnel erTeulTagan gvxvdeba spetaki (Zalian TeTri): ros im lodze Camomjdarma yrmaman vinme Tqva mosilman spetakiTa samosliTa: _ qriste aRdga! (ana 137). intensivobis gamosaxatavad orive poeti mimarTavs `qaTqaTas~/ `qaTqaTs~: sad Tovli wminda qaTqaTebs TeTrad (ana 101). kvlavindeburad elvarebs maRla dedaqalaqis qaTqaTa mTvare (muxrani 216). gadavlaxavdi dro-Jamis mijnas, viqaTqaTebdi, viT alaverdi (muxrani 125) (Sdr.: mas, alaverdis didebul taZars, alaznis piras TeTrad anTebuls _ ana 234). Tu ana monoleqsemad iyenebs poetur ferad aRiarebul rZisfers, muxrans aqvs striqonebi, sadac am leqsemis miRebis gza Cans: grZneul urartus efineba rZisferi kvamli... (ana 62).

muxran maWavarianis yvela citata moyvanilia wignidan muxran maWavariani, leqsebi, Targmanebi, Tb., 1985.

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Sors saydaria... TeTri... TeTri, rogorc rZis wveTi (muxrani 343); orTaves gvxedavs mTvare keTili _ rZis didi wveTi, TeTri wertili (muxrani 217). igive SeiZleba iTqvas Tovlisferze, romelic anasTvis monoleqsemuria: Cemo jruWulav, RvTaebrivs mTazed, Tovlisfer, fafuk Rrublebs rom erTvis, varskvlavi brwyinavs ase saamod? (ana 258). gzadagza xvdeba . . . . . . . . . . . . . ferebi Tovlis(muxrani 206). muxrani siTeTres aRweriTad da araerTgvarovnad gamoxatavs Semdeg striqonebSi: gareT ferebi daRvrilan kiris. sivrceSi TeTrad moZraobs mTvare (muxrani 217). mTvaris siTeTre muxran maWavarianis poetur diskursSi sxvadasxvagvaradaa eqsponirebuli. am konteqstTa Soris yuradRebas ipyrobs mTvaris epiTetad TeTronis gamoyeneba, romelic TeTri cxenis poeturi nominaciaa da dasaxelebul konteqsts met saxeobriobas aniWebs: martoden mTvare, TeTroni mTvare _ misdevs tramvais ucvleli saxiT (muxrani 216). anasTan TeTri mxolod feri ar aris, is ufro xSirad siwmindis, ubiwobis, sikeTis simboloa: sad kacadqmnili maradisoba TeTrs usvenia muxlze RvTismSobels (ana 509). (wyaluka TeTri) Tu esalbunis cremldaSretilTa TeTr angelosebs? (ana 46). Sens TeTr taZarSi siwmindes vpoveb... (ana 232). gvxvdeba iseTi poeturi konteqstebi, sadac TeTri erTdroulad realuri fericaa da simboluri mniSvnelobis matarebelic:

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mas, alaverdis didebul taZars, alaznis piras TeTrad anTebuls (ana 234). kvlav moixilavs qeTevanisa wminda xateba... mravalmowame gurjTa dedofals kalTa savse aqvs TeTri vardebiT (ana 234). gulSi imkvidrebs bedniereba da sixarulis TeTr sanTlebs anTebs... (ana 296). asevea muxranTan: cacxvebidan gamoCans TeTri saydari (muxrani 223). Sors saydaria... TeTri... (muxrani 343). Savi Savi orive poetTan feris aRmniSvneli leqsikuri erTeulicaa da koloremac. SaviT, rogorc prezentema-koloremiT, Seqmnil SesityvebebSi sainformacio da zemoqmedebis mqone veqtori feriTi indikaciiskenaa mimarTuli. amgvari konteqstebiT gadmocemuli informacia metad emociur-Semfasebluria: me maT movyevi, Savi cremliT mtiral Savosnebs (ana 98). da kabis Cacma ara erTxel mogiwevs Savis (muxrani 132). verc fiqri Savi qars gaatane! (ana 528). irgvliv vinc ari, _ fiqrTa SavTa aris amwewi (muxrani 157). nasaxelari zmna `gaSavebac~ orive poets arapirdapiri mniSvnelobiT, yvelafris dasasrulis, glovis aRsaniSnavad gamouyenebia: romeli mteri gakadrebs, rasac dro-Jami mogizRavs? foToli mandragorasi Savdeba mefis loginze (ana 502).

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axia Cemze gaSavdes Cemi saxli da jalabi (muxrani 398). uaryofiTi konotaciis mqonea Savi anaseul kompozitSi Savsisxliani: droSa raindis sisxlia, mklavze rom gadaimsxvria, xmalze rom gadaimsxvria SavsisxlianTa Zvlebi ... (ana 80) pirdapiri mniSvnelobiTaa naxmari `Savi~ Semdeg striqonebSi, isini sxvaTagan imiT gamovarCieT, rom mikrokonteqstSi Sav-TeTris siaxlove grafikul suraTs qmnis: swored iqiTken is gaeSura SavTmiani da TeTrad mosili (ana 505). rZis TeTri Cxirebi wamdauwum gamosxivdebian xolme da Savi qoTnidan xamuS-xamuS ismis Cxriali maTi (muxrani 251). efeqturia agreTve kontrastul ferTa warmodgena abstraqtuli saxelis msazRvrelebad: mdumarebaa TeTri da Savi (muxrani 363). orive poetTan Savis aRmniSvnelad Segvxvda saTis (giSris) feri: gzadagza xvdeba ferebi saTis... (muxrani 206). exmaureba saRamo saTis zarnaSos kvnesas... (ana 127). Tu davixrCvebi, Rvinom damaxrCos, vgavde yayaCos saTisxalians... (ana 128). TeTrisa da Savis gamoyenebis mxriv, rogorc vxedavT, Cvens saanalizo poetur teqstebSi xelSesaxebi gansxvaveba ar aRmoCnda. rac Seexeba ruxis, rogorc mesame aqromatuli feris, elferebs,

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ana kalandaZesa da muxran maWavarianTan TeTri-Savi leqsemaTa nairgvarobiTaa warmodgenili: mglisfer RrublebSi gminva moismis... (ana 52). sardafidan amodian dairebi... vercxlisferad, ... ialeben... (ana 125). roca cxenebi mogvgvares: nislisferai _ anaso! (ana 217). vai rom ufrore xSirad feri xSirdeba ruxi (muxrani 174). haeri TiTqos nacrisferia (muxrani 351).

diapazoni

asfalti wylisferia, _ etyoba wuxandeli cvari (muxrani 351) (wylisferi _ odnav monacrisfro _ qegli 1986:568). xan ferad Svindi, xan ferad lega, _ rekavs samreklo _ xmadakarguli (muxrani 106). Jruna qaTmebi abuzulan qliavis Ziras (muxrani 242). winaT, rodesac Seni zeca iyo yomrali (muxrani 115).

`erTimeores amkveTreben ukiduresad~ sxvadasxva feris (aqromatuli/qromatuli, qromatuli/qromatuli) erT konteqstSi xmarebiT feri poeziaSi ufro SesagrZnobi xdeba, ufro mkveTrdeba iseve, rogorc samyaroSi: gaTenda, _ sZlia ganTiadma wyvdiadi urCi; ganTviTeulda yvelaferi SuqiT uecrad; irgvliv ferebi;

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TeTri, mwvane, wiTeli, lurji _ erTimeores amkveTreben ukiduresad (muxrani 329). TeTri yvavili lurj mindorze dajdeba rokviT... (ana 106). TeTr Rrublebidan aRmocenda mTvare yviTeli (muxrani 344). muq lurj caze mtredisferi nisli curavs... (ana 111). molurjo qedis mTel sigrZeze siwiTle gawva, _ dRe axlovdeba... (muxrani 265). muxran maWavarianis poeziaSi orze meti feriT Seqmnili suraTebic gvxvdeba: rogor gaburRa Savi belti mwvane Reroma, _ viT ganefina xodabunze jejili lurji (muxrani 347). gzadagza xvdeba ferebi saTis... ferebi Tovlis... ferebi Sindis... (muxrani 206). visac gazafxuls veZaxdiT maSin, Zlier uyvarda mxatvroba visac, vinc wamdauwum Txupnida miwas _ cecxlisfrad, TeTrad, wiTlad da yviTlad... (muxrani 385). ferTa gamosakveTad ramdenime maTganis erT konteqstSi gamoyenebac ar aRmoCnda is maxasiaTebeli, romelic qali poetisa da ma-

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makaci poetis mier samyaros suraTis xedvis, aRqmisa da am suraTis reproduqciis gansxvavebulobas dagvanaxvebda. `miwa ferWrelobs _ Semosili cisartyelaTi...~ qromatuli ferebiT marTlac rom `ferWrelobs~ orive poetis Semoqmedeba, magram _ aramxolod cisartyelas ferebiT. pirvel cxrilSi warmovadgenT im ferTa aRmniSvnel leqsemebs, romlebic orivesTan Segvxvda, meore cxrilSi ki asaxulia TiToeulis gansxvavebuli ferTa gama:
ana kalandaZe muxran maWavariani vardisferi TeTri lurji mwvane yviTeli Savi cisferi wiTeli A ana kalandaZe muxran maWavariani

Tovlisferi rZisferi

ferebi Tovlis TeTri, rogorc rZis wveTi ferebi saTis

`saRamo saTis~; `yayaCos saTisxalians~

A ana kalandaZe alisferi vercxlisferi zurmuxtisferi iisferi lalisferi laJvardisferi lilisferi mglisferi mtredisferi nislisferi oqrosferi yvavisferi yornisferi Zowisferi wablisferi

muxran maWavariani agurisferi zRvisferi Tixisferi mewamuli nacrisferi Jruni ruxi ferad lega ferad Svindi ferebi kiris yomrali cecxlisferi wylisferi

orive cxrilSi leqsemebi anbanTrigzea dalagebuli. maTi gamoyenebis sixSires rac

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Seexeba, Cveni saanalizo teqstebis mixedviT, anasTan Warbobs _ lurji, TeTri, wiTeli; muxranTan _ mwvane, TeTri, lurji. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, irRveva yofaSi gavrcelebuli azri, romelic, amave dros, socialur mecnierebebSi damkvidrebuli debulebaa imis Sesaxeb, rom qalebi vardisfers aniWeben upiratesobas. Cven mier ganxiluli poeturi diskursebidan proporciulad, Tanac mxolod TiTo-TiTo magaliTis moxmoba SegviZlia vardisfris gamoyenebisa: mefereba mze alersis mTxovars, vardisferad caman CamomTova... (ana 83). Zroxis vardisfer curidan rZis TeTri Cxirebi wamdauwum gamosxivdebian xolme (muxrani 251). arc is dadasturda, TiTqos mamakacebi speqtris ZiriTad ferebs ufro `swyaloben~, qalebi ki ferTa specifikur dasaxelebebs `etanebian~. cxrilTa monacemebis safuZvelze ki sabolood unda uarvyoT genderul fsiqologiasa da genderul sociologiaSi gavrcelebuli erTi stereotipuri mosazreba _ qalebi ferTa ufro farTo speqtrs aRiqvamen, vidre _ mamakacebi. cxadia, es SemosazRvrul empiriul masalaze dayrdnobiT miRebuli daskvnaa. Cveni mcire kvleva, ra Tqma unda, ar kmara analizis Sedegebis gansazogadeblad. magram Tundac erTi qali poetisa da erTi mamakaci poetis mier feris amdenad msgavs aRqmasa da sametyvelo qmedebaSi mis erTnair gamoxatvas mxolod SemTxveviTobas ver mivawerT. es faqti saanalizo poetur diskursTa (poetebis genderul wyvilTa) gazrdis interessa da aucileblobas hbadebs. TviT poeturi metyveleba imdenad specifikuri diskursia, imdenad gansxvavebuli movlenaa, rom SesaZloa, aramxolod aRniSnuli, aramed genderul fsiqologiasa da genderul sociologiaSi gavrcelebul sxva debulebaTa stereotipurobac eWqveS dadges. am varaudis Sesamowmeblad ki araerTi genderpoetikuri kvlevaa Casatarebeli. literatura maslova 2004: .. . . . qegli 1986: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, erTtomeuli. Tbilisi.

Tamar taliaSvili teqstis gagebis strategiebi

ilias saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori; ZiriTadi naSromebi: brbos fsiqologia mixeil javaxiSvilis adreul moTxrobebSi; siyvarulis universaluri koncefcia vasil barnovis filosofiur moTxrobebSi; postmodernizmis postulatebis aqtualizacia qarTul klasikur literaturaSi. interesta sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba, meTodika, ganaTlebis fsiqologia.

mxatvruli teqstis gagebis problema filologiis safuZvels warmoadgens. s.s. averincevis cnobili ganmartebiT `filologia gagebis samsaxuria~. mxatvruli teqsti moicavs azrTa usasrulo siRrmesa da interpretaciis amouwurav SesaZleblobebs, rac misi wakiTxvisa da kvlevis uamrav xerxs badebs. dRes-dReobiT teqstis wakiTxva gansxvavebuli principebiTaa SesaZlebeli. magaliTad, struqturalisturi poziciebidan: binaruli opoziciebis gamoyofiTa da struqturis aRmoCeniT, `formaluri~ mxaris gaanalizebiT da a.S. teqsti SesaZloa daeqvemdebaros dekonstruqcias da wakiTxul iqnas, mxolod rogorc winaaRmdegobrivi, `Ria~, dausrulebeli, aRqmul iqnas, rogorc mkvdari kulturebis `sasaflao~, romlebic `kvalad~ toveben sakuTar `aryofnas~. kvlav aqtualuri gaxda sxvadasxva hermenevtikuli praqtika: Suasaukuneebis praqtikidan, nawarmoebis romantikuli subieqturi gancdidan, mkiTxvelis teqstisadmi kongenialurobis moTxovnidan, avtoris pirovnebis, misi fsiqologiisa da Sinagani samyaros emociuri da intuiciuri wvdomidan dawyebuli, damTavrebuli g.g. gadameris, p. rikerisa da sxvaTa hermenevtikis safuZvelze aRmocenebul Tanamedrove koncefciebamde. literaturuli nawarmoebebi SesaZloa ganvixiloT mxolod miTologizaciis TvalsazrisiT, teqsti SesaZloa sruliad gaqres wakiTxvisas, daikargos teqstTaSorisi kavSirebis usasrulobaSi. tradiciuli literaturaTmcodneoba nawarmoebis gagebisaTvis istoriul poetikas mimarTavs; na-

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warmoebs ikvlevs Janrobrivi tradiciebis aspeqtSi, ama Tu im literaturuli mimarTulebis, epoqis sulieri cxovrebis konteqstSi, da a. S. es ZiriTad midgomaTa mxolod nawilia. amavdroulad, Tanamedrove filologiuri azrovnebisTvis refleqsia literaturaze ar SeiZleba iyos dayvanili erT romelime Teoriamde - piriqiT, is warmoadgens gansxvavebul skolaTa da mimarTulebaTa uwyvet kamaTs literaturaTmcodneobis amosaval cnebebsa da safuZvlebze. cnobili frangi mecnieris a.kompanionis azriT, literaturaTmcodneobis yvelaze sakamaTo sakiTxia avtorisa da teqstis urTierTmimarTeba, sakamaToa avtoris intenciis gaTvaliswineba azris gansazRvrisas. `literaturis Teoria gvaZlevs relativizmis gakveTils, da ara pluralizmisa; sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, gansxvavebuli pasuxebi SesaZlebelia, misaRebia, magram SeuTavsebeli, isini ver Tavsdebian erTian da srulyofil warmodgenaSi literaturaze, urTierTgamoricxaven erTmaneTs, asaxeleben da axasiaTeben ra literaturad erTsa da imaves; maTSi ganixileba ara erTi da imave obieqtis gansxvavebuli mxareebi, aramed gansxvavebuli obieqtebi.~ Zveli an axali, sinqronia an diaqronia, Sinagani an garegani _ yvelaferi es erTdroulad SeuZlebelia. literaturis kvlevaSi `meti niSnavs naklebs, amitom gvixdeba arCevanis gakeTeba~, _ wers a. kompanioni. amgvarad, Cven ar SegviZlia gansxvavebul midgomaTa arc Sefaseba, arc erTmniSvnelovani arCevanis gakeTeba romelime maTganis sasargeblod... am Cixidan gamosavals gvTavazobs v.s. bibleris kulturis filosofiuri logika. misi azriT, es mravalsaxeoba, safuZvelTa mudmivi gansja _ Tanamedrove gonebis krizisis maCvenebeli ki ar aris, aramed misi arsobrivi Tvisebaa. Tanamedrove gonebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli gageba dialoguria, e. i. xorcieldeba rogorc gagebaTa gansxvavebuli tipebis dialogi. bibleris mixedviT, literaturis WeSmariti gageba SeiZleba aigos, rogorc dialogi gansxvavebul TeoriaTa da diskursTa Soris: Teoretikosis, kritikosis, komentatoris. swored dialogi, da ara meqanikuri Sejameba, vinaidan gagebis es xerxebi upirispirdebian erTmaneTs sagnis arsze gansxvavebuli warmodgenebis gamo. am dialogSi gagebis gansxvavebuli tipebi da meTodebi problematurad aqceven erTmaneTs, gamokveTen sakuTar safuZvlebs. es sakiTxi ganskuTrebiT aqtualuria Tanamedrove saskolo literaturul ganaTlebaSi, romlis mizania, saSualo skolis moswavleebSi esTetikuri gemovnebis da masTan dakavSirebuli gansakuTrebuli unaris teqstis gagebis unaris ganviTareba da aramxolod mxatvruli teqstebis, aramed filosofiuri literaturis, samecniero statiebisa da sxva teqstebis gaazrebuli kiTxvisa da Sefasebis unari. garda amisa, Tuki imasac gaviTvaliswinebT, rom Cveni mozardebis umetesobas ara aqvs literaturis kiTxvis moTxovnileba da ar esmis, Tu risTvis aris es saWi-

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ro, skolis amocanaa am motivis formireba. saWiroa imis gaazreba, rom sagans SeiZleba SevxedoT gansxvavebuli kuTxiT, rom arsebobs sagnis gagebis gansxvavebuli logika, rac TavisTavad mniSvnelovania im ideis Camosayalibeblad, romelsac k. s. bibleri uwodebda `dialogurs~ da XXI saukunis adamianisaTvis sakvanZod miiCnevda. am naSromSi Cven gvindoda gansasjelad gamogvetana zogierTi mosazreba literaturuli ganaTlebis Sesaxeb skolaSi. saubari iqneba, upirveles yovlisa, literaturuli nawarmoebis gaazrebuli swavlebis strategiebze. gamomdinare Teoriuli mocemulobidan, Cveni azriT, SeiZleba gamoiyos mxatvruli teqstis gaazrebis ori principulad gansxvavebuli tipi, romelic Seesabameba or pozicias: davarqvaT maT pirobiTad `mkiTxvelisa~ da `Teoretikosis~ poziciebi. mkiTxvelisaTvis yoveli nawarmoebi unikaluria da ganumeorebeli, is ver eteva veraviTar (JanriT, epoqiT) winaswar mocemul sqemaSi. is aRiqvams teqsts rogorc nawarmoebs, rogorc piradad misTvis gankuTvnil saTqmels da cdilobs gaigos, ganmartos es saTqmeli. is `tkbeba harmoniiT~ da iTavisebs azrobriv koliziebs da imavdroulad qmnis axal teqsts. swored `mkiTxvels~ (da ara `Teoretikoss~) SeuZlia `Rvaros cremli mogonilze~, ganicados `SiSi da tanjva~, e. i. SeuZlia Seimecnos da ganicados samyaro, romelic mwerlis fantaziis nayofia, cocxaliviT aRiqvas mwerlis mier mogonili personaJi. kargi `mkiTxvelis~ erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi Tvisebaa ganviTarebuli warmosaxva da empaTiis unari. karg mkiTxvels SeuZlia dainaxos~ dabinduli qliavisferi mTebi,~ yurZeni, romelic `uZveles brZolas waagavs~, an gza, romelsac miuyveba naxevradmZinare Sarl bovari ganTiadisas emasTan pirveli Sexvedris win, SeuZlia ema bovaris TviTmkvlelobis scenis kiTxvisas SeigrZnos dariSxanis gemo tuCebze. `Teoretikoss~, upirveles yovlisa, ainteresebs Janris, istoriuli epoqisa, an mTlianobaSi, literaturis, poetikis zogadi kanonebi. individualuri mas ainteresebs rogorc zogadis variacia. teqstis gageba `TeoretikosisaTvis~ niSnavs, aRmoaCinos, rogor vlindeba konkretul teqstSi avtorisaTvis, JanrisaTvis, an epoqisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli teqstis organizaciis wesebi, azris meqanizmi, msoflmxedveloobrivi motivebi da a. S. teqstis analizs is udgeba sakuTari xerxebiT, gagebis garkveuli sqemebis gamoyenebiT. `Teoretikoss~ SeuZlia gaemijnos `mkiTxvelisaTvis~ damaxasiaTebel sakuTar emociebs. arsobrivad ~mkiTxvelisa~ da `Teoretikosis~ poziciebi urTierTgamomricxavia. romanSi Cven vxedavT an unikalur istorias, an cnobili literaturuli motivebis jaWvs. imavdroulad, es poziciebi Sinaganad miiswrafian erTmaneTisaken. mkiTxvelis subieqturoba xorcieldeba metaforebis, gamWoli mo-

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tivebis, siuJetebis konfliqtebisa da teqstis sxva elementebis subieqturi ganmartebiT, magram imisaTvis, rom moswavlem Seimecnos, gamoyos es elementebi, unda flobdes Teoriul cnebebs. imisaTvis, rom gaiazros teqsti, rogorc piradad misken mimarTuli avtoris gamonaTqvami, mkiTxvelma unda Seiswavlos nawarmoebis ena, e.i. daikavos Teoretikosis pozicia. aseve piriqiT, Teoretikosi xdeba is, vinc cdilobs Teoriulad gaiazros mkiTxvelis intuicia. `mkiTxveli~ da `Teoretikosi~ ekamaTebian erTmaneTs da saWiroeben erTmaneTs. Cveni azriT, ufro zusti iqneboda visaubroT ara `Serwymaze~, aramed ganviTarebuli mkiTxvelis cnobierebaSi am poziciaTa urTierTSevsebaze. amgvarad, Tu vaRiarebT moswavleebis mier Teoriul-literaturuli codnis aTvisebis mniSvnelobas,* problemuri xdeba, Tu rogor aiTviseben mas. Tanamedrove Teoriuli azrovneba agebulia rogorc aRmasvla abstraqtulidan konkretulisaken, zogadidan kerZosaken. Sinaarsobrivi ganzogadebis gziT gamoiyofa `sawyisi mimarTeba~, romelic gansazRvravs sagans, ayalibebs `zogad cnebebs~, Semdeg yovel calkeul SemTxvevaSi is ivseba konkretuli SinaarsiT. amgvar `zogad cnebad~ mkvidrdeba `Tvalsazrisi~, romelic saSualebas iZleva, damyardes urTierToba avtorsa da nawarmoebSi aRweril movlenebs Soris. Tanamedrove literaturaTmcodneobaSi kvlevebis mTeli mravalferovnebis, universalobis, da udavo aucileblobis miuxedavad, mxatvrul teqstSi azris warmoqmnisa da misi interpretaciis SeswavlasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi kvlav gadauWreli rCeba. Tanac, teqstebis umravlesoba `mouxelTebelia~ kvlevis meTodikebisa da koncefciebisaTvis, ar esadageba wakiTxvis arc tradiciul da arc novatorul xerxebs. arsobrivad, es gasagebicaa, vinaidan mxatvruli nawarmoebis buneba amouwuravia da misi dayvana racionalur formulirebebamde SeuZlebelia. amgvarad, Tanamedrove filologiasa da meTodikaSi aqtualuri gaxda kiTxvis axali strategiebis kvleva. amas safuZvlad udevs poetikis Seswavla azris TviTwarmoqmnis TvalsazrisiT, romelic yalibdeba mxatvruli nawarmoebis konteqstSi da gamoiyeneba mkiTxvelis mier teqstis analizisa da gagebisaTvis. mniSvnelovan faqtorad, romelic ganapirobebs wakiTxvis strategiebis Ziebas Tavad teqstSi da gviCvenebs misi gamoyenebis efeqturobas, gansakuTrebiT, pedagogiur praqtikaSi, gvevlineba Txrobis enigmatizmi, e.i. sxvadasxva `ucnaurobebi~, `Seferxebebi~ semantikur struqturaSi, teqstis azrobrivi qsovilis `wyvetebi~ da a.S. fsiqologiaSi cnobilia, rom `gaugebari~ ganapirobebs esTetikuri komunikaciis SeCerebas da Tavad mkiTxvelis azris warmoqmnis refleqsiis dawyebas, hermenevtikuli interesis gaCenas. imave funqcias asruleben azris gansxvavebuli stilisturi figurebi, romlebic mowodebulia, raTa CarTon parasemantikaze

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(SemTxveviT asociaciebsa da maT refleqsur SerCevaze) gadasvlis procesi. amgvari figurebi (etimologiuri, wriuli gansazRvrebebi da a.S.) filosofiuri teqstebis magaliTze aRwerilia o.b. vainSteinis mier (vainSteini, 1994) gamokvlevaSi `romantikuli azri enaSi~. magram figurebi, romlebic asruleben imave funqcias, gvxvdeba mxatvrul nawarmoebebSic da maTi kvleva aseve metad aqtualuria. aseTive kategorias ganekuTvneba konteqstisaTvis gaurkveveli Sedarebebi, mkiTxvelisaTvis ucnobi saxelebi da a. S. -----------------------------------------------------------saswavlo programebis literaturis TeoriiTa da istoriiT gadatvirTva kidev erTi problemaa, romlis winaaRmdegac gamodis ,,sapasuxo kriticizmis~skola(l. rozenblati,d. probsti). miiCneven, rom avtoris ganzraxva, biografiuli faqtebi, forma da sxva literaturuli Sexedulebebi SeiZleba mniSvnelovani iyos, magram yvelaferi es aris mxolod nawili mkiTxvelis mier Seqmnili mniSvnelobebis erTi didi mozaikisa. maTi azriT, maswavlebeli xdeba mrCeveli, damxmare, rom moswavleebma warmarTon sakuTari azrebi da Seqmnan sakuTari mniSvnelobebi. azris warmoqmna yovelTvis mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli teqstis warmoqmnasTan. hermenevtikuli refleqsia, im SemTxvevaSic ki, rodesac mimarTulia mTliani teqstis Semecnebisaken, arasodes aris yovlismomcveli. is yovelTvis axdens operirebas fragmentebiT, an detalebiT, ris Sedegadac, qmnis teqsts teqstidan, teqsts teqstSi da axdens mis interpretirebas. mkiTxveli misdevs Sinaarss da uRrmavdeba `araavtoriseul~ teqstebs teqstSi, romlebsac ara aqvT `CarTuli~ teqstisa da `monaTxrobis~ saerTo niSnebi. amgvari `teqstebis~ gamoyofis principi semiotikuria (gaormagebuli semiotika samyaros SigniT, gamoxatuli sityviT sityvaSi), `es SesaZloa iyos teqsti sicocxlisSemoqmedi an sivrcobrivi, pirovnebisa an saxelis, Teatralizebuli an zmanebiseuli da a.S.~ es teqsti (teqstSi) iqmneba `aRmqmelis cnobierebis mier wakiTxvisa da interpretaciis strategiebis Sesabamisad teqstis sivrceSi ganfenili fragmentebisagan dominirebadi azrobrivi centris (azrTa Taviseburi `SekavSirebis wertilis~) irgvliv da iZens sruliad konkretul maxasiaTeblebs. axali masalis mozidvisas am teqsts (teqstSi) SeuZlia, `Secvalos parametrebi~ gafarTovdes, gaRrmavdes, nawilobriv gardaisaxos azris warmoqmnis invariantis safuZvelze), gaamravlos interpretaciebi.~teqstis gaazrebis es meTodologia pedagogisgan moiTxovs interpretirebad mxatvrul nawarmoebSi mimdinare azrisa da teqstis warmoqmnis procesebis ganuyofel mTlianobad ganxilvas, risTvisac igi mimarTavs mxatvruli teqstis wakiTxvisa da interpretaciis strategias azris war-

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moqmnis dominantis safuZvelze. Tavad es dominantebi mWidro kavSirSia erTmaneTTan, TiTqmis erTi meoreSi gadadis: saxeli modeli motivi (persona sivrce _ movlena). vfiqrobT, saxeli _ mxatvruli praqtikis yvelaze arqauli, statiuri da sinTeturi (miTologiuri) forma SesaZloa, safuZvlad daedos araerT momdevno struqturas. gacilebiT logikuria saxelTa poetikidan (saxelebis wakiTxvidan) gadasvla modelze (mis kavSirze sivrcobriv warmodgenebTan), da mxolod Semdeg motivze (mis kavSirze movlenasTan). samive cneba mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan da SesaZloa ganvixiloT, rogorc `Sekvecili~ motivi. i. m. lotmanis azriT, motivi SesaZloa ukavSirdebodes xatebis sivrcobriv tips (lotmani, 1975). gavixsenoT terminebi `nawarmoebis anTroponimuri sivrce~, `TxrobiTi sivrce~ Tanamedrove literaturaTmcodneobaSi. r. bartis mosazreba, rom teqsti aris interteqsti da Zveli citatebisgan Seqmnili axali mxatvruli qsovilia, SeiZleba miviCnioT erTgvar bazisur postulatad, romlis safuZvelze SevecdebiT qarTul literaturaSi moZiebuli, garkveulwilad, myari qsovilis saxiT Camoyalibebuli mxatvruli saxeebis interpretirebas. mimarTebebis Camoyalibebisas, vefuZnebiT teqsts, rogorc epoqisagan mowyvetili TviTnebiT struqturas da proecirebas vaxdenT swored am kuTxiT. am mxriv, gansakuTrebiT mdidar mxatvrul-saxeobriv fons warmoSobs vaJas poemebis proecireba miTologizebul siuJetebze. samyaro, rogorc qaosi, mocavs ormag ganzomilebas_dro-sivrcul kontinuums, erTgvar ganfenilobas, sadac kondensirdeba urTierToba gmirebs Soris da am urTierTobaTa ganviTareba droSi. aluda qeTelaurisa da mucalis, joyolasa da zviadauris Sexvedra garkveulwilad exmianeba am sakiTxs. sakraluri veli, romelic am gmirebs Soris sulieri kavSiris Camoyalibebis arealia, warmodgenilia magiur wred, romlis wiaRSic adamianis suli SiSvldeba da aRqma proecirebulia ara garegnul niSnebze, aramed sulier sawyisze. Sesabamisad, sivrce warmodgenilia, rogorc miwier ganzomilebaze zeamaRlebuli samyofeli. Y,,stumar-maspinZelSi~ qistebis sofeli _ ,,salis kldeebis taxtiTa~, ,,aluda qeTelaurSi~ naxsenebi ,,axlebi~ (,,axlebo, sisxli gifuiT~) da ,,baxtrionSi~, XI TavSi Camoyalibebuli ugrZnobi samyaros Sinagani buneba, romelic ganmartoebulia, rogorc aRsaydrebuli ,,salis yinulis taxtzeda~ _ erTiani Sris momcveli fsevdosamyaros erTgvari xatia. vaJa Tavisi poemebis miTosur wiaRSi qmnis garkveuli, sulieri siwmindisagan gaZarcvuli potencialis sauflos. Tu pirveli da mesame magaliTi leqsikur fonze (saxelebiT) ayalibebs garkveul paralels, analizs saWiroebs mindias mimarTva Satilelebisad-

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mi. rogor unda gaviazroT ,,axlebis~ arsi, Tuki maT Soris vxedavT uSiSsac. asec rom ar iyos, axalgazrdebi ver gabedavdnen aludas Seuracxyofas. axlebSi unda moviazroT axali cnobierebis matarebeli sazogadoeba. sazogadoeba, romelic dafuZnebulia garkveul arealze, romlis cnobierebac mowyvetilia RvTaebriv sibrZnes, anu, rogorc avtori aRniSnavs _ ,,axalia~. samive monakveTi sivrculi maxasiaTebelia im garemosi, sadac moqmedeba xdeba. miTosuri Sre Zalian mkafioa vaJas poemebSi. ,,aluda qeTelaursa~ da ,,stumar-maspinZelSi~ xorcieli gmirebis gverdiT saxldebian devebi; ,,gvelismWamelsa~ da ,,baxtrionSi~ _ gveli, rogorc sibrZnis gansxeuleba, udides zemoqmedebas axdens adamianis cxovrebis wesze. luxumisa da mindias ziarebas bunebismier sibrZnesTan win uZRvis miwieri samyaros or ganzomilebad daxleCa. sibrZnis samkvidro mxolod idealuri sulieri wiaRis mqone pirovnebebs uxsnis kars Tavis saufloSi, sadac yvelas rodi SeuZlia SeRweva. gmiri aRmoCndeba iseT samyaroSi, romelic nebismieri xorcielisaTvis miuwvdomelia. sivrcis amgvari realizacia garkveul kavSirSia drosTan: ,,eRirsebao luxumsa laSaris gorze Sadgoma~. avtori momavalSi warmogvidgens gmiris dabrunebas. momavali sruliad SeuzRudavi da amoucnobi, ganusazRvreli da Seucnobia. Tuki warsuli garkveul kvals tovebs cnobierebaSi warmosaxviTi kadrebisa da SegrZnebebis saxiT, ukve warsulis kuTvnilebaa, momavali sruli abstraqciaa, anu dro, rodesac SeiZleba ganxorcieldes patieba Cadenili danaSaulis gamo (baxtini). mexsiereba warsuls ukavSirebs garkveul sivrces, momavali ki am TvalsazrisiT sruliad ganyenebulia, amitom simulacia am mimarTulebiT ufro TvalsaCinoa. dro-sivrcul kontinuumSi unda ganvixiloT sizmarTa samyaro. aludas sizmari, iseve, rogorc lelasa da kvirias sizmari, erTgvari RvTiTavsilobaa, im TvalsazrisiT, rom gmirebi winaswar ganWvretisa da siRrmiseuli Secnobis unariT xasiaTdebian. mniSvnelovania, ra datvirTvas aZlevs amas Semoqmedi. misi azri ki calsaxad ikveTeba poemebSi _ vaJas gmirebisaTvis sizmarSi xorcieldeba kaTarzisis fundamentireba, Sesabamisad, es aris absoluturi sibrZniT, anu RvTaebrivi sibrZniT aRvsebis idealuri forma, romelsac SeiZleba eziaros ubralo mokvdavi. zRapari, miTi TavisTavad asaxavs simulaciur elementebs, ufro mZafradac ki, vidre uSualod teqsti, rogorc gamonagoni. avtori sruliad mowyvetilia realobas, magram raki aTvlis wertils mainc is warmoadgens, anu arekvla misi zedapiridan xdeba,

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SeuZlebelia ugulebelvyoT masTan interteqstualuri kavSiris safuZvelze Camoyalibebuli hiperrealoba, romelic avtoriseul Rirebulebebzea proecirebuli. Zneli saTqmelia, ramdenad SeiZleba miviCnioT preteqstad vaJas qmnilebebSi proecirebuli garkveuli mimarTebebi, magram interteqstualur WrilSi ganxilvis SesaZlebloba aSkarad gveZleva. ,,stumar-maspinZlis~ is monakveTi, rodesac aRazas sinanulis Jams micvalebulTa sulebi mosdeven, Zalian hgavs Zvel berZnul miTs, rodesac micvalebulTa movlinebas hadesidan win uZRvis cocxalTa sinanuli. es erTgvari preteqstia. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa Crdilo-evropuli eposis erTgvari invariantebi _ ,,gvelismWameli~ da ,,aluda qeTelauri~.unda aRiniSnos, rom mklavis mokveTis mTavari arsi mdgomareobda saiqioSi mtris uxmlod, anu Sercxvenili piriT gastumrebaSi. Tu ar hqonda marjvena, xmalsac ver daiWerda. skandinaviuri valhala iyo saiqio, sadac gmirebi xmalamowvdilni miemarTebodnen. kidev erTi invarianti - ,,gvelismWamelis~ gmiri - mindia SeWams gvelis xorcs da da sibrZniT aRivseba. ,,simRera nibelungebze~ mogviTxrobs, rom zigmundma (zigfridma) saocari unari SeiZina, roca fafniris (gveleSapis) sisxliT ganibana. sxva versiiT, man fafniris guli SeWama. aSkara interteqstualur mimarTebas vxedavT ,,aluda qeTelaurSi~. mindia sayvedurobs TanamedroveT: guls aTrevinebT gonebas, Tavs aWrevinebT culiTa... guli-d goneba Zmania~. gavixsenoT ,,vefxistyaosnis~ 857-e strofi: ,,guli, cnoba da goneba erTmaneTzeda hkidian; ra guli wava, igica wavlen da misken midian; ugulo kaci ver kacobs, kacTagan ganakidian.~ ,,avtoris niRabi~ _ postmodernizmis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani postulati _ gansakuTrebiT faqizi dakvirvebis sagania, radgan misi garCeva avtoris komentarisagan, xSir SemTxvevaSi, garkveul siZneles ukavSirdeba. ,,stumar-maspinZelSi~ aRazas sikvdilis scenaSi vxvdebiT saintereso striqonebs: ,,Tavs nu iklavo~! aba, Tu erTma urCios mainca.~ am CarTviT vaJa mkiTxvelis yuradRebis miqcevas, mis gamofxizlebas cdilobs da TanagrZnobisken mouwodebs. TiTqos eSinia, ar aRmoCndes moumzadebeli mkiTxvelis pirispir da masTan komunikaciuri kavSiris aRdgena surs. amasTan, gmirebis aRdgena sikvdi-

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lis Semdeg aris bazisuri realobis _ ,,aRdgomis~ _ erTgvari damaxinjeba-simulakri. ,,avtoris niRabi~ ufro aSkarad iCens Tavs ,,baxtrionis~ XVI TavSi: ,,_ vis mogilocoT saxeli, vina xarT saxeliani?~ avtori komentars aRar akeTebs. mimarTavs uSualod gmirebs, rogorc erT-erTi personaJi. gansakuTrebiT, sainteresod migvaCnia al. yazbegis ~xevisber goCaSi~ ZiZias mxatvruli saxis interpretacia, rogorc bodriariseuli satyuaras erTgvari gamovlineba.gavixsenoT, cekvis scena, romelic uswrebs ZiZias gamoCenas nawarmoebSi. aq qali da mamakaci erTgvari ritualuri TamaSis gmirebad gvevlinebian. es wre droisa da sivrcis viwro arealSi ganasxeulebs sapirispiro sqesTa maradiul urTierTltolvas, magram, imavdroulad, avlens konkretuli sqesisaTvis niSandobliv qvecnobier individualur niSnebs. al yazbegi SesaniSnavad aRwers am scenas: ,,ager mirbis mkrTals arCvsaviT moxevis romelime SavTvala qali. imisi saxe sruls SiSs gamosTqvams, radganac arwivsaviT mklavebgaSlili kaci misdevs Tavis msxverpls. nazi qmnileba TandaTan dundeba, kaci eweva, ai wuTic da gulSi Caikravs SeSinebuls, qedansaviT akankalebul qals, magram molodini ar umarTldeba. erTbaSad mardad gatrialebuli qali xelidan ecleba da meore mxares gamxtari fexs aTamaSebs. guldawyvetili kaci gascqeris, xedavs Tavis msxverpls momxiblavis RimiliT da moJuJune TvalebiT, romelnic imas iwveven, ipatiJeben da TiTqos eubnebian: ,,damiWire da me gagrZnobineb sicocxlis sitkboebas!~ qali gvevlineba daucvel, magram dauZlevel Zalad, romelic mamakacs imorCilebs Tavisi ususurobiTa da momxiblavobiT. ,,arc erT qals, arasodes daukargavs nebelobis fundamenturi forma, romelic amave dros cdunebas ejaWveba. sxeuli, siamovneba, survili, uflebebi - sxva saqmea. magram qali yovelTvis iyo wyvdiadis, gaqrobisa da gaelvebis momxibvleli TamaSis warmmarTveli da aqedan gamomdinare, yovelTvis SeeZlo sakuTari ,,gamgeblebis~ uflebebis daCrdilva. arasodes vxiblavT ZaliT an Zalismieri niSnebiT. ufro sisustiT. cdunebisas mTavari amosavali sisustea, rac swored amgvari TamaSisas iZens Zlevamosilebas~ (bodriari). cduneba ukvdavia, is iyo, aris da iqneba, rogorc sikvdili, bediswera da sicocxle. TamaSi arasodes unda wydebodes. ZiZia, rogorc ,,gaqrobis esTetika~, ikargeba dro-sivrceSi, erwymis usasrulobas, raTa meored moevlinos qveyanas. avtori arafers ambobs

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misi aRsasrulis Sesaxeb. is udanaSauloa, rogorc bediswera, movlenebi misgan damoukideblad viTardeba, is satyuaraa. bodriaris azriT, acduno niSnavs, mokvde, rogorc realoba da daibado satyuaris saxiT. am SemTxvevaSi subieqti mojadoebul samyaroSi aRmoCndeba. ZiZia aRmoCnda mojadoebul samyaroSi, misi arseboba erTgvari TviTnebobaa, romelic gamoricxavs danarCen samyaros. amitomac ZiZia kontaqtSi ar Sedis mis garSemomyof adamianebTan. is mTlianad CaZirulia sakuTar arsSi da ixsneba mxolod onisesTan _ kacTan, romelic mis mier cdundeba. sainteresoa, rom ZiZia arasodes cruobs. ar cruobs maSin, rodesac sakurTxevlis winaSe dgas. arc maSin, rodesac gugua cdilobs mis mxilebas. onise ZiZias macdurs uwodebs, is xedavs safrTxes, magram Sepyrobilia suliT-xorcamde da amitom sikvdili gardauvalia. onise sulierad, rogorc kaci _ movaleobis da wesis aRmsrulebeli _ kvdeba. is Ralatobs Tavis WeSmaritebas. cduneba kargavs da amaxinjebs realobas. ,,iyo moxibluli, niSnavs iyo cdunebuli sakuTari WeSmaritebisagan. moxiblo - niSnavs acduno mavani misive WeSmaritebiT. es WeSmariteba amieridan misgan asxletili saidumloa~ (bodriari). pirveli Sexvedris dros onise ZiZias saxes ver xedavs, magram rodesac qalis mxurvale xels Seexeba, usiamovno grZnoba Seipyrobs, romelsac Tavad ver xsnis. meored, rodesac ZiZia guguasTan mohyavs, mas jvarulis xma dasaflavebis galobad eCveneba. es SeiZleba or planSi ganvixiloT. pirveli, is rom onise kargavs sayvarel qals, meore _ is winaswar Wvrets sakuTar daRupvas. onise cdilobs, Tavi daicvas cdunebisgan. is tovebs xevs, TiTqos maxes ugebs bedisweras. cdilobs, myarad irwmunos sakuTar WeSmariteba, magram yvela SemTxvevaSi, yvelanair mcdelobas is mihyavs daRupvisaken. bodriaris azriT, nebismieri cduneba narcisistulia. misi idumaleba momakvdinebel yovlis STanTqmulobaSia. amitomac, qalebisaTvis, romelTaTvisac ufro axlobelia sarke, sadac ,,eflobian~ sxeuliTa da saxiT, aSkarad bunebrivia cdunebis efeqti. mamakacebs meti siRrme aqvT, magram ar gaaCniaT saidumlo. amaSia Zalac da uZlurebac. cduneba subieqtis idealuri miraJiT ar warmoiSoba, magram arc sikvdilis idealuri miraJia misi dvrita.

ramaz xalvaSi `lurja cxenebis~ interteqsti


`lurja cxenebi~ 1915 wels daiwera da pirvelad 1916 wels daistamba Jurnal cisfer yanwebSi (1), mTawmindis mTvaresTan erTad. g. leoniZis cnobiT, es leqsebi qarTvel simbolistTa periodul gamocemaSi galaktionis nebarTvis gareSe moxvda. amasve adasturebs d. benaSvilic (benaSvili 1972:5). magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom qarTvelma sazogadoebam Jurnalis gamosvlamde icoda cisferi yanwebis gverdebze am leqsebis dabeWdvis Sesaxeb, advilad davrwmundebiT avtoris protestis formalur xasiaTSi. miT ufro, rom g. tabiZe sabolood swored sazogadoebis guliswyromam da kritikam CamoaSora cisferyanwelTa saliteraturo Jurnalsac da jgufsac (tabiZe 2004:457). `lurja cxenebis~ erT-erT saintereso interpretacias Tavad galaktioni gvTavazobs. 1946 wliT daTariRebul mis daumTvrebel CanawerSi vkiTxulobT: `1. lurja cxenebi novatoruli leqsia. 2. mas safuZvlad udevs realuri safuZveli. 3. Sinaarsi misi realisturia. 4. forma uaRresad musikaluri, manamde ar arsebuli. 5. igi dawerilia samecniero Temaze. mecnierebaSi mtkiced dadgenil debulebaze, rom dedamiwis gareSe arsebobs maradisi, gasxivosnebuli mxare, sadac araa sicocxle; 6. nislis namqeri ganaTebuli Camavali mziT da napiri im samudamo mxarisa. 7. sityva elvarebda aq mocemulia hiperbolurad.

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori, baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis qarTuli filologiis departamentis xelmZRvaneli. ZiriTadi naSromebi: tbel abuserisZis saxismetyveleba, tbel abuserisZis galobani mwvalebelTa SeCuenebisani, sveti-cxovlis saswauli ninos cxovrebis arqetipSi, asurel mamaTa hagiografiuli cikli (VIIXVIII ss.), xalxurkarnavaluri elementebi hagiografiaSi, andria pirvelwodebulis qadageba saqarTveloSi (Zveli qarTuli literaturuli wyaroebisa da axali qarTlis cxovrebis mixedviT), sparsuli gavlenis SiSi vefxistyaosanSi, cxenTa Sejibrebis interteqsti qarTul poeziaSi... interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba, teqstologia, semiotika.

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8. ar sCanda Senapiri saubaria religiaze, romelic adamianebs aparebs, rom sikvdilis, am SemTxvevaSi gardacvalebis Semdeg, arsebobs kidev sxva cxovreba e. i. samoTxe. 9. civi mdumareba samudamo mxarisa. 10. miusafari mdumareba, e. i. axsnili, ganmartebuli mdumareba, winaaRmdeg auxsneli, ganumartebeli, naTeli mdumarebisa (sikvdili da ara sicocxle). 11. mdumareba da sicive gayinva ara sicocxle. 12. simwuxare samaradiso mxarisa. 13. ucecxloba _ cecxli saxe sicocxlisa, cecxlis krToma TvalebSi usicocxlo Tvalebi. 14. kidev simbolo maradisi mxaris~ (tabiZe 2004:1718). galaktionis es komentari SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT mis CanawerTa cikls ~sakuTari leqsebis Sesaxeb~, romelSic, sxvaTa Soris, dawvrilebiT aris ganxiluli ~mTawmindis mTvare~. am leqsis analizi iwyeba erTgvari sayveduriT literaturaTmcodneebisa da kritikosebis mimarT, romelTac ver SeZles kvlevis swori gziT warmarTva: ~es leqsi (~mTawmindis mTvare~) miuxedavad imisa, rom Zalian popularulia, sakmarisad Seswavlili ar aris, rogorc erT-erTi gasaRebTagani Cemi Semoqmedebisa. am leqsSi usaTuod sCans poeti, romelic Tavis Semoqmedebas ukavSirebs mecxramete saukunis poeziis korifeebis Semoqmedebas, acxadebs ra Tavis Tavs nikoloz baraTaSvilisa da akaki wereTlis poeziis memkvidreT. aq mTvaris SuqSi gaxveuli msubuq sizmariviT mosCanan mtkvari da metexi... aq axalgazrda poetis axlo sZinavs moxuci poetis lands, akaki wereTlis lands; baraTaSvilsac xom aq uyvarda oblad siaruli; ilia WavWavaZesac, dimitri yifiansac da aq poeti ambobs: ~de, mec movkvde simRerebSi tbis sevdian gedad~ (lirikis koncepcia), oRond vsTqva Tu Ramem sulSi rogor Caixeda. (kavSiri bunebasa da adamianis suls Soris), Tu sizmarma viT Seisxa cidan camde frTebi (Zala aRmafrenis, poeziis, ronantizmis), da gaSala ocnebaTa lurji ialqnebi (romantizmi lurjis, cisferi ocnebis). ialqnebi zRvaze, sulic aRzrdilia am zRvaze, cxovrebis zRvaze, ~sicocxlis zRvaze, romelzedac lurji ialqnebis gza midis, TviT sikvdilis gzac ki araferia masTan SedarebiT, am sicocxlesTan SedarebiT da TviT sikvdilis gzac ki vardisferia da ara saSineli (swored igive hanri renies TqmiT, ~moulodneli gancvifreba vardisferisa da Savi feris Sexvedrisagan~), rom am gzaze (swored vardisfer gzaze) mgosanTa siTamame, gabeduli xma aris sinamdvileze ufro meti sinamdvile hiperboluri, zRapruli, ~rom mefe var da poeti da simReriT vkvdebi~ (tabiZe 1975: 150151).

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mkvlevrebi (burWulaZe 1980:173-178; kenWoSvili 1999:131; kveselava 1977:62) sxvadasxva teqstebTan da personaJebTan avleben `lurja cxenebis~ mxatvrul da literaturul paralelebs: platonis dialogi `fedoni~, antikuri miTologia (pegasi), dantes gerioni (jojoxeTis XVII T.), baironis `kaeni~, goeTes `fausti~, baraTaSvilis merani, aleqsandre blokis `Tormetni~, andrei belis `qriste aRsdga~, konstantine balmontis `sami cxeni~, valeri briusovis `cxeni mwvane~ da sxva. TviT es faqti lurja cxenebis polifoniur xasiaTze miuTiTebs. gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom ~lurja cxenebis~ semantikas gansazRvravs ara imdenad Txroba, ramdenadac ritmi. amasTan dakavSirebiT s. sigua wers: ~gavixsenoT galaktionis ~lurja cxenebi~ (1915 w.), romelsac yvela kiTxulobs, romelic yvelas uyvars, Tumca aravin icis ratom da risTvis, an ras gvauwyeben am mistiuri leqsis SeSlili striqonebi~ (sigua 2002:208). sapirispiro azria gatarebuli galaktionis komentarSi, romelic gvauwyebs, rom ~lurja cxenebs~ safuZvlad udevs realuri safuZveli... Sinaarsi misi realisturia~. gavyveT avtoriseul interpretacias: ~lurja cxenebi~ ~dawerilia samecniero Temaze. mecnierebaSi mtkiced dadgenil debulebaze, rom dedamiwis gareSe arsebobs maradisi, gasxivosnebuli mxare, sadac araa sicocxle~. galaktionis am komentariT safuZveli ecleba leqsis erT-erTi mTavari mxatvruli saxis ~samudamo mxaris~ ganmartebas bibliur-qristianul ~sulTa samyofelad~, ZvelberZnul hadesad, qarTul SaveTad Tu kolxur oSureTad (sasuleTi). samudamo mxare sikvdilis saufloa, sadac ar Cans `Senapiri~, e. i. danapirebi, aRTqmuli samoTxe, anu, rogorc Tavad avtori ganmartavs, `ar sCanda Senapiri saubaria religiaze, romelic adamianebs aparebs, rom sikvdilis, am SemTxvevaSi gardacvalebis Semdeg, arsebobs kidev sxva cxovreba e. i. samoTxe~. religiur-miTologiuri gaazrebis nacvlad, samudamo mxare avtoriseul recefciaSi astronomiul warmodgenebs ukavSirdeba, romlebic lurja cxenebis esTetikur samyaroSi bibliur-qristianuli angelologiis adgils ikavebs. mTeli samyaro erT did samares emsgavseba, riTac xorcSesxmulia RmerTis sikvdilis nicSeanuri idea: `RmerTi mokvda da masTan erTad misi maginebelnic (nicSe 1993:16). usasrulo da usicocxlo samyaroSi adamianis Tvali mxolod erT napirs xedavs, romelic galaktions sasikvdilod gamzadebul, Camaval mzes agonebs. samudamo mxare usicocxloa, iq arc nugeSia da arc TanagrZnoba. misi Semzaravi mdumareba civi da miusafaria, ris warmodgenac usasoobisa da mwuxarebis gancdas warmoSobs: rogorc nislis namqeri, Camaval mziT naferi,

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elvarebda napiri samudamo mxareSi! ar Canda Senapiri, ver vnaxe veraferi, civ da miusafari mdumarebis gareSe. mdumarebis gareSe da sicivis TareSSi samudamo mxareSi mxolod simwuxarea! leqsis lirikuli gmiri samudamo mxares sikvdilis gziT uerTdeba. mis daSretil TvalebSi ar krTis sicocxlis cecxli da arc mis suls uxaria, radgan ver ipova Senapiri saukuno Sveba: `cecxli ar krTis TvalebSi, wevxar civ samareSi, wevxar civ samareSi da arc suls uxaria. sikvdili mefobs miwazec. misi tradiciuli simbolo (ConCxi) leqsSi mravlobiTi xdeba. ConCxiani tyeebis metaforiT avtori migvaniSnebs, rom TiToeuli adamiani sxeuliT daatarebs momavali sikvdilis xatebas. adamianTa SeSlili saxeebi aryofnis winaSe eqsistenciur SiSs gamoxataven: SeSlili saxeebis ConCxiani tyeebiT usuldgmulo dReebi rbian, miiCqarian! am metaforis eskizs vxvdebiT galaktionis leqsSi `uxilavs~ (1912 w.), romelic rusi marinistis ivane aivazovskis naxatiTaa STagonebuli: `mze dasavliT iRvelfeba, Ramis bindi xlarTavs Cadrebs, lurj cis fskerze sxivi kvdeba, salams aZlevs ConCxebs da mkvdrebs~. ConCxiani tyeebis mwyobri metaforis Camoyalibebaze zegavlena mouxdenia rusi simbolistis valeri briusovis sam kumirs (1913 w.), romelic ritmiT da simbolikiT sxva mxrivac enaTesaveba lurja cxenebs: , , , , ... ; ; , , , , , , , . briusovis es leqsi istoriul motivebzea agebuli. sami kumiris scena peterburgia, cxenze amxedrebuli imperatorebis (petre pirvelis, nikoloz pirvelisa da aleqsandre mesamis) qandakebebiT. misgan gansxvavebiT, lurja cxenebis dinamiuri da ganzogade-

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buli saxe-simboloebi scildeba viwro istoriul-geografiul qronotoposs. `lurja cxenebis mTavari saxe-simbolo saTaurSivea mocemuli. sityva lurja, romelic qarTul folklorsa da literaturaSi ramdenadme gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobiT cocxlobda, meored iSva galaktionis poeziaSi. modernistulma garemom da ~lurja cxenebis~ parateqstma es sityva (Tavdapirveli mniSvnelobiT molurjo ruxi feris cxeni) imTaviTve epiTetad gadaaqcia da semantikiT lurjsa da cisfers gauTanabra. es orive feri ki, rogorc a. xinTibiZe wers, galaktions romantikuli poeziis arsenalidan aqvs aRebuli (xinTibiZe 1992:126). rusul TargmanebSi lurjas Sesatyvisi cisferia: (Sdr.: d. reifildiseuli Targmanis Blue-Grey horses). ferweruli asociaciebic swored am niSniTaa nakarnaxevi. magaliTad, r. siraZis azriT, lurja cxenebi exmianeba vasili kandinskisa da franc markis mier 1911 wels miunxenSi daarsebuli almanaxis lurji mxedris saerTo mimarTulebas (siraZe 2002:78-83). i. kenWoSvili ki miiCnevs, rom ~lurja cxenebis~ ferweruli analogia modernis stilis (arnuvos) warmomadgenlis, uolter kreinis (18451915) suraTi ~neptunis cxenebia~, romelSic ~zRvis talRebidan dabadebuli lurja cxenebi napirisaken moqrian~ (kenWoSvili 1999:92). Tavad galaktioni lurja cxenebis interteqstis Sesaxeb saubrisas qarTul poetur tradiciaze miuTiTebda: ori merania: merani avTandilis da merani baraTaSvilis, isini sxvadasxvagvarni arian, saWiro iyo maTi SeerTeba. da es me movaxerxe. Cemi merani SeTavsebaa am ori sxvadasxvaobis: rusTavelis riTmis dacva (galaktionis TqmiT, n. baraTaSvilma, iseve rogorc gr. orbelianma, anton kaTalikosis `poetikis~ zegavleniT, uari Tqva rusTavelis `Seudarebel musikalur~ riTmaze r. x.), baraTaSvilis ritmis gamoyeneba, azris gaRrmaveba, _ ai, lurja cxenebi (tabiZe 1975:141142). meranisagan gansxvavebiT, lurja cxenebSi Tavidanve waSlilia gansxvaveba winaparTa saflavebsa da ucxo samares Soris, bedis samZRvris erTjeradi gadalaxva Secvlilia lurja cxenebis usasrulo da ganmeorebadi trialiT, unikaluri merani _ mravlobiTi cxenebiT (SaTiriSvili 2004:181). baraTaSvilis Tavganwiruli mxedris arqetipi tarielis saSvelad mimavali avTandilia, galaktionis lirikuli gmiri ki sikvdilis saufloSia gadasuli civ samareSi wevs, sicocxlisaken iltvis da ukvdavebas eswrafis. amis mauwyebelia lurja cxenebis daucxromeli rbola. ase, rom lurja cxenebi swored im wertilidan iwyeba, sadac Tavganwiruli mxedari amTavrebs Tavis gzas. amgvaria galaktionis tesera

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n. baraTaSvilis `meranTan~: `sizmarian CvenebiT - Cemi lurja cxenebiT CemTan moesvenebiT! yvelani aq arian!~ lurja cxenebis `yvelani~, `mTawmindis mTvaris~ `aCrdilTa~ msgavsad, gardacvlil poetebs gulisxmobs. asea gamoxatuli galaktionis Semoqmedebis kavSiri warsulis poetur tradiciasTan. lurja cxenebi etlebiT (Sdr.: `aq mkvdrebi dahqrian zRapruli raSebiT da bedis etlebiT~, `domino~, 1916) moasveneben poetTa aCrdilebs. dgeba apofradesis Jami da micvalebulebi sizmarian Cvenebad ecxadebian leqsis lirikul gmirs. Ramis, saflavebisa da sizmris invariantuli motivebi gvibiZgeben, rom yvelaSi, upirvelesad, qarTveli poetebi vigulisxmoT, maT Soris akaki da vaJa, romlebic `lurja cxenebis~ daweris dros ukve gardacvlilni arian (akaki gardaicvala 1915 wlis 26 ianvars, vaJa 27 ivliss): mgosnebo, SeRamda da Zvirfas saflavebs, panTeons miveciT Zvirfasi sameba: ilias cremlebi, akakis xanjali da vaJas gardasul dReebze wameba... SeRamda. me waval iq, sadac sizmrebi wignebSi daroben momxiblvel TvalebiT (dro, 1915). niSandoblivia, rom amave leqsis (dros) erT-erT variantSi avtori ixsenebs n. baraTaSvilis merans: meraniT gafrena dRes arvis SeSvenis. sxvagan galaktioni baraTaSvilis merans `zarmac cxens~ uwodebs (sigua 2002:309), galaktionis cxenebi ki Cqari grgvinva grialiT hqrian. `lurja cxenebis Sinagan logikas amgvarad mivyavarT leqsTa da cxenTa Sejibrebis cnobil motivamde, romelsac jer kidev antikuri xanis mwerlebTan vxvdebiT. galaktioni am SejibrebaSi Tavisi lurja cxenebiT erTveba, romelic misi poeziis emblema da poeturi kodia. vefxistyaosnis (viTa cxensa Sara grZeli...) Semdeg cxenTa Sejibrebis motivi Tavs iCens qarTuli poeziis ganviTarebis yvela axal etapze (xalvaSi 2002:140149). mamuka baraTaSvilis jimSedianSi poetTa marulas rusTaveli meTaurobs: SoTa zis unes, mxedari igi keTilad wvrTilebsa, ebaZnen, dasxdnen mravalni TvisTvissa daxednilebsa; amave Temas Cveuli TviTironiiT exmianeba daviT guramiSvili: mec mreven meranT jogSigan, Tu SevsZel gajagjageba; swored am konteqstSia gansaxilveli galaktionis lurja cxenebi: `Cqari grgvinva-grialiT hqrian lurja cxenebi!~ cxenTa Sejibrebis motivs galaktioni efemeraSi ajamebs,

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sadac pirdapir migvaniSnebs, rom lurja cxenebis saxesimboloSi igi Tavis leqsebs gulisxmobs: o, ramdeni dacxreba Suriani Tvalebi, rom marad imarjveben idumali SvenebiT leqsTa Sejibrebaze mxolod integralebi, cxenTa Sejibrebaze isev lurja cxenebi!. galaktioni am sityvebiT mxatvrulad afiqsirebs `lurja cxenebis~ (da, saerTod, Tavisi Semoqmedebis) warmatebas, triumful svlas qarTul poeziaSi da Tavis Tanamedrove poetTa damokidebulebas am leqsisadmi (saerTod, Tavisi Semoqmedebisadmi). `vwuxvar erTaderTi var~, _ swored am poetebis gasagonad ambobda galaktioni, radgan araerTi maTgani cdilobda, misTvis metoqeoba gaewia: paolo iaSvilma am mizniT `wiTeli xari~ airCia `gamwev Zalad~, tician tabiZem `cxeni angelosiT~, alio mircxulavam `elvis raSebi~, xolo terenti granelma ramdenime leqsi dawera `lurja cxenebis~ metriTa da riTmiT, zog maTganSi riTmebis ganlagebac analogiuria (marsiani 2004:90). lurja cxenebis meoTxe strofSi sikvdiliT moniWebuli Sveba n. baraTaSvilis poetur xatebas amoativtivebs. sikvdiliT sruldeba lurja cxenebis lirikuli gmiris amqveyniuri tanjva vneba-wameba, gardacvalebiT mTavrdeba misi cremliani cxovreba da niSandoblivia, rom swored aq iCens Tavs baraTaSvilis poeziasTan dialogi (kenWoSvili 1999:158), Tanac negatiur (ar menaneba / ar inameba / gaqra vneba-wameba) konteqstSi: iCqarian wamebi, me ki ar menaneba: cremliT ar inameba samudamo baliSi; gaqra vneba-wameba, rogorc Ramis zmaneba, viT sulis xmovaneba locvis simxurvaleSi. Sdr.: aq lbils mdeloze sanugeSod viname cremliT (`fiqrni mtkvris piras~) `ginaxavT suli, jereT umanko, mxurvale locviT miqancebuli~ (`SemoRameba mTawmindazed~) `lurja cxenebis~ teqstualur qsovils ar/ver fonetikuri jgufi faravs. negatiuri bgerwera leqsSi maproducirebeli tropis rols akisrebs sityva `araras~ (SaTiriSvili 2004:9798), negatiuri bgerwerisa da apofatikuri gansazRvrebebis fonze mTeli Tavisi sidiadiT warmoCndeba galaktioni, rogorc poeti da Semoqmedi. lurja cxenebis rbola cecxlis xetialTan da bedis trialTanaa Sedarebuli. civ da miusafari sikvdilis saufloSi cxenebi cecxlis stiqiasaviT Cndebian da bedis samZRvaris Caketili wre irRveva: viT cecxlis xetiali, rogorc bedis triali,

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Cqari grgvinva-grialiT hqrian lurja cxenebi! aq ar SeiZleba, ar gavixsenoT galaktionis leqsebi Semoqmedeba (1909 w.) da wuTi (1910 w.), romlebSic avtori SemoqmedebiTi aqtis dros bedis damorCilebaze saubrobs: ~moxdeba xolme, ca mizidavs ganusazRvreli, varskvlavTa Soris, sxivTa tbaSi ara myavs toli. vbrZaneb: tyis SqerSi gaCumdeba niavi neli. vityvi da TrTolad gadiqceva verxvis foToli. mze CemTvis brwyinavs da mefe var yovlismoqmedi... Cems xelSi aris maSin Cemi mZvinvare bedi~ (~Semoqmedeba~); maviwydeba am dros RmerTi, wuTs vumoneb gulis Zgeras, radgan RmerTi CemSivea da meve vqmni bedisweras (wuTi). lurja cxenebisa da adrindeli leqsebis mxatvrul Sinaarss amjeradac `efemera~ agrZelebs. masSi galaktioni RmerTs iseTive `did saidumlos~ uwodebs, rogoric TviTonaa: `win! im usazRvrobaSi mwuxarebas aitan. Cemebr did saidumlos me iq mivesalmebi~. lurja cxenebis mexuTe strofSi avtori ubrundeba samarisa da sikvdilis motivebs, raTa ufro TvalSisacemi gaxdes kontrasti, erTi mxriv, Semoqmedebis, poeziis ukvdav bunebasa da, meore mxriv, xsovnis da saRvTo saSveblis ararsebobas Soris. isev amotivtivdeba `mesaflavis~ (1912 w.) nacnobi motivebi: adamianTa Soris qreba xsovna: saflavze `yvavilni ar arian~ (`Sdr., `mesaflave~: `raRad undaT, rad sWiriaT Tqvens saflavebs vard-yvavili? / an ras gargebT mokvdav kacTa samudamo cremlTa frqveva?~); sikvdilis Semdgomi, aRTqmuli netareba ~Sveba-sizmari~ ki ar arsebobs: `yvavilni ar arian, arc Sveba-sizmaria! axla ki samarea Seni gansasvenebi!~. leqsis meeqvse strofSi avtors Semoaqvs apokalifsuri saxe simboloebi, rasac TvalSisacems xdis `ioanes gamocxadebis~ perifrazi: `vixile ca gaxsnili, da TeTri cxeni da misi mxedari iwodeba erTgulad da WeSmaritad, da simarTliT ganikiTxavs da ibrZvis. misi Tvalebi cecxlis alsa hgavda (Sdr.: `cecxli ar krTis TvalebSi~), mas Tavze mravali jiRa edga da zed ewera saxeli, romelic mis metma aravin icis~ (gamocx. 19.11-12). Sdr.: `romeli scnobs Sens saxes, an vin ityvis, Sens saxels? vin gaigebs Sens Zaxils, Zaxils vin daijerebs~ variantebSia: vin gaigebs Sens saxels, saxels vin daijerebs~. galaktionis apokalifsur xilvebs Tanamedrove istoriuli qartexilebi ubamda mxars. pirveli msoflio omis dawyebisTanave

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wers igi leqs ~gubes~ (1914 w.), sadac acxadebs: ~apokalifsis gadaimsxvra kldeebze cxeni... gamoiRviZeT! Surisgeba aryevs niobas gadairRveva napirebi... da gadalekavs Zvels, exla mainc daRupvis Rirss kacobriobas...~ amave Tematikas agrZelebs 1915 wels dawerili usaTauro leqsi (`***geZebdi yvelgan~) da niSandoblivia, rom am leqsSic, gansakuTrebiT, mis variantebSi, SeiniSneba `ioanes gamocxadebis~ reminiscenciebi: `sanatrelia mZime taxtebi, raa imisTvis cecxlis gaCena, lurja ocnebis sami mxedari vinc qaosebSi SemoaWena~. bolo ori taepi avtografebSi sami variantiT gvxvdeba: ~amomaval mzis sami mxedari~*; ~apokalifsis mZafri mxedari vinc qaosebSi SemoaWena~; ~vin gaacofa lurja cxenebi vin qaosebze gadaaWena~. bolo kiTxvasxvaobebi TvalnaTliv gvidastureben, rom lurja cxenebis saxe-simbolo warmomavlobiT ioanes gamocxadebis interteqsts ukavSirdeba. magram ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom galaktionTan apokalifsuri saxeebi da simboloebi RmerTs ki ar miesadageba, aramed lurja cxenebis lirikul gmirs, romelic Camavali mziT nafer poeziis samyaros moevlina, rogorc `apokalifsis mZafri mxedari da axali RmerTi (Sdr.: exla yvelafers... yvelafers vqmni axali RmerTi). demiTologizebuli apokalifsuri simboloebia mocemuli `lurja cxenebis~ meeqvse strofis bolo taepebSic: `veravin ganugeSebs saocrebis ubeSi, sZinavT bnel xveulebSi gamoucnob qimerebs!~. qimerebis Sinaarsi naTelia. am sityvas galaktioni sesxulobs zogadsimbolisturi sakvanZo sityvebis salarodan. rogorc i. kenWoSvili aRniSnavs, `axal poeziaSi~ qimeras gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba hqonda mopovebuli. amis dasturia nervalis `qimerebi~, poloneli modernistebis Jurnali `qimera~, misi qarTuli analogi Jurnali `faskunji~ da qarTuli poeziisa da xelovnebis urTierTdaaxloebis Taviseburi gamovlineba - `qimerioni~ (kenWoSvili 1999:158). magram ras unda aRniSnavdes `saocrebis ube~? mkvlevarTa nawili am metaforas `saocnebo ubesTan~ aigivebs, rac, Cveni azriT, dauSvebelia, radgan warmoudgenelia amgvar ubeSi adamiani unugeSobas grZnobdes. sityva `saocrebas~ galaktioni arqauli mniSvnelobiT iyenebs, ris gaTvaliswinebac saSualebas gvaZlevs, CavwvdeT `saocrebis ubis~ metaforul gaazrebas. saqme is aris, rom `saswauli~ da `saocreba~ Zvel qarTul enasa da saeklesio literaturaSi or, er-

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TmaneTisgan sruliad gansxvavebul movlenas aRniSnavda. saswauli momdinareobda RvTisgan, xolo saocreba (// saucreba) ukavSirdeboda eSmaks: kurTxeul ars ufali RmerTi isralisa, romelman yvis saswauli mxoloman (fsal. 71.18). eliTa mociqulTaTa iqmneboda saswaulebi da niSebi (saqme 5.12). eseviTarTa saswaulTa iqmoda qriste eliTa netarisa grigolisiTa (`gr. xanZTelis cx.-ba~). Sdr.: saocrebasa mas kerpisasa ganicdida (`ninos cxovreba~); eSmaki... didsa saucrebasa cxadad da farulad hyofda (`gr. xanZTelis cx.-ba~); gamouCnda saocari saxiTa sazarelisa guelisaTa (`axalni saswaulni wm. giorgisni~). amgvarad, `saswauli~ da `saocreba~ iseve arian gamijnulni erTmaneTisgan, rogorc rusuli da . swored es aris arsebiTi galaktioniseul `saocrebis ubeSi~. poeti aq gulisxmobs gveleSapis, drakonis, ZvelqarTuli `saocaris~, `saocrebis~ da rusuli -s sazarel ubes, riTac es metafora mniSvnelobiT uaxlovdeba `qimeras~ samTavian urCxuls, lomis TavmkerdiT, gvelis kudiT da Txis taniT. am strofSi apokalifsuri mxedris interteqsti (Sdr.: gamocx. 19) migvaniSnebs, rom ~lurja cxenebis~ avtori upirispirdeba simaxinjis simbolistur kults, `saocrebebisa~ da `qimerebis~ poezias: romeli scnobs Sens saxes, an vin ityvis, Sens saxels? vin gaigebs Sens Zaxils, Zaxils vin daijerebs? veravin ganugeSebs saocrebis ubeSi, sZinavT bnel xveulebSi gamoucnob qimerebs! samudamo mxare am strofSi warmogvidgeba, rogorc urCxulis, saocrebis ube, sadac qreba yovelgvari nugeSi. sikvdilis sauflos bnel xveulebSi mZinare gamoucnobi qimerebic mxolod uimedobas aRZraven. esqatologiuri simbolikiT datvirTuli esTetikuri brZola Tavis piks aRwevs da bibliuri interteqstis kvalad, leqsis momdevno strofi iwyeba triumfuli `SuqTa kamariT~, romelic metaforulad galaktionis poetur sityvaSi elvarebs: mxolod SuqTa kamara veraferma dafara: mSral ricxvebis amara udabnoSi Reldeba! gamoTqma `ricxvebis amara~ baraTaSviliseuli riTmis aluziaa (i. kenWoSvili): mxolod SuqTa kamara... mSral ricxvebis amara, Sdr.: ... bindi gadekra cisa kamaras, ... varskvlavi marto misa amaras! (`SemoRameba mTawmindazed~). `mSral ricxvebs~ neoplatonuri ideebis samyaroSi gadavyavarT. ricxvebis amara SeiZleba gavigoT, rogorc `mxolod ric-

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xvebis mqone~, riTac galaktioni migvaniSnebs Tavisi versifikaciis srulyofilebaze (Sdr.: aravin ruseTSi ise ar icis leqsis magia da algebra, rogorc v. briusovma t. tabiZe). poeti Tavadve miuTiTebda, rom lurja cxenebis forma uaRresad musikaluri, manamde ar arsebulia. niSandoblivia, rom efemeraSi `mSrali ricxvebis~ metafora integralebad gardaiqmneba: leqsTa Sejibrebaze mxolod integralebi. galaktionis poeturi qnaris RvTaebrivi musika gaismis amqveyniuri `udabnos~ siCumeSi: mSral ricxvebis amara udabnoSi Reldeba! Sdr.: `CemTvis martoden udabnoa mTeli qveyana... CemTvis martoden udabnoa Cemi samSoblo~ (~udabno~, 1914 w.); `Cems samSobloSi me movvle mxolod udabno lurjad naxaverdebi~ (`Tovli~, 1916 w.). lurja cxenebis bolo or strofSi galaktioni savsebiT misawvdomi mxatvrulad hipertrofirebuli saxe-simboloebiT laparakobs poeziis ukvdav bunebaze (6, 9). galaktionis poeziis waruvali SuqTa kamaris winaSe uZluria sikvdili. maradiuli mxolod lurja cxenebis rbolaa. maTi simaRlidan usuldgmulo dReebis mdinareba aRar moCans, SeSlili saxeebis ConCxian tyeebTan erTad qreba da qvesknelSi iZireba: SeSlili saxeebis ConCxiani tyeebiT usuldgmulo dReebi Cndeba da qveskneldeba. lurja cxenebis lirikuli gmiris sicocxlec da sikvdilic (zeviT Tu samareSi) simbolisturi poeziis iseTi niSniTaa aRbeWdili, rogoricaa wyevliT SeCveneba. amiT galaktioni pol verlenis dawyevlili poetebis Temas exmianeba. leqsis finalur strofSi samared qceuli kosmosis saxesimbolo transformacias ganicdis, nislis TareSi ukve lurja cxenebis qrolas imeorebs da galaktionis poeziis kosmiuri musika mxolod misTvis gankuTvnil sarbielze samudamo mxareSi mkvidrdeba, rogorc sicocxlis sikvdilze gamarjvebis maradiuli dResaswauli: mxolod nislis TareSSi, samudamo mxareSi, zeviT Tu samareSi, wyevliT SenaCvenebi, rogorc zRvis xetiali, rogorc bedis triali, Cqari grgvinva-grialiT hqrian lurja cxenebi! amgvari interteqstis gaTvaliswinebiT, aRar aris gasakviri, rom efemeraSi galaktioni apokalifsuri Zvirfasi TvlebiT mopikeTebuli axali ierusalimis (gamocx. 21.10,11,19-21) analogiiT qmnis axali lalis karTagenebis mravlobiT metaforas. leqsis lirikuli gmiris gza ki zecaze weria, riTac Cndeba herasadmi

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miZRvnili cnobili berZnuli miTis aluzia, nakarnaxevi sityva galaqtikis (berZn. rZis gza) galaktionis saxelTan naTesaobiT: `vwuxvar: erTaderTi var da zecaze sweria Cemi gza da axali lalis karTagenebi~. savaraudod, galaktions winaswar unda scodnoda cisfer yanwebSi misi leqsebis dabeWdvis Taobaze. metic, Cveni azriT, mTawmindis mTvaresa da lurja cxenebze arCevani swored avtors unda SeeCerebina, radgan orive leqss aerTianebs poeturi Sejibrebis Tema da am SejibrebaSi gamarjvebulad galaktioni Tavis Tavs acxadebs. literatura: baraTaSvili 1969: baraTaSvili m., TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, Tb. baraTaSvili 1968: baraTaSvili n., Txzulebani, p. ingoroyvas gamocema, Tb. benaSvili 1972: benaSvili d., galaktion tabiZe, Tb. burWulaZe 1980: burWulaZe r., mxolod integralebi, Tb. guramiSvili 1955: guramiSvili d., daviTiani, Tb. kankava 1964: kankava g., literaturuli etiudebi, Tb. kenWoSvili 1999: kenWoSvili i., galaktion tabiZis samyaroSi, Tb. kveselava 1977: kveselava m., poeturi integralebi, Tb. marsiani 2004: marsiani, galaktioni // galaktionologia, III, Tb. nicSe 1993: nicSe f., ese ityoda zaratustra, Tb. sigua 2002: sigua s., qarTuli modernizmi, Tb. siraZe 2002: siraZe r., galaktionis lurja cxenebi da vasil kandinskis lurji mxedari // Jurn. omega, 2002, 2. tabiZe 1966: tabiZe g., Txzulebani 12 tomad, I, Tb. tabiZe 1975: tabiZe g., Txzulebani 12 tomad, XII, Tb. tabiZe 2004: tabiZe g., fragmentebi // galaktionologia, III, Tb. SaTiriSvili 2004: SaTiriSvili z., galaktionis poetika da ritorika, Tb. xalvaSi 2002: xalvaSi r., cxenTa Sejibrebis interteqsti qarTul poeziaSi // baTumis saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi, IV (humanitarul mecnierebaTa seria). xinTibiZe 1992: xinTibiZe a., galaktioni Tu cisferyanwelebi, Tb. briusovi 1955: . . . 1, .

kulturis

semiotika
daviT bostanaSvili mniSvnelobis tvirTi

arqiteqtori. stu-s arqiteqturis fakultetis doqtoranti. ZiriTadi Sromebi: `arqiteqtura da xelisufleba~, `arqiteqturis semiologia~, `casaxle~. interesTa sfero: kulturologia, lingvistika, literatura.

iqces simbolod, daamkvidros idea, gamosaxos raime (mag.: imedi), aRZras asociaciebi _ mokled rom vTqvaT, ataros, zidos, itvirTos (an: Seqmnas) mniSvneloba _ arqiteqturis mudmivad Tanmdevi zeamocanaa. Tavad es azria Cveni werilis gansjis sagani. `aqvs Tu ara arqiteqturas sakuTari ena?~ am problemis garkvevis sakiTxi daisva wina werilSi (`naS/enis prezentacia~ semiotika 5, 2009). analizis obieqtad avirCieT taZari, kerZod wminda samebis sakaTedro taZris sakonkurso proeqtebidan (1990 w.) viqtor jorbenaZis1 varianti. winamdebare werili erT-erTi Tavia momavali wignisa `aTi wigni arqiteq(s)turis Sesaxeb~ (avt. SoTa da daviT bostanaSvilebi).

1990 wlis 9 marts batoni nodar mgalobliSvili (Tbilisis mTavari arqiteqtori) sapatriarqosadmi miweril werilSi viqtor jorbenaZis `wminda samebis sakaTedro taZris~ sakonkurso proeqts amgvarad afasebs (fragmentebi): `[proeqti] Tavisi arqiteqturuli gadawyvetiT pasuxobs dRevandel sulier moTxovnilebas da SesaZlebelia iqces erisa da qveynis aRorZinebis da erTianobis simbolod~; `es qarTuli arqiteqturuli tipi zustad amkvidrebs erTianobis ideas~; `... saqarTvelos yvela mxaris gaerTianebis imeds gamosaxavs, amave dros, iqmneba garkveuli asociaciebi qarTuli mravalxmiani simRerisa da mravalmTiani peizaJisa~ (xazgasma Cvenia _ d.b.).
1

viqtor jorbenaZe (1925-1999) _ cnobili qarTveli arqiteqtori, Tbilisis ritualebis sasaxlis, yvarelis ilia WavWavaZis muzeumis, muxaTgverdis nekropolisis da sxva nawarmoebebis avtori.

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Tu naSens SeuZlia garkveuli mniSvnelobis SemoTavazeba, es mniSvneloba niSanTa saxiT iqneba mocemuli, ufro zustad Cvens winaSe garkveuli sintagma iqmneba. arqiteqturul sintagmaSi, sadac mraval STabeWdilebasTan (formebi, sivrceebi, ferebi, masalebi, ganaTeba, masStabi, proporciebi, raodenobrivi kategoriebi) gvaqvs saqme, problemaa mniSvneli erTeulebis gamoyofa (`daWra~), radgan mniSvnelobis Seqmna swored danawevrebiT xdeba (artikulaciiT). es sintagma imgvari mocemulobaa, sadac sazRvrebi, romlebic sintagmaSi (niSanTa jaWvSi) erT niSans meorisgan hyofen, bundovania, gardamavalia; swored amgvar sintagmas SegviZlia vuwodoT rolan bartis kvalobaze `usasrulo (uwyveti) teqsti~ (`texte sans fin~). magram `sakaTedro taZris~ viqtor jorbenaZiseuli versia ara naSeni, aramed misi Canaweria, reprezentaciaa. swored proeqtis niSnur sistemad (suraTebi, gegmebi, fasadebi, teqstebi) warmodgenili naSeni (Cvens SemTxvevaSi ganuxorcielebeli, `virtualuri~), ukve artikulirebul (danawevrebul) realobas gvTavazobs; is aRweraa (diskretuli kodiT mocemuli) da Canaweria (analogiuri SetyobinebiT mocemuli); am niSanTa sistemis analizi SesaZleblad Cans (semiologiis mokle ganmartebac xom amgvaria _ mecniereba niSanTa Sesaxeb). amgvarad, proeqtis saxiT Cvens winaSea modeli*. Tavad avtorma SemogvTavaza danawevrebis miseuli versia. is, Tu rogor anawevrebs realobas subieqti (an _ ena), rogor gadaaqvs is niSanTa diskretul sistemaSi (cifrul kodSi) _ esec semiologiis interesis sagania. ganxorcielebuli naSenis SemTxvevaSi, Cven SevZlebdiT modelis sxva versiis SemoTavazebas Cveneuli aRwerebis, STabeWdilebebis, fotoebis mixedviT. * `gageba gulisxmobs erTi tipis realobis reducirebas meore tipad~ _ klod levi strosi miTis struqturis gamovlenisas, mas ramdenime qmedebad anawevrebs, axdens mis reduqcias da Txrobis magier miiReba aRwera. artefaqtis analizisTvis swored amgvari aRweraa sasurveli. magram meore sakiTxia, rom Tavad amgvari aRwera SeiZleba ukve artefaqti iyos. Tu Senobis `aRsawerad~ fotografias viyenebT, Tavad is iqneba mxatvruli faqti da swored am fotos poetika iqneba mTavari interesis sagani, rac garkveulwilad, fotografirebul saganzec gavrceldeba. pirveli sakiTxi swored aRweris garCevaa, ris Semdegac SevecdebiT semiologiuri aparati mivusadagoT mas da davadginoT, Tu ra saxis `diskursTan~ gvaqvs saqme _ simbolurTan, paradigmatulTan, sintagmaturTan*; sad gadis sazRvari kodsa da Setyobinebas** Soris; ra sintagmaturi erTeulebisgan (niSnebisgan) Sedgeba

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kodi, ganvasxvavoT semantikuri mxare semantikurad inertuli nawilebisgan da a.S. * niSnis Sida mimarTeba (aRmniSvnel-aRsaniSni), erTi mxriv, da meore mxriv, ori gare mimarTeba _ 1. sistemis danarCen (dauswrebel, virtualur) niSnebTan da 2. sintagmaSi mis gverdiT mdgom niSnebTan _ misi sami saxis warmosaxvas qmnis: simbolurs, paradigmatuls da sintagmaturs. am sami warmosaxvidan xan erTi iwevs win, xan meore, xan mesame. simboluri (siRrmiseuli) cnobierebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli dinamika formas da Sinaarss Soris ganaxlebis dinamikaa; paradigmatuli (formaluri) cnobierebisTvis _ garkveuli msgavsi da gansxvavebuli erTeulebis simravlidan erT erTis gamoTxovis, arCevanis dinamikaa; sintagmaturi (funqcionaluri) cnobierebisTvis niSandoblivi urTierTCanacvlebadi nawilebis montaJis dinamikaa. swored maTi kombinirebis procesia azris da sagnis qmnadoba [barti, 1962]. ** Tu enaSi sasruli moculobis kodi usasrulo Setyobinebebis warmoqmnas xdis SesaZlebels, sxva sistemebSi es SeiZleba ase ar iyos da ufro metic _ kodis da Setyobinebis faqtebis erTmaneTisgan garCeva gaWirdes. zogierT sistemaSi (mag.: arqiteqturaSi) enas-kods esaWiroeba semantikurad inertuli materialuri sayrdeni da gansxvavebadi nawili (varianti), romelic mniSvnelobas xdis SesaZlebels [barti 1964].

v. jorbenaZis taZris proeqti. winxedi Cvens statiaSi gamoviyenebT taZris or aRweras _ teqsturs da grafikuls. nawyveti avtoris ganmartebiTi baraTidan:

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`taZris proeqtis SemuSavebisas vxelmZRvanelobdiT qarTuli saeklesio xuroTmoZRvrebis mdidari tradiciebiT, centralur-gumbaTovani taZrebis gumbaTTa wamyvani mniSvnelobiT, Tbilisis eklesiebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Sverili afsidebiT da maTi rbili plastikis gamoZaxiliT nariyalas galavnebTan, kalasa da avlabris kedlis burjebze umtkivneulod mokalaTebuli aivnebis simravleebiT. taZris mxatvruli saxis SemuSavebisas angariSs vuwevdiT saqarTveloSi amJamad Seqmnil viTarebas, roca mTavaria eris Zalebis SeerTeba, misi nawilebis gaerTianeba. amitom taZris forma Seicavs mTavar elements da daqvemdebarebul nawilebs. mTavari gumbaTi batonobs kompoziciaSi, romelic Seicavs saqarTvelos oTxi mxaris eklesiaTa simboloebs _ oTx gumbaTs.~ Tavad avtori gvTavazobs misi proeqtis mTavar ideas _ saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxis eklesiebi (maTi transformirebuli aslebi) erTi centris irgvliv gaerTiandnen. amgvarad arqiteqtura warmodgenilia, rogorc raRacis (sasurveli realobis) reprezentacia*. is amgvar analogias efuZneba: rogorc sxvadasxva kuTxis saxasiaTo gansxvavebuli formebi dganan erTad, ise unda dadgnen sxvadasxva kuTxis warmomadgenlebi. aq jadosnuri azrovneba SeiZleba mogvagondes, sadac sagani (aq _ Senoba) Tilismad gvevlineba, rodesac niSans marTlac aqvs Zala (socialur-politikur) realobaze. proeqtis ritorika im aRmniSvnelebis sivrcea, romelTa aRsaniSnic ideologiaa; aq ena asaxelebs arqiteqturis ideologiur aRsaniSnebs. * swored reprezentaciis, rogorc simulaciis kritikas, gvTavazobs amerikeli arqiteqtori da Teoretikosi piter eizenmani (1932): `rodesac aRar aris gansxvaveba reprezentaciasa da realobas Soris; rodesac realoba mxolod simulaciaa, maSin reprezentacia kargavs Tavis a priori mniSvnelobis wyaros, da isic simulaciad iqceva~ ... `reprezentaciis simulaciis Sedegi is aris, rom arqiteqturuli elementebi reprezentaciul figurebad gadaiqcevian da mniSvnelobis tvirTs zidaven~ ... `arqiteqturaSi figuras mxolod erTi datvirTva aqvs: sagnis reprezentacia. arqiteqturuli figura yovelTvis cdilobs warmoadginos sxva sagani, arqiteqturuli, anTropomorfuli, bunebrivi Tu teqnologiuri~ [eizenmani 1984]. amis sapirispirod, eizenmans Semoaqvs arqiteqturis iseTi gageba, romelsac ar moixmar, ar aTvaliereb, aramed kiTxulob, rogorc teqsts `rasac xedav _ materialur sagans _ teqstia da ara sxva sagnebis an sxva mniSvnelobebis suraT-referenciebis seria~ [eizenmani 1984].

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arqiteqturis, ritorikis da ideologiis mimarTebis ukeT gamosaxatavad gamoviyenoT rolan bartis Semdegi sqema, romelic sam dones gvTavazobs: (1) saqme gvaqvs realur sistemasTan _ taZris proeqtTan, romelsac sakuTari aRmniSvnel-aRsaniSnebis (an: gamoxatvis da Sinaarsis) doneebi gaaCnia; (2) realuri sistemis aRmniSvnel-aRsaniSnebi Tavad gadaiqcevian aRsaniSnad, romlis aRmniSvneli (aRweris, Caweris saxiT) aq enaa, romelic realuri sistemis (aq _ proeqtis) metaenaa; (3) Tavad metaenis aRmniSvnel-aRsaniSnis done gadaiqceva aRmniSvnelad, romelsac ritorika SegviZlia vuwodoT da mis aRsaniSns _ ideologia; saqme gvaqvs konotaciis donesTan.
3 konotacia 2 denotacia: metaena 1 namdvili sistema aRmniSvneli aRmniSvneli: ritorika aRsaniSni aRmniSvneli | aRsaniSni aRsaniSni: ideologia

SesaZlebelia Tu ara am ritorikis miRma im aRsaniSnebis moZieba, rac mTlianad arqiteqturul diskursSi `jdeba~, sadac arqiteqtura sxvagan ar eZebs sakuTar mniSvnelobas? SesaZlebelia Tu ara, aRvadginoT realuri sistema _ anu Tavad proeqtis sakuTari aRmniSvnel-aRsaniSnebis done, swored is, rac arqiteqturul kods gulisxmobs? amisTvis SeiZleba imis aRiareba mogvixdes, rom arqiteqtura araviTar mniSvnelobas ar gvTavazobs; rom misi aRsaniSnebis statusi imdenad bundovania, rom uwyvilod darCenili aRmniSvneli (gamoxatvis plani) niSans ver qmnis. magram es ar gamoricxavs imis SesaZleblobas, rom arqiteqtura niSnur procesad ganvixiloT. semiologiuri analizis mocemuli mcdeloba Seecdeba im kodis (enis) aRmoCenas, romelic safuZvlad udevs samebis taZris sakonkurso proeqts. rogorc zemoT vnaxeT, am kods mTlianad faravs Sinaarsobrivi (ideologiuri) fena. am werilSi mxolod nawils gamoviyenebT konceptebis simravlidan, rac semiologiaSi lingvistikis gavliT dagrovda. Tu Cven mxolod avtoris teqsts daveyrdnobiT (da suraTSic igive Setyobinebis Ziebas daviwyebT), maSin mTeli proeqtis Sejameba amgvaria: saxezea sami simbolos Tavmoyra: galavani, gumbaTebi (eklesiebi), gvirgvini. es Senoba suraTia _ sadac nacnob qarTul peizaJs vxedavT _ galavans da mis SigniT Tavmoyril eklesiaTa gumbaTebs. Tumca galavani sxva masaliTaa Sesrulebuli da misi siluetic da plastikac sxvagvaria. aseve sxvagvarad gamoiyurebian minis gumbaTebi. gamoiwvia Tu ara masalebis cvlilebam simboloTa

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mniSvnelobis da saboloo Setyobinebis cvlileba? `Tanamedroveobis~ aRmniSvnelma masalam _ minam _ albaT swored `ganaxlebis~ (politikuri, socialuri, kulturuli) konotacia Semata Setyobinebas. magram rogorc qvemoT SevniSnavT, proeqtis Tanamedroved yofnis mdgomareoba ar aris myari. SeiZleba es is magaliTi iyos, rodesac `Tanamedrove masalebiT~ morTuli arqiteqtura Tanamedroveobis simulacias axdens. simboloTa (gumbaTTa) mniSvnelobis cvlilebas rac Seexeba, aq erT saintereso movlenasTan gvaqvs saqme: gumbaTi, rogorc cis kamaris simbolo, taZris interierSi xSirad moxatulia da warmogvidgens zecas. rodesac viqtor jorbenaZis proeqtSi gumbaTebma gamWvirvaloba SeiZines, isini gviCveneben (simbolurad) ara im zecas, aramed cas (realurad); ara kulturis cas, aramed _ bunebis. mesame simbolo wina orisgan imiT gansxvavdeba, rom is ar moiZieba arqiteqturul leqsikonSi _ is gvirgvinia, gadidebul masStabSi, romlis mfarvelobis qveSac imyofeba galavniT daculi, gaerTianebuli, ganaxlebuli qveyana. simboloTa amgvari Tavmoyraa `qarTlis deda~, romelic Tbiliss gadmohyurebs; sami simbolo (qali-deda, xmali da Tasi) amgvar verbalur uwyebad warmodgeba: samSoblo mters xmliT, xolo stumars RviniT umaspinZldeba. Setyobinebis advil wakiTxvadobas, gagebadobas farTod misawvdom kodebs (broadcast codes) popularuli kultura yvelaze aqtiurad iyenebs imisTvis, rom Setyobinebaze erTi mniSvneloba gabatondes da ar daemorCilos interpretaciul wakiTxvebs. aris Tu ara naSTi arqiteqturas (Zegls) da enobriv Setyobinebas Soris? Tu `qarTlis dedis~ magaliTze am gansxvavebas ver vipoviT, viqtor jorbenaZis proeqtSi rCeba is zedmeti, ris gamoc arqiteqtura arqiteqturaa da ara verbalurad gamoTqmuli idealebis ilustracia, (Tundac iseTi ide(al)ebis, rogoricaa `zeswrafva~ da misT.). SeuZliaT Tu ara simboloebs sintaqsur urTierTobebSi Sesvla, Tu isini mxolod erTmaneTis gverdze dgomiT qmnian Setyobinebas _ ara sintaqsiT, aramed parataqsiT. wminda samebis taZris proeqtis reprezentaciuli Setyobineba _ mSobliuri peizaJi, romlis Tavzec gvirgvini ilandeba _ emorCileba im kompoziciur wesebs, ris gamoc proeqtSi mZlavrobs taZruloba: Cvens mier CamoTvlili simboloebis _ gumbaTi, galavani, gvirgvini _ urTierTganlageba emorCileba kompoziciur wyobas: saxezea simetria, bizantiuri taZrebisTvis arsebiTi piramiduli vertikaluri ganviTareba, moculobebis erTi centris garSemo Tavmoyra da maTi jvrul gegmaze ganlageba. Tavad proeqtis fasadebi da gegmebi emorCilebian wre-kvadratis kombinaciebs. ra Sedegs gamoiRebda am sami simbolos sxvanairi dalageba? Seicvleboda Tu ara Setyobinebis mniSvneloba?

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qarTlis dedis magaliTze SegviZlia aRvniSnoT, rom sami simbolos swored aseTi ganlageba iZleva zemoTmoyvanil Setyobinebas; Tu Tasi da xmali figurasTan mimarTebiT sxva adgilas aRmoCndeba, sruliad sxva SetyobinebasTan gveqneba saqme. teqsti gveubneba erT rames da am teqstis semiologiuri Sejameba amgvaria: es proeqti-suraTia ramdenime metaforuli reprezentaciiT. is sxva mniSvnelobebis suraT-referenciebis seriaa. TeTri, plastiuri kedlebi amavdroulad kedlis (galavnis) metaforaa*; minis gumbaTebi amavdroulad gumbaTebis (saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxis eklesiebis) metaforaa; karkasuli gumbaTi, romelic minis mTavari gumbaTis gumbaTia _ gvirgvinis metaforad warmodgeba. * nebismieri kedeli, asrulebs ra erT da imave funqcias, erT paradigmatul vels miekuTvneba; magram, gansxvavebiT im kedlisgan, romelic rezidencias, agaraks d.a.S. gars akravs, nariyalas, ananuris, sveticxovlis galavani, icavs ra taZars, qalaqs, ufro did konotaciebs iZens Cveulebrivi kedlis mimarT da simbolurobisken miiwevs; aRvniSnoT, rom am SemTxvevaSi `dacvis~, `dafarvis~ konotaciebi (`gaerTianeba~, `daculi samSoblo~) ufro mniSvnelovani xdeba vidre is, marTla icavs Tu ara galavani nariyalas (utilitaruli denotaciebi). viqtor jorbenaZis proeqtSi TeTri plastiuri kedlebi, minis gumbaTebs rom Semoxvevian, ara mxolod vizualuri gamoZaxilia nariyalas galavnis; es kedeli, rogorc niSani, Tavis aRsaniSns (denotaciis done _ `SemomzRudavi konstruqcia~) Caanacvlebs meore niSnis (nariyalas galavani) aRsaniSniT, romlis konotacia, rogorc vTqviT gacilebiT farTea. aseTnair gadasvlas (rodesac erTi niSnis aRmniSvneli meore niSnis aRsaniSns iRebs) metafora ewodeba. amgvarad, farTo konotaciebiT datvirTuli metafora ukve ara imdenad niSani, ramdenadac simboloa. rodesac win iwevs niSnis Sida mimarTebebi (aRmniSvnel-aRsaniSni), da formis (zedapiris) siRrmiseuli mimarTebis gancda mravalsaxian, uZiro SinaarsTan, saxezea simboluri cnobiereba [barti 1962]. bartis Tanaxmad, amgvari cnobierebidan paradigmatul cnobierebaze gadasvliT SeiZleba davaxasiaToT struqturalizmi (da albaT, modernizmi). simbolos jadosnuri Zalis rwmena, analogiaze dafuZnebuli kompozicia, Sinaarsis (ideologiis) reprezentacia is maxasiaTeblebia, romlebic am proeqts ara-Tanamedrove statuss aniWeben. zemoT moyvanili gansja, romelmac gvaCvena, rom proeqti ama da am simboloebis Tavmoyraa, romlebic niSnavs amas da amas da maTi kombinacia iZleva amgvar Sinaarss, ver CaiTvleba semiologiur cdad. semiologias ainteresebs ara imdenad is, Tu ras niSnavs,

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aramed is, Tu rogor niSnavs. (am SekiTxvas Cven nawilobriv gaveciT pasuxi zemoT, rodesac proeqtis teqsturi nawilidan gamomdinare ganvacxadeT, rom saqme gvaqvs simbolur `diskursTan~). Cveni analizisTvis unda gavagrZeloT ara ukve gacxadebuli da amocnobadi simboloebis, aramed kodis Zieba. rogorc dasawyisSi aRvniSneT, taZari (obieqti, realuri sistema) `usasrulo teqstia~ da verbaluri aRwera (metaena) am teqstis erTi danawevrebis variants iZleva. vidre analizs daviwyebdeT, vTqvaT, Tu ra aRqmad raobas gvTavazobs gegma (yuradReba gadavitanoT masze). am mxriv sainteresoa is ormagoba, rasac gegmis naxatSi gavarCevT. imisda mixedviT, Tu ras aRviqvamT fonad da wina planad, Cven xan jvars davinaxavT, xan yvavilismagvar ornaments. sainteresoa, rom Tavad avtori, verbalur aRweraSi jvars gamoyofs da ara meore niSans: `jvris mklavebs Soris moqceuli ovaluri formis gumbaTovani darbazebi~. is, rom taZars jvari udevs safuZvlad, es mosalodnelia; magram, amavdroulad, aRsaniSnavia misi ormagi aRqma.

v. jorbenaZis taZris gegma

taZris gegmis ormagi aRqmadoba

am perceptiuli cdis Semdeg SevecadoT, gamartivebis operaciebiT _ romlebic movlenis erTi xedvis wertilidan danaxvis saSualebas mogvcems _ SevqmnaT taZris gegmis modeli _ struqtura; swored modelad warmodgenili struqtura SeiZleba iyos is kodi, romelic safuZvlad udevs mocemuli Setyobinebis formirebas (gegmis, sivrculi ganawilebis doneze). Tumca, SeiZleba aRmoCndes, rom saqme gvaqvs ara kodTan, aramed mxolod niSanTa (figuraTa) repertuarTan. Cvens mier SemoTavazebul modelSi ukve vxedavT diskretul erTeulebs _ figurebs. mocemuli sintagmis paradigmatuli veli mxolod erTi figurisgan Sedgeba _ wrisgan. paradigmatuli velis wevrebi erTmaneTTan opoziciaSi arian; Cven SemTxvevaSi wreebi erTmaneTTan zomiT dganan opoziciaSi. aq modelTan gvaqvs saqme; proeqtSi (asaSenebeli obieqtis Canaweri) es wreebi gadaiqcnen kedlebad, gumbaTis yelad, Riobad, isini iqcevian naxevarwreebad (abside-

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bad) da erTmaneTTan amgvar opoziciaSi Sedian: gamozneqili / Sezneqili. swored amas aRniSnavs avtori Tavis baraTSi: `Tbilisis eklesiebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Sverili afsidebiT da maTi rbili plastikis gamoZaxiliT nariyalas galavnebTan~. modelSi mxolod xazebTan gvaqvs saqme. amitom opozicia aRmoCndeba mxolod wris sxvadasxva zomebSi. aRvniSnoT, rom mocemul models SeuZlia sxvagvari sintagmis mocema. aq warmodgenilia organzomilebiani kompozicia, romlis samganzomilebiani ganxorcielebac sxva arqiteqturul saxes mogvcemda, Tumc paradigmatuli erTeulebis repertuari da konfiguracia igivea.

1. modeli;

2. proeqtis versia;

3. varianti

modeli-struqtura geometriulia da is safuZvlad SeiZleba daedos ara mxolod arqiteqturas, aramed grafikul kompoziciasac; umberto ekos mier dasmuli problema, rom arqiteqturas ar aqvs sakuTari kodi, aq kargad Cans. zemoT moyvanili qmedebis Sedegad _ rodesac proeqtidan mxolod ramdenime ganmeorebadi elementi davtoveT (SevadgineT paradigmatuli veli) da maTi saSualebiT sxva obieqti avageT _ miviReT kompozicia. r. barti niSnuri procesis amgvar warmosaxvas uwodebs paradigmatuls, formalurs. aq wre gansxvavebadi erTeulia _ figuraa da ara mniSvneli erTeuli _ niSani, miTumetes, simbolo. magram Tu SevxedavT sintagmas, da davinteresdebiT, ratom aris is amnairi (igulisxmeba mkacri wesrigi, simetria, centris xazgasma), davinaxavT, rom moqmedi kodi tipologiur-funqciuri da konfesiur-simboluria. upirveles yovlisa, kvlav wina planze iwevs jvruli parataqsi. swored es ideologiuri centri ayalibebs am sintagmas. meore _ kompozicia (wesisamebr) aris TeTr fonze, uorientacio, asemantikur garemoSi mocemuli da Tavadac daclilia semantikisgan (mag., pit mondrianis kompoziciebi). taZrad ganxorcielebul models uCndeba orientacia _ is ganlagebulia qveynis mxareebis (ro-

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melTac sakuTari semantika axlavT) mimarT garkveuli wesiT. mesame _ avtori zustad aRwers Tu sad ra moxatuloba, mozaika unda ganlagdes (konfesiuri kodi). amas emateba wmindanebisTvis miZRvnili oTxi niSa. da bolos, yvelaze mTavari _ is taZris funqcionalur agebulebas emorCileba, sadac TiToeuli nawili im funqcias asrulebs, romelsac taZris tipologia moiTxovs. amgvarad, erTi SexedviT asemantikuri kompoziciis semantizacia xdeba. masze Tavsmoxveulia ramdenime kodi sakuTari Zlieri konotaciebiT: taZris funqcia, jvari, orientacia, moxatuloba. amgvarad saxeze gvaqvs ara abstraqtuli modeli-kompozicia, aramed `sakraluri toposis ruka~. wreebi aRar arian erTmaneTTan opoziciaSi myofi gansxvavebadi erTeulebi, figurebi; isini moniSnaven sxvadasxva semantikis mqone sakralur adgils (absida, sakurTxeveli, gumbaTqveSa sivrce, Wa-oqtagoni, bibliuri scenebis gamosaxulebebi, wmindanebisTvis miZRvnili niSebi da a.S.). es sqemis saxiT amgvarad SegviZlia warmovidginoT:

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erTi SexedviT, mocemuli struqtura-kodi arqiteqturis garedanaa mocemuli. es kodi arqiteqturas sakuTari mniSvnelobebis formirebisTvis iyenebs; homogenuri (erTgvarovani da uorientiro) sivrce jer unda danawevrdes da mere Seivsos kodiT gaTvaliswinebuli mniSvnelobebiT, is unda moiniSnos da adgilad gadaiqces (adgilis Seqmna ki arqiteqturis mTavari saqmea). arqiteqturaSi aRmniSvnel-aRsaniSnis asocireba (semantika) TiTqmis yovelTvis sxva sistemis (enis) saSualebiT xdeba. arqiteqturis `mkiTxvelnic~ Tavisufalni arian, raTa sxvadasxva mniSvnelobiT (da funqciiTac) Seavson forma (pragmatika). magram am aRsaniSnebis aRmniSvnelebs mxolod arqiteqtura qmnis (semiurgia*), awesrigebs da marTavs (sintaqsi). * mixeil epSteinis SemoTavazebuli mimarTuleba _ semiurgia _ interesdeba axali niSnebis SeqmniT _ niSanTSemoqmedebiT. (`naS/enis prezentacia~. semiotika 5, 2009). SevyovndeT gegmaze, da amjerad yuradReba mivaqcioT im faqts, rom taZari mravalabsidiania. Tavad batoni viqtori, aseve, batoni nodar mgalobliSvili, proeqtis umTavres Tvisebad im sintaqsuri, tipologiuri kodebis CarTvas miiCneven, romlebic mravali saukunis win Camoyalibda. mravalabsidiani kompozicia ki erTerTi aseTi uZvelesi kodia. saqarTveloSi misi gamovlenis erT-erTi uZvelesi magaliTia mcxeTaSi, 1996 w. gamovlenili armazcixis (bagineTi) warmarTuli eqvsabsidiani taZari. mraval absidiani nagebobebi ax. w. me-2 saukunidan romis imperiis sivrceSi farTod vrceldeba, rogorc imperator adrianes arqiteqturuli stili (yifiani 2005). qristianobis gavrcelebis pirvel wlebSi, sanam mowveuli RvTismsaxurni da ostatebi kanonikur normebs da qristianul xuroTmoZRvrul koncefciebs gaavrcelebdnen, adreuli taZrebi eyrdnoboda warmarTul sqemebs. eqvsabsidiani taZrebis tradicia saqarTveloSi xangrZlivi drois manZilze moqmedebda da Cveni qveyana maTi simravliT gamoirCeva: `gogiuba, kiaRmis alTi, boWorma, kacxi da maTi modifikaciebi _ nikorwminda da kumurdo~ (yifiani 2005).

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1. gogiuba, 2. kiaRmis alTi, 3. boWorma, 4. kacxi, 5. nikorwminda, 6. kumurdo (yifiani 2005)

xsovnis aRdgena _ amgvarad axasiaTebs umberto eko Zveli ritorikis da ideologiis aRorZinebas. igi im didi ritorikis nawilia, romelic TanaaRniSnavs da romelsac marTavs `Tanamedroveobis~ ideologia; is SeiZleba davaxasiaToT, rogorc warsulis Rirebulebebisadmi tolerantuli damokidebuleba. es ideologia saSualebas gvaZlevs, wavikiTxoT formebi raime konkretuli ideologiisgan Tavisuflad (asea es Tu ara `samebis sakaTedro taZris~ SemTxvevaSi, sxva sakiTxia); Zveli ideologiebi ufro wakiTxvis Sifris rols asruleben; es wakiTxva aRar aris informatiuli, radgan yvela mniSvneloba ukve aTvisebulia, winaswargacxadebulia, aprobirebulia [eko 2004, 284]. momxiblavia imis fiqri, rom `samebis sakaTedro taZarze~ arqiteqtoris muSaobas amgvari refleqsia axlda Tan; qarTul warmarTul eqvsabsidian taZarSi, romaulisgan gansxvavebiT, SuaSi Cndeba sveti; amgvarad, momxiblavia imis fiqri, rom `samebis sakaTedro taZarSi~ swored am svetis kvali SeimCneva _ Wis saxiT (`centraluri gumbaTis qveS mdebareobs Wa _ oqtagoniT, romelSic dgas sveti _ reliqvariumiT~). aseve momxiblavia imis aRniSvna, rom warmarTul tradiciaSi Casaxuli, adreqristianobaSi gavrcelebuli da XXI saukunis taZarSi kvlavmoqmedi arqiteqturuli kodi avtonomiuri sistemaa da ar emorCileba Sinaarsis (ideologiur) cvlilebebs da sxva mniSvnelobebs. `istoria acarielebs da kvlav avsebs formebs, arTmevs mniSvnelobebs da axali azrebiT avsebs maT~ [eko 2004, 285], da `semiologiac ar varaudobs saboloo mniSvnelobebis arsebobas~ [barti 1964]; iqneb, arqiteqturuli forma mxolod sakuTari istoriis erTgulia? bolos, SevxedoT fasads _ ras `gveubneba~ is? mravalplaniani, mravalnawiliani Senobis proeqtis fasadur warmodgenaze monoliTuroba, centrulobaa gabatonebuli. fasadi, rogorc analoguri, ikonuri Canaweri, miiswrafis suraTobisken. suraTis Tvalierebisas Znelia warmoidgino idealuri mnaxveli da aRniSno, Tu raze SeCerdeba mzera, ra darCeba mis miRma, an rasTan msgavsebebs gamoiw-

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vevs is. yoveli mnaxveli sakuTar bades daadebs mas da yoveli danaxva gansxvavebuli iqneba. erT-erTi amgvari danaxva yuradRebas miaqcevs mravalgumbaTianobas; dakvirvebisas gamoCndeba, rom yoveli gumbaTi meorisgan gansxvavebulia; isev unda moviSvelioT avtoris ganmartebiTi baraTi da vTqvaT, rom gansxvavebuli gumbaTebi msgavsia saqarTvelos sxvadasxva eklesiis gumbaTebisa. axali niSnebis Seqmnis nacvlad saxezea damkvidrebuli niSnebis garkveuli `montaJi~ metaforuli Setyobinebis miRebis mizniT. SegviZlia mas vuwodoT montaJi, romelic Tavis mxriv dakavSirebulia niSnis sintagmatur warmosaxvasTan? daZleulia Tu ara amgvari `TamaSiT~ simboluroba? amis gasarkvevad movixmoT cnobili struqturalisturi termini _ brikolaJi. brikolaJi aris ara teqnikurad gamarTlebuli da mizanSewonili meTodi, aramed iseTi `dialogi masalebTan da saSualebebTan, sadac saSualebas Tavad SeuZlia SemogvTavazos meTodi da sawyisi mizani gaauqmos~ [levi-strosi 1974, 29]. swored sawyisis da miznis* kategoriebis aSkara momZlavrebis gamo SeuZlebelia visaubroT montaJze. aseve SeuZlebelia TamaSze saubari, romelic aris `TviTmiznuri qmedeba, _ qmedeba romelic ar aris gansazRvruli an gamarTlebuli raime misTvis garegani viTarebiT~ [nodia 1987]. viqtor jorbenaZis proeqtis SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs ara moZravi nawilebis montaJTan, rac Tavad qmnis azrs, aramed ukve winaswar Seqmnili azris (ideologia) simbolur gadmocemasTan, sadac arqiteqtura sxva mizezis Sedegia. * sawyisis (wyaro) da dasasrulis (mizani) konceptebSi daeWvebaa p. eizenmanis statiis erT-erTi sakiTxi, romelic 1984 wliTaa daTariRebuli; viqtor jorbenaZis proeqtis Seqmnis TariRic 80-iani wlebia, magram es sxva, paraleluri droa. es werilic erTgvar brikolaJs daemsgavsa; aq ar ikiTxeba sawyisi (da) mizani, mTavari azri, romelic avtors winaswar aqvs da sadac teqsti am azris gaformebas emorCileba. swored u. ekos, r. bartis, p. eizenmanis da sxvaTa ukve-azrebis Tavisufali montaJis procesi iyo Tavad azris Zieba. literatura barti 1962: . , // , gv. 246252. : , 1989 barti 1964: Barthes R. lments de Smiologie, // Communications 4, pp. 91-135 eko 2004: . . -: Simposium. 2004.

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eizenmani 1984: Eisenman P. The end of the classical: the end of the beginning, the end of the end. // Architecture theory since 1968, pp. 522 _ 539. Cambridge: MIT Press 2000 yifiani 2005: yifiani g. armazcixis ukanaskneli warmarTuli taZari, // qarTuli arqiteqturis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, pp. 11 _ 35. Tbilisi: stu 2005. nodia 1987: nodia g. TamaSis cneba kulturis filosofiaSi. Tbilisi: mecniereba. 1987 levi-strosi 1974: Lvi-Strauss, Claude ([1962] 1974): The Savage Mind. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson // http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/sem01.html

elizbar elizbaraSvili nicSes wakiTxvis paradigmaTa konfliqti dasavlur azrovnebaSi


saubris dasawyisSi davazusteb ramdenime cnebas, romlebiTac unda vixelmZRvaneloT. pirvel rigSi imas, Tu ras niSnavs nicSes wakiTxvis paradigmaTa konfliqti. f.nicSes filosofiis interpretacia mravalia rogorc saqarTveloSi, ise evropasa da amerikaSi, magram nicSes wakiTxvis paradigmaSi igulisxmeba nicSes iseT interpretaciaTa erToblioba, romelic qmnis erT sainterprertacio models da romelmac didi gavlena moaxdina evropul azrovnebaze, mniSvnelovani kvali daatyo nicSelogiis Semdgomi ganviTarebis istorias. nicSes wakiTxvis paradigmaSi vgulisxmobT ramdenime moazrovnis naazrevis erTianobas. SegviZlia, ramdenime avtori gavamTlianoT erT sainterpretacio modelSi, romlebic qmnian erT mTlian saxes. nicSes saxeebi anu misi wakiTxvis paradigmebi istoriis manZilze gamudmebiT ebrZodnen erTmaneTs. iyo maT Soris konkurencia, mudmivi konfliqti, romelic erTis an meoris gamarjvebiT sruldeboda. igive xdeboda nebismieri evropuli masStabis avtoris SemTxvevaSi. meore, rac saWiroa gaviazroT, aris nicSelogiis aqtualuri arealis gageba, romelic vlindeba filosofiis istoriis sxvadasxva etapze. azrovnebis istoriis yovel momentSi arsebobs aqtualur sakiTxTa dasmisa da gadaWris mimarTulebebi, xerxebi da paradigmatuli azrovnebis modelebi, romlebic gansazRvravs im drois kulturul-inteleqtualur samyaros. Semdeg icvleba es areali da ukve sxva Tematuri mi-

filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori. iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis Telavis saxelmwifo universitetis asistent-profesori. monografiebi: `nicSe: filosofiis `kulisebi~ da simulaciebi~ Tbilisi 2005; `qarTuli socialuri manqana~ Tbilisi universali 2009. interesTa sfero: filosofia, politologia, publicistika, kritika, kulturologia, literatura, poezia, vizualuri xelovneba.

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marTulebebi, sakiTxTa dasmis sxva xerxebi da modelebi xdeba ganmsazRvreli. ase iyo nicSelogiis istoriaSic. saukunis ganmavlobaSi nicSelogiis aqtualuri areali droTa ganmavlobaSi icvleboda. imisaTvis, rom pasuxobdes Tanamedroveobis standartebs~, Tanamedrove samyaros inteleqtualur `normebs~, nawarmoebi unda iyos Sesrulebuli azrovnebis ganviTarebis im momentis aqtualur arealSi. istoriis manZilze nicSes sxvadasxva saxe-paradigma Seiqmna. arsebobda epoqebi roca erTdroulad ori, sami saxe iyo gabatonebuli. nicSes wakiTxvis es paradigmebi yovelTvis erTmaneTs upirispirdebodnen Sinagani, faruli an Ria dapirispirebiT. nicSes saxe-paradigmebs Soris konfliqti erT-erTi ganmsazRvreli iyo imdroindeli nicSelogiis sakiTxTa aqtualuri arealis ragvarobisa. amiT ifargleboda imdroindeli nicSelogia. magram droTa ganmavlobaSi es procesi grZeldeboda wakiTxvis romeliRac paradigma marcxdeboda an imarjvebda. SesaZlebeli iyo am brZolaSi sruliad sxva, axali paradigma dabadebuliyo. es yovelive gansazRvravda nicSelogiis aqtualur sakiTxTa arealis farglebs da mis cvlilebebs. me19 saukunis bolodan iwyeba evropuli nicSelogia, rogorc filosofiis mimarTuleba, romelic dRemde agrZelebs arsebobas. unda aRiniSnos, rom rac ufro win mivdivarT, rac met sainterpretacio modelebs vxvdebiT, miT ufro vuaxlovdebiT nicSes filosofiis adekvatur aRqmas, romelic, albaT, gamoricxavs saboloo wertils _ avTentur nicSesTan misvlas. bolo cneba, romelic unda gaviazroT, aris inteleqtualuri anaqronizmis cneba. radganac nicSes wakiTxvis paradigmebi yovelTvis ebrZvian erTmaneTs da Sedegad amisa, gadavdivarT nicSelogiis ganviTarebis axal etapze _ ispoba Zveli da Cndeba axali wakiTxva _ aqedan gamomdinare, nicSelogiaSi, iseve rogorc nebismier sxva inteleqtualur saqmianobaSi, gvaqvs anaqronizmis cnebac anaqronizmiT xasiaTdeba nawarmoebi, romelic ar aris Tanamedrove nicSelogiis mentalur doneze Sesrulebuli, ar ukavSirdeba am momentis nicSelogiis aqtualur sakiTxTa areals da warmoadgens ubralod furcelze daweril wigns, statias an werils, romelic mxolod istoriis usargeblo arqivis sakuTreba gaxdeba. magaliTad, Tanamedrove germaniaSic SeiZleba daiweros nicSes anaqronistuli gaazreba. SeiZleba daiweros nicSes qristianuli gaazrebebi, hyavdes mkiTxvelic, magram igi mainc istoriaSi ukve ganvlil da didi xnis gadaxarSul paradigmas gaimeorebs. anaqronistuli Sromebis nakli marto is ki ar aris, rom is nicSelogiis ganviTarebis magistralur xazSi ver Tavsdeba, aramed is, rom ver gaxdeba momavlis novatoruli ideebis wyaro. novatoruli ideebis wyaro mxolod is nawarmoebia, romelic mocemul momentSi nicSelogiis aq-

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tualur arealSia da `Signidan~ cdilobs am arealis gadalaxvas. mxolod amdagvari sainterpretacio strategiiTaa SesaZlebeli ganviTareba, axali ideebis generacia da nicSelogiis axal etapze gadasvla. nicSes saxeTa konfliqtis ganxilvisas sibrtye, romelic minda SemogTavazoT da romliTac vifarglebiT amjerad, aris nicSes filosofiisa da metafizikis urTierTmimarTebis sibrtye, romelic dasawyisidan dRemde mudmivi yuradRebis epicentrSi iyo. daviwyoT ramdenime martivi debulebiT: ras niSnavs metafizika? es termini momdinareobs aristoteledan meta~ niSnavs Semdgoms, anu aq _ fizikis Semdgom sinamdviles. filosofiis istoriaSi ori nakadi yovelTvis upirispirdeboda erTmaneTs. pirveli gveubneboda, rom ar arsebobs araviTari miRma sinamdvile, rom Cven SevimecnebT grZnobadi aRqmebiT, da mis miRma ar arsebobs araferi. es aris fenomenalisturi xazi. meore midgoma iyo metafizikuri midgoma, romelic Tvlida, rom samyaros miRma aris WeSmariti, maradiuli samyaro, miRma sinamdvile, zeaRmatebuli materialur-fenomenalur samyaroze. 1890 wlidan, rodesac nicSe SeiSala, nicSes filosofiaSi iwyeba am sakiTxze kamaTi, saubroben: aris nicSe metafizikosi, Tu igi ufro fenomenalistia, romelic yovelgvar miRmurs gamoricxavs. filosofosebi dRemde kamaToben am Temaze. dasawyisSi (1900 wlidan 1930 wlamde) gamoikveTa nicSes wakiTxvis ori saxe-paradigma. erTi ekuTvnis hans faihingers, germanel moazrovnes, misi wigni _ `nicSe rogorc filosofosi~ (1902 weli), aseve georg zimelis _ `modernizebuli zneoba~ (1905 weli), faSistur germaniaSi mcxovrebi boimleris da sxva moazrovneebis naSromebi, ayalibebdnen nicSes, rogorc metafizikosis, saxes. h.faihingerTan Zalauflebis neba aris principi, romelic samyaros metafizikuri arsia. faihingeri ambobs, rom nicSem Zalauflebis neba aiRo artur Sopenhaueris filosofiidan. SopenhauerTan neba sicocxlis nebaa, igi aris miswrafeba arsebobisaken. nicSem ki Tqva, rom sicocxle ar aris marto arsebobisaken miswrafeba, sicocxle miiswrafis Zalauflebisaken, ganviTarebisaken, sxvisi damorCilebisaken, dapyrobisaken. es iyo nicSes filosofiis tradiciuli metafizikuri wakiTxva. amave periodSi Seiqmna nicSes sruliad sawinaaRmdego saxe-paradigma nicSe rogorc fenomenalisti. alfred fulie, frangi filosofosi (nicSe da imoralizmi~, 1902 weli), Tvlis rom Zalauflebis nebaSi nicSe ar gulisxmobda movlenebis miRma metafizikur arss. igi amtkicebda, rom Zalauflebis neba aris amqveyniuri movlena, romelic axasiaTebs yovel cocxal organizms da am movlenas ara aqvs imqveyniuri Ziri.

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amgvarad, saukunis dasawyisSi nicSes filosofiis sainterpretacio qselSi~ misi wakiTxvis ori saxe-paradigma gamovlinda nicSe, rogorc metafizikosi da nicSe, rogorc fenomenalisti. es ori paradigma, bunebrivia, ewinaaRmdegeboda erTmaneTs. magram amave dros, maT Soris arsebobda, ase vTqvaT, zomieri poziciac. aq SeiZleba davasaxeloT frangi filosofosi aloiz rili, romelmac 1897 wels dawera wigni _ `nicSe, rogorc mxatvari da moazrovne~. mas am or ukiduresobas Soris saSualo pozicia eWira. man nicSes SemoqmedebiTi ganviTareba sam etapad dayo. pirveli aris tragediis dabadeba musikis sulidan. swored pirveli etapi iyo metafizikuri periodi. aq nicSe gvevlineba metafizikosad, radganac im etapis SromebSi samyaros Ziri aris metafizikuri principi. meore etapze gadasvlis Semdgom ki ukve metafizika da romantizmi nicSes TvalSi kargavs momxiblavobas da germaneli moazrovne ufro mecnierebisa da pozitivizmisken inacvlebs. mas Semdeg, rac evropul azrovnebaSi erTmaneTs daupirispirda nicSes es ori saxe-paradigma, metafizikosisa da fenomenalistisa, maTi brZolis Sedegad daibada nicSes wakiTxvis axali paradigma. nicSelogiis arenaze gamodis germaneli filosofosi martin haidegeri romelic mniSvnelovan etaps qmnis saerTo-evropul azrovnebaSi. misi Sromebia vin aris nicSes zaratustra~ (1954), nicSes sityva RmerTi mkvdaria~ (1955), nicSe~ (1961). haidegeri nicSes orive wakiTxvas iTavisebs da ambobs, rom nicSe ar iyo tradiciuli metafizikosi, rogorc amas faihingeri (da faSistebi) werda, magram igi arc fenomenalistia. haidegeris azriT, arsebulis yofiereba evropul azrovnebaSi ganisazRvreba, rogorc neba. es iwyeba laibnicidan, Semdeg modis kanti, fixte, hegeli, Selingi, Sopenhaueri da bolos _ nicSe. yvela filosofosTan arsebulis yofiereba aris neba, sxvadasxva variaciaSi. magaliTad, nicSesTan am nebam SeiZina Zalauflebis nebis saxe. yoveli arsi Zalauflebis gamoxatulebaa. aqedan gamomdinare, samyaro aris Zalauflebis nebaTa centrebis brZolis arena. yvelas Zalauflebis impulsisken swrafva amoZravebs. erTi mxriv, erTi neba yovelTvis ganicdis sxva nebisagan dartymas, zians, meore mxriv, igi sxvas ayenebs aseve dartymas, zians. zianis, dartymis miReba sxva arsebulTagan, nebisaTvis aris tkivili, tanjva. es aris samyaro, romelsac ver gaeqceva verc erTi arsebuli. haidegeri ambobs, rom Tavad azrovnebac ganicdis dartymas, magram ara konkretuli arsebulisagan. rodesac samyaros suraTi Zalauflebis arenaa, romelic dakavSirebulia tanjvasTan, tkivilTan, zianTan, ukve aseTi suraTi ayenebs dartymas Tavad adamianis azrovnebas. am dartymas azrovnebam unda upasuxos sapasuxo dartymiT. realoba romelic man dainaxa, miwieri, warmavali, tanjvis samyaroa, amitom azrovnebam unda moaxdinos am

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sapasuxo dartymis dros miwieri realobis, warmavlobis diskreditacia. adamianis azrovneba igonebs ufro WeSmarit, amaRlebul, ukeTes samyaros; sasurvels misTvis, romlis fonzec is miwieri, warmavali samyaro knindeba, iCqmaleba da meorexarisxovani xdeba. adamiani igonebs meore samyaros, masze zeaRmatebuls. Tuki miwieri sinamdvile warmavalia, mas miawers waruvalobis, maradiulobis niSans. bunebrivia, aseT samyaros aniWbs zebunebriobis, miRmurobis niSnebs. dgindeba WeSmariti samyaros ideali. sabolood, samyaro orad gvaqvs dayofili Cvens azrovnebaSi erTi Tvalxiluli, qmnadobis samyaro da da meore, WeSmariti, maradiuli samyaro. am msjelobebSi haidegers Semoaqvs Tavisi cneba _ Surisgebis suli. haidegeris azriT, azrovnebam Seqmna idealuri, upiratesi Rirebuli samyaro, rac aris SurisZieba amqveyniur sinamdvileze. Surisgebis sulis nayofi metafizikaa. metafizika, siRrmiseulad rom ganvixiloT, aris amqveyniuri samyaros damdableba. amis Semdeg haidegeri ambobs, rom nicSe ukve im epoqas Seeswro, roca adamians SeuZlia mTeli dedamiwis damorCileba, masze gabatoneba. gabatonebaSi igulisxmeba ara marto damorCileba, aramed movla-patronoba. es gabatoneba gulisxmobs dedamiwis movlas, sakuTar mfarvelobas. haidegeris azriT, adamiani, romelic Sepyrobilia miwieri sinamdvilis mimarT Surisgebis suliT, metafizikurad azrovnebs da ver gaxdeba am samyaros, dedamiwis baton-patroni, radganac mas ara aqvs gadalaxuli siZulvili, amqveyniuris, miwieris damdableba. swored kacobriobis am etapze dagvanaxa nicSem, rom Tu Cven ar SevicvaleT, Tu Surisgebis suli ar gadavlaxeT, SeuZlebelia movides zekaci. SeuZlebelia adamiani gaxdes dedamiwis baton-patroni. Surisgebis sulis, metafizikis gadasalaxavad nicSes Semoaqvs maradiuli mobrunebis idea, romelmac unda gadagvalaxinos gaoreba miRmursa da miwiers Soris. maradiuli mobruneba droSi abrunebs yvelafers, rac arsebobs, anu yvela arsebuli samyaroSi emorCileba wres. yoveli arsebuli brundeba usasrulod, maradiulad. es idea Zalze mniSvnelovania, radganac igi WeSmariti, maradiuli yofierebis da qmnadobis samyaros urTierTdamTxvevas axdens. rac droSi arsebobs, is xdeba maradiulic. es xdeba ara imitom, rom yoveli arsebuli metafizikur sinamdvileSi gadis, aramed imitom, rom igi maradiulad brundeba am miwaze, droSi arsebuli maradiulad ganmeorebadia. haidegeris sityvebiT, qmnadobaze amoitvifreba yofierebis xasiaTi~. swored amitom aris maradiuli mobrunebis idea metafizikuri azrovnebis gadalaxvis gza. warmavlobisadmi siZulvili Seicvleba misadmi siyvaruliT. maradiulobasTan miaxloebuli drouloba mis niSanTvisebas iZens. aseTi azrovneba gadalaxavs metafizikur azrovnebas da amqveyniur samyarosTvis `hos~

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Tqmas amkvidrebs. magram haidegeris azriT, nicSesTan bolomde mainc ver moxda miwisadmi siZulvilis gadalaxva. nicSem kargad gaacnobiera Surisgebis sulis gadalaxvis saWiroeba, metafizika miiyvana bolomde, dausva mas wertili, magram sabolood mainc ver gadalaxa. amis mizezi is aris rom nicSes mizani ar iyo miRweuli _ amqveyniurobis siyvaruli da mimRebloba misi maradiulobisa raRacdagvari moazrebis gziT xdeboda, rac ganxorcielda maradiul mobrunebaSi. amis safuZvelze gaCnda metafora `ukanaskneli metafizikosi~. haidegeris am naazreviT nicSelogiis istoriaSi iqmneba nicSes filosofiis axali wakiTxva-saxe, romlis mixedviTac nicSe iyo ara tradiciuli metafizikosi, aristotelesa da platonis msgavsad, aramed _ ukanaskneli metafizikosi. ukanaskneli metafizikosis saxe-paradigma, romelic haidegerma Seqmna, gavlenas axdens sxva avtorebis azrovnebazec. magaliTad, e. finkis wignSi _ `nicSes filosofia~ (1960) _ avtori nicSesTan movlenasa da TavisTavad nivTs Soris tradiciul gayofas uaryofs da germanel filosofoss metafizikis gadamlaxavad warmogvidgens. magram radganac mas mainc aqvs moZRvreba Zalauflebis nebaze, rogorc arsebaze, igi kvlavac metafizikis wiaRSi imyofeba. sabolood, e. finki askvnis: `nicSe dgas tradiciis safuZvelze, romlis gadalaxvac surs~ (metafizikis safuZvelze), magram is `ukve zeimobs masze gamarjvebas~, _ ase gamoTqvams e. finki nicSes ukanasknel metafizikosobaze m.haidegeris mier dafuZnebul azrs. SemdgomSi nicSelogia midis ori sapirispiro mimarTulebiT erTia _ azrovnebis germanuli da anglosaqsuri frTa, meore ki _ franguli frTa. orive ebrZvis haidegers anu nicSes ukanasknel metafizikosad gamocxadebas. germanuli da anglosaqsuri frTis liderebi iyvnen v. miuler-lauteri nicSe: misi winaaRmdegobebis filosofia da misi filosofiis winaaRmdegobebi~ (1971), nicSes moZRvreba Zalauflebis nebaze~ (1974), nebis arsi da zekaci~ (1980w. raizenburgis nicSelogTa saerTaSoriso konferenciaze wakiTxuli moxseneba); f. gerhardi Zala da metafizika~ (1980), romelic waikiTxa nicSelogTa konferenciaze raizenburgSi), paTosi da distancia: nicSes filosofiuri swavleba~ (1986); filosofosi federik koplstoni, romlis Sromebia: filosofiis istoria~ (1963), fridrix nicSe; kulturuli filosofosi~ (1975). es moazrovneebi SegviZlia erT sainterpretacio paradigmad gavaerTianoT. maT Seqmnes nicSes erTiani saxe. isini nicSes ukanaskneli metafizikosis paradigmasTan dapirispirebiT ubrundebian metafizikas. Tuki m. haidegeri, da manamde _ h. faihingeri Zalauflebis nebas miiCnevdnen metafizikur arsad, erT arsad, samyaros erT safuZ-

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vlad, v.miuler-lauteri ambobs, rom nicSes filosofiaSi sinamdvileSi sxvagvari mdgomareobaa. miuler-lauteris azriT, Zalauflebis principi metafizikuria, magram amave dros, igi mravlobiTia. avtori ambobs, rom teqstebSi, sadac nicSe laparakobs Zalauflebis nebis Temaze mxolod mxolobiT ricxvSi, iqac ki igulisxmeba Zalauflebis nebis mravlobiToba. nicSe gulisxmobs ara Zalauflebis nebas, rogorc erT substancias, aramed ZalTa kvantebis simravlis metafizikas~, rom samyaros safuZveli metafizikuri simravlis principia. ukanaskneli Teoria, romelic man wamoayena 1980 wels raizenburgis konferenciaze, aravis gauprotestebia. f. gerhardi Tavis SromebSi aseve eTanxmeba v. miuler-lauters da nicSelogiis istoriaSi dasabams iRebs nicSes wakiTxvis axali paradigma, romelic nicSes Seracxavs ara ukanasknel metafizikosad, aramed romeliRac axali tipis metafizikosad. es aris metafizikasTan kvlavdabruneba, magram _ axali saxiT. am avtorebis azriT, nicSe qmnis axal metafizikas, tradiciulisagan gansxvavebuls. Tuki saukunis dasawyisSi nicSe waikiTxeboda, rogorc tradiciuli metafizikis mimdevari, axla ukve igi axali tipis metafizikosad gaiazreba. nicSeze, rogorc axali tipis metafizikosze, naSromi ekuTvnis federik koplstons. wignSi fridrix nicSe kulturis filosofosi~ (1942) _ igrZnoba Zalauflebis nebis haidegeriseul interpretaciasTan dapirispireba, magram koplstoni arc nebis metafizikuri mravlobiTobis princips iziarebs. misi azriT, Zalauflebis neba ar arsebobs transcendentulad, samyaro aris qmnadobis erTiani procesi da Zalauflebis neba aris misi inteligibeluri xasiaTi~. Zalauflebis neba arsebobs mxolod mis manifestaciaSi, anu nicSe adamianur procesebSi yvelgan amoicnobs Zalauflebis nebis manifestaciebs~ da Semdeg ganavrcobs maT mTel organul samyaroze. miuxedavad amisa f. koplstoni fiqrobs, rom Cven f. nicSes filosofia mainc metafizikad unda CavTvaloT, magram _ metafizikad, raRac axali gagebiT. amis ori mizezi arsebobs, avtoris azriT: miuxedavad imisa rom nicSesTan gamoricxulia Zalauflebis nebis hipostazireba~, igi mainc samyaros mTlianobiT xedvas gvTavazobs. meore momenti ki isaa, rom maradiuli mobrunebis ideaSi xdeba qmnadobisa yofierebis samyaros urTierTdamTxveva (rogorc amas haidegeri ambobda). koplstonic, v. miuler-lauterisa da f. gerxardis msgavsad, Sorsaa im azrisagan rom nicSes tradiciuli metafizikosi uwodos. avtori sabolood Sesaferis termins poulobs da nicSes filosofias revizionul metafizikas~ arqmevs. Cven vxedavT, rom v.miuler-lauteri, f.gerxardi da f.koplstoni ayalibeben nicSes filosofiis wakiTxvis erTian saxe-para-

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digmas. pirvel orTan nicSe aris filosofiis istoriaSi axali tipis metafizikis damfuZnebeli, xolo mesamesTan _ revizionuli metafizikisa~. sabolood, samive maTgani miiCnevs, rom nicSesTan tradiciuli metafizikuri azrovnebis modernizacia xdeba da ara misi gadalaxva, an dabruneba klasikur metafizikasTan. nicSes ukanasknel metafizikosad wakiTxvas ebrZvis aseve imdroindeli nicSelogiis franguli frTa, romelsac martin haidegeriseul naazrevTan mudmivi Sinagani polemika hqonda. J. derida (`gramatologiaze~ 1967, `Zala da aRniSvna~ (1967, `nicSes stili~ 1978) ufro Rrma safuZvels irCevs nicSes filosofiis m. haidegeriseuli da Sesabamisad, faSisturi interpretaciis dasamarcxeblad. igi, J. deliozisagan gansxavebiT, nicSesa da haidegeris mTavar SeuTavseblobas eZiebs ara Zalauflebis nebis sxvadasxvagvar gagebaSi, aramed imaSi, rom nicSe, haidegerisagan da finkisagan gansxvavebiT, sulac ar idga `logocentristul~ poziciaze da mas srulebiT sxva damokidebuleba hqonda werilobisadmi da WeSmaritebisadmi. saqme is aris, rom J. deridas azriT, metafizikis istoria _ winasokratelebidan haidegeramde _ WeSmaritebis sawyiss yovelTvis logosSi xedavs. WeSmaritebis istoria yovelTvis iyo werilisa da werilobis damdableba, misi gandevna `srulfasovani~ metyvelebidan. sami aTasi weli enis, metyvelebis batonobisa da werilis daviwyebis xanad unda miviCnioT. igi emTxveva im istorias, romelic teqnikas logocentristul metafizikasTan akavSirebda. axla ki, TandaTanobiT `amosunTqvas~ iwyebs weriloba da dasasruls uaxlovdeba `wignieri civilizacia~. wignis `sikvdili~ miuTiTebs `metyvelebis sikvdilze~ da amas ramdenime saukuniT adre, winaswar gvamcnobs. J. derida ganmartavs, rom `metyvelebis sikvdili~ metaforaa. es niSnavs, rom amieridan metyveleba im struqturas eqvemdebareba, sadac aRar TamaSobs `mbrZaneblur rols~. yoveli moqmedeba Tanamedrove samyaroSi ukve werilisa da werilobis velSi mimdinareobs. dRes yvelgan vlaparakobT werilsa da Caweraze: kinematografiaSi, qoreografiaSi, mxatvrobaSi, musikaSi, skulpturaSi, sportSi, omSi, politikaSi, kibernetikaSi, biologiaSi da a. S. ena, metyveleba werilisaTvis yovelTvis iyo misi erT-erTi momenti, movlena, aspeqti an saxesxvaoba, man moaxerxa, rom Cven es dagveviwyebina. avtoris azriT, miuxedavad imisa, rom werilis gageba metyvelebis gagebaze ufro farToa da misi momcvelia, kacobriobis ukanaskneli samiaTaswlovani epoqa xasiaTdeba, rogorc `ontologiuri~, sadac WeSmaritebis yoveli metafizikuri gageba ganuyofelia logosisagan. logosis SigniT arasodes wydeba Tavdapirveli arsobrivi kavSiri xmasTan _ phone [7.8]. logocentristul sivrceSi xmovani aRmniSvneli ufro axlosaa saganTan da pirveladia, vidre _ werilobiTi. swored ontologiur epoqaSi

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xdeba xmisa da yofierebis sazrisis absoluturi siaxlove. am epoqaSi werili mcirdeba. `am epoqis SigniT kiTxva da werili, niSanTa gamomuSaveba an ganmarteba da saerTod, teqsti, rogorc niSanTa qsovili, warmogvidgeba, rogorc raRac meoradi. maT win uswrebs logosis mier da mis stiqiaSi Seqmnili WeSmariteba anda sazrisi~, _ wers J. derida [7.10]. dRes ki, avtoris azriT, yvelafer imis dekonstruqcia mimdinareobs, risi wyaroc iyo logosi. ase xdeba Tavad wignis (misi klasikuri gagebiT) dekonstruqciac, rodesac misgan teqsti gamoiyofa. wignis idea aris aRmniSvnelis erTianobis idea da es aRmniSvneli, rogorc erTiani, SesaZlebelia mxolod im pirobiT, Tuki mas win uswrebs aRsaniSnis dadgenili erTianoba. aseTad gagebuli wigni gvagzavnis raRac bunebrivi mTlianobisaken, romelic Zalze ucxoa werilisaTvis. wigni icavs Teologiasa da logocentrizms masSi werilis `aforistuli energiis~ SeWrisagan [7.13]. 1978 wels gamoica J. deridas Zalze saintereso naSromi `nicSes stili~, romelic frangi filosofosis Cvens mier ukve gadmocemul interpretaciaTa gagrZelebaa da nicSes filosofiis poststruqturalistur sivrceSi gaazrebas emsaxureba. J. deridas azriT, nicSe undoblad ekideboda filosofiis im pretenzias, rom is yofiliyo kulturis ze-diskursi (WeSmaritebis dominirebuli diskursi), rom enis qsovilis metaforulobis uaryofiT filosofia pretenzias acxadebda kulturis yvela SesaZlo teqstTa Soris Tavis gansakuTrebul, privilegirebul mdgomareobaze, rom filosofias SeuZlia, rogorRac gaTavisufldes enis qsovilisagan da warmogvidges, rogorc wminda WeSmariteba, rogorc wminda ena. es iyo dasavluri filosofiis fuZemdebluri iluzia, romelsac ebrZoda nicSe. magram winasokratelebSi sxvagvari mdgomareoba gvqonda. isini ar uaryofdnen enis qsovilis metaforulobas. amitomac sakmaod gabedulad SemohqondaT sakuTari metaforebi (wyali, haeri, cecxli...), romelTa garSemoc agebdnen TavianT ritorikul TamaSs _ f i l o s o f o s o b d n e n. sokratem pirvelma daamkvidra iluzia, romelic filosofiur azrebTan mimarTebiT, enis srul `gamWvirvalobas~ qadagebda. nicSes azriT, es iluzia dRemde moqmedebs. ena dasavluri filosofiis fundamenturi logocentristuli diskursis damjeri iaraRia, romlis saSualebiTac SesaZlebelia azrSi arsebuli nebismieri mniSvnelobis ise gamoxatva, rom ar mivmarToT araviTar damxmare saSualebebs, maT Soris, metaforul saSualebebsac. nicSe, J. deridas azriT, kvlav aRiarebs filosofiuri enis metaforulobas. man `udidesi wvlili Seitana aRmniSvnelis logosze damokidebulebisagan da masTan dakavSirebuli WeSmaritebis koncefciisagan an amosavali aRsaniSnisagan gaTavisuflebaSi~, _ wers frangi avtori [17: 31,32]. igi ebrZoda logocen-

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tristul mentalobas da Zalze `Sors iyo~ metafizikis CarCoebSi darCenisagan, rasac misgan m. haidegeri `moiTxovda~. meore filosofosi, romelic nicSes gamoacalkevebs metafizikis yvelanairi gagebisagan, frangi moazrovne Jil deliozia (nicSe da filosofia~ (1962), nicSe~ (1965), gansxvaveba da ganmeoreba~ (1968), sazrisis logika~ (1969)). am wignebSi avtori nicSes filosofiis deridasagan gansxvavebul interpretacias Seecdeba. ra gansxvavebaa mas da J. deridas Soris? Jil deliozis azriT, nicSesTan mTavari aris moZRvreba maradiul mobrunebaze. amis gaTvaliswinebiT ikvlevs igi nicSes filosofiis arsebas. avtori vrclad saubrobs maradiuli mobrunebis ideis sam ZiriTad aspeqtze. esenia: 1) maradiuli mobruneba axorcielebs `WeSmarit gadarCevas~ imiT, rom Tavidan iSorebs `saSualo formebs~ da qmnis `umaRles formebs~ [2.77]. igi wers: `Tuki maradiuli mobruneba borbalia, unda mivaniWoT mas Zlieri RerZismieri moZraoba, romelic gamoisvris yvelafer imas, ris uaryofac `SesaZlebelia~, rac veRar uZlebs gamocdas~. `Tuki maradiuli mobruneba wrea, maSin mis centrSi gnsxvavebaa da igiveobrivi mxolod kideebSia; es aris wre, mudmivad cvalebadi centriT, romelic mxolod mudmivad gamrudebadi uTanasworos garSemo brunavs~ [2.77]. sxvagan J. deliozi aRniSnavs: `maradiuli mobruneba ar abrunebs imavesa da msgavss, aramed Tavad momdinareobs wminda gansxvavebis samyarodan~ [2.159]. maSasadame: maradiuli mobrunebis subieqti araa igiveobrivi, msgavsi, erTiani, aucilebeli `me~, an moazrovne subieqti, aramed igi gansxvavebuli, aramsgavsi, SemTxveviTia. `msgavsi da igiveobrivi mxolod im sistemaTa moqmedebis Sedegia, romelic emorCileba maradiul mobrunebas~. `msgavsi da igiveobrivi maradiuli mobrunebiT warmoqmnili fiqciebia~ [2.160]. meore aspeqti maradiul mobrunebasTan dakavSirebiT aris is, rom igi Cven realobis gancdiTa da realobis energiiT gvavsebs, romelic ar gaaCnia imas, visac am ideis ara swams. `maT, visac ara `swams~ maradiuli mobrunebis, nicSe mxolod erT patara sasjels hpirdeba: maT ar SeeZlebaT, kargad ganicadon sicocxle, maTTvis es iqneba wuTieri gaelveba. isini Tavs SeigrZnoben da Seicnoben, rogorc epifenomenebs; aseTi iqneba maTi absoluturi codna~ [2.77]. 3) mesame da umTavresi aspeqti maradiuli mobrunebis ideisa, J. deliozis azriT, aris is, rom maradiul mobrunebaSi xdeba simulakrTa triumfi. ufro dawvrilebiT es azri ase yalibdeba: `maradiuli mobruneba zusti mniSvnelobiT niSnavs imas, rom yoveli sagani arsebobs mxolod rogorc aslTa usasrulo raodenobis asli, romelic arc originalisaTvis da arc sawyisisaTvis adgils aRar tovebs. amitomac maradiuli mobruneba saxeldebulia, rogorc `parodiuli~: is im yvelafris kvalifici-

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rebas axdens, rasac nebas rTavs, iyos (an dabrundes), rogorc simulakri~ [2.90]. (J. deliozis am azrs p.klosovskic da m. fukoc exmianebian). maradiuli mobruneba angrevs da anadgurebs amosavalsa da nawarmoebs, sagansa da simulakrs Soris gansxvavebas. im gansxvavebas, romelsac efuZneboda mTeli platonizmi. garkveuli analizis Semdeg J. deliozi azustebs, rom platonTan ara sagnisa da simulakris, nimuSisa da aslis gamijvna iyo amosavali, aramed gansxvaveba gamosaxulebis (idolTa) or saxes _ aslsa (ikona) da simulakrs (fantazmi) Soris. maTi aRreva ki platonizmis dasasruli iqneboda, romelsac Tavad platonis erT-erTi gmiri _ ucxoeli axorcielebs. avtori ganixilavs dailog `sofiste~-s finalur nawils da aRmoaCens, rom platonizmis gadalaxva Tavad platonSivea mocemuli: kerZod, rodesac sokratesTan dapirispirebuli `ucxoeli~ yaribi sabolood Tavisas `gaitans~, yovelgvar gansxvavebas waSlis aslsa da simulakrebs Soris da maT gansxvavebaze SekiTxvis dasmas aramarTebulad miiCnevs. es aris simulakrTa gabatonebis samyaro, romelic eyrdnoba ganurCevlobas da warmoqmnis qaoss. amitomaa, rom nicSesTan qaosi da maradiuli mobruneba igiveobrivad moiazreba. aseT samyaroSi msgavsi da igiveobrivi SesaZlebelia mxolod `simulakris funqcionirebiT~ warmoqmnili iluziebi iyos: `simulakri _ swored msgavsebas moklebuli eSmakeuli saxea; an ufro sworad, ikonuri saxisagan gansxvavebiT man msgavseba gareganSi moaTavsa da Tavad ki, gansxvavebiT cxovrobs~ [2.161]. maSasadame, nicSelogiis imdroindeli franguli frTa, germanelebisa da ingliselebis gverdiT, qmnida nicSes filosofiis wakiTxvis meore, alternatiul paradigmas, rac nicSes antimetafizikosad gaazreba iyo. 60-iani wlebidan 90-iani wlebis dasawyisamde evropul nicSelogiaSi es ori paradigmatuli wakiTxva iyo gabatonebuli, romlebic erTmaneTs gamoricxavda. am wlebis ganmavlobaSi mudmivad erTmaneTs ebrZoda nicSes es ori saxe-paradigma _ nicSe, rogorc axali tipis metafizikosi da nicSe, rogorc antimetafizikosi. 80-iani wlebis bolodan da 90-iani wlebis dasawyisidan germanelebis da anglosaqsonelebis pirveli frTa, romelmac nicSes axali tipis metafizikosis saxe daamkvidra, sabolood gadis nicSelogiis istoriis arenidan. igi iqceva azrovnebis istoriis da nicSelogiis anaqronizmad, iseve, rogorc haidegeriseuli paradigma da ufro adre _ klasikur-metafizikuri an fenomenalisturi wakiTxvebi. masTan sami aTwleulis brZolis Semdeg imarjvebs nicSes teqstTa wakiTxvis antimetafizikuri paradigma. albaT, istoriis ama Tu im etapze, nicSes wakiTxvis ama Tu im paradigmis gabatoneba ZiriTadad im epoqis inteleqtualuri tendenciebisa da ZiriTadi filosofiuri skolebis mimarTulebebis Sedegia.

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90-iani wlebis nicSelogiis yvelaze mniSvnelovan avtorad isev Jil deliozi rCeba. igi statiaSi ariadnes saidumloeba~ (1987) kvlav Zalauflebis da simulaciis gaigivebas axdens da nicSes mkacrad gamoyofs metafizikuri azrovnebisagan. es statia nicSes Sesaxeb mis ganazrebaTa saboloo, Semajamebel nawarmoebad warmogvidgeba da erTi mxriv, naSromebis _ `nicSe~ da `nicSe da filosofia~ da meore mxriv, ufro gviandeli wignebis _ `gansxvaveba da ganmeoreba~ da `sazrisis logika~ _ SeTanxmeba/sinTezirebaa, sadac nicSes simulaciis sibrtyeSi wakiTxvebi ukve aqtiur/reaqtiul ZalTa Zveli dixotomiis fonze mimdinareobs. J. deliozis azriT, aqac nicSesaTvis idealia is adamiani, romelic amkvidrebs da TviTdamkvidrebas axorcielebs. Zalauflebis nebas aqvs ori sawinaaRmdego tonaloba _ damkvidreba da uaryofa. pirveli aris aqtiuri moqmedeba, xolo meore _ pasiuri reaqcia. avtori am dapirispirebas ori `konceptualuri personaJis~ _ Tezevsisa da dionises dapirispirebis magaliTze warmogvidgens, romelTa Sorisaa mesame personaJi _ ariadne. Tezevsi aris moxerxebuli gmiri gamocanaTa amoxsnaSi, labirinTSi orientirebulobasa da martorqasTan brZolaSi. igi aris igive `amaRlebuli adamiani~, romlis Tvisebebia: seriozuloba, simZime, miwis siZulvili, SurismaZiebloba da sicilsa da TamaSSi uunaroba. amitomac, nicSes azriT, Tezevsis damkvidreba damaxinjebuli da karikaturuli formiTaa ganxorcielebuli, radgan damkvidreba mas esmis, rogorc gamocdis atana, simZimis gaZleba. mas hgonia, rom damkvidreba satarebeli tvirTis simZimis mixedviT ganisazRvreba. misTvis mTavaria, amZimebdnen, boWavdnen. amitomac misi Sesaferisi cxovelebia viri da aqlemi. `umaRlesi adamianis~ damkvidreba sinamdvileSi uaryofaa, radganac igi reaqtiuli Zalis matarebelia. radganac ariadnes uyvars Tezevsi, isic reaqtiuli Zalisa da uaryofis ganmaxorcielebelia. misi sulic SurisgebiTaa Sepyrobili. esaa nihilizmi. magram aq ar mTavrdeba nihilizmi. xdeba `nihilizmis transmutacia~. ariadne eZebs sakuTar sikvdils, igi CamoixrCobs Tavs. esaa gardasaxvis fundamenturi momenti, `didi SuadRe~ [5.50], rodesac reaqtiuli Zalebi aqtiurad gardaiqmnebian. Tezevsisagan mitovebuli ariadne xedavs, TandaTanobiT rogor uaxlovdeba dionise. dionise anu igive martorqa, romelic wminda damkvidrebaa da gaTavisuflebaSi, gantvirTvaSi, moSvebaSi igulisxmeba. igi ki ar amZimebs sicocxles umaRlesi RirebulebebiT, aramed qmnis iseT axal Rirebulebebs, romlebic sicocxles ufro `msubuqs~ gaxdian. martorqa arafers amZimebs. igi am ganTavisublebiT amkvidrebs sicocxles. is aris `simsubuqe~. mas SeuZlia sicili, TamaSi, cekva anu damkvidreba. igi aris ara gmiri, aramed _ `ze-gmiri~. dionisesTan dakavSirebuli ariadne ki _ Surisgebis sulidan, `ara~-s mTqmelidan gadaiqceva `ho~-s mTqmelad, damamkvid-

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reblad. amisaTvis sWirdeba mas dionise. magram Tavad dionisec saWiroebs ariadnes: radgan dionise damkvidrebis RmerTia, mas sWirdeba meore damkvidreba imisaTvis, rom damkvidrdes Tavad damkvidreba. es aris gamojanmrTeleba rogorc ariadnesaTvis, ise dionisesaTvisac. J. deliozi kiTxulobs _ xom ar aris dionise yvelaze didi falsifikatori? `umaRlesi adamiani~, misi azriT, Zalauflebis nebis umaRles safexurs, reaqtiul, avadmyof nebas ganasaxierebs, romlis falsificirebac mxolod imitaciaze daiyvaneba. `rasac gaurbis imitatori, originalis metamorfozebi da ganaxlebebia, romlebic originals raRac axal formas miaweren, is gaurbis Semoqmedebas~ [5.52], _ wers avtori. misi Zalauflebis neba aris mxolod motyuebis, gabatonebis, miTvisebis, SeniRbvis neba, sxva formis miRebis neba, rodesac sinamdvileSi mudam igive rCeba. Zalauflebis nebis umaRlesi safexuri _ dionise ki aRwevs gardasaxvaTa da metamorfozaTa unars. esaa sicocxlis axal SesaZleblobaTa SemoqmedebiTi qmna, `transformacia~. mas SeuZlia TviTSecvla. J. deliozi wers _ `marTlac, igi imdenad kargad flobs tyuilisa da imitaciis xelovnebas, rom mas ara formiT, aramed transformaciiT axorcielebs~ [5.52]. wignebSi: `gansxvaveba da ganmeoreba~ da `sazrisis logika~ gatarebuli azri Zalauflebis nebisa da simulaciis samyaros igiveobis Sesaxeb am SemTxvevaSic sruliad daculia. Tanamedrove nicSelogiaSi arsebuli erT-erTi saintereso tendencia, romelic aseve J. delioziseul aqtiur/reaqtiul ZalTa dixotomiis CarCoebSia moqceuli, nicSes enobrivi praqtikebs ikvlevs. mis warmomadgenlebad SegviZlia frangi mkvlevrebi J. moreli da m. hari miviCnioT. maT 1995 wlis 18 marts bezansonis universitetis kolokviumze, saxelwodebiT _ `ena da Zalaufleba klasikur xanaSi~ _ nicSes diskursis Taviseburebebis analizze gaamaxviles yuradReba.. Tanamedrove nicSelogiis kidev erTi saintereso tendenciis arealSi unda moviazroT ingliseli filosofosi jon harTmani, romelic, aseve aqtiur/reaqtiul ZalTa dixotomiis gaTvaliswinebiT, J. deliozisagan gansxvavebiT, nicSes filosofiis ara simulaciis, aramed metafora/fiqciis sibrtyeSi gaazrebas gvTavazobs. statiaSi `nicSes mier metaforaTa gamoyeneba~ (1996) igi nicSes mier WeSmaritebis tradiciuli gagebis ukugdebaze da mis mier axali modelis _ yvela konceptis (cnebis) metaforad warmodgenis _ Semotanaze saubrobs. rogorc vxedavT, warmodgenili sainterpretacio mimarTulebebi Jil deliozis naazreviTaa davalebuli da nicSes wakiTxvis antimetafizikur paradigmaSi Tavsdeba.

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SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom Tanamedrove nicSelogiis erTiani xasiaTi aSkara antimetafizikuri ganwyobilebiT gamoirCeva. Tuki saukunis dasawyisSi nicSes filosofiis wakiTxvis metafizikuri da fenomenalisturi paradigmebis brZola axali paradigmis dabadebiT _ m. haidegerisa da e. finkis mier f. nicSes `ukanasknel metafizikosad~ `gamocxadebiT~ dasrulda, 60-iani wlebidan m. haidegeriseul saxe-paradigmasTan dapirispirebiT nicSes wakiTxvis ori urTierTsawinaaRmdego mimarTuleba warmoiSva: erTi saxe-paradigma, romelic cdilobda nicSe saerTod gamoecalkevebina metafizikisagan (u. kaufmani, J. deliozi, J. derida...) da meore, romelic piriqiT _ nicSes filosofias metafizikisaken radikalur dabrunebad aRiarebda _ mxolod im gansxvavebiT, rom am wakiTxvam metafizikis raRac axali, `eqsperimentuli~ gageba SeimuSava (v.miuler-lauterisa da f.gerxardis axali tipis metafizika da f.koplstonis `revizionuli~ metafizika). sabolood, 90-iani wlebis dasawyisisaTvis nicSes wakiTxvis es meore paradigma arasicocxlisunariani aRmoCnda da nicSelogiis anaqronizmad iqca. dRevandel evro-amerikul interpretaciebSi nicSes, rogorc metafizikosis saxe, Tundac raimenairi variaciiT, mkveTrad uaryofilia. Tanamedrove nicSelogiaSi nicSes filosofiis antimetafizikuri wakiTxvis saxe-paradigmaa gabatonebuli. sabolood, SegviZlia Tavi movuyaroT nicSelogiis oTx ZiriTad tendencias, romlebic dResdReobiT `tonis mimcemia~ msoflio nicSelogiaSi da nicSes filosofiis wakiTxvis antimetafizikur paradigmaSi Tavsdeba: 1) simulacionisturi: nicSes gaazreba simulakrebisa da simulaciebis sibrtyeSi (J. deliozi). 2) diskursionistuli: nicSes gaazreba enobrivi praqtikebis sibrtyeSi (J. moreli, m. hari...). 3) antilogocentristuli: nicSes gaazreba antilogocentrizmis sibrtyeSi (J.derida). 4) metaforul-fiqcionisturi: nicSes gaazreba metafora/fiqciaTa sibrtyeSi (s. kofmani, j. harTmani...). literatura: 1. haidegeri m. `vin aris nicSes zaratustra?~, kreb. `gulani~, 1991, #1, 155-180. 2. . ` ~, -, `~,1998. 3. . ` ~, , , `~,1998. 4. . ` ~, , `~,1995.

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5. . ` ~, . ` ~, 1993, 4, 48-53. 6. . `~, , AXIOMA/, 1997. 7. . ` ~, http://www.rambler.ru/, 1999 8. . ` ~, -, . . .. , 1907. 9. . ` ~, , . .., 1902. 10. . ` ~ (), http://www.rambler.ru/,1999. 11. Bumler A. `Nitzsche der Philosoph und Politiker~, Leipzig, 1931. 12. Copleston F. `Friedrich Nietzsche: Philosopher of culture~, N.Y. 1975. 13. .Copleston F. `A history of Philosophy~, Volume VII, 1994. 14. Deleuze G. `Nietzsche et la philosophie~, P.V.F.P. 1962. 15. Deleuze G. and Guattari F. `Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizofrenia~, N.Y. 1977. 16. Deleuze G. and Guattari F. `Quest-ce que ce la philosophie?~, Minuit, 1991. 17. Derrida J. `Force et signification~, Chicago, 1975. 18. Derrida J. `Nietzsches styles~, Chicago, 1979. 19. Fink E. `Nietsches Philosophie~, Stuttgart, 1960. 20. Gerhardt V. `Macht und Metaphysik: Nietzsches Machtbegriff im Wandel der Interpretation.~ in: Nietzsche-Studien: Intern. I.B.fur die Nietzsche - Forschung. 1981/82 N.Y. 1982 21. Gerhardt V.~Pathos und Distanz: Studien zur Philosophie Friedrich Hartmann John, `Nietzshes use of Metaphor~, Internet http://www.yahoo.com/, 1996. 22. Heidegger M. `Wer ist Nietzsches Zarathustra?~. `Vortrage und aufsatze~, 1967. 23. Heidegger M. `Nietzsches wort `Gott ist tot~, `Holzwege~,1962. 24. Heidegger M. `Nietzsche~, Bd I-II, Pfullingen, 1964. 25. Kaufmann N. `Nietzsche Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist~, N.Y. 1950 26. Maurel. J. Haar M. `Langage et pouroir cher Nietzsche~, Internet http://www.yahoo.om/, 1995. 27. Mller-Lauter W. `Nietzche: Seine Philosophie der Gegenstze und die Gegenstze seiner Philosophie~, N.Y. 1971. 28. Mller-Lauter W. `Nietzsches Lehre vom Willen zur Macht.~ jn: Nietzsche-

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29. Studien: Intern.jb. fur die Nietzsche-Forscang, 1974, N.Y. 1974. 30. Mller-Lauter W `Das Willenwessen und der bermensch: Ein Beitz. zu Heideggers Nietzsche Interpretationen~, jn: Nietzsche Studien: Internet, jb.fur die Nietzsche-Forschung, 1981/1982 N. Y. 1982. 31. Rosenberg A. `Der Mythus des XX Iahrhunderts~, Munchen, 1941.

xaTuna TavdgiriZe

miTosuri simulaciebi ,,mTliani RmerTi da misi destruqcia

,,ra

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori; baTumis niko berZeniSvilis institutis ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli. ZiriTadi naSromebi: `miTologiuri gadmocemebi aWaraSi (weraqveTas miTi, ukvdavebis maZiebeli luymani) (baT.2001); ,,aWaruli samonadireo miTosi (baT.2004); ,,sawyisTan dabrunebis qarTuli kosmogoniuri miTo-ritualuri modelebi (2008). mxatvruli proza: ,,HOMO TOTUS (2008). interesTa sfero: literatura, filosofia, semiotika, miTis poetika, arqaul kulturaTa kvlevebi, kulturis filosofia.

emarTeba RvTaebrivs, rodesac is Tavis Tavs xatebSi aRmoaCens? ra emarTeba mas, rodesac is mravldeba simulirebulebSi? Tu is uCinardeba simulirebulSi, romelic gadmoSlis momxiblav didebulebas da Zalas xatebis vizualur manqanur moqmedebas, romelic cvlis RmerTis martiv da inteligibelur ideas?~ Jan bodriari. ,,simulirebulebi da simulaciebi~.

yovlisSemoqmedi RmerTi, rogorc absolutumi da ,,mTliani struqtura~, aris swored is ,,mTliani struqtura~ romlis ..mTlianobac~ xazgasmas ar saWiroebs. magram aRmoCndeba, rom amgvari definiciis aucileblobac dgeba, radgan miTis erT-erTi mTavari problema ontologiuri problema, aRniSnuli ,,mTlianobis~ gamoxatva//gamosaxvas ukavSirdeba. ,,mTliani RmerTis~ gamosaxvis SesaZleblobaTa miTosuri reprezentaciebi miTisTvis aris is zRvari, saidanac is moulodnelad metafizikur-filosofiuri da Teologiur-religiuri ambiciebis gamomJRavnebas iwyebs (amitomac miiCneva, rom miTi potenciuri filosofia da potenciuri religiaa). roca miTi iwyebs Txrobas, anu aqtivobas teqstobriv (eqsplicitur) da warmodgeniT (implicitur) doneebze, im wuTidan is xdeba etiologiuri, ris Rrma sazriss RmerTisa da yofierebis struqturebis dalageba da Cveneba warmoadgens.

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miTi flobs ,,mTlianobis~ da ,,erTi RmerTis~ Sesaxeb ,,saidumlo codnas~. es codna miTisTvis Zalze ,,mtkivneulia~ da amasTanave _ arsebiTi, radgan am ,,saidumlo codnis~ apofatikuri buneba, romelsac versad gaeqceva verc erTi struqtura (miTi, religia, filosofia, literatura, istoria da a. S.) principulad Seusabamoa miTosuri paradigmisTvis, romelSic nebismieri gamovlineba da misi arsi SeiZleba arsebobdes mxolod etiologiur, anu axsnis farglebSi; mxolod _ vizualur xatebsa da hiperrealur formebSi (fantastikur da metaforul gansxeulebebSi); miTosuri paradigma moicavs fantastikuri vizualuri xatebis amoqmedebisa da miTologemebis gacocxlebis meqanizmebiT nebismieri metafizikuri da empiriuli kiTxvis pasuxis SesaZleblobas da aucileblobas. amitom erTi RmerTisa da sawyisi mTlianobis miuwvdomel apofatikur bunebas CixSi Sehyavs miTi. am Cixidan gamosvlas igi erTi centraluri RmerTis aRiarebiT, anu ,,saidumlo codnis~ arsebobis Ria dadasturebiT iwyebs, riTac Tavisive wiaRSi Casaxavs axal ,,etiologiur embrionebs~ _ ,,erTi RmerTis~ maZiebel da amxsnel momavlis struqturebs da paradigmebs _ religiasa da filosofias. miTosuri, religiuri da filosofiuri intermsoflmxedvelobrivi uZvelesi azrovnebis wiaRSi mudmivad vlindeba codna ,,erT RmerTze~. poliTeizmis garemoSi, ganusazRvrelad bevri RvTaebis Tayvancemisa da msaxurebis pirobebSi yovelTvis arsebobs centraluri, yovlis Semoqmedi pirveli RmerTis uzenaesobis Teologiuri gancda, misi gansakuTrebulobis aRiarebisa da danarCen RvTaebaTagan diferencirebis Sinagani sulieri intencia. ufro metic, aseTi yovlisSemoqmedi RmerTisadmi (romelmac samyaro da danarCeni RmerTebi gaaCina) arsebobs mkveTrad gamoxatuli ,,pirveladi monoTeisturi gancdebi~ da metafizikur-filosofiuri damokidebulebebi. ,,erTi RmerTis~ codnas miTi, religia da filosofia erTad daatareben. induri religiuri himnebis uZveles krebul ,,rigvedaSi~ (Zv.w. II aTaswleulis bolo), romelic Zvelindur miTologias (arsebiTad kosmogonias) efuZneba, araerTgzis vxvdebiT erTi konkretuli RmerTis erTaderTobis, erTarsobis aRiarebas. himnSi, romelic eZRvneba ,,yovlis Seqmnels~ _ RvTaeba viSvakarmans (mandala 10, 81) _ mimarTaven rogorc ,,Semoqmeds~ da ,,erT RmerTs~: ,,aqvs yvelgan Tvali yovlis Semqmnels da saxe yvelgan, xelebi yvelgan da fexebic yvelgan ganrTxmuli da Semoikrebs frTaTa TvisTa qveSe yovelTa cisa da miwis ,,Semoqmedi~, ,,is erTi~, ,,RmerTi~ (qrestomaTia 1990:370).

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sxva himnSic (mandala 10,82) viSvakarmani ,,erTaderTad~ da ,,arsTa Semqmnelad~ aris moxseniebuli. miTologiuri StrixebiT aRbeWdili RmerTi aq religiur da metafizikur-filosofiur WrilSia gaazrebuli: ,,mamaa Cveni, da mSobeli, arsTa Semqmneli, vin uwyis yvela arseba da mdgomareoba. vinc erTaderTi aZlevs saxels Tavad RmerTebsac, masTan midian sakiTxavad sxva arsebanic~ (qrestomaTia 1990:371). RmerTis filosofiuri gagebis TvalsazrisiT agreTve sainteresoa ,,rigvedas~ himni miZRvnili ucnobi RvTaebis ,,ka~-sadmi (mandala 10, 121), romelic mTlianadaa gamsWvaluli ,,pirveli RmerTis~ ZiebiT. himns yoveli strofis bolos refrenad gasdevs erT-erTi mTavari metafizikuri kiTxva, Tu vin aris sawyisi, yovlisSemoqmedi RmerTi romelic unda ,,vadidoT msxverplSewirviT~: ,,vin aZlevs Zalas, da pirveli vin qmnis sicocxles, an vis brZanebas morCileben yvela RmerTebi, vis hyavs aCrdilad ukvdaveba da vis sikvdili, _ RmerTi romeli, vin vadidoT Cven msxverplSewirviT? ..... dakSas CamsaxvelT, dambadebelT pirveli msxverplis, vinc erTaderTi iyo RmerTi yvela RmerTebis....~ (qrestomaTia 1990:372-373). apofatikuri ganazrebebiT cnobil rigvedas himnSi _ ,,kosmogonia~ (mandala 10, 129) _ ,,RmerTebi~ iTvlebian meoradi Sesaqmis Sedegad warmoqmnilebad, xolo mTavar kreaciul Zalad gamocxadebulia apofatikuri sawyisi _ ,,raRac erTi~: ,,raRac erTi, da ar iyo araferi mis garda~ (rigveda 1995) . misi nebiT da azriT araradan Cndeba yofiereba. ,,erTi RmerTis~ Teologiur-metafizikuri gancda damaxasiaTebelia Zalian adreuli egvipturi RvTismsaxurebisaTvis. amon-rasadmi mimarTul himnSi (romlis teqstic TariRdeba daaxloebiT Zv.w.1600 wliT) Cven vxvdebiT absoluturi monoTeisturi gancdebiT gamsWvaluli sulis gamoxatulebas: ,,Sen erTi xar Semqmneli yovelivesi: erTi erTaderTi, Semqmneli xmeleTisa; is, visi Tvalebidanac gamovidnen kacni; is, visi sitviTac gaCndnen RmerTebi. ........................ salami Senda, yovelive amis Semoqmedo, erTo-erTaderTo mravali xelebiT..... ~(assmani 1999:96)

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aSkaraa am teqstis monoTeisturi xasiaTi da bibliur himnebTan misi literaturuli siaxlove. magram miuxedavad amisa, igi mainc ver scildeba poliTeizmis CarCos: sagalobelSi xazgasmulia amon-ras erTaderToba, magram, imavdroulad, moxseniebulia RmerTebis eneada (RmerTebis krebuli) da RmerTi atumi. uZvelesi poliTeisturi religiebis Tanmxlebi monoTeisturi tendenciebi mainc rCeba adamianis sulis Zalian Rrma da ukiduresad enigmuri ubnis gaucnobierebel emanaciad, romelic Tavisi intensivobis wyalobiT literaturuli tradiciis saxes iRebs. amitom Zvelegvipturi mimarTva erTRvTaebisadmi _ ,,erTaderTo RmerTo, sxva msgavsi romlis ar arsebobs~, egvipturi zogadreligiuri da literaturuli tradiciis gamoxatulebaa. am formas vxvdebiT sxvadasxva didi RmerTis amonis, ras, atumis da a.S. mimarTvebSi. am mimarTvas gaimeorebs faraoni amenxotep IV (Zv.w. 1367-1350), igive exnatoni Tavis cnobil himnSi _ ,,didi himni atons~. swored aRniSnuli tradiciis kvalze Seiqmna faraon exnatonis ,,didi himni atons~ da misi literaturuli ,,memkvidre~ _ bibliuri 103-e fsalmuni(bibliologTa umravlesoba aRiarebs 103-e fsalmunis Zalian Rrma literaturul kavSirs ,,atonis did himnTan~ (akimovi 2007)). tradicia, romelic RvTaebas xotbas asxams mis mier Seqmnilze (yovelgvari Sesaqme) miTiTebiT da aseT RvTaebas aRiarebs ,,erTaderT RmerTad~ _ aris uZvelesi zogadreligiuri da literaturuli tradicia da ara _ romelime konkretuli religiuri sistemis dogma. es tradicia arsebobda jer kidev exnatonis amarnis epoqamde aTasi wliT adre da man faraon exnatonis religiur reformaSi mxolod damatebiTi Teologiuri (ufro ki monarqiuli Teologiis _ romelic faraons acxadebs RvTaebad) Strixebi SeiZina. exnatonis ,,atonisturi monoTeizmis~ (exnatons monoTeisturi religiis fuZemdebladac ganixilaven) Teologiuri arsi gulisxmobda atonis, romelic mTlianad vlindeba mzis diskos saxiT, gamouxatavi, dafaruli RmerTis metafizikur ganazrebas. atonis Teologiur centralizaciamde amoni iyo ,,dafaruli RmerTi~, xolo RmerTi _ ra me-18 dinastiis teqstebSi aRiwereba, rogorc RmerTi, romlis ,,saxe dafarulia~ da romelic ,,imaleba sxva samyaroSi~. mogvianebiT swored ras enigmuri buneba da misi uxilaoba imemkvidreva RmerTma atonma (mzis disko) exnatonis religiuri reformis dros (eliade, rwmenis istoria... 2002:57). RmerTebi, Cveulebriv, atareben enigmur, dafarul bunebas da saxes, isini warmoadgenen ,,erTi saidumlos~ mraval ipostass, erTi ,,mTavari~ saidumlos mraval formas _ momdinares erTi sawyisi mTlianobidan. frangi egviptologi k.Jaki miuTiTebs egvipturi religiis aradogmatur xasiaTze da aRniSnavs, rom ,,egviptelebs ar

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swamdaT erTi RmerTis, _ arc mravali RmerTis. isini flobdnen gansazRvrul codnas RvTaebriv Zalebze da eqsperimentebis gziT cdilobdnen am codnis gafarToebas. egvipturi ,,religia~ aris raRac, romelic individs akavSirebs sakralur samyarosTan sxvadasxva gziT, romelTac mivyavarT erT centramde~ (Jaki 1999:116). * * * erTi RmerTis ,,dafaruli~ da ,,uxilavi~ sawyisi, romelsac Seucnobels tovebs religia (apofatikuroba RmerTis atributia religiebSi) miTisTvis Ria, ,,SemecnebiTi~ unda iyos. miTisTvis principulad miuRebelia sawyisi mTlianobis, RmerTisa da yofierebis apofatikuroba. ontologiuri saidumlos ,,gamartiveba~ da gamowvlilviTi gamoxatva, iseve rogorc am sawyisi mTlianobidan kosmogoniis ganxorcieleba, miTis mTavari Sinagani intenciaa. amitom miTi sagangebod qmnis da amuSavebs Sida-struqturebs da specmeqanizms sawyisisa da RmerTis asaxvisaTvis. miTisa da erTi ,,mTliani RmerTis~ dapirispirebuloba atarebs metafizikuri (filosofiuri), religiuri (Teologiuri) da paradigmuli (struqturuli) dapirispirebis xasiaTs. am dapirispirebulobaSi avlens miTi Tavis namdvil bunebas, ,,daSlisa~ da ,,danawevrebis~, mTlianobis represirebis unars. amgvari represia miuTiTebs miTis destruqciul potencialze (SesaZleblobaze), magram araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar gulisxmobs miTis Tvisobriv, imanentur destruqciulobas. yovelgvar destruqciulobas, rogorc ,,qaosis~ Tanafard movlenas, miTi upirispirdeba Tavisi sayovelTao ,,momawesrigebeli~, Rrmad kosmogoniuri intenciiT. maS, ratom jiutobs wesrigisa da kosmosis mTlianobis moyvaruli miTi, roca Tavis struqturaSi absolutis, ,,mTliani RmerTis~ Semoyvanas iwyebs? ratom ewinaaRmdegeba miTi ,,mTlianobis~ transcendentur struqturas, sadac sruliad gamoiricxeba RmerTis inteligibeluri idea? sawyisi RvTaebrivi mTlianobis sapirispirod ratom muSaobs miTSi ,,damSleli~ meqanizmi? es ar aris martivi da miT ufro miTisTvis sasurveli viTareba (radgan, rogorc vTqviT, miTi ar aris destruqciuli Zala). miTi iZulebulia, iyos destruqciuli, miTi iZulebulia, mogvevlinos am tipis negatiur Zalad, radgan arc erT struqturaSi sagangebo manevrirebis gareSe ar Tavsdeba masze didi struqtura. sxva sityvebiT rom iTqvas, miTi ver itevs ,,mTlian RmerTs~, miTSi ver Tavsdeba ,,mTlianoba~, ,,sawyisi~, saidumlos transcendenturi Semoqmedi RmerTi. swored amitom miTi iwyebs sawyisi mTlianobis Semoyvanis, Tavsebisa da asaxvisaTvis optimaluri gzebis Ziebas. miTi qmnis im meqanizms, romliTac aRniSnuli metafizikuri dabrkoleba gadailaxeba.

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garda sawyisi mTlianobis daSlisa miTis struqturaSi ar arsebobs sxva meqanizmi am mTlianobis Semoyvanis, Tavsebisa da asaxvisaTvis. magram am gziT asaxuli mTlianoba ukve aRar aris sawyisi mTlianoba, radgan ,,daSlili~ ar Sesabameba ,,dauSlels~ (anu ,,mTlians~). aRmoCnda, rom sabolood miTi ver Zlevs sawyisi mTlianobis Semoyvanisa da asaxvis metafizikur problemas da ,,daSlis~ meqanizmiT aRniSnuli problemis gadalaxva mis mier mxolod moCvenebiTi, simulaciuria. miTSi sawyisi mTlianobis Semoyvanisa da asaxvis simulaciiT saxezea sawyisi mTlianobis totaluri destruqcia. RmerTi, rogorc sawyisi ,,mTliani RmerTis~ struqtura, yovelTvis miTis gareT rCeba. sawyisi mTlianoba sabolood mainc dafarulia miTisTvis. bodriari fiqrobs, rom ,,SeuZlebelia gamoixatos RvTaebrioba, romelmac bunebas suli Cahbera~ (bodriari 1997:53); ,,mTliani RmerTis~ gamoxatva SesaZlebelia mxolod ,,danawevrebulad~, ,,nawil-nawil~, xatebsa da niSnebSi. miTs mxolod ,,danawevrebuli~, sakuTarsave sxvadasxva RvTaebriv Zalebad emansipirebuli RmerTis gamoxatva ZaluZs. aqedan modis miTosuri panTeizmi da poliTeizmi, romlis diferencirebul ierarqiul sistemaSi Cven SegviZlia vixiloT miTis miRmieridan gamomWoli ,,mTliani RmerTis~ aCrdilebi. warmarTuli panTeoni miTisTvis dafaruli ,,mTliani RmerTis~ nacvlad, misTvis misawvdomi RmerTis uTvalavi simulakriT _ ,,mcire RmerTebiT~ aris dakompleqtebuli. isini sawyis RvTaebriobas imdenad asaxaven, ramdenadac arian am RvTaebriobis mauwyebeli (mimTiTebeli) warmodgenebi, fantazmebi da ukidures SemTxvevaSi _ niSnebi; isini gamocalkevdebian ,,mTliani RmerTis~ transcendenturi sawyisidan, transformirdebian RmerTis inteligibelur saxeebad da mravldebian usasrulod miTis wiaRSi sagangebod mowyobil xelovnurad ganoyivrebul saTburebSi. da Tu amgvari danawevreba-gamocalkevebis gziT mainc SesaZlebeli xdeba, gamoixatos RvTaebrioba, maSin ra emarTeba RvTaebrivs, romelic danawevrda da gamoisaxa? bodriari svams kiTxvas: ,,ra emarTeba RvTaebrivs, rodesac sakuTar Tavs xatebSi aRmoaCens? ra emarTeba mas, rodesac is mravldeba simulirebulebSi? Tu is uCinardeba simulirebulSi, romelic gadmoSlis momxiblav didebulebas da Zalas xatebis vizualur manqanur moqmedebas, romelic cvlis RmerTis martiv da inteligibelur ideas?~ (bodriari, 1997:53). rodesac RvTaebrivi gadmoiSleba ,,xatebis vizualur manqanur moqmedebaSi~, rodesac RvTaebrivi metastazurad vrceldeba Tavissave fermkrTal oreulebSi, rodesac RmerTi usasrulod gadamravldeba sakuTarsave simulakrebSi, am dros is simulirdeba da xdeba

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simulirebuli RmerTi, romelic Zalianaa daSorebuli sawyis mTlianobas. aseTi RmerTi bodriarisTvis aris ,,giganturi simulirebuli~, radgan davida im niSnebze, romlebic amtkiceben mis arsebobas. ,,giganturi simulirebuli~ aris ,,ara ararealuri, aramed simulirebuli, romelic Caenacvleba ara realurs, aramed sakuTar Tavs~ (bodriari, 1997:54). da am zRvarze Cndeba kidec simulaciis mTvari safrTxe: gauCinareba. simulaciisas uCinardeba simulirebuli, radgan sawyisidan gamoyofis, danawevrebis yovel jerze, simravlis matebasTan erTad iklebs, mcirdeba sawyisi mTlianoba. mTlianobis daSlis kvalze ki vualirdeba da TandaTan uCinardeba transcendenturi sawyisi ,,mTliani RmerTi~. amgvarad, miTi romelic cdilobs asaxos (gamoxatos) RmerTi, sinamdvileSi kargavs, auCinarebs mas. am SemTxvevaSi simravlis odenoba gauCinarebis pirdapirproporciulia, xolo cneba ,,mravali~ (uTvalavi, uamravi, aTasi da a.S.) xdeba ,,gamqralis~ ekvivalenturi. SesaZloa aqedanad modiodes is Rrma miTosur-Teologiuri sazrisi, ramac xeTebis uZvelesi civilizacia ,,aTasi RvTaebis qveynad~ aqcia (,,aTasi RvTaeba xaTis qveynisa~ _ ase aRniSnavndnen xaTur da xeTur panTeons) da amave msoflmxedvelobriv wiaRSi warmoSva kidec uprecedento simravlis ,,gamqrali da dabrunebuli~ RmerTis pleada(Telefinu, ancili, cuqi, inara, xanaxana, mzis RvTaeba, mTvaris RvTaeba, anonimuri RvTaeba...). xeTur miTosSi gamqrali da dabrunebuli RvTaebis miTologema universaluria da gamqralis rolSi nebismieri RvTaeba SeiZleba mogvevlinos. xeTuris msgavsad ukiduresad gadatvirTulia egvipturi panTeonic RvTaebaTa ricxvi aq oriaTass aRwevs. igive miTosur-Teologiur sazrisze SeiZleba saubari sxva uZveles kulturebSic, sadac religiuri panTeizmi da Teogoniuri miTosi erTmaneTis paralelurad ukiduresad ganviTarebuli Cans. qarTul lokalur TuS-fSav-xevsurul (aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis) panTeonSi mcire RvTaebebis RvTiSvilebis saerTo raodenoba daaxloebiT samiaTasiT ganisazRvreba, Tumca maTi saxelebi ucnobia. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis miTologiaSi ,,miTi~ iZens damatebiT religiur (,,rjulis~) datvirTvas da yalibdeba religiuri ,,anderZebis~, adgilobrivi terminologiiT _ ,,andrezebis~ sistemad. qarTuli andrezuli sivrce agebulia uzenaesi _ ,,morige RmerTis~, misi xelqveiTi RvTiSvilebisa da maTi saymoebis (maT mfarvelobaSi myofi mosaxleoba) urTierTmimarTebaze. es aris ..mTavari RmerTisa~ da misi uamravi simulakris tipuri samyaro, sadac erTmaneTis identuri TiToeuli simulakri aris konkurenti danarCeni simulakrisa. amitomac aris, msgavad olimpos RmerTebisa, RvTiSvilTa Sorisac qiSpoba da mtroba, rasac siuJeturad afor-

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mebs andrezi. xevsurul andrezSi pirdapiraa naTqvami, rom ,,Tergvauli da kopala mtrebi arian, ar SeiZleba erTis mlocvelma meore ilocoso~(poezia 1972:298). uzenaesi morige RmerTis erTiani sawyisidan uamravi xvTiSvili, igive jvar-xati ,,gamocalkevda~ (maTi ricxvi samiaTass aRwevs). RvTaebrivi sawyisis am gadmoSla-emanaciaSi Zneli ar aris mTlianobis damSleli miTosuri meqanizmis ,,gamoWera~. morige RmerTis wiaRidan gamosuli ,,Svilebi~ _ RvTiSvilebi arian Tavad morige RmerTis represirebuli, klonirebuli da simulirebuli oreulebi, xatebi, ikonuri asaxvebi. am TvalsazrisiT sayuradReboa aWaris mTianeTis sxvadasxva teritoriaze mofenili sakulto Zeglebi, salocavi kerpebi, romelTac ,,qva-kacebs~ uwodeben. aqac ,,simravleSi~ simulirebuli da qva-kerpebSi gauCinarebuli RmerTis kvalis danaxva SeiZleba. fSav-xevsuruli RvTiSvilebi ramdenadac morige RmerTis simulirebuli oreulebi, xatebi, ikonuri asaxvebi arian, andrezebSic amitomac moixseniebian Sesatyvisi terminebiT _ ,,xati~, ,,nasaxi~ (gamoxatuli, dasaxuli, gamosaxuli). aq gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania ,,xatad~ anu ,,vizualur gamosaxulebad~ dasaxuli RvTiSvilis ara ikonuri, aramed cocxali mis cocxal arsebad gancda. ,,xats~, romelic Cveulebriv, RvTaebis usulo vizualur-mxatvrul asaxvad, aslad unda gagvego, andrezi ,,cocxlis~ sazriss aniWebs. andrezis jvar-xatebi arian RvTaebis fardi cocxali, aqtiuri arsebebi, romlebic uSualod, fizikurad monawileoben fSav-xevsurul mikrokosmiur movlenebSi. amis Sesaxeb grigol robaqiZe Tavis narkvevSi ,,saqarTvelos saTaveni~ wers: ,,rac barSi ,,istoriad~ iqca, mTaSi darCa miTosad... barSi xati niSnavs saTayvano suraTs romelime wmindanisa, xolo mTaSi mas jerac ar daukargavs Tavisi pirvandeli mniSvneloba: miTiuri: xati mTaSi saxelia salocavisa; xSirad mis magier ,,jvari~ ixmareba... ,,xati~ miTiuri xilvaa uxilavi arsis mTaSi jer kidev cocxalia. barSi es sityva ukve dakargulia~(robaqiZe 1991). marTlac, xati miTiuri xilvaa RvTaebisa, misi fantasmagoriuli gamosaxva da gancda, romelic gadmoiSala morige RmerTis enigmuri sawyisis usasrulod danawevrebul simravleSi. morige RmerTis gamomsaxvelobisTvis miTosSi muSaobs ,,daSlis~ meqanizmi. morigis sawyisi ,,sityva~ aisaxa//gamoixata misave ,,dasaxul~//,,nasax~ xatebsa da nasaxebSi. am gziT morige RmerTi sabolood gauCinarda _ ,,gamiwvrilda~ RvTiSvilTa simravleSi. ,,gamiwvrileba~ _ ,,metafizikuri gauCinarebis~ Sesatyvisi fSav-xevsuruli andrezuli terminia, romelic jvar-xatis saidumlo enam Semoinaxa da andrezuli ganmartebiT, ,,xiluli arsebobidan uxilav arsebobaSi gadasvlas~ niSnavs. andrezebSi am termins ratomRac

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mxolod dev-kerpTa//demonur xatTa(isev xatebi!) gauCinarebas ukavSireben, sinamdvileSi ki, ,,gamiwvrileba~ gacilebiT farTo terminia da ukavSirdeba nebismier transcendentur Zalas (rogorc dadebiTs, ise _ uaryofiTs); ,,gamiwvrileba~ aris miTis is mTavari ,,damSleli~ (etimologiuradac ,,gamiwvrileba~ _ dawvrileba, dapataraveba, danawevrebas unda ukavSirdebodes) meqanizmi, romliTac RmerTi da misi mTlianoba simulirdeba. ,,gamiwvrilebiT~ andrezi miTosuri simulaciis procesebs, mTliani RmerTis simulakrebSi simulirebis viTarebas asaxavs. igi gauCinarebuli da simulirebuli RmerTis miTSi myofobis sruliad sxvagvar mdgomareobas gvamcnobs: es aris RmerTis verbaluri emanaciis mdgomareoba, romelic miTSi ,,mTlianobis damSleli~, marginaluri meqanizmis paralelurad muSaobs. RvTiSvilebis dasaxvasTan erTad, sakuTar xatebsa da nasaxebSi, maT simravleSi gauCinarebuli morige RmerTi miTosis pasiuri monawilea. morige RmerTi andrezebSi ganicdeba mxolod verbaluri struqturis ,,metafizikuri sityvis~ doneze, ontologiuri ,,brZanebis~ aspeqtSi. morige RmerTi, rogorc araerTi miTologiuri RvTaeba da bibliuri RmerTi, aqtivobs mxolod ,,verbalurad~. rogorc andrezi gveubneba morige RmerTi ,,Zravs Tavis oqros bageebs~. swored ,,oqros bageebiT~ awesrigebs kosmoss: ,,morige rigs da wess aZlevs qveynierobas, magram TviTon qveynis marTvelobaSi ar ereva da brZanebis mets aras akeTebs~ (javaxiSvili 1979:102). es ki sxva araferia, Tu ara RmerTis verbaluri emanacia. ontologiuri sityva-brZaneba aris is ,,sityva~, romelic Caenacvleba RvTis xats. ,,morige RmerTi~ realurad miTosSi ar yofierobs, aqtivobs mxolod misi verbaluri nawili. morige qmnis da ,,saxavs~ samyaros da RvTiSvilebs Tavisi oqros bageebidan gamomavali RvTaebrivi sityviT, romelic sxva araferia, Tu ara sityvaSi gamovlenili (da ara gansxeulebuli da gamosaxuli) RmerTi _ misive sawyisi da ,,TviToba~. mxolod sityva iyo pirvelTagani. es niSnavs: sityva ,,iyo prvelTagan~ da ,,RmerTi iyo sityva igi~. amdenad, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos andrezul miTologiur sistemaSi ukve mocemulia samyaros Sesaqmisa da mowyobis verbalurmetafizikuri modeli. rogorc uZvelesi kosmogoniuri sistemebi adastureben, sawyisis metafizikuri verbalizacia Zveli aRTqmis bibliur Teologiamde gacilebiT adre, jer kidev uZveles miTologiebsa da religiebSi, warmarTuli panTeizmis wiaRSi Cndeba. erTi uzenaesi RmerTis aRiarebisa da misi sawyisis Teologiuri gancdis farglebSi Semodis kidev erTi uZvelesi tradicia centraluri RmerTis verbalizacia da am meqanizmis CarTva kosmo-

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genezisis aqtSi. RvTaebis verbaluri paradigma mTlianad efuZneba mentalur goniT aspeqts, rac momavalSi qristianuli logosis Teologiis safuZveli xdeba. uZveles poliTeistur religiebsa da miTologiebze dakvirveba gviCvenebs, rom pirvelad monoTeistur tendenciebTan erTad isaxeba ,,azris~ _ ,,RvTaebrivi gonis~ kreaciuli metafizikur-Teologiuri ganazrebebi, rac met-naklebad Camoyalibebuli Teologiuri sistemebis saxesac iRebs calkeul miToreligiur doqtrinebSi (mag. egviptis heliopolisisa da memfisis kosmogoniuri sistemebi). am kosmogoniur doqtrinebSi Sesaqme RvTaebriv sityvasa da azrze(gonebaze) gavliT daiyvaneba erT RmerTamde: RvTaeba (erTi RmerTi): _ goneba-azri-sityva-Sesaqme ,,rigvedas~ himnSi(,,kosmogonia~, mandala 10,129) aRwerili kosmogenezisi verbalur-mentalur models asaxavs da Tavdapirvelad arsebulis - ,,raRac erTis~ apofatikurobasTan erTad, am sawyisis ,,goniT~ substanciaze miuTiTebs: ,,Tavdapirvelad (masSi) gaCnda survili, rac iyo azris pirveli Tesli. yofierebis qmna araradan amoxsnes brZenTa TavianT gulebSi azrebis ZebniT~ (rigveda 1995). Zvel indur religiur himnebSi gadmocemuli ontologiuri movlenebi induri miTosis farglebSi rCeba. induri miTosi ki imTaviTve aRiarebs RvTaebis verbalur-kreaciul SesaZleblobebs. pirvelkaci prajapati, romelic oqros kvercxidan daibada, swored RvTaebrivi sitviT qmnis samyaros: ,,man gamoamtvria oqros kvercxi. ar iyo maSin araviTari sayrdeni da dacuravda es oqros kvercxi, sanam erTi weli ar Sesrulda. erTi wlis Semdeg ineba laparaki prajapatim. man Tqva: ,,bhuh!~ da warmoiqmna es dedamiwa. Tqva man: ,,bhuvah~! da warmoiqmna es sivrce. Tqva man ,,svar~! da warmoiqmna is ca..... ase Seqmna prajapatim sami sityviT samyaro~(miTologia 2000 :27). sityva da azri, rogorc gaumijnavi kreaciuli ,,operatorebi~, mudmivad monawileoben egviptur kosmogoniebSi. ,,is, visi sityviTac gaCndnen RmerTebi~ (assmani 1999:96) naTqvamia amon-rasadmi mimarTul egviptur himnSi da RmerTebis Semqmneli ,,sityvac~ araerTgzis gamoCndeba Zveli egviptis saxelmwifoebriv oficialur religiebSi heliopolisisa da memfisis kosmogoniur sistemebSi. heliopolisis kosmogoniuri sistemis mixedviT, samyaro da yovelive masSi arsebuli warmoiSva Semoqmedis ,,piriT~ (anu sityviT) da ,,azrovnebiT~. amis Semdeg ki sxva RvTaebaTa Seqmna gansrulda brZanebis, sityvis warTqmiT:

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,,me var is, vinc warmoiSva, rogorc hepri. me warmomiviSvi da warmoiSvnen arsebulebi, da mravali arseba gamovida Cemi piridan. jer kidev ar iyo ca da miwa. jer kidev ar iyo xmeleTi, arc gveli. gadaWimuliyo Tvaluwvdeneli nuni. misgan gamosulma ver vpove adgili, sadac daviyudrebdi da amitomac Sevqmeni maradiuli xomli ben-beni. masze Semdgarma viazre (//viazrovne) sakuTari saxis winaSe da Sevqmeni yoveli qveynieri. martomyofma piridan gamovdevne Su da teftuni. da mamam Cemma warmoTqva: ,,dae, daizardnon isini!~ (nemirovski 2000: 6). memfisis kosmogoniur sistemaSi kidev ufro ixveweba da ufro Zlier Teologiur datvirTvas iZens verbalur-mentaluri kreacia da misi calkeuli aspeqtebi. aq kosmogonia da Teogonia xorcieldeba erTi RmerTis (ptaxis) RvTebrivi substanciiT gonebiT, romlis adgilad da ekvivalentad ,,gulia~ miCneuli. ,,memfisis guli~ imeorebs uZveles msoflio miTologiur tradicias kosmogoniis samyaros centrSi, ,,SuagulSi~ ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb. memfisis religiur doqtrinaSi arsebiTad Serwymulia ,,Suagulis~ miTologema da sruliad axali Teologiuri ,,azris~, ,,logosis~ filosofia. amgvari SerwymiT memfisSi iqmneba sruliad unikaluri kosmogoniuri sistema, romelic Tanabrad aris morgebuli rogorc miTosur, ise religiur msoflmxedvelobas. ,,didi ptaxi eneadis guli da enaa ... warmoiSva guliT da eniT atumis saxe. didia ptaxi, romelic qmnis RmerTebs da maT kas am eniT, am guliT. warmoiSva xori misgan ptaxisagan. warmoiSva Toti misgan ptaxisagan. guli da ena batonoben yvelaferze, radgan igi (ptaxi) aris yovel sxeulSi, yovel RvTaebaSi, yovel adamianSi, yovel mwerSi, romlebic cocxloben misi ideiT da brZanebiT. misgan warmoiSva eneada... igi (ptaxi) yoveli gadawyvetilebis mizezs warmoadgens... ena imeorebs gulis azrs. ase Seiqmna yvela RvTaeba da dasrulda misi eneada... ase mieca sicocxle keTils da miezRo sikvdili damnaSaves. ase Seiqmna samuSaoebi da xelovneba, xeliT Sroma, fexiT siaruli... ptaxis Sesaxeb amboben: ,,yovlis Semqmneli, romelmac dasabami misca RmerTebs... yoveli misgan warmoiSva: msxverplSesawiravebi da sakvebi, RmerTebis msxverplSesawiravi da yoveli sikeTe. ase dadginda, rom igi (ptaxi) yvela RvTaebaze ufro Zlevamosilia. ase dakmayofilda ptaxi, mas Semdeg rac Seqmna yoveli nivTi da yoveli RvTaebrivi sityva...~ (qrestomaTia 1990:135). aq yovlis Semoqmedi RmerTi ptaxi Tavis kosmogoniur aqtebs axorcielebs eniT da guliT (,,guli da ena batonoben yvelaferze~), xolo mTavari RvTaebriv-SemoqmedebiTi, kreaciuli substanciaa

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idea ,,idea~, rogorc yovelive arsebulis arsi, pirvelsaxe (Sdr. platonizmis ,,idea~ da ,,sagnis~ urTierTmimarTeba); brZaneba _ sityvis neba da Zalaufleba; sazrisi goneba, ,,gulis azri~ romelsac ,,ena imeorebs~; pirvelTagani sityva _ ,,yoveli RvTaebrivi sityva~ (bibliuri ,,pirvelTagani sityva~). amgvaria memfisis religiur-Teologiuri doqtrina RmerTebis Teogoniis, samyaros Sesaqmesa da zogadad _ yofierebasa da mis ontologiaze. amgvaria samyaros Sesaqmis verbalur-mentaluri modeli - sityvisa da misi sazrisis RvTebrivi gonis kreaciuli substanciis universaluri paradigma, romelic saboloo srulyofas bibliaSi aRwevs. faqtobrivad, Zvelegvipturma Teologiurma msoflmxedvelobam (iseve, rogorc Zvelindurma) mniSvnelovanwilad daZlia warmarTuli Teologiuri sawyisebi. amitom swored egvipteSi gadailaxa mniSvnelovanwilad poliTeisturi panTeizmi da maSindeli msofliosaTvis uprecedento exnatonis ,,atonis monoTeizmi~ monoTeizmTan Zalian miaxloebuli religiuri sistema Camoyalibda. da miuxedavad winare monoTeisturi tendenciebisa da erTi RmerTisadmi Rrmad Teologiuri gancdebisa, romelic literaturuli tradiciiTac iyo gamyarebuli, exnatonis lokaluri ,,monoTeizmi~, iseve, rogorc ,,rigveda~, himnebis ,,erTRmerTianobis~ Sinagani, Rrmad sulieri intenciebi, mainc amovardnaa maSindeli msoflios saerTo religiur-kulturuli paradigmidan. es aris droSi winswreba, romelic arRvevs saerTo kosmiur da socialur wesrigs. miTebis epoqaSi, sadac SeuZlebelia religiis mkveTri gamijvna miTosisagan, monoTeisturi tendenciebis ganviTarebisa da gamyarebisaTvis ar arsebobs aranairi realurad xelmosaWidi struqturuli meqanizmebi. monoTeizms momavali hqonda mxolod miTis cxedarze gadabijebiT. winaaRmdegobis arsi, upirvelesad, paradigmaTa da struqturaTa SeusabamobaSia, monoTeisturi tendenciebi _ erTi RmerTis avtonomiuri gageba Tvisobrivad ewinaaRmdegeba, erTi mxriv, miTosur msoflmxedvelobas kulturologiur aspeqtSi; da meore mxriv, miTis Sinagan morfologiur struqturas miTosuri Txrobis, farTo gagebiT miTosuri narativis teqstobriv-warmodgeniTi (eqsplicitur-implicitur) struqturuli meqanizmebis doneze. amitom, ,,erTi RmerTisken~ ltolva ara miTosuri, aramed, miTis wiaRSi warmoSobili pirveladi religiisa da pirveladi filosofiis gamovlinebebia. ,,erTi RmerTis~ aRiareba da misi verbalizacia miTis mxriv iyo erTgvari ,,daTmoba~, garkveulad strategiuli ukandaxeva intuiciurad gancdili momavali dominantis monoTeisturi Teologiur-religiuri struqtur(eb)is winaSe.

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amitom, miTisTvis, romelic ,,daSlis~ meqanizmis paralelurad gvTavazobs sawyisi mTlianobis ,,mTliani RmerTis~ gamosaxvis kidev erT, struqturulad sul sxva verbaluri emanaciis models, romelSic RmerTi asaxulia ,,mTlianobiT~, magram asaxulia ,,saxis~, ,,xatis~ gareSe, es meqanizmi rCeba. igi mainc yovelTvis iseT struqturebSi iCens Tavs, sadac miTosi religiad iwyebs transformirebas, anu miTis im ,,daumuSavebel~ da ,,auTvisebel~ wiaRSi, miTis sakuTarsave ,,gadaulaxav~ ubanze, sadac pirveladi Teologiuri gancda Cndeba (aseTia heliopolisis, memfisis da qarTuli andrezuli kosmogoniuri sistemebi). sabolood, mxolod bibliaSia gadaWrili RmerTisa da sawyisi mTlianobis asaxvis metafizikuri problema: - asaxva asaxvaze uaris Tqmis gziT. mxolod sityvaSi SeiZleba moviazroT RmerTis sawyisi mTlianoba, mxolod sityva SeiZleba asaxavdes sawyis mTlianobas swored asaxvis SeuZleblobiT, radgan sityvas ar gaaCnia materialuri struqtura da yovelTvis gamoricxavs Tavssave vizualur aspeqts. sityva bolomde axSobs Tavisi sazrisis gamomsaxvelobiT potencials da am gziT sazriss tovebs absoluturad mouxelTebel transcendentur mdgomareobaSi. amdenad, miTi mxolod nawilobriv eTanxmeba RmerTisa da sawyisis verbalizacias, rogorc ,,araasaxviTi asaxvis~ meqanizms, radgan miTiuri samyaro, upirvelesad, vizualis samyaroa, romelSic yovelive transformirdeba formad da sagnad, vizualur xatebad; sadac suls idgamen da xorcs isxamen abstraqtuli Zalebi da metaforebi saxeebad cocxldebian; sadac miTis ena (metaena) Zaladobs sityvaze; sadac miTi Tavisi metaeniT itacebs enas, mis sazriss da realobas, romelsac gardaqmnis Tavis ,,sxva~ realobad formebad, sagnebad, xatebad, ikonebad. . . amitomac miTi jiutad ar Tanxmdeba sawyisis, RmerTis gamosaxvis SeuZleblobas da am winaaRmdegobis gadasalaxad simulaciebis gzas irCevs. amgvarad, miTi organuladaa dakavSirebuli simulaciebTan. miTis wiaRSi ra zRvarTanac iwyeba RmerTis gamoxatvis mcdeloba, im zRvarzeve iwyeba simulaciebic. maS, vin aris miTSi is pirveli uzenaesi Semoqmedi, vinc samyaro da danarCeni RmerTebi Seqmna? Tu miTi ver itevs ,,mTlian RmerTs~, romelic mxolod danawevrebisa Tu verbalizaciis Semdeg (ver) aisaxeba, Tu miTi RvTaebrivis gamoxatvis marginaluri meqanizmiT mxolod auCinarebs RmerTs, maSin vin aris is ,,Semoqmedi RmerTi~ (vTqvaT, qarTuli morige RmerTi, egvipturi ptaxi, induri prajapati da a.S.), romelic miTosSi sawyisi uzenaesi RmerTis saxeliT aqtivobs da Tavisive wiaRidan gamoacalkevebs uTvalav ,,mcire RmerTs~ (simulakrebs)?

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is aris namdvili RmerTis pirveli simulirebuli - ,,pirvelasli~, romelic uSualod mosdevs ,,originals~. ,,pirveli simulirebulia~ platoniseuli ,,asli~ (romelic yvelaze axlos dgas originalTan (,,ideasTan~)); delioziseuli _ ,,WeSmariti pretendenti~ (deliozi 1998:332-335) da bodriariseuli _ ,,giganturi simulirebuli~ (bodriari, 1997:54). amdenad, miTSi, arc erT mis kosmogoniur sistemaSi, ar arsebobs da arc SeiZleba arsebobdes namdvili, mTliani RmerTi da sawyisi paradigmuloba. miTi RmerTisa da sawyisis simulaciebis samyaroa - uTvalavi simulakris samyaro: miTiuri dro simulaciebis dro; RmerTis nacvlad simulirebuli da misi uTvalavi simulakri; arqetipebis nacvlad isev simulakrebi. aq saubaric ki ar SeiZleba iyos paradigmulobaze. literatura akimovi 2007: ., 103- , 5 , M. 2007. assmani 1999: ., : . M.1999; bodriari 1997: J.bodriari, simulirebulebi da simulaciebi, Jurn. ,,paraleluri teqstebi~, gamomc. ,,nekeri~,1997, #1. deliozi 1998: . , , .: "", : " ", 1998. eliade, rwmenis istoria... 2002: . . : , .: , 2002; miTologia 2000: miTologia (8), avtor-Semdgenlebi z.kiknaZe, n.tonia, gamomc.,,logosi~, Tb.2000. nemirovski 2000: ., , .2000. poezia 1972: qarTuli xalxuri poezia, I, Tb.1972. Jaki 1999: . . .,1999. rigveda 1995: 1995: . . .. : Aufrecht Th. Die Hymnen des Rigveda. . Auflage. Berlin, 1955. . I, II. http://sss.vn.ua/vedas/rigveda.htm robaqiZe 1991: g.robaqiZe, saqarTvelos saTaveni, Jurn. literatura da xelovneba~, Tb., 1991,@# 2. qrestomaTia 1990: Zveli aRmosavleTis xalxTa istoriis qrestomaTia, Tb.1990. javaxiSvili 1979: i.javaxiSvili, qarTvelebis warmarToba, ix: misive, Txzulebani Tormet tomad, I, Tb.1979.

irakli mWedliSvili

renesansuli `adamianuri ganzomileba~, proeqcia da modernuli proeqti

filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, kinomcodne, inJiner-fizikosi. ZiriTadi naSromebi: `cifruli gamosaxuleba da eidosuri xati~, `kosmosi, sivrce-dro da virtualuri realoba~, `perspeqtiva aRorZinebidan cifrul gamosaxulebamde...~... samecniero interesebi: xmelTaSua zRvis kulturaTa da civilizaciaTa safuZvlebSi ganmsazRvreli da dReisaTvisac sagulisxmo msoflSegrZnebiTi, anu dro-sivrciTi xasiaTis konceptebis gamovlena-Sepirispireba; `arTroni, anu elinuri azrovnebis is simboluri winaforma, romelmac Semdgomi, dasavluri kulturis msoflSegrZnebiTi mimarTeba ganapiroba.

Sua saukuneebis qristianuli msoflxedva absolutis, anu zeganzomilebisa da warmaval-miwieri sinamdvilis urTierTmimarTebas sivrcobrivad, neoplatonizmidan momdinare, emanaciuri modelis mixedviT moiazrebda. amgvari warmodgenis mixedviT, umaRlesi da WeSmariti sinamdvilis, anu absoluturi arsebis, RmerTis sisrule da madli emanaciurad, zemodan qvemoT vrceldeba. miwieri ganzomileba emanaciuri ganfenis modelis Tanaxmad, WeSmariti wesrigis damdablebul, sust da fermkrTal anareklad (an, anabeWdadac) miiCneoda. amis gamo, Tavidan, sawyis etapze, qristianuli msoflxedva warmaval da fuWebad miwier sinamdviles TiTqmis srulad ugulebelyofda. yvelaferi am drois Teologiuri normiT, `zemodan~, zRvruli donis, WeSmariti da maradiuli realobis `gadmosaxedis~ Tvalsawierisa da absolutur Rirebulebaze dayudnebuli mentaluri poziciis mixedviT aRiqmeboda da fasdeboda. aseTi mimarTeba mxolod sulierebaze orientirebuli qristianuli doqtrinis mkacr moTxovnaTa gamo ar Camoyalibebula. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qristianuli moZRvreba, didwilad, swored gonis Zalasa da gasulierebul bunebas mindobili da Sesabamisad, sxeulis Warb Tayvaniscemaze momarTuli antikuri samyaros daRlilobisa da RirebulebaTa Tu vnebaTa aRrevis Sedegic iyo. antikuri periodis bolos, adamianis sasicocxlo garemosa da mentalur realo-

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baSi, Tu Cestertonis sityvebs movixmobT, `arc erTi wminda yvavili, arc erTi SeubRalavi varskvlavi aRar darCa~.1 udabno, sadac yvavili ar xarobs da gamoqvabuli, saidanac zeca ar Cans, adreul qristianTa amqveyniur cdunebaTgan garidebis Cveuli adgilebi iyo. yovel buCqsa da nakadulSi Cabudebul, xorciel vnebaT ayolil warmarTul RvTaebaTa da mistikur arsebaTa uaryofa, maTi gavlenis daZleva udabur adgilas gasvliTa da gansakuTrebuli ZalisxmeviT, askeziT miiRweoda. radgan, rogorc daiwera, qveynierebas dapatronebul eSmakeulTa `es modgma ... mxolod locviTa da marxviT ganidevneba~ (maT. 17:21). grZneulebaTa mozRvavebis SeCereba da samyaros ubiwoebis aRdgena mxolod namdvilad `aramiwier religias~ SeeZlo. qristianobis pirvelsave wlebSi gavrcelebul `gnosticizms~, mZlavr religiur dinebas mistikur-zebunebrivi safuZveli namdvilad hqonda, magram ramdenime saukunes gamwvdomi misi sicocxlisunarianoba xsenebulTan erTad, sxva mizezsac unda ganepirobebina. qristianuli eklesiis wiaRsa da mis gareT warmoSobili TiTqmis yvela eresi Tu eretikuli moZRvreba swored im arealSi isaxeboda, sadac winmswreb civilizaciur fesvTa da sakralur tradiciaTa xaniereba ukve aTaswleulebs iTvlida. ezoTerul swavlebaTa, mxolod gandobilTa wrisaTvis gankuTvnili gnosisi (berZ. gnsis _ codna) Tanadroul, gansxvavebul religiur ganazrebaTa sinkretuli gaerTianebisa da rogorc Cans, ufro adreul mistikur tradiciaTa `axal tikebSi~ gadasxmis mcdelobac iyo. dualisturi xedvis, samyaroSi ori dapirispirebuli sawyisis, anu sikeTisa da borotebis maradiuli Tanaarsebobis uSualo aRiareba Tu nagulisxmevi daSveba yvela gnostikur mimdinareobasa da religiur seqtas winaaRmdegobriv msoflxedviT konteqstsa da araerTmniSvnelovan rwmeniT safuZvels uqmnida. ori sawyisis, sinaTlisa da sibnelis, sikeTisa da borotebis dapirispirebisa da gansakuTrebiT ki, sulier RmerTTan erTad, materiis Semoqmedi meore RmerTis, demiurgosis arsebobis daSvebas erTian gancdaze dafuZnebul nebismier rwmeniT warmodgenaSi gaurkvevlobis wyvetiTi bijis Setana SeeZlo. amgvar moZRvrebaTa mTlianoba mxolod avtoritets `miwerili~ codniTi warmodgeniT, or sawyiss Soris sulier arsebaTa gradaciuli doneebis daSvebiT Tu moazrebiT miiRweoda, rac, arsobriv gaukvevlobasa da mourgeblobas kidev ufro aRrmavebda. radikal gnostikosTa (maniqevelebis), aseve, meore, materialuri sawyisis daqvemdebarebulad maRiarebeli, `Serbilebuli variantis~ (seTianelebis) mimdevarTa, terminul doneze ki, monist
. . . . , , 1991, . 25
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gnostikosTa (valentinianelTa) moZRvrebis mixedviTac, adamianebi arasrulyofili RmerTis, demiurgosis mier Seqmnili, bnel, materialur samyaroSi `gamoketili~, srulyofili RmerTisgan, sinaTlisagan dacilebuli sulebi arian. advili dasanaxia, rom antikuri `memkvidreobis~ gamo warmoSobili, `Seryvnili~ materialuri sinamdvilis ugulebelmyofi adreqristianuli damokidebuleba samyaros Seqmnisa da misi RvTis mier ganwesebis wminda weriliT mocemul warmodgenaSi gnostikur eresTa SeRwevisa da, mTlianobaSi ki, rwmeniTi gancdis ezoTeruli codnis gandobad Tu gadacemad moZRvrebamde dasvla-dayvanis saSiSroebis pirobasac moicavda. amitomac, mravalferovan gnostikur mimdinareobaTa Zlevis sakiTxi im periodis qristianuli eklesiis erT-erTi mTavari amocana gaxda. IV-V saukunaTa mijnaze, am brZolas qristianad moqcevamde maniqevelTa seqtasTan axlo myofi, maT qadagebaTa msmeneli da Sesabamisad, radikalur-gnostikur moZRvrebaTa avkargianobaSi kargad garkveuli avrelius avgustinec (Aurelius Augustinus) SuerTda. faruli materializmi, substanciuri dualizmi da zneobrivi winaaRmdegobrioba _ ai, is xinji da Seusabamoba, romelic, netari avgustines azriT, maniqevelTa moZRvrebas qristianTaTvis miuRebels xdida. avgustineseuli kritikis Tanaxmad, Tu or sawyiss, sinaTlesa da sibneles, Sesabamisad, sikeTesa da borotebas, Tanabari substanciuri Tanaarseboba miekuTvneba da Tu bnel materiaSi gamomwyvdeuli adamianis suli sinaTlis nawilad miiCneva, maSin, qristianuli doqtrinis Zireul, Semoqmedsa da qmnilebas Soris mimarTebas araerTmniSvnelovani da gaurkveveli saxe eZleva. amave dros, saeWvo xdeba Tavisufali arCevanisa da zneobrivi pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxic _ vis an ras, anda, ra wilad miewereba borot qmedebaze pasuxismgebloba? _ bneli materiis mier mitacebuli sinaTlis nawils, individualur suls Tu materialur sxeuls, romelSic, gnostikuri xedvis logikiT, Tavadac kvazi-materialuri sulia gamomwyvdeuli?! avgustines `aRsarebanidan~ vigebT, rom mis adreul warmodgenebs Cveuli, `saRi azris~ (common sense) materializmi gansazRvravda da rom, aramaterialuri substanciis arsebobis daSvebas Tu azrs netari mama pirvelad platonikosTa wignebis saSualebiT eziara. ontologia, romelic SegrZnebad-fizikurisa da inteligibelur-sulieris Zireul ganasxvavebas aRiarebs, avgustines azriT, gnostikur, ormag moralur alternativas sulac ar gulisxmobs. dayofa an gansxvaveba, platonis mimdevarTa mixedviT, imgvari yovlismomcveli da erTiani ierarqiuli ganfenis (emanaciis) wiaRSi an gaswvriv moiazreba, romelic dasabams erTi absoluturi sawyi-

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sidan iRebs da mzardi mravlobiTobisa da mravalferovnebis Tanmimdevrul safexurTa gavliT gamijnul da gancalkevebul materialur obieqtTa umdablesi doniT sruldeba. absoluturi sawyisi, anu RmerTi ki, avgustinesaTvis, iseTi maradiuli da ucvleli sisrulea, romelic Tavisive ganzraxviT, racionaluri ierarqiis mixedviT ganwesebul, Tavis Semdgom da qvemoT arsebul yovelives aerTianebs. racionaluri midgoma, romelic adamianuri sulis wyobas, mis arsobriv bunebasaca da neoplatonur ontologiasac moicavs, avgustines borotebis problemis gadawyvetis Tu gadaazrebis saSualebas aZlevs. grZnobadi, materialuri samyaro arc TavisTavad boroteba da arc raime cudis Tu uaryofiTis gamovlenaa. gaurkvevloba, romelic adamianur arsebobas amZimebs, xilul, materialur samyaroSi gamomwyvdeulobis Sedegi ar aris, is mgrZnobelobisa da nebis ufro faqizi da Znelad garCevadi problemidan momdinareobs. radgan miwieri sinamdvilis donidan ufro farTo da maRali erTianobis danaxva SeuZlebelia da radgan, Cveulebriv, Cveni SemecnebiTi swrafva amave, miwier dones ar scildeba, Sedegad, nebelobiTi Zalisxmevis `modebis are~ mxolod warmaval da efemerul materialur warmonaqmnTa TiTqos TviTkmar da gancalkevebul sferos farglebSive rCeba. aramdgrad da gardamaval materialur obieqtTa sinamdviles mipyrobil Tu midrekil adamianur nebas ki, arc moralur winaaRmdegobaTa gadalaxva, arc waruvali erTianobis Wvreta da arc misken aRmasvlis gzis danaxva Tu dasaxva SeuZlia. netari avgustines azriT, sasazRvro mdebareobis Tu mijnaze myofobis gacnobiereba, anu sulis grZnobad samyaroSi CarTulobisa da inteligibelur sferosTan, maRal ierarqiul doneebTan bmulobis erTdrouli aRiareba swored aRniSnuli gaugebrobis Tu cdomis daZlevis pirobas qmnis. grZnobadi sinamdvile, amgvari xedviT, Cveni sulier-nebelobiTi yuradRebis mis miRma da maRla arsebulze mimmarTvelad unda iyos miCneuli. Tavad aramdgradi, gardamavali da efemeruli bunebis materialuri garemo ki, avgustines SexsenebiT, swored RvTiuri erTianobis nawilia da is, WeSmariti sinamdvilis raRac, Tundac mcire marcvals an fermkrTal `anabeWds~ yovelTvis unda moicavdes. usxeulo WeSmaritebis Ziebis, uxilavis xilul-Seqmnilis mixedviT wvdomis SesaZlebloba avgustines, rogorc misi `aRsarebani~ gvamcnobs, swored platonikostTa wignebis kiTxvam Caagona. magram, aseTi miswrafeba, aseTi mxolod codnidan momdinare xedva, anu `Tavmomwone swavluloba~ usicocxlo da unayofoa Tu Tvinierebisa da morCilebis im safuZvels ar daendo, romelic aris ieso qriste.

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rwmeniTi sayrdenis mqoneTa da armqoneTa Soris, avgustines SedarebiT, iseTive gansxvavebaa, rogoric kurTxeuli samSoblosken WeSmariti gzis mxilvelTa da misken brmad mavalTa Soris. anda, sxvanairad, ufro gaSlilad, kurTxeuli an maradiuli soflisken swori gziT svlas moxilva-danaxvis garda, davanebis Tu damkvidrebis gulSi Cabudebuli miswrafebac unda ganapirobebdes. amgvari muxtiT gajerebuli gzneba ki, avgustinem RvTiuri sulis nebiT Seqmnili wminda werilebidan, upiratesad, pavle mociqulis epistoleTagan miiRo. platonikosTa swavlebisa da wminda wignebis gavlenaTa Sesajereblad avgustine sivrcul-topologiur Sedarebas mimarTavs: `erTia _ tyiani mTis wverodan dainaxo Tanxmobis miwa da mainc ver SeZlo misasvleli gzis moZieba, amaod ecado, lomisa da urCxulis moTaveobiT Casafrebul moRalateTa mier dagebul maxeTa da xafangTa arideba, gauvali gzis gavla. magram sul sxvaa _ iqiTken svlisas daadge im gzas, romelsac zeciuri imperatori icavs ... aseTi azrebi saocari gziT ileqeboda Cems gulSi, rodesac `mociqulTa Soris umciress~1 vkiTxulobdi.~2 miwieri cxovrebis gzis naxevris (ocdaTxuTmeti wlis) gamlevi dantec cdomaTa da codvaTa `usieri tyidan~ Tavis daRwevasa da saTnoebisken svlis swori mimarTulebis moxilvas gorakisa Tu mTis wverodan imedovnebs. magram, udabur bilikze Casafrebuli alegoriuli personaJebi _ lomi, focxveri da mgeli, gadmosaxedis miRwevis, Tanxmobis miwis danaxvis SesaZleblobas mas ar aZleven. gardacvlili satrfos, beatriCes mzrunveli sulis wyalobiT, Semwed da gzamkvlevad dantes vergiliusis aCrdili evlineba... A antikur sibrZnesa da qristianul siyvaruls dante, avgustines darad, STagonebisa da gadarCenis or mTavar sayrdenad miiCnevs. Tumca, am sawyisTa warmdgen Tu aRmniSvnel, netari mamisa da danteseul simbolur figuraTa or wyvils Soris (erTgan, platoni da mociquli pavle, meoregan, vergiliusi da beatriCe) simetriuli Tu Tanaswori mimarTebis daSveba Sua saukuneebSi dadgenil warmodgenas ver unda morgeboda. antikur kulturasTan advilad gaigivebadi klasikosi poetis, vergiliusis `mewyvileda~ da mociquli pavles proporciul figurad beatriCes dasaxva miwieri qa1

`radganac umciresi var mociqulTa Soris, da arca var Rirsi imisa, rom mociqulad viwodebode, vinaidan vsdevnidi RmrTis eklesias~ (1 kor. 15:9). mociqul pavlesa da netar avgustines Soris, rwmeniTi memkvidreobiTobis garda, saintereso biografiuli paralelic SeiZleba moiniSnos: antikuri kulturis wiaRSi aRzrdili, romis moqalaqe da qristianobis miRebamde maniqevelTa mimdevari avrelius avgustine da aseve, romis moqalaqe da moqcevamde fariseveli savle... 2 Saint Augustine Confessions, VII.21.27

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lis xatis lamis qristianuli siyvarulis simbolod miCnevis SesaZleblobasac warmoSobda. adreuli qristianuli tradiciis mixedviT, amgvari `amCateba~ eress, mwvaleblobas SeiZleba gatoleboda. magram dantes droisaTvis (XIII saukunis miwuruls), amaRlebul-sakraluris miwierTan daaxloebis stiqiur process fesvi ukve gadgmuli hqonda. jer kidev XI saukuneSi warmoSobili, keTilSobil raindTa da poetTa mijnurobis kodeqsad qceuli `kurtuazuli siyvarulis~ (fr. Amour courtois) gageba trfobiT gznebas swored RvTiurTan mimarTebis WrilSi moiazrebda. xalxur, italiur enaze dawerili `axali cxovreba~ (La Vita Nuova), avtoris mijnurobis ambisa da sasiyvarulo gancdis, netarebis imedisa da gardacvlili satrfos glovis emociaTa gadmocemis, poetur da prozaul sityvaSi asaxvis cda iyo. sasiyvarulo gancdas dante, am nawarmoebis mixedviT, goniT wvdomadi WeSmaritebis RvTiuri nebiT Seqmnil samyaroSi gamovlenis, sulis kurTxevaamaRlebisa da RmerTTan miaxloebis gzad da saSualebad miiCnevda. dantes faqizi mgrZnobeloba xalxur sityvierebaSi ukve sacnaurad gamovlenil mkrexelur ganwyobaTa ukan da skabrezuli elferis stiqiur dinebaTa mRvrie zedapirs miRma swored rom droTa nebiT motanil siRrmiseul Zvrebs Wvretda. amgvar, jer dafarul Zireul cvlilebebs, dantesa da mis TanamedroveTa molodiniT, ra Tqma unda, axali cxovreba, axali, gafarToebul SesaZleblobaTa sinamdvile da ganaxlebuli msoflgancda unda mohyoloda. poeturi nawarmoebi, romelsac avtorma `komedia~ uwoda da romelic saTaurSi damkvidrebuli bokaCos SefasebiTi epiTetis wyalobiT dRemde `RvTaebrivad~ moixsenieba, swored xsenebuli molodinis erT-erTi adreuli gamarTleba, adamianur SezRudvaTa gadalaxvisa da Zlevis, axali gancdis poeturi winaTgrZnoba gaxldaT. `anabeWdis~ principis farglebSi, miwieri, `brtyeli~ sinamdvilis cvalebadobis, anu droiTi mimdevrobis, platonis gansazRvrebiT ki, `maradisobis maradmedini xatebis~ svlis simboluri warmodgena gzis metaforiT, anu, adgilTa damakavSirebeli da gamaerTianebeli sivrcobrivi formis saSualebiT, xerxdeba. avgustinesTan dro, romelic mxolod adamianis sulSi SeiZleba arsebobdes, marTalia, mimdinare, amwamieri momentis mouxelTebelobis gamo sami saxis `drod~ _ `warsulis awmyo~, `awmyos awmyo~ da `momavlis awmyod~ _ iyofa, magram danawevrebis Tu wyvetis gadafarva, am SemTxvevaSic, kvlav gzis Tanmimdevruli formis simboluri warmodgenis saSualebiT miiRweva. `RvTaebriv komedias~ mniSvnelovani siaxle swored droiT warmodgenaSi, mis `topologiaSi~ Semoaqvs. wuTisoflidan, anu warmaval-miwieri ganfenis zedapiridan da Sesabamisi, droTa svlis Ta-

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razuli kalapotidan mokvdavTaTvis akrZalur zonaSi, maradiul sofelSi gasvla aq, `komediaSi~, Sveuli mimarTulebiT xorcieldeba. mTis wverodan `daculi gzis~ moxilvis nacvlad, dante vergiliusis aCrdils mihyveba da mTis frialoTi qvemoT, jojoxeTis ufskrulSi eSveba. aseTi, rogorc mamardaSvili ityoda, droiT RreCoSi, dinebis gardigardmo, vertikalSi gasvlis danteseuli poeturi simbolo axali mimarTebis, axali msoflgancdis mauwyebeli iyo... siRrmiseuli Zvrebis gamovlena, anu, `anabeWdis~ modeliT dadgenil CarCoTa gaxsna, adamianur SesaZleblobaTa axal horizontze gayvana da cnobierebis axal ganzomilebaSi moazreba ufro TvalsaCinod da ufro mravalmxriv, ukve dantes Semdgom, renesansul saukuneebSi moxda. Tumca, axali ganwyobis Semzadeba adrec, avgustinedan dantemde ganvlil cxra saukunis ganmavlobaSic mimdinareobda. amqveyniuri, miwieri sinamdvilis mniSvnelobis an statusis amaRlebis mcdeloba `xatTmebrZoleobis~ cTomis ZlevasTanac iyo dakavSirebuli. VIII saukuneSi ioane damaskeli aSkara da mkacri munaTiT mimarTavda im qristianebs, romlebic sizantisa da daudevrobis gamo bunebis Seswavlis mniSvnelobas uaryofdnen. bunebismetyveleba, misi azriT, RvTismetyvelebas swored rom asabuTebs da adasturebs. Tumca, amave mizezis, anu bunebismetyvelebis Teologiur korpusSi CarTvis gamo, mecnieruli xedvis TavisTavadi mniSvnelobisa da avtonomiurobis sakiTxi damaskelTan kvlav konteqsts miRma rCeba. materialursa da suliers Soris mimarTebas ioane damaskeli xatis Teoriis Seqmnisas, sakulto gamosaxulebis marTebulobis dasabuTebisas ganixilavs. `areopagitikuri~ antinomiuri azrovnebisa da simboluri Teologiis moSveliebiT, damaskeli, xatTmebrZoleTa sapirispirod, amtkicebs, rom yoveli qristianuli xati dafarulis gamovlena da Cvenebaa. misi azriT, TvaliT danaxulis msgavsad, gamovlenili da naCvenebi usxeulo, `sulieri arsebanic~ SeiZleba iyos. amgvar arsebaTa, angelozebis, demonebis, anda sulis maTive `bunebis Sesabamisad~ gamosaxvisas, sxeulovani xati swored usxeulo, goniT Wvretas avlens. gamosaxuleba, sakuTari materialurobiT, damaskelis `xatis Teoriis~ Tanaxmad, mayureblis yuradRebas ki ar zRudavs, aramed, cnobierebis sxeulovani aRqmidan sulier Wvretamde aRmasvlas uwyobs xels. kosmologias, romelic adre, antikur azrovnebaSi samyaros axsnis mTavari saazrovno modeli iyo, ioane damaskeli, qristianobis adreul apologetTa msgavsad, mistikur saburvels acilebs. stiqiaTa gasulierebas, warmarTul miTologiasa da metafizikas is sruliad uaryofs, radgan, bunebis movlenebi, misi azriT, mxolod

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bunebrivi mizezebiT SeiZleba aixsnas. amgvari, miwier movlenaTa demistifikaciis praqtikuli mizandasaxulobis, rogorc averincevi uwodebs, `Tvinieri racionalizmi~ cnobismoyvareobis Tu codnismoyvareobis dones ar scildeba. `codnaTa da cnobaTa gulmodgine Semkrebi damaskeli naSromSi `marTlmadidebeli rwmenis zusti ganmarteba~ gvamcnobs, rom zecas, Cveulebriv, iseT sferod miiCneven, romelic dedamiwas gars ertymis. zogierTi ki gvaswavlis rom is, zeca hemisferulia. gadmogvcems ra orive warmodgenas, damaskelis daskvna migviTiTebs, rom nebismier SemTxvevaSi zeca Seqmnili da mowyobilia RmerTis mier, misi nebis Sesabamisad. wminda Teologiuri TvalTaxedviT, zecis geometriul formas mniSvneloba ar aqvs.~1 gansakuTrebul yuradRebas geometriul formas TiTqos arc ufro gviandeli, sqolastikuri xedva aqcevs. magram, Tu RmerTma `yovelive zomiT, TvliTa da woniT~ ganawesa (sibrZ. 11:20) an, Tu RvTiuri wesrigi gamovlenilia materialur bunebaSic (in rerum natura), maSin, rogorc bonaventura Tvlis, aqtualur, miwier saganTa formas Tu aRnagobas Tanxmoba an msgavseba swored idealur (platonuri saxis) wesrigTan unda hqondes. bonaventuras mixedviT, RmerTis Secnobis Tu wvdomis (contemplatio) pirvel, `simboluri Teologiis~ safexurze codniTi amaRleba sxeulovani donidan, im kvalTa aRqmiT (per vestigia) iwyeba, romelsac uzenaesis sisrule da madli grZnobad sagnebSi tovebs. adamianis gons yvela kvalis erTdroulad da erTad, aramaterialur mTlianobaSi ganxilvis survili uCndeba. kvalTa erToblioba, aseT SemTxvevaSi, erTgvar sarkmels emsgavseba, saidanac qveynierebis silamaze ixileba. ori saukunis Semdeg leon batista alberti perspeqtivis meTodis axsnisas kvlav sarkmlis simbolos mimarTavs _ `...suraTi TiTqos sarkmlad iqceva, romlis saSualebiTac Cven sivrceSi vixedebiT~2. es ukve renesansia _ sarkmlidan danaxuli `samyaros silamaze~ swori geometriuli an maTematikuri wyobiT aris gadmocemuli, radgan, rogorc alberti Tvlis, umaRlesi silamaze mTlianobis nawilTa swori Tanafardoba, anu harmoniaa. Tavad harmonia ki gamsWvaluli da warmoqmnilia ricxviT, romelic RvTiuri an adamianuri gonis produqtia. xelovnebis nawarmoebi, ioane damaskelis xatis msgavsad, albertisaTvis swored aseTi mTlianoba-harmoniis an idealuri konstruqciis simboluri warmomCenia
. . VIII-XII . . , ., , 1989, . 42 2 citata aRebulia wignidan, . . , , ., 1982, 303
1

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RvTiuri erTianoba da misi samyaros konkretul sagnebad ganfena, aRorZinebis periodis sqolastikosis, nikoloz kuzanelis mixedviT, yvela qmnilebaSi vlindeba _ adamiani mas, am erTianobas mxolod gonebiT SeiZleba miuaxlovdes. bunebaSi Cagdebul `RvTiur Tesls~, adamianis gonebas, masSi Tavdapirvelad da Canasaxobrivad Cadebulis ganviTareba SeuZlia. adamianur gonebasa da RvTiur gons Soris mimarTebis kuzaneliseuli warmodgena aRorZinebiseuli msoflaRqmis Zireuli da saxasiaTo modelia. RmerTs, rogorc kuzaneli Tvlis, erTdroulad yovlisa da erTianis mocva SeuZlia, radgan mas usasrulo Tavisufleba da Zala aqvs. marTalia adamianis goneba cxovelur bunebasTan aris SeerTebuli, magram, cxoveluri bunebis an sxeulis msgavsad, adgiliTa da droiT SezRuduli arc is aris. masac SeuZlia `...locviT amaRldes caSi, imogzauros romSi, SeaRwios xeSi, dainaxos is xati, romelic skulptors unda am xisagan gaakeTos...~1. gansxvaveba, SezRudva isaa, rom or an ramdenime saganze yuradRebis erTdrouli mipyroba adamians ar ZaluZs. amitomac, Tumca Cveni goneba, wers kuzaneli, `...garkveul sivrcesa da droze mimagrebuli ar aris, magram srulad Tavisufali arc adgilisa da drois raodenobriobisaganaa _ is TiTqos horizontze, iq imyofeba, sadac konkretuli ganfena iwyeba da sadac absoluturi Tavdeba~2. horizonti ki iseTi gamyofia an sazRvaria, sadac or substancias, konkretulsa da absoluturs Soris myofi goneba, Tavisi gardamavali bunebis wyalobiT maT, am substanciaTa Soris kavSiris ganpirobebas axerxebs... gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aRorZineba swored Suamavlur funqcias aniWebs. gonebis funqcionireba kuzanelTan `Semagrebuli~, aseve sasazRvro, xedviTi aRqmis analogiiT aixsneba _ sxvadasxva xiluli sagnis danaxvis arCevanSi mzera Tavisufalia, magram or an mraval xilul saganze aqtualuri yuradRebis erTdrouli mimarTva masac ar SeuZlia. xedviT aRqmas gamorCeuli mniSvneloba jer kidev renesansis wina periodSi, TviT `araplatonikur~ sqolastikaSic mieniWa. Toma aqvinels, neoplatonizmisken midrekil bonaventuras msgavsad, miaCnia, rom inteleqtualuri Semecneba grZnobadi aRqmiT iwyeba da yovelgvari codna Semcnobisa da Sesacnobis msgavsebis wyalobiT, e. i. anareklis an anabeWdis principis mixedviT warmoiSveba. xolo, SemecnebiTi unari grZnobad aRqmaTa Soris yvelaze kargad, misive azriT, smenasa da xedvaSi vlindeba. amaTgan, aqvineli, aristoteles darad, upiratesobas xedvas aniWebs, ufro `keTilSobilad~ miiC-

1 2

iqve, gv. 303 iqve.

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nevs mas, radgan Tvlis, rom grZnobadi siyvarulis sawyisi, sxeulovani mzera sulieri silamazis Wvretis analogiuria. amrigad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom neoplatonisturi emanaciis modelidan momdinare, samyaros harmoniuli erTianobisa da silamazis, anu, RvTiuri gonidan wamosuli ideis bunebaSi, mecnierebis Tu xelovnebis sferoSi `ganfenis~ aRorZinebiseuli, sivrculi wyobis warmodgena vizualur-xedviT moments TavisTavad moicavda. konkretul saganTa miRma Tu maTSi arsebuli RvTiuri sinaTlis (kuzanelis terminiT, Teofaniis) gamomvleni, samyaros erTianad momxilavi axali xedva swored idealur warmonaqmnTa, geometriul formaTa da figuraTa WvretiTi aRqmis daSvebas efuZneboda. maradiulisa da warmavalis erTdroulad mwvdomi, mijnaze myofi sulis Tu `goniTi Tvalis~ xedvis, anu zedroulisa da cvalebadis sistemuri erTianobis farglebSi momqcevi ganazrebisa da Sesabamisi warmodgenis, sivrcul-geometriul formaTa wesrigis, samyaros harmoniuli wyobis gamovlena, upiratesad da pirvel rigSi, ra Tqma unda, vizualurad unda momxdariyo. naxatis sivrcis agebis proeqciuli xerxi, romelsac `centraluri an xazovani perspeqtivis meTodi~ ewoda, swored mxedvelobis sasazRvro, adamianur `me~-sa da samyaros Soris myofobis gacnobierebas efuZneba. amitomac, renesansuli naxatSi ori erTdrouli tendencia Tanaarsebobs. sistemur-maTematikurad mowesrigebuli subieqturimanenturi xedva, erTi mxriv, adamianis fsiqo-fiziologiuri sivrcis, anu subieqturis gaobieqturebis, adamianuri me-s gafarToebis SesaZleblobasac uSvebs da amave dros, meore mxriv, zusti da mudmivi maTematikuri wesrigiT gansazRvruli obieqturi samyaros damoukidebeli arsebobis aRiarebis mecnierul safuZvels Tu pirobasac gulisxmobs. perspeqtivis meTodiT agebuli gamosaxuleba, romelsac ufro gviandeli, zogjer dRevandlamde aqtualuri `mecnieruli midgoma~ sinamdvilis asaxvad Tu `anabeWdad~ miiCnevs, aracalsaxad da gansxvavebulad Tavad aRorZinebis epoqaSive aRiqmeboda: italielebi mas, ufro xSirad obieqtur, xolo CrdiloeTis aRorZineba _ subieqtur interpretacias aZlevdnen. albrext diureris azriT, mxatvruli individualoba xelovnebis nawarmoebs yovelnairi materialurisagan damoukideblad, RvTiuri madlis wyalobiT qmnis. leonardo da vinCi piriqiT, mxolod uSualod mocemuli bunebis SeswavliTa da empiriulad napovni figurebiT ifargleba. igi mxatvrebs suraTSi sakuTari individualobis cnobierad Setanisgan Tavis aridebas urCevs, radgan,

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goniTi sagani, romelsac SegrZneba ar gauvlia, carielia, mas WeSmaritebis nacvlad mxolod gamonagonis warmoSoba ZaluZs.1 saidanac unda modiodes Tanazomadi nawilebis swori formebi, konkretul-empiriuli bunebidan Tu gonebidan, maTi suraTis erTian sivrceSi ganlageba da urTierTmorgeba ariTmetikul-geometriuli Tanafardobis Tanaxmad, perspeqtivis meTodiT xorcieldeba. es meTodi ki, mecnieruli gamokvlevis, sinaTlisa da xedviTi aRqmis bunebis, anu optikis Seswavlis Tu gadaazrebis Sedegada da mixedviT aris Seqmnili. laTinur enaSi sityva perspeqtiva (perspectiva) swored optikas aRniSnavs. terminis genezisis gaTvaliswinebam ki, sityvieri konceptis ufro farTo mocvis are SeiZleba gamoavlinos. Perspectio _ goniT wvdomas, gagebas niSnavs, xolo, kidev ufro Rrmad _ sawyisi Tu warmomqmneli Zireuli nawilis, spec-is mniSvneloba sityva specio-sTan, anu xedvasTan aris dakavSirebuli. ase rom, termini perspeqtiva, xedviTi aRqmidan momdinare proecirebis ZiriTad da calsaxa mniSvnelobasTan erTad goniTi wvdomis konotaciur mimarTebas yovelTvis unda moicavdes an gulisxmobdes. sinaTlis sxivis svlis xazovan-geometriuli warmodgenis, anu proeqciuli meTodis Tanaxmad agebuli naxatis sivrcis konkretuli, xiluli samyaros fragmentul anabeWdad an vizualur aslad miCneva aRorZinebiseuli ganwyobis Tu xedvis mxolod mecnierul midgomasTan calsaxa gaigivebis gamo xdeba. mecnieruli xedvis safuZvelze mdgomi, materialuri samyaros prioritetis maRiarebeli realizmis mimdevarni, xSirad, sakuTar msoflxedviT mimarTebaTa sisworis Tu marTebulobis dastursa da gamarTlebas upiratesad miwier sinamdvileze orientirebul aRorZinebis SemoqmedTa ganazrebaSi Tu SemoqmedebaSi `pouloben~. amgvar mcdelobaTa miRma, Tu daviwyebas gamovricxavT, an `arcodna~ devs (rac `arcodvas~ ar unda utoldebodes), anda Segnebuli miCqmalvis survili imaleba. RvTiuri erTianobis qveS moazrebuli, sistemurad erTiani samyaros renesansuli xedva adamianuri gonis Tu sulis imgvar, sasazRvro an gardamaval mdebareobas gulisxmobs, sadac sxeulovani xedvaca da goniTi Wvretac Tanabrad uflebamosilni arian. es ki, arCevans gulisxmobs _ adamiani sxeulovansa da suliers Soris iseT, yovlismomxilav wertils Tu centrs `poulobs~, sadac, piko de la mirandolas sityvebiT, sakuTari adgilis, saxisa da movaleobis moxilvaca da dadgenac Tavadve SeuZlia. renesansuli ganwyoba da swrafva samyaros erTian suraTSi Tavisufali arCevanis erTgvar mentalur qvesivrces, `adamianur ganzomilebas~ amkvidrebs.

. . . I, -, ., 2000, 89

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irakli mWedliSvili

`adamianuri ganzomileba~ `anabeWdis~ modelis SezRudul areals Tu sazRvrebs afarToebs, warmavali da grZnobadi sinamdvilis mniSvnelobas amaRlebs da amiT, yvelafer miwiers TiTqos upirates daniSnulebasac aniWebs. magram, Tavad es ganzomilebaca da masSive aRmocenebuli bunebis mecnieruli kvlevis miswrafebac mxolod uzenaesi erTianobis ganfenad wiaRSi moiazreba da misive metawesrigis analogiurad Tu Tanaxmad yalibdeba. mecnierebis samyaros wesrigis amomcnob da TviTkmari saxis ganazrebad miCneva, misi metaganzomilebidan mowyveta ufro gvian moxda. am movlenas ki, xSiradac da uSualodac, sekularizaciisa da kulturis sferos diferenciacia-gancalkevebis, TiTqos renesansidan wamosul axalevropul procesTan aigiveben. istoriul-Tanmimdevruli xedva, procesTan bmuli Sedegis calsaxa logika amgvari daSvebis damajereblobas, ra Tqma unda, amagrebs. magram amgvari Sexedulebis an qronologiur-xazovani mimdevrobis miRma erTgvari wyveta, gadasvla Tu paradigmuli monacvleoba imaleba. rogorc Cans, cvlileba XVIII saukuneSi Casaxul, adamianTa sayovelTao erTianobisa da kacobriobis modernuli ganviTarebis koncefciasTan aris dakavSirebuli. XX saukunis samocdaaTian wlebSi `modernuli proeqtis~, modernuli ganviTarebis dasruleba-ardasrulebis sakiTxze (`moderni Tu postmoderni?~) aRZruli cxoveli diskusia swored aRniSnuli wanacvlebis gaucnobiereblobis Tu ugulebelyofis Sedegica da gamoxatulebac unda iyos. am mxriv, saintereso miniSnebas termin `proeqtis~ mimarTebaTa ganazreba gvTavazobs. laTinuri sityva projectum, `win gdebis~ qmedebis aRmniSvneli, laTinuri zmna, proicere-dan modis. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom zmnis winsarTi, pro-raRacas qmedebis (iaceres, gdebis) winmswrebad gulisxmobs, maSin, warmoebuli sityva `proeqti~ Tavdapirvelad, ~raRacas, rac raimes moxdenamde gvaqvs Tu gvevlineba~, unda niSnavdes. termin `proeqciis~ warmomavlobac kvlav zmna proicere-s ukavSirdeba. magram, Zireuli zmnidan wamosulis garda, es termini uSualo winamorbed sityva projectio-dan miRebul ganfena-gaWimvis mniSvnelobasac moicavs. aqedan, am bolo mniSvnelobidan, terminis erT-erTi ZiriTadi, Tanamedrove gageba unda momdinareobdes: proeqcia sxeulovan saganTa formis sibrtyeze `ganfena~, anu vizualuri gamosaxva Tu asaxvaa. imaves renesansis epoqaSi `perspeqtiva~ ewodeboda. sxeulovan formaTa analogiiT, `goniTi sagnebis~, warmosaxul fenomenTa gamovlena-asaxvasac da Sinagan, sulier ganwyobaTa gareSe obieqtebze gadatanasac xSirad `proeqcias~ uwodeben. terminebs Soris erTi da igive warmomavlobis gamo arsebul sinonimias sit-

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yva `proeqciis~ aseTi gafarToebuli gageba `proeqtis~ mniSvnelobaTa arealSic gadaaqvs. sami terminis _ `perspeqtivis~, `proeqciisa~ da `proeqtis~ _ siaxlovisa da maT Soris arsebuli, wyvil-wyvili sinonimuri mimarTebis gamovlena-Cvenebis mniSvneloba `lingvisturi Studirebis~ farglebs scildeba. epoqaTa da CveulebaTa naleq, gaqvavebul garsTa mocileba, calsaxa sazrisTa samoselTagan ganZarcva sityvaTa an terminTa ufro cxovel, organul kavSirebsa da nawevarTa vels, anu maT logosur arss aaSkaravebs. sityva `perspeqtiva~, rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, vizualur aRqmasTan erTad goniTi wvdomis SesaZleblobasac gulisxmobs, rac aRorZinebiseul msoflgancdas Tu ganwyobas srulad Seesabameba. renesansul da Semdgom ganazrebaTa mixedviT ki, es termini, perspeqtiva, sasazRvro, suliersa da materialurs Soris myofobis, Wvretisa da xedvis erTianad momcveli renesansuli poziciis anu `adamianuri ganzomilebis~ mxolod vizualur asaxvad Tu proeqciad miiCneva. arada, am sityvis mocvis are, rogorc iTqva, calsaxa, vizualur mniSvnelobas scildeba. imave arsobriv Tu sazrisul mimarTebas `perspeqtivis~ sinononimur sityvaTa rigi _ `proeqciaca~ da `proeqtic~ gulisxmobs. ase rom, aRorZinebiseuli msoflgancdisa da Sesabamisi mimarTebis, upiratesad da pirvel rigSi, sivrcobrivi formiT gamovlenili axali, `adamianuri ganzomilebis~ proeqtad moxsenieba sruliad marTebuli unda iyos. am gagebiT, `axalevrouli proeqti~, anu `moderni~, ra Tqma unda, renesansidan iwyeba _ Tanamedroveobis axali gancda, devotio moderna xom swored im periodSi warmoCnda... magram, rogorc Cans, mogvianebiT, ieri, saxe Tu xasiaTi Tavad am `gancdam~, anu Zireuli koncefciis Tu mentaluri warmodgenis `topologiam~ icvala. da albaT, aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom `cvlileba~ swored xsenebuli ganzomilebis codniTi formis saxiT sazogadoebriv sivrceSi danergvis mcdelobas mohyva. Tumca, es sakiTxi calke, gansakuTrebul ganxilvas saWiroebs, rac, albaT, ukve Semdgom ganxorcieldeba...

gia joxaZe

sxeulis Tavgadasavali: qarTuli versia cremli da tirili

istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilias saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asistent-profe-sori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: XIII_XIV saukuneebis saqarTvelos istoriidan, avgustineseuli providencializmi da JamTaaRmwerlis religiuri msoflmxedveloba, istoriuli esseebi, `iosif brodski. mSvenieri epoqis dasasruli, `adamianissaxa istoria. istoriuli anTropologiis Sesavali~. interesTa sfero: eklesiisa da religiis istoria, istoriuli anTropologiis problemebi, literaturaTmcodneoba, amerikanistika.

cremlTaRvris niWs mTavari adgili uWiravs marTlmadidebeli aRmosavleTis sasuliero tradiciaSi. ,,cremlis madli gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania Rirsi ioane sinelis, Rirsi isaak asurisa da wm. svimeon axali RvTismetyvelisa da sxva wminda mamaTaTvis. ioane sinelis TqmiT, cremlTa wyaroni, romlebic naTlisRebis Semdeg mogvemadleba, naTlisRebaze upiratesia. Tumc, isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom Tu naTlisReba Zvel borotebaTagan gangvwmends, cremli im codvasac bans, romelsac naTlobis Semdeg viqmT. ioane sineli aseT slogans gvTavazobs: ar daujero sakuTar cremlebs, vidre sabolood ar daiwmindebodnen vnebaTagan, rameTu im Rvinis ndoba ar SeiZleba, romelic WurWlis Tavze moqceula [ioane sineli]. Rirsi isaak asuri cremls ganixilavs, rogorc arsebul sazRvrebs ,,xorciel da ,,sulier mdgomareobas Soris, rogorc _ gadasvlas axlandeli droidan momavalSi, romelSi Sebijeba winaswargancdiT awmyoSic SeiZleba. Cvili tiris, rogorc ki qveyanas moevlineba. amgvaradve tiris qristiani, roca ,,momavalSi aRorZinebas moisurvebs. sayuradReboa, rom isaak asuris Txzulebis ,,saRmrTo saidumloebaTa da sulieri cxovrebisaTvis erT Tavs ase ewodeba: ,,rogor iSvis uwyveti tirili, romelic ukavSirdeba zogierT wminda mamas, cremlTaR-

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vras rom ar wyvetdnen. isaak asuri asaxelebs sam mizezs, romlebic safuZvlad udevs cremlTaRvras: pirvel rigSi, adamians Tavisda uneburad scviva cremli, roca saRmrTo saidumlos ganWvrets, goneba gaunaTdeba, sulieri Tvali aexileba; roca im sagnebs Seavlebs mzeras, romelTac suli gonebas daanaxebs; idumal da sulier Wvretas wminda mamebi adarebdnen zeciur mananas da kldidan amoxeTqil wyaros. cremlis gamomwvevi meore mizezi RvTis siyvarulia, romelic aanTebs suls, xolo adamians am sitkbosa da netarebis atana ucremlod ar ZaluZs. dabolos: cremls Sobs morCileba, Semusrvili guli da suli, codvaTa gasigrZeganebisas da uflis Tvinierebisa da simdablis mogonebisas rom warmoiqmneba. amgvarad, visac cremlis nakadi ar sdis, mas ara mxolod cremli ar gaaCnia, aramed _ cremlis warmomSobi mizezic. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, mas RvTis siyvaruli ar ugemia, saRmrTo saidumloebaze ar ufiqria, guli ar Seumusravs, Tumc ki morCilad miaCnia Tavi. sulSeumusrveli ver SeaRwevs aRTqmul miwaze da Sesabamisad, verc cremlTaRvris niWs miiRebs RvTisagan. bunebiTi morCileba saWurisis qalwulobas hgavs: is SemTxvevam ,,gaaqalwula da ara _ sakuTarma nebisyofam. cremli meore saRmrTo madlis safuZvelicaa: mas dumili hqvia. am SemTxvevaSi, cremli cvlis sityvas da adamians RvTis saTnod _ mdumarad aqcevs. dumils Sobs gaocebis gancda, romelic adamians saRmrTo saidumloebaTa ganWvretisa da Secnobisas eufleba. wminda mamebi gviamboben, rom angelozTa siaxlovis ganmcdeli adamianebi ise gakvirvebulni arian, rom maTi sxeulis yoveli nawili TiTqos cremlTa nakadad gardaiqmnis, romelTac es saRmrTo ,,Soki da sixaruli warmoSobs [isaak asuri]. wminda svimeon axali RvTismetyvelis swavlebis Tanaxmad, arasodes unda veziaroT ucremlod. kerZod, wminda mama aRniSnavs, rom qriste iqca misTvis yovelived yoveliveSi _ muqTad moniWebul amouTqmel madlad, marad medinad misi sulis bageTagan da uxvad mCqef wyarod mis gulSi, brwyinvale samoselad, romelic demonebs wvavs, ganwmendad, romelic adamians ganbans uwyveti da wminda cremlebiT. adamianis suli RvTis samyofelia. misi mxilveli Tavs ver ikavebs, mxurvale cremli ar warmoedinos, ar atirdes da codvaTagan ganwmenda ar inatros. qristes gareSe adamiani martodmartoa. misi natvra uflis dabrunebis natvra da ocnebaa, romelsac erTvis cremlTaRvra da tirili. adamians isic atirebs, rom uflis ramdenadme Secnoba mainc ar ZaluZs. rogorc cecxlis ali qreba wyliT, ise sulieri mZvinvareba qreba tiriliTa da cremliT; xolo is, vinc did dros gaatarebs cremlTaRvraSi, SeigrZnobs, rom gaRizianeba ukan ixevs da suli

200

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aRar mZvinvarebs [svimeon axali RvTismetyveli]. Rirsi mama nikita stifatis Tanaxmad, cremls qalwulobis umankoebis aRdgenac SeuZlia. vinc saTnoebis cremliT ar atirebula da ver Cawvdomia mis madlsa da zemoqmedebas, fiqrobs, rom es cremli arafriT gansxvavdeba im cremlisagan, romliTac gardacvlilT davtiriT... roca gonierebis sizviade morCilebisaken miidrikeba, xolo suli Tvals xuWavs xiluli madliT netarebisagan da mxolodRa pirvelSobil aranivTier sinaTles eswrafis, ama soflisadmi yvela grZnobas Camoibertyavs da suliwmidis nugeSiscemas miemsgavseba, cremli wyaros wyaliviT gadmoskdeba TvalTagan, grZnobebs dautkbobs, azrebs ki sixaruliTa da RvTiuri SuqiT aRuvsebs. aseve, guls Seumusravs da gonebas gaumorCilebs. sxvebs, romlebic sxva mizezTa gamo tirian, aseTi ram ar elodebaT. sruli morCilebis gareSe cremlTa wyaro ar Cndeba. amitom adamianma, romelic ganZarcvulia sinanulis cremlTagan, niadag unda SesTxovos ufals am madlis moniWeba. xan tkivili gvacremlebs, xan _ sixaruli. tkivils codva da misi daSorebis survili unda gvaniWebdes, sixaruls ki _ codvaTagan gaTavisuflebis gancda. anastasi sinelis azriT, arsebobs bunebrivi cremli, romliTac gardacvlilT davtiriT. arsebobs eSmakeuli cremlebi, roca pativmoyvareoba an romelime eSmakeuli gzneba gvatirebs, ZiriTadad, imis gamo, rom Cveni neba ver aRvasruleT. arsebobs smisa da nayrovanebisagan mogvrili cremlic. magram arsebobs ganmwmendi cremlic, romelTac warmoSobs uflis moSiSeba, momavali sikvdili da maradiuli wameba (cxadia, aq xelCaqneva da adamianuri fobiebi ar igulisxmeba, g.j.). aseTi cremli sulier cremlad gardaiqmneba, romelSic veRar vpovebT SiSs _ aq mxolod RvTis siyvarulia, suliwmindis mier mogvrili nugeSi, sinaTle da sixaruli. cremlis klasifikaciisas ioane oqropirs daviT mefsalmunis magaliTi mohyavs: daviTisaTvis Rame dasvenebis saSualeba ki ara, cremlTaRvris Jami gaxldaT. cremli yovelTvis nugeSia, magram gansakuTrebiT _ RamiT, roca xels aravin gviSlis am siamovnebis miRebaSi... amitomac tiroda mociquli pavle sami dRe da Rame sxvaTa naklis dasaZlevad, Cven ki sakuTar mankierebasac ar davtiriT. mxolod sasuliero fenas rodi evaleba cremlTaRvra; eriskacebs maTze mtad sWirdebaT sinanuliT gankurneba. amgvarad mtirali sulierad aRimarTeba da vnebebs ukuagdebs. maSin saRmrTo sixarulic SeiZleba, vinaidan guls mrisxaneba aRar dagvikodavs [saubrebi...]. arsebobs cremlis mravali saxeoba da arsebiTia maT Soris sxvaobis dadgena. principuli gansxvavebaa grZnobismier da sulier cremlebs Soris (arsebobs mesame saxeobac _ eSmakeuli cremlebi). grZnobismieri cremli emociis Sedegia; sulieri cremli _ asketobisa. grZnobismieri cremli, wesisamebr, vnebebs ukavSirdeba: xSirad

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risxvas, ganxibvlas, Surs, TviTSecodebas an ubralo nervul aSlilobas cremli mohyveba xolme. sulieri cremli, rogorc es saxelwodebaSic Cans, suliwmidis madlia da ara mxolod _ Cveni Zalisxmevisa. sulieri cremli mWidrod ukavSirdeba locvas. sulieri cremli gamoxatavs naRvels, romelic Tan gvdevs miwier cxovrebaSi, dacemul da xrwnil samyaroSi, gamudmebiT da dauRalavad sikvdilisaken rom miiswrafis. sulier cremls aRdgomisSemdgomi ganaxlebuli cxovrebisaken mivyavarT. Tumc, mcdari iqneboda cremlis am ori saxeobis erTmaneTisagan radikaluri gayofa. bunebriv anu grZnobismier cremls xandaxan pozitiuri anu ganmwmendi efeqtic SeiZleba hqondes, magaliTad, maSin, roca tanjulis solidaroba gvacremlebs an micvalebuls davtiriT. am dros madli bunebasTan urTierTqmedebs da eyrdnoba mas. amitomac bunebriv cremls, ganwmendils codvili egocentrizmisa da uwesrigo emociurobisagan, ZaluZs Cveni miyvana sulieri cremlis karibWesTan. amasTan, radgan madli, ZiriTadad, CvenSi idumalad da uCinarad moqmedebs, Cvenc ki ar SegviZlia, mtkiced ganvacxadoT, romeli cremliT vtiriT _ bunebriviTa Tu codviliT. Cveni ubraloebis SesanarCuneblad, RmerTs ZaluZs Cvengan dafarva sulieri zrdisa da bolos da bolos, Cveni Sesafasebeli ar aris sakuTari Tavi. sulieri cremli, wminda mamebis swavlebisamebr, ori ZiriTadi saxeobisaa. ufro dabal safexurze e.w. ,,mware cremlia; ufro maRalze _ ,,tkbili. pirvel SemTxvevaSi, cremli ganmwmendia, meoreSi gamsxivosnebeli. ufro dabal safexurze cremli gamoxatavs codvaTa Senanebas, RmerTs dacilebuli adamis Zis sevdas _ CvenSi, TiTqos, samoTxis karTan motirali adami cocxldeba; ufro maRal doneze cremli gamoxatavs saRvTo siyvarulis sixaruls, madlierebas Cveni daumsaxurebeli RvTisSvilobisaTvis. pirveli done ganfenilia uZRebi Svilis xatsaxeSi, jerac rom devnili da gaZevebuli, dakargul samSobloze mtiralia; meore ki im uZReb Svils gamoxatavs, romelic mamis saxlSi dabrunebam da Tbilma miRebam aatira. ufro dabal doneze cremli im sisxls hgavs, romelic iRvreba Cveni sulieri iarebidan, rogorc amas wmida grigol noseli ambobs; ufro maRalze ki cremlia saxe grZnobis gasulierebisa da erT-erTi aspeqti ganRmrTobi madlis wyalobiT mTlianad gardaqmnili, fernacvali adamianuri pirovnebisa. sulieri cremlis ori done, cxadia, erTmaneTs mkveTrad ar unda davupirispiroT, radgan swored erTs mivyavarT meorisaken. is, rac iwyeba codvaTa Semnanebeli cremliT, gardaisaxeba madlierebisa da sixarulis cremlad. amitomac ,,cremlis madlSi Cans

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is, rom monanieba ara negatiuri, aramed pozitiuria; ara damangreveli, aramed ganmacxovelebelia; ara naRvlis momgvreli, aramed imedis momniWebelia. * * * ,,mSvenieri seniT viyavi avad, romelic pirquSs xdida Cems siWabukes, magram Zalze gamosadegi iyo istorikosisaTvis. me miyvarda sikvdili. cxra wlis ganmavlobaSi per-laSezis sasaflaos karibWesTan vcxovrobdi. es erTaderTi adgili iyo, sadac imxanad vseirnobdi. mere bievrTan, farTo samonastro baRebSi davide bina, sadac aseve gaxldaT sasaflao. ise vcxovrobdi, rom cocxlad damarxulsac ki SemarqmevdiT, rameTu Cemi garemocva mxolod warsuli iyo, megobrebad ki gardasul droTa mcxovrebT miviCnevdi. roca maTi cxovrebiT xelmeored viwyebdi cxovrebas, vafxizlebdi aTasobiT gaqmral ideas. namdvil Selocvad meqca Cemi dedamZuZes simRerebi, romelTa saidumlosac vflobdi. bgerebi imaSi arwmunebdaT, rom me erTi imaTgani viyavi. me mqonda madli, romelsac amaod iTxovda lui wminda. es Jiul miSles teqstia, fragmenti winasityvaobisa wignisaTvis _ ,,Sua saukuneebi, romelic 1869 welsaa dawerili. masSi ganmartebulia istorikos-romantikosis meTodi, romliTac micvalebulebi cocxldebodnen da maTi daviwyebis usamarTloba qreboda. meTodi, romelic ganuyofeli iyo siWabukisdroindeli senisagan _ ,,cremlis madlisagan [le gofi, triuoni, 2008:67-68]. miSles yuradReba miepyro kapetingebis dinastiis cnobil mefe lui wmindas, romelsac iSviaTad mosdioda cremli. mefe ufrTxildeboda cremls, rogorc uflis niSans, romelsac unda mieTiTebina, rom morCilebas da monaniebaSi gatarebuli cxovreba saTno iyo uflisaTvis. Tumc, rogorc lui wmindas moZRvari Jofrua de bolie gvamcnobs, RvTisnieri mefe mTeli arsebiT cdilobda cremlis madlis dasakuTrebas da ganicdida mis uqonlobas. is gulwrfelad da morCilad abarebda aRsarebas moZRvars, rom ziarebis locvebSi, sityvebs _ ,,nakadulni cremlTani, qriste, mommadlen me bilwebaTa gulisa CemisaTa ganwmedad _ umatebda: ,,me ki, ufalo, ar ZalmiZs cremlis nakadulis Txovna. ramdenime pawawina cremlic ki meyofoda Cemi xmeli gulis dasalbobad. SesaZloa, davumatoT, rom am sityvebis wyaroc, albaT, isev locvani gaxldaT. sinanulis locvebSi gvxvdeba aseTi adgili: ,,Semiwyale me, RmerTo, Semiwyale me, orisa codvisaTvis daviT godebda, xolo me bevreulTa codvaTaTvis Segivrdebi, igi cremliTa sarecelsa Tvissa daaltobda, xolo me cvarica erTi ara maqus, amisTvis ganwiruli ese vRaRadeb, Semiwyale, RmerTo, didiTa wyalobiTa SeniTa. iqve:

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,,sinanuli ara maqus me da kvalad arca cremlni. da kidev: ,,cremlni momec me, RmerTo Cemo, viTarca odesme dedakacsa mas codvilsa da Rirs myav daltobad ferxTa SenTa. xandaxan lui wminda aRiarebda, rom Tu ufali locvisas ramdenime cremls mainc wamoadenda, ar iwmendda maT: cremli Rawvebze da wverze dasdioda, rac netarebis gancdas hgvrida momaval wmindans da gemosac ki usinjavda cremls. Cveulebriv, mefe ucremlod inaniebda codvebs da TavisTvis veraferi moexerxebina [le gofi 1996: 27-29]. * * * rogor moxda, rom adamianuri tkivilisa da sevdis yvelaze mkafio gamoxatulebam aseTi Rirebuleba SeiZina? am ganazrebis ideologiuri matarebeli isev qristianoba gaxda. frangi mecnieri p. nagi Tavis wignSi ,,cremlis istoria Sua saukuneebSi aRniSnavs, rom Sua saukuneebSi mxolod ori saxis cremli iTvleboda faseulad: locvisas modenili da cremli, rogorc RvTis madlis niSani. nagis azriT, axalma oficialurma religiam ,,im RirebulebaTa inversia moaxdina, romlebsac qriste qadagebda. am SemTxvevaSi mecnieri, rogorc Cans, imas SeniSnavs, rom qristianobam win wamoswia gansakuTrebiT faseuli saTnoebebi, adgili ucvala maT [le gofi, triuoni 2008:69]. cxra netarebaSi, romelTac ieso warmoTqvams, aseTi punqticaa: netar iyvnen mglovareni guliTa, rameTu igini nugeSiniscemul iqmnen. gancda TvisTa codvaTa _ esaa glova sakuTar codvebze. roca glovas vaxsenebT, aucilebeli ar aris, misi fizikuri gamoxatuleba vigulisxmoT, Tumca Zlieri da WeSmariti sinanulis dros adamians marTlac mosdis cremli, rac RvTisagan momadlebuli udidesi niWi da wyalobaa. iyvnen wmida mamebi, romlebsac uflisgan micemuli hqondaT cremlTaRvris niWi, isini cremliT dastirodnen TavianT codvebs... e.w. mTis qadagebaSi naTqvami sityvebi sulier glovaze, cremlTa denaze imas miuTiTebs, rom axal aRTqmaSi cremlis statusi sakmaod maRali gaxldaT. sxeulis istoriaSi, romelic Sua saukuneebSi iwereboda, cremli daukavSirda ,,xorcis uaryofas. asurelma da egviptelma meudabnoe mamebma pirvelad aqcies cremli sasuliero cxovrebis erT-erT mTavar aspeqtad. qristianobis es pionerebi miznad isaxavdnen ,,sxeulze pirdapir, uSualo zemoqmedebas, raTa srulad eecvalaT adamianuri pirovnebis struqtura. asketuri ideali, romelic wminda antonisa da III-V ss. sxva

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gandegilTa magaliTis meSveobiT gaxda popularuli, nelnela Sua saukuneebSi mcxovreb monazonTa modelad damkvidrda. cremlis faseulobisa da mniSvnelobis zrda mWidrod daukavSirda xvedrs, romelic qristianobam sxeuls ganumzada. gvianantikur epoqaSi qristianobis mowodeba cremlTaRvris Taobaze ukavSirdeboda xorcis uaryofas, uwinaresad ki, sxulebriv siTxeTa ekonomias, romlis dacva mkacrad moeTxoveboda askets. mas cota unda esva, rom sxeulebrivi siTxis odenoba daemcro, anu daemcro vnebaTa aRZvris perspeqtivac. tirili ki _ cremlTaRvra _ sxeulidan swored siTxes gandevnida da amgvarad, xels uSlida seqsualuri codviT dacemas. Tumc, grigorianuli reformisdroindel monastrebSi cremlma sxva mniSvnelobac SeiZina. axla cremls qristes mibaZvis elementad ganixilavdnen, RmerTisa, romelic adamianad moevlina kacobriobas. bibliaSi ieso samgzis Rvris cremls. pirvelad, roca Tavisi megobris, lazares gardacvalebis ambavs Seatyobineben, ,,acremlda ieso (ioane, 11,35). meored iesos ierusalimis saSineli momavali acremlebs. roca miuaxlovda da dainaxa qalaqi, atirda mis gamo: ,,netav am dRes mainc gcodnoda, rac samSvidoboa SenTvis! magram axla es dafarulia Sens TvalTagan (luka, 19,41-42). mesamed qriste tiris Tavisi daRupvis win, zeTisxilis mTaze locvisas. es epizodi yvelaze Zlier STabeWdilebas axdens, ramdenadac macxovari aq sakuTar Tav dastiris. ebraelebisaTvis gagzavnil epistoleSi naTqvamia: ,,man Tavis xorcSi yofnis dReebSi Zlieri RaRadiTa da cremlebiT Seswira locva da vedreba mas, sikvdilisagan misi daxsnis SemZles da Sesmenil iqna igi RvTismoSiSebis gamo (ebr. 5, 7). wamierad, iesos TiTqos depresia ipyrobs da tiris im tanjvaze, romelic elis, eWvi awvalebs, mamam xom ar mimatovao. lukas saxarebaSi Cven vawydebiT amave scenis gansxvavebul versias: ,,am tanjvaSi myofi ufro gulmodgined loculobda; misi ofli sisxlis wveTebiviT gaxda da miwas epkureboda (luka, 22, 44). TviT aqac ki SeimCneva siTxis simbolurad gaazrebis Tavzardamcemi praqtika. sxeuli aq Setyobinebis saSualebaa RvTaebrivsa da adamianurs Soris. axal aRTqmaSi Semonaxulia mniSvnelovani masala, romelsac ZaluZs cremls pozitiuri xasiaTi mianios. dawyebuli qristes cremliT da damTavrebuli ioanes winaswarmetyvelebiTi godebiT _ eklesiam es marjved gamoiyena. XI s-dan cremlTaRvris niWi wmindanobis kriteriumad iqca. wmindanebi eswrafodnen tirils, saTnoebad, damsaxurebad, niWad, qarizmad miaCndaT. amave dros, adreul Sua saukuneebSi ar iyo msgavsi intersi cremlTaRvris niWisadmi, Tumc benediqte nursielis wesdebaSic arsebobda punqti SenanebiTi cremlTaRvris Taobaze. es viTareba aixsneba imiT, Tu ra doneze mimdinareobda qristianizacia im epoqaSi:

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maSin mTavar amocanad rCeboda ganmtkiceba garegnuli mxarisa, ritualebisa, koleqtiuri qcevisa; TviTanalizi jer ar gavrcelebuliyo. monazvnebi is-is iyo dainteresebuliyvnen sakuTar sulSi CaRrmavebiT. gardatexa moaxdines pirveli da meore aTaswleulebis mijnaze moRvawe monazon-reformatorebma, rogorebic iyvnen gandegili beri petre damiani (1007-1072), SemdegSi ostiis (qalaqi italiaSi) kardinali (sxvaTa Soris, man aqcia popularulad ioane damaskelis formuliereba, filosofia RvTismetyvelebis moaxlis roliTRa unda dakmayofildeso), da ioane fekaneli (qalaqi safrangeTSi). man dawera ,,cremlis madlis saTxovari. am teqstSi sulieri Txovna ambivalentur sxeulebriv _ rom ara vTqvaT, seqsualur _ xasiaTs iZens: ,,qriste tkbilo, keTilo ieso, rogor msurxar, rogor gvedri mTeli Cemi suliT, Senc mommadle Seni siyvaruli, wminda da sufTa; dae, man amavsos, damipyros, dae, is mflobdes. momadle Seni siyvarulis naTeli niSani, cremlis guluxvi wyaro; dae, SeuCerebliv mdiodes cremli; is daamtkicebs Sens siyvaruls Cemdami. saqme is aris, rom kategoriebi, romlebiTac azrovnebda Sua saukuneebis adamiani, ar scdeboda istoriuli realobis sazvrebs da simbolur formebs. cremli aRiqmeboda RvTaebrivi warmomavlobis mqone erTgvar nayofierebad. amgvaradve gaiazreboda locva, monaniebis sityvebi. Sua saukuneebSi ambobdnen, monazoni isaa, vinc tiriso. amitomac werda miSle, rom Sua saukuneebis mTeli idumaleba cremliT cxaddeba. iohan heizinga amas gemovnebiT xsnida: Sua saukuneTa mkvidrTaTvis niSandoblivi iy ,,gemovnebis simZafre, ,,cxovrebiseul ferTa simkveTre. holandieli mecnieris azriT, Sua saukuneebSi tanjva da sixaruli, ubedureba da warmateba ufro sagrZnobi iyo; adamianuri gancdebi inarCunebdnen im sisavsesa da uSualobas, rogoriTac bavSvis suli aRiqvams tkivilsa da sixaruls. yvela moqmedeba, yvela saqcieli damuSavebuli da gamomsaxveli ritualis nawili iyo, romelic cxovrebis xist stilad yalibdeboda. ZiriTadi movlenebi _ dabadeba, qorwineba, sikvdili _ saeklesio saidumloebaTa wyalobiT misteriul brwyinvalebas iZendnen. yvelaze umniSvnelo ambavsac ki _ mogzauroba, muSaoba, saqmiani Tu megobruli stumrobani _ kurTxeva, ceremonia, rituali axlda Tan. wignSi ,,Sua saukuneebis Semodgoma moyvanilia dominikeli beris, wm. vinsent fereris magaliTi: mis qadagebas msmenelni yovelTvis cremlmoreulni usmendnen. saSineli samsjavros, jojoxeTis, qristes vnebaTa xsenebisas mqadagebelica da publikac moTqmiT tiroda. codvilni yvelas Tvalwin cviodnen Zirs da mware cremliT inaniebdnen Cadenil codvebs [heizinga].

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Sua saukuneebSi cremli uaRresad sulieri xasiaTisaa. misi wyalobiT, RmerTma imoqmeda sxeulze, mas RvTaebrivisaken eswrafa [le gofi, triuoni 2008:73]. * * * vcadoT imis garkveva, ramdenad eTanadeba Sua saukuneebis qarTuli samyaro evropuls. cremlTaRvris niWze arsebuli Teologiuri literatura, ZiriTadad, aRmosavluri eklesiis burjTa Seqmnilia. es Txzulebebi uxvad iTargmneboda qarTulad, rac amTaviTve gvaTqmevinebs, rom suraTi TiTqmis identuria. es Sefaseba emyareba Sua saukuneebis qarTul saistorio teqstTa analizs IV-dan XIV saukunemde. ikveTeba wminda mamaTa naRvawidan kargad cnobili opozicia: bunebiTi cremli, organuli reaqcia gamRizianebelze (SiSi, ubedureba, ganSoreba, sayvareli adamianis sikvdili da sxv;) da saRmrTo cremli (codvaTagan ganmwmendi, sakralurTan miaxloebisas warmodenili, sinanulis niSani, locvisas mogvrili da sxv.). gansxvavdeba qristianisa da warmarTis cremlic: warmarTis cremli SiSze bunebrivi reaqciaa, qristianisa _ saRmrTo madli an ganmwmendi saTnoeba. es fiqrebi aRgviZra wminda ninos cxovrebis xelaxalma wakiTxvam. ,,branjni (,,frangni) romis imperators ganudgnen. romaelTa jars zabilonma usardla da qristes SewevniT mojanyeni daamarcxa. branjTa mTavari da warCinebulni Seipyro da imperators mihgvara, romelmac sikvdiliT dasjis ganaCeni gamoutana gandgomilT. ,,maSin iwyes maT tirilad... es cremlTadena mosalodneli sikvdilis SiSiT unda iyos gamowveuli. magram Sua saukuneebis teqstSi yovelive aq da amiT ar mTavrdeba: warmarTi ,,branjebi zabilons evedrebian, naTeli gvec im RmerTis saxeliT, romelmac Sen xeli mogimarTa. xolo Tu qristianad daviRupebiT, Sen Cvens sikvdilSi brali ar dagedebao. zabilons branjTa Txovna romis imperatorisa da papisaTvis ucnobebia. am ukanasknels ki branjni mounaTlavs. meore dRes _ aw ukve gaqristianebulni _ gasulan ,,adgilsa sasikvdinesa. bunebrivi iqneboda, rom sasikvdilod ganwirulT kvlavac tirili daewyoT. ganaCeni xom ar Secvlila? Tu erTi dRis win mosalodneli sikvdili cremls adeninebdaT, emocia xom igive unda yofiliyo? magram aq sawinaaRmdego suraTs vawydebiT: branjni myudrod ganvides adgilsa sasikvdinesa da sixaruliT moelodes sikvdilsa. amis Semxedvare zabilonic acremlebula: ,,aRiZra gonebiTa da tiroda friad. naTelia, rom qristem, misma madlma Tu magaliTma gaqristianebuli branjebis emociuri samyaro amoayirava: roca jer isev warmarTni arian, emocia adamianur kanons emorCileba

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_ sikvdilis SiSi yvelaze mamacsa da Seudrekelsac ki atirebs! _ magram qristesTvis sikvdili mosalodnel sufevas aaxloebs. sakralurTan Seyra zogadadamianur tkivils sixarulad gardaqmnis. SesaZloa, es axsna dagvexmaros im sityvebis wvdomaSi, romelTac jer isev warmarTi sikvdilmisjilni zabilons eubnebian: Tu qristes naTelmiRebulni davixocebiT, amaSi damnaSave Sen ar iqnebio. am epizodis orive personaJi _ branjebica da zabilonic _ organulad iqceva: erTi damtyvevebels miiCnevs mosalodneli daRupvis mizezad. meore gandgomilebas aRkveTs da mojanyeT sikvdiliT sjis. bunebrivia, naratori arsad ambobs, rom Cadenilis (albaT, meramdened!) gamo zabilons sindisis qenjna dasCemebodes. mas aw ukve qristian TanamoZmeTa Seudrekloba (,,sixaruliT moelodnes sikvdilsa) atirebs (,,tiroda friad). da es cremlic sixarulis cremlia _ im sixarulisa, warmarTTa sulier-gonebrivma transformaciam rom dabada. zabilonma gaacnobiera (,,aRiZra gonebiTa) qristes Zalmosileba da aw ukve gardaqmnili adamianebis sikvdili enaneba. amitomac gamoiTxova imperatorisagan maTi sicocxle, rasac mohyva branjTa mTeli samkvidreblis qristes sjulze moqceva [qarTuli proza 1981: 188]. bunebrivia sayvarel col-SvilTan ganSorebisas mogvrili cremli: zabilonma ,,Seitkbo asuli Tvisi da saxed wvimisa damoadinna cremlni da ijmna meuRlisagan, magram TviT mizezi ganSorebisa qristea _ zabiloni uars ambobs eriskacobaze, saxelmwifo samsaxuriT naSovn qonebas glaxakebs aZlevs da eliasa da ioanes msgavs meudabnoeobas arCevs. aq zabilonis guli brZolis velad aRiqmeba _ am sulier brZolaSi qriste imarjvebs [qarTuli proza 1981: 189]. gavixsenoT kerpTa dalewvis Semdeg ninosTan misuli qarTlis warCinebuli mxevali SroSana: igi dawvrilebiT gamohkiTxavs ninos vinaobas, qarTlSi mosvlis mizezs da ,,friadiTa cremliT aRivseba. SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom warmarT qalbatons mxolod ninos mware bedi acremlebs: ra gasakviria, adamianurad guli SeZvrodes ninos xifaTiT aRsavse odiseis mosmenisas? egeb, amitomac urCevs dedofalTan wasvlas, raTa Sori gzidan mosuli tyveqalisaTvis, daRlilisa da mSivrisaTvis, xeli gaemarTa? magram Sua saukuneebis literatura Sua gzaze ar stovebs TviT warmarTsac ki: erTxel, roca nino ,,samoTxis xis Cvenebas uambobs SroSanasa da sidonias, sjuliT iudevels, sidonia cremliT aRiZvreba da ninos misiis arss swvdeba: man unda gaunaTloT suli, man unda SeacnobinoT RmerTi WeSmariti. aq ubralo adamianuri TanagrZnobis cremli saRmrTo arsebis WvretiT mogvril cremlad gardaiqmneba [qarTuli proza 1981:196-197]. rogoraa SesaZlebeli SiSisagan Tavdaxsna? gulmxurvale locviT. cremli da locva ganuyofelia. marTalia, adamianuri Si-

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Sic iwvevs cremls da RmerTTan miaxlebis wyurvilic, magram am cremlTa arsi gansxvavebulia. wminda ninos cremlic ambivalenturia: erTi mxriv, adamianur SiSs moyolili, ucxo warmarTul qveyanaSi gamgzavrebas rom sdevs da, meore mxriv, saRmrTo nugeSisa, rom ufali yovelTvis mis Semwed rCeba. gavixsenoT javaxeTs misuli ninos emocia: zafxulSi mTebze dadebuli Tovlis danaxvisas ,,SeZrwunda da ilocvida da damoadinna cremli. es egeb adamianuri SiSiT naSob cremlad miviCnioT. xolo roca ZilSi ,,kaci brwyinvale xilviT warmoudga da misi misiis gamamarTlebeli ,,saxareba da saRvTo sanqtifikaciis (,,dabeWduli) mimniWebeli ,,wigni misca, romelsac ,,cremliT miugo, Semdeg ki, nugeSmocemuli RvTismSoblisaTvis ilocvida da ,,cremliTa qveyanas daaltobda, es cremli saRmrTo madlia: ,,ganaTlda goneba misi madliTa qristesiTa... da uSiSiTa gonebiTa waremarTa[qarTuli proza 1981:193]. locvis gulmxurvaleba cremliT gamoixateba: ninos aseTi locva angrevs kerpebs [qarTuli proza 1981:196]. vaxtang gorgasali ,,cremliTa evedreboda RmerTsa da ... iTxovda Sewevnasa [qarTuli proza 1981:538]. Tamars ,,cremliT vedreba RmrTisa zemdgomrobiTa gansakvirvebel aqvnda da bunebrivadac ki aRiqmeba, rom ,,ara dascxreboda cremlTa vedrebad, vidremdis srulyo RmerTman saTxoveli misi [qarTuli proza 1982: 218; 255]. RmerTs jaris gamarjvebasac cremliT avedrebda. ruknadinis Seuracxmyofeli werilis wakiTxvis Semdegac `cxelTa cremlTa damodinebiTa SesTxova Semoqmeds Tavisi laSqris Sewevna. sarwmunoebriv sakiTxebze mopaeqre somex da qarTvel sasuliero pirTa orive krebuli locvisas tiris [qarTuli proza 1982: 255-256; 263; 246]. daviT laSas Ze, gansacdelis win, xats pirsa da Tvalebze idebs, locvisas ki ,,cremlni simwarisani gardmosTxivna [qarTuli proza 1982: 320]. dmanisisa da martyofis xatebs ,,mxurvaliTa cremliTa evedreba Svilis gamojanmrTelebas [qarTuli proza 1982: 366]. dimitri meore sikvdilis win ,,ilocvida cremlTa modinebiTa qveyanasa zeda [qarTuli proza 1982: 398]. sakralurTan miaxloeba RmerTis xilvis tolfasia da cremlTaRvra aqac bunebrivi reaqciaa. gavixsenoT mcxeTeli eliozis da, romelmac kvarTi gulSi Caixuta, ,,xma yo cremliT da aRmouteva suli. sveti cxovlis Semxedvare ,,yoveli qalaqi da TviT mefe da dedofali cremliTa iltobodes, xolo kaxeTis dedofali suji ,,vidoda uxamuri da cremliTa daaltobda qveyanas [qarTuli proza 1981: 197; 205; 206; 212]. amasve miuTiTebs saswaulmoqmed xatTa winaSe cremlTaRvra. da kidev: Sua saukuneTa qarTul narativSi araerTxel aRiwe-

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reba sulTmobrZav mefeTa ukanaskneli cremliani wuTebi. arsTa gamrigesTan mosalodneli Seyra cremlTadenas iwvevs: tiris vaxtang gorgasali, tiris laSa-giorgi, tiris dimitri II... adamiani sikvdilis Svilia. misi gardacvaleba dasanania, magram glovaze yuradRebis gansakuTrebiT gamaxvileba ar egebis. mxolod mefeTa _ uflis cxebulTa _ sikvdili iwvevs sayovelTao ubedurebas. am debulebis siswores adasturebs qarTvel naratorTa pozicia, roca isini ara mxolod warmarT gardacvlilT stoveben uyuradRebod, aramed aras amboben TviT mefeTa ZeTa dakargvis gamo gamowveul gancdebze. mxolod uflis cxebulTa glova aRiwereba da es rituali mTlianad cremls gaujerebia. am epizodebSi vawydebiT sulxan-sabaseuli tirilis konotaciebs, ZiriTadad: godebasa da vaebas. vaxtang gorgaslis gardacvaleba warCinebulTa da yoveli erisaTvis sasjelis dRea _ ,,xmisagan tirilisa da godebisa iZrvoda qveyana [qarTuli proza 1981: 581-582]. giorgi I-s gardacvalebam mamulis mkvidrTa da samefos ,,dauteva glova da mwuxareba [qarTuli proza 1981: 93]. laSa-giorgis gardacvalebam gamoiwvia ,,saSinelni tkivilni, cremlTa wil guliT sisxlis denani, warwirvani darComisa da sicocxlisani... [qarTuli proza 1982: 160]. Tamaris dedis, burduxanis gardacvaleba imdenad samwuxaro yofila. ,,romelmanca enaman gamoTqva? Tamars cremlTa aTaseuli nakadi dasdenia. giorgi III-s gardacvalebisas Tamars ,,uswrobda wyaro sisxlis wyarosa cremlTasa da a.S. [qarTuli proza 1982: 176-177]. sayuradReboa, rom mefis gardacvalebiT gamowveul tkivils aormagebs qristesaTvis gaweuli samsaxuri da narators amis aRniSvna ar aviwydeba. vaxtang gorgaslis sikvdiliT gulmokluli ,,morwmune eri hnatrida mefesa, rameTu qristesTvis moikla. xandaxan samefos mkvidrT mefis udroo gardacvaleba an qveli Tvisebebi amwuxrebT. giorgi I-s ,,iglovdes yovelni sikeTisa da siWabukisa da axovnebisa misisaTvis. zemoT mocemuli modelebi imas rodi niSnavs, rom Sua saukuneebis qarTuli narativis personaJebi mxolod am mizeziT tirodnen. cxadia, teqstSi gvxvdeba solidarobis, sinanulis, TanagrZnobis, sayvarel adamianTan daSorebis, madlierebis, mtris Semosevisa da qveynis ganadgurebis gamo tirilis, sixarulis cremlis amsaxveli epizodebi. qarTul saistorio teqstebSi tirili, ZiriTadad, qrestomaTiuli metaforebiT gamoixateba.

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sulxan-saba cremls Tvalis wylad ganmartavs da es gadaWarbebuli sityvieri ekonomia sWvivis cremlsa da tirilTan dakavSirebul yvela metaforaSi. yovelive wylis denas ukavSirdeba: ,,saxed wvimisad damoadinna cremli; ,,cremliTa qveyanas daaltobda, ,,cremlTa nakad deniTa aTaseuliTa; ,,wyarosa cremlTasa da a.S. es qrestomaTiuli suraTi _ rogorc wyali (mdinare, wyaro, wvima da sxv.) albobs miwas, iseve altobs cremli adamianis saxes _ xandaxan icvleba, metaforis Tvisebebic ki ikargeba, radgan cremli TiTqmis yvelgan qveyanas, miwas, motiralisa Tu sxva personaJis fexebs da sxv. altobs da ara _ motiralis saxes. naratori cremlis nakadis im odenobas aRwers, rom mis asparezad adamianis saxe sakmarisi aRar aris _ cremli mTel qveyanas edeba. erTgan cremli samoTxis im mdinaredac ki gardaisaxeba, romelic gars uvlis eTiopias: ,,nakadni cremlTani... msgavsad samoTxisa momcenareobdes saxed geonisa. ZiriTadad, cremli mdinaresTan, wyarosTan, wvimasTanaa Sedarebuli. Tumc, aqac SeiZleba erTgvari diferencireba. nikita stifatis swavlebis Tanaxmad, sinanulis cremli mdinares hgavs, romelic codvis mTel xmeleTs faravs. saRmrTo saTnoebis cremli ki wvimaa yanisaTvis da cvaria marcvlisaTvis. cxadia, Zneli dasadgenia (da albaT, saWiro arcaa), ramdenad eTanadeba wminda mamis naazrevi qarTul teqstSi naxseneb cremlebs, magram imis aRniSvna ki SeiZleba, rom cremlis metaforizebisas mdinarec gamoiyeneba da wvimac. teqstSi xSirad gvxvdeba ,,mxurvale an ,,cxeli cremli. wminda mamebi miiCneven, rom vnebebi axureben suls. es cecxli xdis mxurvales cremlsac, romlis gadmodineba cecxls aqrobs anu suls vnebaTagan aTavisuflebs. literatura: 1. Rirsi ioane sineli, kibe anu klemaqsi, http://www.orthodoxy.ge/tserilebi/kibe/sarchevi.htm 2. , , http://www.krotov.info/history/07/sirin_al/sir_18.html 3. , 3. . http://www.omolenko.com/biblio/simeon-tom3.htm?p=1#toc10; 4. , http://ni-ka.com.ua/index.php?Lev=prelest#prl90 5. , , , 6. Saint Louis by Jacques Le Goff, Paris 7. , , , 8. . , . .

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http://www.gumer.info/bibliotek_Buks/Culture/Huiz/01.php 9. , , , 10. qarTuli proza, wigni I, mexuTe-meTerTmete saukuneebis mwerloba, ucnobi avtori, ninos cxovreba, Tbilisi 11. iqve 12. iqve 13. iqve 14. iqve 15. iqve, juanSeri, cxovreba vaxtang gorgasalisa 16. qarTuli proza, wigni III, meTerTmete-meToTxmete saukuneebis mwerloba, ucnobi avtori, istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani, basili ezosmoZRvari, cxovreba mefeT-mefisa Tamarisi, Tbilisi 17. iqve 18. iqve 19. iqve 20. iqve 21. qarTuli proza, wigni I, mexuTe-meTerTmete saukuneebis mwerloba, ucnobi avtori, ninos cxovreba, Tbilisi 22. iqve 23. qarTuli proza, wigni III, meTerTmete-meToTxmete saukuneebis mwerloba, ucnobi avtori, matiane qarTlisa, Tbilisi 24. qarTuli proza, wigni III, meTerTmete-meToTxmete saukuneebis mwerloba, ucnobi avtori, laSa-giorgisdroindeli matiane, Tbilisi 25. iqve, ucnobi avtori, istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani

koba WumburiZe

idumali ieroglifi anx

arqiteqtori, mwerali, mxatvari; ZiriTadi naSromebi: zneni samamaconi (qarTuli sabrZolo xelovneba), idumali ieroglifi anx, xulas ganmartebisaTvis, RvTaeba seTis kvaldakval, sicocxlis xe qarTul eTnomasalaSi. (ZiriTadi namuSevrebi ix.: http://alternativa.ge) interesTa sfero: eTnologiuri kvleva, publicistika, poezia, Targmani, ferwera, dizaini.

winamdebare naSromi miznad isaxavs svanuri agraruli dResaswaulebis _ `aRbalaRralisa~ da `limuryvamalis~ erT-erTi ZiriTadi elementis _ angis Sesaxeb kvlevis gagrZelebas, ramac SesaZloa meti sicxade SesZinos am uZvelesi kulturuli fenomenis mniSvnelobasa da warmomavlobas. aRniSnuli sakiTxis Sesaxeb Tavmoyrili eTnografiuli masalis analizisa da paralelur masalasTan Sedarebis safuZvelze j. ruxaZem gamoTqva varaudi angis SesaZlo mniSvnelobisa da warmomavlobis Sesaxeb. sanam uSualod sakiTxis analizze gadavalT, gavixsenoT `aRba-laRralisa~ da `limuryvamalis~ dResaswaulTa aRweriloba j. ruxaZis naSromidan - `bunebis ZalTa aRorZinebis xalxuri dResaswauli saqarTveloSi~: `orive dResaswaulis mTavari saweso moqmedeba koSkis agebaa. koSkis SuaSi, maRal xeze, romelsac svanurad angi hqvia, xelmandiliani droSa aris moTavsebuli (zemo svaneTi). zogjer mis wverze damagrebulia adamianis gamosaxuleba `lamaria~, romelsac xelSi daSna uWiravs, win xis falosi aqvs Camokidebuli, xolo saxis adgilze saceri ukeTia. am ukanasknels `faras~ eZaxian. xeze zogjer mxolod saceri, xis `lekuri~ da xis asoa gakeTebuli... ...sayuradReboa, rom qarTlSi yeens gulze da welze sacris rkals hkidebdnen. ...zemo svaneTSi `lamarias~ gamosaxulebasTan imarTeba `samTo-WiSxaSis saxeliT cnobili ferxuli, romelSic eqvsi moxuci kaci monawileobs. isini simReriT adian koS-

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kze da `lamarias~ ferxuliT gars uvlian, xolo Semdeg xes SeanZreven da `fars~ Camoagdeben. saiTac `farsaceri~ gadavardeba, maTi azriT, im wels im mxares kargi mosavali iqneba. moxucebis Semdeg koSkze adian bavSvebi, romelTagan TiToeuli cdilobs, pirvelma mokidos xeli `lamarias~ da Zirs Camoagdos. am ritualTan aris dakavSirebuli yaensa da dedofals Soris sqesobrivi aqtis simulaciis scena... ...`aRba-laRralis~ dResaswaulze sofel JabeSSi (zemo svaneTi) `lamarias~ cvlis xis wverze damagrebuli Zveli saceri, xis lekuri da xisgan gamoTlili kacis aso. imarTeba gundaoba, gamarjvebulebi im wels karg mosavals elian. Semdeg iwyeba ferxuli, romlis damTavrebis Jams xalxi xis waqcevas cdilobs. waqceuli xisa da Tovlis koSkis mimarTulebiT sofeli nayofier weliwads ibedebda~.1 j. ruxaZem, aRniSnul dResaswaulTa aRwerilobaze muSaobisas,2 pirvelma miapyro yuradReba im faqts, rom aRniSnuli ritualis centraluri elementi angi (nax. 1), rogorc sicocxlis xe, misteriuli daniSnulebiT, formiT da TviT dasaxelebiTac ki, Zalze Camohgavs mesame dinastiis egviptis saritualo nivTs anxs (ANKH) (nax. 2), romelic dRemde mravali qveynis mkvlevarTa cxoveli dainteresebis sagania. paraleluri wyaroebis Seswavlam kidev ufro ganamtkica am varaudis safuZvlianoba. movixmoT kidev erTi amonaridi j. ruxaZis zemoT aRniSnuli naSromidan: `...jvari gvxvdeba agreTve yeenis Tavsaburavze (imereTi). pirgamurul yeens Tavze guda exura, romelsac SuaSi gogris qerqisgan gamoWrili jvari ekida. jvaria aRbeWdili ritualur kverze, romelsac acxobdnen RvTaeba basilis saxelze, igi, rogorc ukve iTqva, yeenTan dakavSirebuli ideiT adeqvatur rwmena-warmodgenebs aerTianebs. aseT kverze axal wels sam adgilze jvars amoWridnen, erTs daamtvrevdnen da saTesle marcvals Seurevdnen, meores saqonels SeaWmevdnen, xolo mesames xvnis dawyebisas pirvel kvalSi Caagdebdnen kargi mosavlis vedrebiT. axal welsve acj. ruxaZe, `bunebis ZalTa aRorZinebis xalxuri dResaswauli saqarTveloSi~, gv. 131, 168 2 `aRba-laRralisa~ da `limuryvamalis~ dResaswaulTa aRweriloba, dafiqsirebuli svaneTSi, 1940 wels, eTnograf arsen onianis mier. masala daculia iv. javaxiSvilis sax. istoriisa da eTnologiis institutis eTnografiis ganyofilebis arqivSi.
1

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xobdnen adamianis msgavs falikurniSnian kverebs, romlebic mxolod mamakacebisTvis iyo gankuTvnili. cxadia, rom yeenis qudsa da basilas kverze gamosaxuli jvrebi identuri mniSvnelobisaa da sicocxlis xis ideasTan unda iyvnen genetikur kavSirSi. asevea Tovlis koSkze gakeTebuli cacxvisa Tu naZvis xe, romelzec sxvadasxva sagnebia Camokidebuli da rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, `angs~ eZaxdnen. qarTlis masaliTac (sof. bazaleTi) cnobilia, rom aRniSnul dResaswaulze wiTelnaWrebSebmuli xis aRmarTva icodnen. rwmenaTa amave samyaros ganekuTvneba Tovlis koSkze gamosaxuli jvari, droSa, `lamaria~ da a.S., romlebic sicocxlis xes ukavSirdebian da masTan erTad, saerTo semantikur sivrceSi unda iqnan ganxilulni. aRsaniSnavia, rom svanuri `angis~ msgavsad ANKH hqvia egviptelTa Tavmomrgvalebul jvars, romelic sicocxlis simbolod aris miCneuli.~1 `CvenTvis ukve cnobilia, rom sicocxlis xis idea universaluri movlenaa, mTels msoflioSia gavrcelebuli da mravali variantiT gvxvdeba. es ki uflebas gvaZlevs gavimeoroT mosazreba imis Seasaxeb, rom svanuri angi da sicocxlis cxovrebis cnebad miCneuli egvipturi ANKH-i sicocxlis mimniWebel RvTaebaTa atributebia. egviptur jvarTan dakavSirebiT aseTive mosazreba aqvs gamoTqmuli l. boWoriSvils.~2 aq upriani iqneba Tvali gadavavloT am mizniT sagangebod Tavmoyrili masalis erT nawils, romelic cxadyofs, rom miuxedavad am sakiTxis irgvliv gamoTqmuli araerTi varaudisa, egvipturi anxis, am uxsovari simbolos WeSmariti arsi dRemde ar aris mkafiod gansazRvruli da Sesabamisad, Tu ki SesaZlebeli gaxdeba svanur angsa da egviptur anxs Soris kavSiris dadgena, aseT SemTxvevaSi j. ruxaZis mosazrebas, yvela sxva versiisagan gansxvavebiT, safuZvlad eqneba ara oden logikuri varaudi, aramed Cvenamde uZvelesi saxiT motanebuli `aRba-laRralisa~ da `limuryvamalis~ unikaluri misteriebi.

j. Si~, 2 j. Si~,

ruxaZe, gv. 132, ruxaZe, gv. 168,

`bunebis ZalTa aRorZinebis xalxuri dResaswauli saqarTvelo133 `bunebis ZalTa aRorZinebis xalxuri dResaswauli saqarTvelo169

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ra aris anxi anxi, romelic aseve iwodeba `kruqs ansated~, anu tarian jvrad, Zvel egvipteSi yvelaze gavrcelebuli simbolo gaxldaT. mesame dinastiidan moyolebuli, igi xSirad gvxvdeba arqeologiur masalaSi (nax. 3, 4). liTonis, Tixisa da xis uamravi anxia napovni. maTi didi nawili amuletia, romelsac unda uzrunveleyo mflobelis sicocxlis gaxangrZliveba, xolo micvalebis Semdgom - imqveyniuri sicocxle. anxi metwilad RmerTebsa da faraonebs upyriaT xelT. garda amisa, igi egvipturi akldamebis (maT Soris, tut-anx-amonis) warwerebSic gvxvdeba. xSirad saritualo WurWelsac anxis forma hqonda (nax. 4.1). am formas imeorebda agreTve sistra, malamos kovzi Tu sarke. sainteresoa, rom Sua samefodan moyolebuli, sarkesac anxs eZaxdnen, radgan miaCndaT, rom sicocxle da sikvdili erTmaneTs ireklaven. mkvlevar t. r. elisonis TvalsazrisiT, `imis gamo, rom egviptis mosaxleobis umetesi nawili wera-kiTxvis ucodinari iyo, es niSani maTTvis gasagebi versiiT (sandlis Rvedebi) gamoisaxeboda. marTlac, mdabioTa mier gakeTebul WurWelzec xSirad vxvdebiT anxis gamosaxulebas~. `misi gavlena yvela dinastias gahyva da koptur qristianul eklesiaSic ki, rogorc jvarma, mistikuri Zalis mqone simbolos mniSvneloba SeinarCuna~.1 anxis ganmartebani moZiebul wyaroebSi Tanamedrove mkvlevarTa mier anxis daniSnulebis Sesaxeb gamoTqmul varaudebs sakmaod vrceli diapazoni ukavia. misi savaraudo funqcia rTuli seqsualuri simbolizmidan ubralo sandlamde meryeobs. rakiRa anxi sicocxlis simboloa, Sesabamisad misi mravalgvari gamovlinebac savsebiT bunebrivad unda miviCnioT. egviptur miTologiaSi, rodesac anxi RvTaeba anubiss upyria, maSin micvalebulTa imqveyniur sicocxles icavs, seqmeTis, uarisa da hapis xelSi macocxlebel wyalTanaa kavSirSi, RvTaeba amenis xelSi ki sicocxlis STabervas emsaxureba.2 simbolo nilosis arxis kedlebzec ki iyo gamosaxuli, raTa misi nakadi adamianTa sasikeTod waremarTa. `anxi Zvel kemetur enaze sicocxles aRniSnavs da rogorc simbolo, asocirebulia ara mxolod im RmerTebTan, romelTac igi
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enciklopedia britanika (1994 1998) www.touregypt.net/ANUBIS.htm

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xelT upyriaT, aramed haerTan, mzesa da wyalTan (radgan, egviptelTa azriT, misi meSveobiT sicocxlis regeneracia xdeboda)~.1 amdenad, bunebrivia, rom anxi gamosaxulia gabanvis ritualebSic, sadac or RmerTs Sua (romelTagan erTi ToTia) mdgom mefes anxebis jaWviT gamosaxuli wyali esxmeba. am TemasTan dakavSirebiT saintereso paraleli ikveTeba qarTul masalasTan. kerZod, mxedvelobaSi maqvs i. surgulaZis mosazreba, romlis Tanaxmadac, qarTvelTa warmodgeniT saceri zecidan momdinare macocxlebeli wylis, anu wvimis gamomxatveli simbolo unda iyos.2 mkvlevar m. lurkeris ganmartebiT, anqi, `rogorc uSreti sasicocxlo energiis simbolo, xSirad gvxvdeba taZris kedlebze, Zeglebze, frizebsa Tu kvarcxlbekebze, TviT sayofacxovrebo daniSnulebis nivTebzec ki~.3 `rakiRa anxi xSirad RmerTebs upyriaT micvalebuli faraonebis cxvirTan (rac maT mier faraonebisTvis sikvdilis Semdeg STaberil sicocxles unda gamoxatavdes), agreTve misi formis gamo, mkvlevarTa erTi nawili varaudobs, rom anxi gasaRebia karisa sikvdilis Semdeg maradi sicocxlisaken~.4 Tavad Zvel egviptelTa azriT anxis pyroba misi mflobelisTvis boZebul marad sicocxlesa da ukvdavebas gamosaxavda. maTi rwmeniT, anxis siaxloves myofni isrutavdnen misgan gamosxivebul sicocxlis energias. * * * qvemoT moyvanili ganmartebani ki pirdapir kavSirs avlenen statiis TavSi miTiTebul svanur masalasTan da Sesabamisad, amyarebs j. ruxaZis varauds. anxi, rogorc simbolo, im ieroglifebis jgufSi Sedis, romelTa mniSvnelobac janmrTeloba da bednierebaa. sainteresoa, rom sul axlo warsulSi anxi gamoiyeneboda nayofierebasTan dakavSirebul ritualebSi.5 amave dros, anxi osirisisa da isidas, cisa da miwis kavSirs asaxavs (qarTul masalaSi es funqcia metwilad swored xes akisria). misi maryuJi mdedris, xolo daboloeba mamris gamomxatveli simboloebia da ZiriTadi mniSvneloba nayofiereba da kvlavwarmoqmnaa (axali samefos periodis zogierT anxSi maryuJi TiTqmis sam1 2

`anxi: pirvelsawyisi jvari~, www.swaga.com/ankh i. surgulaZe `amindis ritualebi saqarTveloSi, saceri, rogorc RvTaebis atributi, xelnaweri. 3 , IX 4 www.swagga.com/ank-the original cros 5 www.nisbett.com/simbols/ankh

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kuTxedad iqca da boqvens daemsgavsa, zog maryuJSi ki sulac samkuTxedia Caxatuli). aqve gavixsenoT ramdenime paraleluri masala: - Sumeruli miTosis Tanaxmad anqi (ANKI) samyaroa, adamianissaxian RvTaebaTa - cis RvTaeba anis (AN) da miwis RvTaeba qis (KI) kavSiri;1 - vanSi napovni mdedri da mamri RvTaebebis brinjaos gamosaxulebani erT saritualo sivrceSi, SesaZloa, aseve cisa da miwis kavSirs ganasaxierebda;2 - aseve unda gavixsenoT miwis RvTaebis qurumi kretis mefe minosi, agreTve mTvaris RvTaebis mimarT raRac msgavsi funqciis mqone - dedofali pasifae (xarTan SeuRlebuli) da maTi kavSiri, rogorc cisa da miwis Serwymis simbolo. - Anouki egvipturi sicocxlis RvTaeba. aqedan Ank sicocxle (ebraulad) - berZnuli sityva `angelos~ macnes, Sikriks aRniSnavs. es usxeulo arseba RmerTsa da adamians Soris kavSirs amyarebs. misi meSveobiT ityobs adamiani RvTis nebas da misive meSveobiT iRebs Zalas. savsebiT SesaZlebelia, rom am sityvis Ziri naTesaur kavSirSi iyos sakvlev terminTan. da bolos, mkvlevarTa erTi nawilis azriT, anxi sicocxlis xea.3 rogorc masalidan Cans, es mosazreba yvelaze axlos unda iyos WeSmaritebasTan, oRond garkveul dazustebas moiTxovs. SesaZloa anxi, misi erT-erTi ZiriTadi gamovlinebiT, stilizebuli xis Stoa, foTliT daboloebuli. gavixsenoT amarnas periodis reliefebi (nax. 5), sadac ramdenime anxi mzis sxivTa daboloebebze gamoxatul xelis mtevnebs upyria da exnaTonisken aris gawvdili. Tavis mxriv, exnaTonic anxs iwvdis mzisken. SesaZloa amiT gamoxatulia mixvedra, rom foToli, ufro zustad ki - qlorofili _ aris mzis energiis materializaciis, ufro metic, sicocxled gardaqmnis meqanizmi. Tu davuSvebT, rom im epoqis adamianma, xangrZlivi empiriuli
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Sumeruli leqsikoni (internetmasala) m. xidaSeli - `kolxeTis samefoSi dadasturebuli erTi ritualis Sesaxeb~, `oCxari~, Tbilisi, 2002 w. 3 www.holoweb.net/liam/pictures/ankh

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gziT, Tundac Zalze primitiul doneze, SeZlo sicocxlis saidumlosTan miaxloeba, sruliad gasagebi gaxdeba anxis simbolos esodeni dromedegoba. savaraudoa, rom swored am didi mixvedris momnusxvelma xiblma ganapiroba anxis simbolos aRmatebuloba yvela danarCenze, rac SeuZlebeli iqneboda, am simbolosaTvis oden zogadi Sinaarsi rom yofiliyo miwerili. sainteresoa, rom es Tema arc qarTuli eTnografiuli masalisTvis aris ucxo. naSromSi `qarTvelTa uZvelesi sarwmunoebis istoriidan~ v. bardaveliZe mzis simbolur nax 5 1 gamosaxulebebze saubrisas, ase aRwers laxamulas `girgeds~: _ `girgedi~ mrgvali formis liTonis sagania, irgvliv gare napirze Semoyolebuli imave liTonis cxra cali momcro rgoliT da am rgolebSua samyura mcenaris saxis samkaulebiT~ (!) (nax. 5.1) iqve aRwerilia raWul-leCxumuri saaxalwlo `gvergvebi~, romelTa Taviseburebac isaa, rom vazis gadagrexili lerwebisgan Sekruli wre aucileblad foTlebiTaa Semkuli. v. bardaveliZis TqmiT, mis mier aRwerili `gvergvi~ imiT aris saintereso, nax 5 2 rom `asaxavs qarTvelebis uZveles rwmenawarmodgenebs, romelTa mixedviTac mzis Tayvaniscema mcenareul kultTan ganuyrelad iyo dakavSirebuli~. (nax. 5.2) mkvlevari aseve aRniSnavs guruli saaxalwlo CiCilakis damagvirgvinebeli kalpis (nax. 5.3) msgavsebas raWulleCxumur `gvergvTan~: - `Tu Cven nax 5 3 davakvirdebiT gurulebis saaxalwlo kalps im `samkaulebiTurT~, romlebic masTan erTad CiCilakis Tavzea moTavsebuli, cxadi gaxdeba, rom es kalpi mzis iseTive emblemaa, rogorc ra-

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Wul-leCxumuri `gvergvi~. am ukanasknelis msgavsad, kalpi lerwisgan mownuli da mcenareuliT Semkuli rgolia~.1 cxadia, es sakiTxi Semdgom guldasmiT kvlevas moiTxovs, magram amTaviTve aSkaraa, rom saqme gvaqvs gansakuTrebul masalasTan. davubrundeT anxs. SesaZloa, exnaTonamde igi marTlac nilosis gasaRebi iyo (nax. 6), anu macocxlebeli wylis simbolo. amis sasargeblod metyvelebs mravali gamosaxuleba, sadac anxebis mijrili wyebiT wylis nakadia gamosaxuli. am varauds amyarebs misi msgavseba RuzasTan da agreTve isic, rom Ruzas dRes mraval enaze anqor (anker) hqvia. sainteresoa, rom baskurad Ruza ainguraa, anu araindoevropul enaSi q g-Ti aris Canacvlebuli (iseve, rogorc svanurSi). am SemTxvevaSic anxis daniSnuleba sicocxlis STaberva da uzrunvelyofaa. exnaTonisdroindel variantSi igi isev sicocxlis gamtaria, oRond wyali mziTaa Secvlili. savaraudoa, rom qurumTa kastaSi fotosinTezis Sesaxeb dagrovilma codnam misi simboluri mniSvnelobis wanacvleba ganapiroba. exnaTonis Semdgom periodSi, cxadia, scades reformatori faraonis naRvawis amoZirkva da es, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, anxis mniSvnelobasac Seexo, anu mzis rolma kvlav ukana planze gadaiwia. SedarebiT ufro Zvel nimuSebSi anxis bolo orad gaiyo da simbolo adamianis stilizebul gamosaxulebas daemsgavsa. mTvaris simbolos humanizaciam indurSi mogvca swored am anxis msgavsi niSani, romelic, Tavis mxriv, Zalze Camohgavs naram-suenas stelaze gamosaxul mefes (suena-sina-mTvare), radgan mas xarisrqebiani muzaradi hxuravs (nax. 7). aseTive muzaradi exura aleqsandre makedonels. axla kvlav davubrundeT svanur masalas. aq, pirvelyovlis, xazgasasmelia Semdegi detali: falosi ar SeiZleba iyos `lamarias~ nawili am ukanasknelis sqesidan gamomdinare. amdenad savaraudoa, rom saceri (anu wre) da falosi asaxavs mdedrisa da mamris erTobas, rogorc sicocxlis gagrZelebis aucilebel pirobas. daSna aSkarad gviandeli elementia, Tundac imis gamo, rom rituali rkinis xanaze uxnesia. savaraudoa, rom Tavdapirvelad angis
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v. bardaveliZe `qarTvelTa uZvelesi sarwmunoebis istoriidan~, saq. ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis gamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 1941 w. gv. 75, 76

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elementi iyo ara daSna, aramed uZvelesi mcire maxvili (akinaki), romelic ganzrax falosis formisa iyo da saxeladac yele erqva (nax. 8). rogorc iaraRi da rogorc falosi, igi nayofierebaze aqcentirebul mamakacur simbolos warmoadgenda. mogvianebiT, brinjaos rkiniT Canacvlebam sruliad Secvala samkveTlo iaraRis forma, ris gamoc masSi falosi, rogorc angis elementi, aRar ikiTxeboda. SesaZloa vivaraudoT, rom swored aman ganapiroba angSi falosis calke elementad dabruneba. imis sailustraciod, angis msgavsad hguobs Tu ara anxi sxva, damatebiT elementebs, gamodgeba gamosaxulebani, sadac igi or sxva gavrcelebul simbolosTan _ jedTan da uasTan erTad aris gamosaxuli (nax. 9, 10). rac Seexeba wres, rogorc mdedris simbolos, qarTul eTnografiaSi am mxrivac saintereso masalaa dafiqsirebuli. movixmoT nawyveti v. bardaveliZis zemoT nax. 9 nax. 10 aRniSnuli naSromidan _ `sayuradRebo warmodgena arsebobda farelebSi barbol-is Sesawiravi kviristavebisa da msgavsi sagnebis Sesaxeb. es sagnebi mdedrTa sasqeso organos gamoxatulebad iyo miCneuli~.1 uZveles civilizaciaTa sxva nakvalevi svaneTSi unda aRiniSnos, rom svanur masalaSi aseTi ucnauri nakvalevi uZvelesi civilizaciisa sulac ar gaxlavT uprecedento. gavixsenoT gasuli saukunis dasawyisSi i. javaxiSvilis mier gamoTqmuli varaudi, rom svanuri rituali `melia-telefia~ SesaZloa yofiliyo naSTi RvTaeba TelefinusTan dakavSirebuli bunebis gaRviZebis amsaxveli uZvelesi xeTuri ritualisa.2 `melia-telefias~ rituali erTi nawilia zemoT aRwerili `limuryvamalis~ dResaswaulisa da igi uZvelesi saxiT aris Cvenamde moRweuli. samocdaaTian wlebSi n. benduqiZem gamoTqva varaudi, rom `melia-telefiaSi~ melia unda daukavSirdes xeTuri miTis personaJs futkars. es sityva, n. benduqiZis azriT, svanurSi nayofierebis ri1

v. bardaveliZe `qarTvelTa uZvelesi sarwmunoebis istoriidan~, saq. ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis gamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 1941 w. gv. 74 2 iv. javaxiSvili qarTveli eris istoria, wigni I, Tb.., 1951, gv.155

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tualTan erTad unda iyos Sesuli xeTuri enobrivi samyarodan.1 aq unda gavixsenoT, rom winaaziur da winareberZnul RvTaeba kibeles erT-erT kuretTagans meliseu erqva. melisevsi erqva kretis miTiur mefes, mis qaliSvils ki melisa, anu es saxeli am teritoriebze berZnebis gamoCenamde figurirebs, rac mis winaaziur warmoSobaze metyvelebs. amdenad, anatoliasa da kretaze am saxelis arseboba erTdroulad drosa da sivrceSi aRmocenebuli erTgvari Sualeduri rgolia, navaraudebi xeTuri saxelidan wyaroSi dafiqsirebul berZnul saxelamde, rac kidev ufro amyarebs n. benduqiZis mier gamoTqmul varauds. aseve sainteresoa svaneTSi ramdenime aTaswleulis winandeli Sumeruli RvTaebebisa da toponimebis arseboba (enguri, laxami, laxamula, lamari da sxvani). SedarebisTvis ix. _ `ENKI AND THE WORLD ORDER~, by Samuel Noah Kramer. drosa da sivrceSi Sualeduri rgolis Ziebis TvalsazrisiT SesaZloa yuradsaRebi iyos is faqtic, rom anqize erqva troas samefo gvaris warmomadgenels, legendaruli enevsis mamas, xolo anqiale erqva a.w. II sk-is makron-henioxTa gaerTianebuli samefos mefes.2 daskvna axla davubrundeT ZiriTad Temas da SevexoT erT sakiTxs, romelsac arsebiTi mniSvneloba am kvlevaSi. rogorc vxedavT, anxis udidesi popularobis gamo wyaroebSi mocemulia uamravi versia misi SesaZlo daniSnulebisa. am mimarTulebiT dagrovili sakmaod vrceli masalis gacnoba cxadyofs, rom wina planze wamoweul nebismier versias aseve moeZebneba masala, romelic am versiasTan seriozul konfliqtSia. swored es ganapirobebs anxis erTaderTi mniSvnelobis dadgenisaken mimarTuli Sromis unayofobas. saWaSnikod ganvixiloT erTi magaliTi: Cvenamde nivTis saxiT moRweuli araerTi annax.11 xis maryuJi amovsebulia. zogierT freskaSi ki anxis maryuJSi feria Casxmuli, anu is gamWoli ar gaxlavT da,
. . , , ., 1973, gv. 100 2 ariane flaviusi - `mogzauroba Savi zRvis garSemo~
1

222

koba WumburiZe

Sesabamisad, ver iqneba gasaRebi, an koWze Semortymuli sandlis Tasma (nax. 4, 11). albaT, ufro marTebuli iqneboda gamogvekveTa misi ZiriTadi daniSnuleba, xolo danarCeni variantebisTvis SegvenarCunebina Tanaarsebobis ufleba, radgan aq saqme unda gvqondes ubralo da sakmaod gasageb fenomenTan rac met dadebiT mniSvnelobas daitevs simbolo, miT ufro Zlieri da momxiblavia igi. isic bunebrivia, rom mkvlevrisTvis, romelic epizodurad exeba sakiTxs, zemoT CamoTvlili yvela versia saTiTaod sakmaod damajerebelad JRers, magram esoden uwyveti popularobisTvis, ramdenime aTaswleulis gamWol, isini aSkarad arasakmarisia. zemoT Tqmulidan gamomdinare, Cemi azriT, j. ruxaZis mosazrebas, rom svanuri rituali unda daiTqvas egvipturi anxis umTavresi mniSvnelobis gasaRebad, ZaluZs, sabolood mohfinos naTeli Cveni civilizaciis erT-erT udides saidumlos. aseve SesaZloa, rom anxsa da angs Soris kavSiris dadgenam svanuri muryvamis asakis gansazRvrasac Seuwyos xeli. amave dros, uciloblad saWirod migvaCnia dainteresebul mkvlevarTaTvis imis Setyobineba, rom saqarTveloSi lamis Cvens dromde moatana mravalmxriv saintereso da feradovanma ritualma, adamianis mier gaTamaSebulma erT-erTma uZvelesma misteriam, romlis epicentrSic dgas idumalebiT moculi sicocxlis xe angi. literatura 1. v. bardaveliZe `qarTvelTa uZvelesi sarwmunoebis istoriidan~, saq. ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis gamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 1941 w.; 2. j. ruxaZe - `bunebis ZalTa aRorZinebis xalxuri dResaswauli saqarTveloSi~, mecniereba, 1999w.; 3. i. surgulaZe `amindis ritualebi saqarTveloSi, saceri, rogorc RvTaebis atributi, xelnaweri.; 4. j. SaraSeniZe - `Sumerebi da maTi kultura~, `nakaduli~, Tbilisi, 1983w.; 5. m. xidaSeli - `kolxeTis samefoSi dadasturebuli erTi ritualis Sesaxeb~, `oCxari~, Tbilisi, 2002 w.; 6. iv. javaxiSvili qarTveli eris istoria, wigni I, Tb.., 1951; 7. . . , , ., 1973; 8. A DICTIONARY OF SYMBOLS Jean Chevalier and Alain Gheerbrant 9. ENKI AND THE WORLD ORDER, by Samuel Noah Kramer. 10. http://www.mindspring.com/~mysticgryphon/religndx.htm

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11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42.

http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi102.htm http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/world/world.html http://www.bible-history.com/biblehistoryonline_ancientart.cfm http://www.piney.com/BabIndex.html http://whc.unesco.org/nwhc/pages/home/pages/homepage.htm http://www.etana.org/abzu/ http://fp.nsk.fio.ru/works/032/civilizations/ http://lib16.library.vanderbilt.edu/diglib/abzu-whatitmeans.pl http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/meso/meso.htm http://www.ancient.holm.ru/ http://ancientneareast.tripod.com/index.html http://www.asor.org/HITTITE/HittiteHP.html http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/DEPT/RA/Research_Arch.html http://www.pantheon.org/ www.touregypt.net/ANUBIS.htm http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/WORLD.HTM http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Aegean/7551/index.html http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Aegean/7551/egypt.html http://witcombe.sbc.edu/ARTHprehistoric.html http://www.kemet.ru/ http://www.louvre.fr/louvrea.htm http://www.kemet.ru/texts/index.htm http://www.kemet.ru/dictionary/index.htm www.swagga.com/ank-the original cross www.holoweb.net/liam/pictures/ankh.html www.nisbett.com/simbols/ankh http://www.ankhonline.com/ http://www.swagga.com/ankh.htm http://www.philae.nu/PerAnkh/templepage1.html http://showcase.netins.net/web/ankh/ http://www.edic.ru/myth/art_myth/art_1007.html http://showcase.netins.net/web/ankh/

semiotika da a

sxva

Tamar berekaSvili

muza miTi da sinamdvile


muza mSvenieri saxebaa, romelsac yvela icnobs, magram aravin icis, vin aris is, rogoria da saerTodac, arsebobs igi Tu ara. ufro xSirad muzas qalad warmoidgenen. mSvenieris xati xom qalia! upirveles yovlisa, qali... imaSi ki, rom muza mSvenieria, eWvi aravis epareba (rac Zalian saxalisoa, Tu gadavxedavT, ramdeni elementaruli, cxadi, materialuri ram iwvevs undoblobas da usasrulo kamaTs), albaT, swored imitom, rom mSvenierebis qmna muzas ukavSirdeboda da mSvenierebis yvelaze gavrcelebuli gansaxiereba poeziasa da qalSia. iosif brodski ase xsnis im faqts, rom muzas xSirad swored konkretuli qali enacvleba: `zogadi sqema aseTia: muzis qaluri buneba gulisxmobs poetis mamrul bunebas. poetis mamruli buneba ki satrfos qalur bunebas. daskvna: swored Seyvarebuli qalia poetisTvis muza an SeiZleba, mas muza ewodos~. marsel prusti werda, rom mxatvruli nawarmoebi aris sxva `me~-s produqti. iqneb muza Zalaa, romelic exmareba Semoqmeds, is sxva `me~ moZebnos? an iqneb, muza swored es sxva `mea~? miTumetes, rom xSirad, arc viciT, rom sxva `me~ arsebobs. erT-erTi varaudi, romlis myarad gamoTqmac SegviZlia, isaa, rom muza mravali aswleulia arsebobs. mogonilic rom iyos, amden xans ver icocxlebda, vinmes rom ar sWirdebodes. is sWirdeba yvelas, visac axlis,

filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, Tbilisis ilias saxelmwifoUuniversitetis asocirebuli profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: `Tanamedrove Rirebulebebi da idealebi~, `postmodernizmi Tanamedroveobis konteqstSi (kulturis filosofia) da sxva. gamoqveynebuli aqvs ramdenime statia socialur da politikur filosofiaSi _ `demokratizacia (g. JorJoliansa da m. musxeliSvilTan erTad), `Tanamedrove socialuri viTareba saqarTveloSi (rusul enaze xarkovis universitetis masalebSi) da sxva. interesTa sfero: semiotika, kulturis filosofia.

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jer ararsebulis Seqmna surs, vinc RmerTs edreba Tavisi SemoqmedebiTi miswrafebiT. SemoqmedebiTi qmedeba metad Zneli saqmea. Sromismoyvareoba, saqmis erTguleba, codnac ki sakmarisi ar aris. amas sWirdeba kidev sxva ram, raRac naperwkali, energia, Zala, romelic amoativtivebs da warmoaCens SemoqmedisTvisac ki ucnob mxares, mis sxva `me~-s, Tu gnebavT. es daaxloebiT is Zalaa, romelic einSteinis mixedviT, Tavisi orbitidan ukve mowyvetil neitrons sWirdeba, raTa sxva orbitaze gadaxtes. `momec mijnurTa survili sikvdimde gasatanisa~, _ SesTxovs rusTaveli RmerTs, radganac icis, rom Tavisi Canafiqris ganxorcielebisTvis, poemis dasawerad araadamianuri, Cveulebriv kalapots gadasuli adamianis Zala sWirdeba. `me ca mniSnavs~, _ ambobs akaki wereTeli. gana SeiZleba namdvili leqsi daweros Cveulebrivma adamianma, romelsac ara aqvs boZebuli zeZalebis keTilganwyoba da mxardaWera, romlebic suliskveTebaSi, `sulis mSvenier miswrafebebSi~ (puSkini) gansaxierdeba. muza, SesaZloa, swored am damatebiTi sunTqvis simboloa, biZgisa, siyvarulis, romlis gareSec `sio ar daqris, mze ar krTeba sasixarulod~. muzebi ZvelberZnul miTologiaSi zeRmerTis _ zevsis da titanida mnemosines qaliSvilebi arian. mnemosine mexsierebis qalRmerTia. muzebi parnasze cxovroben, im parnasze, romelic mogvianebiT poeziis erT-erTi kuTvnili sacxovrisi gaxda. muzebi mfarveloben mecnierebas, poezias da xelovnebas. maT zogjer harmoniis Svilebadac moixsenieben. TebeSi kadmosis da harmoniis qorwilSi swored muzebi mRerodnen da kiTxulobdnen leqsebs _ `rac lamazia, is momxiblavia da rac momxiblavi ar aris, arc lamazi SeiZleba iyos~. muzebs Tavisi saydrebic hqondaT museionebi (aqedan modis sityva `muzeumi~). `iliadasa~ da `odiseaSi~ naTqvamia, rom cxra muza arsebobs. esenia: kaliope _ epikuri poeziis muza evterpe _ liriuli poeziis muza melpomena _ tragediis muza talia _ komediis muza erato _ sasiyvarulo poeziis muza polihimnia _ pantomimas da himnebis muza terfsiqore _ cekvebis muza klio _ istoriis muza urania _ astronomiis muza

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muzebs eZRvneba homerosis XXVI himni da LXXVI orfeuli himni. maT miuZRvna sofoklem piesa `muzebi~, romlis arc erTi striqoni ar Semonaxula. mesomede etelis muzebisadmi miZRvnili himnis notebi ki arsebobs. sainteresoa, rom Zveli berZnebi muzebs winaswarmetyvelebis unariTac ajildovebdnen, amasTan istorias da astronomias xelovnebad miiCnevdnen, xolo skulpturasa da ferweras _ ara. Tu ratom, amas mogvianebiT vecdebiT, vupasuxoT. prokle ase warmogvidgens muzebs: `muzebo, gemudarebiT, mravalcodviani qalaqis brbodan mudam gauZexiT saRvTo sinaTlisken Cems moxetiale suls! dae, daitvirTos igi Tqveni skebis TafliT, romelic gonebas aZlierebs, suli, romlis dideba erTSia _ gonebis damatyvevebel mWevrmetyvelebaSi. (bwkaredi Cemia). muzebi ar patioben pativmoyvareobas, amitom antikurobis poetebis umniSvnelovanesi Rirseba sulis uangaroba iyo. poetebi mudam mimarTavdnen muzebs da SesTxovdnen maT STagonebas, raTa Tavis nawarmoebebSi gamoesaxaT saRvTo, didebuli xatebi... muzebi damakavSirebeli xidia RvTiursa da adamianebs Soris. swored amiT aixsneba, rom muzebisadmi miZRvnil taZarSi, romelic piTagoras skolas ekuTvnoda, idga marmarilos cxra skulptura, xolo SuaSi _ safarvelSi gaxveuli hestia, cecxlis RmerTebisa da kerpebis mfarveli. marcxena xeliT is icavda keris als, xolo marjvena xeliT mianiSnebda zecisken. muzebi yovelTvis eswrebian axlis dabadebis RvTiur momentebs. ganasaxiereben ra mecnierebis da xelovnebis sxvadasxva mimarTulebebs, muzebi im Zalebis, im idumali potencialis simboloni arian, romelic adamianSia Camaluli da unda gamoiRviZos. muzebi exmaurebian sulis unars maradisobaSi SeRwevisa. leqsebi, musika, himnebi, RvTiuri cekvebi warmoadgenen mogonebebs am maradisobasTan Sexebis wuTebze. `me kvlav vnaxe kldeebis bina da ganmartoebis bneli safari, sadac Semoqmedebis nadimze movuwodebdi muzas dasaswrebad.~ (puSkini. bwkaredi Cemia)

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platonic miiCnevda, rom STagonebas muzebi iZlevian da isaa RvTiuri da poetisTvis `aucilebeli~ sigiJe, anu sxvad yofna, _ davumatebdiT Cven. es SegrZneba, gancda imisa, rom poeti leqsebis Seqmnisas ar aris `aq~ da ar aris `TviTon~, Cveuli `mes~ saxiT, bevr poets gamouxatavs: magaliTad, volteri aRniSnavs, rom mSvenieri leqsebis dawerisas muzas poetis suli sxva samyaroSi gadahyavs, rogorc Cans, _ samoTxeSi. maSasadame, erTi mxriv, muza, TiTqosda, RmerTebis sadaria, maTi tolia, magram, amave dros, is mxolod adamianebTan gvxvdeba, marto maT enaSi arsebobs. is Suamavalia, megzuri, romelic mudam mzad aris, RvTiur silamazemde aiyvanos adamiani da iq apovninos SemoqmedebiTi, RvTiuri xati. iqneb muza enaa? muza enaa, amtkicebs zogierTi da maT Soris, brodskic. muza erT-erTi sakuTari saxelia enisa, romlis etimologia momdinareobs `men~-idan, rac niSnavs vnebas, miswrafebas; is aRniSnavs imas, rac mouTmenlobisgan win miiwevs, rasac Zlierad surs an Zlierad ejavreba. is, rac gzaze yvelafers bugavs samomavlo codnis, moqmedebis wyurviliT. fuZe `men~ uaxlovebs sityva `muzas~ (muse) sityva `menos~, suls, Zalismieri cxovrebis princips, saidanac modian menadebi. platonisTvis muzebi musikis qalRmerTebi arian, bgerebis momwesrigeblebi. muza personificirebuli STagonebaa, romelic aRagznebs, acocxlebs, aRZravs nebismier moZraobas, maT Soris, poetur Semoqmedebasac. saintereso ganmarteba aqvs pier deto dangalers: `muza _ esaa mrisxane mrisxaneba mrisxanebis gareSe. / yofna _ ar vici, rogori, romelic mkvidrdeba, ar vici, rodis, / da ar vici, ratom, da ar vici, rogor. / is aclis Cvens gansjas gakvirvebas; / is modis, ar vici, saidan, mamaci, Seupovari. / is acocxlebs Cvens gons da Cvens miswrafebas, /agulianebs, Seqmnas leqsebi, ar vici, rogori, ar vici, rodis./ da me ar vici, ratom... is aseTi Zvirfasia. brodskis azriT, muza enis xmaa, `es misi qaliSvilobis `enaa~, romelic gadamwyvet rols TamaSobs poetis grZnobebis ganviTarebaSi. is pasuxismgebelia ara marto poetis emociur ganwyobaze, aramed xSirad misi vnebis obieqtis arCevanze~. rogorc poetis, ise nebismieri Semoqmedis qmnadobis procesi saidumloa da Cveulebrivisgan gansvlas gulisxmobs. rac ufro srulad xdeba gaTavisufleba materialurisagan, rac ufro naklebad iqneba Semoqmedi aq arsebulis, xorcielis tyveobaSi, miT metadaa SesaZlebeli, mas muzam moakiTxos. yvela arsebul Tu Zvel civilizaciaSi RmerTi gaigivebulia sinaTlesTan. egvipturi rac, semituri baalic, iranuli ahuramaz-

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dac mzis personifikaciebs warmoadgenen. swored amitom ar endoboda platoni ferweras. sazogadod, Zveli berZnebis TvaliT, xiluli da xelSesaxebi xelovneba ar aris sando. maT miaCndaT, rom igi macduri, matyuara da saSiSi unda iyos. namdvili, WeSmariti, mSvenieri da keTili martooden didi Zalisxmevis Sedegad, goniT Seimecneba da gons ki, rogorc RmerTs, ara aqvs materialuri sxeuli. is Cven warmogvidgeba sinaTlis saxiT; WeSmariti goniT Semecnebuli da idealuri, anu WeSmariti samyarodan miRebuli, ar aris SemTxveviTi saCuqari. es aris RvTis an zogadad transcendenturis keTili neba, rac erTgvarad muzaSi gansaxierdeba. muza Tavad silamazea, siyvarulia, vneba da STagoneba, romlis wyalobiTac Semoqmedi saswauls sCadis. Tavad muza erTgvari krebsiTi saxelia. es aris simbolo poetis gansakuTrebuli unarisa, eziaros umaRless, idealurs, Cveulebrivi adamianebisTvis ugrZnobs. ratom aris muza gaigivebuli realur qalTan; xom ar aris es marTlac mokvdavTa yofiTi iluzia _ rom xelovneba SeiZleba aixsnas cxovrebiT (brodski), amitom idealur muzas enacvleba realuri qali, siyvarulis obieqti, savsebiT materialuri da xorcieli? albaT, droulia, aq gavixsenoT simboloebi da, saxeldobr, aleqsandr blokis `mSvenieri qalbatoni~, romelic Tavis TavSi moicavs rogorc realuri qalis niSnebs, ise warmosaxviT, idealur monaxazsac, romelic gvagzavnis sadRac, ararsebul realobaSi. es mudmivi muza ar aris, muza _ klasikuri gagebiT, magram arc sisxlxorceuli qalia. is zmanebaa, poeturi xatia, romelSic aisaxeba grZnobebi da warmodgenebi, romliTac muzas axasiaTebdnen saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi. qali muza ar aris, man SeiZleba biZgi misces poets, romelsac sityvebis tyveobidan muza ixsnis. `me ar vwer leqsebs, leqsi TviTon mwers, Cemi sicocxle am leqss Tan axlavs. leqss me vuwodeb movardnil mewyers, rom gagitans da cocxlad dagmarxavs.~ (t. tabiZe) xelovneba cxovrebiT ver aixsneba, magram cxovrebaSi xdeba iseTi sabediswero movlena, rogoricaa siyvaruli, romelic mzis gasxivosnebasac hgavs da ufskrulSi usasrulod vardnasac, avi sulebiT Seborkvasac da udides harmoniasac, anu iseve, rogorc nebismieri xelovneba atarebs rogorc apolonuris, ise dionisuris niSnebs (ix. f.nicSe: `tragediis dabadeba~). nicSes ganmartebiT,

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siyvaruli iqceva xSirad im biZgad, romelic poets Semoqmedebisken mimarTavs. isev davesesxebiT brodskis: `...siyvaruli metafizikuri saqmea da mis mizans warmoadgens an sulis qmnadoba, an misi gaTavisufleba, misi gamocalkeveba arsebobis fuCeCisgan. es ki yovelTvis Seadgenda lirikuli poeziis arss~. asea Tu ise, TiTqmis yvela poeti, visac amaze raime uTqvams, erTxmad aRiarebs, rom leqsi, iseve rogorc siyvaruli, rogorc rwmena, ar Cndeba raRac gangebis, ucnauri Zalebis, RmerTis, cis, muzis, ...gareSe. kargi leqsi yovelTvis `gamocxadebaa~. umaRlesTan am ziarebis naperwklad SeiZleba nebismieri sagani, adamiani, movlena gamodges. sulac ar aris SemTxveviTi axmatovas aRiareba: `rom icodeT, rogori nagvidan izrdebian leqsebi, sircxvils moklebulni~. muzebi, romlebsac antikur berZnul miTebSi `sulis ZiZebsac~ uwodebdnen, dRes erTgvar ganjadoebas ganicdian. muza gaufrinda poets, Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas, radganac poets is aRar sWirdeba Tavisi leqsebis Sesaqmnelad. saiTkenaa mipyrobili poetis yuri? yovel SemTxvevaSi, ara RmerTisken. idumali goni Rvinis sunma Secvala. XIX saukunis bolodan swored `mwvane muza~, rogorc uwodeben alkohols dasavleTSi, karnaxobs poets leqss. Tu antikuri poeti cdilobda ziari gamxdariyo idealurisa, RmerTisa, siurealisti mwerali STagonebis maZieblebs alkoholTan da narkotikebTan agzavnis. muzas mravalsaukunovani qalurobis Semdeg, rodesac is gansaxierdeboda madonebad da angelozebad, axla erTgvari avadmyofuri axirebis saxe gauCnda, romelic marginal poets Tan sdevs. muzis xatis aseT degradacias mohyva, rasakvirvelia, poetis axali saxe. malarmes Tanaxmad, poeti xdeba adamiani, romelsac `riTmis~ gansakuTrebuli `instinqti~ aqvs, is unda grZnobdes sityvebis `melodias~ da SeeZlos maTi erT mZivad awyoba. leqsi yovelTvis individualuri modulaciis gamoxatvaa, radganac nebismieri suli warmoadgens riTmebis kvanZs~. dResdReobiT gaizarda muzebis ricxvi da muzas aRar moeTxoveba martooden zecisa da harmoniisken poetis megzuroba. mSvenieri aRar aris marto muzebis atributi, mas Tanabrad irgeben jojoebi da urCxulebi. `simaxinje da silamaze erTad axali silamazea, moklebuli sicxadesa da harmonias. dRevandeli afrodites sxeuls miwis suni asdis, xolo nakvTebi iseTive aqvs, rogorc afrikul kerps~, _ wers pikaso. magram es ar aris axali movlena. Zveli droidan ga-

230

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moisaxebodnen maxinji arsebebi, romlebic izidavdnen mayurebels da msmenels, anu Seicavdnen momxiblavobas. amis axsna sxvadasxvanairad SeiZleba. albaT, yvelaze cxadia am problemis axsna paralelizmiT _ Crdili-sinaTle. Crdilisa da bnelis gareSe Cven ver aRviqvamT sinaTles, ver gaviazrebT mas da ver davafasebT. asevea lamazis da maxinjis SemTxvevaSi. samyaro erTiani da mSvenieria Tavis mTlianobaSi. ar arsebobs lamazi maxinjis gareSe. maxinji silamazis Crdilia. kokto wers _ `araferia imaze ufro uimedo, vidre sirbili silamazis gverdiT an mis ukan. unda win gaiWra, daRalo is, aiZulo, dauSnovdes. swored es daRliloba aniWebs axal silamazes meduza-gorgonas _ mSvenier simaxinjes~. magram muza arsebobs. an sad wavidoda amdeni naRvawis Semdeg? is dResac mzadaa, gverdiT daudges mas, vinc Tavisufldeba yoveldRiurobis materialuri tvirTisgan da mzadaa, enis sawyisebSi eZebos RvTiuri cecxli, sxivi, romelic apovninebs siyvaruliT gulgaRvivebul poets Tavis striqons.

literatura brodski 2005: . , Altra ego. silamazis istoria 2005: . malarme 2009: Mallarm, Reponse des enqutes,Sur Tolsto, Pleiade. sigaCevi 2009: . . , . , . 5.

SoTa xinCagaSvili Tmis semiotika

(mcire dakvirveba)
adamianisTvis SemTxveviT ar uwodebiaT sazogadoebrivi cxoveli. am wodebas sxvadasxvagvari safuZveli aqvs. pirveli popularul, ironiul gamoTqmas warmoadgens da adamianis cxoveluri, araadekvaturi saqcielis an mdgomareobis aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneba. meore ufro konkretuli da mecnierulia da adamianTa sazogadoebebad gaerTianebis Tandayolil midrekilebas usvams xazs. bunebrivia, socialuri struqtura mxolod homo sapiensis modgmas ar axasiaTebs, sayovelTaod cnobilia myari jgufuri organizaciis arseboba WianWvelebSi, futkrebSi, maimunebSi, mglebSi da a.S. am sociobiologiur WeSmaritebaze aRaravin davobs. msgavsi SesavliT statia SemTxveviT ar damiwyia. sakuTari sxeuli, pirvel rigSi, bunebrivia, adamians ekuTvnis, magram misi higienuri da esTetikuri organizebis (movlis) xasiaTi da konkretuli formebi, metwilad, socialuri garemoTi, sazogadoebaSi miRebuli da SeTanxmebuli wesebiTa da sanqciebiTaa ganpirobebuli. aq ekuTvnis (floba) pirobiTi da arapirdapiri gagebiT unda miviRoT. socialuri memkvidreoba da garemo gansazRvravs ara mxolod imas, Tu ra enaze vmetyvelebT da ra saxis pirovnebaTSorisi urTierTobebis wesebs vicavT, aramed imasac, Tu rogor gamoviyurebiT. Sesabamisad, am SemTxvevaSi sxeulis movla wminda sociologiur ganzomilebaSi minda ganvixilo da dasmuli sakiTxi sqesi VS gen-

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis doqtoranti. ZiriTadi naSromebi: postsabWoTa qarTuli nacionalizmi socialuri mexsierebisa da kulturuli travmis TeoriaTa WrilSi (2008). religiuri da kulturuli identobis problemebi kavkasiis xalxebSi (2007). mravalenovani gamocdileba rogorc eTnosTaSorisi konfliqtis prevenciis meqanizmi (2007). interesTa sfero: nacionalizmis kvlevebi, kulturis sociologia.

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deris, buneba VS kulturis Sepirispirebis analogiiT unda gavigoT. Teoriulad, zemoxsenebuli aqsiomaturi debulebebi TiTqos didi xania, vicodi, Tumca pirvelad maSin gavisigrZegane, rodesac monRol mandilosans gauparsav fexebze Tavxedurad mivaSterdi. ra aris pirveli grZnoba? zizRi, ar vamarTleb!, ra ubedurebaa?! mokled, is, rasac farTo gagebiT kulturul Soks vuwodebT xolme. ase rom, sxva kulturasTan emociuri Sexvedra mxolod gastronomiuli SokebiT ar amoiwureba. am TvalsazrisiT, gansakuTrebiT sainteresod meCveneba sociologiuri mecnierebis erT-erTi qvedargi (ufro sworad, kvlevis mimarTuleba), romelsac sxeulis sociologia ewodeba. werilSi yuradRebas adamianis (rogorc kulturuli arsebis) sxeulis Tmis safaris da misi regulaciis sazogadoebriv ganzomilebaze gavamaxvileb. warsuls Cabarda dro, rodesac sxeulis Tmis safari mxolod fizikuri anTopologiis, biologiisa Tu higienis (medicina) interesis sagani iyo. gasuli saukunis meore naxevarSi socialuri fsiqologiis, eTnologiis, kulturis anTropologiis dargSi moRvawe mkvlevrebi aqtiurad Seudgnen am sakiTxis konceptualizacias (SeiZleba iTqvas, kulturis anTropologia gacilebiT adre dainteresda amiT), aRniSnuli problematika erT-erT mniSvnelovan mimarTulebad iqca genderul da, zogadad, komparativistul kvlevebSi. ra Tqma unda, mocemuli statia yvelafers ver moicavs da verc moicavda, Cemi SezRuduli kompetenciis gamo. Tumca, erT komunikaciur da ZalauflebiT aspeqts ki msurs gavusva xazi: garegnoba, sxeulis mdgomareoba da misi xiluli manifestaciebi yovelTvis iyo individis socialuri rolisa da statusis identificirebis yvelaze swrafi kodi. yvela sazogadoebaSi arsebobs garkveuli araformaluri, SeTanxmebuli kulturuli codna, romelic am sazogadoebis wevrebs aRniSnul amocanas (identificireba) umartivebs. am SemTxvevaSi, ar Rirs am saintereso sakiTxis dayvana banalur formulamde maCvene, rogori fexsacmeli gacvia da getyvi, vina xar an msgavs variaciebamde. yvelam kargad viciT, rom tansacmeli mxolod siSiSvlis dafarvis an bunebriv-klimaturi gamomwvevebisgan janmrTelobis dacvis saSualeba ar aris. meore mxriv, sainteresoa ara tanze morgebuli atributis, aqsesuaris an Tundac kosmetikuri saSualebis gamoyenebis praqtika, aramed uSualod sxeulis garegnobis regulaciis sakiTxi Tmis safarisa da misi kontrolis kuTxiT. yvelaze kargad nacnobi ganzomilebaa Tmis varcxniloba. sakmarisia, Segxvdes arastandartuli varcxnilobis mqone pirovneba,

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rom is Cvens mier martivad identificirdeba, rogorc panki, an, gansxvavebuli cxovrebis wesis mimdevari piri da a.S. gavixsenoT sviringis (tatuirebis) roli kriminalur subkulturaSi. subkulturis Sidasocialuri kodireba, ritualuri sistema da identificirebis wesebi, bunebrivia, iSviaTadaa sayovelTao socialuri kompetenciis (zemoT xsenebuli kulturuli codnis) standartuli nawili. magaliTad, qurduli cxovrebis mimdevari adamianis sxeulze amosviringebuli SesaZloa kriminaluri subkulturis gareT ikiTxeboda, rogorc mSvidoba, an msoflio, xolo realurad is mxolod abreviaturas warmoadgenda ( ). Tumca aq urTierTSeRwevadobis problema naklebad mainteresebs, mxolod imis aRniSvna Rirs, rom garkveul epoqasa da kulturaSi sxeulis modificirebis es forma (da ara romelime sviringis konkretuli semiotika) calsaxad gansazRvravs adamianis socialur statuss: SeiZleba, Sidajgufuri statusi da ierarqia zustad ver daadgino, magram adamianSi amoicnob kriminals, musikoss, da a.S.). cxovrebis stilis dadgenis amocanisgan gansxvavebiT, gacilebiT gaucnobierebeli mxarea adamianis sxeulis Tmiani safaris higienuri ganzomileba (iRlia, mkerdi, zurgi, kidurebi, boqveni, sazarduli), romelTa mdgomaroeba da reprezentacia (rac ufro intimuria seqtoria, miT ufro viwroa reprezentaciis masStabi), rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, socialurad determinirebulia. erTi SexedviT, amis aRiareba normalur adamianSi mcire protests mainc iwvevs _ sxeuli xom avtonomiuria, Cemia?! am sakiTxis yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi kritikuli analizis SedarebiTi sisuste misi janrmTelobisa da higienis sferosadmi upirobo mikuTvnebam ganapiroba, rac sociologebis mier droa, daiZlios. sxeulis movlis praqtika, daswavlisa da mibaZvis meqanizmebiT, erTi Taobidan meores gadaecema da TiTqos iSviaTad icvleba, Tumca es varaudi simarTlisgan Sors unda iyos. Tmis kontrolis standartebs yovelTvis gansazRvravdnen Zalauflebis modelebi da genderuli rolebi, iseve, rogorc primitiul kulturebSi tomobrivi kuTvnileba _ varcxnilobas, an asaki _ Cacmulobis stils. meoce saukunis ganviTarebul industriul sazogadoebebSi es fenomeni gansakuTrebiT saintereso xdeba, miT umetes, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT saxelmwifoebrivi cxovrebis samoqalaqo xasiaTs - politikuri TemiT cxovrebis uniformizacias da Zalauflebrivi urTierTobebis da urTierTqmedebis standartebis sayovelTao xasiaTs. am fenomens fukos mier damkvidrebuli termini bioZalaufleba saocari sizustiT asaxavs. magaliTis saxiT aviRoT nacionalsocialisturi germaniis gimnaziuri struqtura, sadac politikuri socializacia (am SemTxvevaSi, intensiuri ideologiuri indoq-

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trinacia), fizikuri mxneobis - rogorc sazogadoebrivi sikeTis primatis reJimis politikur-esqatologiur TezisebTan SekavSirebis garda, aRsazrdelisaTvis socialuri higienis kulturul-politikuri normebis gaziarebasac gulisxmobda. saidan socialuri higiena? erTi SexedviT, yurs Wris. adamiani Tavad aris sakuTari sxeulis baton-patroni da higiena medicinis ganzomilebaa, magram Tavad adamiani xom arasodes aris marto? is yovelTvis Temis nawilia da, rogorc wesi, sazogadoebaSi miRebul daweril Tu dauwerel normebs misdevs. TviT samedicino codnisa da praqtikis universalurobac, miuxedavad ukanaskneli epoqis cvlilebebisa, xom pirobiTia? Tavis Tmis safarisgan gansxvavebiT, sxeulis (korpusis) Tmis movla ufro delikatur sakiTxad miiCneva; misi kontrolis formebi xSirad Tavis Tmis safaris movlis sapirispiroa (mag. grZeli Tma bevr kulturaSi qalurobis niSania, amavdroulad, qalis tanze Tmis safari ara mxolod bunebrivad (hormonaluri mizezebiT), aramed xelovnuradac minimalizebulia). ra SeiZleba Cvenze iTqvas? bevri arc araferi, am kuTxiT kvleva jer kidev momavlis perspeqtivaa. savaraudod, qarTul sazogadoebaSi odiTganve miRebuli iyo berZnul-elinuri da Semdgom axloaRmosavlur-muslimuri higienuri normebi, am ukanasknelSi cnobilia sxeulis Tmis kontrolis mkacri moTxovna; mag. qalsac da mamakacsac moeTxoveba iRliis Tmis moSoreba. sagulisxmoa Cveni uaxlesi, sabWoTa periodic. zemoT xsenebuli, nacizmisdroindeli standartebis arseboba mxolod rasobrivi siwmindis ideas ar eyrdnoboda, es nebismieri militaristuli politikuri erTeulisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli jansaRi moqalaqis da brZolisunariani meomris kultis tradiciaa da, bunebrivia, analogiuri personaluri higienis standartebi arsebobda totalitarul sabWoeTSic. savaraudoa, rom CvenSi postsabWoTa higienuri eTika da qalurobisa da mamakacurobis sqesobriv-biologiuri simbolika met-naklebad ucvleli darCa. sainteresoa ara mxolod realuri yofiTi praqtika, aramed sazogado Sexedulebebic (arc imis daviwyeba Rirs, rom es ori ram Sinaarsobrivad SeiZleba gansxvavdebodes erTmaneTisgan). silamazis, higienurobisa da sxeulis movlis esTetika sainteresod mJRavndeba ganviTarebul dasavleTisa da masobrivad warmosaxuli mouvleli, arahigienuri, aziuris opoziciaSi. magaliTad, CvenSi mamakacis korpusis Tmianoba maskulinuria, magram, amave dros, xSirad araesTetiurad hipermaskulinuri (veluri) da, (isev da isev warmosaxuli da ganzogadebuli evropelis fonze) mouvlelobis markeradac iqceva xolme. amgvari STabeWdileba, Tavis mxriv, paralelurad isev warmosaxul aziurobaze proecirdeba, anu is = Rrma

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qarTvels. Cemi varaudi gaaZliera www.forum.ge-ze sacdeli internet-gamokiTxvis rezultatma. miuxedavad specialuri miTiTebisa, rom xma mxolod mamakacebs miecaT, savaraudebelia, rom es piroba, kontrolis meqanizmis arqonis gamo, naklebad iqneboda daculi. meore mxriv, cdomilebas amcirebs (ufro sworad, mis mniSvnelobas aneitralebs) mandilosanTa, savaraudod, ara personaluri praqtikis, aramed sawinaaRmdego sqesis warmomadgenlebisadmi arsebuli molodinebis, Sexedulebis da, rac mTavaria, sasurveli praqtikis SesaZlo indikatori - am mxriv gamokiTxvaSi monawilis qsesobrivi kuTvnileba naklebmniSvnelovania da miRebul Sedegs reprezentatulobis TvalsazrisiT ufro sainteresos xdis. saboloo maCvenebliT, gamokiTxvaSi daaxl. 250-ze metma adamianma miiRo monawileoba (SeiZleba Tamamad vTqvaT, rom gayalbebis (orjer xmis micema da a.S) motivacia nulovania), romelTagan 75.%-ze meti iRliis Tmis safars srulad iSorebs, daaxl. 13% nawilobriv, xolo TiTqmis 11% bunebriv mdgomareobaSi tovebs. sakiTxis ganxilvisas, maT Soris nawilobriv, internet-topikSic (sadac pasuxebze aranakleb saintereso komentarebi iyo), delikaturi TemisaTvis bunebrivad Tanmdev iumorTan erTad, zogjer mJRavndeba dominanturi cru warmodgena dasavlel mamakacTa higienur standartebzec (normativebze). am ukanasknelma garemoebam, SesaZloa, zogierTi, CvenSi gavrcelebuli dasavlurobis fetiSisa da amavdroulad, misi realurad arcnobis morig daskvnamde miiyvanos. amas sabWoTa yofiTi higienuri kulturis sicocxlisunarianobas mivawerdi, Tumca am TvalsazrisiTac mravali araerTgvarovnebaa da amaze saubari dausruleblad SeiZleba. faqtia, rom es sakiTxi jer kidev sruliad auTvisebelia Cveni sociologebis mier. higiena esTetikaa, xolo esTetika - genderis, kulturis, ideologiisa da politikis nadavli. sazogadoebrivi cxovelis fizikuri sxeuli socialuria individis socialuri bunebidan gamomdinare. is aris misi identobis, sulier-zneobrivi mdgomareobis, profesiuli Tu jgufuri statusis kodi. sxeulis formebis reprezentaciis sxva araerTi modeli swored amaze metyvelebs. CvenSi romeli Temaa aqtiuri sajaro ganxilvis obieqti? grZelTmiani biWebi erT-erTi yvelaze problemuria. albaT, Canasaxovan mdgomareobaSi myofi genderuli kvlevebi CvenSi am da sxva msgavsi banaluri (zogierTisTvis metiCruli) sakiTxebisTvisac male moiclis.

SoTa iaTaSvili

scilasa da qaribdas Soris


ori mamakacisa da erTi qalisagan Seqmnili e. w. `siyvarulis samkuTxedis~ is modeli, romlis yvelaze mkveTrad gamoxatul qarTul realizaciebzec qvemoT visaubrebT, garkveulwilad klasikuric kia: anu laparakia dilemis winaSe mdgari qalis xatze, romelic mamakacis or principulad gansxvavebul tips Sorisaa moqceuli. mamakacis pirveli tipi inteleqtuali, ganaTlebuli, kulturuli adamianis mkafiod gamoxatul niSnebTan erTad moucileblad atarebs fizikuri defeqtis, sisustis, sibeCavis niSnebs, xolo meore tipi ramdenadac vitaluria, imdenad amoraluri, cbieri Tu briyvi adamianis gansaxierebacaa. msoflio literaturis sxvadasxva nimuSebSi es modeli xSirad `muSaobs~, Tumca isicaa, rom am sqemiT awyobili nawarmoebebis umravlesobaSi mamakacis es tipebi mxolod garkveuli doziTaa `gakulturulebul-daCiavebuli~ da `gavitalurebul-gavelurebuli~. am mutanturi Tvisebebis ukidures zRvramde miyvana ki avtorTa mier arcTu ise xSirad, an, ufro swori iqneba, Tu vityviT, rom sakmaod iSviaTad xdeba. yovel mkiTxvels albaT aseTi samkuTxedebis sakuTari variantebi wamoutivtivdeba gonebaSi. magaliTisTvis SegviZlia gavixsenoT Sridamani, nanda da zita Tomas manis novelaSi `Secvlili Tavebi~; an Tavadi miSkini, nastasia filipovna da rogoJini dostoevskis `idiotidan~, an ledi Ceterli, oliver melorzi da klifordi d. h. lorensis `ledi Ceterlis sayvarlidan~, an sulac larisa, karandaSevi da paratovi ostrovskis `umziTvodan~, ase cnobili el-

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis doqtoranti. ZiriTadi naSromebi: postsabWoTa qarTuli nacionalizmi socialuri mexsierebisa da kulturuli travmis TeoriaTa WrilSi (2008). religiuri da kulturuli identobis problemebi kavkasiis xalxebSi (2007). mravalenovani gamocdileba, rogorc eTnosTaSorisi konfliqtis prevenciis meqanizmi (2007). interesTa sfero: nacionalizmis kvlevebi, kulturis sociologia.

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dar riazanovis kinoversiiT `sastiki romansi~. Tumca, kvlavac vimeoreb, Znelia moinaxos iseTi nawarmoebebi, sadac personaJis sulieri monacemebis zrda pirdapirproporciulia fizikuri daCiavebis, da piriqiT, fizikuri monacemebis zrda sulieri degradaciis. personaJTa xasiaTebis aseTi sruli polarizacia SesaZloa mxatvruli sworxazovnebis simptomebsac atarebdes, Tumca rogorc sakvlevi fenomeni, uaRresad sainteresoa da zemoxsenebuli modelis auTentur Tvisebebs, mosalodnelia, yvelaze reliefurad gamosaxavdes. Cemi azriT, qarTul literaturaSi aris ori nawarmoebi, sadac es sruli polarizacia arsebobs, da aqedan gamomdinare, Cven gvaqvs formaluri modelis ori idealuri realizacia, am realizaciaTa paraleluri analizi ki mocemul modelSi Cakirul adamianebze refleqsiis axal SesaZleblobebs aCens. egnate ninoSvilis `Cveni qveynis raindi~ da mixeil javaxiSvilis `jayos xiznebi~ swored is ori nawarmoebia, romelTa garegnuli sqematuri msgavsebis, metic, identurobis miRma avtorTa msoflmxedvelobrivi gansxvavebebi mkafiodaa gamoxatuli da es sxvaobani adamianur bedisweraTa da fsiqologiaTa ucnaur invariantebs qmnian. am invariantebSi yvelaze `cvladia~ scilasa da qaribdas Soris momwyvdeul qalTa saxeebi. mizezi isaa, rom mamakacTa saxeebi ramdenadac polarulia, imdenad statikuria, am damTrgunvel statikur saxeebs Soris ki qalebis dramis dinamika TamaSdeba. despines da margos _ erTi da imave tipis mamakacuri konfliqtis msxverplT _ situaciisadmi gansxvavebuli aRqma da damokidebuleba aqvT Sesabamisad, maTi qmedebanic sxvadasxvanairia. mivyveT TandaTan, gavixsenoT da SevadaroT: oriveni `kulturul-daCiavebuli~ mamakacebis _ spiridon mciriSvilisa da Teimuraz xevisTavis meuRleni arian, maT dasaufleblad ki ibrZvian `vitalur-veluri~ tariel mklavaZe da jayo jivaSvili. orive SemTxvevaSi, es gaxlavT mxatvruli hiperbolizaciis meTodiT Seqmnili personaJebi, romlebic am xerxis wyalobiT simboluri xatebis Tvisebebs iZenen da TandaTanobiT asec mkvidrdebian mkiTxvelis cnobierebaSi. magram sxva mxriv, anu socialuri, fsiqologiuri, Tu ubralod, vizualuri niSnebiT, es ori samkuTxedi erTmaneTis inversiulia: a) Teimuraz xevisTavi _ Tavadi da cnobili sazogado moRvawe, sakuTari mniSvnelovnebis iluziiT Sepyrobili fsevdointeleqtuali.

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spiridon mciriSvili _ glexi da soflis inteligenciis warmomadgeneli, romelic realurad zrunavs adamianebis ganaTlebasa da aRzrdaze. b) margo yaflaniSvili _ TavadTa gvaris ukanaskneli warmomadgeneli, TavSeqcevis mizniT CarTuli sazogadoebriv saqmianobaSi; qali, Camoyalibebuli SexedulebebiT da cxovrebis wesiT. despine _ sofleli mRvdlis qaliSvili. dRevandeli terminiT rom vTqvaT, Tineijeri, romelSic aqtiurad mimdinareobs sulieri qmnadobis procesi. g) jayo _ tlu mojamagire, wera-kiTxvis ucodinari veluri. d) tariel mklavaZe _ aznauri, dardimandi. jayos hgavs imaSi, rom iseTi susti iyo swavlaSi, qarTuli kiTxvac ki ver Seiswavla. Tumca Tuki jayos agresia pirvelyofili da bunebrivia, mklavaZis agresia kulturiTaa inspirirebuli. mSoblebis mier Serqmeuli `vefxistyaosnis~ personaJis saxeli masSi imitaciis vnebas aRZravs da `kaci kacsa Semostyorcna~-s cxovrebis wesad damkvidrebaSi gadamwyvet rols asrulebs, miT umetes, rom misi winaprebic midrekilni iyvnen ymaTa cema-tyepisaken. anu: e. ninoSvilTan aznauri dardimandi ebrZvis soflis maswavlebels Bglexi gogosaTvis. javaxiSvilTan yvelaferi ukuRmaa: wera-kiTxvis ucodinari veluri ebrZvis sazogado moRvawes Tavadis qalisaTvis. inversiulia TviT maTi vizualuri xatebic: a) jayo orangutangia, mxolod mogvianebiT, da isic margos mecadineobiT xdeba igi `gaparsuli orangutangi~. tariel mklavaZe gamorCeulia Tavisi TvaltanadobiT. ai, rogor aRwers mas avtori: `maRali tani, sqeli, ganieri beWebi, msxvil-msxvili mklavebi, cotad fernakluli, savse, lamazi pirisaxe, melaniviT Savi, patara wveri, sworeT giTxraT, Zvelebur rainds warmoadgenda. yvela aRtacebulia misi garegnobiT da Zvel rainds adareben. maT Soris _ spiridonic. b) Teimurazs avtori xSirad axasiaTebs, rogorc `becs da melots~, magram amave dros, masze ambobs, rom `umzeo yvaviliviT nazi da lamazi iyo~, anu TeimurazSi garegnuli, aristokratuli silamaze mainc feTqavs. spiridoni aris `xmel-xmeli, Cia tanis, beWebSi cota moxrili, gamxdari, avadmyofi pirisaxis~. igi imdenad Seuxedavia, rom

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`despines, romelic am dros cameti wlis iyo, kidec ejavreboda spiridonis avadmyofuri, gamxdari, mdumare saxis danaxva~. rodesac spiridonma seminaria daamTavra, oci wlis iyo, magram igi ukve 3035 wlis mamakacs hgavda. axla davakvirdeT damokidebulebaTa dinamikas: a) despine urTierTobis dasawyisSi damcinavad uyurebs spiridons, metic, erTgvarad ezizReba kidec misi fizikuri naklovanebis gamo, da mxolod mas Semdeg, rac misi mowafe xdeba, uCndeba mis mimarT pativiscema, romelic TandaTan siyvarulSi gadaizrdeba. pativiscemis zrda ar wydeba maTi daqorwinebis Semdegac. margos meuRlisadmi pativiscema TandaTan akldeba. `dro gavida, qurumi nel-nela gacvda. margomac TandaTan qmris xatze locvac dauklo da sakuTari Tavis garTobas mihyo xeli. Bb) `roca mosacemi gqonda, araferi momeci, cariel baass mTavazob, _ eubneba Teimurazs margo. da niSandoblivi isaa, rom rac dro gadis, am `cariel baassac~ ki ar sTavazobs Teimurazi margos, sul ufro da ufro iketeba sakuTar TavSi. despinesa da spiridonis cxoveli siyvarulis safuZveli ki swored es baasi, Semecneba, maRal idealebze fiqri, erTmaneTTan mudmivi polemikaa. g) Teimurazi, roca gauWirdeba, soflis maswavleblobas ukadrisobs (`quCis damgvelad waval, magram maswavleblobas ver vikisreb~), spiridoni ki soflis `uCitelia~ da swored amiT xiblavs despines. d) despine spiridons tarielTan ar uRalatebs (azradac ki ar mosdis), margo uRalatebs (Tumc Tavidan Zaladobis qveS moqceuli), an ufro zusti iqneba, Tu vityviT, rom ver uerTgulebs da TandaTan ifurCqneba, despines ki, mas Semdeg, rac warumateblobisagan gamwarebuli tarieli rkinigzis sadgurze samarcxvinod galaxavs spiridons, koSmaruli sizmrebi da cieba ewyeba da kvdeba. e) spiridoni ibrZvis, Teimurazi vera. sabolood, daavadmyofebuli da gaubedurebuli spiridoni mainc axerxebs SurisZiebas _ imave sadgurze klavs tariels, xolo Teimurazi sakuTar saxlSi, sakuTar sawolSi, sakuTar meuRlesTan mZinare jayoze aRmarTul xanjals ver aamoqmedebs da saerTodac, bolomde jayos morCili rCeba.

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ra Tqma unda, bevri aseTi urTierTsapirispiro momentis daWera SeiZleba am or nawarmoebSi, magram, vfiqrob, sakmarisia. erTsa da imave struqturaze morgebuli am sarkiseburi sqematizmis gaTvalsaCinoebis WeSmariti arsi im Sinagani polemikis SegrZnebaSia, romelsac, Cemi azriT, mixeil javaxiSvili egnate ninoSvilTan, zogadad ki xalxosnebTan awarmoebda. `xevisTavi rwmeniT ukiduresi radikali da xalxosani iyo, _ wers romanSi igi erTgan da es araa SemTxveviTi. marTalia socialur-politikuri foni orive mweralTan mniSvnelovania, magram javaxiSvili sul sxva rakursidan uyurebs am fons. xalxosnebis revoluciuri enTuziazmi ocdaaTwliani gadasaxedidan sul sxvanairi moCans. maTi maSindeli idealizmi axla ukve mkacr, sastik realizmSia gadasuli. faqtiurad, xalxosani, am sityvis adrindeli mniSvnelobiT, bunebaSi ukve aRarc arsebobs. arseboben bolSevikebi, proletarebi da a. S. magram ara xalxosnebi. xalxosani mxolod miamiti Teimuraz xevisTavia, Zveli, da amave dros, misTvis sruliad araorganuli idealebis erTguli. mRvdelma petremac ki gaiazra realoba da adaptirda axal garemosTan, Teimuraz xevisTavi ki sakuTari gulubryvilo idealizmiTa da uniaTobiT xels uwyobs, aCqarebs misi isedac gadagvarebuli klasis saboloo gadagvarebas. xalxosnebis xedva viwro iyo im TvalsazrisiT, rom Zalian xSirad Cagvra-SurisZiebis lokalur, mkacr modelSi Tavsdeboda: viRacas venaxs arTmeven, viRacas Svils uupatiureben, viRacas cols, is ki mCagvrels samagieros miuzRavs. asea ninoSvilTanac: spiridoni Surs iZiebs tarielze. am personaJis mizanic mTeli nawarmoebis ganmavlobaSi sruliad konkretulia: tariels SemTxveviT nanaxi mimzidveli qalis dapyroba surs. gamomdinare aqedan, moqmedebs jiqur, da verc aRwevs mizans. rac Seexeba jayos, misi zraxvebi gacilebiT Sorsmimavalia da sawyis etapebze margo arc ki igulisxmeba. margos dauflebis survili masSi mxolod mas Semdeg Cndeba, rac cbierebiT Teimurazis TiTqmis mTel qonebas xelSi Caigdebs. is, rom `jayos xiznebi~ `Cveni qveynis raindTan~ SedarebiT adamianuri gancdebis, socialur-politikuri fonis, Tu am fonis adamianur gancdebze zemoqmedebis CvenebiT, gacilebiT farTo da maRalmxatvruli panoa, amas mtkiceba albaT arc sWirdeba. swored ninoSvilTan personaJTa xasiaTebis sruli polarizacia zemoT naxseneb mxatvrul sworxazovnebaSi gadadis. Tumca aq sainteresoa is, rom am sworxazovnebas `gaxalxosnurebuli~ romantizmi hbadebs. ninoSvilTan yvela marcxdeba, magram misi pesimizmi romantikuli yaidisaa. spiridon-despines wyvili romantikuli wyvilia, da despi-

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nes spiridonisadmi mimarTeba, axalgazrda, lamazi da jansaRi qalis sruli Serwyma (fizikuric da sulieric) fizikurad arasrulfasovan sulier mamakacTan, aris erT-erTi mniSvnelovani saeWvo punqti, romelsac ekamaTeba javaxiSvili. is romantikul wyvils aRar/veRar xatavs. Teimurazi da margo mxolod gacnobis pirvel saaTebSi SeiZleba atarebdnen romantizmis saburvels, magram es saburveli swrafad ixsneba da urTierToba realizmSi gadadis, SeiZleba iTqvas, pragmatizmSic ki, imdenad pragmatuli mosazrebebiT qorwindeba. ninoSvilTan dadebiTi idealebis matarebel adamians erTaderTi nakli aqvs da isic fizikuri, xolo javaxiSvili TandaTanobiT fizikur naklTan erTad Tavisi gmiris naklovanebaTa iseT `pandoras yuTs~ xsnis, rom fizikuri nakluloba sabolood masTan meoradic ki xdeba. sulierebis defeqturoba aRmoCndeba misi pirovnebis ganmsazRvreli da swored es defeqturoba ganizidavs nel-nela margos Teimurazisagan. am ori nawarmoebis mokle paraleluri analizi SesaZloa sakmaod sqematuric gamovida da antipod-mamakacebzec ufro meti visaubreT, vidre maT Soris moyolil qalebze, magram vfiqrob, es is iSviaTi SemTxvevaa, roca am mamakacTa daxasiaTeba TavisTavad gamokveTs qalTa saxeebs, maT fsiqologiur Tu socialur mdgomareobas, bedisweras. es ormagi wnexi, rogorc sikvdilis niRabi, ise aRbeWdavs Sig moqceuli qalis saxes. magaliTisTvis gavixsenoT, rom samarcxvino galaxvis Semdeg spiridonis loginad Cavardnis wnexi despineze sasikvdilo avadmyofobad gadadis, xolo xevisTavis ususuroba jayos mimarT sabolood margos monur umweobadac iqceva am adamianisadmi. * * * `Cveni qveynis raindis~ da `jayos xiznebis~ erTgvar postmodernul interpretacias warmoadgens arCil sulakauris moTxroba `Jami dasvenebisa~. sulakaurs aq pirdapiri mimarTeba javaxiSvilTan aqvs da Temis Tanamedrove, parodiul variacias gvTavazobs. namdvilad araa SemTxveviTi, rom moTxrobis erT-erT mTavar gmirs Teimurazi hqvia. igi, filologiur mecnierebaTa kandidati, Tavisi literaturuli winamorbedis msgavsad `Cia, avadmyofurad fermkrTali kacia~. Teimuraz mebuke erT-erTi zRvispira kurortis sanatoriumSi isvenebs. misi Tanapalatelia vinme aleqsandre mayaSvili, goliaTuri aRnagobis mamakaci, romelic TiTqmis yoveldRe arRvevs sanatoriumis ganrigs, 11 saaTis mere brundeba ukan, ris gamoc uwevs palataSi fanjridan gadaZroma, xolo Semdeg mTeli Rame Semawuxeblad xvrinavs. garda amisa, igi sxva damsvenebelTagan gansxvavebiT ar dadis sanatoriumis sasadiloSi, aqvs bevri fuli

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da mas uangariSod xarjavs. misi aseTi qceva saSinel gaRizianebas iwvevs pedanturobamde wesrigismoyvarul TeimurazSi da am gaRizianebas igi gamoxatavs megobar damsveneblebTan _ solfejios maswavlebel mavra CubiniZesa da Zvel iluzionist arkadi cezarTan. es ori personaJi (mebuke da mayaSvili) bedis (anu avtoris) ironiiT erT palataSi, erT mikrosivrceSi moqceuli, Teimurazisa da jayos sastiki tandemis civiluri variantia, oRond im gansxvavebiT, rom Tavidan TiTqos is qali ar Cans, romelic maT kompleqsebsa da ambiciebs unda Seewiros. magram sulakauris es moTxroba, ramdenime ganmsazRvrel faqtors Tu davasaxelebT, swored imitomaa modelis postmodernuli gadasinjva, rom qali mamakacTa tipuri polaruli wyvilis tipuri msxverpli aRar aris. metic, qali, rogorc konfliqtis realuri safuZveli, aq aRarc arsebobs. ninoSvilisa da javaxiSvilis realuri, ulmobeli konfliqti sulakaurTan kulturul gamocdilebaSi, warmosaxvaSi gadadis. warmoSobiT poloneli barbara, romelic sasadilos mosamsaxure personalSia, Tavisdauneburad Seasrulebs warmosaxviTi samkuTxedis mesame wevris rols. rogorc irkveva, Teimurazi mesamed Tu meoTxed isvenebs am sanatoriumSi da erTi da imave mizniT: etrfis barbaras, yovel Camosvlaze xels sTxovs mas da yovel jerze uarsac iRebs misgan. yovelive amisagan gaRizianebuli da Sinaganad gaborotebuli Teimurazi, aracnobierad gare samyaroSi eZebs adamians, vinc SeiZleba iyos mizezi misi warumateblobisa. da cxadia, aleqsandre mayaSvilis garegnuli ieri da qcevis manera mas iqiTken ubiZgebs, rom misi (anu misnairi adamianebis) sasiyvarulo (zogadad _ cxovrebiseuli) marcxis mizezi aris/arian aleqsandre mayaSvili (anu misnairi adamianebi). raTa sabolod darwmundes, rom mayaSvili misi metoqea, TeimurazisTvis erTi patara scenac sakmarisia, romelsac igi SemTxveviT Seeswreba solfejios maswavlebelisa da iluzionistTan erTad: erT dilas, axalgaRviZebuli mayaSvili korpusis win Cveuli dardimanduli silaRiT gaesaubreba barbaras da mwvane kolofiT raRacas aCuqebs. barbara gainazeba, magram sabolood saCuqars mainc miiRebs. garda amisa, barbarasa da mayaSvilis saubridan irkveva, rom mas saCuqrad gamzadebuli aqvs kaba barbaras gogonasTvisac. ai, mTeli realoba am warmosaxviTi `sasiyvarulo samkuTxedisa~. ramdenadac javaxiSvilis Teimurazi ver xedavs saSiSroebas mojamagire jayoSi, imdenad, da albaT, kidev ufro metadac, sulakauris Teimurazi xedavs saSiSroebas am, misi azriT, jayosebr tipSi. is xom filologia, anu am romanSi aRwerilis misTvis aqtualuri tragikuli adamianuri mimarTebebi da am mimarTebaTa problematika kargad uwyis da igi imdenadaa mis cnobierebaSi CaWedili, rom verc ki xvdeba, TandaTan rogor exveva xevisTavis tyavSi. igi javaxiSvilis Teimurazis erzacad iqceva,

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xolo mayaSvili, SeiZleba iTqvas, am erzacis erTgvari `virtualuri jayoa~, romelic realobaSi absoluturad sapirispiro arseba aRmoCndeba: fizikosi, da Tanac arc meti, arc naklebi, akademikosi, anu Teimurazze aRmatebuli adamiani ara mxolod fizikurad, aramed Sinagani TavisuflebiTac, sazogadoebis misdami siyvaruliTac, gvariSvilobiTac, finansuri SesaZleblobebiTac da rac gadamwyvetia _ inteleqtiTac. es radikalurad cvlis Zvel models da cvlilebas, erTi personaJis meoresTan SedarebiT absoluturi naklulobisa, erTi SexedviT, absolutur tragizmSi SeeZlo gadaeyvana nawarmoebi (Tumca ki, Znelia `jayos xiznebze meti tragizmis warmodgena), magram vinaidan `Zliers ama qveynisa~ amjerad gunebaSic ki ara aqvs Tavisi antipodis daCagvra, mis cxovrebiseul sferoebSi SeWra, yovelive es parodiuli xdeba. parodiulobas zrdis isic, rom sulakauri sinamdvileSi nacvlad samkuTxedisa, oTxkuTxeds gvTavazobs: sami dRis dagvianebiT sanatoriumSi Camodis samedicino institutis studenti gurami, namdvili `dedikos biWi~, romelic pirvelad gauSves damoukideblad dasasveneblad da amitomac iqac ar scildeba dedamisis gulisSemaRonebeli ritorika: gauTavebeli werilebi rCeva-darigebebiTurT, telefonis zarebi da a. S. sulakauri mas Teimurazisa da aleqsandres palataSi ganaTavsebs, anu or gamouval gzas mesames hmatebs, Tundac iqidan gamomdinare, rom garemo ufro liberalizebulia da es mesame ukve unda arsebobdes (guramis dagvianebiT Camosvlac, am kuTxiT Tu SevxedavT, friad simbolur elfers atarebs: igi istoriul-qronologiuri TvalsazrisiT gviandeli, ufro zustad ki, qarTuli sabWouri kulturis fenomenia, romelic adrindel epoqaTa negatiuri fenomenebis Casanacvleblad `gamouSves~). sayuradReboa, rom despinesa da margosagan gansxvavebiT, barbara ukve aRaraa umweo inteligentis meuRle. unda vigulisxmoT, rom mocemul literaturul/sazogadoebriv konteqstSi warsulis gamocdileba, iseve rogorc Teimuraz mebukeSi, masSic muSaobs, da Tu mebuke am gamocdilebiT uwyinar adamianSi jayos xedavs, barbara uars ambobs mebukes colobazec da mayaSvilTan axlo urTierTobazec (marTalia, arc mayaSvili iklavs Tavs barbarasTvis, magram Teoriulad mainc SegviZlia davuSvaT, rom aseT SemTxvevaSic ki, igi guramTan urTierTobas mianiWebda upiratesobas). igi axals irCevs. axals, romelic sakmaod simpaTiuri da mSvidia da ukidures niSnebs ar atarebs. axalTan flirtis iniciativa misgan modis (Tumc mxolod warmoSobiT, magram mainc polonelisagan, anu evropelisagan, da es miniSnebac zustia _ igi Zvel da Semzarav `aziatur~ modelSi ara marto damyayebuli sabWouri konstelaciebis, aramed dasavluri niSnebis mcire doziT SeWrasac gulisxmobs),

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magram `dedikos biWi~ metismetad steriluria imisaTvis, rom realurad am flirtidan raime gamodnes. sabolood, gurami, rogorc zomieri fizikuri da gonebrivi SesaZleblobebis mqone zomierad dakompleqsebuli personaJi, ninoSvil-javaxiSvilis mZime fsiqologiur-socialur-seqsualuri suraTis Sualeduri gadawyveta da avtoris mier problemis gaSarJebaa, rac sruliad adekvaturi iyo im periodisaTvis, romelSic cxovrobda da romelsac am SemTxvevaSi aRwerda arCil sulakauri. sabWoTa periodSi, ra Tqma unda, moipovebodnen spiridonebi da Teimurazebi, iseve, rogorc tarielebi da jayoebi, oRond karikaturuli saxiT, despinesa da margos STamomavloba ki, madloba RmerTs, gadagvarda. isini, ase Tu ise, ukve Tavad sazRvravdnen sakuTar beds, rameTu tariel-jayoebi Tanamdebobis pirebad an maqinator biZebad iqcnen da ZiriTadad, ara spiridon-Teimurazebs glejdnen simdidresa da komforts, aramed _ maTsaviT dabeCavebul saxelmwifos. tragizmidan komizmSi gadasul am tipaJebs ki `dedikos biWTa~ (da plus `Zvel biWTa~) mravalricxovani, usaxuri fena Seemata, ara rogorc axali arCevani, aramed _ rogorc aradani. am nawarmoebis parodiulobis cocxali simboloa Zveli iluzionisti arkadi cezari. misi megobroba TeimurazTan, nawarmoebSi misi yvelganmyofobis gancda, bolos ki iubile, romelsac damsveneblebi mas uwyoben, amaze metyvelebs. mTeli am cirkis ukanaskneli nomeri ki iubiles mimdinareobisas Teimurazis mier zRvaSi Tavis daxrCobis mcdeloba da mayaSvilis mier misi gadarCenaa. anu: tarielma daRupa spiridoni, jayom daRupa Teimurazi, mayaSvilma ki mebuke gadaarCina. oRond mxolod fizikurad. esec mware ironiaa sulakaurisa: Teimuraz II-m unda icxovros amqveyanaze kvlavac Teimuraz I-is kompleqsebiT daavadebulma da mis aCrdilad qceulma. qali ki nel-nela unda gaTavisufldes beCavi inteligenti da janRoniT aRsavse veluri mamakacebis am Semzaravi ormagi wnexisagan. da es Seuqcevadi procesia. *** ganxiluli modelis es sami qarTuli variacia kargad ireklavs carizmis, bolSevizmisa da gviani sabWouri periodisaTvis damaxasiaTebel niSnebs, kargad aCvenebs sam etaps scilasa da qaribdas Soris moqceuli qalis naturisa, misi bediswerisa. es werili garkveulwilad dasrulebul saxes miiRebda, Tuki mas meoTxe, postsabWouri periodis variaciac Seemateboda, magram Tanamedrove literaturis Cemeulma ganCxrekam Sedegi ar gamoiRo. axali Taobis mweralTa SemoqmedebaSi mkafiod gamoxatul imave models ver mivageni. ver getyviT, es Cemi bralia Tu jerjerobiT, aseTi nawarmoebi bunebaSi marTla ar arsebobs, magram is ki vici, rom adre Tu

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gvian, am werilis Semdgomi Tavi unda daiweros, romelime literatoris xeliT Tu ara, mkiTxvelis warmosaxvaSi mainc. unda daiweros, radgan axalma epoqam, liberalizmisa da adamianuri sisastikis am ucnaurma najvarma, Tavidan gaamZafra karikaturad qceuli es modeli: qalTa feministuri swrafvebi antipod mamakacTa ganaxlebul anomaliebs daajaxa.

xaTuna maisaSvili

hiperteqstualuri TamaSi anu Cven veZebT propis adamianebs erTi meToduri eqsperimentis Sesaxeb Sesavali
statia Seexeba erT konkretul davalebas komunikaciaTmcodneobisa da Jurnalistikis mimarTulebis studentebisTvis. davaleba Cafiqrebulia, rogorc mravalmxrivi profesiuli unarebis gamomcdeli da Sesamowmebeli amocana: lingvisturi unaris, vizualur-sivrcobrivi orientaciis unaris da interpersonalur-intrapersonaluri komunikaciis unarisa. davaleba sakamaToc Cans, mxiarulic, paradoqsulic. amitom misi Sesruleba TamaSis saxes iRebs. komunikaciaTmcodneobis mimarTulebis leqtori da 300 studenti TavSesaqcev komunikaciur TamaSs TamaSoben. leqtori studentebs ukiTxavs maTTvis Zalian nacnob popularul zRapars da aZlevs davalebas: Sinaarss CamouSalon zRapris forma (anu gatexon zRapris teqsturi da funqciuri kodebi) da igi axali teqstis saxiT daubrunon gamgzavns (leqtors). mizanze zemoT mogaxseneT. am meToduri eqsperimentis amocana ki is aris, students ganuviTaros interteqsturi navigaciisa da teqstis moxmarebis unar-Cvevebi, wyaros (adresantis) Setyobinebis SenarCuneba-interpretaciis Cvevebi, empiriulad gamoscados Setyobinebis dekodirebis Janrobrivi (diskursuli) diapazoni konkretul socialur da kulturul garemoSi.

ilias saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis filosofiisa da socialur mecnierebaTa fakultetis doqtoranti, gazeT axali 7 dRisa da Jurnal sityvis damfuZnebeli da Tanaredaqtori. ZiriTadi Sromebi: erovnuli identobisa da erovnuli ideologiis reprezentacia qarTul beWdur mediaSi. 19901991 wlebi (The Representation of National Identity and National Ideology in the Georgian Printed Press. 1990-1991). narkvevebi qarTuli mediis uaxlesi istoriis Sesaxeb. interesTa sfero: mediuri kvlevebi, sainformacio struqturebi, komunikaciuri procesis modelebi.

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es eqsperimenti Sedga ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetSi, komunikaciaTmcodneobis Sesavlis msmenel studentTa wreSi (2008 wels). eqsperimentSi monawileobda 300 studenti. saeqsperimento teqstur masalad SeirCa Sarl peros zRaprebi: Ceqmebiani kata da cerodena. eqsperimentSi monawile studentebi daiyvnen sam jgufad. davalebis miRebis Semdeg axali teqstis Sesaqmnelad miecaT 2 saaTi. eqsperimentis winapiroba eqsperimentis momentisTvis studentebs mosmenili aqvT leqciebi: komunikaciis konceptis Sesaxeb; komunikaciis ZiriTadi elementebis Sesaxeb (ferdinand de sosiuris, rolan bartis, Carlz pirsis, raimond firtis, umberto ekos naSromebis mimoxilvis saxiT), komunikaciuri procesis modelebis Sesaxeb (aristotele, lasueli, Senon-uiveri, gerbneri, malecke), Setyobinebis teqstis, diskursis makro- da mikroformebis Sesaxeb (mxatvruli literatura da misi Janrebi, teqsturi formebi, Jurnalistika da misi Janrebi, piari da piarreprezentaciisTvis damaxasiaTebeli specifikuri niSan-Tvisebebi da sxva). eqsperimentis specifika komunikaciuri modelis prizmaSi komunikaciuri procesi eqsperimentis farglebSi ganekuTvneba ciklur models. am procesis jaWvi Sekrul wres qmnis: gamgzavni _ Setyobineba _ mimRebi(gamgzavni) _ Setyobineba _ mimRebi(gamgzavni). komunikaciuri procesi or etapad xorcieldeba. pirvel etapze Setyobinebis gamgzavni, adresanti leqtoria. mis mier gavrcelebuli Setyobineba ornawiliania: pirveli, es aris sakuTriv zRapris teqsti, romelsac igi wignidan ukiTxavs studentebs, da meore gaxlavT instruqcia-gasaRebi, romlis meSveobiTac mimRebma, adresatma (studentebma) unda Seqmnas axali teqsti, axali Setyobineba (davalebis Sinaarsi). Setyobinebis meore nawili SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc komponenti-interpretanti, romlis gareSec mTlianad komunikaciuri procesi kargavs azrs. komunikaciuri procesis meore etaps SeiZleba vuwodoT ukukavSiris etapi, romelzedac gamgzavni (wina etapze _ mimRebi) axdens miRebuli ori Setyobinebis dekodirebas, qmnis axals da ugzavnis mimRebs (romelic wina etapze gamgzavni iyo). am etapze leqtors uwevs Tavis Setyobinebaze ganxorcielebuli ukukavSiris percefcia: rogorc sakuTriv teqstze, ise am teqstis SigniT dafarul kodebze. Tavdapirveli Setyobinebis gamgzavni moelis, rom mis mier gadacemuli Setyobinebis dekodireba mimRebis mier ar aris damokidebuli mxolod mis mier gadacemul instruqcia-gasaRebze, anu igi bolomde da absoluturad ver marTavs komunikaciis process. Ta-

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vad instruqciis aRqma da gaxsna, iseve, rogorc ZiriTadi Setyobinebisa, didad aris damokidebuli mimRebis socialur-kulturul garemoze, teqstis codnisa da moxmarebis am garemoSi miRebul gamocdilebaze, komunikaciis intuiciur unarze, fantaziaze. es faqtorebi gasaRebis funqcias asrulebs eqsperimentSi. ratom zRapari? zRapari erTgvari maxea. erTi mxriv, zRapari, rogorc bavSvobidan erT-erTi yvelaze nacnobi teqsturi forma, studentisTvis `sayvareli~ teqstia, rac mas, emociuri TvalsazrisiT, dadebiTad ganawyobs davalebisadmi. magram, meore mxriv, zRapris narativisa da personaJebis unikaluri kodebi is wyalqveSa rifebia, romelTa msxvrevac studentisgan did Zalisxmevas moiTxovs. kerZod, narativis maxasiaTeblebis mxriv, axali teqstis Seqmnisas students mouwevs: a) daSalos zRapris narativis mWidro teqsturi qsovili; b) daarRvios Txrobis qronologiuri Tanmimdevroba; g) Txrobis enaSi dasvas logikuri an emociuri maxvilebi da sxva. garda amisa, aq kidev erTi sirTulea, kerZod: Setyobinebis gadacema performeridan auditoriisTvis deklamaciis, anu bgeriTi xelovnebis meSveobiT xdeba specifikuri intonaciiT, rac studentis smeniTi unarebis, misi bgerismieri inteleqtis Semowmebas isaxavs miznad. imavdroulad, eqsperimentis meSveobiT mowmdeba studentis intrapersonaluri komunikaciis unari, vinaidan winasaeqsperimenti daSvebaa, rom miRebuli Setyobineba gamoavlens, ramdenad icnoben studentebi TavianT Tavs, TavianT Zlier da sust mxareebs, motivaciebs, miznebs, grZnobebs. sxva drosa da sivrceSi ambis gadataniT ki mowmdeba studentebis vizualur-sivrcobrivi orientacia. zRapris personaJebis kodebis aspeqti gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens eqsperimentSi. kerZod, semiologiaSi cnobilia, rom rusuli xalxuri zRaprebis Seswavlisas mecnierma vladimir propma Seadgina zRaparTa narativis umravlesobaSi warmoCenili personaJebis klasifikacia (Propp, V. (1968) Morphology of the Folk Tale. University of Texas Press). propiseuli ranJirebis mixedviT, aRweril iqna arqetipuri istoriis (Txrobis) personaJebi (rogorc garkveuli funqciis matareblebi, romelTa (anu funqciis) gareSec Txroba ver ganviTardeboda): 1. gmiri/subieqti, romlis funqciaa Zebna, Zieba, povna, mopoveba; 2. obieqti, romelsac eZeben da moipoveben; 3. obieqtis donori; 4. mimRebi, romelTanac gmirs agzavnian; 5. mSveleli, mxsneli, romelic exmareba moqmedebis ganviTarebaSi, da 6. aramzada, romelic aferxebs, blokavs moqmedebas. eqsperimentis win studentebs Segnebulad ar awvdian masalas vladimir propis am naSromis Sesaxeb. eqsperimentis mizani swored, is aris, gairkves, romeli funqciuri datvirTvis matarebeli personaJi iqneba Senar-

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Cunebuli, funqciurad gamZafrebuli, gaZlierebuli an, piriqiT, dakarguli, Sesustebuli da dakninebuli mimRebis mier; sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, romeli personaJi aRmoCndeba sicocxlisunariani studentis socialur-kulturul garemoSi, rogor manipulacias daeqvemdebareba zRapris funqciebi axal (arazRaprul) teqstSi. karibWis mcvelebi da ambis RirebulebiTi kodebi zRapris fabula _ Sesabamisi dekodirebis SemTxvevaSi _ sruliad pasuxobs Jurnalisturi nawarmoebis konstruirebis winapirobebsa da principebs. zRaparSi aris konfliqtic, Zlieri pirovnebac, gamonaklisi (an mistikuri) SemTxvevac, sensaciac, _ anu yvelaferi is, rac movlenas mediur movlenad aqcevs. eqsperimentSi monawile studenti TviTon xdeba karibWis mcveli _ narativisa da diskursis SerCevaSi igi sruliad Tavisufalia. igi TviTon irCevs: aqcents; moqmedebaSi Sesvlis moments, romliTac igi SeZlebs, gaSalos mTeli istoria da mimzidveli gaxados mimRebisTvis; drosa da sivrces, romelSic gadaaqvs moqmedeba; Txrobis tonsa da tonalobas; istoriis najerobis xarisxs. ras irCeven? anu eqsperimentis Sedegebi davalebis Sesrulebaze uari arc erT students, eqsperimentis monawile arc erT pirs ar uTqvams. vizualur-sivrcobrivi orientaciis mxriv, studentebis absoluturma umravlesobam SeZlo droiT-sivrcobrivi barieris gadalaxva. moqmedebis adgili Tanamedrove samyaroa. anu, maTi azriT, zRapari Rirebuli ambavia, romelic dRes xdeba da romelic axalia. rac Seexeba diskursul aspeqtebs, aq Sedegebi iyofa: makrodiskursisa da mikrodiskursis mxriv. makrodiskursis mxriv, eqsperimentis monawile studentebis 70% procentma amjobina, Seeqmna Jurnalisturi teqsti, 3 % _ piarteqsti, 27 %-ma _ mxatvruli teqsti. mikrodiskursis mxriv vawydebiT aseT ranJirebas: Jurnalistur teqstSi Warbobs mZime socialuri pirobebiT gamowveuli kriminaluri istoria (gadmocemuli sainformacio SeniSvnis, an reportaJis JanriT), an wmida wylis kriminaluri ambavi, romelSic aqcenti kriminaluri SemTxvevis anatomiaze daismis da ara _ mis gamomwvev garemoebebze. orive tipis teqstisTvis damaxasiaTebelia Sesabamisi lidi, romelSic gadmocemulia am SemTxveviT dainteresebis motivacia. mxatvrul teqstSi vxvdebiT moTxrobis, epistolarul an dRiuris diskursze awyobil narativs, galeqsil isto-

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rias. piarteqstebi parodiuli (ufro metic - ironiul-parodiuli) JReradobiT gamoirCeva, isini TavianTi tonalobiT Zalian hgvanan politikuri kampaniis propagandistul rgolebs. personaJebis struqtura da funqciuri daniSnuleba eqsperimentis erT-erTi yvelaze saintereso da sagulisxmo aspeqtia. Jurnalisturi teqstebis 72 %-Si saerTod ar figurirebs mxsneli, samagierod, aramzadebis funqcia gamZafrebulia. iqamdec ki, rom aramzada Crdilavs mTavar gmirs, rogorc misTvis daTmobili teqstis moculobiT, ise aRweris dinamizmiT, eqspresiiT. Sesabamisad, moqmedebac icvlis ganviTarebis gezs. studentebis mier SeTxzul teqstSi moqmedeba wydeba konfliqtis mwvave fazaSi. teqsti mTavrdeba sainformacio gamoSvebebSi damkvidrebuli kliSeTi: am momentisTvis sul es iyo. davelodoT movlenaTa ganviTarebas. amgvar diskursSi cxadad ikiTxeba qarTuli mediagaremos gemovnebisa da stilis gavlena. SesaZlebelia, vivaraudoT, rom pirveladi Setyobinebis dekodirebis davalebaSi studentebma amoikiTxes, igulisxmes, rom zRapris narativis CamoSla gulisxmobda keTili dasasrulis CamoSlasac, radgan, maTi azriT, keTili dasasruli, Wiri iqa, lxini aqa-Ti, mxolod zRaparSi gvxvdeba, an studentTa hipoTetur auditorias ar ainteresebs keTili dasasruli. namuSevarTa umravlesobaSi ambavi Rirebuli xdeba masSi asaxuli konfliqtis gamo (TiTqmis yvela namuSevarSi xazgasmulia, rom konfliqti usamarTlobis Sedegia). realuri istoria aseve kargavs mistikur gmirebs, anu ambavi Rirebuli ar xdeba gamonaklisi an jadosnuri SemTxvevis, Zlieri pirovnebis, anu gmiris wyalobiT. zogadad, SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom eqsperimentis monawile studentebma aqcenti depersonalizebul konfliqtze dasves. literatura Galtung, J., Ruge, M. (1973). Structuring and Selecting News, in Stanley Cohen and Jock Young (eds.), The Manufacture of News (UK: Constable). Gardner, H. (1993a). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books. Gardner, H. (1999). The Disciplined Mind: What all students should understand. New York: Simon&Schuster. Propp, V. (1968) Morphology of the Folk Tale. University of Texas Press.

gia murRulia

ca da miwa erT kacSi (ramdenime mosazreba rezo esaZis scenaris `nomen nescio~-s Sesaxeb)
adamiani da misi Semoqmedeba ganuyofelia, ufro sworad _ es erTi da igive ram aris. sakuTar Semoqmedebas tansacmeliviT ver gamoicvlis kaci. is pirovnebis sulis uRrmes SreebSia dabadebuli, saukunod aRbeWdili da arsebiTad warmoaCens or moments: rogor gamoxatavs konkretuli individi sakuTar Tavs da ragvarad gamoxatavs sakuTar Tavs esa Tu is dro. `me var, romeli var~, _ eubneba RmerTi moses. is aris Tavad arseboba, yofnis mizezi da principi. RmerTi adamianisTvis, uwinares yovlisa, Semoqmedia. maTes saxarebis me-5 Tavis 48-e muxlSi ki weria, rom yvela adamianis umTavresi mowodebaa emsgavsos RmerTs. raki RmerTi upirvelesad Semoqmedia, adamiani yvelaze metad maSin emsgavseba mas, rodesac Tavadac qmnis. da rac ufro Rirebuls qmnis, miT metad emsgavseba. es yvelaferi imasac niSnavs, rom RmerTsmimsgavsebulobis gamo Semoqmedi adamiani ciuri harmoniis yvelaze metad SemgrZnobi da gamomxatvelia. mas adamianebisTvis RvTaebrivi naTeli moaqvs da, imavdroulad, sxvebze aRmatebulad SeigrZnobs wuTisoflis, dakninebuli adamianuri bunebisa Tu sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis sibnelesac, ris gamoc itanjeba. zogjer es tanjva mas mTel sicocxles arafrobad ganacdevinebs, rac, sazogadod, Semoqmedebis princips uaryofs da swored am dros Cndeba gaorebuloba da mwvave kontrastis, yofierebis winaaRmdegobriobis sindromi. iqneb amas gu-

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori gamocemuli wignebi: saubrebi Zvel qarTul literaturaze(TanaavtorebTan erTad) _ saskolo saxelmZRvanelo(1992); daviTianis mxatvrul saxeTa sistema (1998); fiqri ganaTlebaze (2003); ori gamocemis ideis avtori da redaqtori: a) msoflios rCeuli moTxrobebis eqvstomeuli (2007-2008); b) seria: qarTveli mwerlebi skolaSi _ gamocemulia 18 wigni (1996-2009). Tbilisis #24 sajaro skolis direqtori da amerikul-qarTuli ganaTlebis centris damfuZnebeli da pedagogi.

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lisxmobs galaktioni, rodesac wers: sinamdviles ar vemduri, ar yofila TiTqmis, aryofilze sayveduri arasodes iTqmis. Tuki galaktionisTvis sinamdvile `ar yofila TiTqmis~, anu ar arsebula cxovrebis realoba, maS, ra realobas ekuTvnoda es `Tavzardamcemi geniosi~ (rogorc erTgan blez paskali moixsenia Satobrianma)? man Tavad misave sulSi Seqmna sakuTari samyaro, sakuTari realoba, romelic Semdgom Zalumad, momnusxvelad, arcTu iSviaTad _ ucnaurad da bevrisTvis gaugebrad mJRavndeboda ubralo adamianur urTierTobebSi. galaktioni `aqac~ iyo, magram arc iyo ~aq~ _ `me vxedav sizmrebs, araTqveneburs~, _ mimarTavda is axloblebsac da Soreblebsac. is metismetad TvalsaCinod grZnobda sakuTar SemoqmedebiT Rirsebas da bibliuri RmerTis warmoTqmuli sityvebis msgavsad imeorebda : `me miyvars is, rac var~. Tumca is, rac galaktions uyvarda, lamis sayovelTaod aRiarebuli iyo, mainc yvelafer amas didi idumaleba faravda da, raoden gasakviric unda iyos _ yofiTi Cveulebriobac, Tu yofiTi miuRebloba ara. amis gamo vinmes galaktioni SesaZloa axirebul geniosad moenaTla, an sulac eWvi gamoeTqva _ nuTu es SesaniSnavi leqsebi am kacis daweriliao? Seafaso galaktioni da misi cxovreba Tu Semoqmedeba, ioli ar aris. miTumetes Znelia amis mxatvruli gaazreba da gadawyveta., imitom rom es aris `rTuli kacis~ rTuli cxovreba da genialuri Semoqmedeba. vnaxoT, rogor gadawyvita es amocana rezo esaZem. am amocanis arsebiTad warmomCeni kiTxva scenars epigrafad aqvs gamotanili: `Cemgvari kaci gana SeiZleba vinmes uyvardes?~ galaktionis poezia imdenad RvTaebrivia, rom am kacis cxovrebas adamianuri `Selamazeba~ ar sWirdeba _ kacuri sisusteebi verafers aklebs SemoqmedebiT maradisobas. scenari am principis erTgulebis nimuSia, Tumca unda iTqvas, rom yvelas es ar moewoneba _ Cveulebriv adamianur bunebas urCevnia SemoqmedebasTan erTad Semoqmedic idealuri iyos. magram cxovrebaSi ase ar xdeba. da ibadeba did kontrasti realobasa da Semoqmedebas Soris _ TiTqos Semqmneli da Seqmnili eucxoebian da, ubralo adamianuri aRqmidan gamomdinare, ar `uxdebian~ erTmaneTs. erTi SexedviT, ar SeiZleba erTdroulad ekuTvnode zecas da wvrilmanebs, `maRali da maRlad mxedic~ iyo da iseTic, milionebi rom dadian dedamiwaze. an iqneb, SeiZleba kidec?! orjer ori rom oTxia, Cveulebriobaa Tu RvTaebrivi idealurobis gamovlineba? orive erTad xom ara? anda vin ad-

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gens amgvar ierarqias? gana RmerTma mxolod nawilebi Seqmna da mTeli ara? Zalian bevri kiTxvaa saimisod, rom raRac pasuxi mainc ar movZebnoT (`raRac~ imitom, rom saboloo pasuxebi ufro xSirad ar arsebobs). erTi SesaZlo pasuxi aseTia: Semoqmedi arasdros aris Seqmnilze `naklebi~ da, ragindara saxiT, Tundac `Semqmnelis uflebiT,~ yovelTvis aRemateba mas. am azriT, rusTveli metia `vefxistyaosanze~, guramiSvili _ `daviTianze~ da vaJa-fSavela _ `aluda qeTelaurze~. aseve, galaktioni metia imaze, rac dawera da imazec, rac ar dauweria. ufro metic _ galaktioni aRemateba nebismier ierarqiasac da am azrs misi xasiaTisa Tu qcevis veranairi ucnauroba, Cveulebrioba an Tundac bundovaneba ver abaTilebs. yvelafer amas naTlad SevigrZnobT, magram kontrasti mainc rCeba. es kontrasti Tavad galaktionSic Cans da garesamyarosTan, sazogadoebasTan, politikur reJimTan Tu sxva adamianTan mis mimarTebasa da damokidebulebaSic. am kontrastis arsebiTi safuZveli is aris, rom galaktionSi Sezavebulia ca da miwa; misi genia poeziaSi Tu ragindara brwyinvalebiT warmoCindeba, yofiTi wvrilmanebis an sulisSemxuTveli sinamdvilis artaxebiT Sekruli arcTu iSviaTad marTlac ucnaurad, sasacilod an sulac umweod gamoiyureba. rezo esaZe ar faravs amas. arc realur da arc misi scenaris galaktions amgvari `SeRavaTi~ ar sWirdeba. kontrasti, rogorc mxatvruli mizandasaxuloba da xerxic, xSirad aris gamoyenebuli scenarSi. k o n t r a s t i pirveli magaliTi galaktionis dakrZalvisas `tribuna gaWedilia gamoCenili adamianebiT~. isini paTetikurad afaseben poetis Rvawls da paTetikuradve eTxovebian mas. swored am dros `kadrSi gamoCndeba galaktionis Zirgaxvretili fexsacmeli~ _ poetTan erTad am paTetikis damkrZalavic. am adgilas mkiTxvelic da mayurebelic diskomforts igrZnobs da sulSi SeiSmuSneba, TiTqos sakuTar simbolur braleulobas ganicdis imis gamo, rom, faqtobrivad, ararsebul sinamdvilesTan erTad sazogadoebam galaktioni Seuracxmyofeli sikvdiliTac `daajildova~ _ oRond sabolood Seuracxyofili galaktioni ki ara, sazogadoeba rCeba. meore magaliTi mweralTa kavSirSi viRac dabejiTebiT amtkicebs, rom galaktionis yvela wigni abdaubdaa, rom `zogierTi Sedarebebi da metaforebi

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Targmania Cveulebrivi rusuli saxeebisa~, rom `aRmaSfoTebelia galaktion tabiZis saRamoebi, sadac is Tavis Tavs poetebis mefed aRiarebs~. amgvar Sefasebas TiTqos darbazic eTanxmeba, saidanac ismis xma: `gairicxos mweralTa kavSiris rigebidan!~ moulodnelad galaktioni midis masTan da ekiTxeba: `Zamiko, mainc xom var me saqarTveloSi yvelaze ukeTesi poeti~? da citata scenaridan: `ra Tqma unda, batono galaktion! _ dauyovnebliv pasuxobs momxsenebeli da daufaravi aRtacebiT xelebs Slis _ ori azri ar aris magaSi~. marTlac, arsebobs `koniunqturuli samarTali~, romelic mxolod individisTvis an korporaciisTvis aris xelsayreli da misaRebi, Tanac _ konkretul drosa da adgilas da, meore mxriv _ RvTaebrivi samarTali, romelic yvelasTvis Tanabrad arsebobs yvelgan da yovelTvis. es is aris, rusTveli rom `marTal samarTals~ uwodebs. swored amgvari samarTali aTqmevinebs gzaabneul medroves: `ra Tqma unda, batono galaktion!~ mesame magaliTi galaktionis realur samyaroSi, mis oTaxSi, mis ujraSi, praqtikulad yvelgan didi areulobaa, qaosia. es TvalsaCino kontrasts qmnis galaktionis poeziasTan. radgan Semoqmedebis Sedegi (samyaros Seqmnidan dawyebuli) yovelTvis wesrigia. Tumca es wesrigi zogjer SemoqmedebiTi sigiJis zRvarze ibadeba. scenarSi es kargad Cans: `galaktionis figura xan sad gaielvebs, xan sad. yovel gaelvebaze sivrce imuxteba misi aRgznebuli mdgomareobiT. uceb igi amTavrebs weras da iwyebs deklamirebas: `qari dacxra siboboqris, Savi zRvidan sio mohqris, me gicqeri, rogorc oqros, Camaval mzes, Camavals...~ deklamirebis dros mas giJis gamoxedva aqvs. mowyvetiT jdeba. mZimed sunTqavs. xelis kankaliT magididan iRebs sawer kalams, usinjavs wvers. moargebs. gamocvlis. iRebs gacrecil furcels. rogorc mxatvari funjs, amuSavebs kalmis wvers. moargebs. iRebs samelneebs: wiTeli, lurji, Savi melani... iwyebs maT gazavebas, TiTqos saRebavebs urevs erTmaneTSi, Tan agoniaSi butbutebs: `weliwadi,.. centri,.. beladebi,.. telegrafebi,.. cifrebi,..Setakeba,.. marcxi sastiki,.. mdidari burJuazia,.. zombebi,.. gaTiSva,.. kivili,.. uaryofa...~ es cnobierebis alqimia bevrisTvis ucnobi, ucxo da gaugebaria, zogjer _ miuRebelic (imitom rom, gansxvavebuloba adamianTa did nawils ar moswons), magram galaktioni es yvelafericaa. meoTxe magaliTi mTel scenars gasdevs dauswrebeli dapirispireba oliasa da ninas Soris, romelTagan pirveli galaktionisTvis dauWknobeli siyvaru-

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li iyo, meore ki _ ubralod coli. scenarSi mkafiod aris naCvenebi, rom olia Tavisi lamis demonuri bunebiT gacilebiT maxlobelia galaktionisTvis, vidre yofiTi problemebiT gapoxili nina. pirveli galaktionis cxovrebis frTebi iyo, meore _ makrateli am frTebisTvis. pirveli momxiblav da macdur bohemasa da revoluciur daudgromlobas ganasaxierebda, meore _ mosawyen wesierebas. scenaris ramdenime TavSi es kontrasti, praqtikulad, yvela detalSi Cans _ metyvelebaSi, JestSi, reaqciaSi, fiqrSi. mexuTe magaliTi galaktioni scenarSi xSirad imeorebs erTsa da imave frazas: `ver var racxa kargad~, rac fizikurze metad mis sulier mdgomareobas gamoxatavs _ mis srul SeuTavseblobasa da gamokveTil kontrasts drosTan, yalb RirebulebebTan, reJimsa da xelovnurad organizebul sazogadoebasTan. swored amis mauwyebelia galaktionis sityvebi: `aq yvela me mebrZvis~. meeqvse magaliTi kontrasti TviT galaktionis saxeSic garkveviT moCans. amis garegnuli gamoxatuleba is aris, rom poeti upirispirdeba maTac, vinc uyvars da visac Tavad is uyvarT. mas praqtikulad yvelasTan konfliqti aqvs. galaktioni TiTqos sakuTar arsebaSic eCxubeba da Tan icavs pirovnul SemoqmedebiT sidiades. sruliad yofiTi mizeziT olga iurievnasTvis naTqvam sityvebs _ ` ~ ganzogadebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba da mTlianad epoqasa da sazogadoebas miemarTeba. es momenti naTlad aCvenebs, usazRvro bednierebasTan erTad, ra usaSvelod didi pirovnuli gamocdaa genialobis suliTa da gonebiT tareba. interJamieri kaci yvelaze didi adamianuri tragediebi drois danawevrebiTa da gaxleCiT iwyeba. Tavisi RvTiuri arsebiT dro ganuyofeli da mTliania. adamianSi erTiani unda iyos drois aRqmaca da gancdac. is, vinc drois mTlianobas kargavs, sakuTar mTlianobasac kargavs da samyarosTan da istoriasTan erTianobis gancdasac. mTliania maradisobac da erTi wamic (`me sikvdilsa movelodi, Sen sicocxle gamiwame~, _ eubneba avTandili TinaTins, romelmac siyvaruli gaumxila _ mTeli sicocxle am erT ubednieres wamad gadamiqcieo). ucnauria, magram qarTuli sityva `wami~ abreviaturad rom warmovidginoT (w. a. m.), w SeiZleba gamoxatavdes warsuls, a _ awmyos,

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xolo m _ momavals. simbolurad (da faqtobrivadac!) erTma wamma SesaZloa mTeli maradisoba moicvas, maradisoba ki erT wamSi Caetios. didi adamianebi erT wamsac imdenadve ekuTvnian, ramdenadac maradisobas. rezo esaZis scenarSi TvalnaTliv Cans galaktionis meyvseuli `moZraoba droSi~. es saxe axalgazrdobisa da xandazmulobis `erTbamad mtvirTveli~ da momcvelia. zogjer sxvadasxva dro erTmaneTSi iWreba, adgilmonacvleobs an sulac urTierTs msWvalavs. es mxatvruli teqnologia scenarSi ramdenjerme aris gamoyenebuli da pirovnebis `substanciuri erTobis~ xats qmnis. poeziis gamarjveba realobaze scenarSi, bunebrivad da kanonzomierad, poezia lamis moqmed pirad Cans. is cocxalia, movlenaTa ganviTarebaSi ara ubralod monawileobs, aramed zogjer warmarTavs da ganmsazRvrel azrsac aniWebs mas. magaliTad, rodesac scenaris erT Tavs ecnobi ( matarebeli `Tvalebgaxelili sizmari~ _ cxadi misteria), kiTxva gebadeba _ raRa maincdamainc am adgilas kiTxulobs galaktioni `mTawmindis mTvares~? aq mokle frazebi naTlad gamoxataven garkveuli drois viTarebasac da ganwyobasac: `saqarTveloSi, sadac xe ar yofniT jvris asamarTavad da jvrebi jvarcmisTvis, erTi tribunaRa dagvrCenia _ sasaflao... erTi Tavisufali Sesakrebi adgili~; `Tavisufleba davkargeT~; `es mxolod koSmaris dasawyisia~; `sadaa, sadaa, sadaa simarTle...~; ` ! ! . - !~ ai, amgvari uimedobis, cinizmisa da sulieri katastrofis gamoxatulebas _ rac saqarTveloSi bolSevizmis Zaladobasa da RirebulebaTa srul degradacias ganasaxierebs _ sinqronulad edeba galaktionis xma (poeti kiTxulobs `mTawmindis mTvares~). es xma aRmatebulia im saSinel qaossa da usamarTlobaze, rac am dros kadrSi SeiZleba Candes. mTawminda Tavad simaRlea. mTvare mTawmindis Tavze _ simaRlis simaRlea, xolo galaktionis leqsSi es bunebrivi aRmatebuloba da harmonia zeadamianuri SemoqmedebiTi ZalisxmeviT samgzis simaRled gardaiqmneba _ da poezia amarcxebs realobas, radgan tyvia da agresia ideasTan uZluria. am wuTas galaktionis xma da `mTawmindis mTvare~ pirvelqmnili mkafioobiT gamoxataven qarTul Rirsebas, sazogadod _ adamianis Tavisuflebis ideas da sikeTis, mSvenierebisa da harmoniis gardauval gamarjvebas uzneo Zalmomreobaze. SesaZloa, amave ideas gamoxatavdes kidev erTi adgili scenaridan: `galaktionis win, magidaze, gardigardmo gadaxeuli Tu daWmuWnuli furclebis grova yria. amiT SeSfoTebuli galaktioni naxevebis erTmaneTTan misadagebas iwyebs.~ cota xnis Semdeg `...erTmaneT-

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ze morgebul furclebis naxevebs webos usvams da miyolebiT fanjris minaze akravs, romlis iqiT xalxmravali quCa da transporti Cans~. galaktionis leqsebi faravs iliasgan naxseneb `usuldgmulo cxovrebas~. fanjara rCeba, magram gamosaxuleba icvleba _ erT samyaros Slis da asxvaferebs meore, dazianebul droebas enacvleba umwikvlo maradisoba poeziisa. ganwyoba mxatvrul nawarmoebSi, erTi SexedviT, SesaZloa yvelaferi Tavis adgilze iyos (saintereso fabula, gamokveTili saxeebi, personaJis an lirikuli gmiris motivacia, moqmedebisa Tu fiqris dinamizmi da a.S.), magram Tu erTi ram ar arsebobs, maSin arc sxva araferi arsebobs. es `erTi ram~ ganwyobaa. ganwyoba mxatvruli qmnilebis sulia _ mis gareSe namdvili SemoqmedebiTi sicocxle Tu SeuZlebeli ara, Znelad warmosadgenia. ganwyoba xilulis an mosmenilis mimarT keTili, pozitiuri damokidebulebisa da mimarTebis dabadebaa; amasTan erTad ki _ mxatvruli simarTlis gancda (`mSveniereba mxolod simarTleSia~, _ uiliam Seqspiri). ganwyoba is aris, rodesac avtors Tavs uqnev _ `diax, es swored asea!~ scenarSi amgvari ganwyoba Tavidanve Cndeba da mkiTxvels bolomde ar tovebs. simarTle da harmonia aq xelCakidebulni modian. zogjer am `duets~ didi Sinagani lirizmic emateba, oRond ara `daSaqruli~, momabezreblad `tkbili~, aramed `gemovnebiani~ lirizmi (es, sazogadod, rezo esaZis kinosa Tu poeziisTvis damaxasiaTebelia). magaliTisTvis SeiZleba vaxsenoT scenaris is Tavi, romelsac hqvia `galaktionis dRiuridan. WyviSi. dedasTan~ (mzis Suqis kocna da dedis winaSe danaSaulnarevi grZnobiT dgoma). saxeebi scenaris teqsti gapoxilia azrebiTa da saxeebiT. ufunqcio, `usaqmod~ da TavisTvis moxetiale frazebs aq ver naxavT. yvelgan igrZnoba didi da bevri fiqri. yovel winadadebas raRac moaqvs. meore mxriv, Tavad es scenaria poeturobis nimuSi. es ar aris mxolod scenari poetsa Tu poeziaze _ es aris teqsti-poezia. yovel fexis nabijze SexvdebiT aq poetur saxeebs _ zogjer Zalian ucnaurebsa da moulodnelebs. ramdenime maTgans SevexoT:

usaxo, erTmaneTis msgavsi niRbebi _ es aris TiTqos mxolod komunisturi gaerTmniSvnelianobis xati (`isini moqmedeben, rogorc yvela~). koleqtivis gafetiSeba da pirovnebis ugulebelyofa am xa-

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tis mTavari maxasiaTebelia. es niRbebi `konkretuli saxeebis magivrad~ arseboben _ TiTqos aseTi `magivroba~ SesaZlebeli iyos. Tumca amgvari niRbebi ar axasiaTebs oden yalbi koleqtivizmis sazogadoebas _ isini nebismieri epoqisa da sazogadoebis Tanamdevni arian. eseni arian `koleqtiuri pirovnebebi~, romelTac cal-calke aranairi Rirebuleba da Zalmosileba ara aqvT, magram erTad myofni sasikvdilo safrTxes uqmnian Rirebulebebis msaxur adamianebs. galaktionis dakrZalvaze erT-erTi am niRbis mier warmoTqmuli (TavisTavad SesaZloa marTebuli!) sityvebi ki ar amkoben, aramed Seuracxyofas ayeneben gardacvlil poets. galaktionis xiTxiTi _ bevrgan gvxvdeba da gamoxatavs ironias, TviTironiasa da, rac mTavaria _ sxvebTan SedarebiT, metis codnasa Tu mixvedras. saxe-sityvebi _ mSvenieri qarTuli sityvaa `amxanagi~, magram rodesac ase ukiduresad arakeTilmosurneebs mimarTav, is ukve saxed iqceva (`sityvis dasasruls me minda vuTxra Cems usindiso mtrebs _ wynarad! Tqven araviTari ufleba ara gaqvT, diax, ara gaqvT, me ase melaparakoT! me movrCi, amxanagebo~). saxe-frazebi _ zogjer sruliad ubralo, Cveulebrivi fraza ganzogadebis maRal xarisxs aRwevs da saxed iqceva. galaktions milicieli elaparakeba. gamomSvidobebisas poets mimarTavs: `gagacilebT, batono galaktion~. galaktioni pasuxobs: `me Cemi gza maqvs~ da sruliad naTelia, rom amas mxolod miliciels ar eubneba. es TanamedroveebisaTvis, metic _ istoriisTvis naTqvami sityvebia. amave tipis frazaa: ` , ~. es komunisturi cnobierebisa da drois zustad warmomCeni frazaa da sityva-sityviT amas niSnavs: `dideba RmerTs, rom Cven RvTis sawinaaRmdego saqmes vakeTebT~. aq fraza antifrazad iqceva. es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac sityvebi sakuTari mniSvnelobis sapirispirod RaRadeben. galaktionis karada _ galaktions karada gadaaqvs mweralTa kavSirSi. ris vai-vaglaxiT aaqvT maRla, xan sad gaiCxireba, xan sad. `pirvelidan meore sarTulze asasvlel kibeebze didi areulobaa. karada kibeze, sarTulebs Sorisaa gaCxerili. mwerlebi aRSfoTebulebi arian, poetebic, kritikosebic. aris erTi gadaZrom-gadmoZroma kibeebze, raRaceebis gadawodeb-gadmowodeba, ukmayofilo SeZaxilebi: `visia es oxroba, ra unda aq!~ viRaca TefSebiT datvirTuli zemodan gaafTrebiT yviris: `CaaTrieT, qvemoT CaaTrieT!~ Tavisi farTo karadasaviT ver eteva galaktioni SemzRudvel sabWoTa siv-

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rceSi da lamis yvelas xels uSlis viwro da erTferovan arsebobaSi _ `TefSebiT datvirTuli~ (anu materialur yofierebas, Tundac mxolod sakvebze zrunvas miwebebuli) cnobiereba maRali poeziis didi veraferi Tanamgzavri da megobaria. leninis ordeni ludis kaTxaSi _ galaktioni `daxlze mdgar ludisnarCenebian did kaTxaSi agdebs leninis ordens~ da mere mikitans eubneba: `dRes yvelasi gadaxdilia~. leninis ordeni sabWoTa kavSiris umaRlesi jildo iyo. mis mimarT damokidebuleba, faqtobrivad, reJimis mimarT damokidebulebas gamoxatavda. ludisnarCenebian kaTxaSi am ordenis Cagdeba sruliad araorazrovnad akninebda mTavar `sabWoTa Rirebulebebs~. am RirebulebebiT ludisa da duqnis sxva atributebis safasuris gadaxda ki imdenad maRla ar swevs ludis fass, ramdenadac ukiduresad amcirebs ordenisas. es aris totalitaruli saxelmwifosTvis gadaxdili Taviseburi pirovnuli samagiero warTmeuli Tu ukvalod gamqrali `sinamdvilisTvis~, romelic _ SevixsenoT _ `ar yofila TiTqmis~. cecxlmodebuli akvani da cecxlmodebuli kubo _ cecxli am orive SemTxvevaSi orgemage simboluri mniSvnelobisaa. erTi mxriv, is daumorCilebel SemoqmedebiT stiqias gamoxatavs, meore mxriv ki _ bolSevizmis gamanadgurebel da damTrgunvel bunebas. Tu pirveli saxe (akvani) winaswarmetyvelebaa, meore (kubo) aRsrulebaa. es aris bedisweris alfa da omega, yvelaferi es siurealistur saxes iZens: `tyavis qurTukiani oratori revoluciuri sityviT gamodis da agresiuli mowodebebiT. Senoba dangreulia da gaqurduli. kibeebiT galaktioni miadgeba kars, romelzedac aweria `saxalxo gvardielis~ redaqcia. aqac areulobaa. iatakze dayrili ilias, akakis da Jordanias suraTebi fexiTaa gaTelili (istoriam xandaxan aseTi mkacri xumroba icis _ raRac usulo Zalmosilebam iliasa da Jordanias erTi da igive xvedri arguna. ilia WavWavaZisTvis Jordanias Tanaziari Seuracxyofac ki Znelad asatani iqneboda _ g.m.). galaktioni jibeebSi itenis Tavis nawerebs... qaosSi Cemodans miagnebs... gaxsnis da rac jibeebSi hqonda, yvelafers Sig Catenis. mere cdilobs Senobidan gareT gamovides, magram qvemo sarTulidan, sadac mitingi ukve damTavrebulia, zeviT saSineli cecxlis enebi amodis. galaktioni daufiqreblad Cemodans xsnis da yvelafers, rac masSi iyo, cecxlze moapirqvavebs. Savosani kacebi cdiloben rogorme daaWedon kubos Tavi, romelsac cecxli edeba. uceb gasagebi xdeba, rom cecxli TviTon kuboSi trialebs da adamianebi cdiloben cecxli daasaflavon. saidanRac zemodan Tu cidan cecxlmokidebuli xelnawerebi mofrinavs da kuboSi cviva, romelic Cemodnad gadaiqceva. galaktionis Cemodans mesaflaveebi Tokebs

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amoudeben da cdiloben saflavSi CauSvan...~ viRaca cdilobs erTi (gamanadgurebeli) cecxliT meore (SemoqmedebiTi) cecxli daasaflavos. am gamaognebel suraTSi yvelaze gasakviri is aris, rogor gadaiqceva kubo Cemodnad, romelSic galaktionis MmTeli cecxlmokidebuli Semoqmedeba iklakneba _ mavanTagan araadamianurad tanjuli. saxe-leqsi _ 1956 wlis martia. `represirebuli qalaqis quCebSi SeiaraRebuli samxedroebi patrulireben... universitetis saaqto darbazi student-pedagogebiTaa gaWedili... tribunaze gamomsvleli adanaSaulebs universitetis partiul organizacias, komkavSiris komitets, reqtoratsa da pedagogiur sabWos, piradad reqtors, rom yvelaferSi, rac axla axalgazrdobaSi xdeba, damnaSavea is mankieri aRzrdis meTodi, romelic universitetSia danergili.~ gamomsvlels sityvas reqtori awyvetinebs, gana es axalgazrdebi imas ar icaven da iTxoven, rasac Cven maT CavCiCinebdiT _ anu leninis gverdiT stalini unda iyoso? `ese igi, xruSCovi ara?!~ _ Seepasuxeba gamomsvleli. am TavisTavad absurds sruli qaosi mosdevs _ `darbazSi ustvenen. gamayruebeli Rriancelia~. am dros `galaktioni misTvis damaxasiaTebeli olimpiuri sidiadiT tribunisaken miemarTeba, scenaze adis... da araamqveyniuri SemarTebiT kiTxulobs `mTawmindis mTvares~, cnobili pauziT kiTxvas amTavrebs da rogori RirsebiTac movida, iqaurobas tovebs~. leqsi aq ise amarcxebs adamianur koSmars, rogorc wmida giorgi _ gveleSaps. detalebi rezo esaZisTvis saerTod damaxasiaTebelia detalis esTetizmi. Rirebuli xelovnebis SegrZnebisTvis amas Zalian didi mniSvneloba aqvs. wertili, romelsac aqvs ganzomileba _ ai, ra aris mxatvruli detali. is, rasac mTeli filmi mogviTxrobs, zogjer SesaZloa, kargad mignebulma mcire formam gaamJRavnos da gamoxatos: galaktioni dgas Tavis saflavTan da Tvals usworebs maradisobas (`usasrulobisaken mzeramipyrobili galaktionis mowameobriv saxes mTvaris Saravandedi adgas~) _ TiTqos gaqvavebuli wamia, romelic galaktionis boboqari cxovrebis mTel bednierebasa da tragizms erTdroulad gamoxatavs; poeti ixsenebs olias daxvretis TariRs, romelic tramvais Zvel bileTs aweria. mere realobaSi dabrunebul galaktions kontroliori daadgeba Tavs zmanebaSi masTan mosaubre dedis nacvlad (deda _ bunebrivi siyvaruli da sikeTe; kontroliori _ saxelmwifos

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maxvili Tvali da simkacre). kontroliori bileTs xvrets. da galaktionis fraza: `uh, daxvriteT?~ rogorc kontroliori bileTs, ise eqceva totalitaruli saxelmwifo adamians. ucnauri mignebaa xoWo sityvebze, romelsac poeti usmens. es mweri aris kombinacia siSavisa da raRac `dabejiTebuli~ siarulis. galaktioni `gadaSlis rusul-qarTul uzarmazar leqsikons... dadebs magidaze. amasobaSi leqsikonis gverdze gamoRoRdeba patara xoWo da micocavs furclebze. magiurma xoWom gaiara sityvebze: `, ,.. ~... galaktioni xoWos daiWers, frTxilad Casvams asanTis kolofSi, yurTan miitans da ganabuli usmens. isev iwyebs butbuts: `SavebiT mosili qalebi... siSave TvalTa... siSave Ramis... siSave yornis frTebis... Savi zRva... Savi fardebi... Savi beri... Savi Rrubeli... Savi fifqebi...~ es marTlac magiaa _ Semoqmedis magia, rac sul ramdenimewamiani detaliT saxierdeba. galaktionis sulic ase `dabejiTebiTa~ da maZieblis SemoqmedebiTi instinqtiT Sepyrobili usmens imas, rac ver metyvelebs, magram Tavisi arsebobiTac ki bevr rames ambobs damnaxveli kacisTvis. sikvdilisken mimavali galaktioni sam kolof papirossa da or kolof asanTs idebs jibeSi. dostoevskis erTi personaJi, romelic sikvdiliT dasasjelad miyavT, fiqrobs, kidev ori Tu sami quCa damrCa sicocxleo. sikvdil-sicocxlis mijnaze dro zogjer sxva ganzomilebaSi gadadis _ xan, rogorc am SemTxvevaSi, sivrciT izomeba, xanac nebismieri sxva ramiT. magaliTad, _ sigaretis ubralo namwviT. fanjridan gadaxtomis win galaktioni ukanasknel namwvs bolomde mowevs. es aris ukanaskneli ram, rasac is wuTisofelSi akeTebs. es ubralo namwvi, romelic mis xelSi nel-nela iferfleba, Zalian hgavs (Tu ar gamoxatavs) ganqarvebad sinamdvilesac da galaktionis masTan damokidebulebasac _ yvela namwvs bolos moisvrian xolme. dasasruli (ori absurdi da damlageblis winaswarmetyveleba) absurdi #1 viRac qals galaktionis nawerebiani saqaRalde miaqvs (poets exmareba). ucbad SeuZlod xdeba. galaktioni sTavazobs, ager kibeze Camojeqio. qali uarobs _ iSiazi maqvso. maSin galaktioni kibeze Tavis saqaRaldeebs dauwyobs. qali Camojdeba `revoluciur saqarTvelosa~ da `pacifizmze~. mere, odnav sulmoTqmuli, poets eubneba: `Sen agaSena RmerTma, amdeni rom ar dagewera, ver davjdebodi...~ ra martivia xandaxan milioni dolariT erTi asanTis yidva.

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absurdi #2 _ ucnaurad myofi arafroba (anu TiTqmis ararsebuli sinamdvile) ironiul GJests agebebs galaktionis cxovrebis finals _ geniosi adamianis wuTisofeli damlageblis SegonebiTa da winaswarmetyveluri fraziT mTavrdeba. Segonebidan (` ?!~) winaswarmetyvelebamde (` , .~) sul ramdenime wami gadis. galaktionisTvis orive sulerTia. mkiTxvelsa da mayurebels ki SesaZloa saSineli usamarTlobis grZnoba daeuflos. am grZnobas is iwvevs, rom sazogadoebas da adamianebs koleqtiuri cnobierebiT (orives erTad zogjer SecdomiT `bedisweras~ uwodeben xolme) SeuZliaT istoriis drama istoriul farsad aqcion. da galaktions aRar enaRvleba, rom ` ~. p.s. rezo esaZem, sxvasTan erTad, erT mTavar safiqralzec migvaniSna: Tavis poeziaSi galaktioni xSirad axsenebs da natrobs frTebs. scenarSic poeti arc Tu iSviaTad cas ahmzers. adamianebi erTdroulad aRmerTeben da amcireben xolme cis macqeral da SemgrZnob kacebs. es aris geniosTa bednierebac da ubedurebac.

cira kilanava enobrivi eqsperimentebi qarTul maskulturaSi (sityvaTTamaSis Sesaxeb reklamaSi)

ilias saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis doqtoranti interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba, kritika, semiotika.

reklamas, rogorc maskulturis erTerT umniSvnelovanes elements, Tanamedrove msoflios cxovrebaSi gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs. reklama aris yvelgan da postmodernizmis cnobili Tezisis kvalobaze Tu vityviT, reklamaa yvelaferi (piriqiTac: yvelaferi reklamaa). tradiciuli definiciiT, reklama aris `mosaxleobisaTvis cnobebis miwodeba pirebis, saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Sesaxeb maTTvis popularobis mosapoveblad da Sesabamisad, myidvelobiTi moTxovnisa da maRali reitingis Sesaqmnelad.~1 reklamaSi (sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, `SefuTvis xelovnebaSi~) gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania gamomsaxvelobiTi mxaris efeqturoba. aq ki, vizualuri kodis primatulobis gverdiT, rogorc wesi, sityvieri masalis lakoniurobac igulisxmeba. garda am maxasiaTeblebisa, aris kidev erTi saintereso momenti: sityvaTTamaSi reklamaSi. am dros mTeli yuradReba gadatanilia swored verbaluri kodis polisemantikurobaze da faqtobrivad, minimumamdea dayvanili vizualuri kodis informaciulobis xarisxi.

ucxo sityvaTa leqsikoni (red. s. TezeliSvili), Tb., 2005; gv. 690.

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sityvaTTamaSis erTerTi yvelaze popularuli saxea omonimiis principze damyarebuli kalamburi (igive zma). kalamburi erTgvari Tavsatexia da Sesabamisad, misi dekodirebac recipientisTvis esTetikur siamovnebas (amocnobis sixaruls) ukavSirdeba (Semecnebis procesSi gaocebisa da sixarulis mniSvnelobas jer kidev aristotele aRniSnavs; xolo sakuTriv kalamburze, rogorc maxvilgonvrulobis saocar nimuSze, pirvel Teoriul naazrevs vxvdebiT Sua saukuneebis erTerTi didi moazrovnis emanuele tezauros (15911675) umniSvnelovanes naSromSi `aristoteles Wogriti~, romelic barokos esTetikis saxelmZRvanelo traqtatia). qarTulenovan reklamebSi, rogorc wesi, martivi saxis sityaTTamaSebs vxvdebiT (sainteresoa, rom am mxriv gansakuTrebiT sakvebi produqtebis reklamebi gamoirCeva): `ganxorcielebuli~ [ocneba] xorcproduqtebis mwarmoebeli firmis e.w. slogani; Caifiqre; ganiqarve (qarTuli ludis reklama)... gvxvdeba sruliad gansakuTrebuli SemTxvevebic: polisemantikur sityvaTa Sedgena ara erTi enis farglebSi, aramed ramdenime enis leqsemaTa SeerTebiT, romlis drosac sityvis mniSvneloba orgvarad gadmoicema ise, rom SenarCunebulia aRsaniSnis erTaderToba. Mwarmodgenil werilSi swored am tipis enobriv eqsperimentebs SevexebiT da ganvixilavT reklamis/sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis sxvadasxva sferodan aRebul ramdenime magaliTs: 1. ramdenime wlis win rusTavelis kino-TeatrSi gavida ucxouri mxatvruli filmi, romlis saxelwodebac afiSaze aseTi saxiT warudgines mayurebels: `siaxlove~. filmis saTauris amgvari formulirebiT ukve gamokveTili iyo misi sasiyvarulo xasiaTi. sainteresoa, rom mayurebelTa absoluturi umravlesoba mocemul sityvas (Tavisi ucxoenovani fragmentis CaTvliT) kiTxulobda qarTuli enis principiT: pirdapir, e.w. `bukvalurad~ (anu love da ara lav, inglisuri transkrifciiT). 2. oriode wlis win qarTuli telearxebiT aCvenebdnen sayofacxovrebo teqnikis mwarmoebeli firmis reklamas. sareklamo kampania or etapad warimarTa (da es warmatebuli strategiuli nabiji aRmoCnda): Tavdapirvelad ekranze laTinuri asoebiT iwereboda sityva IDROWE (gamoricxuli iyo vizualuri kodi, mTeli datvirTva teqstze `modioda~), romelsac qarTulenovani mayurebeli, bunebrivia, kiTxulobda qarTulad (idrove ar iCqaros mniSvnelobiT); meore etapze (garkveuli droiTi intervalis Semdeg) ek-

enobrivi eqsperimentebi qarTul maskulturaSi

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ranze gamoCnda igive sityva, oRond Sebrunebuli wyobiT AWORD (ingl., dajildoeba). es iyo firmis saxeli.1 3. fiWuri kavSirgabmulobis kompania `jeoselma~ ramdenime wlis win Tavis abonentebs SesTavaza momsaxurebis axali servisi, romlis sareklamo teqstSic ormagi kalamburi iyo warmodgenili: `am 2 baraTiT~ Tqven SegiZliaT... `am 2~ (SeerTebulad amori) raodenobrivi mocemulobis garda, aRniSnavs grZnobas (amor - siyvaruli).Ees ki, servisis xasiaTidan gamomdinare (SeTavazeba exeboda Seyvarebul wyvilebs), mTavari momenti iyo (aRsaniSnavia, rom `jeoseli~ gansakuTrebiT xSirad mimarTavs sityvaTTamaSs. ukanasknel xanebSi ki kompaniam am meTodiT sareklamo rgolebis mTeli cikli Seqmna `zumi/ zumerangi; ganzumilebis~ saxiT). 4. telearx `imedze~ sul cota xnis win gadioda mravalmxriv saintereso proeqti, saxelwodebiT `Cveni saqarTvelo~. saTauri am saxiT iyo warmodgenili `saqartvelo~ (da igi, Sesabamisad, gamoxatavda proeqtis mTavar mimarTulebasac - art : xelovneba).2

msgavs struqturul modelzea agebuli sareklamo sferos gareT dadasturebuli kidev ori leqsikuri erTeuli, romlebic Cveni (da ara mxolod Cveni) sazogadoebisTvis metad mniSvnelovan da aqtualur problemebs exmianeba. maTgan pirveli narkomaniis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli kampaniis nawilia, meore ki saqarTvelos saSinao saqmeebSi ruseTis Carevis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli saprotesto aqciebisa. ufro konkretulad: 5. TbilisSi, mixeil javaxiSvilis quCis kedelze, aseTi warweraa: `narkoffmania~. es leqsikuri erTeuli zemoaRniSnuli `saqartvelos~ modelzea agebuli, magram, misgan gansxvavebiT, ar warmoadgens sakuTriv qarTul termins. mocemuli sityvis SuaSi inglisuri off-is CasmiT (off _ gamorTva) ikveTeba gzavnilis adresantis pozicia _ uari eTqvas narkomanias.
aRsaniSnavia, rom msgavsi leqsikuri eqsperimentebi qarTveli sazogadoebisaTvis ucxo ar yofila (sakmarisia, Tundac galaktionis `airevi, iveriisa~ da `ai, ra mzis sizmarias~ gaxseneba), magram aq sxva ramaa mniSvnelovani: mocemul SemTxvevaSi, sarkiseburi efeqti miiRweva ara erTi enis farglebSi Catarebuli eqsperimentiT, aramed ori enis (sul mcire, anbanur) doneze. 2 erTerTi qarTuli arxis saxelwodeba saqarTvelo `logos~ inglisurenovan variantSi aseTi saxiTaa warmodgenili: saqarTVelo.
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aRsaniSnavia, rom movlenis mimarT Tavisi uaryofiTi damokidebuleba eqsperimentatorma gamoxata, Tu SeiZleba iTqvas, minimaluri danaxarjiT (mas ar dasWirvebia sxva, damatebiTi sityva saimisod, rom azri dasrulebuli saxiT gamoeTqva da mTeli sisruliT gamoiyena Tavis xelT arsebuli verbaluri Tu grafikuli resursi). man Seadgina ori enis leqsikur erTeulTa gonebamaxviluri kombinacia, aago ra teqsti principze ebrZole mters misive iaraRiT. amgvarad, eqsperimentis efeqti miRweulia sityvis TviTlikvidaciis, sakuTari Tavis bolomde uaryofis saintereso potencialis gamovlinebiT. 6. ramdenime wlis win, roca gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri iyo afxazeTSi, saqarTvelos okupirebul nawilSi, `rus mSvidobismyofelTa~ (e.w. `cisferCafxutianTa~) yofnis problema, TbilisSi, ruseTis federaciis saelCos win, gamarTul saprotesto aqciebze okupantTa statusi _ `plakatebze~ amgvari saxiT iyo warmodgenili _ war . vfiqrob, damowmebul magaliTTagan es ukanaskneli gansakuTrebulad saintereso SemTxvevaa Tundac im TvalsazrisiT, rom eqsperimenti politikur sakiTxs exeba da rac mTavaria, am problemisadmi qarTveli sazogadoebis damokidebulebas gamoxatavs.1 amgvari formulirebiT sityvis mniSvneloba radikalurad icvleba da mSvidobismyofeloba omismyofelobad (ingl. war omi) iqceva. garda amisa, mocemul SemTxvevaSi, leqsema warmoadgens rusul-inglisur sityvaTa nazavs, romlis azrobrivi centric formobriv centrs emTxveva: rusuli sityvis mniSvnelobaSi disonansi Seaqvs mTavari kodis funqciiT warmodgenil inglisur sityvas, romelic absoluturad upirispirdeba mas. ra daskvnis gamotanis saSualebas iZleva dasaxelebul magaliTTa analizi? upirveles yovlisa, unda aRiniSnos, rom arc erTi maTgani (garda `jeoselis~ servisisa), faqtobrivad, ar aris konkretuli nivTis, gasayidi sagnis tradiciuli reklama (da es araa mocemul sferoSi umniSvnelo garemoeba).MSesabamisad, moxsnilia reklamis intenciurobis utilitaruloba. metic; SeiZleba iTqvas, rom bolo ori magaliTi arsebiTad antireklamaa (amis kvalobaze, misi intenrolan bartis mixedviT, reklamaSic swored teqstia is instancia, romlis donezec sazogadoebis ideologia da morali gansakuTrebuli siZlieriT gamoxatavs Tavis Tavs (H. <fhn., Yektdfz Cntgtym Gbcmvf, Gth. c ah., Rjkktrnbd gthtdjlxbrjd, Cjcnfdktybt, yfexyjt htlfrnbhjdfybt, ghtlbckjdbt b rjvvtynfhbb U. R. Rjcbrjdf, V., 2008, cnh. 261).
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ciurobac sxva ganzomilebisken mimarTavs recipientis yuradRebas). garda amisa, aRniSnuli leqsikuri erTeulebi (narkomania da ) TavisTavad rTuli enobrivi eqsperimentebia, radgan mkveTrad gamoxataven adresantis poziciasac. amasTan, maTTan orenovnebiT uariyofa is, rac erTi, sawyisi enis (pirvel SemTxvevaSi, qarTulis, meore SemTxvevaSi ki rusulis) donezea gadmocemuli; Sesabamisad, metadaa gamokveTili azris gamoTqma/gaformebis araordinaruloba, romelsac ukve TavisTavadi Rirebuleba eniWeba da aRmqmelze esTetikur STabeWdilebas axdens Tavisi TamaSobrivi xasiaTiT. rogorc aRvniSne, es ar gaxlavT martivi, erTi enis farglebSi ganxorcielebuli eqsperimenti. aq TamaSi mozaikurobaSi gadadis da minimum or enobriv sivrceSi xorcieldeba. amasTan, vlindeba inglisuris, rogorc dominanti ucxo enis, rolis primatuloba. es ki im fonze, roca rusuli (amave enis doneze, qarTuli enobrivi sivrcisgan damoukideblad) mxolod pasiur enobriv fonad gvevlineba, masSi CarTuli aqtiuri inglisuri enis sityva ki, faqtobrivad, anulebs (minimumamde daiyvans) misiT gamoxatul denotats. Sesabamisad, orenovnebis TvalsazrisiT, aSkaraa inglisuri enis pirveloba.1 ra statusi SeiZleba mieniWos amgvar leqsikur eqsperimentebs? rasTan gvaqvs saqme aseT SemTxvevebSi? faqtia, rom warmodgenil magaliTebSi erTmaneTs kveTs ori enis leqsikuri erTeuli. Sesabamisad, amgvar teqstur (sruliad garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, interteqstur) modelTa SeqmnaSi sxvadasxva enobrivi monacemebis CarTviT gaziarebulia kulturuli gamocdileba. amasTan, gansxvavebul verbalur elementTa Tanaarseboba mxolod mozaikurobis principze ver daiyvaneba, radgan misi, rogorc Setyobinebis, amokiTxva gulisxmobs sityvis aRqmas orive mocemulobis gaazrebiT. garda amisa, umniSvnelo ar aris is faqtic, rom warmodgenil eqsperimentebSi ar gvxvdeba sityvaze ZaldatanesakuTriv rusul sareklamo sivrceSic msgavsi enobrivi eqsperimentebisas inglisuri leqsikuri erTeulebia gamoyenebuli (bunebrivia, es gamomdinareobs inglisuris, rogorc saerTaSoriso enis, gavlenis masStaburobidan) /informacia, Sesabamisi analiziTurT, warmodgenilia Semdeg vebgverdebze: http://www.sinobr.ru/artcls/a13_15.html; http://www.stilistika.by.ru/34.shtm. /. amasTan, aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom ruseTis, dasavleTi evropisa da aSS-sgan gansxvavebiT (sadac maskulturisa da sakuTriv sareklamo sferos Sesaxeb, garda calkeuli sagangebo kvlevebisa, arsebobs specialuri perioduli gamocemebic rogorc beWduri, ise internetversiis saxiT), saqarTveloSi am sferos Seswavla, faqtobrivad, bolo ramdenime welia, daiwyo.
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bis SemTxvevebi (Sesabamisad, ar viRebT hibrids) da sxvadasxva enis monacemTa maxvilgonivruli kombinaciiT, rac mTavaria, leqsikur erTeulTa daumaxinjeblad, viRebT e.w. miqsis tipis verbalur kods, romelic recipients saxaliso TamaSSi iTrevs. miqsis tipis amgvar eqsperimentTa gansakuTrebuloba swored isaa, rom sxvadasxva enis (Sesabamisad, kulturis) elementTa saSualebiT erTi aRsaniSni orgvarad gamoixateba ise, rom SenarCunebulia cnebis erTaderToba. esaa interteqsturi modelebis gansakuTrebuli kombinaciiT Seqmnili axali, multienobrivi erTeuli, romelic minimum or enaze ikiTxeba. amis gaTvaliswinebiT, saqme gvaqvs ara mxolod multienobriv, aramed, amasTan, interenobriv (da Sesabamisad, interkulturul) movlenasTan. es ki imas niSnavs, rom qarTul sinamdvileSi maskulturis donezec iqmneba `lingvisturi sazRvrebis~ moSlisa da globalizaciis saerTo tendenciis amsaxveli enobrivi suraTi. dabolos, rogorc Cans, maskulturis am yvelaze Wrel sferoSi msgavs enobriv eqsperimentTa mizani, upirveles yovlisa, recipientis gaoceba/gamowveva da daqvemdebarebuli funqciis Sesrulebis nacvlad, TavisTavadi Rirebulebis Seqmnaa. es ki scildeba reklamis utilitarulobis farglebs, rac formulis saxiT aqvs Camoyalibebuli umberto ekos: `reklamisaTvis ZalaSi rCeba barokouli poetikis norma, romlis mixedviTac, `poetis mizani esaa saocrebis Seqmna~.1

., / / ( . . ), - , Symposium, 2006, . 226.


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nana trapaiZe zRvarTan yofnis poetika (givi alxaziSvilis poezia)


,,...Sen eZeb sityvas pirvandel niSniT da ara lamaz ornamentiviT. givi alxaziSvili
filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori. baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis ufrosi maswavlebeli. ZiriTadi Sromebi: ,,droisa da sivrcis xedva-gancda n.baraTaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi~, ,,baZvis filosofiuri koncepti da misi rusTveluri interpretacia~, ,,n.baraTaSvilis filosofiuri narativi~, `Wkvianisa~ da `zemxedveli cnobierebis~ binaruli opozicia, ,,g. tabiZe klasikur da modernistul paradigmaTa konteqstSi. interesTa sfero: literaturis Teoria, kritika, sicocxlis filosofia.

poeziaze saubari dRes ufro kiTxviTi azrebisken gibiZgebs, vidre TxrobiTisken: bevri iwereba, cota iqmneba. amitom iZulebulni vxdebiT, ukan davbrundeT da axleburad davaTvalieroT is ,,adgilebi, saidanac saerTod iwyeboda da iwyeba poezia. dro da sivrce bevr rames inaxavs. orive sakmaod gulgrilia da zarmaci (gnebavT tolerantuli) saimisod, rom sagnebi da movlenebi erTmaneTis gverdigverd gamorCeviT daalagos... mexsiereba, romelsac yvelaze kargi gemovneba aqvs (Tu gemovneba, romelsac aseve saukeTeso mexsiereba gaaCnia), wmends ganurCevlobis mtvers, romelic drosa da sivrceSi gaSlil sinamdviles nelnela edeba xolme. ... vin aris poeti? poeti is aris, visac SeuZlia drois dinebis sawinaaRmdegod sagnebis warmavali yofiereba maradiulSi daafuZnos, visac SeuZlia Seqmnas mexsierebaSi gamkvrivebuli sagnebisa da warmodgenebis namdviloba da maTi ganamdvileba sxvaTa cnobierebaSi. srulyofileba aTavisuflebs sagnebsa da movlenebs ontologiuri safrTxeebisagan daviwyebaSi, sasrulobaSi samudamo dakargvis

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ubedurebisagan. erTaderTi adamianuri codvac arasrulyofilebaa, romlis ,,monanieba xSirad sabediswerod gvaviwydeba. poezia aTavisuflebs arasrulyofilebis codvebisagan. raoden unda icvalos man forma da Sinaarsi, es is tkivilia, saidanac yovelTvis yvelaferi iwyeboda da iwyeba. arasrulyofilebis samSoblo droiTobaa, warmavloba da raRa saidumloa, rom didia misi Zalaufleba. am gagebiT poeti (Tu poezia) usamSobloa, romelsac ar eSinia araviTari Zalauflebis, romelsac dro xan esTetikuri da eTikuri taqtiTa da sinaziT, xan jalaTis pedantizmiTa da sisastikiT axorcielebs.... SiSveli aRmafrena kargad iyideba, magaram dros is uZlebs, rac grdemlze iWedeba da skulpturuli sicxadiT dgeba Cvens winaSe. Sroma istoriaa da codna. uistorio leqsi fuyea da matyuara, Sua gzaze gtovebs imedgacruebuls. skulptorisTvis ki sunsac forma aqvs da dards sxeuli, mTaTa dumilSi maTi simaRlis sibrZne metyvelebs, siTbo da mwuxareba ki mklavze iebad amodian... givi alxaziSvilis poeziis gancda-gagebis mTavari kari xedviTi aRqmaa, Semdeg erTvebian sxva sensorebic smena, romelic asonansebis musikiT ixsneba, Sexeba, rogorc sityvis simkvrive, da ynosva, rogorc ,,sxva sunTqva. Sen zurgs Seaqcev mSiSara fiqrebs, moCvenebiTad sibilur gumans da mTebs gaxedav, isev rom sduman, radgan simaRliT yvelaferi Tqves. ..... is darCa Zmebze motirali, mduRare cremliT orTav Tvalis amomkalavi, dgas misi landi CemSi, rogorc dardis karavi. es ar aris foto-asli, originalSi mec iq viyav, magram ar vCanvar, radgan isini CarCnen CemSi da suraTi aris CemSi da me CarCo var. dilas aRviZebs puris suni, arsobis suni.. SuaRamisas WriWinebis mSvidi simRera

zRvarTan yofnis poetika

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adgils ar tovebs sxva xmebisTvis... ... da es yanebi mkaTaTveSi gadaTibuli Cvens mosalodnel uZraobas gamzeurebul logins uSlian. ,,puris suni uRimi meddas, Calurjebul venas uCveneb, rogorc mklavze amosul ias da gixaria, dRes rom tkivils gagiyuCeben. ,,Cabrunebuli mzera magram SegrZnebaTa myisier sinqronulobas sadRac Cumi ironia bzaravs, rogorc sibrZnis daRi, romelic SegrZnebaTa Soris mkrTalad miipareba da qmnis pauzaTa naprals, rogorc mijnas dumilsa da Tqmas Soris, mokvdavobasa da ukvdavebas Soris, yofnasa da aryofnas Soris, natrobda Tavi xelaxla eSva, magram sxva bgera ar hqonda eJvans. miacilebda misi wkriali, iqiTken, sadac mudam wre ari. kari ver gaxsna didi oqtavis, ukvdavebaze dardobs mokvdavi. ,,eJvani rac Tavi maxsovs, me napiri viyavi mudam aramxolod zRvis, aramed sityvis da sityvebs Soris arsebul droSi, romelic mudam uTqmelobis tanjviT savsea, vimalebodi da ar vCandi aRaravisTvis. ,,arsebobs viRac, vinc fxizlobs mudam es leqsic, albaT, kibes waagavs, rom adi-Cadis im or kars Soris, romelic mudam daxSulia, radgan Riaa. ,,...Cven xom yvela daketil kars vebRauWebiT zogjer pauza Cvenc gvauCinarebs da vigulisxmebiT

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im bzarSi, romelic Jamma amoqola, ,,puris suni

zRvarze dgoma niSnavs, ipovo wonasworobis centri, romelic Tavis TavSi kravs, gadakveTs istoriasa da Tanamedroveobas, rogorc process. es pozicia imdenad SeiZleba iyos avtoris arCevani, ramdenadac poeturi saTqmeli iTxovs amas. givi alxaziSvilis poezia swored amgvari wonasworobis gamomxatvelia. e. w. konvenciuri leqsi Tematur-Sinaarsobrivi plastis formaluri gadwyvetaa, rogorc interteqsturi dialogebis bunebrivi elementi da ara gacveTili poeturi inercia. Sesabamisad, igi Tavis adgils swored iq uTmobs leqswyobis siaxleebs, sadac mxatvruli mzera sagnebisa da movlenebis mimarT aRar ixsneba retrospeqtulad da momarTulia perspeqtividan; magaliTad, subieqt-obieqtis inversia, rogorc postmodernuli xedviTi alternativa, givi alxaziSvilis poeziaSi mzeris veqtoris cvlasTan erTad bunebrivad ibadeba: ... yoveli dRe ise mfurclavs, rogorc adre wakiTxul wigns da ver mixsenebs. ,,...am oTaxebSi erTmaneTis sunTqvac ki gvesmis saSiSi mzera gimaxsovrebs da man, vinc SenSi iqeqeba, horizontic yulfad giqcia ,,...amoikiTxav xelnawers SenSi amasTan, konvenciuri saleqso tradicia ar Tmobs Tavis SesaZleblobebs: teqstTa Soris dialogis parodiul-ironiuli modusis gamformeblad swored igi warmodgeba. aq tradiciuli versifikacia, rogorc interteqstis maorganizebeli, Tavad iZens axal konteqsts. amasTan, reminiscenciebi, aluziebi Tavis mxriv gadatvirTaven teqstTa Soris ,,Seferxebul, gauCinarebul Tu gamotovebul dialogebs da maT axlebur reprezentacias gvTavazoben. es aris versifikaciis is semantikuri Sre, romelic namdvil poeziaSi Sinagani kanonzomierebiT iCens xolme Tavs da axdens tradiciisa da modernis urTierTgadaformebas. qr.. qr..eba. Suqi qreba..

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qr..qr..eba qromatulad, magram albaT ufro martivad... gadanacvleba akrobatuli _ qari rom daqris, sadac unda da roca unda daqris, qr. qr. qr. qr..olvis imitacia, ganqarveba da qaris devnis gaxseneba. udabnos qarva horizontTan dneba yovelTvis... qr. qari, qori da qoro nu fren.. da vaJTa qoro, da qaravani qoronikonis. ,,saniSnebeli saavadmyofo furceli parodiul-ironiuli narativis aRniSnuli formaluri waxnagi givi alxaziSvilis poeziaSi saintereso semantikur datvirTvasac atarebs: igi erTsa da imave dros gamoxatavs bmasa da wyvetas tradiciasTan, religiasTan, eqsistenciasTan, yvelaferTan, rac sul cota xnis win genealogiur mocemulobad warmogvidgeboda. reminiscenciebi, bgerweris poeturi strategiebi, evfoniebi da asonansebi gvTavazoben, es wyvetebi ganvicadoT rogorc maradiuli mTelis nawili. aqedan mistifikaciac, romelic rogorc ganwyobis SigniTa mxare kidec gansazRvravs da kidec ganasrulebs mxatvrul kompozicias. es moriale realobaa da atmosfero farisevlur_amoraluri, igive xalxi sadukevel_amoreveli da godebidan amozrdili iudeveli, Cven _ Zveli fiqriT, satkivariT, SecodebebiT, da SuriT, Suris Sari_SuriT miuteveliT... konturi meore mxriv, ironia axali drois xmaa, romelic tradiciul ganmartebebsa da saxelebs Taviseburad gadanaTlavs, an srulebiT auqmebs... ,,qacvias dRiurebis avtori arc am xmas gamotovebs da igi Tavis bunebriv adgilas Semoaqvs ironiisa da parodiis qveteqstSi... Semoqmedebis Tematuri plani poetis mxatvruli interesebis sferos asaxavs. amitom igi yovelTvis sainteresoa. givi alxaziSvili am TvalsazrisiT qarTuli saazrovno tradiciebis gamgrZelebelia. absurduli yofa, gaufasurebuli Rirebulebebi adamianur sevdasa da mware ironias warmoSobs. ,,iyideba saqarTvelos motivi givi alxa-

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nana trapaiZe

ziSvilis SemoqmedebaSi erovnuli da moqalaqeobrivi cnobierebis krizisis Tematikas agrZelebs. vyidi samSoblos, Tu ki isev arsebobs, saWiro informaciisTvis: dareke, daubare! vyidi daubadebel Svils, vyidi mxolod ucxoelze... dareke, daubare! ,,morbenali striqoni da es meramdene dRea, ver ixseneb erTi da igive dRe rom meordeba da Senc rom arsebob viRacis asliviT, romelic dedanTan yovelTvis sworia, dedanTan sworia, rogorc es masivi _ nacrisfer yofiTac ar arRvevs standartebs, Sen arsad, is arsad, grZeldeba zozini _ andante... andate... ,,Tvali gzad gagirbis poezia adamianis sulieri samyaros gaxsnis garSemo trialebs. tkivilis, martoobis, miusafrobis, SiSis, sixarulis, mSvenierebis asaxva aq iSviaTi poeturi STambeWdavobiT gamoirCeva: da isev tivtiveb, da radgan tivtiveb, ver xvdebi sarkmeli rad geqca miwurad, Sen Ruza CauSvi sakuTar tkivilSi, da axla CaSvebul RuzasTan micurav dilis koncerti Zveli albomi momenatrebi, maSinac ki, roca aqve xar da meSinia rom gafrinde sadme CitiviT, momenatreba Seni xelis mCate Sexeba da SiSis SiSi da es fiqri SiSis CiTili TvalebSi aCens uferul foTlebs... da qvasac Seni guli ucems ... ,,puris suni

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hyvaoda mdelo da gwvdeboda welamdi... Sen dros izogavdi, TiTqosda welavdi... erTmaneTs veZebdiT, vavsebdiT, vTibavdiT, vawvendiT, vkonavdiT, vkocnidiT, vcelavdiT. xsovnac ki maRelvebs; maSinac vRelavdi, Sen Tvals akvesebdi da CemSi elavdi, rad aRar Semogvwvda balaxi welamdi, Cven, mosacelebi, erTmaneTs vcelavdiT. sityvebi dumilis da mzis saaTebis: mgoni raRac dagrCa kidev gasaTibi. TuSuri pastorali

tradiciis nayofier Zalas poeti srulad acnobierebs: folkloruli motivebi Tu aluziebi mxatvruli azrovnebis erTgvar waxnagebad warmodgebian: aRar masvenebs miviwyebul Sairis suli: cxra qalamani gavcviTe, cxra gza, cxra xerxi vcadeo, vdie da ver davewie, davje da davucadeo. es dRe sad gaqra?! Cven maT vsunTqavT haerTan erTad da drosTan erTad, vinc miabares casa da urnas, kvamli iqa da ferfli aqa. daviwyebulTa rekviemi samyaros amoucnobi idumaleba gulubryvilobas kvlavac unarCunebs adamians, romelmac gakvirvebis unari TiTqos dakarga. amitom upasuxo kiTxvebi swored bavSvis xmiT gaismis: me rom gavizardebi, Sen xom Caizardebi? sad midis kaci, roca veRar brundeba? sad imaleba qari, roca aRar qris? sad imaleba cecxli, roca aRar anTia? sad midis musika, roca aRar ukraven? ,,bavSvis SekiTxvebi

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Tixaa adamiani: xan savse, xan carieli. savse Tixa ,,mReris da sicariele xmis dakargvis tragediaa. Tixa savsea RviniT cisa da miwis ziarebiT... ..mkvdreTiT aRmdgarTa vsvamT sagalobels.. axla rom ismis fragmentebad da vsvamT kidevac da vgrZnob saRamos lurjferovan gaxaverdebas da qveyanaze mTvaris dardis gadmokidebas. ..momenatreba, moferebisas xelisgulis qveS rom iburcebi.. gadamafare Seni mzeris Tbili qsovili... moizileba Cvenganac Tixa, Tixisgan _ doqi, mravlisgan _ erTi, xolo im erTSi mravalTa Zili. ...mxolod Seni gamoRviZeba... da guliscemas ayolili sicocxlis Cqami da pauzebis amoqolva cvalebad tembriT doqi xmas icvlis... gaxsovdes Tixa gaxsovdes Tixa! miwa miwaa bolos miwa saflavs ekuTvnis da es tipebi Tixis fexebze rom Semdgaran da arxeinad miabijeben, arc axsendebaT rom TvalebiT TavianT cas daatareben... ... da es yanebi mkaTaTveSi gadaTibuli Cvens mosalodnel uZraobas gamzeurebul logins uSlian. ,,...sakmarisia xelis gawvdena amaoebaze fiqri, sulisa da xorcis erTarsoba da Widili bibliur paradigmebs efuZneba. qarTuli poezia am paradigmebze Camoyalib-

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da. d. guramiSvili maT simbolur-metaforul da parodiul-ironiul qsovilSi Slida. mistifikaciis amgvari tradicia mTeli Tavisi cxovelmyofelobiT grZeldeba da mxatvrul ukufenebsa da saazrovno tendenciebis Sinagan uwyvetobasac impliciturad miuTiTebs: mipoveT vinme, vinc SeaRviZebs Svidsimian qnars, rom misi sunTqva moswvdes ialqans da Semacuros zRvaSi naviviT.. me daviviwyeb ocdameerTes da udroobis zRvarTan Cavivli. ver davTme yofa da gamoyofa, Tavis mRvimiT da mkerdis aivniT. ,,mipoveT vinme da isev simRera Zveleburi _ hari-harale da arxalali, balaxiviTaa es dReebi, qari dahberavs da... aRar ari. ,,fsalmunis motivebi dabolos, g. alxaziSvilis poeziaze saubari srulyofilebis sakiTxiT daviwyeT. mxedvelobidan ar gamomrCenia saubris ase dawyebis riski, gamoiTqva bundovnad da moralisturad. magram Tu es cnobieri startia, maSin igi mxolod maTgan daSorebis, gandgoma-gamoqcevis niSnulia. srulyofileba dasrulebulobaa. da is imdenadvea SemoqmedebiTi Jini, ramdenadac ostatoba, imdenadvea aRmafrena, gnebavT platonis zeSTagoneba, ramdenadac moqandakis faqizi Sroma da zedmiwevniTi codna, grZnoba masalis, ris gareSec Sroma fuWia. aRmafrena, Sroma da codna erTad maRali xelovnebis (sakmaod deficituri) kulturaa. givi alxaziSvilis Semoqmedeba iSviaTi sinatifiTa da siRrmiT flobs am kulturis umaRles niSnulebs da qarTuli poeturi kulturis realur Sinaarssac Segvaxsenebs, rac, samwuxarod, dRes im alternativad rCeba, romlis saWiroebisTvisac narcisul-epataJur kmayofilebaSi lamis adgili aRaraa...

paata Samugia

mtris xatis semiotika anu adamiani, rogorc simbolomorCili programa

folologiis mecnierebaTa magistri; art-portal demo.ge-s damfuZnebeli; gamocemuli wignebi: 2000 w. `ucxoplaneteli~; 2003 `SOS~ ; 2005 `13 leqsi~; 2006 `antityaosani~ interesTa sfero: poezia, kritika, programireba.

arc ise didi xnis win movidnen Tavqariani postmodernistebi da cxvirabzuebul inteleqtualebs Tavze gadaafSvnes binaruli opoziciebi. xalxs, romelsac swamda, rom WeSmaritebis umaRles mwvervalebs zedmiwevniT laSqravda, fexqveS miwa gamoecala da karga xans ebrZoda am, erTi SexedviT, avantiuristul ideas. ara da, ki iyo, ise, avantiuristuli... da miuxedavad imisa, rom aRiarebuli samecniero Sexedulebis Tanaxmad ar arsebobs kargi da cudi, boroti da keTili, (mokled rom vTqvaT, tradiciuli binaruli opoziciebi), aramed _ konkretuli garemoeba, konkretuli wami da konkretuli adamiani (homo konkretusi), miuxedavad amisa, arsebobs omebi, diskriminacia... nebismier oms ki Tan axlavs gamocdili metafora: mteri. da vin aris es mteri? nicSes Tanaxmad, mteri aris RmerTi. magram vinaidan, (nicSesve Tanaxmad) is mokvda, ganeitralebulia da mteric aRar eTqmis. egec rom ar iyos, berZnulma miTosma asobiT RmerTi daunaneblad miabara miwas da Cven erTi RmerTi (Tundac, vinmes TeoriiT _ mkvdari) rogorme unda avitanoT. saqarTvelos lamis saxalxo damcvelis _ dimitri lorTqifaniZis _ Tanaxmad, mteri aris seqsualuri umciresoba. nebismieri Tundac saSualo civilizaciis mqone qveynis kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, dimitri lorTqifaniZe aris, mteri Tu ara, rasisti mainc.

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rasistebis da teroristebis varskvlavbiWuna _ bin ladenisaTvis mteri aris jorj buSi da salman ruSdi. salman ruSdisaTvis mteri ar arsebobs (TviTon ase Tqva). religiurma wminda wignebma sulac globalur mowinaaRmdegeze aleses xmali da mogvces iseTi internacionaluri ikoni, rogoricaa, luciferi, mefistofeli, satana, kaeni, iuda... biblia da sxva kanonikuri wignebi warmoadgenda uZveles media-saSualebebs. RmerTi ki media-magnati iyo, rogoricaa, vTqvaT, rupert merdoki, oRond merdokze ufro navaroCeni~ da qarizmatuli. sabazro ekonomikis principebis kargad codnisa da, amavdroulad, misi ignorirebis gamo ufali media-monopolistad Camoyalibda. antimonopoliuri samsaxuri dumda, albaT imitom, rom ar arsebobda. piar-manqana daiqoqa, manqanis saWesTan, cxadia, RmerTi ijda, `astras~ nerviulad eqaCeboda da bibliis momdevno TavisaTvis dasawer siuJetze fiqrobda. siuJeti Zalian gulisamaCuyebeli da radikaluri unda yofiliyo. mTavar rolSi _ eSmaki, romelic kacobriobas daRupvas uqadis. rogorc Jurnal Tbiliselebis~ respondentebi ityvian: pirvel efeqts garegnuloba~ axdens da Sesabamisad, eSmaks kudi, maxinji sifaTi da banjgvlebi arc erT SemTxvevaSi ar awyenda negatiuri vizualuri efeqtisaTvis. ase (an daaxloebiT ase) Seiqmna sainformacio omis mTavari komponenti _ mtris xati _ eSmakisgan. magram eSmaki didi eSmaki vinme aRmoCnda da advilad ar danebebia iZulebiT socialur statuss. brZolas agrZelebda da arasdidebiT ar yrida metafizikur far-xmals. amitom ufalma sainformacio omis sxva strategia SeimuSava da bazarze gamoitana axali media-produqti _ saxareba~. saxarebis~ oTxma reportiorma _ maTem, lukam, ioanem da markozma daundobeli sainformacio fronti gaxsnes, romelmac sabolood ganamtkica satanis iZulebiTi socialuri statusi da Seqmnes gaqvavebuli mniSvneloba. kacma rom Tqvas, amis Semdeg brZolis teqnologiebi didad arc Secvlila. magaliTad, 70-ian wlebSi, riCard niqsonis saarCevno StabSi iyo specialuri media-jgufi, romlis funqcias Seadgenda demokratebisaTvis~ sainformacio cecxlis gaxsna. faqtia, rom am Zalian patara media-jgufma uswrafesi Sedegi dado: edmund maski iZulebuli gaxda, moexsna kandidatura, miuxedavad imisa, rom egziT-polebiT niqsoni karga gvarianad hyavda Camotovebuli. mtris xati Tanamedrove politikis ganmsazRvrelad iqca. politikosebi gvixataven adamians an movlenas, romelic unda iqces

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Cveni siZulvilisa da zizRis samizned. gvaswavlian mterze SurisZiebas. SurisZiebaze Tu midgeba saqme, Zvel egviptelebze kreatiuli midgoma sad unda naxo, mtris saxes fexsacmlis lanCaze rom ixatavdnen da mSvenieri sublimaciis saSualebasac Cuqnidnen Tavs. droTa ganmavlobaSi daixvewa mterTan brZolis meTodebi da sabrZolo moqmedebis Teatri metafizikuridan fizikur avanscenaze gadavida. Tumca, metafizikuri diskursi dRemde warmatebulad muSaobs cnobierebaze. mTavaria, kreatiuloba. kreatiuloba arasodes vnebs da sainformacio omis dros xom, saerTod, haeriviTaa. brZola erTia da, meore da iqneb ufro mniSvnelovanicaa, gamoZerwo metafora, romelis garSemoc Semokreb masobriv emociebs. ai, amis Semdeg ukve advilia. mtris xatis Seqmnis procesSi sainformacio omis teqnologebi qeqaven gaqvavebul mniSvnelobebs, acocxleben maT da cdiloben am mniSvnelobebs moargon mtris fsiqotipi. TvalsaCinoeba yovelTvis momgebiania. magaliTad, SevkriboT ramdenime imiji: utifari ritorika, kriminaluri warsuli, absoluturad ukulturo, mafiozis imiji... xom Zalian cudia. axla es yvelaferi davalagoT da movifiqroT erTi adamiani, visac es yvelaferi momadlebuli~ aqvs. Tu Tqven ver moifiqreT, xelisufleba dagexmarebaT: aleqsandre ebraliZe. maS ase, mteri napovnia. jer davadgineT is fsiqotipebi, razec gansakuTrebuli refleqsebi aqvs Cvens sazogadoebas da amis Semdeg ukve es gamzadebuli templeiti~ movargeT obieqts. ase martivad xdeba es yvelaferi. SeiZleba, vinmem xelisuflebis propagandis msxverplad CamTvalos, magram vaRiareb, aleqsandre ebraliZis saqarTveloSi naxvisTanave pirveli me davaxvev saqarTvelodan. ai, ase! satana, iuda, hitleri... es saxelebi gaqvavebuli mniSvnelobisaa da maTTan mimarTebebi savaraudod arasodes Seicvleba. amitomac maTi gamoyeneba da mtris identificireba am mniSvnelobebTan Zalian efeqturia. ruseT-saqarTvelos omis dros orive mxaris mier warmoebuli sainformacio omi erTi-erTze imeorebda erTmaneTs. isec Canda TiTqos, erTi da igive teqnologi muSaobda orsave mxareze. jer ruseTma dahaka qarTuli samTavrobo saitebi da mTavar gverdze gamoitana mixeil saakaSvilis suraTebi, sadac es ukanaskneli mimsgavsebulia hitlerTan. vinaidan Cveni hakerebi~ jerjerobiT mxolod vindousis~ gadayenebis damuRamebis procesSi arian, rusuli saitebis gatexa Teoriuladac ki warmoudgeneli iyo. amitom saWiro gaxda alternatiuli SurisZiebis formis gamonaxva.

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Sedegad, mTel TbilisSi naxavdiT plakatebs, sadac putins hitleris safirmo ulvaSi amSvenebda~. erTia gaqvavebuli mniSvneloba da meorea, roca specsamsaxurebi an sainformacio gigantebi TviTon qmnian axal mniSvnelobebs, axal negativebs, romlis farglebSic gaSlian xolme sabrZolo strategiebs. mag: rusuli ka-ge-be~ lobirebda masonebisa da msoflio mTavrobebis konspiraciul Teoriebis mTeli sabWoTa masStabiT gavrcelebas, romelic aris gamokveTilad antidasavluri, antiamerikuli da, rac mTavaria, antisemituri. am mxriv qarTuli presac fxizladaa~, mag: asaval-dasavalSi~ xSirad ibeWdeba vinme iakob axuaSvilis mecnieruli~ Tezisebi masonebis yovladdamRupveli~ saqmianobis Sesaxeb. Tu mivendobiT baton axuaSvils, mTeli samasoneTi, Turme nu ityvi da, qarTuli marTlmadideblobis~ winaaRmdeg Sejarula. magram yvelaze mTavari isaa, rom saZageli~ masonebisgan msoflios daicavs marTlmadidebeli ruseTi.~ Zneli saTqmelia, moZme ruseTi isev ise dagvicavs, rogorc 2008 wlis agvistoSi, Tu rame sxva taqtikas moifiqreben qristesmieri Zmebi. faqtia, rom mtris xati masonebisgan advilad Seiqmna da aramarto saqarTveloSi. am Teoriebs bevri momxmarebeli hyavs mTel postsabWoTa sivrceSi. aseTi iracionaluri mtris xatis damkvidrebas qarTul eklesiaSi gamefebuli sibnelec xels uwyobs. saqarTvelos sapatriarqos oficialur veb-gverdze xSirad SexvdebiT erTgvar katexizmoebs, sadac mrevlis kiTxvebs cnobili sasuliero pirebi pasuxoben. kiTxvaze: miyvars kaTolike vaJi da SeiZleba Tu ara mas colad gavyve~ _ moyvasis siyvaruliT gulanTebuli mamao~ ase pasuxobs: ar SeiZleba, rameTu kaTolicizmi mwvaleblobaa.~ aRarafers vambob mcire religiur dajgufebebze: iehovas mowmeebze, ormocdaaTianelebsa an mormonebze. maTze qarTvel sasuliero pirebs permanentuli ideologiuri auto-da-fe aqvT mowyobili. yvelaze mrevlmravali institutis aseTi damokidebuleba, cxadia, did gavlenas axdens sazogadoebaze. roca saxalxo damcvelma odesRac saangariSo moxseneba waradgina parlamentSi, naxevarma parlamentma protestis niSnad datova darbazi. mizezi ki is iyo, rom subarma religiaTa Tanasworobaze xma daZra. amaswinaT ki zviad ZiZiguri gamovida mitingze sityviT: saqarTvelo qarTvelebisaa da ara viRac iaRovelebis da sxva gadamTielebiso. rasakvirvelia, batonma zviadma am xatovani~ TqmiT araerTi jigari~ qarTvelis guli sixaruliT aaTrTola, rac msmenelTa

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paata Samugia

taSis quxilsa da lamis bisis~ ZaxilSi gamoixata. amasobaSi, gairkva,~ rom iaRoveli~, sulac eTnikuri indeqsi yofila. oRond es eTnosi (anu miTologiuri iaRoveli eri~) Cveni qarTuli meobisa~ da gagebis~ dasamxobad Seuqmnia raRac Zalas (savaraudod, lucifers an sulac liberalebs). sxva aris viwropartiuli an viwrokorporaciuli mtris gamoZerwva da sul sxvaa, roca iZerweba saerToerovnuli mtris xati. amas, ra Tqma, unda gacilebiT didi Sroma da fuladi resursebi sWirdeba. zemoT ukve visaubreT aleqsandre ebraliZis magaliTze erTi saerTo mtris Sesaxeb, magram xSirad mTeli eTnosisgan xdeba mtris gamoZerwva. xelisufleba, romelic kargavs popularobas, cdilobs Seqmnas axali socialuri konstruqciebi, romelSic unda icxovron moqalaqeebma. mtris xati am konstruqciis mTavari detalia. roca putinma igrZno reitingis dacema, CeCneTi erTianad moaswora da amiT Tavisi imiji erTbaSad aRidgina rusi xalxis winaSe. magram oms ver daiwyebda, rom ara winasaomari sainformacio samuSaoebi. Tveebis manZilze rusuli samamulo teleindustria mondomebulad Zerwavda Seubralebeli~, bavSvebismkvleli~, korpusebisamfeTqebeli~ CeCeni eris saxes. da raki adamiani simboloebis morCili programaa, xelisuflebis grZelvadianobas swored simboloebis sworad SerCeva gansazRvravs. simbolo unda iyos rac SeiZleba zogadi da nebismierma adamianma unda SeZlos am simbolosTan Tavisi SiSebisa da survilebis datoleba da identificireba. sainformacio propaganda mravalplaniania. goldSteinis TeoriiT, am frontis wina xazze xSirad qalebi gamodian da sakmaod warmatebuladac. avtori am genderul diskurss ase xsnis: roca mamakacebi ibrZvian da sisxls Rvrian, paralelurad, saxelmwifo cdilobs gamoiyvanos qalebi, romlebic mSvidobisken mouwodeben mTel msoflios. sinamdvileSi, _ ambobs goldSteini, _ roca qalebi ibrZvian mSvidobisaTvis, isini yvelaze mets muSaoben omisaTvis. asea Tu ise, faqtia, rom Cven, yvelani, miuxedavad genderuli Tu asakobrivi sxvaobebisa, yelamde varT Cafluli sabrZolo moqmedebis TeatrSi da nebismier momentSi, Tundac maSin, roca picas geaxlebiT aRgznebuli Seyvarebulis TanxlebiT, an paTetikurad vsaubrobT Tanamedrove artis Sesaxeb, SeiZleba, sulac brZolis wina xazze viyoT da saerTod araferi vicodeT amis Sesaxeb.

ABSTRACTS
Tsira Barbakazde Semiotics of Madness and Contemporary Literary Procedures (Post-colonial Georgian Poetry) The cultural paradigm - "madness and literary works"-intensively appeared in the 21st century.The brisk process of semiotization approached Modernism and Avangard while psycopathology deals with art as well. The paranoial world affected the art throughout 20th century. Actually, socio-cultural systems of European fascism and Soviet totalitarism were essentially determined by the paranoial systems. Post-colonial reality highlighted "alternative poetry" in the Georgian literary procedures .Alternative poetry considers vanishing the author's identification as the limelight concern that appears extremely complicated while the author is identified with subjects, plants, animals as well as with variety of pronounced words according to their special significations. Alternative poetry emerges the sign (lexical, grammatical, phraseological levels)desemantization,besides this, traditional and vocabulary meanings. While creating new concepts to reveal the evidence of "the new alphabet" the authors tend to define the recent metaphorical context forming the new language of poetry that varies from the traditional one.On the other hand,poets expose "the key" manifestos determining their poetry,however, due to semiotical features their works still appear to be confusing.

Konstantine Bregadze Grigol Robakidze and His Novel Die gemordete Seele as the Hermeneutics of the Mythic-Demonic Nature of a Totalitarian (Soviet) State and of Modernist Epoch 1. Among the central themes of the 20th century novel is the relationship between an individual and a (totalitarian) state, which is quite logical bearing in mind the historical and social background of the

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20th century, when the problem of an individuals existential fear rose with full sharpness. Among the factors fostering the fear was the phenomenon of the so-called totalitarian states together with the growing technological civilization. 2. In the novel Die gemordete Seele Grigol Robakidze considers the mentioned theme, i.e. the interrelationship between an individual and a totalitarian state, in ontological terms: in particular, based on Goethes poetic reception of the first phenomenon, the hermeneutics of modern Faustian and mythless (K. Gamsakhurdia) existence is presented in terms of the ontological first principles and arche-origins. 3. It should be noted that generally the central characters of Grigol Robakidzes novels are possessed with the Nietzschean quest for deity and to a certain extent are endowed with superhuman qualities, which is manifested through their antagonism with the godless technological civilization on the one hand, and with the totalitarian state on the other. This very antagonism fosters the inevitable tragedy of the central characters of Grigol Robakidzes novels. For example, the main character of Die gemordete Seele Tamaz Enguri, a representative of the spiritual aristocracy, a man of art and a film director, lives in the demonic Soviet reality and with his aesthetic and philosophical credo opposes the Soviet regime. This confrontation will inevitably lead to his tragic destruction, as he opposes the atheistic ideology and the aesthetic of the mass socialist reality as a single individual (Chapter 3, The Flayed Horse; Chapter 10, Erasing All Boundaries; Chapter 13, The Orifice of Death). 4.Therefore, it is no coincidence that on the one hand, the novel presents the hermeneutics of the demonic nature of the Soviet state and the conditions that fostered it (Chapter 5, A Part of Torn God Turned into Flesh, Chapter VIII, Jugha or After Dostoevsky; Chapter 11, The Akasha Chronicle; Chapter 16, The Demoniac), while on the other hand, it conveys the critical discourse of modern soulless technological civilization in general (Chapter 9, When an Atom Splits). 5.Grigol Robakidze devoted one chapter of the novel to unfolding the Stalin phenomenon (Chapter 12, Stalins Horoscope), which is a very fundamental and successful attempt of creating the psycho-demonic portrait of a leader (Oedipus and Herostrates complex), which no other author has ever presented in such a convincing way. 6.On the whole, the main idea (the inner logos) of the novel Die gemordete Seele can be phrased as follows: It presents how divine first origins disappear from the worldly life in the soulless and mythless age.

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Anuki Imnaishvili Post-modernist Tendencies of Georgian Prose of Post-soviet Generation of 90s of XX Century In Georgia, as the first post-modernists are named to be: David Chikhladze, David Barbakadze, Zurab Karumidze, Karlo Kachava Though, the Georgian cites: Levan Bregadze, Bela Tsipuria, Nugzar Muzashvili review not only the writing of the last decade of XX century from this point of view, but the work of authors of earlier generation, i.e. literature critics approve, that we failed the post-modernism in prose of Otar Chkheidze, Guram Dochanashvili, Naira Gelashvili, Givi Margvelashvili, Jemal Karchkhadze and Revaz Inanishvili. In works created in 90s by the certain above mentioned authors, there are noticed the post-modernist accents, but the youth implementing these tendencies are the 90s. From the point of view of expressing the Georgian post-modernist artistic and creating tendeces, prose of Zurab Karumidze, Dato Barbakadze, Shota Iatashvili, Aka Morchiladze, Beso Khvedelidze, Lasha Bugadze, Zaza Burchuladze, Zaza Tvaradze is interesting. For the prose of the above mentioned authors play, associate, apply allusion, phantasy, phantasmagory, remake, parody, revealing, intellectuality, more telling, in short, all the classical signs, what is included by postmodernism and post-modernism consists is characteristic. Since 1990, a new type of fiction has been created in Georgian literature. The signs of this type may be fixed in earlier years as well as irony, grotestic, citing, intellectuality, allusions, and the other, but all these were formed by writing and critics as searching of new forms of reflection and percepted as a required and certain event of creative individualism. Before, all these didnt have their names, as they had no systematic, nor essential artistic and semantic function. Even without it, in ,,Fifteen Century Entirely, originating the epoch of massive circulation of literature was difficult to contemplate. Calling of modern epoch oppressed our stable traditionalism. There was risen a question in its due time was post-modernism inculcated in us or simply the Georgian writers said their words before the world cultural aesthetics while writing in this manner. May be the certain part of Georgian writers, simply applied the post-modernist tendencies, but its artificiality is so obvious (what we have noted) that the reader clearly feels the gap between the genuine writing and pulp. Post-

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modernism is on purpose transplanted literature trend by European influence and not the naturally, logically originates school of Georgian Soil, flowing of this aesthetics was provided by globalization and opening the frontiers, the literature of all types and forms became available for Georgian Society, varied reading material, what from its party made the influence on our writing and the writers as well. Post modernism was revealed to us in face of certain tendencies, than in face of concrete literature school. Luckily, there were revealed (inculcated) the authors, which offered the Georgian post-modernist literature, without any loan. Good was already revealed (was inculcated, merged with ,,Fifteen Century Unity), what was followed by appropriate science of literature, researching and studying of which was begun by Georgian clever mind, by means of which, its possible to be re-comprehended (read again) our inheritance past, present, foreseen the future without any embarrassment.

Tamar Lomidze Lingustics and Poetics (The Issue of Interpetation of Some Poetic Terms) Problems of semantics of poetical language are rarely considered in literary studies. An investigation of eminent Russian philologist, Y.Tinianov A Problem of Poetical Language, is the only research considering the effect of the influence of poetical factors on the semantics of a word. Researches made by Russian formalists were based on Saussures linguistic semiotics (although formalists constructed their own original conceptions), but there are no any evident signs of Saussures ideas in A Problem of Poetical Language by Tinianov. The author of paper concludes, that in spite of it, Tinianovs terminology is created according to fundamental concepts of linguistic semiotics. Thereby, A Problem of Poetical Language by Tinianov is not an exception among the Russian formalists works. This work is fully based on linguistic models.

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Salome Omiadze One Gender Stereotype in the Language of Poetry (Ana Kalandadze, Mukhran Machavariani) For the present gender-poetic study the work of contemporary poets Ana Kalandadze and Mukhran Machavariani is chosen. The colour perception of the world is described on the basis of the observation of the speech of a female poet and a male poet. In this direction not a single characteristic has been discovered demonstrating the difference of the vision and perception of the picture of the world, and the reproduction of this picture by a female poet and a male poet. The stereotyped viewpoint, current in gender psychology and sociology: Women perceive a broader range of colours than men, has not been confirmed. Of course, this conclusion is drawn on the basis of limited empirical material. The present small study, naturally, is not sufficient for the generalization of the results of the analysis. However, very similar perception of colour and its identical expression in a speech act by, at least, one female poet and one male poet cannot be ascribed to chance alone. This fact generates further interest and necessity to increase the number of poetic discourses to be analyzed (i.e. gender pairs of poets).

Ramaz Khalvashi Intertext of Blue-Grey Horses Blue-Grey Horses by Galaktion Tabidze (1915) first was published in 1916 in the Georgian Symbolists periodic publication Blue Horns. It was immediately recognized as the masterpiece of Georgian poetry. The present paper deals with the intertextual analysis of this verse. Relations of Blue-Grey Horses to old and new poetic traditions (The Knight in the Panther's Skin by Shota Rustaveli, Jimshediani by M. Baratashvili, Merani by N. Baratashvili, Three Idols by V. Bryusov, etc.) as well as to the aesthetics of Romanticism and Symbolism have been studied. Poetic images are nourished by the modern scientific viewpoints and by demythologized apocalyptic symbols. The Nietzschean idea of the death of God is realized in BlueGrey Horses and consequently the entire world is presented as the domain of death in the verse. Galaktion echoes the famous motive of

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Competition of Poems and Horses and he creates the idea of the immortality of poetry in the main image symbol of the poem BlueGrey Horses. Everlasting race of Blue-Grey Horses in cosmic eternal land embodies the triumph of Galaktions poetry and the eternal festivity of victory of life over death.

Irakli Mchedlishvili The Renaissance Human Dimension, Projection and the Project of Modernism Within the limits of medieval, emanation models of a universe in days of the Renaissance there was a is independent-human vision, human dimension. New vision based on models of boundary ability of reason- opportunities of simultaneous comprehension concrete and absolute. Such representation or dimensionwas thought in the spatial form. Humanism of the Renaissance or the structured vision from the beginning of new time began to be equaled with the natural-scientific model of the world. Projective structure of the comprehended, particularly revealed and ideal forms it was replaced by the model of the natural order of the nature. The project of the Renaissance which was thought in spatial dimension with transition to natural model will be defined by a natural course event, that is temporary order. Universal, equalizing aspirations or social changes of New Time have arisen on the basis of such the scientific order representations

Gia Jokhadze The Body History Georgian Version The history of tears not only has dimensions that are psychological and cultural, but also theological and institutional. In this essay, we approach the history of the tradition of tears from a historical and anthropological point of view. In the Middle Ages tears were valued in two forms: tears of devotion and tears that were a sign of grace (the gift of tears). We might say that the attitude toward tears and weep is rather identical from the point of view European approach. We draw

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from Georgian Historical sources: There are lives of saints (St. Nino), lives of kings (St. Vakhtang Gorgasali, St. David the Builder, St. Tamar etc.). Georgian material shows that texts of Georgian Middle Ages consist some of evidences for following conclusions: Georgian perception implicates the existence of an opposition: Natural tears as an organic reaction to the stimulant; and the spiritual tears as a cleaner from sins. There is a difference between tears of Christian and Pagan. Tears of pagan are the natural reaction to the fear whereas tears of Christian are divine grace and cleansing bliss. Tears and supplication are inseparable ones, while their essences differ. The approximation to the sacral is the tantamount to see God and the weeping is perceived as an organic reaction. Men are mortal. Death of people brings the tears to our eyes but it is not appropriate. Only kings, as the Lord's Anointed, death deserves an extraordinary description.

David Bostanashvili Signification Load Is it possible to talk about the language of architecture. Does architecture have the possibility to produce and bear the meaning? As an object for analysis we chose the Holy Trinity Cathedral project submitted by the Georgian architect Victor Jorbenadze for an architectural competition in 1990. The paper analyses verbal and graphical representation of the project and questiones the codes that lie at the base of architectural communication and what kind of discourse does it suggest - symbolic, paradigmatic or syntagmatic. On one hand, the project acts as a series of image references to other objects with metaphoric representations. The inherited categories of beginig and end (goal) ascertain the status of non-modernity of the design and the modern materials used (glass, steel) serve to simulate the Modern. On the other hand, the structure produced through the analysis of the plan reveals the codes (geometric, functional, canonical) that lie outside architecture. Architecture partitions the space and fills it with the meanings foreseen by these codes; it marks the space and makes it a Place.

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The comparison of Mr. Jorbenadzes project with the pre and early Christian multi-apse temples suggests the idea of an architectural form, as an autonomous code loyal only to its own history. The paper itself is a free montage - a kind of bricolage - of the already-thoughts of U. Eco, R. Barthes and P. Eisenman.

Ilia Gasviani The Problem of the Composition and of the Versification in Guillaume Apollinaires Alcohols Guillaume Apollinaires Alcohols is one of those collections of poems with which the process of destruction of the traditional French poem is commenced. Apollinaire changes his poems even after their publication. The poet uses old texts, shortens and cuts them up to produce a poem collage. He also reedits poems and uses the cut pieces in other poems. We can compare the effect of such a technique to Matisses collage or the cubist painting. For instance, the composition of The Unhappy lovers song is entirely based on a play with collages. Dividing his poems into pieces and reconstructing them, Apollinaire creates new rhythm and tonality. Apollinaire introduces unusual elements even within a poem written according to traditional meter. His blank verse, accomplishing the narrative function, does not recognize any fixed system. Furthermore, Apollinaire uses a type of line which is beyond the Alexandrine measurement. This poetic instrument will become the principle form of modern poetic expression with later artists such as Blaise Cendrars and others. As for Apollinaires rhyme, it is used noticeably freely. Apollinaire mostly uses the ABAB model, which is used in nineteen poems among Alcohols fifty poems. The AABB rhyme model is used only in eight poems. The ABBA rhyme model is rarer. In general, we can see in Alcohols that one rhyme model can be mixed with another one within the same poem. Apollinaire combines all poetic techniques. He proceeds to the variations between two extreme limits: the following of strict rules and the profit of absolute liberty.

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Koba Chumburidze Mention and Origin of Svanetian Ritual Element ANG Objective (target) of this research is the communication establishment between ancient Egyptian ritual symbol ANKH and old Svanetian (Georgia) festivals ("Agba-Lagral" and Limurkvamal) basic element ANG. Researcher Julietta Rukhadze paid attention to that fact, that these two elements are very similar. According to an ethnographic material ...The main ritual of both festivals ("Agba-Lagral" and Limurkvamal) is construction of a snow tower. At tower top will erect a sacral tree ANG. The assumptions stated by modern researchers about appointment ANKH are rather various. Presumable function covers a wide range from difficult sexual symbolism to simple sandals. But in my opinion ANKH is a complex of two symbols (females and male's) that designates union of Osiris and Isida - the sky and the earth (in the Georgian materials a symbol of this union is the tree). It is necessary to recollect, that according to Sumer Cosmogony, the Universe (ANKI) is the union of the sky (AN) and the earths (KI). On-opinion some researchers ANKH is a tree of a life which probably is the closest to true, but it demands some additional specifications. Besides, unity of the male's and females symbols, ANKH also is the stylized branch with tree leaf on the end and, probably, to it is stated a guess, that this leaf is way solar energys materialisation, moreover, the mechanism of transformation of this energy to life. Let's return to Svanetian ethnomaterial: combination of a sieve (that is a circle) and a phallus is the same as elements ANKH, display communication of the female and male symbols as an obligatory condition of continuation of a life. Hence, the assumption of J. Rukhadze, about similarities between the Egyptian symbol and an element of Svanetian ritual, can definitively throw light on one of the greatest riddles of our civilisation.

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